074-186S XTM2 Operating Manual

O
P
E
R
A
T
I
N
XTM/2
Deposition Monitor
IPN 074-186
G
M
A
N
U
A
L
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
N
G
M
A
N
U
A
L
XTM/2
Deposition Monitor
IPN 074-186S
TWO TECHNOLOGY PLACE
EAST SYRACUSE, NY 13057-9714 USA
A LT E L A N D S T R A S S E 6
LI-9496 BALZERS, LIECHTENSTEIN
BONNER STRASSE 498
D-50968 COLOGNE, GERMANY
P h o n e : + 3 1 5 . 4 3 4 . 11 0 0
Fax: +315.437.3803
Email: reachus@inficon.com
P h o n e : + 4 2 3 . 3 8 8 . 3 111
Fax: +423.388.3700
Email: reach.liechtenstein@inficon.com
Phone: +49.221.347.40
Fax: +49.221.347.41429
Email: reach.germany@inficon.com
V I S I T U S O N T H E W E B AT w w w. i n f i c o n . c o m
©2001 INFICON 092304
Trademarks
The trademarks of the products mentioned in this manual are held by the companies that
produce them.
INFICON®, CrystalSix® are trademarks of INFICON Inc.
All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
The information contained in this manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, INFICON assumes
no responsibility for its use and shall not be liable for any special, incidental, or consequential damages related
to the use of this product.
©2001 All rights reserved.
Reproduction or adaptation of any part of this document without permission is unlawful.
DECLARATION
OF
CONFORMITY
This is to certify that this equipment, designed and manufactured by:
INFICON Inc.
2 Technology Place
East Syracuse, NY 13057
USA
meets the essential safety requirements of the European Union and is placed on the
market accordingly. It has been constructed in accordance with good engineering
practice in safety matters in force in the Community and does not endanger the safety
of persons, domestic animals or property when properly installed and maintained and
used in applications for which it was made.
Equipment Description:
XTM/2 Deposition Monitor, including the Oscillator
Package and Crystal Sensor as properly installed.
Applicable Directives:
73/23/EEC as amended by 93/68/EEC
89/336/EEC as amended by 93/68/EEC
Applicable Standards:
EN 61010-1 : 1993, Fixed Equipment
EN 55011, Group 1, Class A : 1991
EN 50082-2 : 1995
CE Implementation Date:
January 3, 1995
Revised to include EMC Directive: January 2, 1997
Authorized Representative:
Gary W. Lewis
Vice President - Quality Assurance
INFICON Inc.
ANY QUESTIONS RELATIVE TO THIS DECLARATION OR TO THE SAFETY OF INFICON'S PRODUCTS SHOULD BE
DIRECTED, IN WRITING, TO THE QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT AT THE ABOVE ADDRESS.
11/14/01
Registration Card
Thank you for selecting INFICON® instrumentation.
Please fill out and return this postage paid card as soon as possible.
Serial #
Model
Name
Title
Company
Bldg./MS
Address
Phone #
State
City
Zip
Fax#
Country
Email
Your help is very important in our continuing efforts to improve our manuals.
Using the table below, please circle the appropriate rank for each aspect.
In the Importance column, please indicate the importance of each aspect.
Manual Title
Part # (see Title Page) 074-
Aspect
Very
Dissatisfied
Dissatisfied
No
Opinion
Very
Satisfied
Satisfied
Found everything
I needed
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Easy to read
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Easy to use
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Relevant to
my work
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Accurate
information
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Well-written
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Well-organized
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Technical Enough
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Helped me
solve problems
VD
D
NO
S
VS
Importance
(ranked from
1 to 5, where
1 is low and
5 is high)
If you have additional comments, please contact INFICON.®
TWO TECHNOLOGY PLACE
EAST SYRACUSE, NY 13057-9714 USA
A LT E L A N D S T R A S S E 6
LI-9496 BALZERS, LIECHTENSTEIN
BONNER STRASSE 498
D-50968 COLOGNE, GERMANY
P h o n e : + 3 1 5 . 4 3 4 . 11 0 0
Fax: +315.437.3803
Email: reachus@inficon.com
P h o n e : + 4 2 3 . 3 8 8 . 3 111
Fax: +423.388.3700
Email: reach.liechtenstein@inficon.com
Phone: +49.221.347.40
Fax: +49.221.347.41429
Email: reach.germany@inficon.com
V I S I T U S O N T H E W E B AT w w w. i n f i c o n . c o m
BUSINESS REPLY MAIL
FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 49 EAST SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE
INFICON INC.
Two Technology Place
East Syracuse, New York 13057-9714
Warranty
WARRANTY AND LIABILITY - LIMITATION: Seller warrants the products
manufactured by it, or by an affiliated company and sold by it, and described on
the reverse hereof, to be, for the period of warranty coverage specified below, free
from defects of materials or workmanship under normal proper use and service.
The period of warranty coverage is specified for the respective products in the
respective Seller instruction manuals for those products but shall in no event
exceed one (1) year from the date of shipment thereof by Seller. Seller's liability
under this warranty is limited to such of the above products or parts thereof as are
returned, transportation prepaid, to Seller's plant, not later than thirty (30) days
after the expiration of the period of warranty coverage in respect thereof and are
found by Seller's examination to have failed to function properly because of
defective workmanship or materials and not because of improper installation or
misuse and is limited to, at Seller's election, either (a) repairing and returning the
product or part thereof, or (b) furnishing a replacement product or part thereof,
transportation prepaid by Seller in either case. In the event Buyer discovers or
learns that a product does not conform to warranty, Buyer shall immediately notify
Seller in writing of such non-conformity, specifying in reasonable detail the nature
of such non-conformity. If Seller is not provided with such written notification,
Seller shall not be liable for any further damages which could have been avoided if
Seller had been provided with immediate written notification.
THIS WARRANTY IS MADE AND ACCEPTED IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WHETHER OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR OTHERWISE, AS BUYER'S
EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY DEFECTS IN THE PRODUCTS TO BE SOLD
HEREUNDER. All other obligations and liabilities of Seller, whether in contract or
tort (including negligence) or otherwise, are expressly EXCLUDED. In no event
shall Seller be liable for any costs, expenses or damages, whether direct or
indirect, special, incidental, consequential, or other, on any claim of any defective
product, in excess of the price paid by Buyer for the product plus return
transportation charges prepaid.
No warranty is made by Seller of any Seller product which has been installed,
used or operated contrary to Seller's written instruction manual or which has been
subjected to misuse, negligence or accident or has been repaired or altered by
anyone other than Seller or which has been used in a manner or for a purpose for
which the Seller product was not designed nor against any defects due to plans or
instructions supplied to Seller by or for Buyer.
This manual is intended for private use by INFICON® Inc. and its customers.
Contact INFICON before reproducing its contents.
NOTE: These instructions do not provide for every contingency that may arise in
connection with the installation, operation or maintenance of this equipment.
Should you require further assistance, please contact INFICON.
TWO TECHNOLOGY PLACE
EAST SYRACUSE, NY 13057-9714 USA
A LT E L A N D S T R A S S E 6
LI-9496 BALZERS, LIECHTENSTEIN
BONNER STRASSE 498
D-50968 COLOGNE, GERMANY
P h o n e : + 3 1 5 . 4 3 4 . 11 0 0
Fax: +315.437.3803
Email: reachus@inficon.com
P h o n e : + 4 2 3 . 3 8 8 . 3 111
Fax: +423.388.3700
Email: reach.liechtenstein@inficon.com
Phone: +49.221.347.40
Fax: +49.221.347.41429
Email: reach.germany@inficon.com
V I S I T U S O N T H E W E B AT w w w. i n f i c o n . c o m
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table Of Contents
Chapter 1
IPN 074-186S
Introduction and Specifications
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.1.1
Instrument Safety . . . . . . . . .
Notes, Cautions, Warnings . .
General Safety Information . .
Earth Ground. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Power Connection . . . .
Introduction to the Instrument
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications XTM/2. . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1.2
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.1.3
Recorder Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.1.4
Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.1.5
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.1.6
Process Variable Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.1.7
Hardware Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.1.8
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.3.1.9
Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Transducer Specifications (optional) . . . . .
XIU (Crystal Interface Unit) Specifications .
Guide to the Use of the Manual . . . . . . . . .
How To Contact Customer Support . . . . . .
Application Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field Service and Repair Support . . . . . . .
Returning Your Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
. . . . . . 1-1
. . . . . . 1-1
. . . . . . 1-2
. . . . . . 1-3
. . . . . . 1-4
. . . . . . 1-5
. . . . . . 1-6
. . . . . . 1-6
. . . . . . 1-6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . 1-8
. . 1-9
. . 1-9
. 1-10
. 1-10
. 1-10
. 1-10
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Chapter 2
Quick Use Guide
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.2.1
Unpacking, Initial Inspection and Inventory
Unpacking and Inspection Procedures . . .
Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XTM/2 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2-1
. 2-1
. 2-1
. 2-2
2.1.2.2
Ship Kit - XTM/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.2
2.3
Voltage Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Installation Guide and Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
TOC - 1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.8
2.5.9
2.5.10
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5
2.7.6
XTM/2 Front Panel Description. . . . . . . . . . . . .
XTM/2 Front Control Panel Description . . . . . .
XTM/2 Display Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XTM/2 Rear Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Switches 1 & 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grounding Stud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
International Warning Symbol for
Users and Technicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comm. Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturer’s Identification and
Serial Number Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation as a Deposition Monitor . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring - Systems Without a Source Shutter
Monitoring - Systems with a Source Shutter . . .
Rate Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nontraditional Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Etching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersion in Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biological . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use as a Frequency Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contamination Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 2-9
. 2-9
2-11
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-17
2-18
2-19
2-20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
2-21
2-22
2-22
2-23
2-23
2-24
2-24
2-24
2-25
2-25
2-25
2-26
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
IPN 074-186S
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.5.6
2.5.7
Chapter 3
Installation
3.1
3.1.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.4
3.5
TOC - 2
Installing the Instrument - Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Unit Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Grounding and Shielding Requirements . .
Verifying / Establishing Earth Ground . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connections to Earth Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimizing Noise Pickup from External Cabling . . . .
Connection to Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The BNC Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The "D" Shell Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Transducer Installation . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-6
3-7
IPN 074-186S
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.6
3.6.1
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.8
3.8.1
3.8.1.1
Sensor Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
CrystalSix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Check List for Transducer Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Use of the Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Operational Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Input and Output Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Chart Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Computer Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Communications Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
IEEE Settings for a National Instruments IEEE-GPIB Board . . . . . . . . 3-17
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.8.5
3.8.5.1
Basic Command Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Requests and Message Available .
Datalogging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer Command Details . . . . . . . . . . .
Echo Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.5.2
Hello Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
3.8.5.3
Query Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
3.8.5.4
Update Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
3.8.5.5
Status Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
3.8.5.6
Remote Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
3.8.6
3.8.6.1
Examples of RS232 Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Example of SEMI II Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29
3.8.7
Example of IEEE488 Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 3-18
. 3-20
. 3-21
. 3-22
. 3-22
Chapter 4
Programming System Operation Details
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
State and Measurement System Sequencing
State Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameter Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crystal Fail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crystal Fail Inhibit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crystal Life and Starting Frequency. . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 4-1
. 4-3
. 4-4
. 4-4
. 4-5
. 4-5
Chapter 5
Calibration and Measurement
5.1
5.2
5.3
Importance of Density, Tooling and Z-ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Determining Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Determining Tooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
TOC - 3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
5.4
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
Laboratory Determination of Z-ratio
Measurement Theory . . . . . . . . . . .
Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Period Measurement Technique . . .
Z-Match Technique . . . . . . . . . . . .
Active Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ModeLock Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 5-3
. 5-4
. 5-4
. 5-6
. 5-8
. 5-9
. 5-9
5-12
Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.1.1
LCD Contrast Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Powerup Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Parameter Update Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Other Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Major Instrument Components, Assemblies and Mating Connectors. . . 6-3
Troubleshooting the Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Troubleshooting Computer Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Leaf Spring Concerns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Replacing the Crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Standard and Compact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Shuttered and Dual Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Bakeable Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Sputtering Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Crystal Snatcher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Crystal Sensor Emulator
IPN 760-601-G1 or 760-601-G2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Diagnostic Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Measurement System Diagnostic Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
6.5.1.2
Feed-Through Or In-Vacuum Cable
Diagnostic Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-22
6.5.1.3
Sensor Head Or Monitor Crystal
Diagnostic Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
6.5.1.4
System Diagnostics Pass But
Crystal Fail Message Remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.3.1
% XTAL Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24
Sensor Cover Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25
Compatible Sensor Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25
TOC - 4
IPN 074-186S
Adjustments and Problems
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.5.3.2
Incompatible Sensor Heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25
6.5.4
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26
Appendix A
Table of Densities and Z-ratios
IPN 074-186S
Index
TOC - 5
IPN 074-186S
XTM/2 Operating Manual
TOC - 6
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Chapter 1
Introduction and Specifications
1.1 Instrument Safety
1.1.1 Notes, Cautions, Warnings
When using this manual, please pay attention to the NOTES, CAUTIONS and
WARNINGS found throughout. For the purposes of this manual they are
defined as follows:
NOTE: Pertinent information that is useful in achieving maximum instrument
efficiency when followed.
CAUTION
Failure to heed these messages could result in damage
to the instrument or the loss of data.
WARNING
Failure to heed these messages could result in
personal injury.
IPN 074-186S
WARNING
Dangerous voltages are present. Failure to heed these
messages could result in personal injury.
1-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.1.2 General Safety Information
WARNING
There are no user serviceable components within the
instrument case.
Potentially lethal voltages are present when the line
cord or system I/O are connected.
Refer all maintenance to qualified personnel.
CAUTION
IPN 074-186S
This instrument contains delicate circuitry which is
susceptible to transient power line voltages.
Disconnect the line cord whenever making any
interface connections. Refer all maintenance to
qualified personnel.
1-2
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.1.3 Earth Ground
This instrument is connected to earth via a sealed three-core (three-conductor)
power cable, which must be plugged into a socket outlet with a protective earth
terminal. Extension cables must always have three conductors, including a
protective earth conductor.
WARNING
Never interrupt the protective earth circuit.
Any interruption of the protective earth connection
inside or outside the instrument, or disconnection of
the protective earth terminal is likely to make the
instrument dangerous.
IPN 074-186S
This symbol indicates where the protective earth
ground is connected inside the instrument. Never
unscrew or loosen this connection.
1-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.1.4 Main Power Connection
WARNING
This instrument has a line voltage present on the
primary circuits whenever it is plugged into a main
power source.
Never remove the covers from the instrument during
normal operation.
There is no operator serviceable items within this
instrument.
Removal of the top or bottom covers must be done
only by a technically qualified person.
IPN 074-186S
In order to comply with accepted safety standards, this
instrument must be installed into a rack system which
contains a mains switch. This switch must break both
sides of the line when it is open and it must not
disconnect the safety ground.
1-4
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.2 Introduction to the Instrument
The XTM/2 is an economical quartz crystal transducer type deposition/etch
process monitor that incorporates the patented (US#5,117,192 — May
27,1992) ModeLock measurement system. This innovative system provides
process security, measurement speed and precision at a level that no active
oscillator based instrument can provide.The Liquid Crystal Display of the
XTM/2 is easily read and keeps the operator continuously informed with
pertinent deposition data including rate, thickness and elapsed time. Special
messages such as Crystal Fail, achievement of setpoints, measurement units
or etch mode are clearly presented to reduce operator uncertainty and eliminate
the possibility of costly mistakes. Basic instrument operation is easily verified
with a built-in test mode and preprogrammed parameters.The set up and
storage of nine different process variable sets is provided.The RATE and
THICKNESS displays as well as the limit parameters may be read and
programmed in the traditional kÅ units or directly in mass (mg, µgm,ngm).
IPN 074-186S
All units come with RS232 (and support Data Rates to 9,600 Baud).The SECSII
protocol is supported.The optional computer interface is IEEE-488. Four relays
are used to manipulate various external devices such as source and sensor
shutters, heaters or valves.There are five input lines to provide the ability to
sense and react to discrete external signals.These instruments are fully
compatible with the complete family of INFICON transducers, excluding Dual
and CrystalSix®.
1-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.3 Specifications
At the time of this manual’s writing, the specifications for performance are as
published below. INFICON continuously improves its products, affecting the
instrument’s performance.
1.3.1 Specifications XTM/2
1.3.1.1 General
Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indoor use only.
Altitude Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 2000 m (6,561 ft)
Pollution Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1—No pollution occurs
Overvoltage Category . . . . . . . . . . 2—Local level, appliances, etc.
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The unit enclosure can be safely cleaned
with a mild detergent or spray cleaner
designed for that purpose. Care should be
taken to prevent any cleaner from entering
the unit.
1.3.1.2 Measurement
Crystal Range & Precision . . . . . . . 6.0 to 5.0 MHz +/- 0.1 Hz
(per 250 msec sample)
Thickness & Rate Resolution* . . . . 0.123Å (per 250 msec sample)
* Material density = 1.0; Z-ratio = 1.0;
crystal frequency = 6 MHz.
Å/S/M = Angstroms/second/measurement.
Measurements/second . . . . . . . . . . 4 max., user selectable multiple
measurement averaging to 16 seconds in
four ranges.
1.3.1.3 Recorder Output
Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 to ±10 v
Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 bits over full range
(one reserved for sign)
Update Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Hz
Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate / Thickness / Mass
Maximum Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 KOhm (100 Ohm internal impedance)
1-6
IPN 074-186S
Thickness accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5%
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.3.1.4 Input/Output
Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 TTL inputs
Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SPST 2.5 amp relays rated
@ 30 V(dc) / 30 V(ac) / 42 V(peak) max.
Scan/Change Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Hz
1.3.1.5 Display
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2x multiplexed custom LCD
Thickness Resolution* . . . . . . . . . 1 Å
Rate Resolution* . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Å for 1 to 99.9 Å/sec
1 Å for 100 to 999 Å/sec
* Other units appropriately scaled.
Enhanced resolution is achieved when
multiple measurement averaging is
employed.
Update Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Hz
1.3.1.6 Process Variable Storage
Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 sets
Variables per set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.1.7 Hardware Interface
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 15 pin D-Sub type
I/O
IPN 074-186S
Standard (inputs/outputs) . . . . 5/4
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . None
Communications
Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RS232C, 9 Pin D-Sub type
Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IEEE-488
Chart Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BNC
1-7
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.3.1.8 Operation
Power Requirements
"115 V" input range. . . . . . . . . . 90 to 132 V(ac), 49 to 61 Hz, 45 VA max.
fused at 3/8 Amp Type T fuse
"230 V" input range . . . . . . . . . 180 to 264 V(ac), 49 to 61 Hz, 45 VA max.
fused at 3/16 Amp Type T fuse
Operating Temperature . . . . . . . . . 0 to 50 °C (32 to 122 °F)
1.3.1.9 Mechanical
Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5" H x 8" W x 12" D
(89 mm H x 203 mm W x 305 D mm)
Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 lb. (2.7 kg)
1.3.2 Transducer Specifications (optional)
Water Tube & Body & Holder
Coax Length
IPN
Standard Sensor
130 °C
1.063" x 1.33" x .69" high
30" (762 mm) 304 SS
(27 mm dia. x 34 mm x 17.5 mm high)
750-211-G1
Standard Sensor
with Shutter
130 °C
1.06" x 2.24" x .69" high
30" (762 mm) 304 SS
(27 mm dia. x 57 mm x 17.5 mm high)
750-211-G2
Sputtering Sensor
105 °C
1.36" dia. x .47" high
(34.5 mm dia. x 11.8 mm high)
30" (762 mm) Au-plated BeCu
007-031
Compact Sensor
130 °C
1.11" x 1.06" x 1.06" high
(28 mm x 27 mm x 27 mm high)
30" (762 mm) 304 SS
750-213-G1
Compact Sensor
with Shutter
130 °C
2.08" x 1.62" x 1.83" high
(53 mm x 41 mm x 46 mm high)
30" (762 mm) 304 SS
750-213-G2
UHV Bakeable
Sensor
450 °C
1.35" x 1.38" x .94" high
(34 mm x 35 mm x 24 mm high)
12" (305 mm) 304 SS
20" (508 mm)
30" (762 mm)
007-219
007-220
007-221
UHV Bakeable
400 °C
Sensor with Shutter
1.46" x 1.37" x 1.21" high
(37 mm x 35 mm x 3.1 mm high)
12" (305 mm) 304 SS
20" (508 mm)
30" (762 mm)
750-012-G1
750-012-G2
750-012-G3
Shutter Assembly
two models available
N/A
750-210-G1
750-005-G1
(Sputtering)
400 °C
300-series SS
*For Bake only; waterflow is required for actual deposition monitoring. These temperatures are conservative maximum
device temperatures, limited by the properties of Teflon (PTFE) at higher temperatures. In usage, the water cooling allows
operation in environments that are significantly elevated, without deleterious affects.
1-8
IPN 074-186S
Max. Bakeout Size (Max. Envelope)
Temperature*
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.3.3 XIU (Crystal Interface Unit) Specifications
The XTM/2 Series instruments use a new type of "passive intelligent" oscillator.
It is available with cable lengths of 15’ (4.572 m), 30’ (9.144 m), 50’ (15.24 m),
and 100’ (30.28 m) as IPN 757-305-G15, G30, G50, or G100, respectively.
Conventional, active style oscillators do not work with these instruments.
In-vacuum cable lengths to a maximum of 2 m (6.6’) are supported with this new
technology.
