Bacula Utility Programs

Bacula Utility Programs
It comes in the night and sucks the essence from your computers.
Kern Sibbald
May 5, 2010
This manual documents Bacula version 5.0.2 (28 April 2010)
c
Copyright 1999-2009,
Free Software Foundation Europe e.V.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A
copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”.
2
Contents
1 Volume Utility Tools
5
1.1
Specifying the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.2
Specifying a Device Name For a Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.3
Specifying a Device Name For a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.4
Specifying Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.5
bls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.5.1
Listing Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.5.2
Listing Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
bextract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1.6.1
Extracting with Include or Exclude Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.6.2
Extracting With a Bootstrap File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.6.3
Extracting From Multiple Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
bscan
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.7.1
Using bscan to Compare a Volume to an existing Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
1.7.2
Using bscan to Recreate a Catalog from a Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
1.7.3
Using bscan to Correct the Volume File Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
1.7.4
After bscan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
bcopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
1.8.1
bcopy Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
btape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
1.9.1
Using btape to Verify your Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
1.9.2
btape Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
1.10 Other Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
1.11 bsmtp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
1.12 dbcheck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
1.13 bregex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
3
4
CONTENTS
1.14 bwild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
1.15 testfind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
1.16 bimagemgr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
1.16.1 bimagemgr installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
1.16.2 bimagemgr usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2 Bacula RPM Packaging FAQ
27
2.1
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.2
Build Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
2.3
RPM Install Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
3 GNU Free Documentation License
33
Chapter 1
Volume Utility Tools
This document describes the utility programs written to aid Bacula users and developers in dealing with
Volumes external to Bacula.
1.1
Specifying the Configuration File
Starting with version 1.27, each of the following programs requires a valid Storage daemon configuration file
(actually, the only part of the configuration file that these programs need is the Device resource definitions).
This permits the programs to find the configuration parameters for your archive device (generally a tape
drive). By default, they read bacula-sd.conf in the current directory, but you may specify a different
configuration file using the -c option.
1.2
Specifying a Device Name For a Tape
Each of these programs require a device-name where the Volume can be found. In the case of a tape, this
is the physical device name such as /dev/nst0 or /dev/rmt/0ubn depending on your system. For the
program to work, it must find the identical name in the Device resource of the configuration file. See below
for specifying Volume names.
Please note that if you have Bacula running and you ant to use one of these programs, you will either need
to stop the Storage daemon, or unmount any tape drive you want to use, otherwise the drive will busy
because Bacula is using it.
1.3
Specifying a Device Name For a File
If you are attempting to read or write an archive file rather than a tape, the device-name should be the
full path to the archive location including the filename. The filename (last part of the specification) will be
stripped and used as the Volume name, and the path (first part before the filename) must have the same
entry in the configuration file. So, the path is equivalent to the archive device name, and the filename is
equivalent to the volume name.
1.4
Specifying Volumes
In general, you must specify the Volume name to each of the programs below (with the exception of btape).
The best method to do so is to specify a bootstrap file on the command line with the -b option. As part
5
6
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
of the bootstrap file, you will then specify the Volume name or Volume names if more than one volume is
needed. For example, suppose you want to read tapes tape1 and tape2. First construct a bootstrap file
named say, list.bsr which contains:
Volume=test1|test2
where each Volume is separated by a vertical bar. Then simply use:
./bls -b list.bsr /dev/nst0
In the case of Bacula Volumes that are on files, you may simply append volumes as follows:
./bls /tmp/test1\|test2
where the backslash (\) was necessary as a shell escape to permit entering the vertical bar (—).
