September 2008 Copyright page Copyright (c) 2008 Sybase, Inc

XML Modeling
Sybase® PowerDesigner®
15.0
Windows
Part number: DC20014-01-1500-01
Last modified: September 2008
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ii
Contents
About This Manual
v
1 Getting Started with XML Modeling
XML Modeling with PowerDesigner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an XSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing the XSM Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
2
5
13
2 Building XML Models
XML Diagram Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elements (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group Particles (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Any Elements (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM) . . . . . . .
Groups (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attribute Groups (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simple Types (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complex Types (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
Annotations (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notations (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entities (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instructions: Import, Include and Redefine (XSM) . . . . . . .
Business Rules (XSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
22
29
39
44
46
54
62
68
71
73
79
89
92
94
96
99
3 Working with an XML model
Generating Other Models from an XML Model
Checking an XML Model . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manipulating XML Objects Graphically . . . .
Comparing and Merging XML Models . . . .
XML Model Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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101
102
103
118
121
122
4 Generating and Reverse Engineering XML Schemas
123
Generating an XML Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Reverse engineering an XML Schema into an XSM . . . . . . 126
iii
5 Working with XML and Databases
Introducing XML in Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating an Annotated Schema for Microsoft SQL Server
2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating an Annotated Schema for Oracle 9i2 . . . . . . .
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
131
132
Index
153
iv
136
141
146
About This Manual
Subject
This book describes the PowerDesigner XML Model, including how to
create an XSM, build each of the available diagrams, and generate and
reverse engineer XML schemas.
Audience
This book assumes that you are an experienced Windows user with some
experience of XML.
Documentation primer
For information about the complete documentation set provided with
PowerDesigner, see the “Getting Started with PowerDesigner” chapter of the
Core Features Guide .
Typographic conventions
PowerDesigner documentation uses special typefaces to help you readily
identify specific items:
♦ monospace text (normal and bold)
Used for: Code samples, commands, compiled functions and files,
references to variables.
Example: declare user_defined..., the BeforeInsertTrigger
template.
♦ bold text
Used for: New terms.
Example: A shortcut has a target object.
♦
SMALL CAPS
Used for: Key names.
Example: Press the ENTER key.
Bibliography
W3C XML Recommendation – http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml
W3C DTD Recommendation – http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml#dt-doctype
v
W3C XML Schema Recommendation –
http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema#dev
W3C XML-Data Note –
http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/NOTE-XML-data-0105/
vi
CHAPTER 1
Getting Started with XML Modeling
About this chapter
Contents
This chapter presents the PowerDesigner XML Model, and describes how to
create your model.
Topic:
page
XML Modeling with PowerDesigner
2
Creating an XSM
5
Customizing the XSM Environment
13
1
XML Modeling with PowerDesigner
XML Modeling with PowerDesigner
An XML model (XSM) is a graphical representation of an XML Schema
Definition file (.XSD), a Document Type Definition file (.DTD) or an
XML-Data Reduced file (.XDR).
XML (or eXtensible Markup Language) is increasingly used to hold
application data because it:
♦ describes and structures data, whereas HTML only displays data
♦ uses a self-describing and personalized syntax
♦ can be exchanged between incompatible systems, since data is stored in
plain text format
Since XML structures can be very complex, it is much easier to visualize
them through comprehensive and explicit diagrams, than to read
XML-coded pages. With its Browser tree view and diagram, a
PowerDesigner XSM gives you a global and schematic view of all the
elements composing your XSD, DTD, or XDR:
Once you have created an XML diagram, you can generate an XSD, a DTD
or an XDR file from it for use in your application.
A PowerDesigner XSM allows you to:
♦ Build and check XML models
♦ Map objects in, and create reports of XML models
♦ Generate and reverse engineer XSD, DTD and XDR files
2
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
♦ Generate an XML model from a Physical Data Model (PDM), Object
Oriented Model (OOM), or another XSM
DTD, XSD or XDR
The structure of an XSM is described by a DTD, an XSD or an XDR file:
♦ A DTD file is a basic way to describe the structure of an XML document.
It is a raw list of all the legal elements making up an XML document. An
extract of a DTD file follows:
♦ An XSD file (or schema) is an elaborated way to describe the structure of
an XML document. It can support namespaces, derivations, keys, simple
and complex user-defined data types and a robust collection of predefined
data types. An extract of an XSD file follows:
3
XML Modeling with PowerDesigner
An XSD file always starts with the <schema> tag (root element). All
objects created in the model will appear in the XSD file between the
schema start-tag and end-tag
♦ An XDR file is a simplified XSD file (or schema). It does not support
simple and complex user-defined data types. An extract of an XDR file
follows:
An XDR file always starts with the <schema> tag (root element). All
objects created in the model will appear in the XDR file between the
schema start-tag and end-tag
4
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
Creating an XSM
You can create a new XSM from scratch, or reverse engineer the model from
an existing XSD, a DTD or an XDR file.
For information about reverse engineering, see the Generating and reverse
engineering an XSD, a DTD or an XDR file chapter.
v To create a new XSM
1. Select File ä New to display the New dialog box.
2. Select XML Model in the list of model types.
3. Select one of the following radio buttons:
♦ New model – Creates a new, standard, model.
♦ New model from template – Creates a model from a model template. A
model template is a set of model options, display preferences,
extension, or objects saved in a model located in the template folder.
You use model templates when you need to reuse preferences and
options in several models.
+ For more information about model templates, see the “Model
templates” section in the Models chapter of the Core Features Guide .
4. Type a model name in the Model name box. The code of the model,
which may be used for script or code generation, is derived from this
name according to the model naming conventions.
5. Select an XML language from the list.
XML languages are defined in dedicated XML files (with a .xsl
extension), which are provided as part of your PowerDesigner installation
5
Creating an XSM
in the “\Resource Files\XML languages” directory, and contain all the
syntax and specifications for each target XML language.
6. Select one of the following radio buttons:
♦ Share the XML language definition – use the original XSM file in the
“Resource Files\XML languages” directory. Any changes made to the
XML language are shared by all linked XSMs.
♦ Copy the XML language definition in model – make a copy of the
original XML language file in the “Resource Files\XML languages”
directory. The current XML language is independent of the original
XML language, so modifications made to the file in the XML
languages directory are not available to the XSM. The copied object
language is saved with the XSM and cannot be used without it.
+ For more information on XML language properties and
customizing an XML language, see “Resource File Reference” and
“Working with the Resource Editor” in the Resource Files and the
Public Metamodel chapter of the Customizing and Extending
PowerDesigner manual.
7. [optional] If you want to attach one or more extended model definitions
to complement the selected XML language, click the Extended Model
Definitions tab, and select the extended model definitions of your choice.
+ For more information on attaching extended model definition to a
model, see “Extended Model Definitions” in the Resource Files and the
Public Metamodel chapter of the Customizing and Extending
PowerDesigner manual.
8. Click OK to create the new XSM in the current Workspace.
Demo example
Several example XSMs are available in the Examples directory.
XML model properties
The Model property sheet displays the definition of the current model. From
this property sheet you can modify the model definition.
The General tab contains the following properties:
6
Property
Description
Name
The name of the item which should be clear and meaningful,
and should convey the item’s purpose to non-technical users
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
Property
Description
Code
The technical name of the item used for generating code or
scripts, which may be abbreviated, and should not generally
include spaces
Comment
Descriptive label of the model
File name
Location of the model file. This box is empty if the model has
never been saved
Author
Author of the model. You can insert a name, a space or nothing.
If you insert a space, the Author field in the title box remains
empty. If you intentionally leave the box empty, the Author
field in the title box displays the user name from the Version
Info tab of the model property sheet
Version
Version of the model. You can use this box to display the
repository version or a user-defined version of the model. This
parameter is defined in the display preferences of the Title node
XML language
Current XML language for the model
Default
diagram
Diagram displayed by default when opening the model
XML model property sheet Detail tab
The Detail tab is only available in a model of an XSD. It contains the
following properties:
7
Creating an XSM
Property
Description
Target
Namespace
Namespace of all the model objects. Its name is a URI which
does not refer to any file but only to an assigned name. A
prefix can be assigned to the namespace. All the schema
elements with this prefix in their start-tag will be associated
with the namespace. For example: http://www.mycompany.com/myproduct/XMLmodel
Language
Indicator of the language used in the model. For example: en,
en-GB, en-US, de, fr
ID
ID of the model. Its value must be of type ID and unique within
the file containing the model. For example: XMOD1
Element
Form
Form of the elements declared in the target namespace. If
you select Qualified, elements must be qualified with the
namespace prefix. If you select Unqualified, elements are not
required to be qualified with the namespace prefix. The value
of Element Form is the global default value for all the elements
declared in the target namespace. To override this setting,
individual elements can use the Form attribute
Attribute
Form
Form of the attributes declared in the target namespace. If
you select Qualified, attributes must be qualified with the
namespace prefix. If you select Unqualified, attributes are
not required to be qualified with the namespace prefix. The
value of Attribute Form is the global default value for all the
attributes declared in the target namespace. To override this
setting, individual attributes can use the Form attribute
Block
Default value for the Block property of elements and complex
types in the target namespace. The Block property prevents an
element or a complex type with a specified type of derivation
from being used in place of the inherited element or complex
type
Final
Default value for the Final property of elements, simple types
and complex types in the target namespace. The Final property
prevents the specified type of derivation for an element, a
simple type or a complex type
+ For more information on elements, attributes, simple and complex types,
see chapter Building an XML model.
8
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
XML model property sheet Items tab
The Items tab lists the model’s global objects (which have no parent symbol
in the diagram, and are directly linked to the <schema> tag).
The following tools are available on this tab:
Tool
Description
Add Element - Adds an element to the model
Add Group - Adds a group of elements to the model
Add Attribute - Adds an attribute to the model
Add Attribute Group - Adds a group of attributes to the model
Add Simple Type [XSD only]- Adds a simple type to the model.
Add Complex Type [XSD only]- Adds a complex type to the model.
Add Notation - Adds a notation to the model, to describe the format
of non-XML data
Add Annotation [XSD only]- Adds an annotation to the model, to
provide documentation or application information.
The list reflects the order in which global objects are declared in the schema.
You can change the order of declaration by selecting an item in the list and
using the arrowed buttons, at the bottom-left corner of the tab, to move it in
the list
+ For more information on these items, see chapter Building an XML
model.
XML model property sheet External Schemas tab
The External Schemas tab is only available in a model of an XSD.
This tab allows you to link to and reuse in your model global objects from
9
Creating an XSM
other schemas. The following tools are available on this tab:
Tool
Description
Add Include - Adds a specified schema file to be included in the
target namespace of the current schema.
Add Import - Adds a specified namespace whose schema components
are referenced by the current schema.
Add Redefine - Adds a specified schema file whose simple and
complex types, groups and attribute groups can be redefined in the
current schema.
Add Annotation - Adds an annotation to the model to provide
documentation or application information.
+ For more information on these items, see chapter Building an XML
model.
XML model property sheet Namespaces tab
A namespace is a URI indicating a location where objects are declared. The
prefix of a namespace, followed by a colon (:) and the name of an object,
indicates that this object is declared in that namespace. Namespaces are not
supported by DTDs.
The following tools are available on this tab:
Tool
Description
Add Namespaces from XML Models - Adds a namespace from
another XSM as a source namespace for the current model.
Add Namespaces from XML schema files - Adds a namespace from
an external schema file as a source namespace for the current model.
♦ In the case of a model targeted with XSD, the namespace of the W3C
XML Schema Recommendation is predefined in the list of namespaces.
10
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
♦ In the case of a model targeted with XDR, two namespaces are
predefined in the list of namespaces.
11
Creating an XSM
XML model property sheet Preview tab
The Preview tab of the model property sheet displays a preview of the XSD,
DTD or XDR file generated from the XML model. For example:
The schema file starts with the XML declaration followed by the <schema>
(root element) declaration.
All objects created in the model will appear in the schema file between the
schema start and end tags.
12
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
Customizing the XSM Environment
The XML model environment includes a set of parameters and configuration
options that define various aspects of the model content and behavior. You
can set these parameters:
♦ At model creation
♦ After creating a model with default options and parameters
♦ When creating a model template
Working with XML languages
An XML language contains specifications for a particular language. It
provides PowerDesigner with the syntax and guidelines for implementing
stereotypes, data types, scripts and constants for an XML language. You
manage an XML language from the Resource Editor. The language displays
a tree view with several categories that can be used to extend XML model
objects (Profile category) or manage generation (Generation category).
Each XML model is by default attached to an XML language. When you
create a new XML model, you must choose an XML language. You can
create a new XML language or use the XML languages delivered with
PowerDesigner.
The definition of an XML language is available from its property sheet. You
can select and configure parameters used when defining objects or
generating from an XML model.
+ For more information on resource files, “Resource File Reference” in
the Resource Files and the Public Metamodel chapter of the Customizing
and Extending PowerDesigner manual.
Not certified resource file
Some resource files are delivered with “Not Certified” in their names.
Sybase will perform all possible validation checks, however Sybase does
not maintain specific environments to fully certify these resource files.
Sybase will support the definition by accepting bug reports and will
provide fixes as per standard policy, with the exception that there will be
no final environmental validation of the fix. Users are invited to assist
Sybase by testing fixes of the definition provided by Sybase and report any
continuing inconsistencies.
13
Customizing the XSM Environment
v To change the XML language of an XML model
1. Select Language ä Change Current Language to open the Change XML
Language dialog box.
2. Select the XML language you want to model.
3. Select one of the following radio buttons:
♦ Share the XML language – use the original XSM file in the “Resource
Files\XML languages” directory. Any changes made to the XML
language are shared by all linked XSMs.
♦ Copy the XML language definition in model – make a copy of the
original XML language file in the “Resource Files\XML languages”
directory. The copied object language is saved with the XSM and
cannot be used without it.
4. Click OK to change the XML language of the model.
Changes concerning simple and complex types
Simple types and complex types are only supported by XSDs (schemas).
When changing an XSD into a DTD or an XDR, simple types and global
complex types (directly linked to the <schema> tag) disappear from the
diagram and the Browser tree view. Local complex types (within an
element) are expanded in the diagram, beneath their containing element.
♦ Example of a complex type with XSD:
14
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
HighDefinition is a global complex type, reused as data type for the
deluxeTV element.
♦ The same example with DTD or XDR:
+ For more information on simple and complex types, see sections
Defining simple types and Defining complex types in chapter Building an
XML model.
Setting XSM model options
This section explains how to set global options for the objects in your XSM.
These options apply only to the current XSM.
For information about controlling the naming conventions of your models,
see “Naming Conventions” section in the Models chapter of the Core
Features Guide .
Setting Model Settings
To set Model Settings, select Tools ä Model Options or right-click the
diagram background and select Model Options from the contextual menu.
15
Customizing the XSM Environment
The options on this tab affect all the objects in the model, including those
already created, while changes to the object-specific options on the
sub-category tabs only affect objects created subsequently.
You can set the following options on this tab:
16
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
Option
Description
Name/Code
case sensitive
You can define the case sensitivity of names and codes for all
objects in the current model. When this check box is selected,
it implies that you can have two objects with identical name
or code but different case in the same namespace.
Unlike other model options, you can modify the name and
code case sensitivity during the design process. However,
if you do so, make sure you run the check model feature to
verify if the model does not contain any duplicate object.
Enable links
to requirements
Requirements are descriptions of customer needs that must
be satisfied during development processes.
You can enable links to requirements for all objects in
the current model. When this check box is selected, it
implies that the Requirements tab is displayed in the objects
property sheet. The Requirements tab allows you to attach
requirements to objects; these requirements are defined in
the Requirements models open in the workspace. Attached
requirements and Requirements models are synchronized.
For more information on requirements, see the Requirements
Modeling guide.
Setting XSM Display Preferences
PowerDesigner display preferences allow you to customize the format of
object symbols, and the information that is displayed on them.
To set XSM display preferences, select Tools ä Display Preferences or
right-click the diagram background and select Display Preferences from the
contextual menu.
For information about changing the format of symbols, see “Format display
preferences” in the Customizing your Modeling Environment chapter of the
Core Features Guide . The following sections list the options available to
customize the information displayed on XSM object symbols. Note that the
objects available to be customized in the Display Preferences window are
dependant upon the current diagram type.
Element display preferences
To set display preferences for elements, select Tools ä Display Preferences,
and select the Element sub-category in the left-hand Category pane.