1.4 Guide to the Use of the Manual
This manual is configured to be used by both experienced and inexperienced
deposition process engineers. For those with significant experience, especially
on INFICON controllers, nearly all pertinent information is contained in Chapter
2, Quick Use Guide. Other sections contain the details that supplement the
information in the quick use section.
IPN 074-186S
Every user should read the complete manual. It is strongly suggested that the
user or installer follow the following plan to gain the most information in the
shortest period of time.
Š
Register the instrument to receive updates and important information from
the factory.
Š
Read section 1.1.1, Notes, Cautions, Warnings, on page 1-1 to understand
the safety related issues.
Š
Read Chapter 2, Quick Use Guide, to become familiar with the instrument’s
needs and capabilities. Use the other sections of the manual to supplement
areas where you do not feel you have an adequate understanding of the
material. Throughout Chapter 2 there will be frequent references to the
manual sections that provide more detailed information. The final sections
of the Chapter 2 build the understanding of the full use of the instrument in
a logical progression, as suggested in section 2.3 on page 2-7.
WARNING
There are no user serviceable components within the
instrument case.
Potentially lethal voltages are present when the line
cord or System I/O are connected.
Refer all maintenance to qualified personnel.
1-9
XTM/2 Operating Manual
1.5 How To Contact Customer Support
If you cannot find the answer to your question in this manual, please contact
one of the following Customer Support groups after deciding whether:
Š your difficulty is with how you are using the instrument—in this case, contact
Application Support.
or
Š your instrument needs repair—in this case, contact Field Service and
Repair Support.
When you contact Customer Support, please have this manual at hand, along
with the following information:
Š The serial number for your instrument.
Š A description of your problem.
Š An explanation of the corrective action that you may have already
attempted.
Š The exact wording of any error messages that you have received from the
instrument.
Within the USA, you may reach Customer Support at the following phone
numbers. Please contact the location that is closest to you. If you are located
outside of the USA, please contact your sales office. A complete listing of
INFICON Worldwide Service Centers is available at www.inficon.com.
1.5.1 Application Support
Austin, TX . . . . . . ph. 512-448-0488. . . . . . . . . . fax 512-448-0398
San Jose, CA. . . . ph. 408-361-1200 ext. 125 . . . fax 408-362-1556
Syracuse, NY. . . . ph. 315-434-1128 . . . . . . . . . . fax 315-437-3803
If you are located outside the USA, please contact your sales office. A complete
listing of INFICON Worldwide Service Centers is available at www.inficon.com.
Austin, TX . . . . . . ph. 512-448-0488. . . . . . . . . . fax 512-448-0398
San Jose, CA. . . . ph. 408-361-1200 ext. 120 . . . fax 408-362-1556
Syracuse, NY. . . . ph. 315-434-1167 . . . . . . . . . . fax 315-434-2551
If you are located outside the USA, please contact your sales office. A complete
listing of INFICON Worldwide Service Centers is available at www.inficon.com.
1.5.3 Returning Your Instrument
Do not send your instrument without first speaking with a Customer Support
Representative.
You must obtain an RMA (Return Material Authorization) number from the
Customer Support Representative. If the delivery of a package without an RMA
number is attempted, INFICON will refuse the delivery and the package will be
returned to you.
If your instrument has been exposed to process materials, you will be required
to complete a Declaration Of Contamination form.
1 - 10
IPN 074-186S
1.5.2 Field Service and Repair Support
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Chapter 2
Quick Use Guide
2.1 Unpacking, Initial Inspection and Inventory
2.1.1 Unpacking and Inspection Procedures
1 If you haven’t removed the instrument from its shipping containers, do so
now.
2 Carefully examine the unit for damage that may have occurred during
shipping. This is especially important if you notice signs of obvious rough
handling on the outside of the cartons. Report any damage to the carrier and
to INFICON, immediately.
3 DO NOT discard any packing materials until you have taken inventory and
have verified proper instrument operation to your satisfaction. See section
2.2 on page 2-3 for voltage selection and section 3.6 on page 3-11 for test
mode operation.
2.1.2 Inventory
IPN 074-186S
Make sure you have received all of the necessary equipment by checking the
contents of the shipping containers with the parts list below. INFICON ships
these products on a feature-option basis. Check your order for the part number
before comparing to the lists below.
2-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.1.2.1 XTM/2 System Configuration
XTM/2
BASIC CONFIGURATION
IPN #
CODE#
115V 50/60 Hz
758-500-G1
1
230V 50/60 Hz
758-500-G2
2
Optional Computer Communications Module
None
757-211-G1
1
IEEE-488 Parallel
760-122-G1
2
Sensor/feedthrough
combinations. Some
instruments are sold as
complete packages.
Rack Mounting
None
0
1 Unit Mounting Kit
757-212-G1
1
2 Unit Mounting Kit
757-212-G2
2
2.1.2.2 Ship Kit - XTM/2
Item
Qty
G2 G1
(230V)(115V)
IPN Number
Part # and/or Description
01
-
X
758-203-G1
Ship Kit - XTM/2 115V
02
X
-
758-203-G2
Ship Kit - XTM/2 230V
03
-
1
068-0385
North America Power Cord, shielded
04
1
-
068-0390
European Power Cord, shielded
05
1
1
051-485
Conn 9 Pin Male D/Sub Sod. Cup
06
1
1
051-620
Cable Clamp 11.3015
07
1
1
051-483
Conn 25 Pin Female D/Sub Sod. Cup
08
1
1
051-619
Cable Clamp
09
-
1
062-011
3/8 Amp Fuse Type T
10
1
-
062-053
3/16 Amp Fuse Type T
11
4
4
070-811
8014 Bumpon Feet
In addition, you have already found a copy of this manual, IPN 074-186.
2-2
IPN 074-186S
Both instruments are shipped with the following accessories. To find which
accessories were shipped with your unit look for the "X" which represents the
voltage of your particular instrument and follow that column.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.2 Voltage Selection
Voltage selection is required only between low (nominal 100-120 V) and high
(nominal 200-240 V) ranges. There is no distinction between 50 and 60 Hz
supplies. Refer to section 1.3.1 on page 1-6 for specific power requirements.
CAUTION
Verify that the correct fuse is in place by visually
inspecting the fuse for the proper rating. Use of an
improperly sized fuse may create a safety hazard.
For 100-120 V(ac) operation use a 3/8 Amp Type T fuse.
For 200-240 V(ac) operation use a 3/16 Amp Type T fuse.
NOTE: These instruments are designed to operate between 90 V(ac) and
132 V(ac) on Low Range and between 180 V(ac) and 264 V(ac) on High
Range.
WARNING
This instrument has line voltage present on the
primary circuits whenever it is plugged into a main
power source.
Potentially lethal voltages are present when the line
cord, system I/O or aux I/O are connected.
IPN 074-186S
This instrument must be disconnected from the main
power source before inspecting or replacing the fuse.
2-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
To inspect the fuse, proceed as follows.
1 Pry open the power entry module cover. See Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1 Opening the Power Entry Module Cover
2 Pry the fuse holder out of the housing. See Figure 2-2.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 2-2 Removing the Fuse Holder
2-4
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3 Inspect the fuse. See Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3 Clip, Fuse Holder, Fuse
Conversion Clip
Fuse
Holder
Fuse
IPN 074-186S
The Corcom fuse holder has chambers for two 1/4" x 1 1/4" (5 mm x 20 mm)
fuses. Since only one fuse is used, that fuse must be on the live (hot) side and
a conversion clip is inserted to bridge the unused fuse chamber in the neutral
side.
An additional function of the conversion clip is to act as a polarization key to
assure that only the neutral line can be bridged leaving the live (hot) line always
fused. A special feature has been built into the live side of the fuse holder
compartment of the housing. It will interfere with the conversion clip and
therefore stop the fuse holder from being inserted fully into the housing if the
clip is on the live side.
When the power entry module is flipped around for voltage changing, the
conversion clip must be re-installed to the other side. Otherwise, the fuse holder
will not seat completely into the housing and the power entry module will not
function.
The proper location of the conversion clip is at the left hand side of the voltage
number selected, that is, the upright voltage number. See Figure 2-4.
2-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Figure 2-4 Proper Clip and Fuse Location
IPN 074-186S
Once the fuse and clip have been configured, the fuse holder is inserted into
the power entry module housing with the fuse towards the bottom of the
instrument (and the clip towards the top) with the desired voltage showing
through the hole into the cover.
2-6
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.3 Installation Guide and Schematic
Many experienced deposition monitor users will be able to fully install and use
the instrument by studying the installation schematic, Figure 2-5 on the next
page, and the State Sequence Diagram, Figure 4-2 on page 4-2.
A more systematic approach would be to start by reviewing the two figures and
then following the procedure below.
WARNING
Completely review section 1.1 on page 1-1 on safety.
All warnings in this section, as well as ones found in
other sections listed below, must be followed to ensure
the safety of the personnel operating this equipment.
1 Check for correct line voltage, section 2.2 on page 2-3.
2 Verify basic unit operation by exercising it in the Test Mode, section 3.6 on
page 3-11.
3 Review the system interface capability as outlined in section 2.5 on page
2-13. Be especially attentive of the special features available on the
configuration switches, section 2.5.2 on page 2-15
4 Wire the necessary connectors following the installation procedures in
section 3.1 on page 3-1, section 3.2 on page 3-1, and section 3.3 on page
3-4.
IPN 074-186S
5 Review the front panel controls and display description per section 2.4 on
page 2-9.
6 Program the desired film parameter values per section 4.1 on page 4-1 and
section 4.2 on page 4-3.
7 Verify the operation of the just programmed film utilizing the Test Mode.
8 Attach the XIU (757-305-G15, G30, or G100) to an existing transducer or
install a new transducer following the guidelines of section 3.5 on page 3-7
and Figure 3-3 on page 3-8.
9 Exit the Test Mode and deposit when ready.
2-7
2-8
Actuator
Power Supply
Compressed Air
Rotary
Feedthrough
Pneumatic
Actuator
IPN 074-186S
Air, 80 PSI, 110 PSI Max.
XIU (Oscillator)
IPN 757-302-G1
Cooling
\Water
Feedthrough
IPN 750-030-G1
(Option)
Oscillator Kit
IPN 757-305-Gxx
(Option)
System I/O
see 2.5.4 and 3.7
Source Shutter 1
Manual
Source Shutter 1 (N.O. Relay Contact)
Sensor Shutter 1
Outputs
Sensor Shutter 1 (Manual)
From Local Line Power
100 - 120 V(ac) ± 10%
200 - 240 V(ac) ± 10%
50 - 60 Hz
Figure 2-5 Installation Guide Schematic
24 V(ac) or V(dc)
Power Supply
Out
Shutter
Solenoid Assy.
In
IPN 007-199
Source Controller
Such As Electron
Beam Gun
Power Supply
Sensor
Shutter
Source to Sensor
10” (254 mm) Minimum
Sensor
Shutter
Standard Sensor With Shutter
IPN 750-211-G2
(Option)
RS232
see 2.5.5
Configuration Switches
see Table 2-1 in section 2.5
REAR PANEL
Sensor
see 2.5.6
IEEE
757-211-G1
Recorder
see 2.5.8
see 3.7.3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.4 XTM/2 Front Panel Description
Figure 2-6 Front Panel XTM/2
1
2
3
4
5
13
6
12
11
10
9
8
7
2.4.1 XTM/2 Front Control Panel Description
1— LCD DISPLAY
Display of current information and parameters. See section 2.4.2 on page
2-11 for details.
2— XTAL
Pressing this key momentarily switches the display to percent of crystal life
used, software version, and crystal frequency, when the display is in
operate mode. If the Frequency display mode is chosen (see section 2.5.2
on page 2-15), pressing this key provides temporary added display
resolution to 0.01 Hz.
IPN 074-186S
3— ZERO
Zeros the displayed thickness and elapsed time when the display is in the
operate mode.
4— OPEN
Closes the "shutter" relay’s contacts and "zeros" the accumulated
thickness (mass) and elapsed time.
5— CLOSE
Opens the "shutter" relay’s contacts and initiates a data log when the
instrument is properly configured. See section 3.8.4 on page 3-21.
6— PROG
Program. Toggles the display between the program and operate modes.
7— ON/STBY
Switches secondary power of the instrument between ON and STANDBY.
8—
Green LED illuminates to indicate that the unit is connected to an active line
power source and the ON/STBY switch is set to ON.
2-9
XTM/2 Operating Manual
9—
Access to adjust LCD contrast, see section 6.1 on page 6-1.
10—
Enter and cursor down. Two function switch used when the display is in the
program mode.
11— DIGITS (0-9)
Decimal based key pad for data entry.
a. If the zero key is held down during power-up, the communications
interface may be configured (see section 3.8.1 on page 3-16)
b. If the nine key is held down during power-up, all of the LCD segments
will remain lit until the key is released, see Figure 2-7 on page 2-11.
12—
Clear and cursor up. Two function switch that is used when the display is
in the program mode.
13—
IPN 074-186S
Optional mounting kit, (IPN 757-212-G1) for mounting one unit in full rack
or (757-212-G2) for mounting two units side by side in full rack.
2 - 10
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.4.2 XTM/2 Display Description
Figure 2-7 XTM/2 Display
1
2
11
3
10
4
5
6
9
8
7
1— RATE DISPLAY GROUP
Indicates the deposition or etching rate in the displayed units, or used to
display the tooling value when the display is in the Program mode. Also
used to briefly display %of Xtal life (based on 5 MHz = 100%) when xtal is
pressed and the display is in the operate mode. Displays the most
significant frequency information in the frequency monitor mode.
IPN 074-186S
2— THICKNESS/MASS GROUP
Indicates the deposited or etched thickness (mass) in the displayed units.
Also used for briefly displaying the monitor crystal’s frequency when the
xtal key is pressed in the operate mode. This group is also used for
displaying density (gm/cc) when in the program mode. Displays the least
significant frequency information in the frequency monitor mode.
3— STATUS MESSAGE GROUP
When illuminated, indicates that the shutter is open and if the specified limit
was exceeded.
4— TEST MODE INDICATOR
When illuminated, indicates that the test mode configuration switch has
been set.
5— COMPUTER I/O OVERRIDE
Illuminates when control of one or more relays have been reconfigured
through computer communications.
6— ETCH MODE ON INDICATOR
When illuminated, indicates that the etch mode configuration switch has
been set. The thickness display now indicates the amount removed.
7— TIMER GROUP
Elapsed time indicator and unit annunciator. Displays the software version
number when XTAL key is pressed while display is in operate mode.
2 - 11
XTM/2 Operating Manual
8— PROGRAM MODE GROUP
Indicator annunciator and cursor array for the definition of parameters.
9— FILM GROUP
Indicates which stored film’s parameters are being used in the operate
mode, or being changed/programmed in the program mode. The active film
may be changed when the cursor is blinking.
10— COMMUNICATIONS ACTIVITY GROUP
Illuminates whenever computer communications are being sent or
received, respectively.
IPN 074-186S
11— CRYSTAL FAIL INDICATOR
Illuminates whenever the ModeLock system cannot drive a crystal, or a
crystal has been shifted by loading beyond 5 MHz. May also illuminate
when there is a cable or sensor failure.
2 - 12
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5 XTM/2 Rear Panel Description
The rear panel provides the interface for all external connections to the
instrument. Each ballooned item is covered in the following respectively
numbered sub-paragraphs.
Figure 2-8 XTM/2 Rear Panel
10
1
9
8
7
3
2
5
6
IPN 074-186S
4
2 - 13
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.1 Power Module
Allows selection of optional voltages, contains the instrument fuse and provides
modular connection to line power. Refer to section 2.2 on page 2-3.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 2-9 Power Module
2 - 14
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.2 Configuration Switches 1 & 2
Two eight position DIP switches used to customize the instrument as follows.
Figure 2-10 Configuration Switch
CAUTION
IPN 074-186S
The configuration switches are only read on
instrument power up. If an option is changed the
instrument must be switched to standby and then
powered up to effect the change.
2 - 15
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 2-1 Configuration Switch Settings
Switch 1
Test Mode
(0 = off, 1 = on)
Switch 2
Parameter Lock
(0 = off, 1 = on)
Switch 3
Beep On/Off
(0 = on, 1 = off)
Switch 4
Close Shutter on
Crystal Fail
(0 = yes, 1 = no)
Switch 5
Continue
(0 = off, 1 = on)
Thickness/Timer
Accumulation Option
With Switch 5 in the On position, pressing the OPEN button adds to the
Thickness and Time counters and does not zero previously accumulated
Thickness or Time. Pressing CLOSE freezes the Thickness and Time
displayed at the current value. The displayed Rate will not be frozen. The Zero
function works normally and can be used to zero accumulated Thickness or
Time at any time.
Switch 6
Unused
Switch 7
Unused
Switch 8
Etch Mode
Switch 9
Displayed units MSB 00 = kÅ, 01 = µgm
Switch 10
Displayed units LSB 10 = mgm, 11 = MHz
Note: recorder function remains as Å/sec or Å in the
MHz setting.
Switch 11
Recorder function
MSB
00 = Rate, ±2000Å/sec, 1000ng/sec or 200µgm/sec
01 = Rate, ±200Å/sec, 100ng/sec or 20 µgm/sec
10 = Rate, ±20Å/sec, 10ng/sec or 2 µgm/sec
Switch 12
Recorder function
LSB
11 = Thickness, Modulus ±2000Å, 2000ng or 2000µgm
Switch 13
Recorder Output &
Display Averaging
MSB
00 = 1/4 sec
01 = 1 sec
Switch 14
Recorder Output &
Display Averaging
LSB
10 = 4 sec
11 = 16 sec
Note: Display average is always 1 second or greater.
Switch 15
Unused
Switch 16
Unused (Reserved)
2 - 16
IPN 074-186S
(0 = off, 1 = on)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.3 Grounding Stud
Recommended point for connecting the system ground strap. For specific
recommendations see section 3.2, Electrical Grounding and Shielding
Requirements, on page 3-1.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 2-11 Grounding Stud
2 - 17
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.4 System I/O
A 25-pin male "D" type connector for interface connection. (See section 3.7 on
page 3-14 for details.) The outputs are normally open type relays.
Figure 2-12 25-Pin Male "D" Connector
Pin #
Function*
Outputs
1,2
Source Shutter
3,4
Thickness Setpoint
5,6
Timer Setpoint
7,8
Sensor Fail
Inputs
9
14,15,16,17
Crystal Fail Inhibit
INPUT Common (GND)
18
OPEN shutter
19
CLOSE shutter
20
Zero thickness
21
Zero timer
IPN 074-186S
*The function of the relay outputs may be altered to
be controlled remotely through the computer
communications, see section 3.8.5.6 on page 3-26
for more information on the Remote Command.
2 - 18
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.5 RS232
A 9-pin female "D" type connector which enables the instrument to be controlled
by a host computer. See section 3.8 on page 3-16 for details.
Figure 2-13 9-Pin Type "D" Female Connector
IBM Compatible
Host Computer
Pin #
Description
1
Not used
DB9-Pin DB 25-Pin
1
-
2 TXD Data transmitted from XTM2
2
3
3 RXD Data received by XTM/2
3
2
4
4
-
5 GND Signal ground
5
7
6 DTR Output from XTM/2 indicating ready to transmit
6
6
7 CTS Input to XTM/2 indicating stop transmitting
7
4
8
8
-
9
-
Not used
Not used
IPN 074-186S
9 GND Shield ground
2 - 19
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.6 Sensor
High density 15-Pin female "D" type input connectors for intelligent oscillators
(IPN757-302-G1). These oscillators are normally supplied with 15’ (4.572 m)
cables as IPN 757-305-G15. These are specifiable as 30’ (9.144 m) and 100’
(30.28 m) by changing the group (G-xx) designation to 30 or 100, respectively.
Figure 2-14 15-Pin Type "D" Female Connector
2.5.7 International Warning Symbol for
Users and Technicians
This symbol is intended to alert the user to the presence of important
operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature
accompanying the instrument.
2.5.8 Recorder
A BNC type connector that supplies analog voltage proportional to rate or
thickness (mass). The specific function is determined by configuration switches
9-14, refer to section 2.5.2 on page 2-15.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 2-15 BNC Connector
2 - 20
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.5.9 Comm. Option
Location of optional computer interface, see section 3.8 on page 3-16 for setup
details.
Figure 2-16 IEEE-488 Option
2.5.10 Manufacturer’s Identification and
Serial Number Plate
This plate is installed at final assembly to identify the instrument’s model and
serial numbers.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 2-17 Serial Number Plate
2 - 21
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.6 Operation as a Deposition Monitor
Although this instrument is designed as a vacuum deposition/etch monitor, it is
also easily used for many other types of mass measurement applications. It is
easily installed by reviewing section 2.3 on page 2-7 for a schematic view of the
installation requirements and section section 4.1 on page 4-1 for an overview
of instrument function.
The following discussion is divided into four segments. The first is for
applications that do not require a source shutter. The second relates to those
that use a source shutter. The third section is a simple application of the
instrument for manual rate sampling. The fourth segment is directed towards
those applications that are nontraditional; including biological, electroplating,
etching and the measurement of liquid samples. The units may be programmed
in Å/KÅ or µgm/mgm/ngm depending on the setting of configuration switches 9
and 10, refer to section 2.5.2 on page 2-15. If these switches are subsequently
changed, the two thickness parameter values of the active film are
appropriately recomputed.
