Oxygen Demand, Chemical

Oxygen Demand, Chemical
DOC316.53.01099
USEPA1 Reactor Digestion Method2
Method 8000
0.7 to 40.03 mg/L COD (ULR); 3 to 150 mg/L COD (LR); 20 to 1500 mg/L
COD (HR); 200 to 15,000 mg/L COD (HR Plus)
Scope and application: For water and wastewater. Digestion is required.
1
2
3
Ranges 3 to 150 mg/L COD and 20 to 1500 mg/L COD are USEPA approved for wastewater analyses (Standard Method 5220 D), Federal
Register, April 21, 1980, 45(78), 26811-26812.
Jirka, A.M.; Carter, M.J., Analytical Chemistry, 1975, 47(8), 1397.
The ULR is only available with spectrophotometers that can measure at a wavelength of 350 nm.
Test preparation
Instrument-specific information
Table 1 shows all of the instruments that have the program for this test. The table also
shows adapter and light shield requirements for the instruments that use them.
To use the table, select an instrument, then read across to find the applicable information
for this test.
Table 1 Instrument-specific information for test tubes
Instrument
Adapters
Light shield
DR 6000, DR 5000
—
—
DR 3900
—
LZV849
DR 3800, DR 2800, DR 2700
—
LZV646
DR 1900
9609900 (D1)
—
DR 900
4846400
Cover supplied with the instrument
1
The D adapter is not available with all instrument versions.
Before starting
Install the instrument cap on the DR 900 cell holder before ZERO or READ is pushed.
DR 3900, DR 3800, DR 2800 and DR 2700: Install the light shield in Cell Compartment #2 before this test is started.
The reagent that is used in this test is corrosive and toxic. Use protection for eyes and skin and be prepared to flush any
spills with running water.
The reagents that are used in this test contain mercury. Collect the reacted samples for proper disposal.
Review the Safety Data Sheets (MSDS/SDS) for the chemicals that are used. Use the recommended personal protective
equipment.
Run one blank with each set of samples. Run all tests (the samples and the blank) with the same lot of vials. The lot number
is on the container label. Refer to Blanks for colorimetric determination on page 4.
Store unused (light sensitive) vials in a closed box.
If the samples contain high concentrations of chloride, refer to the Alternate reagents section.
Dispose of reacted solutions according to local, state and federal regulations. Refer to the Safety Data Sheets for disposal
information for unused reagents. Refer to the environmental, health and safety staff for your facility and/or local regulatory
agencies for further disposal information.
1
Items to collect
Description
Quantity
Beaker, 250-mL
1
Blender
1
COD Digestion Reagent vials
varies
DRB200 Reactor
1
Light shield or adapter (For information about sample cells, adapters or light shields, refer to
Instrument-specific information on page 1.)
1
Magnetic stirrer and stir bar
1
Opaque shipping container for storage of unused, light-sensitive reagent vials
varies
Pipet, TenSette, 0.1- to 1.0-mL, with pipet tips (for use with the 200–15,000 mg/L range)
1
Pipet, volumetric, 2.00-mL
2
Pipet filler safety bulb
1
Test tube rack
2
Refer to Consumables and replacement items on page 7 for order information.
Sample collection and storage
•
•
•
•
•
•
Collect samples in clean glass bottles. Use plastic bottles only if they are known to be
free of organic contamination.
Test biologically active samples as soon as possible.
Homogenize samples that contain solids to get a representative sample.
To preserve samples for later analysis, adjust the sample pH to less than 2 with
concentrated sulfuric acid (approximately 2 mL per liter). No acid addition is
necessary if the sample is tested immediately.
Keep the preserved samples at 2–6 °C (36–43 °F) for a maximum of 28 days.
Correct the test result for the dilution caused by the volume additions.
Reactor digestion procedure
1. Put 100 mL of sample in
a blender. Blend for
30 seconds or until
homogenized.
For samples with large
amounts of solids, increase
the homogenization time. If
the sample does not contain
suspended solids, go to step
3.
2
2. For the 200–15,000 mg/L
range or to improve
accuracy and reproducibility
of the other ranges, pour the
homogenized sample into a
250‑mL beaker and gently
stir with a magnetic stir
plate.
3. Set the DRB200 Reactor
power to on. Preheat to
150 °C.
Refer to the DRB200 User
Manual for selecting preprogrammed temperature
applications.
4. Prepare the sample:
Remove the cap from a vial
for the selected range. Hold
the vial at an angle of
45 degrees. Use a clean
pipet to add 2.00 mL of
sample to the vial.