17
Customizing the XSM Environment
Preference
Description
Attributes
Displays attributes and attribute values of the element
Display limit
Maximum number of attributes displayed
Stereotype
Displays the stereotype of the element
Type
Displays the data type of the element
Comment
Displays the comment of the element
Show XPath
An XPath expression indicates the relationship between
an element and the root element (<schema> tag). Select
Never, if you do not want the elements XPath expressions to
be displayed. Select Always, if you want all the elements to
have their XPath expression displayed. Select Root symbol,
if you only want the root symbols (global elements in the
main diagram or parent elements in partial diagrams) to have
their XPath expression displayed
Element Attributes
Select Type, if you want the attributes data types to be
displayed
Complex type display preferences
To set display preferences for complex types, select Tools ä Display
Preferences, and select the Complex Type sub-category in the left-hand
Category pane.
Preference
Description
Attributes
Displays attributes and attribute values of the complex type
Display limit
Maximum number of attributes displayed
Stereotype
Displays the stereotype of the complex type
Type
Displays the data type of the complex type
Comment
Displays the comment of the complex type
Complex Type
Attributes
Select Type, if you want the complex type attributes data
types to be displayed
Group, simple type, and any display preferences
To set display preferences for groups, simple types, and anys, select Tools ä
Display Preferences, and select the appropriate sub-category in the left-hand
Category pane.
18
Chapter 1. Getting Started with XML Modeling
Preference
Description
Stereotype
Displays the stereotype of the group
Comment
[groups only] Displays the comment of the group
Working with XSM extended model definitions
An extended model definition allows you to expand object definitions and
complement the generation targets and commands. Extended model
definitions are created and saved in files with the XEM extension. You can
create or attach one or several extended model definitions to a model.
When you create a new XML model, or when you reverse engineer into a
new XML model, you can select one or several extended model definitions
and attach them to the model from the New dialog box.
+ For more information on extended model definitions, see “Extended
Model Definitions” in the Resource Files and the Public Metamodel chapter
of the Customizing and Extending PowerDesigner manual.
Working with XSM extended dependencies
Extended dependencies are links between objects of an XML model. These
links help to make object relationships clearer but are not interpreted and
checked by PowerDesigner as they are meant to be used for documentation
purposes only.
You can complement these links by applying stereotypes. Stereotypes can be
used to define extended dependencies between objects in an XML model.
19
Customizing the XSM Environment
You can type stereotypes directly in the Stereotype column of the object
property sheet or select a value from the list if you have previously defined
stereotypes in an embedded or imported extended model definition (.XEM).
+ For more information on extended model definitions, see “Extended
Model Definitions” in the Resource Files and the Public Metamodel chapter
of the Customizing and Extending PowerDesigner manual.
20
CHAPTER 2
Building XML Models
About this chapter
Contents
This chapter describes how to build an XML model (XSM). It explains the
role of each object in an XML model and how to create and modify them.
Topic:
page
XML Diagram Basics
22
Elements (XSM)
29
Group Particles (XSM)
39
Any Elements (XSM)
44
Attributes (XSM)
46
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)
54
Groups (XSM)
62
Attribute Groups (XSM)
68
Simple Types (XSM)
71
Complex Types (XSM)
73
Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
79
Annotations (XSM)
89
Notations (XSM)
92
Entities (XSM)
94
Instructions: Import, Include and Redefine (XSM)
96
Business Rules (XSM)
99
21
XML Diagram Basics
XML Diagram Basics
An XML diagram is the easiest way to define the structure and content of an
XML document if you are not familiar with the syntax of XML Schema
Definition (XSD), Document Type Definition (DTD) or XML-Data Reduced
(XDR).
With the user-friendly graphical interface of PowerDesigner XML Model,
you can build an XML diagram and then generate automatically an XSD, a
DTD or an XDR file.
The following example shows the diagram of an XSM which models an
XML schema for Resume documents:
If an XML model is too large or too complex, you can create several
diagrams to have partial views of the model and focus on certain objects.
For example, the original Resume diagram could be split into five diagrams,
corresponding to the five main objects of the model (Main, Contact,
Achievement, Description and Address). The Achievement sub-diagram
follows:
22
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
XML diagram objects
An XML model represents the structure of a potential or existing XSD,
DTD, or XDR through a tree structure of child elements attached to parent
elements.
Elements are the basic describing items of an XML model. They can be
made of other elements combined in different ways through group particles.
Elements are specified by attributes and data types, which can be predefined
or user-defined. Simple and complex data types can be defined as global
(directly linked to the <schema> tag) or local (embedded in an element
declaration).
You can create the following objects in an XML diagram:
Object
Tool
Symbol
Description
Element
The basic object of an XML model. An
element can contain other elements or
attributes. See “Elements (XSM)” on
page 29.
Any
Any type of object. Can only be attached
to a sequence or a choice group particle.
See “Any Elements (XSM)” on page 44.
Attribute
N/A
N/A
Additional information about an element
or a complex type. Defined by a builtin data type or a simple data type. See
“Attributes (XSM)” on page 46.
23
XML Diagram Basics
Object
Tool
Symbol
Group
24
Description
A group of elements arranged by a group
particle. Defined once and reused through
references. See “Groups (XSM)” on
page 62.
Attribute
Group
N/A
N/A
A group of attributes, defined once
and reused in the model through references. See “Attribute Groups (XSM)” on
page 68.
Simple
Type
N/A
N/A
[XSD only] Used in the case of elements
or attributes with text-only content. See
“Simple Types (XSM)” on page 71.
Complex
Type
[XSD only] Used to introduce elements or
attributes within an element declaration.
See “Complex Types (XSM)” on page 73.
Sequence
This group particle arranges a set of
elements, where all the elements must
appear at least once in the order of their
declaration. See “Group Particles (XSM)”
on page 39.
Choice
This group particle arranges a set of
elements, from which one element must
be chosen. See “Group Particles (XSM)”
on page 39.
All
This group particle arranges a set of
elements, where each element can appear
or not, in any order. See “Group Particles
(XSM)” on page 39.
Instruction
N/A
N/A
An import, include, or redefine instruction. See “Instructions: Import, Include
and Redefine (XSM)” on page 96
Derivation
N/A
N/A
Extends or restricts the values of elements
and simple and complex types. See
“Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions,
Lists and Unions (XSM)” on page 79
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Object
Tool
Symbol
Description
Constraint
N/A
N/A
[XSD only] Specifies uniqueness of element values. See “Constraints: Keys,
Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)” on
page 54
Annotation
N/A
N/A
Provides documentation or application
information. See “Annotations (XSM)”
on page 89
Entity
Notation
[DTD only] Specifies a predefined value
or external XML or non-XML file. See
“Entities (XSM)” on page 94.
N/A
N/A
Defines and processes non-XML objects
within an XML model. See “Notations
(XSM)” on page 92
Linking objects in an XML model
XML objects do not support standard link objects. To link a child object to a
parent object, you must click the child object tool in the palette and then
click the symbol of the parent object in the diagram. This will automatically
create a link between both objects. See the following table for allowed links:
25
XML Diagram Basics
Tool
Element symbol
Group symbol
Complex type symbol
No link
No link
No link
Sequence symbol
Choice symbol
All symbol
Any
All
Tool
No link
Any
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
All
26
No link
No link
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Caution
A group particle (sequence, choice, all) cannot be created from scratch in a
diagram. It must be the child element of an element, a group or a complex
type.
+ For more information, see sections How to link a child object to an
element, How to link a child object to a group particle, How to link a child
object to a group of elements, How to link a child object to a complex type,
in chapter Building an XML model.
Creating an XML diagram
You can create an XML diagram in an existing XSM in any of the following
ways:
♦ Right-click the model in the Browser and select New ä XML Model
Diagram from the contextual menu
♦ Right-click the background of any diagram and select Diagram ä New
Diagram ä New Diagram from the contextual menu.
To create a new XSM with an XML diagram, select File ä New, choose
XML Model from the Model type list, and click OK.
Group Symbols feature
The Symbol ä Group Symbols feature is only available for free symbols in
an XML diagram.
Expand/Expand All/Collapse/Arrange Symbols features
Right-click a symbol in an XML diagram and select one of these features
in the contextual menu: Expand: the hierarchy below a symbol is partially
expanded (only the first level). Expand All: the hierarchy below a symbol
is fully expanded (all levels). Collapse: the hierarchy below a symbol
is hidden. Arrange Symbols: the hierarchy below a symbol is properly
displayed.
External Shortcuts (through references and data types)
External shortcuts allow you to share objects between different models. You
can define external shortcuts in an XML model, but you cannot use them
directly in the model, except as substitution groups for elements (see Detail
tab in element property sheet).
You can define external shortcuts for any global object (with no parent object
in the diagram), except for imports, includes, redefines and annotations.
27
XML Diagram Basics
Internal shortcuts allow you to share objects between packages of a same
model. You cannot define internal shortcuts since an XML model does not
support packages.
External shortcuts are automatically generated in the following situations:
References
When you use the Reference property to define an element, an attribute, a
group or an attribute group, by reference to a similar object in another model
opened in the workspace, a shortcut is created between the referencing
object and the target object.
The shortcut is displayed in the current model with a specific item in the
Browser tree view and the “(Shortcut)” expression in the reference symbol
and item. The target object keeps track of the referencing object in the
Reference tab of the Dependencies tab of its property sheet.
Data types
When you define the data type of an element by selecting a simple or a
complex type from another model (using the Browse tool beside the Type
list), a shortcut is created between the current element type and the target
data type.
The shortcut is displayed in the current model with a specific item in the
Browser tree view.
Example of shortcuts through a reference and a data type:
28
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Elements (XSM)
Elements are the basic building blocks of an XML model.
An XML model is a tree structure of elements where child elements are
attached to parent elements. For example:
Generated schema:
29
Elements (XSM)
In a schema, elements are declared with <element> tags.
There are two broad kinds of elements:
♦ Global elements - have no parent element in a diagram, and are directly
linked to the <schema> tag (root element) in a schema. They can be
reused in the model through referencing elements (See
“XML_declaration” in the “Elements (XSM)” on page 29 example)
♦ Local elements - have a parent element in a diagram, and are unique
within their parent scope. They can be defined by reference to a global
element (see the Reference property in “Element properties” on page 31).
30
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Global and local elements in XDR files
In a model targeted with the XML-Data Reduced language, local elements
are first declared separately, like global elements (with the <ElementType>
tag and a name attribute), then within their parent element (with the
<element> tag and a type attribute).
Extract of an XDR file:
Parent elements are linked to their child elements through group particles
(sequence, choice or all), which contain a group of child elements (see the
Group type property in “Element properties” on page 31).
You can derive an XSD element data type to extend or restrict its values (see
the Derivation property in “Element properties” on page 31).
Creating an element
You can create an element in any of the following ways:
♦ Use the Element tool in the diagram Palette.
♦ Select Model ä Elements to access the List of Elements, and click the
Add a Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Element.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Element properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open an
element property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser entry
in the Elements folder. The following sections detail the property sheet tabs
that contain the properties most commonly entered for elements.
The General tab of an XSD or DTD element property sheet displays the
following properties (for XDR element properties, see the subsequent table):
Property
Description
Name
The name of the item which should be clear and meaningful,
and should convey the item’s purpose to non-technical users
31
Elements (XSM)
Property
Description
Code
The technical name of the item used for generating code or
scripts, which may be abbreviated, and should not generally
include spaces
Comment
Descriptive label of the element
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Reference
Name of a global element. The current element will have the
same properties as the global element. The Reference property
is only available for child elements. Use the list to select a
global element in the current model, or the Browse tool to
select a global element from any open model. If you select a
global element from another model, a shortcut is created with
the referencing element. When you define a reference, name
and code properties are grayed. Name and code are those of the
global element.
Once you have referenced an element, you can locate it in the
diagram by right-clicking the referencing element symbol and
selecting Find Referenced Element in the contextual menu. The
referenced element is displayed with handles in the diagram.
Group type
Specifies that the element has child elements, and how they are
used. You can choose between:
♦ all – All children may be present. See “Group Particles
(XSM)” on page 39
♦ choice – Only one child must be present. See “Group Particles (XSM)” on page 39
♦ group – Reference to a predefined group. See “Groups
(XSM)” on page 62
♦ sequence – All children must be present in order. See
“Group Particles (XSM)” on page 39
Type
32
Element data type. Use the list to select a built-in data type.
Use the Browse tool to select a simple or a complex type from
any model opened in the current workspace. In the case of an
XSD, selecting a data type will delete any group particle (and
its child elements) or attribute previously defined in the element
property sheet. Do not select a data type if you want to define
attributes or child elements within the current element
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Defining elements in
XDR files
Property
Description
Embedded
type
[XSD only] Locally defined data type. It applies to the current
element only. Automatically set to Complex if you define a
derivation for the element data type.
Content
[XSD only] Content type of the element. If you select Complex, the element can have child elements. If you select Simple,
the element cannot have child elements.
Derivation
[XSD only] Derivation method for the element data type. Used
to extend or restrict the values of the element data type. When
you define a derivation, the data type disappears. You must
click Apply and then the Properties tool to select a base type
in the derivation property sheet. See “Derivations: Extensions,
Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)” on page 79.
In a model targeted with the XML-Data Reduced language, elements are
defined by different attributes:
XDR element
attribute
Description
Model
Specifies if an element can contain new local elements.
Possible values are:
♦ closed – [default]
♦ open - if an “Any” element is attached to the element.
See “Any Elements (XSM)” on page 44
Tab: N/A
Content
Specifies the content type. Possible values are:
♦ mixed - a group particle and a data type are defined
♦ eltOnly - a group particle is defined without a data type
♦ textOnly - a data type is defined without a group particle
♦ empty – neither group particle nor data type are defined
Tab: General
Field: Group type, Type
33
Elements (XSM)
XDR element
attribute
Description
Order
Specifies how child elements are organized within a parent
element. Possible values are:
♦ seq - sequence group particle
♦ one - choice group particle
♦ many - all group particle
Tab: General
Field: Group type
dt:type
Specifies a data type.
Tab: General
Field: Type
dt:values
Specifies a list of possible element values.
Tab: Values
type
[local elements only] Specifies the name of a global element
as reference for the local element
Tab: General
Field: Reference
minOccurs
[local elements only] To specify the minimum number of
occurrences for a local element. Usually set to 0 or 1
Tab: Detail
Field: Minimum
maxOccurs
[local elements only] To specify the maximum number
of occurrences for a local element. Usually set to 1 or *
(unbounded)
Tab: General
Field: Maximum
Example of an XDR file:
Element property sheet Detail tab
The Detail tab contains the following properties:
34
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
Minimum
Minimum number of times the element can occur. To specify
that the element is optional, set this attribute to zero
Maximum
Maximum number of times the element can occur. For an
unlimited number of times, select unbounded
Substitution
group
Name of a global element for which the current element can
be substituted. It must have the same type or a derived type.
Its value must be a qualified name (See Glossary)
Default
Default value of the element if its content is a simple type or
text-only. Enter a default value only if there is no fixed value
Fixed
Predetermined, unchangeable value of the element if its
content is a simple type or text-only. Enter a fixed value only
if there is no default value
Block
Property to prevent another element with the same type of
derivation from being used in place of the current element
Final
Property to prevent derivation of the current element. Prohibited if the element is not a global element
Form
Form of the element. Used to specify the target namespace
of the element. If you select Qualified, a namespace prefix is
required to qualify the element. If you select Unqualified, a
namespace prefix is not required to qualify the element
ID
ID of the element. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the element
Abstract
Property defining if the element can appear in the instance
document or not. If selected, the element cannot appear in the
instance document
Nillable
Property defining if the element is null or not
In the case of a model targeted with XDR, the Detail tab is only available for
local elements.
Element property sheet Attributes tab
Attributes (see “Attributes (XSM)” on page 46) give additional information
about an element. The Attributes tab lists the attributes and attribute groups
associated with the element.
For information about the tools available on this tab for adding attributes, see
35
Elements (XSM)
“Creating an attribute” on page 47.
Element property sheet Constraints tab
Constraints (see “Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)” on
page 54) allow you to indicate that element values must be unique within
their specified scope. The Constraints tab lists the constraints associated
with the element.
For information about the tools available on this tab for adding constraints,
see “Creating a constraint” on page 56.
Element property sheet Mapping tab
Object mapping is the ability to establish a correspondence between objects
belonging to heterogeneous models and diagrams.
The Mapping tab of an element property sheet allows you to map the current
element and its attributes to PDM or OOM objects.
Select a data source in the Mapping for list. If it is the first time you define a
mapping for an element, the Mapping for list is empty. Click the Add a
Mapping for a Data Source tool and select a data source.
Element Sources tab
The Element Sources tab allows you to associate one or several PDM or
OOM objects to the current element.
You can use the Add Objects tool to select objects from the PDMs or OOMs
opened in the current workspace.
Attributes Mapping tab
The Attributes Mapping tab allows you to define the mapping between PDM
columns or OOM class attributes and the element attributes.