2.6.1 Monitoring - Systems Without a Source Shutter
To operate the instrument as a film rate/thickness monitor only the following
three parameters need to be programmed. Press the PROG key to switch the
display in the program mode and enter the appropriate values. The values
entered for these parameters are independent of which units are chosen for
display (thickness or mass).
Z-RATIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depends on the material to be measured,
see Appendix A, Table of Densities and
Z-ratios.
TOOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrects for the geometrical differences
between the sensor and the substrate, see
section 5.3 on page 5-2.
Properly mount and attach the appropriate transducer (see section 3.5 on page
3-7).
Press the PROG key to change the display between the program and operate
modes.
The Rate display group will indicate the evaporation rate and the Thickness
(mass) display group will increment accordingly. The front panel controls work
normally.
2 - 22
IPN 074-186S
DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depends on the material to be measured,
see Appendix A, Table of Densities and
Z-ratios.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.6.2 Monitoring - Systems with a Source Shutter
In addition to measuring rate and thickness, these instruments can be used to
terminate the deposition at the proper thickness. Implementation requires that
the deposition system have a source (or substrate) shutter capable of automatic
operation. The source shutter controller must be wired through the SYSTEM I/O
connector on the rear panel of the instrument. The following parameters (in
addition to those required in section 2.6.1 on page 2-22) must also be
programmed.
FINAL THICKNESS . . . . . . . . . . . Program to the desired film thickness (or
mass).
The operator manually increases the source power (using the source power
supply’s control) to the nominal operating level. Once the user is satisfied, the
deposition begins when the OPEN switch is pressed. This action zeros the
accumulated thickness display and opens the source shutter. The operator
must then adjust the source power manually to achieve the desired rate. The
shutter will close automatically when the final thickness set point is achieved.
2.6.3 Rate Sampling
It is possible to use these instruments to periodically sample the rate in a
deposition system. A shuttered transducer must be used, see section 3.4 on
page 3-6.
IPN 074-186S
NOTE: It will be useful to refer to the separate INFICON Crystal Sensor Manual
(see list below) for transducer and actuator control valve installation.
IPN
Type
074-154 . . . . . . Bakeable
074-155 . . . . . . CrystalSix
074-156 . . . . . . Standard, Compact and Dual
074-157 . . . . . . Sputtering
1 Electrically connect the pneumatic shutter actuator control valve (IPN
007-199) to the sensor shutter pins (1, 2) of the SYSTEM I/O connector.
2 Program the FINAL THICKNESS parameter to a value which allows
approximately 20 seconds of material accumulation onto the sensor head.
For example, if the nominal rate is 20 Å/sec, set the final thickness to 20 sec
x 20 Å/sec = 400Å. If the sample time is too short there could be errors
induced by temperature transients across the monitor crystal.
A sample is initiated by pressing OPEN. This zeros the displayed thickness and
opens the sensor shutter. The operator may view the deposition rate display
(allowing it to stabilize) and then comparing it to the desired rate. If a time longer
than the programmed sample time is required to adjust the actual deposition
rate the operator can increase the FINAL THICKNESS value.
NOTE: This arrangement does not allow automatic substrate final thickness
termination.
2 - 23
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.7 Nontraditional Applications
In addition to their normal application as a deposition monitor/controller, quartz
crystal microbalances have significant utility as generalized mass sensors. This
particular instrument family is capable of measuring mass increases or
decreases on the face of the monitor crystal to an accuracy of +/- 1.23
nanograms/cm2 in a single 250 ms measurement (density = 1.00, z = 1.00). As
always, it is imperative that the mass be well adhered to the face of the crystal
or improper readings will be taken. It is especially important to recognize this
requirement for measurements of liquids or other non-rigid materials.
INFICON’s 6MHz crystal holders have an open area of ~0.535 cm2. For the
highest accuracy possible, it is suggested that the individual crystal holder be
measured with a traveling microscope to determine the exact opening area.
2.7.1 Etching
The instrument may be configured to display the thickness or mass removed
from the face of a crystal. It is imperative that the material be removed uniformly
over the active area of the crystal or improper readings will be taken. This
inaccuracy occurs because of radial mass sensitivity differences across the
face of the monitor crystal.
The etch mode is established by setting a configuration switch (refer to section
2.5.2 on page 2-15) on the back of the instrument.
The unit is operated normally, with the ZERO or START keys used to zero the
displayed thickness. The FINAL THICKNESS parameter may be programmed
to terminate the process.
Measurement of mass change in liquids is a relatively new field, consequently
application information is limited. The energy loss from the vibrating crystal into
the liquid environment is high, limiting the accuracy of the measurement in
some cases. The ModeLock oscillator again provides superior performance,
allowing operation in liquids of higher viscosity than an active oscillator system
would provide. The presence of bubbles on the face of the crystal as it is
immersed will drastically change the noted frequency shift and alter the
sensitivity of the technique from immersion to immersion. Special transducers
may be required as many liquids can electrically short the crystal’s drive voltage
and induce a crystal failure.
NOTE: It is not recommended to use standard INFICON transducers in liquids
without modification.
2 - 24
IPN 074-186S
2.7.2 Immersion in Liquids
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.7.3 Biological
The measurement of biological specimens is subject to many of the same
problems as covered in the measurement of liquids.
2.7.4 Measurement of Liquids
The measurement of the mass of a liquid on the face of a crystal is a technique
that is subject to very large errors. The two primary problems with liquids are
that they are not infinitely rigid structures and do not necessarily form in uniform
layers. Because liquids do not oscillate as a rigid solid, not all of the mass
participates in the resonance. Consequently, not all of the liquid is detected. In
some ways, the crystal is more appropriately called a viscosity sensor. The
second problem is that liquids tend to form spheres on the face of the crystal
after only very modest accumulations of a few monolayers. This aggravates the
problem caused by non-infinite rigidity. Another aspect of the problem is that the
liquid spheres form at random locations across the crystal. Because monitor
crystals have differential radial mass sensitivity an uncontrollable measurement
problem exists. Spheres formed at the center of the crystal contribute more than
spheres formed near the edge of the sensor’s aperture.
2.7.5 Use as a Frequency Counter
IPN 074-186S
The ability to measure a crystal’s frequency between 6.000000 and 5.000000
MHz may be accessed by setting the "displayed units" configuration switches 9
and 10 (refer to section 2.5.2 on page 2-15). The displayed frequency is
averaged according to the setting of the recorder and display averaging
configuration switches. In addition, by pressing the LIFE key, even finer
frequency resolution is displayed (x.xx or x.x Hz), suppressing the most
significant data. Data to 0.1 Hz is always available through the computer
interface for the latest 0.25 sec. measurement.
The recorder output and programmed limits of this instrument behave as if the
"displayed units" configuration switches were set to 00 or "kÅ".
2 - 25
XTM/2 Operating Manual
2.7.6 Contamination Detection
The measurement of a crystal’s mass loss or gain is enhanced by utilizing the
averaging and displayed units configuration switches, refer to section 2.5.2 on
page 2-15. These may be used to directly display the mass change in
micrograms (µgm) or milligrams (mg). In addition, the displayed resolution may
be enhanced by increasing the measurement time averaging to as long as 16
seconds. This technique reduces the relative noise in the ratio of the square
root of the sample time.
IPN 074-186S
The limiting problem will most probably be either temperature changes of the
monitor crystal or the instrument’s reference crystal. Careful temperature
control can minimize these effects.
2 - 26
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Chapter 3
Installation
3.1 Installing the Instrument - Details
A general schematic of instrument installation is given in section 2.3 on page
2-7, use it for reference. The importance of grounding the instrument cannot be
over emphasized for both safety and performance needs.
3.1.1 Control Unit Installation
Review the specific suggestions and warnings concerning safety and
installation that are presented in section 1.1 on page 1-1.
It is generally advisable to centrally locate the controller, minimizing the length
of external cabling. The cable from the instrument to the XIU is 15’ (4.572 m).
Longer cables are specifiable as 30’ (9.144 m) or 100’ (30.28 m), refer to
section 2.5.6 on page 2-20 for ordering details.
The monitor unit is designed to be rack mounted. It may be also used on a table;
four self-adhesive rubber feet are included in the ship kit for this purpose.
3.2 Electrical Grounding and Shielding
Requirements
IPN 074-186S
Careful consideration of simple electrical guidelines during installation will
avoid many problems caused by electrical noise.
To maintain the required shielding and internal grounding as well as insuring
safe and proper operation, the instrument must be operated with all enclosure
covers and option panels in place. These must be fully secured with the screws
and fasteners provided.
3-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.2.1 Verifying / Establishing Earth Ground
If local facilities engineering cannot provide a low impedance earth ground
close to the instrument, the following procedure is recommended.
Where soil conditions allow, drive two ten foot copper clad steel rods into the
ground six feet apart. Pour a copper sulfate or other salt solution around the
rods to improve the soil’s conduction. A near zero resistance measurement
between the two rods indicates that a desirable earth ground has been
established. In severe cases it may take several soakings of solution over
several days to reach this condition.
NOTE: Keep connections to this grounding network as short as possible. Most
noise transients contain significant power at high frequencies. A long
path adds to the ground circuit's inductance and thereby increases its
impedance at these frequencies.
3.2.2 Connections to Earth Ground
The ground connection on the instrument is a threaded stud with a hex nut. It
is convenient to connect a ring terminal to the ground strap, thus allowing a
good connection with easy removal and installation. See Figure 3-1 for the
suggested grounding scheme. In many cases, a braided ground strap is
sufficient. However, there are cases when a solid copper strap (0.030" (0.762
mm) thick X 1" (25.4 mm) wide) is more suitable because of its lower RF
impedance.
Figure 3-1 System Grounding Diagram
%DFN3DQHO
7UDQVGXFHU
)HHGWKURXJK
IPN 074-186S
*URXQG
6WXG
(DUWK
*URXQG
3-2
9DFXXP6\VWHP
XTM/2 Operating Manual
CAUTION
An external ground connection is required to ensure
proper operation, especially in electrically noisy
environments.
When used with RF powered sputtering systems, the grounding scheme may
have to be modified to optimize the specific situation. An informative article on
the subject of "Grounding and RFI Prevention" was published by H.D. Alcaide,
in "Solid State Technology", p 117 (April, 1982).
3.2.3 Minimizing Noise Pickup from External Cabling
IPN 074-186S
When an instrument is fully integrated into a deposition system, there are many
wire connections; each a potential path for noise to be conducted to the inside.
The likelihood of these wires causing a problem can be greatly diminished by
using the following guidelines:
Š
Use shielded coax cable or twisted pairs for all connections.
Š
Minimize cable lengths by centralizing the controller.
Š
Avoid routing cables near areas that have the potential to generate high
levels of electrical interference. For example, large power supplies, such as
those used for electron beam guns or sputtering sources, can be a source
of large and rapidly changing electro-magnetic fields. Placing cables as little
as 1 foot (305 mm) from these problem areas can be a very significant
improvement.
Š
Be sure that a good ground system and straps are in place as
recommended above.
Š
Ensure that all instrument covers and option panels are in place and tightly
secured with the provided fasteners.
3-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.3 Connection to Rear Panel
The long term performance of this instrumentation is dependent on the quality
of the installation. A first rate installation includes the proper assembly of the
user/OEM installed cabling. The assembly instructions for the connectors used
on this instrumentation are shown in the following sections.
3.3.1 The BNC Connectors
Because complete BNC cables are so common, there are no mating connectors
supplied in the ship kit for the source and recorder outputs. It is recommended
that completed BNC type cables be purchased locally, even if one end is cut off
for connection to the external apparatus.
3.3.2 The "D" Shell Connectors
The "D" shell connectors use solder cup contacts that will accept solid or
stranded wire with a maximum individual wire size of 20 AWG. Multiple stranded
wire jumpers may equal 18 AWG, or two 22 AWG wires may be employed. The
recommended wire strip length is 1/4" (6.4 mm).
The duplex tin/lead solder cup readily accepts tinned leads and will securely
strain-relieve wires when properly soldered. See Figure 3-2 on page 3-5.
The American National Standards Institute Standards For Soldering Electronic
Interconnections (ANSI/IPC-S-815A) is recommended for establishing
soldering quality guidelines.
The soldering procedure is as follows:
1 Obtain a connector and wire(s) of the type and size required for your
application.
that may inhibit solderability.
3 Strip wire(s) to recommended strip length of 1/4" (6.4 mm). Tin the leads if
required.
4 Obtain resin flux, 40/60 alloy solder, and a low-wattage soldering iron.
NOTE: It is common to use heat shrink tubing over solder joints to insulate the
exposed solder connection at the cup. If using heat shrink tubing,
ensure that the tubing sections are cut to proper length and placed on
the wire(s) prior to soldering. After wires are terminated, slide tubing
over solder connections and shrink with an appropriate heat source.
3-4
IPN 074-186S
2 Ensure that surfaces to be soldered are clean and free of any contaminants
XTM/2 Operating Manual
5 Coat the stripped portion of the wire(s) with the flux and insert into the solder
cup of the contact until the conductor is bottomed in the cavity.
6 Heat the solder cup with the soldering iron and allow the solder to flow into
the cup until the cavity is filled but not over filled.
7 Continue soldering wires until all terminations are complete.
8 Clean the soldered connections with a suitable alcohol/water rinse to
remove flux and solder residue.
Figure 3-2 Solder Cup Connector
Wire Strip
Length 1/4" (6.4 mm)
Solder Cup
Contacts
IPN 074-186S
Grounding
Indents
(Plug Only)
3-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.4 Sensor Selection Guide
The choice of sensor type must be dictated by the process, the deposition
material and the physical characteristics of the process chamber. General
guidelines for each sensor type produced by INFICON are outlined in the
Sensor Selection table below. For specific recommendations, consult your
INFICON representative.
Table 3-1 Sensor Selection Table
Name
IPN
Temp
°C
Crystal
Exchange
Utility
Connector
Comments
Standard
750-211-G1
130°
Front
Side
Standard
w/Shutter
750-211-G2
130°
Front
Side
Compact
750-213-G1
130°
Front
Rear
For tight spaces
Compact
W/Shutter
750-213-G2
130°
Front
Rear
For tight spaces
Dual
750-212-G2
130°
Front
Side
Two crystals for
crystal switch.
Includes Shutter
Sputtering
007-031
130°
Rear
Side
For RF and diode
sputtering. (Optional
shutter available.)
007-219
007-220
007-221
450°
Front
Side
Must remove water
cooling and open the
tubes prior to bakeout
12" (304.8 mm)
20" (508 mm)
30" (762 mm)
750-012-G1
750-012-G2
750-012-G3
450°
Front
Side
Must remove water
cooling and open the
tubes prior to bakeout
CrystalSix
750-446-G1
130°
Front
Side
6 crystals for process
security.
Bakeable
12" (304.8 mm)
20" (508 mm)
30" (762 mm)
*These temperatures are conservative maximum device temperatures, limited by the properties
of Teflon at higher temperatures. In usage, the water cooling allows operation in environments
that are significantly elevated, without deleterious effects.
NOTE: Do not allow water tubes to freeze. This may happen if the tubes pass
through a cryogenic shroud and the water flow is interrupted.
NOTE: For best operation, limit the maximum input water temperature to less
than 30 °C.
NOTE: In high temperature environments more heat may transfer to the water
through the water tubes than through the actual transducer. In extreme
cases it may be advantageous to use a radiation shield over the water
tubes.
3-6
IPN 074-186S
Bakeable
w/Shutter
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.5 Guidelines for Transducer Installation
WARNING
The performance of this instrument depends on the
careful installation of the chosen transducer. Improper
installation will cause problems with deposition
repeatability, crystal life and rate stability.
3.5.1 Sensor Installation
IPN 074-186S
Figure 3-3 shows a typical installation of an INFICON water cooled crystal
sensor in the vacuum process chamber. Use the illustration and the following
guidelines to install your sensors for optimum performance and convenience.
3-7
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Figure 3-3 Typical Installation
Mounting Bracket
Coax Cable
(Routed with
Water Tubes)
Sensor
Shutter
Brazing
Adapters
Or,
Customer Supplied
Cajon Coupling
Source to Sensor
10" Minimum
Source
Shutter
Source
Pneumatic
Actuator
To
Source Controller
Water In
IPN 007-199
Shutter
Solenoid
Assembly
Out
In
XIU (Oscillator)
IPN 757-302-G1
IPN 074-186S
Manual
Control
To Pins 1, 2
or System I/O
Water Out
Air, 80 PSI, 110 PSI Max.
Manual
Switching
3-8
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Generally, install the sensor as far as possible from the evaporation source (a
minimum of 10" or 254 mm) while still being in a position to accumulate
thickness at a rate proportional to accumulation on the substrate. Figure 3-4
shows proper and improper methods of installing sensors.
To guard against spattering, use a source shutter or crystal shutter to shield the
sensor during the initial soak periods. If the crystal is hit with even a minute
particle of molten material, it may be damaged and stop oscillating. Even in
cases when it does not completely stop oscillating, it may become unstable.
SENSORS
Figure 3-4 Sensor Installation Guidelines
C O RREC T
INC O RREC T
O BSTRUC TIO N
INC O RREC T
C O RREC T
INC O RREC T
IPN 074-186S
SO URC E
3-9
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.5.2 CrystalSix
Installing the CrystalSix transducer requires that the crystals be manually
advanced. Follow the guidelines in the CrystalSix Operating Manual (IPN
074-155) and Figure 3-5.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 3-5 CrystalSix Installation for XTM/2
3 - 10
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.5.3 Check List for Transducer Installation
Š
Mount the sensor to something rigid and fixed in the chamber. Do not rely
on the water tubes to provide support.
Š
Plan the installation to insure that there are no obstructions blocking the
path between the Sensor and the Source. Be certain to consider rotating or
moving fixtures.
Š
Install sensors so their central axis (an imaginary line drawn normal to the
center of the crystal’s face) is aimed directly at the virtual source being
monitored.
Š
Be sure there is easy access for the exchange of crystals.
Š
For systems employing simultaneous source evaporation (co-dep), try to
locate the sensors so the evaporant from each source is only flowing to one
sensor. This is not generally possible to do without special shielding or
optional "material directors" for the transducers.
Š
The use of water cooling is always recommended, even at very low heat
loads and low rates.
Š
If penetrating a cryogenic shroud, be sure that the cooling water is kept
flowing or drained between uses. Failure to do so could cause the water to
freeze and the water tubing to rupture.
Š
Avoid running cold water tubes where condensation can drip into the
feedthroughs. This condensate can effectively short the crystal drive
voltage, causing premature crystal failure.
IPN 074-186S
3.6 Use of the Test Mode
This instrument contains a software controlled test mode which simulates
actual operation. The purpose of the Test Mode is to verify basic operation and
for demonstrating typical operation to the technician.
The Rate displayed during Test Mode operation is determined as follows:
·
40
TOOLING (%)
Displayed Rate = -------------------------------------------------- × ---------------------------------------- Å/sec
DENSITY (gm/cc)
100%
[1]
All relays and inputs operate normally during Test Mode operation.
3 - 11
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.6.1 Operational Test
The power switch should be in the STBY position before the instrument is
connected to line power.
Perform the self test as follows:
1 Verify that no system cables other than the power cord are connected to the
unit. Relays may be verified with an ohm meter or custom test box.
2 Set configuration switch 1 to the "ON" position.
3 Press the ON/STBY switch, the green power LED should illuminate. If Err
is displayed on the LCD, see section 6.2 on page 6-1.
4 The following LCD displays will appear:
TEST
XX:XX PHASE MIN:SEC
XTAL FAIL
5 Press the PROG key. The program display will appear and the cursor will
be located beside DENSITY.
6 Refer to the list of parameters in Table 3-2 and enter the data
as they are given.
Table 3-2 Operational Test Parameters
02.73
Z-RATIO
1.000
TOOLING
110
gm/cc
%
FINAL THICKNESS 2.000
KÅ
SPT THICKNESS
1.000
KÅ
SPT TIMER
1:00
min:sec
NOTE: There is a built-in "TEST FILM" with all of the parameters
preprogrammed, as shown in Table 3-2. It is accessed by moving
the cursor to the FILM parameter and entering zero. The two
thickness values will be modified if the mgm or µgm display mode
has been selected. Press the PROG key to exit the display mode
and continue with step 9.
7 When the correct sequence of numerals appear in the flashing display,
press the
key to enter and store the data.
8 Press the PROG key to exit the program display.
9 Press OPEN to begin the programmed sequence.
10 The SHUTTER OPEN annunciator is displayed.
3 - 12
IPN 074-186S
DENSITY
XTM/2 Operating Manual
11 The time begins to increment from 00:00 and the deposition rate will be 16.1
Å/s. The THICK SPT annunciator is lit at 1.000 kÅ and the TIMER SPT lights
at 1:00 min:sec. Reaching the FINAL THICKNESS parameter of 2.000 kÅ
takes and elapsed time of 02:05, then after reaching FINAL THICKNESS
limit the SHUTTER OPEN annunciator disappears. The clock immediately
begins counting up from 00:00 again.
12 The instrument will remain in this mode until OPEN is pressed.
13 When OPEN is pressed, the process will repeat steps 11 through 13.
14 After successful completion of the above steps, power down the instrument
IPN 074-186S
to leave the TEST mode by turning configuration switch 1 "OFF" and then
placing the unit first in STBY and then "ON" to read the new configuration.