For 250–15,000 mg/L vials:
Use a TenSette Pipet to add
0.20 mL of sample to the
vial.
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
5. Prepare the blank:
Remove the cap from a
second vial for the selected
range. Hold the vial at an
angle of 45 degrees. Use a
clean pipet to add 2.00 mL
of deionized water to the
vial.
6. Close the vials tightly.
Rinse the vials with water
and wipe with a clean paper
towel.
7. Hold the vials by the cap,
over a sink. Invert gently
several times to mix.
The vials get very hot
during mixing.
8. Put the vials in the
preheated DRB200 reactor.
Close the lid.
10. Set the reactor power to
off. Let the vials cool in the
reactor for approximately
20 minutes to 120 °C or
less.
11. Invert each vial several
times while it is still warm.
12. Put the vials in a tube
rack to cool to room
temperature.
For 250–15,000 mg/L vials:
Use a TenSette Pipet to add
0.20 mL of deionized water
to the vial.
9. Heat the vials for
2 hours.
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
3
Colorimetric procedure
Start
Zero
1. Start program 431 COD
ULR, 430 COD LR or 435
COD HR. For information
about sample cells,
adapters or light shields,
refer to Instrument-specific
information on page 1.
Note: Although the program
name can be different
between instruments, the
program number does not
change.
2. Clean the blank sample
cell.
3. Insert the blank into the
cell holder.
4. Push ZERO. The display
shows 0 or 0.0 mg/L COD.
Read
5. Clean the prepared
sample cell.
6. Insert the prepared
sample into the cell holder.
7. Push READ. Results
show in mg/L COD.
8. If using High Range Plus
COD digestion reagent
vials, multiply the result by
10. For the most accurate
results with samples near
1500 or 15,000 mg/L COD,
repeat the analysis with a
diluted sample.
Blanks for colorimetric determination
The blank vial can be used again and again for measurements that use the same lot of
reagent vials. Measure the absorbance of the blank vial over time and prepare a new
blank vial when the absorbance changes.
1. Put the instrument in the absorbance mode at the applicable wavelength. Refer to
Table 3 on page 7.
2. Add 5 mL of deionized water into an empty vial.
3. Put the vial in the instrument and zero the instrument.
4. Put the blank vial that is used in the test procedure into the instrument and record the
absorbance value.
5. Keep the blank vial in the dark.
6. Prepare a new blank when the absorbance has changed by approximately
0.01 absorbance units.
4
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
Interferences
Chloride is the primary interference in this test procedure. Each COD vial contains
mercuric sulfate that removes chloride interference to the level specified in Column 1 of
Table 2. Dilute samples that have higher chloride concentrations to the level given in
Column 2.
Note: For best results, use the low range and ultra-low range vials for samples that have high
chloride concentrations (near maximum concentration) and low COD concentrations.
If sample dilution causes the COD concentration to be too low for accurate
measurements, add 0.50 g of mercuric sulfate (HgSO4) to each COD vial before the
sample is added. The additional mercuric sulfate will increase the maximum chloride
concentration to the level given in Column 3.
Note: Bromide interference is not removed with mercuric sulfate.
Table 2 Chloride concentration limits in the sample
Vial range
Column 1 (maximum mg/L
Cl–)
Column 2 (mg/L Cl– for
diluted samples)
Column 3 (maximum mg/L
Cl– with mercuric sulfate)
ULR1 (0.7–40.0 mg/L)
2000
1000
N/A
LR (3–150 mg/L)
2000
1000
8000
HR (20–1500 mg/L)
2000
1000
4000
HR Plus (200–15,000 mg/L)
20,000
10,000
40,000
1
The ULR is only available for spectrophotometers that can measure at a wavelength of 350 nm.
Accuracy check
Standard solution method
Items to collect:
•
•
•
•
•
1000 mg/L COD standard solution
100-mL volumetric flask, Class A
Volumetric pipets, Class A and pipet filler
Deionized water
Potassium acid phthalate (KHP), dried overnight at 120 °C (HR Plus only)
0.7 to 40.0 mg/L ULR
1. Prepare a 30-mg/L COD standard solution as follows:
a. Use a pipet to add 3.00 mL of the 1000 mg/L standard solution into a 100-mL
volumetric flask.
b. Dilute to the mark with deionized water. Mix well.
2. Use the test procedure to measure the concentration of the standard solution.
3. Compare the expected result to the actual result.
Note: The factory calibration can be adjusted slightly with the standard adjust option so that the
instrument shows the expected value of the standard solution. The adjusted calibration is then
used for all test results. This adjustment can increase the test accuracy when there are slight
variations in the reagents or instruments.