And finally, if you feel that specifying a Volume name is a bit complicated with a bootstrap file, you can
use the -V option (on all programs except bcopy) to specify one or more Volume names separated by the
vertical bar (—). For example,
./bls -V Vol001 /dev/nst0
You may also specify an asterisk (*) to indicate that the program should accept any volume. For example:
./bls -V* /dev/nst0
1.5
bls
bls can be used to do an ls type listing of a Bacula tape or file. It is called:
Usage: bls [options] <device-name>
-b <file>
specify a bootstrap file
-c <file>
specify a config file
-d <level>
specify debug level
-e <file>
exclude list
-i <file>
include list
-j
list jobs
-k
list blocks
(no j or k option) list saved files
-L
dump label
-p
proceed inspite of errors
-v
be verbose
-V
specify Volume names (separated by |)
-?
print this message
For example, to list the contents of a tape:
./bls -V Volume-name /dev/nst0
Or to list the contents of a file:
./bls /tmp/Volume-name
or
./bls -V Volume-name /tmp
7
1.5. BLS
Note that, in the case of a file, the Volume name becomes the filename, so in the above example, you will
replace the xxx with the name of the volume (file) you wrote.
Normally if no options are specified, bls will produce the equivalent output to the ls -l command for each
file on the tape. Using other options listed above, it is possible to display only the Job records, only the
tape blocks, etc. For example:
./bls /tmp/File002
bls: butil.c:148 Using device: /tmp
drwxrwxr-x
3 k k 4096 02-10-19 21:08
drwxrwxr-x
2 k k 4096 02-10-10 18:59
-rw-rw-r-1 k k
54 02-07-06 18:02
-rw-rw-r-1 k k
16 02-07-06 18:02
-rw-rw-r-1 k k 1783 02-10-10 18:59
-rw-rw-r-1 k k 97506 02-10-18 21:07
-rw-r--r-1 k k 3513 02-10-18 21:02
-rw-rw-r-1 k k 4669 02-07-06 18:02
-rw-r--r-1 k k 4391 02-09-14 16:51
-rw-r--r-1 k k 3609 02-07-07 16:41
-rw-rw-r-1 k k 4418 02-10-18 21:03
...
-rw-rw-r-1 k k
83 02-08-31 19:19
bls: Got EOF on device /tmp
84 files found.
1.5.1
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/Root
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/Repository
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/CVS/Entries
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/Makefile
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/Makefile.in
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/README-config
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/authenticate.c
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/autoprune.c
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/bacula-dir.conf
/home/kern/bacula/k/src/dird/.cvsignore
Listing Jobs
If you are listing a Volume to determine what Jobs to restore, normally the -j option provides you with most
of what you will need as long as you don’t have multiple clients. For example,
./bls -j -V Test1 -c stored.conf DDS-4
bls: butil.c:258 Using device: "DDS-4" for reading.
11-Jul 11:54 bls: Ready to read from volume "Test1" on device "DDS-4" (/dev/nst0).
Volume Record: File:blk=0:1 SessId=4 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=0 DataLen=165
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:2 SessId=4 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=1 Level=F Type=B
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:3 SessId=5 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=5 Level=F Type=B
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:6 SessId=3 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=2 Level=F Type=B
Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=0:13 SessId=2 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=4 Level=F Type=B
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:99 SessId=3 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=2 Level=F Type=B
Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:101 SessId=2 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=4 Level=F Type=B
Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:108 SessId=5 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=5 Level=F Type=B
Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
End Job Session Record: File:blk=0:109 SessId=4 SessTime=1121074625 JobId=1 Level=F Type=B
Files=168 Bytes=1,732,978 Errors=0 Status=T
11-Jul 11:54 bls: End of Volume at file 1 on device "DDS-4" (/dev/nst0), Volume "Test1"
11-Jul 11:54 bls: End of all volumes.
shows a full save followed by two incremental saves.
Adding the -v option will display virtually all information that is available for each record:
1.5.2
Listing Blocks
Normally, except for debugging purposes, you will not need to list Bacula blocks (the ”primitive” unit of
Bacula data on the Volume). However, you can do so with:
./bls -k /tmp/File002
bls: butil.c:148 Using device: /tmp
Block: 1 size=64512
Block: 2 size=64512
8
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
...