3 - 13
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.7 Input and Output Details
3.7.1 Relays
WARNING
The relay, relay circuit, and associated pins in the I/O
connector(s) have a maximum voltage rating of
30 V(dc) or 30 V(ac) RMS or 42 V(peak). The maximum
current rating per connector pin or relay contact is
2.5 Amps.
Their function is as follows:
Table 3-3 System I/O Connector
Pin #
Function*
Closed Contacts
Open Contacts
Relay #
1,2
Source Shutter
During "Shutter Open"
State.
Balance
1
3,4
Thickness
Setpoint
When SPT
THICKNESS is
exceeded.
Balance
2
5,6
Timer Setpoint
When SPT TIMER is
exceeded.
Balance
3
7,8
Crystal Fail
When crystal fails to
oscillate.
Balance
4
IPN 074-186S
Function may be overwritten by Remote Communications Commands "R6 - R9", see
section 3.8.5 on page 3-22.
3 - 14
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.7.2 Inputs
Inputs are activated by pulling the specific input's terminal to ground (<0.8V)
through a contact closure to common (GND) or with TTL/CMOS logic having
current sink capability of 2 ma (1 low power TTL load). These ports are read
every 250 ms; signals must be present during a read cycle.
Table 3-4 System I/O Connector
Pin #
Function
Description
Input Common (GND)
Used as reference for activating
any of the inputs
18
OPEN
Detection of a falling edge
duplicates front panel OPEN
1
19
CLOSE
Detection of a falling edge
duplicates front panel CLOSE
2
9
CRYSTAL FAIL
INHIBIT
Presence of a closure to ground
reference prohibits the closure
of the Crystal Fail Relay.
3
20
ZERO thickness
Detection of a falling edge
duplicates the front panel
ZERO, for thickness only.
4
21
ZERO timer
Detection of a falling edge
duplicates the front panel ZERO
for the timer only.
5
14,15,16,17
Input #
IPN 074-186S
3.7.3 Chart Recorder
The chart recorder output has 12 bit resolution with one additional bit of sign
information over the range of -10 to +10 volts. It can supply up to 5 milliamps
and has an internal resistance of 100 ohms. The output is proportional to rate,
thickness or rate deviation depending on the setting of the configuration
switches; see section 2.5.2 on page 2-15. It is normal for ripple to appear on
these outputs to a maximum of 5 mV at ~84 Hz. This output is updated every
250 milliseconds.
3 - 15
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8 Computer Communications
This instrument supports a number of standard and optional computer
communications protocol formats. RS232 is standard, operating in either
INFICON checksum or non-checksum as well as SECS II formats. The unit may
also be configured to automatically output process data (data logging) upon
reaching FINAL THICKNESS. Pressing the shutter CLOSE switch on the front
panel will also initiate a data dump.
3.8.1 Communications Setup
The XTM/2 has serial communications as a standard feature. Rates from 1200
to 9600 baud are accommodated. Refer to section 2.5.5 on page 2-19 for
RS232 connector details.
To configure the remote communication interface, hold down the 0 key during
power up. The following set of parameters can then be entered using the digits,
enter, and clear keys.
tyPE
(0 = INFICON Checksum, 1 = INFICON no checksum, 2 = SECS, 3 = Datalog)
d ID
(Device ID 0-32767)
t1
(Timer 1 per SECS definition) (0-10.0 seconds)
t2
(Timer 2 per SECS definition) (0.2-25.0 seconds in 0.2 increments)
rtrY
(Retry limit per SECS definition) (0-31)
dUPL
(Duplicate block per SECS definition)
baUd (0=1200, 1=2400, 2=4800, 3=9600)
IEEE
(IEEE address, 0-30) - requires optional hardware
When this list is complete, the RECEIVE message is flashed and the choice will
be given to either repeat the list or continue with normal operation. Pressing
ENTER will continue with normal operation. Pressing CLEAR will repeat the list.
NOTE: Do not turn the unit off while in the Communications Program Mode,
otherwise the new parameter values will not be saved properly.
3 - 16
IPN 074-186S
(If SECS is chosen for tyPE the next 5 parameters are accessed):
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.1.1 IEEE Settings for a National Instruments IEEE-GPIB Board
When establishing IEEE communications the following settings are found to
work using a National Instruments IEEE-GPIB board. These values are set
using the IBCONF.EXE file provided by National Instruments.
Figure 3-6 Board Characteristics
IPN 074-186S
Figure 3-7 Device Characteristics
3 - 17
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.2 Basic Command Structure
The following commands are available via the computer communications:
E . . . . . . Echo. Returns the sent message.
H . . . . . . Hello. Returns the model and software version number.
Q . . . . . . Query. Interrogates the programmable parameters and returns the
value of parameter requested.
U . . . . . . Update. Replaces the particular parameter with the value sent.
S . . . . . . Status. Sends back pertinent information based on the specific
request made.
R . . . . . . Remote. Perform an action based on the specific command given.
Many of these mimic front panel keystrokes.
The send and receive protocol formats are described below and use the
following abbreviations:
STX . . . . Start of transmission character
00,NN . . The size of the command is 2 bytes long with 00 representing the
high order Byte and NN representing the low order byte.
ACK . . . . Command acknowledged character
NAK . . . . Command not acknowledged character
LF . . . . . Line Feed (EOT byte for IEEE)
CS . . . . . Checksum
CR . . . . . Carriage Return
To XTM/2:
STX 00 NN message_string CS
From XTM/2:
STX 00 NN ACK message_string CS
(if success)
- or STX 00 NN NAK error_code CS
(if failure)
NONCHECKSUM FORMAT (Message Protocol) (RS232)
To XTM/2:
message_string ACK
From XTM/2:
message_string ACK
(if success)
- or error_code NAK
3 - 18
(if failure)
IPN 074-186S
CHECKSUM FORMAT (Message Protocol)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IEEE488 FORMAT (Message Protocol)
To XTM/2:
message_string LF d10 (CHR$10)
From XTM/2:
message_string LF
(if success)
- or error_code LF
(if failure)
SECS FORMAT (Message Protocol)
To XTM/2:
NN SECS_10_BYTE_HEADER message CS CS
From XTM/2:
NN SECS_10_BYTE_HEADER ACK message CS CS
(if success)
- or NN SECS_10_BYTE_HEADER NAK error_code CS CS
(if not)
If there is a problem, the unit will return a NAK preceded by one of the following
Error Codes:
A. . . . . . . Illegal command
B. . . . . . . Illegal Value
C . . . . . . Illegal ID
D . . . . . . Illegal command format
E. . . . . . . No data to retrieve
F . . . . . . . Cannot change value now
IPN 074-186S
G . . . . . . Bad checksum
NOTE: When transmitting commands directly by typing on a keyboard, the
entire command, including the "ACK", must be entered quickly.
Otherwise, the instrument will fail to recognize the transmission as a
valid command.
3 - 19
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.3 Service Requests and Message Available
In the IEEE mode there are a number of events which will trigger service
requests, a request by the instrument to transmit information to the host. The
instrument does this by triggering the RQS bit of the Status Byte. A host initiated
serial poll then identifies the requesting device by the presence of a 1 in the
RQS (26) bit of the status byte. The particular service request generator event
is encoded in bits 20 - 23 inclusive, as shown below:
RQS
27
26
not
used
MAV
25
24
23
22
21
20
Result of Serial Poll
not
used
Service request
generation encoding
Generator Event
Code
Value
FINAL THICKNESS
0001
1
STBY/ON sequence
0100
4
Crystal Fail
0110
6
250ms DATA READY. Available only
after R23 is issued, see page 3-26.
This is automatically cleared on
crystal failure.
0111
7
TIMER SPT exceeded
1000
8
THICKNESS SPT exceeded
1001
9
It takes the instrument various lengths of time to formulate a correct response
to queries for information. To avoid unnecessarily repeated bus traffic, it is
suggested that the host monitor the MAV (message available) status bit to
determine when a response for information is fully assembled and ready to
transmit.
3 - 20
IPN 074-186S
Table 3-5 Service Request Encoding
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.4 Datalogging
Data logging may be configured to be automatic, see section 3.8.1 on page
3-16. The RS232 port is then configured to output the DATALOG information
only and cannot receive commands from a host computer. The IEEE option, if
installed, will continue to work in the normal fashion.
The Datalog data output represents the information concerning the latest
SHUTTER OPEN to SHUTTER CLOSE sequence. The data is a series of ASCII
strings, each separated by a carriage return (CR) and line feed (LF), in the order
below:
1
Film #
2
Rate = _ _ _.__Å/s [or ngm/sec or µgm/sec] [Last good rate if crystal failed]
3
Thickness = _ _ _ _._ _ _ _ kÅ [or µgm or mgm] [Last good thickness if crystal failed]
4
Deposit Time = _ _:_ _ Min:Sec.
5
Begin Frequency = _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ Hz
6
End Frequency = _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ Hz [negative of last good frequency if crystal fail]
7
Crystal Life = _ _%
IPN 074-186S
In addition to automatic datalogging, the datalog information string is available
via execution of the S12 communications command, or may be manually
initiated by pressing the CLOSE (shutter) key on the front panel.
3 - 21
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.5 Computer Command Details
3.8.5.1 Echo Command
Echoes the message, i.e., returns the sent message.
The format is: E message string
3.8.5.2 Hello Command
The HELLO command will return the string "XTM/2 VERSION x.xx" where x.xx
is the software revision code.
The format is: H
3.8.5.3 Query Command
The Query command returns information concerning current instrument
parameter values.
The format of the query command is:
Q P F - Query parameter P of film F. A space is used as a delimiter between P
and F, where F is a digit between 1 and 9, inclusive,
or
Q 6 - Query the current film number.
PP
XTC/2 Parameter
Range
0
Tooling
10 to 500.9 (%)
1
Final Thickness
0 to 999.9999 (kÅ/µgm/mgm)
2
SPT Thickness
0 to 999.9999 (kÅ/µgm/mgm)
3
Density
0.5 to 99.999 (gm/cc)
4
Z-ratio
0.1 to 9.999
5
SPT Time
00:00 to 99:59 (min:sec)
6
Film Number
1-9
99
All
See note below
Note: Q 99 F returns parameters 0 to 5 for film F in the
order and ranges as specified above; each parameter is
separated by a space.
3 - 22
IPN 074-186S
Table 3-6 Parameter Definition Table (for Query and Update Commands)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.5.4 Update Command
The format of the update command is:
U P F vvv.
Update parameter P of film F, with value vvv. A space is used as a delimiter
between the P and F values as well as the F and vvv values, where F is a digit
between 1 and 9;inclusive. Refer to Table 4-2 on page 4-4 for a numbered list
of parameters and their limits.
or
U6F
Set the current film number to film F
See Query Command Parameter Definition Table for numbered list of
parameters.
NOTE: The command "U 99 F Tooling Final Thickness SPT Thickness Density
Z-ratio SPT Time" will update all parameters for film F. All parameter
values must be separated by spaces and must use allowed values per
those shown in the Parameter Definition Table.
3.8.5.5 Status Command
Sends back information based on specific request made.
The format of the status command is:
S xx . . . . Return the status (value) of xx
where:
S. . . . . . . Is the literal S
IPN 074-186S
xx . . . . . . One or two digit code per list below:
S 0 . . . . . Rate, Thickness, Time, Xtal-Life
S 1 . . . . . Rate
S 2 . . . . . Thickness
S 3 . . . . . Time
S 4 . . . . . Film
S 5 . . . . . Crystal life (%)
3 - 23
XTM/2 Operating Manual
S 6 . . . . . Output status - returns 8 ASCII bytes each with a value of 0 or 1.
S6 Response String
Output # Function
1
Source Shutter
2
Thick SPT
3
Timer SPT
4
Sensor Fail
Byte
8
7
6
5
not used
4
3
2
1
1 = closed contacts
S 7 . . . . . Input status - returns 8 ASCII bytes each with a value of 0 or 1.
S7 Response Strings
Input #
Function
1
Open Shutter
2
Close Shutter
3
Zero Thickness
4
Zero Timer
5
Crystal Fail Inhibit
Byte
8
7
not used
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 = grounded (active)
S 8 . . . . . Present frequency of Crystal
where
x is any digit 0 to 9
S character is a space when good readings are available or a
negative sign for failed crystals
D character is:
0 when there is 0.25 second averaging
0 or 5 when there is 1 second averaging
Even Digit when there is 4 second averaging
x when there is 16 second averaging
S 9 . . . . . Crystal fail, 1 = Fail, 0 = Good
3 - 24
IPN 074-186S
Sxxxxxx.xD
XTM/2 Operating Manual
S 10 . . . . Present configuration switch settings—returns 16 ASCII bytes with a
value of 0 or 1, corresponding to the position of switches 1-16. Byte
1 corresponds to switch 1. See S13 also.
S10 Response Strings
Byte 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
[1 = switch on, refer to section 2.5.2 on page 2-15]
S 11 . . . . Power-up errors
S11 Response Codes
0. . . . Parameter data checksum error—indicates a loss of stored
parameter data.
1. . . . STBY/ON sequence since last query—the front panel power
switch has been used since the last inquiry.
2. . . . Line power failure.
9. . . . Process data checksum error—indicates a loss of process
data.
10. . . No errors.
NOTE: If more than 1 error condition exists, the response string will
list them all, each separated by a single space.
NOTE: STBY/ON status is cleared automatically by issuing an S11
command. All others require intentional clearing (available
via remote command).
IPN 074-186S
S 12 . . . . Datalog output, see section 3.8.4 on page 3-21. The data is
separated by a space instead of CR LF.
S 13 . . . . Instrument Configuration, the position of the configuration switches
at the last STBY/ON sequence. Use this command to determine the
instrument’s current operating configuration. See S10 also.
3 - 25
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.5.6 Remote Command
The format of the remote command is:
R xx # . . A space is used as a delimiter between xx and #
where:
R . . . . . . Is the literal R
xx . . . . . Is the remote code per list below.
# . . . . . . Is the associated value needed for some remote commands.
R 0. . . . . Open Shutter
R 1. . . . . Close Shutter
R 2. . . . . Locks out parameters via the front panel
R 3. . . . . Unlocks parameter changes via the front panel
R 4. . . . . Zeros Thickness accumulation
R 5. . . . . Zeros Timer
R 6. . . . . Output override on. [Allows external control of relays.]
R 7. . . . . Output override off.
R 8 # . . . Set output # (if output override on). [Closes Relay #, see section
3.7.1 on page 3-14.]
R 9 # . . . Clears output # (if output override on). [See R8.]
R 10. . . . Clear power up error messages. [See S11 commands.]
R 23. . . . Set "250ms Data Ready" Service request (IEEE only).
IPN 074-186S
R 24. . . . Clear "250ms Data Ready" Service request (IEEE only).
3 - 26
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.6 Examples of RS232 Programs
IPN 074-186S
10 ’----XTM/2 RS232 COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM WITHOUT CHECKSUM---20 ’
30 ’------THIS PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO TRANSMIT INDIVIDUAL COMMANDS TO THE XTM/2
AND ACCEPT THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE FROM THE XTM/2, WRITTEN IN GWBASIC 2.32.
40 ’
50 OPEN “COM1:9600,N,8,1,CS,DS” AS #1
:’--OPEN COMM PORT 1
60 NAK$ = CHR$(21): ACK$ = CHR$(6)
:’--DEFINE ASCII CODES
70 ’
80 INPUT “ENTER COMMAND”; CMD$
:’--ENTER COMMAND TO XTM/2
90 GOSUB 130
:’--GOTO TRANSMIT COMMAND SUBROUTINE.
100 PRINT RESPONSE$
:’--PRINT XTM/2 RESPONSE
110 GOTO 80
:’--LOOP BACK FOR ANOTHER COMMAND.
120 ’
130 ’----TRANSMIT COMMAND AND RECEIVE RESPONSE SUBROUTINE---140 ’
150 ’----SEND COMMAND MESSAGE STREAM TO THE XTM/2---160 PRINT #1, CMD$ + ACK$;
170 ’
180 ’----RECEIVE RESPONSE MESSAGE FROM THE XTM/2---190 RESPONSE$ = “”
:’--NULL THE RESPONSE
200 TOUT = 3: GOSUB 260
:’ STRING AND SET TIMER.
210 IF I$ = ACK$ THEN RETURN
:’--IF THE END OF RESPONSE
220 IF I$ = NAK$ THEN RETURN
:’ CHARACTER IS RECEIVED
:’ GOTO PRINT RESPONSE.
230 RESPONSE$ = RESPONSE$ + I$
:’--BUILD RESPONSE STRING
240 GOTO 200
:’ CHARACTER BY CHARACTER.
250 ’
260 ’----READ SERIALLY EACH CHARACTER FROM THE INSTRUMENT INTO VARIABLE I$---270 ON TIMER (TOUT) GOSUB 300: TIMER ON
280 IF LOC(1) < 1 THEN 280 ELSE TIMER OFF: I$ = INPUT$(1,#1)
290 RETURN
300 TIMER OFF
:’--INDICATE IF A CHARACTER
310 RESPONSE$ = “RECEIVE TIMEOUT”
:’ IS NOT RECEIVED WITHIN
320 I$ = NAK$: RETURN 290
:’ 3 SECS.
3 - 27
10 ’--XTM/2 RS232 COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM WITH CHECKSUM USING THE INFICON FORMAT-20 ’
30 ’------THIS PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO TRANSMIT INDIVIDUAL COMMANDS TO THE XTM/2
AND ACCEPT THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE FROM THE XTM/2, WRITTEN IN GWBASIC 2.32.
40 ’
50 OPEN “COM1:9600,N,8,1,cs,ds” AS #1
:’--OPEN COMM PORT 1
60 STX$ = CHR$(2) : NAK$ = CHR$(21) : ACK$ = CHR$(6)
:’--DEFINE ASCII CODES
70 ’
80 INPUT “ENTER COMMAND”; CMD$
:’--ENTER COMMAND TO XTM/2
90 GOSUB 170
:’--GOTO TRANSMIT COMMAND SUBROUTINE
100 IF RESPONSE$ = “RECEIVE TIMEOUT” THEN 140
110 L = LEN(RESPONSE$): L = L-1
:’--STRIP OFF THE ACK OR
120 RESPONSE$ = RIGHT$(RESPONSE$,L)
:’ NAK CHARACTER FROM THE
130 ’
:’ RESPONSE STRING.
140 PRINT RESPONSE$
:’--PRINT XTM/2 RESPONSE
150 GOTO 80
:’--LOOP BACK FOR ANOTHER COMMAND.
160 ’
170 ’----TRANSMIT COMMAND AND RECEIVE RESPONSE SUBROUTINE---180 ’
190 ’--BUILD COMMAND MESSAGE STREAM AND SEND TO THE XTM/2-200 SIZEM$ = CHR$(LEN(CMD$) / 256)
:’--CALCULATE THE 2 BYTE
210 SIZEL$ = CHR$(LEN(CMD$) MOD 256)
:’ SIZE OF THE COMMAND.
220 ’
230 CHECKSUM = 0
:’--INITIALIZE CHECKSUM TO
240 FOR X = 1 TO LEN(CMD$)
:’ ZERO AND CALCULATE A
250 CHECKSUM = CHECKSUM + ASC(MID$(CMD$,X,1))
:’ CHECKSUM ON THE COMMAND
260 NEXT X
:’ STRING.
270 CHECKSUM$ = CHR$(CHECKSUM AND 255)
:’--USE LOW ORDER BYTE AS CHECKSUM.
280 ’
290 PRINT #1, STX$ + SIZEM$ + SIZEL$ + CMD$ + CHECKSUM$
300 ’
310 ’----RECEIVE RESPONSE MESSAGE FROM THE XTM/2---320 TOUT = 3: GOSUB 510
:’--SET TIMER AND WAIT FOR
330 IF I$ <> STX$ THEN 290
:’ START OF TRANSMISSION CHARACTER.
340 TOUT = 3: GOSUB 510
:’--RECIEVE HIGH ORDER BYTE
350 SIZE = 256 * ASC(I$)
:’ OF TWO BYTE RESPONSE SIZE.
360 TOUT = 3: GOSUB 510
:’--RECIEVE LOW ORDER BYTE
370 SIZE = SIZE + ASC(I$)
:’ OF TWO BYTE RESPONSE SIZE.
380 CHECKSUM = 0
:’--SET CHECKSUM TO ZERO
390 RESPONSE$ = “”
:’ AND NULL THE RESPONSE
400 FOR I = 1 TO SIZE
:’ STRING.BUILD THE
410 TOUT = 3: GOSUB 510
:’ RESPONSE STRING AND
420 RESPONSE$ = RESPONSE$ + I$
:’ CALCULATE THE CHECKSUM
430 CHECKSUM = CHECKSUM + ASC(I$)
:’ CHARACTER BY CHARACTER.
440 NEXT I
450 TOUT = 3: GOSUB 510
:’--RECIEVE THE CHECKSUM
460 N = ASC(I$)
:’ CHARACTER AND COMPARE
470 Z = (CHECKSUM AND 255)
:’ IT TO THE LOW ORDER
480 IF N <> Z THEN PRINT “RESPONSE CHECKSUM ERROR”
:’ BYTE OF THE CALCULATED
490 RETURN
:’ CHECKSUM.