Tool
Description
Add Mapping - Use this tool to select the attributes in the current
element that will be mapped to PDM columns or OOM class
attributes. Once you have selected the attributes, you can use the list
in the Mapped to column to select corresponding PDM columns or
OOM class attributes
Create from Sources - Use this tool to copy PDM columns or OOM
class attributes in the data source to the current element attributes
Generate Mapping - Use this tool to automatically generate a
mapping between PDM columns or OOM class attributes and
element attributes with the same name or code in the data source and
the current model
36
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
+ For more information on element mapping, see section Mapping objects
in an XML model in chapter Working with an XML model.
Link child objects to elements
XML objects do not support standard PowerDesigner link objects. To link a
child object to an element, you must click the child object tool in the palette
and then click the element symbol in the diagram. This will automatically
create a link between both objects. See the following table for allowed links:
Tool
Action
If you click a parent element symbol with the Element tool,
a sequence group particle and a child element symbol are
created. You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click the upper part of a child element
symbol with the Element tool, a brother element symbol is displayed above the child element
symbol
If you click the middle part of a child element symbol with the Element tool, a sequence group particle and a grand child element symbol are created. You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click the lower part of a child element
symbol with the Element tool, a brother element symbol is displayed below the child element
symbol
If you click an element symbol with the Any tool, a
sequence group particle and an any symbol are created. You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click an element symbol with the Group tool, a referencing group is created. You must now select a group for the
reference
37
Elements (XSM)
Tool
Action
If you click an element symbol with the Complex Type tool, a
complex type symbol is displayed superposed, but not linked, to
the element symbol. A global complex type cannot be the child of
an element
If you click an element symbol with the Sequence tool,
a sequence group particle is displayed linked to the element
symbol
If you click an element symbol with the Choice tool, a
choice group particle is displayed linked to the element
symbol
If you click an element symbol with the All tool, an
all group particle is displayed linked to the element
symbol
Pointer indications
When you cannot click a symbol or an empty space in a diagram, the
Pointer displays a forbidden sign (See complex type in Tool column).
When there is a possibility to create a symbol above, below or next to
another one, the Pointer displays an arrow indicating the corresponding
direction (See elements in Tool column).
38
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Group Particles (XSM)
An element composed of other elements is a parent element with child
elements.
Child elements are linked to their parent element through a group particle.
There are three kinds of group particles:
Tool
Symbol
Description
Sequence - Child elements must appear at least once in
the order of their declaration
Choice - Only one child element can be linked to the
parent element
All - Child elements can appear in any order and each of
them once or not at all
These particles translate to the following tags in each of the supported
languages:
Group Particle
XSD
Sequence
XDR (order attribute)
DTD (separator)
seq
, (comma)
<sequence>
Choice
<choice>
one
| (bar)
All
<all>
many
, (comma)
Creating a group particle
You can create a group particle in any of the following ways:
♦ Use the Sequence, Choice, or All tool in the diagram Palette.
♦ Open the property sheet of an element, group, or complex type, and select
a group particle from the Group type list.
39
Group Particles (XSM)
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
v To create a group particle from the palette
1. Select a group particle tool (Sequence, Choice, or All) in the palette, and
then click the element symbol in the diagram.
A group particle is created and its symbol is displayed in the diagram,
linked to the element symbol.
2. Select the Element tool in the palette, and then click the group particle
symbol to add an element item. Click the symbol again to add additional
elements.
The child elements appear one by one in the diagram, linked to the group
particle symbol.
3. Right-click in order to recover the Pointer.
Clicking an element symbol with the Element tool
When you click an element symbol with the Element tool, a sequence
symbol (by default) is displayed in the diagram between the parent element
and the child element. To add other child elements, click the sequence
symbol with the Element tool. To change the group particle, double-click
the sequence symbol to display its property sheet, then select another group
particle in the Type list and click OK.
v To create a group particle from the property sheet of an element
1. Open the property sheet of the element, select a group particle from the
Group type list, and then click OK.
The element is displayed selected, with an Expand tab (+) on its right
side:
40
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
2. Click an empty space in the diagram to deselect the element, and then
click the Expand tab (+) to reveal the group particle symbol (in this case,
a sequence):
Note that you can click the Collapse tab (-), on the link in order to hide
the group particle.
3. Double-click the group particle to open its property sheet, and then click
the Items tab.
4. Click the Add Element tool for each child element you want to create in
the list.
5. Click OK to return to the diagram.
The group particle is displayed selected, with an Expand tab on its right
side.
6. Click an empty space in the diagram, to deselect the group particle
symbol, and then click the Expand tab to reveal the child element
symbols.
Name and code uniqueness
Child elements are defined within the namespace of their parent element.
Therefore, there cannot be a conflict between a parent and a child name.
+ For more information on the namespace concept, see “Controlling the
namespace of a package”, in the Models chapter of the Core Features Guide .
Group particle properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open a
group particle property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its
Browser entry beneath its parent object. The following sections detail the
property sheet tabs that contain the properties most commonly entered for
group particles.
The General tab contains the following properties:
41
Group Particles (XSM)
Property
Description
Type
Type of the group particle. You can change its type by selecting
a value in the list and clicking OK
Minimum
Minimum number of times the group particle can occur. To
specify that the group particle is optional, set this property to
zero
Maximum
Maximum number of times the group particle can occur. For an
unlimited number of times, select unbounded
ID
ID of the group particle. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the group particle
Group particle property sheet Items tab
The Items tab list the child elements associated with the group particle. You
can add additional children directly on this tab using the following tools:
Tool
Description
Add Element - Adds an element to the list
Add Any - Adds an Any to the list. Only available with a choice or
a sequence group particle
Add Group Particle - Adds a group particle to the list
Add Reference to Element - Adds a referencing element to the list.
Select a global element for the reference in the Selection dialog box.
To use this tool, you must have previously defined a global element
in the current model
Add Reference to Group - Adds a referencing group to the list.
Select a group for the reference in the Selection dialog box. To use
this tool, you must have previously defined a group in the current
model
Adding a child object to a group particle
XML objects do not support standard link objects. To link a child object to a
group particle, you must click the child object tool in the palette and then
click the group particle symbol in the diagram. This will automatically
create a link between both objects. See the following table for allowed links:
42
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Caution
A group particle cannot be created from scratch in a diagram. It must be
the child element of an element, a group or a complex type.
Tool
Sequence symbol
Choice symbol
All symbol
No link
Any
No link
A referencing group
is created. You must
now select a group
for the reference
A referencing group
is created. You must
now select a group
for the reference
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
No link
All
Pointer indications
When you cannot click a symbol or an empty space in a diagram, the
Pointer displays a forbidden sign (See complex type in Tool column).
When there is a possibility to create a symbol above, below or next to
another one, the Pointer displays an arrow indicating the corresponding
direction (See element in Tool column).
43
Any Elements (XSM)
Any Elements (XSM)
Any elements allow you to attach any type of object to a choice or a
sequence group particle.
For example:
♦ In an XSD file, Any is declared with the <any> tag:
♦ In a DTD file, Any is declared within an <!ELEMENT> tag with the
keyword “ANY”:
♦ In an XDR file, Any is declared through of an <ElementType> tag
(resources in the example) with its model attribute set to “open”.
Although it is displayed in a diagram, Any is not considered as an object
in an XDR file:
Creating an any element
You can create an any element in any of the following ways:
♦ Use the Any tool in the diagram Palette.
♦ Open the Items tab in the property sheet of a group particle, and click the
Add Any tool.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
44
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Any element properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open an
any element property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser
entry beneath its parent object.
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Minimum
Minimum number of times the Any can occur. To specify that
the Any is optional, set this attribute to zero
Maximum
Maximum number of times the Any can occur. For an unlimited
number of times, select unbounded
ID
ID of the Any. Its value must be of type ID and unique within
the model containing the Any. Only available in a model
targeted with XSD
Namespace
Namespaces containing the objects that can be used. If you
select ##any, objects from any namespace can be used. If
you select ##other, objects from any namespace other than
the target namespace of the schema can be used. If you select
##local, objects that are not qualified with a namespace can
be used. If you select ##targetNamespace, objects from the
target namespace of the schema can be used. If you type
a combination of URI references, ##targetNamespace and
##local, provided they are separated by a white space, objects
from this combination can be used. Only available in a model
targeted with XSD
Process
contents
Indicator of how an XML processor should handle validation
of XML documents containing the objects specified by the
Any. If you select Strict, the XML processor must obtain the
schema and validate any object of the specified namespaces.
If you select Lax, the XML processor will try to obtain the
schema and validate any object of the specified namespaces. If
the schema cannot be found, no error will occur. If you select
Skip, the XML processor will not try to validate the objects of
the specified namespaces. Only available in a model targeted
with XSD
45
Attributes (XSM)
Attributes (XSM)
Attributes are used to give additional information about elements.
There are global and local attributes:
♦ Global attributes are defined with the Model menu. In a schema, they are
directly linked to the <schema> tag (root element). They can be reused
for any element in the model through references (See “NUMBER”
attribute in the generated schema)
♦ Local attributes only apply to the elements in which they are created.
They can be defined by reference to a global attribute (See Reference
property)
Global and local attributes in XDR files
In a model targeted with the XML-Data Reduced language, local attributes are first declared separately, like global attributes (with the
<AttributeType> tag and a name attribute), then within their parent
element (with the <attribute> tag and a type attribute).
Extract of an XDR file:
You can derive an attribute data type to extend or restrict its values. (Only
with a model targeted with XSD)
For example:
Generated schema:
46
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
In a schema, attributes are declared with <attribute> tags.
Creating an attribute
+ You can create attributes (and attribute groups) on the Attributes tab of
an element, complex type, or attribute group using the following tools:
47
Attributes (XSM)
Tool
Description
Add Attribute - Creates a local attribute
Add Undefined Reference to Attribute Group - Adds an attribute
group with a reference to an attribute group defined in the current
model. Select a name in the Reference list. You can also type a new
name in the Reference column and then define a new attribute group
in the Attribute Groups list (See Model menu)
Add Reference to Attribute - Adds one or several attributes with
a reference to global attributes defined in the current model. Select
one or several global attributes in the Selection dialog box
Add Reference to Attribute Group - Adds a reference to an
attribute group defined in the current model. Select one or several
attribute groups in the Selection dialog box
Any Attribute - Adds “any” attribute of a specified namespace. For
more information, see ““Any” Attributes” on page 51.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Attribute properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open an
attribute property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser
entry in the Attributes folder beneath an entity or complex type. The
following sections detail the property sheet tabs that contain the properties
most commonly entered for attributes.
The General tab contains the following properties:
48
Property
Description
Name
The name of the item which should be clear and meaningful,
and should convey the item’s purpose to non-technical users
Code
The technical name of the item used for generating code or
scripts, which may be abbreviated, and should not generally
include spaces
Comment
Descriptive label of the attribute
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Defining attributes in
XDR files
Property
Description
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Reference
Name of an attribute in the current model or another model
opened in the workspace. A reference allows you to reuse an
attribute with all its properties without having to define it again.
Use the list to select an attribute in the current model. Use the
Browse tool to select an attribute from any model opened in
the workspace. If you select an attribute from another model,
a shortcut is created with the referencing attribute. When you
define a reference, name and code properties are grayed. The
name and code are those of the target attribute
Type
Attribute data type. It must be a qualified name (See Glossary).
Use the list to select a built-in data type. Use the Browse tool
to select a simple type defined in the current model or another
model opened in the workspace
Embedded
Type
If selected, the attribute data type disappears and a <simple
type> tag is created in the schema within the <attribute> tag.
Only available in a model targeted with XSD
Derivation
Derivation method for the attribute data type. Used to extend or
restrict the values of the attribute data type. When you define
a derivation, the data type disappears. You must click Apply
and then the Properties tool to select a type, a base type or
member types for the corresponding derivation (list, restriction
or union). Only available in a model targeted with XSD
In a model targeted with the XML-Data Reduced language, attributes tags
are defined by different attributes:
XDR attribute
attribute
Description
name
Specifies the name of the attribute.
Tab: General
Field: Name
default
Specifies a default value for the attribute.
Tab: Detail
Field: Default
49
Attributes (XSM)
XDR attribute
attribute
Description
dt:type
Specifies a type for the attribute.
Tab: General
Field: Type
dt:values
To specify a list of available values for a global attribute
Tab: Values
type
Specifies the name of a global attribute as a reference for a
local attribute.
Tab: General
Field: Reference
Example of an XDR file:
Attribute property sheet Detail tab
The Detail tab of an attribute property sheet displays the following
properties:
50
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
Default
Default value. Enter a default value only if there is no fixed
value
Fixed
Fixed value. Enter a fixed value only if there is no default value
Use
Indicator of how the attribute is used. If you select Optional,
the attribute is optional and may have any value. If you select
Prohibited, the attribute cannot be used. Use this value to
prohibit the use of an existing attribute in the restriction of
another complex type. If you select Required, the attribute
must appear at least once and may have any value matching its
data type
Form
Form of the attribute. If you select Qualified, Form must be
qualified by combining the target namespace of the schema
with the no-colon-name (See Glossary) of the attribute. If you
select Unqualified, Form is not required to be qualified with the
namespace prefix and is matched against the no-colon-name of
the attribute
ID
ID of the attribute. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the attribute
Attribute property sheet Values tab
The Values tab of an attribute property sheet is only available in a model
targeted with DTD or XDR. You can set a list of predefined values for an
attribute.
Element values with XDR
In a model targeted with the XML-Data Reduced language, there is also a
Values tab in the element property sheet.
”Any” Attributes
The “Any” attribute feature allows you to insert any attribute of specified
namespaces into an element, a complex type or an attribute group
declaration. It is only available in a model targeted with XSD.
In a schema, Any Attribute is declared with the <anyAttribute> tag.
For example:
51
Attributes (XSM)
Caution
Any Attribute only is displayed in a schema (see the Preview tab of a model
property sheet).
The Any Attribute feature is available via a check box in the bottom-left
corner of an Attributes tab.
To display an Any Attribute property sheet, select the Any Attribute check
box and then click the Properties tool.
”Any” attribute property sheet General tab
The General tab contains the following properties:
52
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
ID
ID of the Any Attribute. Its value must be of type ID and
unique within the model containing the Any Attribute
Namespace
Namespaces containing the attributes that can be used. If you
select ##any, attributes from any namespace can be used. If
you select ##other, attributes from any namespace other than
the target namespace of the schema can be used. If you select
##local, attributes that are not qualified with a namespace can
be used. If you select ##targetNamespace, attributes from the
target namespace of the schema can be used. If you type a white
space delimited list with URI references, ##targetNamespace
and ##local, attributes from this list can be used
Process
contents
Indicator of how an XML processor should handle validation
of XML documents containing the attributes specified by the
Any Attribute. If you select Lax, the XML processor will try
to obtain the schema and validate any attribute of the specified
namespaces. If the schema cannot be found, no error will occur.
If you select Skip, the XML processor will not try to validate
the attributes of the specified namespaces. If you select Strict,
the XML processor must obtain the schema and validate any
attribute of the specified namespaces
53
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)
Constraints indicate that element values must be unique within their
specified scope. Constraints are only available in a model targeted with
XSD.
Each constraint has two specific attributes: selector and field.
In a schema, a constraint is declared with its corresponding tag: <unique>,
<key> or <keyRef>.
There are three kinds of identity constraints:
♦ A Unique constraint - specifies that an element or an attribute value (or
set of values) must be unique or null within a specified scope. For
example:
Generated schema:
The UNIQUENUM unique constraint, defined on the project element,
specifies that the numEmployee attribute must be unique or null within
the employee element
♦ A Key constraint - specifies that an element or an attribute value (or set of
values) must be a key within a specified scope; the data must be unique,
not null, and always present within a specified scope. For example:
54
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Generated schema:
The KEYCODE key constraint, defined on the project element, specifies
that the code attribute must be unique, not null and always present within
the product element.
♦ A KeyRef constraint - specifies that an element or attribute value (or set
of values) corresponds to the value of a specified key or unique constraint.
A keyRef is a reference to a key or a unique constraint. For example:
Generated schema:
55
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)
The KEYREF_UNIGOLD keyRef, defined on the product element, by
reference to the UNIGOLD unique constraint, specifies that the gold
attribute must be unique or null within the component_2 element, as well
as it must be unique or null within the component_1 element (See
UNIGOLD).
Creating a constraint
+ You create constraints on the Constraints tab of an element, using one of
the following tools:
Tool
Description
Add Key Constraint - The element value must be a key within the
specified scope. The scope of a key is the containing element in
an instance document. A key must be unique, not null, and always
present
Add Unique Constraint - The element value must be unique or null
within the specified scope
Add KeyRef Constraint - The element value corresponds to those
of the specified key or unique constraint
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Constraint properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open a
constraint property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser
entry in the Constraints folder beneath an entity.