Block: 65 size=64512
Block: 66 size=19195
bls: Got EOF on device /tmp
End of File on device
By adding the -v option, you can get more information, which can be useful in knowing what sessions were
written to the volume:
./bls -k -v /tmp/File002
Volume Label:
Id
: Bacula 0.9 mortal
VerNo
: 10
VolName
: File002
PrevVolName
:
VolFile
: 0
LabelType
: VOL_LABEL
LabelSize
: 147
PoolName
: Default
MediaType
: File
PoolType
: Backup
HostName
:
Date label written: 2002-10-19 at 21:16
Block: 1 blen=64512 First rec FI=VOL_LABEL SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=0 rlen=147
Block: 2 blen=64512 First rec FI=6 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=4087
Block: 3 blen=64512 First rec FI=12 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=5902
Block: 4 blen=64512 First rec FI=19 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=28382
...
Block: 65 blen=64512 First rec FI=83 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=1873
Block: 66 blen=19195 First rec FI=83 SessId=1 SessTim=1035062102 Strm=DATA rlen=2973
bls: Got EOF on device /tmp
End of File on device
Armed with the SessionId and the SessionTime, you can extract just about anything.
If you want to know even more, add a second -v to the command line to get a dump of every record in every
block.
./bls -k -v -v /tmp/File002
bls: block.c:79 Dump block 80f8ad0: size=64512 BlkNum=1
Hdrcksum=b1bdfd6d cksum=b1bdfd6d
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=VOL_LABEL Strm=0 len=147 p=80f8b40
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=SOS_LABEL Strm=-7 len=122 p=80f8be7
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=1 Strm=UATTR len=86 p=80f8c75
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=2 Strm=UATTR len=90 p=80f8cdf
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=3 Strm=UATTR len=92 p=80f8d4d
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=3 Strm=DATA len=54 p=80f8dbd
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=3 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=80f8e07
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=4 Strm=UATTR len=98 p=80f8e2b
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=4 Strm=DATA len=16 p=80f8ea1
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=4 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=80f8ec5
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=5 Strm=UATTR len=96 p=80f8ee9
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=5 Strm=DATA len=1783 p=80f8f5d
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=5 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=80f9668
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=UATTR len=95 p=80f968c
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=DATA len=32768 p=80f96ff
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=DATA len=32768 p=8101713
bls: block.c:79 Dump block 80f8ad0: size=64512 BlkNum=2
Hdrcksum=9acc1e7f cksum=9acc1e7f
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=contDATA len=4087 p=80f8b40
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=DATA len=31970 p=80f9b4b
bls: block.c:92
Rec: VId=1 VT=1035062102 FI=6 Strm=MD5 len=16 p=8101841
...
1.6
bextract
If you find yourself using bextract, you probably have done something wrong. For example, if you are
trying to recover a file but are having problems, please see the Restoring When Things Go Wrong section of
1.6. BEXTRACT
9
the Restore chapter of this manual.
Normally, you will restore files by running a Restore Job from the Console program. However, bextract
can be used to extract a single file or a list of files from a Bacula tape or file. In fact, bextract can be
a useful tool to restore files to an empty system assuming you are able to boot, you have statically linked
bextract and you have an appropriate bootstrap file.
Please note that some of the current limitations of bextract are:
1. It cannot restore access control lists (ACL) that have been backed up along with the file data.
2. It cannot restore encrypted files.
3. The command line length is relatively limited, which means that you cannot enter a huge number of
volumes. If you need to enter more volumes than the command line supports, please use a bootstrap
file (see below).
It is called:
Usage: bextract [-d debug_level] <device-name> <directory-to-store-files>
-b <file>
specify a bootstrap file
-dnn
set debug level to nn
-e <file>
exclude list
-i <file>
include list
-p
proceed inspite of I/O errors
-V
specify Volume names (separated by |)
-?
print this message
where device-name is the Archive Device (raw device name or full filename) of the device to be read, and
directory-to-store-files is a path prefix to prepend to all the files restored.