500 ’
510 ’----READ SERIALLY EACH CHARACTER FROM THE INSTRUMENT INTO VARIABLE I$---520 ON TIMER (TOUT) GOSUB 550: TIMER ON
530 IF LOC(1) < 1 THEN 530 ELSE TIMER OFF: I$ = INPUT$(1,#1)
540 RETURN
550 TIMER OFF
:’--INDICATE IF A CHARACTER
560 RESPONSE$ =”RECEIVE TIMEOUT”: RETURN 570
:’ IS NOT RECEIVED WITHIN
570 RETURN 490
:’ 3 SECS.
3 - 28
IPN 074-186S
XTM/2 Operating Manual
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
3.8.6.1 Example of SEMI II Program
10 ’XTM/2 RS232 COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM USING THE SECS FORMAT
20 ’———THIS PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO TRANSMIT———
30 ’————INDIVIDUAL COMMANDS TO THE XTM/2—————
40 CLS
50 ’
60 ’
70 OPEN “COM1:2400,N,8,1,CS,DS” FOR RANDOM AS #1
80 EOT$ = CHR$(4): ENQ$ = CHR$(5): ACK$ = CHR$(6): NAK$ = CHR$(21)
90 TOUT = 3
100 C = 0:CHECKSUM = 0: CHEKSUMM$ = CHR$(0): CHEKSUML$ = CHR$(0)
110 INPUT “ENTER COMMAND”; CMD$
120 CMDLEN = LEN(CMD$)
: ’ CALUCULATE THE COMMAND LENGTH
130 ’
140 ’——ADD THE TWO BYTE PREAMBLE TO THE COMMAND——
150 PRE$ = CHR$(65) + CHR$(CMDLEN)
160 CMD$ = PRE$ + CMD$
170 CMDLEN = CMDLEN + 2
180 ’
190 ’——BUILD LENGTH BYTE, HEADER, TEXT, AND CHECKSUM BLOCK———
200 ’
210 ’—BUILD HEADER——
220 DID = 257
: ’ DEVICE ID
230 ’RBIT = 0,
:’ MESSAGE DIRECTION IS FROM HOST TO DEVICE
240 ’
250 ’——DETERMINE THE STREAM AND FUNCTION CODES——
260 ’
270 STREAM$ = CHR$(64)
: ’ USER DEFINED STREAM CODE
280 FUNCTION$ = CHR$(65)
: ’ USER DEFINED FUNCTION CODE
290 ’
300 ’
310 WBIT$ = CHR$(128)
: ’RESPONSE FROM XTM/2 REQUIRED
320 STREAM$ = CHR$(ASC(WBIT$) + ASC(STREAM$))
330 ’
340 ’——ENTER THE BLOCK BYTES——
350 ’
360 BYTE5$ = CHR$(128)
: ’ LAST BLOCK IN THE SERIES
370 BYTE6$ = CHR$(1)
: ’ ONLY BLOCK IN THE SERIES
380 ’
390 ’——ENTER THE SYSTEM BYTES——
400 ’
410 BYTE7$ = CHR$(0): BYTE8$ = CHR$(0): BYTE9$ = CHR$(0): BYTE10$ = CHR$(1)
420 ’
430 ’———CALCULATE THE LENGTH BYTE————
440 LTHBYT = CMDLEN + 10: LTHBYT$ = CHR$(LTHBYT)
450 ’
460 ’———CALCULATE THE CHECKSUM————
470 FOR X = 1 TO CMDLEN
480 CHECKSUM = CHECKSUM + ASC(MID$(CMD$, X, 1))
490 NEXT X
500 BYTE1$ = CHR$(DID / 256)
510 BYTE2$ = CHR$(DID MOD 256)
520 CHECKSUM = ASC(BYTE1$) + ASC(BYTE2$) + ASC(STREAM$) + ASC(FUNCTION$) + ASC(BYTE5$) +
ASC(BYTE6$) + ASC(BYTE7$) + ASC(BYTE8$) + ASC(BYTE9$) + ASC(BYTE10$) + CHECKSUM
530 CHEKSUMM$ = CHR$(FIX(CHECKSUM / 256))
540 CHEKSUML$ = CHR$(CHECKSUM MOD 256)
550 ’———HOST BID FOR LINE / DEVICE BID FOR LINE———
560 ’
570 PRINT #1, ENQ$;
580 I$ = “”: RESPONSE$ = “”
590 C = C + 1
600 ON TIMER(TOUT) GOSUB 1000: TIMER ON
3 - 29
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IF LOC(1) < 1 THEN 610 ELSE TIMER OFF: I$ = INPUT$(1, #1)
IF C = 3 THEN 660
IF I$ = ACK$ THEN GOTO 580
IF I$ = NAK$ THEN RESPONSE$ = “COMMAND NOT ACKNOWLEDGED”: GOTO 1010
IF I$ = EOT$ THEN 690 ELSE REPOSNSE$ = “DEVICE NOT ACKNOWLEDGED”: GOTO 1010
IF I$ = ENQ$ THEN 790 ELSE RESPONSE$ = “DEVICE DID NOT BID FOR LINE”: GOTO 1010
’
’
’———SEND COMMAND TO XTM/2——
’
’
HEADER$ = BYTE1$ + BYTE2$ + STREAM$ + FUNCTION$ + BYTE5$ + BYTE6$ + BYTE7$ + BYTE8$ + BYTE9$ +
BYTE10$
730 PRINT #1, LTHBYT$; HEADER$; CMD$; CHEKSUMM$; CHEKSUML$;
740 GOTO 580
750 ’
760 ’
770 ’———WAIT FOR DATA FROM XTM/2———
780 ’
790 ’———FIND SIZE OF RESPONSE——
800 ’
810 PRINT #1, EOT$;
820 I$ = “”
830 ON TIMER(TOUT) GOSUB 1000: TIMER ON
840 IF LOC(1) < 1 THEN 840 ELSE TIMER OFF: I$ = INPUT$(1, #1)
850 S = ASC(I$): L = S - 13
860 S = S + 2
870 ’
880 ’———RECEIVE RESPONSE TO COMMAND———
890 ’
900 I$ = “”: RESPONSE$ = “”
910 FOR R = 1 TO S
920 ON TIMER(TOUT) GOSUB 1000: TIMER ON
930 IF LOC(1) < 1 THEN 930 ELSE TIMER OFF: I$ = INPUT$(1, #1)
940 RESPONSE$ = RESPONSE$ + I$
950 NEXT R
960 PRINT #1, ACK$;
970 RESPONSE$ = MID$(RESPONSE$, 13, L)
980 ’
990 GOTO 1010
1000 TIMER OFF: RESPONSE$ = “RECEIVE TIMEOUT”
1010 PRINT RESPONSE$
1020 ’
1030 GOTO 90
3 - 30
IPN 074-186S
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
XTM/2 Operating Manual
3.8.7 Example of IEEE488 Program
IPN 074-186S
10 ’----------------------XTM/2 GPIB COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM-------------------20 ’------THIS PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO TRANSMIT INDIVIDUAL COMMANDS TO THE XTM/2
AND ACCEPT THE APPROPRIATE RESPONSE FROM THE XTM/2, WRITTEN IN GWBASIC 2.32.
30 ’
40 ’----THE NEXT 5 LINES DEFINE THE IEEE DRIVERS USED AND ARE SPECIFIC TO THE
PARTICULAR IEEE BOARD IN YOUR COMPUTER AND THE LANGUAGE USED-------50 ’
60 CLEAR ,55000! : IBINIT1 = 55000! : IBINIT2 = IBINIT1 + 3
70 BLOAD “bib.m”,IBINIT1
80 CALL IBINIT1(IBFIND,IBTRG,IBCLR,IBPCT,IBSIC,IBLOC,IBPPC,IBBNA,IBONL,IBRSC,
IBSRE,IBRSV,IBPAD,IBSAD,IBIST,IBDMA,IBEOS,IBTMO,IBEOT,IBRDF,IBWRTF)
90 CALL IBINIT2(IBGTS,IBCAC,IBWAIT,IBPOKE,IBWRT,IBWRTA,IBCMD,IBCMDA,IBRD,IBRDA,
IBSTOP,IBRPP,IBRSP,IBDIAG,IBXTRC,IBRDI,IBWRTI,IBRDIA,IBWRTIA,IBSTA%,IBERR%,IBCNT%)
100 ’
110 GPIB$=”GPIB0" :CALL IBFIND(GPIB$,GPIB%)
’--OPEN BOARD FOR COMM
120 CALL IBSIC(GPIB%)
’--SEND INTERFACE CLEAR
130 XTM2$=”XTM2" : CALL IBFIND(XTM2$,XTM2%)
’--OPEN DEVICE 0
140 V% = &HA
’--SET THE END OF STRING
150 CALL IBEOS(GPIB%,V%)
’ BYTE TO LINE FEED
160 V%=1 : CALL IBEOT(XTM2%,V%)
’--ASSERT EOI ON WRITE
170 V%=12 : CALL IBTMO(XTM2%,V%)
’--SET THREE SEC TIMEOUT
180 INPUT “ENTER COMMAND”;COMMAND$
’--ENTER COMMAND TO XTM/2
190 CALL IBCLR(XTM2%)
’--CLEAR THE XTM/2 COMM
200 GOSUB 240
’--GOTO TRANSMIT COMMAND SUBROUTINE.
210 PRINT I$
’--PRINT XTM/2 RESPONSE
220 GOTO 180
’--LOOP BACK FOR ANOTHER COMMAND.
230 ’
240 ’----TRANSMIT COMMAND & RECEIVE RESPONSE SUBROUTINE---250 ’
260 ’----SEND COMMAND MESSAGE STREAM TO THE XTM/2---270 COMMAND$ = COMMAND$ + CHR$(&HA)
280 CALL IBWRT(XTM2%,COMMAND$)
290 ’
300 ’----RECEIVE RESPONSE MESSAGE FROM THE XTM/2---310 ’
320 I$=SPACE$(40) : CALL IBRD(XTM2%,I$)
330 IF (IBSTA% AND &H4000) THEN 340 ELSE 350
’--INDICATE IF A RESPONSE
340 PRINT “RECEIVE TIMEOUT”: GOTO 180
’ IS NOT RECEIVED WITHIN
350 RETURN
’ 3 SECS.
To implement serial polling of the Message Available (MAV) bit the following
lines may be added to the IEEE488 program listed above.
285 CALL IBRSP (XTM2%,SPR%)
287 B = SPR% / 16: B = INT(B)
289 IF B = 1 THEN 290 ELSE 285
After sending a command to the XTM/2 the Status Byte is polled. The response
to the command is retrieved only after the MAV bit is set (2^4 = 16).
3 - 31
XTM/2 Operating Manual
To implement serial polling of the Request for Service bit you need only test for
the RQS bit to be set.
For example:
(serial poll) CALL IBRSP (XTM2%,SPR%)
B = SPR% / 64 : B = INT(B)
IF B = 1 THEN (continue prog) ELSE (serial poll)
IPN 074-186S
If the RQS bit is set, the program may then be made to read the first 4 bits of
the Status Byte (2^0 through 2^3) to determine which event generated the
service request. Once this is determined the appropriate action may be taken.
3 - 32
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Chapter 4
Programming System Operation Details
4.1 State and Measurement System Sequencing
The following pages give an overview of the XTM/2’s operational flow. There
are two basic loops: the Measurement Loop and the Display Loop. These two
loops operate independently of each other. The following symbols are used in
these flow charts:
IPN 074-186S
Figure 4-1 Symbols Used in Flow Charts
4-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
Figure 4-2 State Diagram for a Film
NOTE: The flow diagram presented, while generally accurate, is not complete
from the standpoint of containing enough information to cover all
possible eventualities. it is presented as a means of quick overview of
the instrument’s operation.
4-2
XTM/2 Operating Manual
4.2 State Descriptions
Operating the XTM/2 as a film thickness/rate monitor requires programing the
film parameters, refer to section 2.6 on page 2-22. A film sequence begins with
a OPEN command and ends when the film in process reaches the FINAL
THICKNESS or the CLOSE switch is pressed. The RATE and THICKNESS
displayed is modified by the values programmed in the possible parameters
and the units used are set by the configuration switches, refer to section 2.5.2
on page 2-15.
In reviewing the state diagram of Figure 4-2 on page 4-2, note that there are
only two basic machine states, SHUTTER OPEN or SHUTTER CLOSED. On
power-up, the machine proceeds to the SHUTTER CLOSED state after
performing a series of memory checks. Various abnormal conditions are
indicated by ERR# messages, see section 6.2.1 on page 6-1 and section 6.2.2
on page 6-2. The operations indicated by a pointing finger are manual key
strokes or the equivalent system hardware input or computer communications
command.
Table 4-1 State Descriptions
State
Condition
Source
Shutter
1. SHUTTER CLOSED
Will accept an OPEN command.
Open
2. SHUTTER OPEN
Will accept a CLOSE command.
Closed
IPN 074-186S
In addition, there are two basic display modes: Operate and Program. Pressing
the PROG switch at any time alternates between these modes.
Information may be stored and recalled for nine setups. The particular setup is
chosen by moving the cursor to the FILM parameter and selecting 1-9. In
addition, Film 0 is preprogrammed for Test Mode use, refer to section 3.6 on
page 3-11.
4-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
4.3 Parameter Limits
The variable parameters and their limits are listed below. The two thickness
(mass) parameters may be set over a wider range of values through the
computer communications interface. If a value outside the stated limits is
attempted, the message “ERR1” is displayed, see section 6.2.2 on page 6-2.
When the “Displayed Units” configuration switches are changed (refer to
section 2.5.2 on page 2-15) the FINAL THICKNESS and SPT THICKNESS
values are automatically scaled to preserve the settings. If a value rescales out
of limits, “ERR 3” is displayed.
Table 4-2 Parameters and Limits
Parameter
Limits
Units
FILM
1 - 9, 0 in Test Mode
--
DENSITY
0.500 - 99.99
gm/cc
Z-RATIO
0.1 - 9.999
--
TOOLING
10.0 - 500
%
FINAL THICKNESS
0.000 - 999.9*
kÅ/µgm/mgm
SPT THICKNESS
0.000 - 999.9*
kÅ/µgm/mgm
SPT TIMER
00:00 - 99:59
MIN:SEC
*Although the full value range of the parameter may be entered, the
maximum mass loading on a 6 MHz crystal is about 16 mgm.
Whenever the ModeLock measurement system is unable to effectively identify
and drive a monitor crystal, a special set of sweep and find instructions are
executed. This sequence takes up to five seconds as it is repeated a number of
times. If the measurement system is unable to recover, the message XTAL FAIL
is displayed and the last "good" rate and thickness values are preserved on the
operate screen until the monitor crystal is replaced or recovers.
Sometimes a monitor crystal will spontaneously recover if its temperature is
reduced or sufficient time passes and the stress induced by the coating is
naturally relieved. Even with the XTAL FAIL message displayed the
measurement system will continue to attempt to find the fundamental resonant
mode’s frequency. This message will disappear when the crystal recovers or is
replaced.
Additional information on crystal failures is presented in section 6.3.2 on page
6-4. The ModeLock oscillator is more fully explained in section 5.5.5 on page
5-9 and section 5.5.6 on page 5-12.
4-4
IPN 074-186S
4.4 Crystal Fail
XTM/2 Operating Manual
4.5 Crystal Fail Inhibit
In many coating plants the crystal fail output relay closure is given major
importance and causes the entire system to shut down. This can cause
problems when the crystal is changed as part of the normal reloading
procedure. This potential conflict is resolved by utilizing the crystal fail inhibit
input; refer to section 2.5.4 on page 2-18. When this input is activated the
crystal fail relay will not close on crystal fail. The front panel messages and
instrument operation still work normally. The operator may now change the
crystal and verify that it is operating without inducing a major process
interruption.
4.6 Crystal Life and Starting Frequency
Crystal life is displayed as a percentage of the monitor crystal's frequency shift
relative to the 1 MHz frequency shift allowed by the instrument. This quantity is
useful as an indicator of when to change the monitor crystal to safeguard
against crystal failures during deposition. It is normal to change a crystal after
a specific amount of crystal life (% change) is consumed.
IPN 074-186S
It is not always possible to use a monitor crystal to 100% of crystal life. Useful
crystal life is highly dependent on the type of material being deposited and the
resulting influence of this material on the quartz monitor crystal. For well
behaved materials, such as copper, at about 100% crystal life the inherent
quality, Q, of the monitor crystal degrades to a point where it is difficult to
maintain a sharp resonance and therefore the ability to measure the monitor
crystal's frequency deteriorates.
When depositing dielectric oroptical materials, the life of a gold, aluminum or
silver quartz monitor crystal is much shorter; as much as 10 to 20%. This is due
to thermal and intrinsic stresses at the quartz-dielectric film interface, which are
usually exacerbated by the poor mechanical strength of the film. For these
materials, the inherent quality of the quartz has very little to do with the monitor
crystal's failure.
It is normal for a brand new quartz monitor crystal to display a crystal life
anywhere from 0 to 5% due to process variations in producing the crystal.
Naturally, this invites the question: "Is a brand new crystal indicating 5% life
spent inferior to a crystal indicating 1% life spent?"
If a new crystal indicates 5% life spent, it means that either the quartz blank is
slightly thicker than normal (more mechanical robustness), or the gold
electrode is slightly thicker than normal (better thermal and electrical
properties), or both. In either case, its useful life with regard to material
deposition should not be adversely affected. To verify this assertion, laboratory
testing was performed on crystals which covered the crystal life range in
question. Results indicate that a brand new crystal which indicates 3 to 5% life
spent is just as good, if not better than a crystal indicating 0 to 2% life spent.
As a consequence, it is important to consider the change in crystal life (%), not
just the absolute crystal life (%) Indicated.
4-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
This page is intentionally blank.
4-6
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Chapter 5
Calibration and Measurement
5.1 Importance of Density, Tooling and Z-ratio
The quartz crystal microbalance is capable of precisely measuring the mass
added to the face of the oscillating quartz crystal sensor. The instrument's
knowledge of the density of this added material (specified by the film’s density
parameter in Material Set-Up) allows conversion of the mass information into
thickness. In some instances, where highest accuracy is required, it is
necessary to make a density calibration as outlined in section 5.2.
Because the flow of material from a deposition is not uniform, it is necessary to
account for the different amount of material flow onto the sensor compared to
the substrates. This factor is accounted for by the film’s tooling parameter. The
tooling factor can be experimentally established by following the guidelines in
section 5.3 on page 5-2.
Z-ratio is a parameter that corrects the frequency change to thickness transfer
function for the effects of acoustic impedance mismatch between the crystal
and the coated material.
5.2 Determining Density
NOTE: The bulk density values retrieved from Appendix A, Table of Densities
and Z-ratios, are sufficiently accurate for most applications.
Follow the steps below to determine density value:
IPN 074-186S
1 Place a substrate (with proper masking for film thickness measurement)
adjacent to the sensor, so that the same thickness will be accumulated on
the crystal and this substrate.
2 Set density to the bulk value of the film material or to an approximate value.
3 Set Z-ratio to 1.000 and tooling to 100%.
4 Place a new crystal in the sensor and make a short deposition
(1000-5000 Å).
5 After deposition, remove the test substrate and measure the film thickness
with either a multiple beam interferometer or a stylus-type profilometer.
5-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6 Determine the new density value with the following equation:
Tx
3
Density ( gm ⁄ cm ) = D 1 ⎛ -------⎞
⎝ T m⎠
[1]
where:
D1 = Initial density setting
Tx = Thickness reading on the display
Tm = Measured thickness
7 A quick check of the calculated density may be made by programming the
instrument with the new density value and observing that the displayed
thickness is equal to the measured thickness, provided that the instrument's
thickness has not been zeroed between the test deposition and entering the
calculated density.
NOTE: Slight adjustment of density may be necessary in order to
achieve Tx = Tm.
5.3 Determining Tooling
1 Place a test substrate in the system's substrate holder.
2 Make a short deposition and determine actual thickness.
3 Calculate tooling from the relationship:
Tm
Tooling (%) = TF i ⎛⎝ -------⎞⎠
Tx
[2]
Tm = Actual thickness at substrate holder
Tx = Thickness reading on the display
TFi = Initial tooling factor
4 Round off percent tooling to the nearest 0.1 %.
5 When entering this new value for tooling into the program, Tm will equal Tx
if calculations are done properly.
NOTE: It is recommended that a minimum of three separate evaporations be
made when calibrating tooling. Variations in source distribution and
other system factors will contribute to slight thickness variations. An
average value tooling factor should be used for final calibrations.
5-2
IPN 074-186S
where
XTM/2 Operating Manual
5.4 Laboratory Determination of Z-ratio
A list of Z-values for materials commonly used is available in Appendix A, Table
of Densities and Z-ratios. For other materials, Z can be calculated from the
following formula:
1
--⎛ d q µ q⎞ 2
Z = ⎜ -------------⎟
⎝ df µf ⎠
[3]
5
Z = 9.378 × 10 ( d f µ f )
1
- --2
[4]
where:
df = density (g/cm3) of deposited film
µf = shear modulus (dynes/cm2) of deposited film
dq = density of quartz (crystal) (2.649 gm/cm3)
µq = shear modulus of quartz (crystal) (3.32 x 1011 dynes/cm2 )
The densities and shear moduli of many materials can be found in a number of
handbooks.