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
5
3 to 150 mg/L LR
1. Prepare a 100-mg/L COD standard solution as follows:
a. Use a pipet to add 10 mL of the 1000 mg/L standard solution into a 100-mL
volumetric flask.
b. Dilute to the mark with deionized water. Mix well.
2. Use the test procedure to measure the concentration of the standard solution.
3. Compare the expected result to the actual result.
Note: The factory calibration can be adjusted slightly with the standard adjust option so that the
instrument shows the expected value of the standard solution. The adjusted calibration is then
used for all test results. This adjustment can increase the test accuracy when there are slight
variations in the reagents or instruments.
20 to 1500 mg/L HR
1. Use the test procedure with a 300-mg/L, 800 mg/L or 1000 mg/L COD standard
solution to measure the concentration of the standard solution.
2. Compare the expected result to the actual result.
Note: The factory calibration can be adjusted slightly with the standard adjust option so that the
instrument shows the expected value of the standard solution. The adjusted calibration is then
used for all test results. This adjustment can increase the test accuracy when there are slight
variations in the reagents or instruments.
200 to 15,000 mg/L HR Plus
1. Prepare a 10,000 mg/L COD standard solution as follows:
a. Dissolve 8.500 g of dried KHP in 1000-mL of organic-free deionized water.
2. Use the test procedure to measure the concentration of the standard solution.
3. Compare the expected result to the actual result.
Note: The factory calibration can be adjusted slightly with the standard adjust option so that the
instrument shows the expected value of the standard solution. The adjusted calibration is then
used for all test results. This adjustment can increase the test accuracy when there are slight
variations in the reagents or instruments.
Alternate reagents
Mercury-free COD2 Reagents are available as a mercury-free alternative. These
reagents are fully compatible with test procedures and stored programs in the
instruments. Chloride and ammonia determinations are recommended for accurate
results.
NOTICE
COD2 reagents are not approved for USEPA reporting purposes. Because COD2 reagents do not
contain mercury as a masking agent, they exhibit a positive interference from chloride. More
information is available for use with specific applications.
Method performance
The method performance data that follows was derived from laboratory tests that were
measured on a spectrophotometer during ideal test conditions. Users can get different
results under different test conditions.
Program
Standard
Precision (95% Confidence Interval)
Sensitivity
Concentration change per 0.010 Abs change
431 (ULR)
30 mg/L COD
28.8–31.2 mg/L COD
0.5 mg/L COD
430 (LR)
80 mg/L COD
77–83 mg/L COD
3 mg/L COD
435 (HR)
800 mg/L COD
785–815 mg/L COD
23 mg/L COD
7850–8150 mg/L COD
230 mg/L COD
435 (HR Plus) 8000 mg/L COD
6
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
Summary of method
The results in mg/L COD are defined as the milligrams of O2 consumed per liter of
sample under the conditions of this procedure. The sample is heated for 2 hours with
sulfuric acid and a strong oxidizing agent, potassium dichromate. Oxidizable organic
compounds react, reducing the dichromate ion (Cr2O72–) to green chromic ion (Cr3+).
When the 0.7–40.0 or the 3–150 mg/L colorimetric method is used, the amount of Cr6+
that remains is measured. When the 20–1500 mg/L or 200–15,000 mg/L colorimetric
method is used, the amount of Cr3+ that is produced is measured. The COD reagent also
contains silver and mercury ions. Silver is a catalyst, and mercury is used to complex
chloride interferences.
Test results are measured at the wavelengths that are specified in Table 3.
Table 3 Range-specific test wavelengths
Range in mg/L COD
Wavelength
0.7–40.0 mg/L
350 nm (for applicable instruments)
3–150 mg/L
420 nm
20–1500
620 nm (610 nm for colorimeters)
200–15,000 mg/L
620 nm (610 nm for colorimeters)
Pollution prevention and waste management
Reacted samples contain mercury, silver and chromium and must be disposed of as a
hazardous waste. Dispose of reacted solutions according to local, state and federal
regulations. Users in the United States can use the ez COD Recycling Service for
disposal of COD vials. Refer to Consumables and replacement items on page 7.
Consumables and replacement items
Required reagents
Description
Quantity/test
Unit
Item no.
COD, Ultra Low Range, 0.7–40 mg/L
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2415825
COD, Low Range, 3–150 mg/L
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2125825
COD, High Range, 20–1500 mg/L
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2125925
COD, High Range Plus, 200–15,000 mg/L
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2415925
varies
4L
27256
Quantity/test
Unit
Item no.