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Name
Name of the constraint. It must be a no-colon-name (See
Glossary)
Code
Code of the constraint. It must be a no-colon-name
Comment
Descriptive label of the constraint
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
ID
ID of the constraint. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the constraint.
Reference
[KeyRef
only]
Name of a key or a unique constraint defined in the current
model (or another model with a specified namespace). The
Reference value must be a qualified name (See Glossary)
Selector
(XPath)
An XML Path Language expression that selects a set of elements
across which the values specified in the Fields tab must be
unique. There can only be one selector (see “Specifying a
constraint selector” on page 57)
Constraint property sheet Fields tab
The Fields tab lists XPath expressions used to define the constraint (see
“XPath abbreviated syntax” on page 59). If more than one field is listed, the
combination of fields must be unique. For information, see “Specifying
constraint fields” on page 58.
Specifying a constraint selector
A constraint selector specifies an XPath expression that selects a set of
elements for a constraint.
57
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)
v To specify a constraint selector
1. Open the property sheet of a constraint, and enter an XPath expression in
the Selector (XPath) field (see “XPath abbreviated syntax” on page 59).
2. Click Apply to make available the Properties tool to the right of the field.
3. Click the Properties tool to open the selector property sheet.
4. [optional] Enter additional properties for the selector, and then click OK
to return to the constraint.
Specifying constraint fields
Constraint fields are XPath expressions used to define a constraint (unique,
key or keyRef).
v To create an identity constraint field
1. Open the property sheet of a constraint and then click the Fields tab.
2. Click in the XPath column and enter an XPath expression (see “XPath
abbreviated syntax” on page 59).
3. Click the Properties tool to open the property sheet of the field:
58
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
4. [optional] Enter additional properties for the selector, and then click OK
to return to the constraint.
XPath abbreviated syntax
An XPath expression allows you to locate a node (an element with its
ramifications) in the hierarchical tree structure of an XML document.
The XPath expressions permitted to define constraint selectors and fields are
limited to a subset of the full XPath language defined in the W3C
Recommendation XML Path Language 1.0:
Syntax
Description
/
Root node of the XML document. It is the root
element with its ramifications
.
Selects the context node. It is the current
element (on which an identity constraint is
defined) with its ramifications
..
Selects the context node parent
*
Selects all the child elements of the context node
employee
Selects all the employee child elements of the
context node
59
Constraints: Keys, Uniques, and KeyRefs (XSM)
Syntax
Description
s:employee
Selects all the employee child elements of the
context node, defined in the namespace with the
“s” prefix
@numEmployee
Selects the numEmployee attribute of the context node
@*
Selects all the attributes of the context node
../@numEmployee
Selects the numEmployee attribute of the context node parent
employee[1]
Selects the first employee child element of the
context node
employee[last()]
Selects the last employee child element of the
context node
*/employee
Selects all the employee grandchildren of the
context node
//employee
Selects all the employee descendants of the root
node
.//employee
Selects the employee descendants of the context
node
company//employee
Selects the employee descendants of the company child elements of the context node
//company/employee
Selects all the employee elements with company
as parent element in the context node
Selects the third section in the second chapter of
/book/chapter[2]/section[3] the book
60
employee[@dept=“doc”]
Selects all the employee child elements of the
context node with a dept attribute set to doc
employee[@dept=“doc”][3]
Selects the third employee child element of the
context node with a dept attribute set to doc
employee[3][@dept=“doc”]
Selects the third employee child element of the
context node only if it has a dept attribute set to
doc
chapter[title]
Selects the chapter child elements of the context
node with at least one title child element
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Syntax
Description
chapter[title=“About this
book”]
Selects the chapter child elements of the context
node with at least one title child element with a
text content set to About this book
employee[@numEmployee
and @dept]
Selects all the employee child elements of the
context node with the numEmployee and dept
attributes
text()
Selects all the child nodes of the text context
node
Selector and Field property sheet General tab
The General tab of a selector or field property sheet contains the following
properties:
Property
Description
XPath
For a selector: An XPath expression relative to the parent
element being declared. It identifies the child elements to which
the identity applies
For a field: An XPath expression relative to each element
selected by the selector of the constraint. It identifies a single
element (with a simple type) whose content or value is used for
the constraint
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
ID
ID of the selector. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the selector
61
Groups (XSM)
Groups (XSM)
A group of elements is a set of elements arranged by a group particle (all,
choice or sequence), which is then referenced in the model by various
elements.
♦ A group - is created independently, without a parent element, and can be
reused multiple times by elements, complex types or other global groups,
through references. In a schema, it is directly linked to the <schema>
tag (root element). See “Creating a group” on page 63.
♦ A reference to a group - is created within an element, complex type or
global group, and makes the referenced group available to its parent. See
“Creating a reference to a group” on page 64.
For example:
The descriptionLines group is reused in the definition of the product element
by clicking the sequence group particle (S) with the palette Group tool. The
Reference property of the referencing group property sheet is then set to
descriptionLines.
♦ In the generated XSD file, the group is first declared with the <group>
tag and then reused through a reference (ref) set to descriptionLines:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
♦ In the generated DTD file, the group is expanded directly within its
parent element:
♦ In the generated XDR file, the group is declared through a <group> tag,
within an <ElementType> tag with its order attribute set to seq:
Groups in DTD and XDR files
In a model targeted with DTD or XDR language, there are no global or
referencing groups, although they appear on the diagram. Groups are
expanded within their parent element and their child elements are declared
individually as global elements. (See generated DTD and XDR files in
“Groups (XSM)” on page 62)
Creating a group
A group is created independently in the diagram, and will be reused within
other elements by way of references (see “Creating a reference to a group”
63
Groups (XSM)
on page 64)
You can create a group in any of the following ways:
♦ Select the Group tool in the diagram Palette and click in an empty space
in the diagram.
♦ Select Model ä Groups to access the List of Groups, and click the Add a
Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Group.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Creating a reference to a group
A reference to a group is created as a child of an element, group or complex
type, and makes the referenced group available to its parent.
You can create a referencing group in any of the following ways:
♦ Select the Group tool in the diagram Palette, and click on an element,
group, or complex type symbol.
♦ On the Items tab of the property sheet of a group particle, click the Add
Group with Reference to Group tool (see “Group particle property sheet
Items tab” on page 42).
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Group properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open a
group (or reference to a group) property sheet, double-click its diagram
symbol or its Browser entry in the Groups folder (or, in the case of a
reference to a group, beneath its parent object).
The General tab contains the following properties:
64
Property
Description
Name
[unavailable to references to groups] Name of the group. It must
be a no-colon-name (See Glossary). Required when the group
is global
Code
[unavailable to references to groups] Code of the group. It must
be a no-colon-name. Required when the group is global
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
Comment
Descriptive label for the group
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Reference
[for references to groups only] Name of a group in the current
model or another model opened in the workspace. It must be
a qualified name (See Glossary). A reference allows you to
reuse a group with all its properties without having to define
it again. Use the list to select a group in the current model.
Use the Browse tool to select a group from any model opened
in the workspace. If you select a group from another model, a
shortcut is created with the referencing group. When a reference
is defined, the name and code properties are grayed. The name
and code are those of the target group
Group
type
[unavailable to references to groups] Specifies how child elements are to be used within the group. You can choose between:
♦ all
♦ choice
♦ sequence
For more information, see “Group Particles (XSM)” on page 39.
Minimum
Minimum number of times the group can occur. To specify that
the group is optional, set this attribute to zero.
Maximum
Maximum number of times the group can occur. For an unlimited number of times, select unbounded.
Once you have defined the reference of a referencing group, you can locate
the referenced group in the diagram by right-clicking the referencing group
symbol and selecting Find Referenced Group in the contextual menu. The
referenced group is displayed with handles in the diagram.
You can access directly to the Preview tab of a group property sheet.
Right-click a group (or a referencing group) symbol in the diagram and
select Preview in the contextual menu.
Linking child objects to a group
XML objects do not support standard link objects. To link a child object to a
group, you must click the child object tool in the palette and then click the
group symbol in the diagram. This will automatically create a link between
65
Groups (XSM)
both objects. See the following table for allowed links:
Tool
Action
If you click a group symbol with the Element tool, a sequence group particle and a child element symbol are
created. You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click a group symbol with the Any tool, a sequence group particle and an any symbol are created.
You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click a group symbol with the Group tool, a sequence group particle and a referencing group are
created. You can modify the group particle via its
property sheet. You must now select a group for the
reference
If you click a group symbol with the Complex Type tool, a complex
type symbol is displayed superposed, but not linked, to the group
symbol. A global complex type cannot be the child of a group
If you click a group symbol with the Sequence tool, a
sequence group particle is displayed linked to the group
symbol
If you click a group symbol with the Choice tool, a
choice group particle is displayed linked to the group
symbol
If you click a group symbol with the All tool, an
all group particle is displayed linked to the group
symbol
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Pointer indications
When you cannot click a symbol or an empty space in a diagram, the
Pointer displays a forbidden sign (See complex type in Tool column).
When there is a possibility to create a symbol above, below or next to
another one, the Pointer displays an arrow indicating the corresponding
direction (See element in Tool column).
67
Attribute Groups (XSM)
Attribute Groups (XSM)
Attribute groups are not supported by XDR.
An attribute group is a set of attributes, which is referenced in the model by
various elements:
♦ An attribute group - is created independently, without a parent element,
and can be reused multiple times by elements, complex types or other
global attribute groups, through references. In a schema, it is directly
linked to the <schema> tag (root element). See “Creating an attribute
group” on page 69.
♦ A reference to an attribute group - is created within an element,
complex type, or global attribute group, and makes the referenced
attribute group available to its parent. See “Creating a reference to an
attribute group” on page 69.
For example:
The quality attribute group is composed of the guarantee and
qualityStandards attributes. The productA element reuses the quality
attribute group via the Attributes tab of its property sheet.
♦ Generated XSD file:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
In a schema, a group of attributes is declared with the <attributeGroup>
tag. It can contain the following tags: <attribute>, <attributeGroup> or
<anyAttribute>.
♦ Generated DTD file:
Creating an attribute group
An attribute group is created independently, and will be reused within other
elements by way of references (see “Creating a reference to an attribute
group” on page 69)
You can create an attribute group in any of the following ways:
♦ Select Model ä Attribute Groups to access the List of Attribute Groups,
and click the Add a Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Attribute Group.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Creating a reference to an attribute group
A reference to an attribute group is created within an element, complex type,
or attribute group, and makes the referenced attribute group available to its
parent. You can create a reference to an attribute group as follows:
♦ On the Attributes tab of the property sheet of an element, complex type,
or attribute group, click the Add Group with Reference to Group tool (see
“Element property sheet Attributes tab” on page 35).
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Attribute group properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open an
attribute group (or reference to an attribute group) property sheet,
double-click its Browser entry in the Attribute Groups folder (or, in the case
of a reference to an attribute group, beneath its parent object). The following
sections detail the property sheet tabs that contain the properties most
commonly entered for attribute groups.
69
Attribute Groups (XSM)
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Name
[unavailable to references to attribute groups] Name of the
attribute group. It must be a no-colon-name (See Glossary).
Required when the attribute group is global
Code
[unavailable to references to attribute groups] Code of the
attribute group. It must be a no-colon-name. Required when the
attribute group is global
Comment
Descriptive label of the attribute group
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Reference
[for references to attribute groups only] Name of an attribute
group from the current model or any model opened in the
workspace. It must be a qualified name (See Glossary). If
you select an attribute group from another model, a shortcut is
created with the referencing attribute group. A reference allows
you to reuse an attribute group with all its properties without
having to define it again. When a reference is defined, the name
and code properties are grayed. The name and code are those of
the target attribute group
ID
ID of the attribute group. Its value must be of type ID and
unique within the model containing this attribute group
Attribute group property sheet Attributes tab
The Attributes tab lists the attributes and attribute groups associated with the
attribute group.
For information about the tools available on this tab for adding attributes and
attribute groups, see “Creating an attribute” on page 47.
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Simple Types (XSM)
You can only create simple types in a model targeted with XSD.
A simple type is a data type definition for elements or attributes with
text-only content. It cannot contain elements or attributes.
A simple type is defined by derivation of an existing simple type (built-in
data type or derived simple type). There are three kinds of derivation for a
simple type:
♦ List - contains a white space-separated list of values of an inherited
simple type
♦ Restriction - has a range of values restricted to a subset of those of an
inherited simple type
♦ Union - contains a union of values of two or more inherited simple types
+ For more information on simple type derivations, see section
“Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)” on
page 79.
Once defined in a model, a simple type can be reused in the definition of an
attribute, an element or a complex type.
Example of a simple type in a schema:
Creating a simple type
You can create a simple type in any of the following ways:
♦ Select Model ä Simple Types to access the List of Simple Types, and
click the Add a Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Simple Type.
71
Simple Types (XSM)
Caution
If the simple type symbol does not appear in the diagram, select Show
Symbols in the Symbol menu, then click the Simple Type tab and select
the simple type box to display its symbol in the diagram.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Simple type properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open a
simple type property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser
entry in the Simple Types folder.
The General tab contains the following properties:
72
Property
Description
Name
Name of the simple type. It must be a no-colon-name (See
Glossary). If specified, it must be unique among all simple
types and complex types
Code
Code of the simple type. It must be a no-colon-name. If
specified, it must be unique among all simple types and
complex types
Comment
Descriptive label of the simple type
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Derivation
Derivation method for the simple type. Enabled and required
when the simple type is defined
Final
Property to prevent derivation of the current simple type
ID
ID of the simple type. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the simple type
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Complex Types (XSM)
You can only create complex types in a model targeted with XSD.
A complex type is a data type definition used to define attributes and child
elements of a parent element. It is a template for a data type definition that
can be reused and derived by extension or restriction.
A complex type has:
♦ a global scope when it has no parent element in the diagram and when it
is directly linked to the <schema> tag. It can then be reused or derived,
by extension or restriction, in other parts of the schema.
♦ a local scope when integrated into an <element> tag. It applies only to
its containing element.
In the example above, HighDefinition is a global complex type, reused as
data type for the deluxeTV element.
Generated schema:
Caution
Global complex types appear in the model as objects, with their corresponding symbol in the diagram. Local complex types only appear in the
schema (see Preview tab of an element property sheet).
Creating a complex type
You can create a complex type in any of the following ways:
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Complex Types (XSM)
♦ Use the Complex Type tool in the diagram Palette.
♦ Select Model ä Complex Types to access the List of Complex Types, and
click the Add a Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Complex Type.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Complex type properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open a
complex type property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser
entry in the Complex Types folder. The following sections detail the
property sheet tabs that contain the properties most commonly entered for
complex types.
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Name
Name of the complex type. It must be a no-colon-name (See
Glossary) and unique among all simple types and complex
types
Code
Code of the complex type. It must be a no-colon-name and
unique among all simple types and complex types
Comment
Descriptive label of the complex type
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Group type
Specifies that the complex type has child elements, and how
they are used. You can choose between:
♦ all – All children may be present. See “Group Particles
(XSM)” on page 39
♦ choice – Only one child must be present. See “Group Particles (XSM)” on page 39
♦ group – Reference to a predefined group. See “Groups
(XSM)” on page 62
♦ sequence – All children must be present in order. See
“Group Particles (XSM)” on page 39
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
Content
Content type of the complex type. You can choose between:
♦ Simple - the complex type cannot contain child elements
♦ Complex - the complex type can contain child elements
For more information, see “Specifying the type of content of a
complex type” on page 78.
Derivation
Derivation method for the complex type. Once you have
selected a derivation method, you must define a base type.
Click the Properties tool beside the derivation box to display
the derivation property sheet. In the General tab, select a base
type in the Base Type list
Complex type property sheet Detail tab
The Detail tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Final
Property to prevent derivation of the current complex type
Block
Property to prevent another complex type with the specified
type of derivation from being used in place of the current
complex type
Mixed
If selected, this property indicates that character data is allowed
to appear between the child elements of the current complex
type. Select Mixed only if the current complex type has a
complex content (See general properties)
Abstract
If selected, this property indicates that the complex type can be
used in the instance document
ID
ID of the complex type. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing this complex type
Complex type property sheet Attributes tab
Attributes (see “Attributes (XSM)” on page 46) give additional information
about a complex type. The Attributes tab lists the attributes and attribute
groups associated with the complex type.
For information about the tools available on this tab for adding attributes, see
“Creating an attribute” on page 47.
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Complex Types (XSM)
Complex type property sheet Mappings tab
Object mapping is the ability to establish a correspondence between objects
belonging to heterogeneous models and diagrams.