Laboratory results indicate that Z-values of materials in thin-film form are very
close to the bulk values. However, for high stress producing materials, Z-values
of thin films are slightly smaller than those of the bulk materials. For
applications that require more precise calibration, the following direct method
is suggested:
IPN 074-186S
1 Using the calibrated density and 100% tooling, make a deposition such that
the percent crystal life display will read approximately 50%, or near the end
of crystal life for the particular material, whichever is smaller.
2 Place a new substrate next to the sensor and make a second, short
deposition (1000 - 5000Å).
3 Determine the actual thickness on the substrate (as suggested in density
calibration).
4 Adjust Z-ratio value in the instrument to bring the thickness reading in
agreement with actual thickness.
5-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
For multiple layer deposition (for example, two layers), the Z-value used for the
second layer is determined by the relative thickness of the two layers. For most
applications the following three rules will provide reasonable accuracies:
Š
If the thickness of layer 1 is large compared to layer 2, use material 1’s
Z-value for both layers.
Š
If the thickness of layer 1 is thin compared to layer 2, use material 2’s
Z-value for both layers.
Š
If the thickness of both layers is similar, use a value for Z-ratio which is the
weighted average of the two Z-values for deposition of layer 2 and
subsequent layers.
5.5 Measurement Theory
5.5.1 Basics
In the late 1950’s it was noted by Sauerbrey1,2 and Lostis3 that the change in
frequency, DF = Fq-Fc, of a quartz crystal with coated (or composite) and
uncoated frequencies, Fc and Fq respectively, is related to the change in mass
from the added material, Mf , as follows:
M
∆F )-------f = (----------Mq
Fq
where Mq is the mass of the uncoated quartz crystal.
1.G. Z. Sauerbrey, Phys. Verhand.8, 193 (1957)
2.G. Z. Sauerbrey, Z. Phys. 155,206 (1959)
3.P. Lostis, Rev. Opt. 38,1 (1959)
5-4
[5]
IPN 074-186S
The Quartz Crystal deposition Monitor, or QCM, utilizes the piezoelectric
sensitivity of a quartz monitor crystal’s resonance to added mass. The QCM
uses this mass sensitivity to control the deposition rate and final thickness of a
vacuum deposition. When a voltage is applied across the faces of a properly
shaped piezoelectric crystal, the crystal is distorted and changes shape in
proportion to the applied voltage. At certain discrete frequencies of applied
voltage, a condition of very sharp electro-mechanical resonance is
encountered. When mass is added to the face of a resonating quartz crystal,
the frequency of these resonances are reduced. This change in frequency is
very repeatable and is precisely understood for specific oscillating modes of
quartz. This heuristically easy to understand phenomenon is the basis of an
indispensable measurement and process control tool that can easily detect the
addition of less than an atomic layer of an adhered foreign material.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Simple substitutions lead to the equation that was used with the first “frequency
measurement” instruments:
K ( ∆F )
T f = ---------------df
[6]
IPN 074-186S
where the film thickness, Tf, is proportional (through K) to the frequency
change, DF, and inversely proportional to the density of the film, df. The
constant, K = Natdq/Fq2; where dq (= 2.649 gm/cm3) is the density of single
crystal quartz and Nat (=166100 Hz cm) is the frequency constant of AT cut
quartz. A crystal with a starting frequency of 6.0 MHz will display a reduction of
its frequency by 2.27 Hz when 1 angstrom of Aluminum (density of 2.77
gm/cm3) is added to its surface. In this manner the thickness of a rigid adlayer
is inferred from the precise measurement of the crystal’s frequency shift. The
quantitative knowledge of this effect provides a means of determining how
much material is being deposited on a substrate in a vacuum system, a
measurement that was not convenient or practical prior to this understanding.
5-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
5.5.2 Monitor Crystals
No matter how sophisticated the electronics surrounding it, the essential device
of the deposition monitor is the quartz crystal. The quartz resonator shown in
Figure 5-1 has a frequency response spectrum that is schematically shown in
Figure 5-2. The ordinate represents the magnitude of response, or current flow
of the crystal, at the specified frequency.
Figure 5-1 Quartz Resonator
1
10
6
7
17
18
Frequency (in MHz)
The lowest frequency response is primarily a “thickness shear” mode that is
called the fundamental. The characteristic movement of the thickness shear
mode is for displacement to take place parallel to the major monitor crystal
faces. In other words, the faces are displacement antinodes as shown in Figure
5-3. The responses located slightly higher in frequency are called anharmonics;
they are a combination of the thickness shear and thickness twist modes. The
5-6
IPN 074-186S
18.133 MHz 350 ohm
17.957 MHz 311 ohm
17.792 MHz 278 ohm
6.419 MHz 350 ohm
6.333 MHz 142 ohm
6.337 MHz 105 ohm
6.348 MHz 322 ohm
1
1000
6.153 MHz 50 ohm
6.194 MHz 40 ohm
1
100
5.981 MHz 15 ohm
Log of relative intensity (Admittance)
Figure 5-2 Frequency Response Spectrum
XTM/2 Operating Manual
response at about three times the frequency of the fundamental is called the
third quasiharmonic. There are also a series of anharmonics slightly higher in
frequency associated with the quasiharmonic.
Figure 5-3 Thickness Shear Displacement
E
X2
displacement node
X
1
IPN 074-186S
X
3
The monitor crystal design depicted in Figure 5-1 is the result of several
significant improvements from the square crystals with fully electroded plane
parallel faces that were first used. The first improvement was to use circular
crystals. This increased symmetry greatly reduced the number of allowed
vibrational modes. The second set of improvements was to contour one face of
the crystal and to reduce the size of the exciting electrode. These
improvements have the effect of trapping the acoustic energy. Reducing the
electrode diameter limits the excitation to the central area. Contouring
dissipates the energy of the traveling acoustic wave before it reaches the edge
of the crystal. Energy is not reflected back to the center where it can interfere
with other newly launched waves, essentially making a small crystal appear to
behave as though it is infinite in extent. With the crystal’s vibrations restricted
to the center, it is practical to clamp the outer edges of the crystal to a holder
and not produce any undesirable effects. Contouring also reduces the intensity
of response of the generally unwanted anharmonic modes; hence, the potential
for an oscillator to sustain an unwanted oscillation is substantially reduced.
The use of an adhesion layer has improved the electrode-to-quartz bonding,
reducing “rate spikes” caused by micro-tears between the electrode and the
quartz as film stress rises. These micro-tears leave portions of the deposited
film unattached and therefore unable to participate in the oscillation. These free
portions are no longer detected and the wrong thickness consequently inferred.
5-7
XTM/2 Operating Manual
The “AT” resonator is usually chosen for deposition monitoring because at room
temperature it can be made to exhibit a very small frequency change due to
temperature changes. Since there is presently no way to separate the
frequency change caused by added mass (which is negative) or even the
frequency changes caused by temperature gradients across the crystal or film
induced stresses, it is essential to minimize these temperature-induced
changes. It is only in this way that small changes in mass can be measured
accurately.
5.5.3 Period Measurement Technique
Although instruments using equation [6] were very useful, it was soon noted
they had a very limited range of accuracy, typically holding accuracy for ∆F less
than 0.02 Fq. In 1961 it was recognized by Behrndt4 that:
[7]
where Tc and Tq are the periods of oscillation of the crystal with film and the
bare crystal respectively. The period measurement technique was the
outgrowth of two factors; first, the digital implementation of time measurement,
and second, the recognition of the mathematically rigorous formulation of the
proportionality between the crystal’s thickness, Lq, and the period of oscillation,
Tq = 1/Fq. Electronically the period measurement technique uses a second
crystal oscillator, or reference oscillator, not affected by the deposition and
usually much higher in frequency than the monitor crystal. This reference
oscillator is used to generate small precision time intervals which are used to
determine the oscillation period of the monitor crystal. This is done by using two
pulse accumulators. The first is used to accumulate a fixed number of cycles,
m, of the monitor crystal. The second is turned on at the same time and
accumulates cycles from the reference oscillator until m counts are
accumulated in the first. Since the frequency of the reference is stable and
known, the time to accumulate the m counts is known to an accuracy equal to
± 2/Fr where Fr is the reference oscillator’s frequency. The monitor crystal’s
period is (n/Fr)/m where n is the number of counts in the second accumulator.
The precision of the measurement is determined by the speed of the reference
clock and the length of the gate time (which is set by the size of m). Increasing
one or both of these leads to improved measurement precision.
Having a high frequency reference oscillator is important for rapid
measurements (which require short gating times), low deposition rates and low
density materials. All of these require high time precision to resolve the small,
mass induced frequency shifts between measurements. When the change of a
monitor crystal’s frequency between measurements is small, that is, on the
4.K. H. Behrndt, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 8, 622 (1961)
5-8
IPN 074-186S
M
( Tc – Tq )
∆F )-------f = ---------------------- = (----------Mq
Tq
Fc
XTM/2 Operating Manual
same order of size as the measurement precision, it is not possible to establish
quality rate control. The uncertainty of the measurement injects more noise into
the control loop, which can be counteracted only by longer time constants. Long
time constants cause the correction of rate errors to be very slow, resulting in
relatively long term deviations from the desired rate. These deviations may not
be important for some simple films, but can cause unacceptable errors in the
production of critical films such as optical filters or very thin layered
superlattices grown at low rates. In many cases the desired properties of these
films can be lost if the layer to layer reproducibility exceeds one, or two,
percent. Ultimately, the practical stability and frequency of the reference
oscillator limits the precision of measurement for conventional instrumentation.
5.5.4 Z-Match Technique
After learning of fundamental work by Miller and Bolef 5, which rigorously
treated the resonating quartz and deposited film system as a one-dimensional
continuous acoustic resonator, Lu and Lewis6 developed the simplifying
Z-Match equation in 1972. Advances in electronics taking place at the same
time, namely the micro-processor, made it practical to solve the Z-Match
equation in “real-time”. Most deposition process controllers sold today use this
sophisticated equation that takes into account the acoustic properties of the
resonating quartz and film system as shown in equation [8].
IPN 074-186S
N at d q
π ( Fq – Fc )
T f = ⎛ ------------------⎞ arctan ⎛ Z tan --------------------------- ⎞
⎝ πd f F c Z⎠
⎝
⎠
Fq
[8]
where Z=(dquq/dfuf)1/2 is the acoustic impedance ratio and uq and uf are the
shear moduli of the quartz and film, respectively. Finally, there was a
fundamental understanding of the frequency-to-thickness conversion that could
yield theoretically correct results in a time frame that was practical for process
control. To achieve this new level of accuracy requires only that the user enter
an additional material parameter, Z, for the film being deposited. This equation
has been tested for a number of materials, and has been found to be valid for
frequency shifts equivalent to Ff = 0.4Fq. Keep in mind that equation [6] was
valid to only 0.02Fq and equation [7] was valid only to ~0.05Fq.
5.5.5 Active Oscillator
All of the instrumentation developed to date has relied on the use of an active
oscillator circuit, generally the type schematically shown in Figure 5-4. This
circuit actively keeps the crystal in resonance, so that any type of period or
frequency measurement may be made. In this type of circuit, oscillation is
5.J. G. Miller and D. I. Bolef, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5815, 4589 (1968)
6.C. Lu and O. Lewis, J Appl. Phys. 43, 4385 (1972)
5-9
XTM/2 Operating Manual
sustained as long as the gain provided by the amplifiers is sufficient to offset
losses in the crystal and circuit and the crystal can provide the required phase
shift.
Figure 5-4 Active Oscillator Circuit
The basic crystal oscillator’s stability is derived from the rapid change of phase
for a small change in the crystal’s frequency near the series resonance point,
as shown in Figure 5-5.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 5-5 Crystal Frequency Near Series Resonance Point
5 - 10
XTM/2 Operating Manual
The active oscillator circuit is designed so the crystal is required to produce a
phase shift, θ, of 0 degrees, which allows it to operate at the series resonance
point. Long- and short-term frequency stabilities are a property of crystal
oscillators because very small frequency changes are needed to sustain the
phase shift required for oscillation. Frequency stability is provided by the quartz
crystal even though there are long term changes in electrical component values
caused by temperature or aging or short-term noise-induced phase jitter.
As mass is added to a crystal, its electrical characteristics change. Figure 5-6
is the same plot as Figure 5-5 overlaid with the response of a heavily loaded
crystal. The crystal has lost the steep slope displayed in Figure 5-5. Because
the phase slope is less steep, any noise in the oscillator circuit translates into
a greater frequency shift than that which would be produced with a new crystal.
In the extreme, the basic phase/frequency shape is not preserved and the
crystal is not able to provide a full 90 degrees of phase shift.
The impedance, | Z |, is also noted to rise to an extremely high value. When this
happens it is often more favorable for the oscillator to resonate at one of the
anharmonic frequencies. This condition is sometimes short lived, with the
oscillator switching between the fundamental and anharmonic modes, or it may
continue to oscillate at the anharmonic. This condition is known as mode
hopping and in addition to annoying rate noise can also lead to false termination
of the film because of the apparent frequency change. It is important to note that
the controller will frequently continue to operate under these conditions; in fact
there is no way to tell this has happened except that the film’s thickness is
suddenly apparently thinner by an amount equivalent to the frequency
difference between the fundamental and the anharmonic that is sustaining the
oscillation.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 5-6 Heavily Loaded Crystal
5 - 11
XTM/2 Operating Manual
5.5.6 ModeLock Oscillator
INFICON has created a new technology7 that eliminates the active oscillator
and its limitations. This new system constantly tests the crystal’s response to
an applied frequency in order to not only determine the resonant frequency, but
also to verify that the crystal is oscillating in the desired mode. This new system
is essentially immune to mode hopping and the resulting inaccuracies. It is fast
and accurate, determining the crystal’s frequency to less than 0.05 Hz at a rate
of 4 times per second. Because of the system’s ability to identify and then
measure particular crystal modes, it is now possible to offer new features that
take advantage of the additional informational content of these modes.
For AT crystals we know that the lowest frequency event encountered is the
fundamental. The events slightly higher in frequency are anharmonics. This
information is useful not only for initialization, but also for the rare case when
the instrument loses track of the fundamental. Once the frequency spectrum of
the crystal is determined the instrument’s task is to follow the changing
resonance frequency and to periodically provide a measurement of the
frequency for subsequent conversion to thickness.
The use of the “intelligent” measurement system has a series of very apparent
advantages when compared to the previous generation of active oscillators;
namely immunity from mode hopping, speed of measurement, precision of
measurement, and the ability to measure heavily loaded (damped) crystals.
7.US Patent 5,117,192 (May 27 1992)
5 - 12
IPN 074-186S
This “intelligent” measurement system uses the phase/frequency properties of
the quartz crystal to determine the resonant frequency. It operates by applying
a synthesized sine wave of specific frequency to the crystal and measuring the
phase difference between the applied signal’s voltage and the current passing
through the crystal. At series resonance, this phase difference is exactly 0
degrees; that is, the crystal behaves like a pure resistance. By separating the
applied voltage and the current returned from the crystal and monitoring the
output of a phase comparator it is possible to establish whether the applied
frequency is higher or lower than the crystal’s resonance point. At frequencies
well below the fundamental, the crystal’s impedance is capacitive and at
frequencies slightly higher than resonance it is inductive in nature. This
information is useful if the resonance frequency of a crystal is unknown. A quick
sweep of frequencies can be undertaken until the output of the phase
comparator changes, marking the resonance event.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Chapter 6
Adjustments and Problems
The only user serviceable adjustment is the LCD contrast (see below). There
are no user serviceable components inside the instrument enclosures.
WARNING
There are potentially lethal voltages inside this
instrument’s enclosure. The source of these voltages
are from the line power and also from the System I/O
connector.
6.1 LCD Contrast Adjustment
The LCD contrast is optimized for "above the display" viewing angles and
adjusted at the factory. It may be better optimized on site for use in positions
that place the instrument in extreme viewing angles.
To adjust for best possible contrast in the installed position use a potentiometer
adjustment tool or small common screwdriver carefully inserted through the
front panel (see section 2.4 on page 2-9, Item 11) and turn clockwise or counter
clockwise to obtain the best possible display contrast for your viewing angle.
6.2 Error Messages
IPN 074-186S
The following error codes are generated and displayed by the XTM/2.
6.2.1 Powerup Errors
ERR 0 . . . . . . Film parameters lost on power up. This may be cleared by
pressing any key. All film and layer parameters will have to be
re-entered.
ERR 2 . . . . . . Line power loss. This message is cleared by pressing any key.
ERR 9 . . . . . . Process data lost on power up. This is cleared by pressing any
key. Automatic process recovery will not be possible.
NOTE: Upon detection of power failure, all current layer and process data is
normally saved for process recovery use on subsequent deposition
system recovery.
6-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.2.2 Parameter Update Errors
ERR 1 . . . . . Parameter out of range; the value attempted to be entered was
outside of the instrument’s acceptable range. This is cleared with
the
key. Refer to Table 4-2 on page 4-4 for parameter ranges.
ERR 3 . . . . . Parameter out of range as the result of a change in the displayed
units. This is cleared with any key.
LOC . . . . . . . Parameter entry (or alteration) attempted while the PARAMETER
LOCK configuration switch is set or the parameters are locked
out through remote communications. LOC is also displayed when
attempting to update certain parameters (sensor, source, layer)
during an active process.
6.2.3 Other Errors
Err 7 . . . . . . Processor out of time error. It is not expected that this error will
be seen by a user.
6.3 Troubleshooting Guide
If the instrument fails to work, or appears to have diminished performance, the
Symptom/Cause chart in section 6.3.2 on page 6-4 may be helpful.
WARNING
There are no user serviceable components within the
instrument case.
Refer all maintenance to qualified personnel.
CAUTION
This instrument contains delicate circuitry which is
susceptible to transients. Disconnect the line cord
whenever making any interface connections. Refer all
maintenance to qualified personnel.
6-2
IPN 074-186S
Potentially lethal voltages are present when the line
cord, or system I/O or aux I/O are connected.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.3.1 Major Instrument Components, Assemblies and
Mating Connectors
Figure 6-1 Components, Assemblies and Mating Connectors
System I/O Connector
Both IPN 051-483
& IPN 051-619
Power Cord
N. American: IPN 068-0385
European: IPN 068-0390
RS232 Connector
Both IPN 051-485
& IPN 051-620
Display Board Assembly
(Included LCD Display)
IPN 758-112-G1
Top/Bottom Cover
IPN 757-007-P2
Graphic & Switch
Overlay
IPN 758-009-P1
COM Option
Connector
PROM Upgrade / Replacement Kit
IPN 758-207-G1
LCD Display
IPN 758-006-P1
IPN 074-186S
Main Board Assembly
IPN 758-1002-G1
6-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.3.2 Troubleshooting the Instrument
Table 6-1 Troubleshooting the Instrument
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
1. power on LED not
illuminated
a. blown fuse/circuit breaker a. have qualified personnel
tripped
replace fuse/reset circuit
breaker
b. electrical cord unplugged b. re-connect power cord
from wall or back of
instrument
c. incorrect line voltage
a. cover or back panels not a. ensure all covers and
attached to the instrument. panels are in place and
securely fastened
b. high electrical noise
environment
b. re-route cables to reduce
noise pickup (1’ (305 mm)
away from high power
conducting lines makes a
sizeable reduction in the
amount of noise entering
the instrument), keep all
ground wires short with
large surface area to
minimize ground
impedance
c. poor grounds or poor
grounding practice
c.verfify proper earth
ground, use appropriate
ground strap, eliminate
ground loops by
establishing the correct
system grounding, verify
proper instrument
grounding
a. faulty static RAM
3. instrument does not
retain parameters on power
down (loss of parameters
on power up)
6-4
a. SRAM battery has a
normal life expectancy of
ten years, contact INFICON
service department
b. power supply problem
b. contact INFICON service
department
4. some keys on front panel a. faulty keypad or faulty
function while others do not keypad ribbon cable
a. contact INFICON service
department
IPN 074-186S
2.unit "locks" up
c. have qualified personnel
verify line voltage, verify the
instrument is configured for
the correct voltage
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-1 Troubleshooting the Instrument (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
5. all keys on the front panel a. instrument is "locked" up a. turn power to OFF or to
fail to function
STBY, then to on, see item 2
above
6. control voltage output
does not function properly
a. DAC board damaged
a. ensure cable connection
from applying voltage to the to the DAC board does not
control voltage output
have a potential across the
contacts, contact INFICON
service department
b. reversed polarity of
control voltage relative to
that accepted by the source
power supply
b. verify source output
polarity of DAC and the
required input polarity of the
source power supply, refer
to the instruction manual to
reconfigure the instrument if
necessary
c. improper control cable
fabrication
c.check for correct cable
wiring in the appropriate
section of the manual
7. CRT or LCD display dull a. brightness/contrast
or blank
adjustment required
IPN 074-186S
8. poor rate control
a. refer to manual for
location of adjustment
potentiometer, adjust as
required
b. LCD or CRT/power
supply problem
b. contact INFICON service
department
a. control loop parameters
improperly selected
a. refer to the instruction
manual section on tuning
control loop parameters
b. electron beam sweep
frequency "beating" with the
instrument’s measurement
frequency
b. adjust the sweep
frequency so it is not a
multiple of the instruments
measurement frequency
6-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-1 Troubleshooting the Instrument (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
9. crystal fail always on
a. XIU/oscillator not
connected
verify proper
sensor/oscillator
connections
b. XIU/oscillator
malfunctioning
b. if available, insert a
known working
XIU/oscillator in place of the
suspect one; if
XIU/oscillator is confirmed
bad, contact INFICON
service department
c. defective cable from
feedthrough to
XIU/oscillator or from
instrument to XIU/oscillator
c. use an ohm meter or
DVM to check electrical
continuity or isolation as
appropriate
d. poor electrical contact in
the transducer,
feedthroughs, or in-vacuum
cable
d. use an ohm meter or
DVM to check electrical
continuity or isolation as
appropriate
e. failed crystal/no crystal
e. replace crystal/insert
crystal
IPN 074-186S
f. two crystals placed in the f. remove one of the crystals
same crystal holder
6-6
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.3.3 Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors
NOTE: The most useful tool for diagnosing sensor head problems is the DVM
(Digital Volt Meter). Disconnect the short oscillator cable from the
feedthrough and measure the resistance from the center pin to ground.