NOTE: On Windows systems, if you specify a prefix of say d:/tmp, any file that would have been restored to
c:/My Documents will be restored to d:/tmp/My Documents. That is, the original drive specification
will be stripped. If no prefix is specified, the file will be restored to the original drive.
1.6.1
Extracting with Include or Exclude Lists
Using the -e option, you can specify a file containing a list of files to be excluded. Wildcards can be used
in the exclusion list. This option will normally be used in conjunction with the -i option (see below). Both
the -e and the -i options may be specified at the same time as the -b option. The bootstrap filters will be
applied first, then the include list, then the exclude list.
Likewise, and probably more importantly, with the -i option, you can specify a file that contains a list (one
file per line) of files and directories to include to be restored. The list must contain the full filename with
the path. If you specify a path name only, all files and subdirectories of that path will be restored. If you
specify a line containing only the filename (e.g. my-file.txt) it probably will not be extracted because you
have not specified the full path.
For example, if the file include-list contains:
/home/kern/bacula
/usr/local/bin
Then the command:
./bextract -i include-list -V Volume /dev/nst0 /tmp
will restore from the Bacula archive /dev/nst0 all files and directories in the backup from
/home/kern/bacula and from /usr/local/bin. The restored files will be placed in a file of the original name under the directory /tmp (i.e. /tmp/home/kern/bacula/... and /tmp/usr/local/bin/...).
10
1.6.2
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
Extracting With a Bootstrap File
The -b option is used to specify a bootstrap file containing the information needed to restore precisely the files you want. Specifying a bootstrap file is optional but recommended because it gives you
the most control over which files will be restored. For more details on the bootstrap file, please see
Restoring Files with the Bootstrap File chapter of this document. Note, you may also use a bootstrap file
produced by the restore command. For example:
./bextract -b bootstrap-file /dev/nst0 /tmp
The bootstrap file allows detailed specification of what files you want restored (extracted). You may specify
a bootstrap file and include and/or exclude files at the same time. The bootstrap conditions will first be
applied, and then each file record seen will be compared to the include and exclude lists.
1.6.3
Extracting From Multiple Volumes
If you wish to extract files that span several Volumes, you can specify the Volume names in the bootstrap file
or you may specify the Volume names on the command line by separating them with a vertical bar. See the
section above under the bls program entitled Listing Multiple Volumes for more information. The same
techniques apply equally well to the bextract program or read the Bootstrap chapter of this document.
1.7
bscan
If you find yourself using this program, you have probably done something wrong. For example, the best
way to recover a lost or damaged Bacula database is to reload the database by using the bootstrap file that
was written when you saved it (default bacula-dir.conf file).
The bscan program can be used to re-create a database (catalog) records from the backup information
written to one or more Volumes. This is normally needed only if one or more Volumes have been pruned
or purged from your catalog so that the records on the Volume are no longer in the catalog, or for Volumes
that you have archived. Note, if you scan in Volumes that were previously purged, you will be able to do
restores from those Volumes. However, unless you modify the Job and File retention times for the Jobs that
were added by scanning, the next time you run any Job with the same name, the records will be pruned
again. Since it takes a long time to scan Volumes this can be very frustrating.
With some care, bscan can also be used to synchronize your existing catalog with a Volume. Although
we have never seen a case of bscan damaging a catalog, since bscan modifies your catalog, we recommend that you do a simple ASCII backup of your database before running bscan just to be sure. See
Compacting Your Database for the details of making a copy of your database.
bscan can also be useful in a disaster recovery situation, after the loss of a hard disk, if you do not have a
valid bootstrap file for reloading your system, or if a Volume has been recycled but not overwritten, you
can use bscan to re-create your database, which can then be used to restore your system or a file to its
previous state.
