Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
Presenter: Roland Chemali
Chief Petrophysicist Sperry
Thursday No-29-2012
Kuala Lumpur
Laminated Formations
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
2
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
3
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
4
Standard vs. High Resolution Tool Response in
Laminated Shaly Sand Reservoirs
Image Deconvolution
Image Guided Interpretation
SPE 30608
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
5
Standard vs. High Resolution Interpretation in Laminated
Shaly Sand Reservoirs
9’ Net Pay
3’ Net Pay
Standard Resolution
High Resolution
SPE 30608
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
6
Electrical Imager LWD
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Electrical Imager Wireline
7
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
8
Anisotropy in Turbidites and Laminations
Rv = “Vertical” Resistivity
Rh = “Horizontal” Resistivity
Anisotropy Ratio = Rv/Rh
The “Macro-Approach
In Addition To / Instead Of
the Micro-Approach
Rv
Rh
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
9
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs Through Anisotropy
(Shaly Sands, Turbidites..)
Rh
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
10
Rv
Anisotropy in Sand Shale Sequences
The Difference Between Micro-Anisotropy and Macro-Anisotropy
is Subjective and Depends On Measuring Instrument
Rsand= 20 Ohm-m
Rh ≈ 2 Ohm-m
Rh ≈ 2 Ohm-m
Rshale=1 Ohm-m
Rv ≈ 10 Ohm-m
The Vertical Coil Array
Measures Only Rh i.e. 2 Ohm-m i.e. “”Wet”
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
11
Rv ≈ 10 Ohm-m
Anisotropy: Historic Perspective
Anisotropy in the 70’s
Paper/Patent for Oil Base Dipmeter
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
12
Anisotropy: Historic Perspective
Anisotropy in the 80’s
Explains Separation Between Induction and Laterolog
A Nuisance to Contend With
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
13
In Kuparuk in Alaska, ARCO measured the same
turbidite reservoir at different relative dip angles
Well-1
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Well-2
14
Sovic, Klein et Al Increase Reserves in Kuparuk and
Other Reservoirs
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
15
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
16
Multi-Component Induction Hardware Description
Electronics
– Same as ACRt
• 6”, 10”
 4 Co-located Receiver triads
– Receiver Triad Main and bucking
coils
– Same spacings as ACRt
• 17”, 29”, 50”, 80”
T
80”
6”
10”
17”
50”
29”
.
.
.
 1 Co-located Transmitter triad
 2 standard z short spacing coils
Electronics
29”
50”
17”
80”
10”
6”
T
– Multi-frequency operation
•
MCI : 12, 36, 60, 84 kHz
• ACRt: 12, 36, 72
kHz
MCI
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
17
ACRt
Test well: Comparison Between Multi-Component Induction and
Single Component Induction Responses
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
18
Additional Components in Test Well: XZ and YZ
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
19
Inverted Results From Multi-Component Induction
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
20
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
21
Measuring Electrical Anisotropy with LWD
TU-48
TU-32
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
TU-16
R1 R2
TL-16
22
TL-32
TL-48
R3
Determination of Electrical Anisotropy With Wave Resistivity LWD
1-D Wave Resistivity
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Tilted Receiver Wave Res
23
Tilted Receiver & Transmitter
Azimuthal Deep Resistivity LWD for Anisotropy
TU-48
TU-32
TU-16
R1 R2
TL-16
TL-32
TL-48
3x
Receivers
Uncompensated Upper Transmitter Measurement
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
24
R3
Azimuthal Deep Resistivity LWD For Anisotropy
TU-48
TU-32
TU-16
R1 R2
TL-16
TL-32
TL-48
Uncompensated Lower Transmitter Measurement
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
25
R3
Relative Dip = 0 deg
Anisotropic Formation
Rh = 1 Ohm-m 
Rv = 3 Ohm-m 
Ohm-m
Relative Dip = 90 deg
Compensated Azimuthal Resistivity
Anisotropy Determination
with
LWD
-ADR 16 in; 2 MHz, Up,
Down and
Average ADR
-ADR 48 in; 500 KHz, Up, Down and Average
10
5
0
deg
At Moderate Relative Dip (cont…)
Uncompensated Geosignal
Upper Transmitter
Compensated Geosignal
-5
10
Uncompensated Geosignal
Lower Transmitter
Anisotropy Determination with LWD ADR
At Very High Relative Dip
Rh = 3 Ohm-m, Rv = 20 Ohm-m
Resistivity (Ohm-m)
ADR
Rp-16 2MHz
Rp-32 2MHz
Rp-48 2MHz
Relative Dip (deg)
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
27
Rv, Rh, From LWD ADR
Raw Data
LWD ADR Raw Logs
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
SPE-123890
28
Wireline Raw Logs
Rv, Rh, From LWD ADR
Processed Results
Wireline Results
LWD ADR Results
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
SPE-123890
29
In a Field In Alaska We Measure the Same Formation
At Different Relative Dip Angles
Well-1
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Well-2
30
Estimating Vsh-lam, and Rsand
Rsh-h=2 Ohm-m
Rsh-v = 7 Ohm-m
Rv, Rh obtained from previous joint inversion
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
31
Vertical Well
High Angle Well EWR
Rh
Rv
In the zones
of interest
Rh varies
between 4
ohm-m and
6 ohm-m
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
32
Comparative Performance of Azimuthal and
Non-Azimuthal LWD Resistivity Sensors
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
33
Comparative Performance of Azimuthal and
Non-Azimuthal LWD Resistivity Sensors
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
34
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
35
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
36
Comparison of Computed Results in TVD
Assuming Rshale (horiz) =2.2 Ohm-m
Shale Anisotropy Ratio = 2.5
ADR vs. EWR
Vsh
GR
0.2
Rv
Rh
20
Dens
NSS
Sand Por
+45
-15
Rsand
20
HC Volum
50
0
ADR
EWR
Note: Because Rh(EWR) is low compared
to Rshale, Vshale is close to 1.