If the reading is less than 1-2 megohms, the source of the leakage
should be found and corrected. Likewise, with the vacuum system open
check for center conductor continuity, a reading of more than 1 ohm
from the feedthrough to the transducer contact indicates a problem.
Cleaning contacts or replacing the in-vacuum cable may be required.
A somewhat more thorough diagnosis may be performed with the
optional Crystal Sensor Emulator, 760-601-G1. See section 6.5 on
page 6-20 for a discussion of its use and diagnostic capabilities.
NOTE: A more detailed troubleshooting guide is shipped with the sensor. Refer
to the sensor’s manual for more detailed information, in some cases.
Table 6-2 Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
1. large jumps of thickness a. mode hopping due to
reading during deposition
defective crystal
REMEDY
a. replace crystal. use
ModeLock measurement
system
IPN 074-186S
b. stress causes film to peel b. replace crystal or use
from crystal surface
high performance buffered
crystal; consult factory
c. thermally condition the
c. particulate or "spatter"
from molten source striking source thoroughly before
deposition, use a shutter to
crystal
protect the crystal during
source conditioning
d. scratches or foreign
particles on the crystal
holder seating surface
(improper crystal seating)
d. clean and polish the
crystal seating surface on
the crystal holder
e. small pieces of material
fell on crystal (for crystal
facing up sputtering
situation)
e. check the crystal surface
and blow it off with clean air
f. small pieces of magnetic
material being attracted by
the sensor magnet and
contacting the crystal
(sputtering sensor head)
f. check the sensor cover’s
aperture and remove any
foreign material that may be
restricting full crystal
coverage
6-7
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-2 Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
a. thermally condition the
2. crystal ceases to oscillate a. crystal struck by
during deposition before it particulate or "spatter" from source thoroughly before
deposition, use a shutter to
molten source
reaches its "normal" life
protect the crystal during
source conditioning
b. material on crystal holder b.clean crystal holder
partially masking crystal
cover aperture
c. existence of electrical
short or open condition
c. using an ohm meter or
DVM, check for electrical
continuity in the senor
cable, connector, contact
springs, connecting wire
inside sensor, and
feedthroughs
d. check for thermally
induced electrical short or
open condition
d. see "c" above
NOTE: Crystal life is highly dependent on process conditions of rate, power radiated
from source, location, material, and residual gas composition.
a. use an ohm meter or
3. crystal does not oscillate a. intermittent or poor
or oscillates intermittently electrical contact (contacts DVM to check electrical
continuity, clean contacts
(both in vacuum and in air) oxidized)
c. RF interference from
sputtering power supply
c. verify earth ground, use
ground strap adequate for
RF ground, change location
of instrument and oscillator
cabling away from RF
power lines, connect
instrument to a different
power line
d. cable/oscillator not
d. verify proper
connected, or connected to connections, and inputs
wrong sensor input
relative to programmed
sensor parameter
6-8
IPN 074-186S
b. rebend leafs to
b. leaf springs have lost
retentivity (ceramic retainer, approximately 60°. See
section 6.3.5 on page 6-14
center insulator)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-2 Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
a. crystal was near the end a. replace crystal
4. crystal oscillates in
of its life; opening to air
vacuum but stops
oscillation after open to air causes film oxidation which
increases film stress
b. excessive moisture
b. turn off cooling water to
accumulates on the crystal sensor prior to venting, flow
warm water through sensor
while chamber is open
IPN 074-186S
5. thermal instability: large
changes in thickness
reading during source
warm-up (usually causes
thickness reading to
decrease) and after the
termination of deposition
(usually causes thickness
reading to increase)
a. inadequate cooling
water/cooling water
temperature too high
a. check cooling water flow
rate, be certain that cooling
water temperature is less
than 30 °C; refer to
appropriate sensor manual
b. excessive heat input to
the crystal
b. if heat is due to radiation
from the evaporation
source, move sensor further
away from source and use
sputtering crystals for better
thermal stability; install
radiation shield
c. crystal not seated
properly in holder
c. clean or polish the crystal
seating surface on the
crystal holder
d. crystal heating caused by d. use a sputtering sensor
head
high energy electron flux
(often found in RF
sputtering)
e. poor thermal transfer
from water line to body
(CrystalSix sensor)
e. use a new water tube
whenever the clamping
assembly has been
removed from the body; if a
new water tube is not
available, use a single layer
of aluminum foil between
the cooling tube and sensor
body, if your process allows
f. poor thermal transfer
(Bakeable)
f. use Al or Au foil washer
between crystal holder and
sensor body
6-9
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-2 Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
6. poor thickness
reproducibility
a. variable source flux
distribution
a. move sensor to a more
central location to reliably
sample evaporant, ensure
constant relative pool height
of melt, avoid tunneling into
the melt
b. sweep, dither, or position
where the electron beam
strikes the melt has been
changed since the last
deposition
b. maintain consistent
source distribution by
maintaining consistent
sweep frequencies, sweep
amplitude and electron
beam position settings
7. large drift in thickness
(greater than 200 Å for a
density of 5.00 g/cc) after
termination of sputtering
6 - 10
d. cyclic change in rate
d. make certain source’s
sweep frequency is not
"beating" with the
measurement frequency
[nearly the same frequency
or a near multiple of the
measurement (4 Hz)]
a. crystal heating due to
poor thermal contact
a. clean or polish the crystal
seating surface on the
crystal holder
b. external magnetic field
interfering with the sensors
magnetic field (sputtering
sensor)
b. rotate sensor magnet to
proper orientation with
external magnetic field,
refer to sputtering sensor
manual IPN 074-157
c. sensor magnet cracked
or demagnetized
(sputtering sensor)
c. check sensor magnetic
field strength, the maximum
field at the center of the
aperture should be 700
gauss or greater
IPN 074-186S
c. material does not adhere c. make certain the crystal’s
to crystal
surface is clean; avoid
touching crystal with
fingers, make use of an
intermediate adhesion layer
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-2 Troubleshooting Transducers/Sensors (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
8. CrystalSix, crystal switch a. loss of pneumatic supply, a. ensure air supply is
regulated at 80-90 PSI
problem (does not advance or pressure is insufficient
or not centered in aperture) for proper operation
b. operation has been
impaired as a result of
material accumulation on
cover
b. clean material
accumulation as needed,
refer to CrystalSix manual
IPN 074-155 for
maintenance
c. improper alignment
c. realign as per instructions
in CrystalSix manual IPN
074-155
d. 0.0225" diameter orifice
not installed on the supply
side of solenoid valve
assembly
d. install orifice as shown in
the CrystalSix manual IPN
074-155
6.3.4 Troubleshooting Computer Communications
Table 6-3 Troubleshooting Computer Communications
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
IPN 074-186S
1. communications cannot a. improper cable
be established between the connection
host computer and the
instrument
REMEDY
a. verify for correct cable
wiring as described in the
manual
b. BAUD rate in host
computer not the same as
the instrument
b. verify BAUD rate in the
host’s applications
program, verify BAUD rate
in the instrument
c. incompatible protocols
being used
c. verify the instrument
protocol: RS232, SECS,
GPIB, DATALOG,
CHECKSUM, matches host
d. incorrect device address d. verify device address in
(GPIB or SECS protocol)
host’s applications
program, (or in IBCONF file
for National Instrs. GPIB)
and verify instrument
address
6 - 11
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-3 Troubleshooting Computer Communications (continued)
CAUSE
REMEDY
2. error code returned
a. A = illegal command
a. the command sent was
not valid; verify command
syntax as shown in the
instrument’s manual
(placement of spaces within
the command string are
important)
b. B = illegal value
b. the parameter’s value
sent is outside the range for
the given parameter, verify
parameter’s range
c. C = illegal ID
c. the command sent was
for a parameter which
doesn’t exist; verify the
correct parameter number
d. D = illegal command
format
d. the command sent is not
valid; verify command
syntax as shown in the
instrument’s manual
(placement of spaces within
the command string are
important)
e. E = no data to retrieve
e. some parameters may
not be in use, depending on
the value of other
parameters
IPN 074-186S
SYMPTOM
6 - 12
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table 6-3 Troubleshooting Computer Communications (continued)
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
f. F = cannot change value f. the command sent is for a
now
parameter that cannot be
changed while the
instrument is executing a
Process; place the
instrument in the READY
state in order to change the
value.
g. checksum value does not
match the value sent by the
host’s application program,
may be caused by noise on
the RS232 cable or the
checksum is not calculated
properly by the applications
program.
h. O = data overrun
h. I/O port unable to keep
up with data transfer rate;
lower BAUD rate, increase
speed of host’s applications
program by using a
compiled version of the
program, stream lining
program execution, a faster
CPU
IPN 074-186S
g. G = bad checksum
6 - 13
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.3.5 Leaf Spring Concerns
Spring conditions should be observed as part of the routine maintenance
interval. Insufficient bends or deformities in the spring contacts in the sensor
body are common causes of crystal problems. Lift each leaf spring up
approximately 60°. See Figure 6-2.
Figure 6-2 Shaping the Leaf Spring
Avoid kinking
leaf spring
Leaf
Spring
IPN 074-186S
60°
6 - 14
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.4 Replacing the Crystal
The procedure for replacing the crystal is basically the same with all
transducers, except the CrystalSix.
CAUTION
Always use clean nylon lab gloves and plastic
tweezers for handling the crystal (to avoid
contamination which may lead to poor adhesion of the
film to the electrode).
Do not rotate the ceramic retainer assembly after it is
seated (as this will scratch the crystal electrode and
cause poor contact).
Do not use excessive force when handling the ceramic
retainer assembly since breakage may occur.
NOTE: Certain materials, especially dielectrics, may not adhere strongly to the
crystal surface and may cause erratic readings.
IPN 074-186S
Thick deposits of some materials, such as SiO, Si, and Ni will normally
peel off the crystal when it is exposed to air, as a result of changes in
film stress caused by gas absorption. When you observe peeling,
change the crystals.
6 - 15
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.4.1 Standard and Compact
Follow the procedure below to replace the crystal in the Standard and Compact
sensor: (see Figure 6-3)
1 Gripping the crystal holder with your fingers, pull it straight out of the sensor
body.
2 Gently pry the crystal retainer from the holder (or use crystal snatcher; see
Figure 6-6 on page 6-19).
3 Turn the retainer over and the crystal will drop out.
4 Install a new crystal, with the patterned electrode face up.
5 Push the retainer back into the holder and replace the holder in the sensor
body.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 6-3 Standard Crystal Sensor (Exploded) (750-030/S&D HEAD)
6 - 16
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.4.2 Shuttered and Dual Sensors
There is no difference in the crystal changing procedure between shuttered and
non-shuttered Standard and Compact sensors, since the shutter pivots away
from the crystal opening when the shutter is in the relaxed state.
6.4.3 Bakeable Sensor
For the Bakeable sensor, the procedure is the same as the regular crystal
except that you must first unlock the cam assembly by flipping it up. Once the
crystal has been replaced, place a flat edge of the holder flush with the cam
mechanism and lock it in place with the cam (Figure 6-4).
IPN 074-186S
Figure 6-4 Bakeable Crystal Sensor (Exploded) (750-030/BAKEABLE)
6 - 17
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.4.4 Sputtering Sensor
Observe the general precautions (section 6.4 on page 6-15) for replacing
crystals and follow the instructions below to replace the crystal in a sputtering
sensor.
1 Grip the body assembly with your fingers and pull it straight out to separate
it from the water-cooled front part. (You may have to disconnect the sensor
cable in order to separate the parts.) See Figure 6-5.
2 Pull the crystal holder straight out from the front of the sensor.
3 Remove the ceramic retainer from the crystal holder by pulling it straight out
with the crystal snatcher (see section 6.4.5 on page 6-19).
4 Turn the crystal holder over so that the crystal drops out.
5 Install a new crystal into the crystal holder with the patterned electrode
facing the back and contacting the leaf springs on the ceramic retainer. (Use
only special crystals for sputtering, IPN 008-009-G10.)
6 Put the ceramic retainer back into the crystal holder and put the holder into
the front cover of the sensor.
7 Align the position of the back part so that the connector matches with the
notch on the front of the sensor. Snap the two parts together. Reconnect the
sensor cable if it has been disconnected.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 6-5 Sputtering Crystal Sensor (Exploded)
6 - 18
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.4.5 Crystal Snatcher
To use the crystal snatcher supplied with the sensor follow the instructions
below (see Figure 6-6):
1 Insert crystal snatcher into ceramic retainer (1) and apply a small amount of
pressure. This locks the retainer to the snatcher and allows the retainer to
be pulled straight out (2).
2 Re-insert the retainer into the holder after the crystal has been changed.
3 Release the crystal snatcher with a slight side-to-side motion.
IPN 074-186S
Figure 6-6 Use of Crystal Snatcher
6 - 19
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.5 Crystal Sensor Emulator
IPN 760-601-G1 or 760-601-G2
NOTE: 760-601-G1 (obsolete) is not compatible for use with an IC/5 and IC/4.
760-601-G2 is fully compatible with all thin film deposition controllers.
The Crystal Sensor Emulator option is used in conjunction with the Thin Film
Deposition Controller to rapidly diagnose problems with the Deposition
Controller's measurement system. See Figure 6-7.
Figure 6-7 Crystal Sensor Emulator
Female
BNC
Connector
Sensor
Cover
Connector
Female
Microdot
Connector
The Crystal Sensor Emulator may be attached at various points in the
measurement system, from the oscillator to the sensor head. It provides a
known "good" monitor crystal with known "good" electrical connections. Using
the emulator and the controller in a systematic manner provides a fast means
of isolating measurement system, cable, or sensor problems. See Figure 6-8.
Figure 6-8 Crystal Sensor Emulator Attachment Points
Sensor Head
Thin Film
Controller
A
C
Crystal Interface
Unit (Oscillator)
CAUTION
This product is designed as a diagnostic tool, and is
not intended for use in vacuum. Do not leave the
Crystal Sensor Emulator installed in the vacuum
system during processing.
6 - 20
IPN 074-186S
B
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.5.1 Diagnostic Procedures
The following diagnostic procedures employ the Crystal Sensor Emulator to
analyze a constant Crystal Fail message. The symptom is a Crystal Fail
message that is displayed by the Deposition Controller even after the monitor
crystal has been replaced with a new “good” monitor crystal.
NOTE: The "Unable To Auto Z" message will be displayed if the Crystal Sensor
Emulator is attached to a deposition controller and you are attempting
to use the Auto Z feature. This is to be expected and is normal.
6.5.1.1 Measurement System Diagnostic Procedure
1 Refer to Figure 6-8 on page 6-20. Remove the six-inch BNC cable from the
Feed-Through at point A.
2 Connect the Crystal Sensor Emulator to the 6 inch BNC cable at Point A.
Š
If the XTAL Fail message disappears after approximately five seconds,
the measurement system is working properly. Re-install the six-inch
BNC cable to the Feed-Through. Go to section 6.5.1.2.
Š
If the XTAL Fail message remains, continue at step 3.
3 Disconnect the six-inch BNC cable from the Oscillator and from the
Emulator.
4 Visually inspect the six-inch BNC cable to verify that the center pins are
seated properly.
5 Use an Ohm meter to verify the electrical connections on the six-inch BNC
IPN 074-186S
cable.
Š
There must be continuity (<0.2 ohms) between the center pins.
Š
There must be isolation (>10 megohms) between the center pins and
the connector shield.
Š
There must be continuity between the connector shields.
Replace the six-inch BNC cable if it is found to be defective and repeat Step
2 of this procedure.
6 If the six-inch BNC cable is not defective, re-connect the six-inch cable to
the oscillator and to the Crystal Sensor Emulator. If the XTAL Fail message
remains, contact INFICON's Service Department.
6 - 21
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.5.1.2 Feed-Through Or In-Vacuum Cable
Diagnostic Procedure
1 Refer to Figure 6-8 on page 6-20. Remove the In-Vacuum cable from the
Sensor Head at point B.
2 Connect the Crystal Sensor Emulator to the In-Vacuum cable.
Š
If the XTAL Fail message disappears after approximately five seconds,
the Feed-Through and In-Vacuum Cable are working properly. Re-install
the In-Vacuum cable to the Sensor Head. Go to section 6.5.1.3 on page
6-23.
Š
If the XTAL Fail message remains, continue at step 3.
3 Disconnect the In-Vacuum cable from the Feed-Through and the Emulator.
Disconnect the six-inch BNC cable from the Feed-Through.
4 Using an Ohm Meter, verify electrical continuity from the BNC center pin on
the Feed-Through to the Microdot center pin on the Feed-Through. A typical
value would be less than 0.2 ohms.
5 Verify electrical isolation of the center pin on the Feed-Through from the
electrical ground (Feed-Through body). A typical value would be in excess
of 10 megohms.
If the Feed-Through is found to be defective, replace the Feed-Through,
re-attach the BNC and In-Vacuum cables, and repeat this procedure starting at
Step 2, otherwise continue at step 6.
6 Verify electrical continuity from center pin to center pin on the In-Vacuum
cable.
7 Verify that the center pin of the In-Vacuum cable is electrically isolated from
If the In-Vacuum cable is found to be defective, replace the In-Vacuum cable.
Re-attach the BNC and In-Vacuum cables, and repeat this procedure starting
at Step 2, otherwise continue at step 8.
8 Connect the In-Vacuum Cable to the Feed-Through.
9 Verify electrical continuity from the center pin on the BNC connector of the
Feed-Through to the center pin on the un-terminated end of the In-Vacuum
cable.
10 Verify electrical isolation from the center pin to electrical ground
(Feed-Through body).
If the Feed-Through/In-Vacuum cable system is found to be defective, look for
defective electrical contacts at the Feed-Through to In-Vacuum cable
connection. Repair or replace the Feed-Through as necessary. Re-attach the
BNC and In-Vacuum cables and repeat this procedure starting at step 2.
Otherwise, continue at step 11.
6 - 22
IPN 074-186S
the In-Vacuum cable shield.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
11 Connect the six-inch BNC cable to the Feed-Through and disconnect it from
the Crystal Interface Unit (or Oscillator)
12 Verify electrical continuity from the center pin of the Microdot connector on
the Feed-Through to the un-terminated end of the six-inch BNC cable.
13 Verify electrical isolation from the center pin to electrical ground
(Feed-Through body).
If the Feed-Through/six-inch BNC cable system is found to be defective, look
for defective contacts at the Feed-Through to BNC cable connection. Repair or
replace the Feed-Through as necessary, re-attach the BNC cable to the XIU
and In-Vacuum cable to the Crystal head and repeat this procedure starting at
step 2.
6.5.1.3 Sensor Head Or Monitor Crystal
Diagnostic Procedure
1 Remove the Crystal Cover from the Sensor Head.
2 Refer to Figure 6-7 on page 6-20. Connect the Crystal Sensor Emulator to
the Sensor Head at Point C.
Š
If the XTAL Fail message disappears after approximately 5 sec. then the
Sensor Head is operating properly. Re-insert the Crystal Cover into the
Sensor Head.
Š
If the XTAL Fail message remains, continue at step 3.
3 Disconnect the In-Vacuum cable from the Sensor Head and the
Feed-Through. Remove the Crystal Sensor Emulator from the Sensor
Head.
IPN 074-186S
4 Using an Ohm meter, verify the electrical connections on the Sensor Head.
Š
Verify there is electrical continuity from the center pin contact on the
Microdot connector on the Sensor Head to the finger spring contact in
the Sensor Head.
Š
There must be electrical isolation between the center pin of the Microdot
connector and the Sensor Head body.
If the Sensor Head is found to be defective, contact INFICON’s Service
Department to have the Sensor Head repaired.
6 - 23
XTM/2 Operating Manual
5 Connect the In-Vacuum Cable to the Sensor Head.
Š
Verify there is continuity (<0.2 ohm) from the finger spring contact in the
Sensor Head to the center pin on the un-terminated end of the
In-Vacuum cable.
Š
Verify there is isolation (>10 megohm) between the finger spring contact
and the In-Vacuum cable shield.
If the Sensor Head or the In-Vacuum cable system is found to be defective, look
for defective contacts at the In-Vacuum cable to Sensor Head connection,
repair or replace the Sensor Head as necessary. Re-attach the In-Vacuum
cable to the Feed-Through and repeat this procedure starting at step 2.
6 Ensure that the leaf springs in the Sensor Head and those in the ceramic
retainer are bent to an angle of approximately 60 degrees from flat.