It is called:
Usage: bscan [options] <bacula-archive>
-b bootstrap
specify a bootstrap file
-c <file>
specify configuration file
-d <nn>
set debug level to nn
-m
update media info in database
-n <name>
specify the database name (default bacula)
-u <user>
specify database user name (default bacula)
-P <password> specify database password (default none)
-h <host>
specify database host (default NULL)
11
1.7. BSCAN
-p
-r
-s
-v
-V <Volumes>
-w <dir>
-?
proceed inspite of I/O errors
list records
synchronize or store in database
verbose
specify Volume names (separated by |)
specify working directory (default from conf file)
print this message
If you are using MySQL or PostgreSQL, there is no need to supply a working directory since in that case,
bscan knows where the databases are. However, if you have provided security on your database, you may
need to supply either the database name (-b option), the user name (-u option), and/or the password (-p)
options.
NOTE: before bscan can work, it needs at least a bare bones valid database. If your database exists but some
records are missing because they were pruned, then you are all set. If your database was lost or destroyed,
then you must first ensure that you have the SQL program running (MySQL or PostgreSQL), then you
must create the Bacula database (normally named bacula), and you must create the Bacula tables using the
scripts in the cats directory. This is explained in the Installation chapter of the manual. Finally, before
scanning into an empty database, you must start and stop the Director with the appropriate bacula-dir.conf
file so that it can create the Client and Storage records which are not stored on the Volumes. Without these
records, scanning is unable to connect the Job records to the proper client.
Forgetting for the moment the extra complications of a full rebuild of your catalog, let’s suppose that you did
a backup to Volumes ”Vol001” and ”Vol002”, then sometime later all records of one or both those Volumes
were pruned or purged from the database. By using bscan you can recreate the catalog entries for those
Volumes and then use the restore command in the Console to restore whatever you want. A command
something like:
bscan -c bacula-sd.conf -v -V Vol001\|Vol002 /dev/nst0
will give you an idea of what is going to happen without changing your catalog. Of course, you may need to
change the path to the Storage daemon’s conf file, the Volume name, and your tape (or disk) device name.
This command must read the entire tape, so if it has a lot of data, it may take a long time, and thus you
might want to immediately use the command listed below. Note, if you are writing to a disk file, replace the
device name with the path to the directory that contains the Volumes. This must correspond to the Archive
Device in the conf file.
Then to actually write or store the records in the catalog, add the -s option as follows:
bscan -s -m -c bacula-sd.conf -v -V Vol001\|Vol002 /dev/nst0
When writing to the database, if bscan finds existing records, it will generally either update them if something
is wrong or leave them alone. Thus if the Volumes you are scanning are all or partially in the catalog already,
no harm will be done to that existing data. Any missing data will simply be added.
If you have multiple tapes, you should scan them with:
bscan -s -m -c bacula-sd.conf -v -V Vol001\|Vol002\|Vol003 /dev/nst0
Since there is a limit on the command line length (511 bytes) accepted by bscan, if you have too many
Volumes, you will need to manually create a bootstrap file. See the Bootstrap chapter of this manual for
more details, in particular the section entitled Bootstrap for bscan.
You should, always try to specify the tapes in the order they are written. However, bscan can handle scanning
tapes that are not sequential. Any incomplete records at the end of the tape will simply be ignored in that
case. If you are simply repairing an existing catalog, this may be OK, but if you are creating a new catalog
from scratch, it will leave your database in an incorrect state. If you do not specify all necessary Volumes
on a single bscan command, bscan will not be able to correctly restore the records that span two volumes.
12
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
In other words, it is much better to specify two or three volumes on a single bscan command rather than
run bscan two or three times, each with a single volume.