The Mapping tab of a complex type property sheet allows you to map the
current complex type to PDM or OOM objects.
Select a data source in the Mapping for list. If it is the first time you define a
mapping for a complex type, the Mapping for list is empty. Click the Add a
Mapping for a Data Source tool and select a data source.
Complex Type Sources
tab
The Complex Type Sources tab allows you to associate one or several
abstract data types (in PDMs) or classes (in OOMs) to the current complex
type.
You can use the Add Objects tool to select abstract data types or classes
from the PDMs or OOMs opened in the current workspace.
Attributes Mapping tab
The Attributes Mapping tab allows you to define the mapping between
abstract data type attributes (in PDMs) or class attributes (in OOMs) and
attributes in the current complex type.
Icon
Description
Add Mapping - To select the attributes in the current complex
type that will be mapped to abstract data type attributes or class
attributes. Once you have selected the attributes, you can use the list
in the Mapped to column to select corresponding abstract data type
attributes or class attributes
Create from Sources - To copy abstract data type attributes or class
attributes to the current complex type attributes
Generate Mapping - To automatically generate a mapping between
abstract data type attributes or class attributes and complex type
attributes with same name or code in the data source and the current
model
+ For more information on complex type mapping, see section Mapping
objects in an XML model in chapter Working with an XML model.
How to link a child object to a complex type?
XML objects do not support standard link objects. To link a child object to a
complex type, you must click the child object tool in the palette and then
click the complex type symbol in the diagram. This will automatically create
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
a link between both objects. See the following table for allowed links:
Tool
Action
If you click a complex type symbol with the Element tool,
a sequence group particle and a child element symbol are
created. You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click a complex type symbol with the Any tool,
a sequence group particle and an any symbol are created. You can modify the group particle via its property
sheet
If you click a complex type symbol with the Group tool, a
referencing group is created. You can modify the group particle
via its property sheet. You must now select a group for the
reference
If you click a complex type symbol with the Complex Type tool,
a second complex type symbol is displayed superposed, but not
linked, to the first complex type symbol. A complex type cannot be
the child of another complex type
If you click a complex type symbol with the Sequence tool, a
sequence group particle is displayed linked to the complex type
symbol
If you click a complex type symbol with the Choice tool, a
choice group particle is displayed linked to the complex type
symbol
If you click a complex type symbol with the All tool,
an all group particle is displayed linked to the complex type
symbol
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Complex Types (XSM)
Pointer indications
When you cannot click a symbol or an empty space in a diagram, the
Pointer displays a forbidden sign (See complex type in Tool column).
When there is a possibility to create a symbol above, below or next to
another one, the Pointer displays an arrow indicating the corresponding
direction (See element in Tool column).
Specifying the type of content of a complex type
A complex type can contain either:
♦ simple content – character data or a simple type (but no elements), or
♦ complex content – elements or elements and character data
v To specify the type of content of a complex type
1. Open the property sheet of a complex type and select either simple or
complex in the Content list.
2. Click Apply to make available the Properties tool to the right of the list.
3. [optional] Click the Properties tool to open the property sheet of the
content, and specify an ID and, in the case of complex content, whether
the content can be mixed.
4. Click OK to return to the diagram.
Content property sheet
General tab
78
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
ID
ID for the complex content. Its value must be of type ID and
unique within the model containing the complex content
Mixed [complex content
only]
Specifies that character data is allowed to appear between
child elements of the complex type.
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and
Unions (XSM)
You can use derivations to extend or restrict the values of elements and
simple and complex types.
An XML model allows you to derive:
♦ Elements by extension, restriction, list or union
♦ Simple types by restriction, list or union
♦ Complex types by extension or restriction
Derivation in element property sheet
When you define a derivation in an element property sheet, a simple or a
complex type is automatically created within the element declaration (See
Preview tab). The Embedded type property is automatically set to Simple
or Complex, and the Content property to Simple or Complex in the case of
an embedded complex type.
Deriving by extension
You can derive an element or complex type by extension to extend the values
of its base type.
For example:
USaddress is a derivation by extension of the address complex type.
Generated schema:
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Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
v To define a derivation by extension
1. Open the property sheet of an element or complex type and select
Extension in the Derivation list.
The Content field (and, in the case of an element, the Embedded type
field) is set to Complex.
2. Click the Properties tool to the right of the Derivation box to open the
property sheet of the extension:
3. Specify an ID, select a base type, and then click OK to return to the
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
element or complex type.
Extension property sheet The General tab contains the following properties:
General tab
Property
Description
ID
ID of the extension. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the extension
Base Type
Data type on which the extension is based
Deriving by restriction
You can derive an element, simple type, or complex type by restriction to
restrict the values of their base type.
v To create a restriction on an element, simple type, or complex
type
1. Open the property sheet of an element, simple type, or complex type, and
select Restriction in the Derivation list.
For elements and complex types, the Content field (and, in the case of an
element, the Embedded type field) is set to Complex.
2. Click the Properties tool to the right of the Derivation box to open the
restriction property sheet.
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Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
3. Type an ID and a base type for the restriction.
4. [simple types only] If you select Embedded type, the base type disappears
and a simple type is created in the schema within the current simple type.
Click Apply, and then the Properties tool beside the Embedded type box,
to define a derivation and a base type for the embedded simple type.
5. [option – simple types only] Click the Detail tab and enter appropriate
facets for the restriction (see “Restriction property sheet Detail tab” on
page 82).
6. [option – simple types only] Click the Enumerations tab and enter
appropriate enumerations for the restriction (see “Restriction property
sheet Enumerations tab” on page 84).
7. [option – simple types only] Click the Patterns tab and enter appropriate
patterns for the restriction (see “Restriction property sheet Patterns tab”
on page 85).
8. Click OK to close the restriction property sheet and return to the element,
simple type, or complex type.
Restriction property sheet General tab
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
ID
ID of the simple type restriction. Its value must be of type
ID and unique within the model containing the simple type
restriction
Base type
Data type on which the restriction is based. Select a data type
in the Base type list or with the Browse tool
Embedded
type [simple
types only]
If selected, the base type disappears and a simple type is
created in the schema within the current simple type
Restriction property sheet Detail tab
Facets are the constraints on the set of values of a simple type. The Details
tab lists the facets associated with the restriction:
Icon
Facet
Length - Exact number of characters or list items allowed. It must
be equal to or greater than zero
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Icon
Facet
Minimum length - Minimum number of characters or list items
allowed. It must be equal to or greater than zero
Maximum length - Maximum number of characters or list items
allowed. It must be equal to or greater than zero
Minimum exclusive - Lower bound for numeric values. All values
are greater than this value
Maximum exclusive - Upper bound for numeric values. All values
are lower than this value
Minimum inclusive - Minimum value allowed for data type
Maximum inclusive - Maximum value allowed for data type
Total digits - Exact number of decimal digits allowed. It must be
greater than zero
Fraction digits - Maximum number of decimal digits in the fractional part
Whitespace - Way of handling white spaces. If the value is Preserve,
white spaces are unchanged. If the value is Replace, tabs, line
feeds and carriage returns are replaced with spaces. If the value is
Collapse, contiguous sequences of spaces are collapsed to a single
space. Leading and trailing spaces are removed
A facet icon is displayed in the title bar of a facet property sheet.
Enumeration and Pattern facets
For Enumeration and Pattern facets, click their corresponding tabs in the
restriction property sheet and double-click the arrow left of an enumeration
or a pattern value to display its property sheet.
Caution
Facets only appear in the schema, within a simple type declaration (see
Preview tab in the model property sheet).
Facet general properties
The General tab of a facet property sheet displays the following properties:
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Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
Property
Description
ID
ID of the facet. Its value must be of type ID and unique within
the model containing the facet
Value
Value(s) of the facet
Fixed
To prevent a modification of the facet value(s), select the Fixed
property
Restriction property sheet Enumerations tab
The Enumerations tab is only available for simple type restrictions. It allows
you to enter a set of acceptable values for the simple type restriction.
Select F (for Fixed) at the end of a row if you want to prevent the
modification of a value.
For example: the meetings simple type, based on the xs:gMonthDay data
type, is restricted to the following dates: 01/20, 03/20, 05/20 and 07/20.
Generated schema:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Restriction property sheet Patterns tab
The Patterns tab is only available for simple type restrictions. It allows you
to enter the exact sequence of acceptable values for the simple type
restriction.
Select F (for Fixed) at the end of a row if you want to prevent the
modification of a value.
For example: the zipCode simple type, based on the xs:string data type, is
restricted to the following pattern: two uppercase letters, from A to Z,
followed by a five-digit number, each digit ranging from 0 to 9.
Generated schema:
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Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
Deriving by list
You can derive an element or simple type by list to define it as a list of
values of a specified data type.
v To define an element or simple type derivation by list
1. Open the property sheet of an element or simple type, and select List in
the Derivation list.
For elements, the Embedded type field is set to Simple.
2. Click the Properties tool to the right of the Derivation box to open the list
property sheet:
3. Enter an ID and a type for the list.
If you select Embedded type, the type disappears and a simple type is
created in the schema within the current simple type. Click Apply, and
then the Properties tool beside the Embedded type box, to define a
derivation and a type for the embedded simple type.
4. Click OK to close the list property sheet and return to the element or
simple type.
List property sheet
General tab
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The General tab contains the following properties:
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
ID
ID of the simple type list. Its value must be of type ID and
unique within the model.
Type
Data type for the list of values
Embedded Type
If selected, the type disappears and a simple type is created in
the schema within the current simple type or element
Deriving by union
You can derive an element or simple type by union to define it as a collection
of built-in and simple data types.
v To define an element or simple type derivation by union
1. Open the property sheet of an element or simple type, and select Union in
the Derivation list.
For elements, the Embedded type field is set to Simple.
2. Click the Properties tool to the right of the Derivation box to open the
union property sheet:
3. Enter an ID and member types for the union.
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Derivations: Extensions, Restrictions, Lists and Unions (XSM)
4. [optional] Click the Union Types tab and add appropriate simple types to
the union.
5. Click OK to close the union property sheet and return to the element or
simple type.
Union property sheet
General tab
Union property sheet
Union Types tab
88
The General tab of a simple type union property sheet displays the following
properties:
Property
Description
ID
ID of the simple type union. Its value must be of type ID
and unique within the model containing the simple type
union
Member Types
White space separated list of built-in data types. Values
must be qualified names (See Glossary)
The Union Types tab of a simple type union property sheet displays a list
where you can add simple types using the Add Simple Type tool.
Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Annotations (XSM)
Annotations are only available in models targeted with XSD.
You define annotations when you want to add information about an XML
model. There are three kinds of annotations:
♦ Annotation - provides extra information on XML models or schemas.
You can define multiple annotations at this level, and each can contain
multiple documentation and/or application information tags.
♦ Documentation – is contained within an annotation and contains an URI
reference or any well-formed XML content that gives extra information
about XML objects or documents
♦ Application Information - is contained within an annotation and contains
an URI reference or any well-formed XML content that is used by
applications for processing instructions
Generated schema of a global annotation:
This global annotation is composed of a documentation, with a well-formed
XML content (extract of a DTD file), and an application information.
Creating an annotation
You can create a annotation at the global level in any of the following ways:
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Annotations (XSM)
♦ Open the Items or External Schemas tab in the property sheet of the
model, and click the Add Annotation tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Annotation.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Creating a documentation or application information
You can create a documentation or application information using the
following tools on the:
♦ Items tab of an annotation property sheet - to add content to an annotation
at the global, schema level
♦ Annotations tab of an element or other object property sheet - to add
content to an annotation at the global, schema level
Tool
Description
Add Documentation - Adds a comment or a document reference
to be read by users
Add Application Information - Adds an information to be used
by applications for processing instructions
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Annotation property sheet General tab
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
ID
Must be of type ID and unique within the model containing the
annotation.
Annotation property sheet Items tab
The Items tab lists the documentation and application information tags
contained within the annotation. For information on the tools for creating
content available on this tab, see “Creating a documentation or application
information” on page 90:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Documentation and application information property sheet General tab
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Source
Source of the content. It must be a URI reference
Language
[documentation only] Language used in the documentation. For
example: en, en-GB, en-US, de, fr
Documentation and application information property sheet Content tab
The Content tab allows you to write or paste any well-formed XML content.
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Notations (XSM)
Notations (XSM)
Notations allow you to define and process non-XML objects within an XML
model.
For example: picture files with a .GIF extension.
Generated schema:
Notations are not available on models targeted with XDR.
Creating a notation
You can create a notation in any of the following ways:
♦ Select Model ä Notations to access the List of Notations, and click the
Add a Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Notation.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Notation properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open a
notation property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser
entry in the Notations folder.
The General tab contains the following properties:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
Name
Name of the notation. It must be a no-colon-name (See
Glossary)
Code
Code of the notation. It must be a no-colon-name
Comment
Descriptive label of the notation
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
ID
ID of the notation. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the model containing the notation
Public
URI reference identifying the non-XML object. For example:
pictures/gif
System
URI reference identifying the application that will process the
non-XML object. For example: user/local/pictureViewer
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Entities (XSM)
Entities (XSM)
Entities enable you to include predefined values, external XML or non-XML
files in an XML model targeted with a DTD.
When an XML processor reads an entity reference in an XML document, it
will replace this entity reference by its value defined in the DTD file of the
XML document.
An entity reference is the entity name preceded by an ampersand and
followed by a semicolon.
For example: &glossary; will be replaced by See Glossary.
The W3C has predefined five entities for XML tags:
Entity name
Reference
Value
Less than
&lt;
<
Greater than
&gt;
>
Ampersand
&amp;
&
Apostrophe
&apos;
‘
Quotation
&quot;
”
In an XML model, you just need to type the name and the value of an entity.
Creating an entity
You can create an entity in any of the following ways:
♦ Select Model ä Entities to access the List of Entities, and click the Add a
Row tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Entity.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Entity properties
You can modify an object’s properties from its property sheet. To open an
entity property sheet, double-click its diagram symbol or its Browser entry
in the Entities folder.
The General tab contains the following properties:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Property
Description
Name
Name of the entity. It must be a no-colon-name (See Glossary)
Code
Code of the entity. It must be a no-colon-name
Comment
Descriptive label of the entity
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined
Value
Value of the entity. A string of characters in the case of a
predefined value. A URI in the case of an XML or a non-XML
file. For example: http://something.com/pictures/logo.gif
Public
URI reference identifying the non-XML object. For example:
pictures/gif
System
URI reference identifying the application that will process the
non-XML object. For example: user/local/pictureViewer
Notation
Used to define and process non-XML objects within an XML
model
Parameter
If selected, the entity is parsed within the DTD, and not within
the XML document as for a general entity. A parameter entity
allows you to predefine a value within a DTD. This predefined
value can then be easily changed within the DTD
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Instructions: Import, Include and Redefine (XSM)
Instructions: Import, Include and Redefine (XSM)
Import, Include and Redefine allow you to enrich your XML model with
external namespaces, schema files or schema components.
These instructions are only available in a model targeted with XSD.
Imports
An import identifies a namespace whose schema components are referenced
by the current schema, allowing you to use components from any schema
with different target namespace than the current schema.
In a schema, an import is declared with the <import> tag. For example:
Includes
An include allows you to include a specified schema file in the target
namespace of the current schema, allowing you to use components from any
schema with the same target namespace as the current schema or with no
specified target namespace.
In a schema, an include is declared with the <include> tag. For example:
Redefines
A redefine allows you to redefine simple and complex types, groups and
attribute groups from an external schema file in the current schema, allowing
you to use components from any schema with the same target namespace as
the current schema or with no specified target namespace.
In a schema, a redefine is declared with the <redefine> tag. For example:
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Creating an import, include, or redefine instruction
You can create an import, include, or redefine instruction in any of the
following ways:
♦ Select Model ä Import, Include, or Redefine to access the relevant list,
and click the Add a Row tool.
♦ Open the External Schemas tab in the property sheet of the model, and
click the Add Import, Add Include, or Add Redefine tool.
♦ Right-click the model or package in the Browser, and select New ä
Import, Include, or Redefine.
+ For general information about creating objects, see the Objects chapter
in the Core Features Guide .
Import, include, and redefine properties
You can modify an import, include, or redefine instruction’s properties from
its property sheet. To open an instruction property sheet, double-click its
diagram symbol or its Browser entry in the Imports, Includes, or Redefines
folder. The following sections detail the property sheet tabs that contain the
properties most commonly entered for instructions.
The General tab contains the following properties:
Property
Description
Schema
location
URI reference for the location of a schema file with an external
namespace. You can use the Browse tool beside the Properties
tool to select a schema file among those opened in the current
workspace. For example: ORDER.xsd.
ID
ID of the instruction. Its value must be of type ID and unique
within the schema containing the instruction.