6.5.1.4 System Diagnostics Pass But
Crystal Fail Message Remains
If the system is operating properly, yet the Crystal Fail message is still
displayed, perform the following tasks.
1 On the ceramic retainer verify that the center rivet is secure. Repair or
replace the ceramic retainer as necessary.
2 Inspect the inside of the Crystal Cover for build-up of material. Clean or
replace the Crystal Cover as necessary.
6.5.2 % XTAL Life
The Crystal Sensor Emulator contains a quartz crystal having a fundamental
frequency at 5.5 MHz. With the Crystal Sensor Emulator connected, the
% XTAL Life display should read:
6 - 24
Š
approximately 45% for deposition controllers which allow a 1 MHz
frequency shift.
Š
approximately 38% for deposition controllers which allow a 1.25 MHz
frequency shift
Š
approximately 30% for deposition controllers which allow a 1.5 MHz
frequency
IPN 074-186S
After verifying the Sensor Head contacts, the Sensor Head/In-Vacuum cable
connection, and the ceramic retainer contacts, re-assemble the system. If the
Crystal Fail message remains, replace the monitor crystal with a good monitor
crystal. Verify that the monitor crystal works properly by inserting it into a known
good measurement system. If you continue to experience problems, contact an
INFICON Applications Engineer for Technical Support.
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.5.3 Sensor Cover Connection
The Crystal Sensor Emulator can be used to verify the measurement system for
INFICON's Thin Film Deposition Controllers and Monitors, including the
IC6000, XTC, IC/4 Plus, IC/4 MPT, XTC/2, XTC/C, XTM/2, and the IC/5.
NOTE: 760-601-G1 (obsolete) is not compatible for use with an IC/5 and IC/4.
760-601-G2 is fully compatible with all thin film deposition controllers.
However, the Crystal Sensor Emulator's Sensor Cover Connector is compatible
with some sensor heads, and is incompatible with others. This is discussed in
the following sections.
6.5.3.1 Compatible Sensor Heads
The Sensor Cover Connection will fit the sensor heads shown in Table 6-4.
Table 6-4 Compatible Sensor Heads
Sensor Head
Part Number
Standard Sensor Head
750-211-G1
Standard Sensor Head with Shutter
750-211-G2
Compact Sensor Head
750-213-G1
Compact Sensor Head with Shutter
750-213-G2
Dual Sensor Head
750-212-G2
6.5.3.2 Incompatible Sensor Heads
The Sensor Heads for which the Crystal Sensor Emulator's Sensor Cover
Connector will not fit are shown in Table 6-5.
IPN 074-186S
Table 6-5 Incompatible Sensor Heads
Sensor Head
Part Number
UHV Bakeable Sensor Head (12 inch)
007-219
UHV Bakeable Sensor Head (20 inch)
007-220
UHV Bakeable Sensor Head (30 inch)
007-221
UHV Bakeable Sensor Head w/ Shutter (12 inch)
750-012-G1
UHV Bakeable Sensor Head w/ Shutter (20 inch)
750-012-G2
UHV Bakeable Sensor Head w/ Shutter (30 inch)
750-012-G3
Sputtering Sensor Head
007-031
CrystalSix Sensor Head with position select
750-446-G1
CrystalSix Sensor Head
750-260-G1
NOTE: The Crystal Sensor Emulator’s Sensor Cover will not fit the crystal
holder opening of the older style INFICON transducers that have the
"soldered" finger springs.
6 - 25
XTM/2 Operating Manual
6.5.4 Specifications
Dimensions
1.58 in. diameter x 1.79 in.
(40.13 mm diameter x 45.47 mm)
Temperature Range
0 to 50 oC
Frequency
760-601-G1: 5.5 MHz ± 30 ppm at room temperature
760-601-G2: 5.5 MHz ± 1 ppm at room temperature
Materials
IPN 074-186S
304 Stainless Steel, Nylon, Teflon, brass. Some internal components contain
zinc, tin, and lead.
6 - 26
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Appendix A
Table of Densities and Z-ratios
The following table represents the content of the instrument's material library.
The list is alphabetical by chemical formula.
CAUTION
Some of these materials are toxic. Please consult the
material safety data sheet and safety instructions
before use.
Remote Communications Responses and Commands use the code value to
represent a specific material. An * is used to indicate that a Z-ratio has not been
established for a certain material. A value of 1.000 is defaulted in these
situations.
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
Ag
10.5000
0.529
Silver
AgBr
6.470
1.180
Silver Bromide
AgCl
5.560
1.320
Silver Chloride
Al
2.700
1.080
Aluminum
Al2O3
3.970
0.336
Aluminum Oxide
Al4C3
2.360
*1.000
Aluminum Carbide
AIF3
3.070
*1.000
Aluminum Fluoride
AIN
3.260
*1.000
Aluminum Nitride
AlSb
4.360
0.743
Aluminum Antimonide
As
5.730
0.966
Arsenic
As2Se3
4.750
*1.000
Arsenic Selenide
Au
19.300
0.381
Gold
B
2.370
0.389
Boron
B 2O 3
1.820
*1.000
Boron Oxide
B 4C
2.370
*1.000
Boron Carbide
Ba
3.500
2.100
Barium
BaF2
4.886
0.793
Barium Fluoride
BaN2O6
3.244
1.261
Barium Nitrate
BaO
5.720
*1.000
Barium Oxide
A-1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
A-2
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
BaTiO3
5.999
0.464
Barium Titanate (Tetr)
BaTiO3
6.035
0.412
Barium Titanate (Cubic)
Be
1.850
0.543
Beryllium
BeF2
1.990
*1.000
Beryllium Fluoride
BeO
3.010
*1.000
Beryllium Oxide
Bi
9.800
0.790
Bismuth
Bi2O3
8.900
*1.000
Bismuth Oxide
Bi2S3
7.390
*1.000
Bismuth Trisulphide
Bi2Se3
6.820
*1.000
Bismuth Selenide
Bi2Te3
7.700
*1.000
Bismuth Telluride
BiF3
5.320
*1.000
Bismuth Fluoride
BN
1.860
*1.000
Boron Nitride
C
2.250
3.260
Carbon (Graphite)
C
3.520
0.220
Carbon (Diamond)
C 8H 8
1.100
*1.000
Parlyene (Union Carbide)
Ca
1.550
2.620
Calcium
CaF2
3.180
0.775
Calcium Fluoride
CaO
3.350
*1.000
Calcium Oxide
CaO-SiO2
2.900
*1.000
Calcium Silicate (3)
CaSO4
2.962
0.955
Calcium Sulfate
CaTiO3
4.100
*1.000
Calcium Titanate
CaWO4
6.060
*1.000
Calcium Tungstate
Cd
8.640
0.682
Cadmium
CdF2
6.640
*1.000
Cadmium Fluoride
CdO
8.150
*1.000
Cadmium Oxide
CdS
4.830
1.020
Cadmium Sulfide
CdSe
5.810
*1.000
Cadmium Selenide,
CdTe
6.200
0.980
Cadmium Telluride
Ce
6.780
*1.000
Cerium
CeF3
6.160
*1.000
Cerium (111) Fluoride
CeO2
7.130
*1.000
Cerium (IV) Dioxide
Co
8.900
0.343
Cobalt
CoO
6.440
0.412
Cobalt Oxide
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
Cr
7.200
0.305
Chromium
Cr2O3
5.210
*1.000
Chromium (111) Oxide
Cr3C2
6.680
*1.000
Chromium Carbide
CrB
6.170
*1.000
Chromium Boride
Cs
1.870
*1.000
Cesium
Cs2SO4
4.243
1.212
Cesium Sulfate
CsBr
4.456
1.410
Cesium Bromide
CsCI
3.988
1.399
Cesium Chloride
CsI
4.516
1.542
Cesium Iodide
Cu
8.930
0.437
Copper
Cu2O
6.000
*1.000
Copper Oxide
Cu2S
5.600
0.690
Copper (I) Sulfide (Alpha)
Cu2S
5.800
0.670
Copper (I) Sulfide (Beta)
CuS
4.600
0.820
Copper (11) Sulfide
Dy
8.550
0.600
Dysprosium
Dy2O3
7.810
*1.000
Dysprosium Oxide
Er
9.050
0.740
Erbium
Er2O3
8.640
*1.000
Erbium Oxide
Eu
5.260
*1.000
Europium
EuF2
6.500
*1.000
Europium Fluoride
Fe
7.860
0.349
Iron
Fe2O3
5.240
*1.000
Iron Oxide
FeO
5.700
*1.000
Iron Oxide
FeS
4.840
*1.000
Iron Sulphide
Ga.
5.930
0.593
Gallium
Ga2O3
5.880
*1.000
Gallium Oxide (B)
GaAs
5.310
1.590
Gallium Arsenide
GaN
6.100
*1.000
Gallium Nitride
GaP
4.100
*1.000
Gallium Phosphide
GaSb
5.600
*1.000
Gallium Antimonide
Gd
7.890
0.670
Gadolinium
Gd2O3
7.410
*1.000
Gadolinium Oxide
Ge
5.350
0.516
Germanium
A-3
XTM/2 Operating Manual
A-4
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
Ge3N2
5.200
*1.000
Germanium Nitride
GeO2
6.240
*1.000
Germanium Oxide
GeTe
6.200
*1.000
Germanium Telluride
Hf
13.090
0.360
Hafnium
HfB2
10.500
*1.000
Hafnium Boride,
HfC
12.200
*1.000
Hafnium Carbide
HfN
13.800
*1.000
Hafnium Nitride
HfO2
9.680
*1.000
Hafnium Oxide
HfSi2
7.200
*1.000
Hafnium Silicide,
Hg
13.460
0.740
Mercury
Ho
8.800
0.580
Holminum
Ho2O3
8.410
*1.000
Holminum Oxide
In
7.300
0.841
Indium
In2O3
7.180
*1.000
Indiurn Sesquioxide,
In2Se3
5.700
*1.000
Indium Selenide
In2Te3
5.800
*1.000
Indium Telluride
InAs
5.700
*1.000
Indium Arsenide
InP
4.800
*1.000
Indium Phosphide
InSb
5.760
0.769
Indium Antimonide
Ir
22.400
0.129
Iridium
K
0.860
10.189
Potassium
KBr
2.750
1.893
Potassium Bromide
KCI
1.980
2.050
Potassium Chloride
KF
2.480
*1.000
Potassium Fluoride
KI
3.128
2.077
Potassium Iodide
La
6.170
0.920
Lanthanum
La2O3
6.510
*1.000
Lanthanum Oxide
LaB6
2.610
*1.000
Lanthanurn Boride
LaF3
5.940
*1.000
Lanthanum Fluoride
Li
0.530
5.900
Lithium
LiBr
3.470
1.230
Lithium Bromide
LiF
2.638
0.778
Lithium Fluoride
LiNbO3
4.700
0.463
Lithium Niobate
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
Lu
9.840
*1.000
Lutetium
Mg
1.740
1.610
Magnesium
MgAl2O4
3.600
*1.000
Magnesium Aluminate
MgAl2O6
8.000
*1.000
Spinel
MgF2
3.180
0.637
Magnesium Fluoride
MgO
3.580
0.411
Magnesium Oxide
MgO3Al2O3
8.000
*1.000
Spinel
Mn
7.200
0.377
Manganese
MnO
5.390
0.467
Manganese Oxide
MnS
3.990
0.940
Manganese (ll) Sulfide
Mo
10.200
0.257
Molybdenum
Mo2C
9.180
*1.000
Molybdenum Carbide
MoB2
7.120
*1.000
Molybdenum Boride
MoO3
4.700
*1.000
Molybdenum Trioxdide
MoS2
4.800
*1.000
Molybdenum Disulfide
Na
0.970
4.800
Sodium
Na3AIF6
2.900
*1.000
Cryolite
Na5Al3F14
2.900
*1.000
Chiolite
NaBr
3.200
*1.000
Sodium Bromide
NaCl
2.170
1.570
Sodium Chloride
NaCIO3
2.164
1.565
Sodium Chlorate
NaF
2.558
0.949
Sodium Fluoride
NaNO3
2.270
1.194
Sodium Nitrate
Nb
8.578
0.492
Niobium (Columbium)
Nb2O3
7.500
*1.000
Niobium Trioxide
Nb2O5
4.470
*1.000
Niobium (V) Oxide
NbB2
6.970
*1.000
Niobium Boride
NbC
7.820
*1.000
Niobium Carbide
NbN
8.400
*1.000
Niobiunn Nitride
Nd
7.000
*1.000
Neodynium
Nd2O3
7.240
*1.000
Neodynium Oxide
NdF3
6.506
*1.000
Neodynium Fluoride
Ni
8.910
0.331
Nickel
A-5
XTM/2 Operating Manual
A-6
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
NiCr
8.500
*1.000
Nichrome
NiCrFe
8.500
*1.000
Inconel
NiFe
8.700
*1.000
Permalloy
NiFeMo
8.900
*1.000
Supermalloy
NiO
7.450
*1.000
Nickel Oxide
P 3N 5
2.510
*1.000
Phosphorus Nitride
Pb
11.300
1.130
Lead
PbCl2
5.850
*1.000
Lead Chloride
PbF2
8.240
0.661
Lead Fluoride
PbO
9.530
*1.000
Lead Oxide
PbS
7.500
0.566
Lead Sulfide
PbSe
8.100
*1.000
Lead Selenide,
PbSnO3
8.100
*1.000
Lead Stannate
PbTe
8.160
0.651
Lead Telluride
PbTiO3
7.50
1.16
Lead Titanate
Pd
12.038
0.357
Palladium
PdO
8.310
*1.000
Palladium Oxide
Po
9.400
*1.000
Polonium
Pr
6.780
*1.000
Praseodymium
Pr2O3
6.880
*1.000
Praseodymium Oxide
Pt
21.400
0.245
Platinum
PtO2
10.200
*1.000
Platinum Oxide
Ra
5.000
*1.000
Radium
Rb
1.530
2.540
Rubidium
RbI
3.550
*1.000
Rubidiurn Iodide
Re
21.040
0.150
Rhenium
Rh
12.410
0.210
Rhodium
Ru
12.362
0.182
Ruthenium
S8
2.070
2.290
Sulphur
Sb
6.620
0.768
Antimony
Sb2O3
5.200
*1.000
Antimony Trioxide
Sb2S3
4.640
*1.000
Antimony Trisulfide
Sc
3.000
0.910
Scandiurn
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
Sc2O3
3.860
*1.000
Scandiurn Oxide
Se
4.810
0.864
Selenium
Si
2.320
0.712
Silicon
Si3N4
3.440
*1.000
Silicon Nitride
SiC
3.220
*1.000
Silicon Carbide
SiO
2.130
0.870
Silicon (II) Oxide
SiO2
2.648
1.000
Silicon Dioxide
Sm
7.540
0.890
Samarium
Sm2O3
7.430
*1.000
Samariurn Oxide
Sn
7.300
0.724
Tin
SnO2
6.950
*1.000
Tin Oxide
SnS
5.080
*1.000
Tin Sulfide
SnSe
6.180
*1.000
Tin Selenide
SnTe
6.440
*1.000
Tin Telluride
Sr
2.600
*1.000
Strontium
SrF2
4.277
0.727
Strontium Fluroide
SrTiO3
5.123
0.31
Strontium Titanate
SrO
4.990
0.517
Strontium Oxide
Ta
16.600
0.262
Tantalum
Ta2O5
8.200
0.300
Tantalum (V) Oxide
TaB2
11.150
*1.000
Tantalum Boride
TaC
13.900
*1.000
Tantalum Carbide
TaN
16.300
*1.000
Tantalum Nitride
Tb
8.270
0.660
Terbium
Tc
11.500
*1.000
Technetium
Te
6.250
0.900
Tellurium
TeO2
5.990
0.862
Tellurium Oxide
Th
11.694
0.484
Thorium
ThF4
6.320
*1.000
Thorium.(IV) Fluoride
ThO2
9.860
0.284
Thorium Dioxide
ThOF2
9.100
*1.000
Thorium Oxyfluoricle
Ti
4.500
0.628
Titanium
Ti2O3
4.600
*1.000
Titanium Sesquioxide
A-7
XTM/2 Operating Manual
A-8
Formula
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
TiB2
4.500
*1.000
Titanium Boride
TiC
4.930
*1.000
Titanium Carbide
TiN
5.430
*1.000
Titanium Nitride
TiO
4.900
*1.000
Titanium Oxide
TiO2
4.260
0.400
Titanium (IV) Oxide
TI
11.850
1.550
Thallium
TIBr
7.560
*1.000
Thallium Bromide
TICI
7.000
*1.000
Thallium Chloride
TII
7.090
*1.000
Thalliurn Iodide (B)
U
19.050
0.238
Uranium
U 3O 8
8.300
*1.000
Tri Uranium Octoxide
U 4O 9
10.969
0.348
Uranium Oxide
UO2
10.970
0.286
Uranium Dioxide
V
5.960
0.530
Vanadium
V 2O 5
3.360
*1.000
Vanadium Pentoxide
VB2
5.100
*1.000
Vanadium Boride
VC
5.770
*1.000
Vanadium Carbide
VN
6.130
*1.000
Vanadium Nitride
VO2
4.340
*1.000
Vanadium Dioxide
W
19.300
0.163
Tungsten
WB2
10.770
*1.000
Tungsten Boride
WC
15.600
0.151
Tungsten Carbide
WO3
7.160
*1.000
Tungsten Trioxide
WS2
7.500
*1.000
Tungsten Disulphicle
WSi2
9.400
*1.000
Tungsten Silicide
Y
4.340
0.835
Yttrium
Y 2O 3
5.010
*1.000
Yttrium Oxide
Yb
6.980
1.130
Ytterbium
Yb2O3
9.170
*1.000
Ytterbium Oxide
Zn
7.040
0.514
Zinc
Zn3Sb2
6.300
*1.000
Zinc Antimonide
ZnF2
4.950
*1.000
Zinc Fluoride
ZnO
5.610
0.556
Zinc Oxide
IPN 074-186S
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Table A-1 Material Table (continued)
Density
Z-ratio
Material Name
ZnS
4.090
0.775
Zinc Sulfide
ZnSe
5.260
0.722
Zinc Selenide
ZnTe
6.340
0.770
Zinc Telluride
Zr
6.490
0.600
Zirconium
ZrB2
6.080
*1.000
Zirconium Boride
ZrC
6.730
0.264
Zirconium Carbide
ZrN
7.090
*1.000
Zirconium Nitride
ZrO2
5.600
*1.000
Zirconium Oxide
10.000
*1.000
USER
IPN 074-186S
Formula
A-9
XTM/2 Operating Manual
IPN 074-186S
This page is intentionally blank.
A - 10
XTM/2 Operating Manual
Index
A
F
active oscillator 5-9, 5-12
anharmonic 5-6, 5-7, 5-11
application support 1-10
applications 2-22
AT
crystal 5-12
resonator 5-8
field service 1-10
fundamental 5-11, 5-12
B
bakeable sensor 3-6
Biological 2-22
biological measurement 2-25
IPN 074-186S
C
calibration 5-1, 5-3
chart recorder 3-15
command structure 3-18
compact sensor 3-6
computer communications 3-16
configuration switches 2-15
contamination
declaration of contamination 1-10
crystal
frequency spectrum 5-12
resonance point 5-12
crystal fail 4-4
crystal replacement 6-15
crystal snatcher 6-19
CrystalSix 3-10
CrystalSix sensor 3-6
G
grounding stud 2-17
grounding, electrical 3-2
L
LCD Contrast 6-1
liquid measurement 2-25
M
mass sensitivity 5-4
measurement theory 5-4
mode hopping 5-11
ModeLock 5-12
monitor crystals 5-6
Monitoring
Systems with a Source Shutter 2-23
Systems without a Source Shutter 2-22
multiple layer deposition 5-4
N
noise pickup 3-3
O
operation 1-8
oscillator 1-9, 5-12
oscillator circuit 5-11
D
P
density 5-1
calibration 5-1
value 5-1
deposition monitor 2-22
Dual sensor 3-6
parameter update errors 6-2
period measurement technique 5-8
process variable storage 1-7
programming 4-1
pulse accumulator 5-8
E
Q
earth ground 1-3, 3-2
electrode-to-quartz bond 5-7
electroplating 2-22
error messages 6-1
etching 2-22, 2-24
quality rate control 5-9
quartz crystal 5-4, 5-6
quasiharmonic 5-7
quick use guide 2-1
R
rate sampling 2-23
Index - 1
XTM/2 Operating Manual
rear panel 2-13
recorder output 1-6
reference oscillator 5-8
relays 3-14
Remote command 3-26
repair support 1-10
resonance 5-9
return material authorization 1-10
S
series resonance 5-12
source shutter 3-14
specifications 1-6
sputtering sensor 3-6
standard sensor 3-6
Status command 3-23
T
test mode 3-11
thickness shear mode 5-6
thickness twist mode 5-6
tooling 5-1, 5-2
U
unpacking 2-1
Update Command 3-23
V
voltage selection 2-3
X
Z
zero displayed thickness 2-9
Z-Match equation 5-9
Z-Match technique 5-9
Z-Ratio 5-1, 5-3, A-1
Index - 2
IPN 074-186S
XIU (Crystal Interface Unit) 1-9
Open as PDF
Similar pages