COD2, Low Range, 0–150 mg/L COD
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2565025
COD2, High Range, 0–1500 mg/L COD
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2565125
COD2, High Range, 0–1500 mg/L COD
1–2 vials
150/pkg
2565115
COD2, High Range Plus, 0–15,000 mg/L COD
1–2 vials
25/pkg
2834325
COD Digestion Reagent Vials, 3–150 mg/L COD
1–2 vials
150/pkg
2125815
COD Digestion Reagent Vials, 200–1500 mg/L COD
1–2 vials
150/pkg
2125915
COD Digestion Reagent Vials, ULR 0.7–40.0 mg/L
1–2 vials
150/pkg
2415815
COD Digestion Reagent Vials, HR plus, 200–25,000 mg/L
1–2 vials
150/pkg
2415915
Water, deionized
Alternate reagents and package sizes
Description
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
7
Required apparatus
Description
Quantity/test
Unit
Item no.
1
each
2616100
Blender, 2-speed, 240 VAC option
1
each
2616102
DRB 200 Reactor, 110 VAC option, 15 x 16-mm wells
1
each
LTV082.53.40001
DRB 200 Reactor, 220 VAC option, 15 x 16-mm wells
1
each
LTV082.52.40001
Pipet filler, safety bulb
1
each
1465100
Pipet, volumetric, Class A, 2.00-mL
1
each
1451536
Description
Unit
Item no.
Beaker, 250-mL
each
50046H
COD Standard Solution, 300-mg/L
200 mL
1218629
COD Standard Solution, 300-mg/L
500mL
1218649
COD Standard Solution, 800-mg/L
200 mL
2672629
COD Standard Solution, 1000-mg/L
200 mL
2253929
Oxygen Demand Standard (BOD, COD, TOC), 10-mL ampules
16/pkg
2833510
Blender, 2-speed, 120 VAC option
OR
OR
Recommended standards and apparatus
®
Pipet, TenSette , 0.1–1.0 mL
each
1970001
®
50/pkg
2185696
®
1000/pkg
2185628
Potassium Acid Phthalate (KHP), ACS
500 g
31534
Stir bar, octagonal
each
2095352
Stirrer, electromagnetic, 120 VAC, with electrode stand
each
4530001
Stirrer, electromagnetic, 230 VAC, with electrode stand
each
4530002
Test tube rack, stainless steel
each
1864100
70/pkg
2096900
Description
Unit
Item no.
Balance, analytical, 80 g x 0.1 mg 100–240 VAC
each
2936701
Flask, volumetric, Class A, 1000-mL glass
each
1457453
Flask, volumetric, Class A, 100-mL glass
each
1457442
Mercuric Sulfate
28 g
191520
Pipet, volumetric, Class A, 3-mL
each
1451503
Pipet, volumetric, Class A, 10-mL
each
1451538
Sulfuric Acid, ACS
500 mL
97949
Wastewater Influent Standard Solution, Mixed Parameter, for NH3-N, NO3-N, PO4,
COD, SO4, TOC
500 mL
2833149
Pipet tips for TenSette Pipet, 0.1–1.0 mL
Pipet tips for TenSette Pipet, 0.1–1.0 mL
Wipes, disposable
Optional reagents and apparatus
8
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
Optional reagents and apparatus (continued)
Description
Unit
Item no.
EZ COD™ Recycling Service with 5-gal bucket-mail back option (For US customers
only. 20 and 55 gallon sizes are also available. )
each
2895405
EZ COD™ Recycling Service with 5-gal bucket- pick up option. (For US customers
only. 20 and 55 gallon sizes are also available. )
each
2895405P
Finger cots
2/pkg
1464702
pair
24101041
500/pkg
1473885
each
2550700
500 mL
2833249
Gloves, chemical resistant, size 9–9.5
Paper, for weighing, 100 x 100 mm
Safety goggles, vented
Wastewater Effluent Standard Solution, Mixed Parameter, for NH3-N, NO3-N, PO43–,
COD, SO42–, TOC
1
Other sizes available
Oxygen Demand, Chemical, Dichromate Method (multi-range: 40.0, 150, 1500, 15,000 mg/L)
9
FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, PRICE INFORMATION AND ORDERING:
In the U.S.A. – Call toll-free 800-227-4224
Outside the U.S.A. – Contact the HACH office or distributor serving you.
On the Worldwide Web – www.hach.com; E-mail – techhelp@hach.com
©
Hach Company/Hach Lange GmbH, 1989–2014. All rights reserved.
HACH COMPANY
WORLD HEADQUARTERS
Telephone: (970) 669-3050
FAX: (970) 669-2932
10/2014, Edition 10
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