Note, the restoration process using bscan is not identical to the original creation of the catalog data. This
is because certain data such as Client records and other non-essential data such as volume reads, volume
mounts, etc is not stored on the Volume, and thus is not restored by bscan. The results of bscanning are,
however, perfectly valid, and will permit restoration of any or all the files in the catalog using the normal
Bacula console commands. If you are starting with an empty catalog and expecting bscan to reconstruct
it, you may be a bit disappointed, but at a minimum, you must ensure that your bacula-dir.conf file is the
same as what it previously was – that is, it must contain all the appropriate Client resources so that they
will be recreated in your new database before running bscan. Normally when the Director starts, it will
recreate any missing Client records in the catalog. Another problem you will have is that even if the Volumes
(Media records) are recreated in the database, they will not have their autochanger status and slots properly
set. As a result, you will need to repair that by using the update slots command. There may be other
considerations as well. Rather than bscanning, you should always attempt to recover you previous catalog
backup.
1.7.1
Using bscan to Compare a Volume to an existing Catalog
If you wish to compare the contents of a Volume to an existing catalog without changing the catalog, you
can safely do so if and only if you do not specify either the -m or the -s options. However, at this time
(Bacula version 1.26), the comparison routines are not as good or as thorough as they should be, so we don’t
particularly recommend this mode other than for testing.
1.7.2
Using bscan to Recreate a Catalog from a Volume
This is the mode for which bscan is most useful. You can either bscan into a freshly created catalog, or
directly into your existing catalog (after having made an ASCII copy as described above). Normally, you
should start with a freshly created catalog that contains no data.
Starting with a single Volume named TestVolume1, you run a command such as:
./bscan -V TestVolume1 -v -s -m -c bacula-sd.conf /dev/nst0
If there is more than one volume, simply append it to the first one separating it with a vertical bar. You may
need to precede the vertical bar with a forward slash escape the shell – e.g. TestVolume1\—TestVolume2.
The -v option was added for verbose output (this can be omitted if desired). The -s option that tells bscan
to store information in the database. The physical device name /dev/nst0 is specified after all the options.
For example, after having done a full backup of a directory, then two incrementals, I reinitialized the SQLite
database as described above, and using the bootstrap.bsr file noted above, I entered the following command:
./bscan -b bootstrap.bsr -v -s -c bacula-sd.conf /dev/nst0
which produced the following output:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan.c:182
bscan.c:673
bscan.c:271
bscan.c:632
bscan.c:298
bscan.c:307
bscan.c:693
bscan.c:769
bscan.c:717
bscan.c:819
bscan.c:905
Using Database: bacula, User: bacula
Created Pool record for Pool: Default
Pool type "Backup" is OK.
Created Media record for Volume: TestVolume1
Media type "DDS-4" is OK.
VOL_LABEL: OK for Volume: TestVolume1
Created Client record for Client: Rufus
Created new JobId=1 record for original JobId=2
Created FileSet record "Kerns Files"
Updated Job termination record for new JobId=1
Created JobMedia record JobId 1, MediaId 1
1.7. BSCAN
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
bscan:
13
Got EOF on device /dev/nst0
bscan.c:693 Created Client record for Client: Rufus
bscan.c:769 Created new JobId=2 record for original JobId=3
bscan.c:708 Fileset "Kerns Files" already exists.
bscan.c:819 Updated Job termination record for new JobId=2
bscan.c:905 Created JobMedia record JobId 2, MediaId 1
Got EOF on device /dev/nst0
bscan.c:693 Created Client record for Client: Rufus
bscan.c:769 Created new JobId=3 record for original JobId=4
bscan.c:708 Fileset "Kerns Files" already exists.
bscan.c:819 Updated Job termination record for new JobId=3
bscan.c:905 Created JobMedia record JobId 3, MediaId 1
Got EOF on device /dev/nst0
bscan.c:652 Updated Media record at end of Volume: TestVolume1
bscan.c:428 End of Volume. VolFiles=3 VolBlocks=57 VolBytes=10,027,437
The key points to note are that bscan prints a line when each major record is created. Due to the volume
of output, it does not print a line for each file record unless you supply the -v option twice or more on the
command line.