Namespace
[import only] URI reference for the namespace to import. For
example: xml.ordering.
Comment
Descriptive label of the instruction.
Stereotype
Sub-classification used to extend the semantics of an object
without changing its structure. It can be predefined or userdefined.
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Instructions: Import, Include and Redefine (XSM)
Redefine property sheet Items tab
The Items tab lists the items to be redefined:
Tool
Description
Add Group - Adds a group of elements to be redefined.
Add Attribute Group - Adds a group of attributes to be redefined.
Add Simple Type - Adds a simple type to be redefined.
Add Complex Type - Adds a complex type to be redefined.
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Chapter 2. Building XML Models
Business Rules (XSM)
A business rule is a rule that your business follows. It is a written statement
specifying what an information system must do or how it must be structured.
It could be a government-imposed law, a customer requirement, or an
internal guideline.
You can attach business rules to your model objects to guide and document
the creation of your model. For example, the rule “an employee belongs to
only one division” can help you graphically build the link between an
employee and a division.
+ For more information, see “Business Rules” section in the Objects
chapter of the Core Features Guide .
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CHAPTER 3
Working with an XML model
About this chapter
Contents
This chapter describes a number of basic features available with XML
models.
Topic:
page
Generating Other Models from an XML Model
102
Checking an XML Model
103
Manipulating XML Objects Graphically
118
Comparing and Merging XML Models
121
XML Model Reports
122
101
Generating Other Models from an XML Model
Generating Other Models from an XML Model
You can generate another XSM from your XSM. When changes are made to
the source model, they can then be easily propagated to the generated
models using the Update Existing Model generation mode.
v To generate one XSM from another
1. Select Tools ä Generate XML Model (Ctrl+Shift+M) to open the XML
Model Generation Options Window:
2. On the General tab, select a radio button to generate a new or update an
existing model, and complete the appropriate options.
3. [optional] Click the Detail tab and set any appropriate options. We
recommend that you select the Check model checkbox to check the
model for errors and warnings before generation.
4. [optional] Click the Target Models tab and specify the target models for
any generated shortcuts.
5. [optional] Click the Selection tab and select or deselect objects to
generate.
6. Click OK to begin generation.
Generation options
For detailed information about the options available on the various tabs of
the Generation window, see the Linking and Synchronizing Models chapter
of the Core Features Guide .
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Checking an XML Model
The XML Model is a very flexible tool, which allows you quickly to develop
your model without constraints. You can, however, check the validity of
your XSM at any time.
Check your XSM before generating an XML document
We recommend that you check your XSM before generating an XML
document or other model from it. If the check encounters errors, generation
will be stopped. The Check model option is enabled by default in the
Generation dialog box.
You can check an XSM in any of the following ways:
♦ Press F4, or
♦ Select Tools ä Check Model, or
♦ Right-click the diagram background and select Check Model from the
contextual menu
The Check Model Parameters window opens, which allows you to specify
the kinds of checks to perform, and the objects to apply them to. For detailed
information about this window and correcting problems reported, see
“Checking a Model” section in the Models chapter of the Core Features
Guide .
The following sections document the XSM-specific checks available by
default. For information about other checks available by default for all
model types, see “Checking a Model” in the Models chapter of the Core
Features Guide .
Group particle checks
The following XML model checks are made on group articles:
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Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Existence of particle
A group particle must contain elements, groups,
group particles and/or Any.
Manual correction: Add items to the group particle
or delete it
Automatic correction: None
Invalid cardinality
You should define a minimum (0 or 1) and a maximum cardinality (1 or unbounded) for a group
particle occurrence.
This check is only available in a model targeted with
XDR.
Manual correction: Double-click the group particle
symbol and type a value for Minimum (0 or 1) and
Maximum (1 or unbounded) properties
Automatic correction: None
Model checks
This check only applies to models built on a schema.
The following XML model checks are made on models:
Check
Description and Correction
Identifier uniqueness
Two or more objects cannot have the same identifier (ID).
Manual correction: Give a unique identifier to
each object
Automatic correction: None
Undefined identifier
You must define an identifier (ID) for each object
in the model.
Manual correction: Define an identifier for each
object
Automatic correction: None
Shortcut code uniqueness
Two shortcuts with the same code cannot be in the
same namespace.
Manual correction: Change the code of one of the
shortcuts
Automatic correction: None
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined target
namespace
You should define a target namespace to your
model.
Manual correction: Type a URI for the Target
Namespace property in the Detail tab of the model
property sheet
Automatic correction: None
Missing namespaces
There should be at least one namespace defined
for the model.
Manual correction: Type a URI and a prefix in the
Namespaces tab of the model property sheet
Automatic correction: Adds the target namespace
URI and a prefix “ns” followed by a number (e.g.
“ns1”)
Data source checks
The following XML model checks are made on data sources:
Check
Description and Correction
Data source name and
code uniqueness
Data sources names and codes must be unique
in the model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Existence of model
A data source must have at least one model in
its definition.
Manual correction: Add a model from the
Models tab of the data source property sheet
Automatic correction: Deletes data source
without a model
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Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Data source containing
models with different Object Language or DBMS
types
The models in a data source represent a single
set of information. This is why the models in
the data source should share the same DBMS or
object language.
Manual correction: Delete models with different
DBMS or object language, or modify the DBMS
or object language of models in the data source
Automatic correction: None
Entity checks
The following XML model checks are made on entities:
Check
Description and Correction
Entity name and
code uniqueness
Entity names and codes must be unique in the model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Undefined entity
You must define an entity. In the entity property sheet,
you must either type a value (string of characters or
URI) in the Value box, or a URI in the Public or
System boxes.
Manual correction: Type a value in the Value box or a
URI in the Public or System boxes
Automatic correction: None
Include checks
The following XML model checks are made on includes:
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined schema
location
You must define a schema location for an include.
Manual correction: Define a URI or select a schema
file for the schema location. For example: proforma.xsd
Automatic correction: None
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Simple type checks
The following XML model checks are made on simple types:
Check
Description and Correction
Simple type name and
code uniqueness
Simple type names and codes must be unique in the
model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Complex type checks
The following XML model checks are made on complex types:
Check
Description and Correction
Complex type name and
code uniqueness
Complex type names and codes must be unique
in the model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Existence of attribute
A complex type should have at least one attribute.
Manual correction: Define an attribute for the
complex type
Automatic correction: None
Existence of particle
A complex type must contain elements, groups,
group particles and/or Any.
Manual correction: Add items to the complex
type or delete complex type
Automatic correction: None
Element checks
The following XML model checks are made on elements:
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Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Element name and code
uniqueness
Element names and codes must be unique in the
model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Undefined type
An element without a reference should have a
defined data type.
Manual correction: In the element property sheet,
define a data type with the Type list or the Browse
tool
Automatic correction: None
Undefined reference
An element without a defined data type must have
a reference.
Manual correction: In the element property sheet,
define a reference with the Reference list or the
Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Existence of attribute
An element without a reference, a data type or
a substitution group should have at least one
attribute.
Manual correction: Define an attribute for the
element
Automatic correction: None
Existence of particle
An element with an embedded complex type must
contain child elements, groups, group particles
and/or Any.
Manual correction: Add items to complex element
or delete complex element
Automatic correction: None
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Check
Description and Correction
Invalid cardinality
You should define a minimum (0 or 1) and a
maximum cardinality (1 or unbounded) for a
group particle occurrence.
This check is only available in a model targeted
with XDR.
Manual correction: Double-click the group particle symbol and type a value for Minimum (0 or 1)
and Maximum (1 or unbounded) properties
Automatic correction: None
Group checks
The following XML model checks are made on groups:
Check
Description and Correction
Group name and code
uniqueness
Group names and codes must be unique in the
model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Undefined reference
A group without a name or a code must have a
reference.
Manual correction: In the group property sheet,
define a reference with the Reference list or the
Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Existence of particle
A group must contain elements, groups, group
particles and/or Any.
Manual correction: Add items to group or delete
group
Automatic correction: None
109
Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Invalid cardinality
You should define a minimum (0 or 1) and a
maximum cardinality (1 or unbounded) for a
group particle occurrence.
This check is only available in a model targeted
with XDR.
Manual correction: Double-click the group
particle symbol and type a value for Minimum (0
or 1) and Maximum (1 or unbounded) properties
Automatic correction: None
Attribute checks
The following XML model checks are made on attributes:
Check
Description and Correction
Attribute name and code
uniqueness
Attribute names and codes must be unique in
the model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to
the duplicate name/code
Undefined reference
An attribute without a name or a code must
have a reference.
Manual correction: In the attribute property
sheet, define a reference with the Reference
list or the Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Undefined type
You must define a data type for an attribute.
Manual correction: In the attribute property
sheet, define a data type with the Type list or
the Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Notation checks
The following XML model checks are made on notations:
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Check
Description and Correction
Notation name and code
uniqueness
Notations names and codes must be unique in the
model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Undefined notation
A notation must have at least one URI defined for
Public or System properties.
Manual correction: In the notation property sheet,
define a URI in the Public or System boxes
Automatic correction: None
Attribute group checks
The following XML model checks are made on attribute groups:
Check
Description and Correction
Attribute group name
and code uniqueness
Attribute group names and codes must be unique in
the model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Undefined reference
An attribute group without a name or a code must
have a reference.
Manual correction: In the attribute group property
sheet, define a reference with the Reference list or
the Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Existence of attributes
An attribute group must contain at least one attribute.
Manual correction: Add attributes to attribute group
or delete attribute group
Automatic correction: Deletes unassigned attribute
group
Import checks
The following XML model checks are made on imports:
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Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined schema location and namespace
An import must have at least a schema location or a
namespace defined.
Manual correction: In the import property sheet,
define a URI for the schema location and/or the
namespace. Example for a schema location:
http://www.something.org/schemas/order.xsd Example for a namespace: http://www.something.org/xml/ordering
Automatic correction: None
Redefine checks
The following XML model checks are made on redefines:
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined schema location
You must define a schema location for a redefine.
Manual correction: In the redefine property sheet,
define a URI or select a schema file for the schema
location. For example: customers.xsd
Automatic correction: None
Existence of component
A redefine must contain at least one of the following items: simple type, complex type, group or
attribute group.
Manual correction: Add items to the redefine
Automatic correction: None
Key checks
The following XML model checks are made on keys:
Check
Description and Correction
Key name and code
uniqueness
Element names and codes must be unique in the
model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate
name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Check
Description and Correction
Existence of fields
A key must contain at least one field.
Manual correction: Add at least one field to the key
or delete the key. For example: @numEmployee
Automatic correction: Deletes unassigned key
For more information on fields, see section Defining an identity constraint field in chapter Building
an XML model.
Undefined selector
You must define an XPath expression for a key
selector attribute.
Manual correction: In the key property sheet, define an XPath expression for the selector attribute.
For example: s:company/s:employee
Automatic correction: None
For more information on XPath expressions, see
section Defining an identity constraint selector in
chapter Building an XML model.
KeyRef checks
The following XML model checks are made on KeyRefs:
Check
Description and Correction
KeyRef name and
code uniqueness
KeyRef names and codes must be unique in the
model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Undefined reference
A keyRef must contain a reference to a key or a
unique constraint.
Manual correction: In the keyRef property sheet,
define a reference to a key or a unique constraint
with the Reference list
Automatic correction: None
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Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Existence of fields
A keyRef must contain at least one field.
Manual correction: Add at least one field to the
keyRef or delete the keyRef. For example: @numEmployee
Automatic correction: Deletes unassigned keyRef
For more information on fields, see section Defining
an identity constraint field in chapter Building an
XML model.
Undefined selector
You must define an XPath expression for a keyRef
selector attribute.
Manual correction: In the keyRef property sheet,
define an XPath expression for the selector attribute.
For example: s:company/s:employee
Automatic correction: None
For more information on XPath expressions, see
section Defining an identity constraint selector in
chapter Building an XML model.
Unique checks
The following XML model checks are made on uniques:
Check
Description and Correction
Unique name and
code uniqueness
Unique constraint names and codes must be unique
in the model.
Manual correction: Modify the duplicate name/code
Automatic correction: Appends a number to the
duplicate name/code
Existence of fields
A unique constraint must contain at least one field.
Manual correction: Add at least one field to the
unique constraint or delete the unique constraint.
For example: @numEmployee
Automatic correction: Deletes unassigned unique
constraint
For more information on fields, see section Defining
an identity constraint field in chapter Building an
XML model.
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined Selector
You must define an XPath expression for a unique
constraint selector attribute.
Manual correction: In the unique constraint property sheet, define an XPath expression for the
unique constraint selector attribute. For example:
s:company/s:employee
Automatic correction: None
For more information on XPath expressions, see
section Defining an identity constraint selector in
chapter Building an XML model.
Extension checks
The following XML model checks are made on extensions:
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined base type
You must define a base type when you derive a
complex type by extension.
Manual correction: In the complex type property
sheet, click the Properties tool beside the Derivation
box to display the Extension property sheet and select
a base type with the Base type list or the Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Restriction checks
The following XML model checks are made on restrictions:
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Checking an XML Model
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined base type
You must define a base type when you derive a simple
or a complex type by restriction.
Manual correction: In the simple or complex type
property sheet, click the Properties tool beside the
Derivation box to display the Extension property
sheet and select a base type with the Base type list or
the Browse tool
Automatic correction: None
Existence of facet
A simple type restriction must have at least one facet
defined. Facets are defined in the Detail, Enumerations and Patterns tabs of a simple type restriction
property sheet.
Manual correction: Define one or more facets in the
simple type restriction property sheet
Automatic correction: None
Simple type list checks
The following XML model checks are made on simple types:
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined base type
You must define a base type when you derive a
simple type by list.
Manual correction: In the simple type property
sheet, click the Properties tool beside the Derivation
box to display the simple type list property sheet and
select a data type with the Type list or the Browse
tool
Automatic correction: None
Simple type union checks
The following XML model checks are made on simple type unions:
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Check
Description and Correction
Undefined base
type
You must define at least two data types when you derive
a simple type by union.
Manual correction: In the simple type property sheet,
click the Properties tool beside the Derivation box to
display the simple type union property sheet and type
a white space separated list of at least two data types
(qualified names) in the Member types box
Automatic correction: None
Annotation checks
The following XML model checks are made on annotations:
Check
Description and Correction
Existence of items
An annotation must contain at least one URI for a
Documentation or an Application Information.
Manual correction: Define a URI for a Documentation
or an Application Information
Automatic correction: None
117
Manipulating XML Objects Graphically
Manipulating XML Objects Graphically
The graphical interface of PowerDesigner allows you to manipulate XML
objects within or between the Browser tree view and the diagram window.
A global object is right under the model item in the Browser tree view. It has
no parent symbol in the diagram.
A local object is under a group particle item in the Browser tree view. It has
a parent symbol in the diagram.
The following sections explain all the graphical operations allowed in
PowerDesigner.
Local objects
You can move local objects within or between the Browser tree view and the
diagram window.
Move
Select Tools ä General Options to make sure that Move is the Default
action of the Drag & Drop option.
Within Browser
You can move a local object within the Browser to convert it into a global
object. If the new global object does not appear in the diagram, select
Symbol ä Show Symbols and click the corresponding tab to select the new
global object
Within diagram
You can move a local object within the diagram to another group particle. It
remains a local object, but with a new parent object.
You cannot move a local object within the diagram to convert it into a global
object. It remains attached to its group particle.
From Browser to diagram When you move a local object from the Browser to the diagram, a synonym
is created, attached to the same group particle as the original symbol.
From diagram to Browser You can move a local object from the diagram to the Browser, and convert it
into a global object. If the new global object does not appear in the diagram,
select Symbol ä Show Symbols and click the corresponding tab to select the
new global object
Global objects
You can move global objects within or between the Browser tree view and
the diagram window.
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Move
Select Tools ä General Options to make sure that Move is the Default
action of the Drag & Drop option.
Within Browser
You can move a global object within the Browser to convert it into a local
object (under a group particle item), but you cannot move a global object
within its own structure (as a child of itself).
Within diagram
You can move a global object within the diagram to convert it into a local
object. Just move the global object symbol to a group particle symbol.
From Browser to diagram When you move a global object from the Browser to the diagram, a
synonym symbol is created in the diagram.
From diagram to Browser You can move a global object from the diagram to the Browser, and convert
it into a local object (under a group particle item). If the new local object
does not appear in the diagram, double-click the Collapse node of the group
particle symbol under which the former global object has been attached.
Example: converting a local object into a global object
The following procedure explains how to convert a local object into a global
object.
v To convert a local object into a global object
1. Click a local object (child element or attribute) in the Browser or the
diagram.