37
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Comparison of Computed Results in TVD
Assuming Rshale (horiz) =2.2 Ohm-m
Shale Anisotropy Ratio = 2.5
ADR vs. Core
Vsh
GR
0.2
Rv
Rh
20
Dens
NSS
+45
-15
Rsand
20
HC Volum
50
0
ADR
0.50.5
0.45
0.45
5
0
4980
Sand Por
Comparison HC Volume from ADR 0.40.4
With F * (1-Sw) from Cores - Smoothed0.350.35
Comparison HC Volume from ADR
With F * (1-Sw) from Cores
0.30.3
0.25
0.25
0.20.2
0.15
0.15
5000
5020
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
5040
5060
0.1
0.1
0.05
0.05
0
0 4980
38
4980
5000
5000
5000
5020
5020
5020
5040
5040
5040
5060
5060
5060
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
39
DMR Porosity/T1 Distribution with TDA Porosity/Differential
Conventional Data & T1 Field Log
Distribution
120 ft (36 m) low contrast pay identified
Hydrocarbon identified
No Gas/Oil Contact
Long T1 - Gas
Differential T2 Gas
T1 & HI corrected
NMR Porosity
T1 Distribution
Porosity
Porosity
0.5 1
10
100
T1 (ms)
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
T2
40
1000
0.5 1
Differentia
l
10
100 1000
T2 (ms)
2DFC-T2D
(Two Dimensional Fluid Characterization - T2D)
2D
2DPlot
Map
Water
Viscous Oil
Light Oil
Gas
1.00E-02
Diffusion Constant (cm 2 /sec.)
This process assumes
formation is water wet
and the gas
oil exhibits
exhibitsbulk
bulk
properties with no
surface relaxation effect
Gas
Gas
1.00E-03
Water
Water
Water
1.00E-04
Water
1.00E-05
1.00E-06
1.00E-07
1.00E-08
1
10
100
1000
10000
Relaxation Time (msec.)
Oil
Water
2D-NMR
Gas
will
will
will
beplots
be
observed
beobserved
observed
represent
in in
these
inthe
these
these
simultaneous
plots
plots
plots
somewhere
somewhere
somewhere
inversion
along
along
along
of
this
multiple
this
this
line
line
line
because
data
because
because
sets
both
its
with
itsits
diffusivity
diffusivity
respect
diffusivity
to
isisvery
two
and
quite
NMR
its
high.
high
and its relaxation
parameters.
relaxation
rate
These
arerate
inversely
canwill
bedepend
T1proportional
/D0 oron
T2/D
the
.
pore
to
T
the
/D
size
is
viscosity
most
in
which
common.
of
the
it
resides.
oil.
The
position
of
this
line
is
0
2 0
primarily a function of temperature.
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
41
2DFC-T2D
(Two Dimensional Fluid Characterization - T2D)
x
x
Near Wellbore:
Diffusion for Gas
 Fluid ID and Volumes
Diffusion for Water
T2intrinsic Gas
 Combines all T1 & T2
methodologies
 Identification of effects
Water & 6 cp Oil
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
42
T2intrinsic Water
 Viscosity estimation
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
43
Fluid Sampling For Laminated Reservoirs
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
44
Wireline Tester Intake Configurations
Probes 0.5”
Oval Pad 10”
Straddle Packer 40”
1m
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
45
Oval Pad & Straddle PackerTesting & Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
46
Actual Core - Carbonate Heterogeneity
X,931.0 ft
X,934.0 ft
X,937.0 ft
9.6 in.
X,928.0 ft
3-RJS-646 T.02 – 4919.35m
TUPI
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
47
Focused Oval Pad Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
48
LWD – Fluid ID and Sampling
 Real-time measurements
– Formation fluid pressure
– Temperature
– Resistivity
– Density
– Bubble point measurements
 Applications
– High angle wells
– Reduced pump out time
– Data in hours not days
– Sticky and unstable hole
conditions
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
49
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
50
Vibrating Tube Fluid Density Sensor
Vibrating Tube Density Sensor
Voice Coils
Driver
Detector
 Principle of operation:
− Vibrating flow tube as sensing element
− Fundamental resonance frequency is function of fluid density
Accuracy ±0.01 g/cm3
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
High sensitivity ±0.003 g/cm3
51
Advanced Optical Fluid Analyser
3
Methane/ GOR
2.5 Saturates
Optical Density
Aromatics
2
CO2
1.5 Synthetic
Drilling Fluid
Filtrate
Wavelength (nm)
1
Conventional
Sensors
0.5
0
-0.5
1000
1500
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
2000
2500
3000
52
3500
4000
4500
5000
Evaluation of Laminated Reservoirs
 Image Guided Deconvolution
 Electrical Anisotropy
 Anisotropy Measurement Method Wireline
 Anisotropy Measurement Method LWD
 From Electrical Anisotropy to Saturation
 Magnetic Resonance for Fluid Identification
 Fluid Sampling
© 2012 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
53