In the case of a Job record, the new JobId will not normally be the same as the original Jobid. For example,
for the first JobId above, the new JobId is 1, but the original JobId is 2. This is nothing to be concerned
about as it is the normal nature of databases. bscan will keep everything straight.
Although bscan claims that it created a Client record for Client: Rufus three times, it was actually only
created the first time. This is normal.
You will also notice that it read an end of file after each Job (Got EOF on device ...). Finally the last line
gives the total statistics for the bscan.
If you had added a second -v option to the command line, Bacula would have been even more verbose,
dumping virtually all the details of each Job record it encountered.
Now if you start Bacula and enter a list jobs command to the console program, you will get:
+-------+----------+------------------+------+-----+----------+----------+---------+
| JobId | Name
| StartTime
| Type | Lvl | JobFiles | JobBytes | JobStat |
+-------+----------+------------------+------+-----+----------+----------+---------+
| 1
| kernsave | 2002-10-07 14:59 | B
| F
| 84
| 4180207 | T
|
| 2
| kernsave | 2002-10-07 15:00 | B
| I
| 15
| 2170314 | T
|
| 3
| kernsave | 2002-10-07 15:01 | B
| I
| 33
| 3662184 | T
|
+-------+----------+------------------+------+-----+----------+----------+---------+
which corresponds virtually identically with what the database contained before it was re-initialized and
restored with bscan. All the Jobs and Files found on the tape are restored including most of the Media
record. The Volume (Media) records restored will be marked as Full so that they cannot be rewritten
without operator intervention.
It should be noted that bscan cannot restore a database to the exact condition it was in previously because
a lot of the less important information contained in the database is not saved to the tape. Nevertheless, the
reconstruction is sufficiently complete, that you can run restore against it and get valid results.
An interesting aspect of restoring a catalog backup using bscan is that the backup was made while Bacula
was running and writing to a tape. At the point the backup of the catalog is made, the tape Bacula is
writing to will have say 10 files on it, but after the catalog backup is made, there will be 11 files on the
tape Bacula is writing. This there is a difference between what is contained in the backed up catalog and
what is actually on the tape. If after restoring a catalog, you attempt to write on the same tape that was
used to backup the catalog, Bacula will detect the difference in the number of files registered in the catalog
compared to what is on the tape, and will mark the tape in error.
There are two solutions to this problem. The first is possibly the simplest and is to mark the volume as
Used before doing any backups. The second is to manually correct the number of files listed in the Media
record of the catalog. This procedure is documented elsewhere in the manual and involves using the update
volume command in bconsole.
14
1.7.3
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
Using bscan to Correct the Volume File Count
If the Storage daemon crashes during a backup Job, the catalog will not be properly updated for the Volume
being used at the time of the crash. This means that the Storage daemon will have written say 20 files on
the tape, but the catalog record for the Volume indicates only 19 files.
Bacula refuses to write on a tape that contains a different number of files from what is in the catalog. To
correct this situation, you may run a bscan with the -m option (but without the -s option) to update only
the final Media record for the Volumes read.
1.7.4
After bscan
If you use bscan to enter the contents of the Volume into an existing catalog, you should be aware that the
records you entered may be immediately pruned during the next job, particularly if the Volume is very old
or had been previously purged. To avoid this, after running bscan, you can manually set the volume status
(VolStatus) to Read-Only by using the update command in the catalog. This will allow you to restore
from the volume without having it immediately purged. When you have restored and backed up the data,
you can reset the VolStatus to Used and the Volume will be purged from the catalog.