2. Drag and drop the local object in the space just beneath the Diagram item
or the model item. A thick horizontal line indicates that you can drop the
object.
Drag and drop
Select Tools ä General Options to make sure that Move is the Default
action of the Drag & Drop option.
The new global object is displayed in a global objects category (one level
beneath the model item).
If the new global object does not appear in the diagram, select Symbol ä
Show Symbols and click the corresponding tab to select the object
symbol.
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Manipulating XML Objects Graphically
Example before local to
global conversions within
the Browser
Job is a child element of the Customer element.
Nickname is the attribute of the Name element.
After conversions
Job became Job2, a global element.
Nickname became a global attribute.
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Chapter 3. Working with an XML model
Comparing and Merging XML Models
You can compare and merge two XML models with the same XML
language.
The comparison process allows you to highlight the differences between two
XML models.
The merge process allows you to form a single model that combines design
efforts performed independently by several team members.
Merge is performed from left to right, the model in the right pane is
compared to the model in the left pane, differences are highlighted and
merge actions are proposed in the model to be merged.
+ For more information on comparing and merging models, see the
Comparing and Merging Models chapter in the Core Features Guide .
121
XML Model Reports
XML Model Reports
You can create reports to document your XML model.
+ For detailed information about working with PowerDesigner reports, see
the Reports chapter in the Core Features Guide .
You can emphasize the hierarchical structure of your XML model by
inserting diagram graphics in your report.
In the following structure, the graphical representation of the diagram will
appear in the report just before the descriptive paragraphs.
To have a preview of your report, click the Print Preview tool in the Report
Editor window.
122
CHAPTER 4
Generating and Reverse Engineering XML
Schemas
About this chapter
This chapter describes how to generate and reverse engineer an XML
Schema Definition file (.XSD), a Document Type Definition file (.DTD) or
an XML-Data Reduced file (.XDR).
The same procedures apply to all XML languages.
Contents
Topic:
page
Generating an XML Schema
124
Reverse engineering an XML Schema into an XSM
126
123
Generating an XML Schema
Generating an XML Schema
By default, PowerDesigner supports the generation of the following types of
files for the XML schemas supported by the XSM:
Target Schema
Generated file
XML Schema Definition 1.0
XSD
Document Type Definition 1.0
DTD
XML-Data Reduced 1.0
XDR
You can preview the file to be generated by selecting the Preview tab of your
XML model property sheet
Parameter entities and DTD generation
Parameter entities are references to predefined values within a DTD file
(See Parameter property in entity property sheet). During DTD generation,
some object properties containing inadvertently parameter values will be
generated with parameter references. If you are not satisfied with this
default use of parameter entities, you should clear the Parameter property
before generation.
Generating XML schema files
PowerDesigner provides a standard interface for generating all the supported
XML schemas.
v To generate an XSD, DTD or XDR schema file
1. Select Language ä Generate schema File to open the Generation dialog:
2. Enter a directory in which to generate the files and specify whether you
want to perform a model check. For more information about checking
your model, see “Checking an XSM” in the Working with XSMs chapter.
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Chapter 4. Generating and Reverse Engineering XML Schemas
XDR generation options
When generating an XDR file, the Generation dialog contains an
Options tab, where you can specify whether or not to generate comments
(within a <description> tag). This option is enabled by default.
3. Click OK to begin generation.
A Progress box is displayed. The Result list displays the files that you
can edit. The result is also displayed in the Generation tab of the Output
window, located in the bottom part of the main window.
4. Click Edit to edit the XSD, DTD or XDR file in your associated editor:
Customizing XML schema generation
The PowerDesigner generation system is extremely customizable through
the use of extended model definitions, profiles, and generation templates.
+ For detailed information about customizing the generation of your code,
including adding generation targets, options, and tasks, see Customizing and
Extending PowerDesigner.
125
Reverse engineering an XML Schema into an XSM
Reverse engineering an XML Schema into an XSM
Reverse engineering is the process of extracting an XML structure from an
XML schema file, and using it to build or update an XSM.
Parsing
PowerDesigner uses a parser software for XML reverse engineering,
developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/).
Reverse engineering to a new XML model
You can reverse engineer XML schema files into a new XSM.
v To reverse engineer an XSD, a DTD or an XDR file to a new XSM
1. Select File ä Reverse Engineer ä XML Definition to open the New XML
Model dialog box:
2. Select an XML language and specify whether you want to share the
resource file or copy it to your model.
3. [optional] Click the Extended Model Definitions tab, and select the
extended model definitions you want to attach to the new model.
+ For more information on extended model definitions, see “Extended
Model Definitions” in the Resource Files and the Public Metamodel
chapter of Customizing and Extending PowerDesigner .
4. Click OK to go to the Reverse Engineering dialog:
126
Chapter 4. Generating and Reverse Engineering XML Schemas
5. On the Options page, specify the file you want to reverse engineer, and
select any appropriate options (see “Reverse engineering options” on
page 127).
6. [optional] Click the Target Models tab and specify any existing
PowerDesigner models which are referenced in the file being reverse
engineered. These references will become shortcuts in the reversed
model.
7. Click OK to begin reverse engineering.
The XML file is reversed into an XML model and displayed in the
diagram window and the Browser. The result is also displayed in the
Reverse page of the Output window.
Reverse engineering options
The Options page of the Reverse Engineering dialog box displays the
following options:
127
Reverse engineering an XML Schema into an XSM
Option
Description
Show symbols
Creates symbols for the reversed objects in the diagram. If
you select to show symbols, you can also specify to expand all
the nodes, and to display elements, groups, and complex and
simple types.
Convert
unique references to
elements
Enables the display of shortcuts to XML structures in other
models as expandable nodes, instead of simple shortcuts. Since
global objects with a single reference in the model will be
converted into child objects, you should not use this option if
you want to keep the global scope of some objects. You can
subsequently perform this conversion by selecting Tools ä
Convert Unique References in the XML model.
Reverse engineering to an existing XML model
You can reverse engineer XML schema files to add objects to an existing
XSM.
v To reverse engineer an XSD, a DTD or an XDR file to an existing
XSM
1. Open the XML model you want to reverse into and then select Language
ä Reverse Engineer schema File to open the Reverse Engineering dialog
box.
2. Select the file to reverse, and specify any appropriate options (see
“Reverse engineering options” on page 127).
3. [optional] Click the Target Models tab and specify any existing
PowerDesigner models which are referenced in the file being reverse
engineered. These references will become shortcuts in the reversed
model.
4. Click OK to begin reverse engineering.
A message in the Output window confirms that the file has been reversed
and the Merge Models window opens:
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Chapter 4. Generating and Reverse Engineering XML Schemas
5. Review the objects that you will be importing, and the changes that they
will make to the model..
For more information on merging models, see the Comparing and
Merging Models chapter in the Core Features Guide .
6. Click OK to merge the selected changes into your model.
7. [optional] Select Symbol ä Auto-Layout to organize the new symbols in
your diagram.
129
CHAPTER 5
Working with XML and Databases
About this chapter
Contents
This chapter describes how to use an XML model to store or retrieve data in
databases supporting XML.
Topic:
page
Introducing XML in Databases
132
Generating an Annotated Schema for Microsoft SQL Server 2000
136
Generating an Annotated Schema for Oracle 9i2
141
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2
146
131
Introducing XML in Databases
Introducing XML in Databases
Most relational databases now support XML so that you can store or retrieve
data through XML files. You can use an XML model to generate an
annotated schema that will allow you to store or retrieve data in such a
database. The following databases are supported:
Database
Mapped XML
model
Targeted XML
language
Required XEM
file
Microsoft SQL
Server 2000
Yes
XSD or XDR
Microsoft SQL
Server
Oracle 9i2
No
XSD
Oracle 9i2
IBM DB2 v8.1
Yes
DTD
IBM DB2 DAD
By attaching the SQL/XML extended model definition to an XML model
mapped to a PDM, you can also generate SQL/XML queries to retrieve
data in an XML format, from relational databases supporting SQL/XML.
The best way to generate SQL/XML queries is to use the XML Builder
Wizard which helps you build an XML model from a PDM. The generated
XML model is mapped to the PDM and automatically linked to the
SQL/XML extended model definition. (See “Generating SQL/XML queries”
on page 133)
Mapping database objects to an XML schema via the XML Builder Wizard
You can create an XSM to generate an annotated schema from a PDM via
the XML Builder.
v To generate an annotated schema by mapping through the XML
Builder Wizard
1. Open a PDM targeted with the appropriate DBMS, and select Tools ä
XML Builder Wizard to open the XML Builder Wizard.
2. Specify whether to create a new or work with an existing model, and then
click Next to go to the Tables and Views Selection page.
3. Select the tables and views from which you want to generate the schema,
and then click Next to go to the XML Hierarchy Design page.
4. Build your hierarchy by dragging and dropping tables and/or columns
from the left pane to the right pane or by using the tools above the panes:
132
Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
+ For detailed information about using the wizard, see “Generating an
XSM from a PDM via the XML Builder Wizard” in the Working with
Data Models chapter of the Data Modeling guide.
5. Click Finish to generate the XML model:
In the case of an existing XML model, the generated elements appear
alongside the existing elements.
Extended model definitions
The SQL/XML extended model definition is automatically attached
to the generated XML model. You can attach the XML Document
extended model definition to generate a simplified XML file that will
help you understand the annotated schema. (See Note in step 11)
Generating SQL/XML queries
SQL/XML is an XML extension of the Structured Query Language, which
allows you to retrieve relational data using extended SQL syntax, and
produce an XML result. SQL/XML has five main elements:
133
Introducing XML in Databases
♦ XMLELEMENT - to edit an element with a name, a list of attributes
(optional) and a list of values (optional)
♦ XMLATTRIBUTES - to edit a list of attributes with names and values
♦ XMLAGG - to edit in multiple rows a concatenation of elements, from a
single XML value corresponding to a single column
♦ XMLCONCAT - to edit in the same row a concatenation of elements,
from several XML values corresponding to several columns
♦ XMLFOREST - to edit in the same row a concatenation of elements,
from several SQL values corresponding to several columns. The name
and value of a column become the name and value of an element
An XML model allows you to generate SQL/XML queries for global
elements, whatever the targeted XML language (XSD, DTD or XDR). You
need first to map an XML model to a PDM, then to attach the SQL/XML
extended model definition to the mapped XML model.
The best way to map an XML model to a PDM is to use the XML Builder
Wizard from a PDM. The generated XML model is automatically mapped
to the PDM and linked with the SQL/XML extended model definition. If
need be, you can still modify the mapping through the Mapping tab of
elements and complex types property sheets.
+ For more information on the XML Builder Wizard, see Generating an
XML model via the XML Builder Wizard, in the Working with Data Models
chapter of the Data Modeling guide.
Generated SQL/XML queries cannot be parameterized.
Caution
The following procedure assumes you have an XML model open in the
workspace and mapped to a PDM.
Attaching the SQL/XML extended model definition
The SQL/XML extended model definition allows you to generate SQL/XML
queries. Note that this extended model definition is automatically linked to
your XSM if you have created it from a PDM via the XML Builder Wizard
v To attach the XEM
1. Select Model ä Extended Model Definitions to open the List of Extended
Model Definitions
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Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
2. Click the Import an Extended Model Definition tool to open the
Extended Model Definition Selection dialog box, select SQL/XML on the
General Purpose tab, and click OK in order to attach it to the model.
SQL/XML query preview
You can click the Preview tab of the model property sheet to obtain a
preview of the SQL/XML query.
Generating an SQL/XML query file
♦ You can generate an SQL/XML query file from an XSM.
v To generate an SQL/XML query file
1. Select Tools ä Generate SQL/XML Queries to open the Generation
dialog box.
2. Specify the directory in which to generate the file.
3. Click the Selection tab and specify which of the global elements you
want to generate queries from. A separate file will be generated for each
global element selected.
4. Click OK to begin the generation.
The Result dialog box is displayed with the path of the query file selected.
5. Click Edit to open the generated query file in your associated editor:
135
Generating an Annotated Schema for Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Generating an Annotated Schema for Microsoft
SQL Server 2000
Microsoft SQL Server 2000 is an XML-enabled database server, which
supports annotations that can be used on XSD or XDR files, to map XML
data to relational data.
An annotated schema is an XML file that allows you to store or retrieve
data in an XML format, from relational databases supporting XML. An
XML model allows you to generate an annotated schema (XSD or XDR) for
SQL Server 2000.
v To generate an annotated schema for SQL Server 2000
1. Map an XSM to a PDM. You can do this manually or by generating an
XSM from a PDM (or a PDM from an XSM) but we recommend that you
use the XML Builder Wizard (see “Mapping database objects to an XML
schema via the XML Builder Wizard” on page 132)
2. [if you do not use the wizard] Attach the SQL/XML extended model
definition (see “Attaching the SQL/XML extended model definition” on
page 134).
3. [optional] Reinforce the mappings with extended attributes (see
“Reinforcing SQL Server mappings with extended attributes” on
page 136).
4. Generate the annotated schema (see “Generating the SQL Server
annotated schema file” on page 139).
Reinforcing SQL Server mappings with extended attributes
The Microsoft SQL Server extended model definition allows you to modify
or reinforce the mapping resulting from the XML Builder Wizard via
extended attributes.
If element and attribute names match table and column names
If the element and attribute names match the table and column names, you
do not need to define extended attributes for XML objects.
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Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
v To attach the XEM
1. Select Model ä Extended Model Definitions to open the List of Extended
Model Definitions
2. Click the Import an Extended Model Definition tool to open the
Extended Model Definition Selection dialog box, click the XML in
Database tab, select Microsoft SQL Server, and click OK in order to
attach it to the model.
Annotated schema preview
By clicking the Preview tab of the model property sheet, you can have a
preview of the annotated schema.
SQL Server extended attributes for elements and attributes
You can set extended attributes on elements and attributes to reinforce their
mapping to tables and columns, by opening their property sheets and
clicking the Extended Attributes tab.
Annotation
Description
encode
When an XML element or attribute is mapped to a SQL Server
BLOB column, allows requesting a reference (URI) to be
returned and used later to return BLOB data.
Available for: Element, Attribute
field
Maps an XML item to a database column.
Available for: Element, Attribute
hide
Hides the element or attribute specified in the schema in the
resulting XML document.
Available for: Element, Attribute
is-constant
Creates an XML element that does not map to any table. The
element is displayed in the query output.
Available for: Element
key-fields
Allows specification of columns that uniquely identify the rows
in a table.
Available for: Element
limit-field
Allows limiting the values that are returned on the basis of a
limiting value.
Available for: Element, Attribute
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Generating an Annotated Schema for Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Annotation
Description
limit-value
Allows limiting the values that are returned on the basis of a
limiting value.
Available for: Element, Attribute
mapped
Allows schema items to be excluded from the result.
Available for: Element, Attribute
max-depth
Allows you to specify depth in recursive relationships that are
specified in the schema.
Available for: Element
overflowfield
Identifies the database column that contains the overflow data.
relation
Maps an XML item to a database table.
Available for: Element
Available for: Element
Specifies an element as the child table in a reference (To define
relationship- only in the child element property sheet).
child
Available for: Element
Specifies an attribute as the foreign key of a child table in a
relationship- reference (To define only in the child element property sheet).
child-key
Available for: Element
Specifies an element as the parent table in a reference (To
relationship- define only in the child element property sheet).
parent
Available for: Element
Specifies an attribute as the primary key of a parent table in a
relationship- reference (To define only in the child element property sheet).
parent-key
Available for: Element
use-cdata
Allows specifying CDATA sections to be used for certain
elements in the XML document.
Available for: Element
prefix
Creates valid XML ID, IDREF, and IDREFS. Prepends the
values of ID, IDREF, and IDREFS with a string.
Available for: Attribute
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Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
Generating the SQL Server annotated schema file
You generate the annotated schema file by selecting it as an additional target
for standard schema generation.
v To generate an annotated schema file
1. Select Language ä schema File to open the Generation dialog box.
2. Specify the directory in which to generate the file and select the XML in
Database target on the Targets tab.
3. Click OK to begin the generation.
The Result dialog box is displayed with the path of the annotated schema
file selected.
4. Click Edit to open the generated annotated schema in your associated
editor:
139
Generating an Annotated Schema for Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Note the SQL namespace (with the sql prefix) and the SQL annotations
for tables (sql:relation), columns (sql:field) and reference
(sql:relationship).
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Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
Generating an Annotated Schema for Oracle 9i2
Oracle 9i2 is a database server with a native XML storage and retrieval
technology called Oracle XML DB. There is no mapping between XML data
and relational data. Tables, columns and abstract data types (ADT) are
created from annotated schemas (XSDs). Annotated schemas are
XML-coded files, targeted with an XML language and tagged with specific
DBMS annotations, that allow you to store or retrieve data in an XML
format, from relational databases supporting XML.
An XML model allows you to generate an annotated schema (XSD) for
Oracle 9i2. You just need to attach the Oracle 9i2 extended model
definition to the XML model. Oracle 9i2 uses by default the name of the
XML elements present in the annotated schema to generate SQL objects.
You can override the creation of SQL objects by defining extended
attributes for elements, complex types and the XML model.
Caution
The following procedure assumes you have an XML model open in the
workspace and targeted with XSD.
Creating Oracle mappings with extended attributes
The Oracle XML DB extended model definition allows you to set extended
attributes to define mappings between your XSM and an Oracle database.
v To attach the XEM
1. Select Model ä Extended Model Definitions to open the List of Extended
Model Definitions
2. Click the Import an Extended Model Definition tool to open the
Extended Model Definition Selection dialog box, click the XML in
Database tab, select Oracle XML DB, and click OK in order to attach it
to the model.
Oracle extended attributes for elements and attributes
You can set extended attributes on various XSM objects to define mappings
with an Oracle database.
Element extended
attributes
The following annotations can be specified on the Extended Attributes tab of
the property sheets of elements:
141
Generating an Annotated Schema for Oracle 9i2
142
Annotation
Description
beanClassname
Can be used within element declarations. If the element
is based on a global complexType, this name must
be identical to the beanClassname value within the
complexType declaration. If a name is specified by
the user, the bean generation will generate a bean class
with this name, instead of generating a name from the
element name
columnProps
Specifies the column storage clause that is inserted into
the default CREATE TABLE statement. It is useful
mainly for elements that are mapped to tables, namely
top-level element declarations and out-of-line element
declarations
defaultTable
Specifies the name of the table into which XML instances
of this schema should be stored. This is most useful in
cases when the XML is being inserted from APIs where
table name is not specified (for example, FTP and HTTP)
javaClassname
Used to specify the name of a Java class that is derived
from the corresponding bean class, to ensure that an
object of this class is instantiated during bean access. If
a JavaClassname is not specified, Oracle XML DB will
instantiate an object of the bean class directly
maintainDOM
If true, instances of this element are stored so that they
retain DOM fidelity on output. This implies that all comments, processing instructions, namespace declarations,
and so on, are retained in addition to the ordering of
elements. If false, the output need not be guaranteed to
have the same DOM behavior as the input
maintainOrder
If true, the collection is mapped to a VARRAY. If false,
the collection is mapped to a NESTED TABLE
SQLCollSchema
Name of the database user owning the type specified by
SQLCollType
SQLCollType
Specifies the name of the SQL collection type corresponding to this XML element that has maxOccurs >
1
Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
Complex type extended
attributes
Model extended
attributes
Annotation
Description
SQLInline
If true this element is stored inline as an embedded
attribute (or a collection if maxOccurs > 1). If false,
a REF (or collection of REFs if maxOccurs > 1) is
stored. This attribute will be forced to false in certain
situations (like cyclic references) where SQL will not
support inlining
SQLName
Specifies the name of the attribute within the SQL object
that maps to this XML element
SQLSchema
Name of the database user owning the type specified by
SQLType
SQLType
Specifies the name of the SQL type corresponding to this
XML element declaration
tableProps
Specifies the TABLE storage clause that is appended
to the default CREATE TABLE statement. This is
meaningful mainly for global and out-of-line elements
The following annotations can be specified on the Extended Attributes tab of
the property sheets of complex types:
Annotation
Description
beanClassname
Can be used within element declarations. If the element
is based on a global complexType, this name must
be identical to the beanClassname value within the
complexType declaration. If a name is specified by
the user, the bean generation will generate a bean class
with this name, instead of generating a name from the
element name
SQLSchema
Name of the database user owning the type specified by
SQLType
SQLType
Specifies the name of the SQL type corresponding to this
XML element declaration
The following annotations can be specified on the Extended Attributes tab of
the property sheet of the model:
143
Generating an Annotated Schema for Oracle 9i2
Annotation
Description
mapUnboundedStringToLob
If true, unbounded strings are mapped to
CLOB by default. Similarly, unbounded
binary data get mapped to BLOB, by default.
If false, unbounded strings are mapped to
VARCHAR2(4000), and unbounded binary
components are mapped to RAW(2000)
storeVarrayAsTable
If true, the VARRAY is stored as a table
(OCT). If false, the VARRAY is stored in a
LOB
Generating the Oracle annotated schema file
You generate the annotated schema file by selecting it as an additional target
for standard schema generation.
v To generate an annotated schema file
1. Select Language ä schema File to open the Generation dialog box.
2. Specify the directory in which to generate the file and select the XML in
Database target on the Targets tab.
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Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
3. Click OK to begin the generation.
The Result dialog box is displayed with the path of the annotated schema
file selected.
4. Click Edit to open the generated annotated schema in your associated
editor:
Note the Oracle namespace (with the sql prefix) and annotations for
tables (sql:SQLName) and ADTs (sql:SQLType)
145
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2
IBM DB2 v8.1 (or higher) is a database server with an add-in for XML
storage and retrieval called IBM DB2 Extender. XML data (elements,
attributes) are mapped to relational data (tables, columns) through
Document Access Definition files (.DAD).
There are three types of DAD files:
Storage Type
Description
Xcolumn
Column mapping - the Root element is mapped to a table,
and its attributes or child elements are mapped to columns
identified by an XPath
Xcollection
SQL mapping - the DAD file starts with a SQL statement
for the table mapped to the Root element, and each child
element or attribute is mapped to a column or a table name
Xcollection
RDB mapping - a Relational Database node, with a table
and a column name, is associated with each attribute or child
element of the Root element
An XML model targeted with DTD allows you to generate DAD files for
IBM DB2.
v To generate an DAD files for DB2
1. Map an XSM to a PDM. You can do this manually or by generating an
XSM from a PDM (or a PDM from an XSM) but we recommend that you
use the XML Builder Wizard (see “Mapping database objects to an XML
schema via the XML Builder Wizard” on page 132)
2. [if you do not use the wizard] Attach the SQL/XML extended model
definition (see “Attaching the SQL/XML extended model definition” on
page 134).
3. Further specify the mappings with extended attributes (see “Reinforcing
DB2 mappings with extended attributes” on page 148).
4. Generate the annotated schema (see “Generating a DB2 DAD file” on
page 149).
Mapping DB2 objects to an XML schema via the XML Builder Wizard
You can generate an annotated schema via the XML Builder.
146
Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
v To generate an annotated schema by mapping through the XML
Builder Wizard
1. Open a PDM targeted with the IBM DB2 UDB 8.x Common Server
DBMS, and select Tools ä XML Builder Wizard to open the XML
Builder Wizard.
2. Specify whether to create a new or work with an existing model, and then
click Next to go to the Tables and Views Selection page.
3. Select the tables and views from which you want to generate the schema,
and then click Next to go to the XML Hierarchy Design page.
4. Build your hierarchy by dragging and dropping tables and/or columns
from the left pane to the right pane or by using the tools above the panes:
+ For detailed information about using the wizard, see “Generating an
XSM from a PDM via the XML Builder Wizard” in the Working with
Data Models chapter of the Data Modeling guide.
5. Click Finish to generate the XML model:
In the case of an existing XML model, the generated elements appear
alongside the existing elements.
147
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2
Extended model definitions
The SQL/XML extended model definition is automatically attached
to the generated XML model. You can attach the XML Document
extended model definition to generate a simplified XML file that will
help you understand the annotated schema.
Reinforcing DB2 mappings with extended attributes
The IBM DB2 DAD extended model definition allows you to modify or
reinforce the mapping resulting from the XML Builder Wizard via extended
attributes.
v To attach the XEM
1. Select Model ä Extended Model Definitions to open the List of Extended
Model Definitions
2. Click the Import an Extended Model Definition tool to open the
Extended Model Definition Selection dialog box, click the XML in
Database tab, select IBM DB2 DAD, and click OK in order to attach it to
the model.
DAD file preview
In the Preview tab of the Root element property sheet, click the
DB2XMLExtender.DAD File tab to preview the DAD file. If the DAD
File tab is not available, click the Select Generation Targets tool to select
IBM DB2 DAD in the Targets list and click OK.
DB2 extended attributes for global elements
You can set extended attributes on global elements to reinforce their
mapping to tables and columns, by opening their property sheets and
clicking the Extended Attributes tab.
148
Extended attribute
Description
Database
Name of the database
DTDID
ID added to the DTD_ref system table in DB2 XML
Extender
Login
Name of the logged-in user
MappingType
Type of mapping for a collection
NamespaceNode
Text zone where each line describes a namespace
couple (name = value). The separator character is ‘=‘
Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
Extended attribute
Description
Password
Password of the logged-in user
PathGeneration
Generation path
ProcessInstruction
A text zone that enables the user to enter some
instruction
SideTableID
Identifier of the side table (optional)
SideTableName
Name of the side table
StorageName
If StorageType is Xcolumn, then it is the name of the
sidetable column
StorageType
Type of storage (Xcollection or Xcolumn)
Generating a DB2 DAD file
You generate the DAD file by selecting it as an additional target for standard
schema generation.
v To generate an annotated schema file
1. Select Language ä schema File to open the Generation dialog box.
2. Specify the directory in which to generate the file and select the XML in
Database target on the Targets tab.
149
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2
3. [optional] Click the Options tab, and set any appropriate generation
options (see “DB2 DAD file generation options” on page 151).
4. Click OK to begin the generation.
The Result dialog box is displayed with the path of the generated DAD,
DTD and SQL files.
5. Click Edit to open the generated DAD file in your associated editor:
♦ Extract of a DAD file defined with Xcollection as StorageType, and
RDB as MappingType:
150
Chapter 5. Working with XML and Databases
♦ DAD file defined with Xcolumn as StorageType:
DB2 DAD file generation options
The following generation options are available:
Option
Description
Character ending an
instruction
Character ending instructions in the SQL file for stored
procedures
Generates procedures deployment
Generation of a SQL script for stored procedures
enabling XML data storage and facilitating XML data
retrieval
Path of DAD.dtd
Path of the DTD file installed with IBM DB2 Extender
and describing the specific syntax of DAD files
Schema validation
Validation tag in the DAD files to check the conformity
of DAD files with the DAD syntax
151
Generating a DAD File for IBM DB2
152
Index
A
All (group particle)
annotated schema
Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Oracle 9i2
annotation
application information
check model
create
documentation
global
local
properties
any
create
namespace
process contents
properties
any attribute
namespace
process contents
application information
create
properties
attribute
AttributeType (XDR)
check model
create
data type
default
default (XDR)
details
embedded type
fixed
form
global
local
properties
reference
stereotype
type (XDR)
use
39
136
141
89
89
117
89
89
89
89
90
44
44
44
44
45
51
51
51
89
90
91
46
48
110
47
48
50
49
50
48
50
50
48
48
48
48
48
49
50
values (DTD, XDR)
attribute group
check model
create
properties
reference
stereotype
AttributeType (XDR)
default
dt type
dt values
name
51
68
111
69
68, 69
68
68
49
49
49
49
B
base type
bibliography
block
business rule
79
v
7, 34, 75
99
C
check model
annotation
attribute
attribute group
complex type
data source
element
entity
extension
group
group particle
import
include
key
keyRef
model
namespaces
notation
redefine
restriction
shortcut
simple type
117
110
111
107
105
107
106
115
109
103
111
106
112
113
104
104
110
112
115
104
107
153
Index
simple type list
simple type union
target namespace
unique
XSM
child element
Choice (group particle)
compare XML models
complex content
complex type
attributes properties
block
check model
complex content
create
detail properties
display preferences
final
global
local
mapping properties
mixed
properties
simple content
constraint
create
properties
content
context node
convert local to global object
116
116
104
114
103
39
39
121
78
73
75
75
107
78
73
75
18
75
73
73
76
75
74
78
54
56
57
31
57
119
D
DAD file
data source
data type
attribute
attribute check
complex type
element
element check
extension
external shortcut
simple type
simple type list
simple type list check
simple type union
simple type union check
154
146, 148
105
48
110
73
31
107
79
27
71
86
116
87
116
database
DAD file
IBM DB2
Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Oracle 9i2
SQL/XML queries
XML in database
default
derivation
extension
restriction
simple type list
simple type union
diagram
documentation
create
properties
DTD
146, 148
146, 148
136
141
132, 133
132
34, 50
79
79
81
86
87
22
89
90
91
2
E
element
block
check model
child element
constraints properties
content
create
data type
default
detail properties
display preferences
ElementType (XDR)
embedded type
final
fixed
form
general properties
global
group
local
mapping properties
maxOccurs (XDR)
minOccurs (XDR)
parent element
properties
reference
stereotype
29
34
107
39
36
31
31
31
34
34
17
31
31
34
34
34
31
31
62
31
36
33
33
39
31
31
31
Index
substitution group
type (XDR)
values (XDR)
ElementType (XDR)
content
dt type
dt values
model
order
embedded type
entity
check model
create
properties
enumeration
extended
dependencies
model definition
extension
extension check
external schema
34
33
51
33
33
33
33
33
31, 48, 86
94
106
94
94
81
19
19
79
115
9
F
facet
field
stereotype
XPath
final
fixed
form
fraction digits
functional overview
82
54, 58
58
58
7, 34, 75
34, 50
34, 50
81
2
G
generate
DTD file from XML model
XDR file from XML model
XSD file from XML model
XSM to XSM
global objects
group
check model
create
display preferences
properties
reference
stereotype
124
124
124
102
118
62
109
63, 64
18
62, 64
62
62
group particle
All
check model
Choice
create
properties
Sequence
39
103
39
39
41
39
I
IBM DB2
identity constraint
field
key
keyRef
selector
unique
import
check model
create
properties
include
check model
create
properties
146, 148
54
58
54
54
57
54
96
111
97
97
96
106
97
97
K
key
check model
field
properties
selector
stereotype
keyRef
check model
field
properties
reference
selector
stereotype
36, 54
112
54
54
54
54
36, 54
113
54
54
54
54
54
L
length (restriction)
maximum
maximum exclusive
maximum inclusive
minimum
81
81
81
81
155
Index
minimum exclusive
minimum inclusive
link
child object to complex type
child object to element
child object to group
child object to group particle
child object to parent object
local objects
81
81
25, 37, 42, 65, 76
76
37
65
42
25
118
M
manipulate XML objects graphically
118
member types
87
merge XML models
121
Microsoft SQL Server 2000
reinforcing mapping with extended attributes 134,
136
mixed
75, 78
model
2
attribute form
7
block
7
check model
104
compare and merge XML models
121
copy XSM
5
create
5
details
7
element form
7
environment
13
extended definitions
19
extended dependencies
19
external schemas properties
9
final
7
items
9
namespaces properties
10
naming conventions
15
options
15
preview properties
12
properties
6
share XSM
5
N
namespace
node
context node
root node
notation
check model
156
10, 44, 51
57
57
92
110
create
properties
92
92
O
Oracle 9i2
141
P
parent element
pattern
process contents
39
81
44, 51
R
RDB
132
redefine
96
check model
112
create
97
properties
97
reference
31, 48, 54, 62, 68
report
122
create model report
122
restriction
81
check model
115
enumeration
81
fraction digits
81
length
81
maximum exclusive
81
maximum inclusive
81
maximum length
81
minimum exclusive
81
minimum inclusive
81
minimum length
81
pattern
81
total digits
81
whitespace
81
reverse engineering
options
126
target models
126
to existing XML model
128
to new XML model
126
XSD, DTD or XDR file to existing XML model
126
XSD, DTD or XDR file to new XML model 126
root node
57
S
schema
2
Index
selector
54, 57
stereotype
57
XPath
57
Sequence (group particle)
39
shortcut
check model
104
managing external shortcuts through references
and data types
27
simple content
78
simple type
71
check model
107
create
71
derive by list
86
derive by union
87
derived by list
71
derived by restriction
71
derived by union
71
list check
116
properties
72
union check
116
SQL/XML query (in XML model)
132, 133
stereotype
31, 48, 54, 57, 58, 62, 68
substitution group
34
T
target namespace
total digits
typographic conventions
7
81
v
U
union
member types
properties
unique
check model
field
properties
selector
stereotype
URI
use
W
whitespace
81
X
XDR
any
AttributeType
ElementType
XML
diagram
model
objects
XML diagram
attribute
constraint
create
element
entity
import
include
notation
redefine
XML language
XPath
abbreviated syntax
expressions
XSD
XSM
check model
create
validation
2
44
48
31
2
22
2
23
46
54
27
29
94
96
96
92
96
13
58
57
57
2
103
5
103
87
87
36, 54
114
54
54
54
54
10
50
V
value
attribute (DTD, XDR)
element (XDR)
51
51
157