1.8
bcopy
The bcopy program can be used to copy one Bacula archive file to another. For example, you may copy a
tape to a file, a file to a tape, a file to a file, or a tape to a tape. For tape to tape, you will need two tape
drives. (a later version is planned that will buffer it to disk). In the process of making the copy, no record
of the information written to the new Volume is stored in the catalog. This means that the new Volume,
though it contains valid backup data, cannot be accessed directly from existing catalog entries. If you wish
to be able to use the Volume with the Console restore command, for example, you must first bscan the new
Volume into the catalog.
1.8.1
bcopy Command Options
Usage: bcopy [-d debug_level] <input-archive> <output-archive>
-b bootstrap
specify a bootstrap file
-c <file>
specify configuration file
-dnn
set debug level to nn
-i
specify input Volume names (separated by |)
-o
specify output Volume names (separated by |)
-p
proceed inspite of I/O errors
-v
verbose
-w dir
specify working directory (default /tmp)
-?
print this message
By using a bootstrap file, you can copy parts of a Bacula archive file to another archive.
One of the objectives of this program is to be able to recover as much data as possible from a damaged tape.
However, the current version does not yet have this feature.
As this is a new program, any feedback on its use would be appreciated. In addition, I only have a single
tape drive, so I have never been able to test this program with two tape drives.
1.9
btape
This program permits a number of elementary tape operations via a tty command interface. It works only
with tapes and not with other kinds of Bacula storage media (DVD, File, ...). The test command, described
1.9. BTAPE
15
below, can be very useful for testing older tape drive compatibility problems. Aside from initial testing of
tape drive compatibility with Bacula, btape will be mostly used by developers writing new tape drivers.
btape can be dangerous to use with existing Bacula tapes because it will relabel a tape or write on the
tape if so requested regardless that the tape may contain valuable data, so please be careful and use it only
on blank tapes.
To work properly, btape needs to read the Storage daemon’s configuration file. As a default, it will look for
bacula-sd.conf in the current directory. If your configuration file is elsewhere, please use the -c option to
specify where.
The physical device name must be specified on the command line, and this same device name must be present
in the Storage daemon’s configuration file read by btape
Usage: btape <options> <device_name>
-b <file>
specify bootstrap file
-c <file>
set configuration file to file
-d <nn>
set debug level to nn
-p
proceed inspite of I/O errors
-s
turn off signals
-v
be verbose
-?
print this message.
1.9.1
Using btape to Verify your Tape Drive
An important reason for this program is to ensure that a Storage daemon configuration file is defined so that
Bacula will correctly read and write tapes.
It is highly recommended that you run the test command before running your first Bacula job to ensure
that the parameters you have defined for your storage device (tape drive) will permit Bacula to function
properly. You only need to mount a blank tape, enter the command, and the output should be reasonably
self explanatory. Please see the Tape Testing Chapter of this manual for the details.
1.9.2
btape Commands
The full list of commands are:
Command
Description
=======
===========
autochanger test autochanger
bsf
backspace file
bsr
backspace record
cap
list device capabilities
clear
clear tape errors
eod
go to end of Bacula data for append
eom
go to the physical end of medium
fill
fill tape, write onto second volume
unfill
read filled tape
fsf
forward space a file
fsr
forward space a record
help
print this command
label
write a Bacula label to the tape
load
load a tape
quit
quit btape
rawfill
use write() to fill tape
readlabel read and print the Bacula tape label
rectest
test record handling functions
rewind
rewind the tape
scan
read() tape block by block to EOT and report
scanblocks Bacula read block by block to EOT and report
speed
report drive speed
status
print tape status
test
General test Bacula tape functions
weof
write an EOF on the tape
16
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
wr
rr
qfill
write a single Bacula block
read a single record
quick fill command
The most useful commands are:
• test – test writing records and EOF marks and reading them back.
• fill – completely fill a volume with records, then write a few records on a second volume, and finally,
both volumes will be read back. This command writes blocks containing random data, so your drive
will not be able to compress the data, and thus it is a good test of the real physical capacity of your
tapes.
• readlabel – read and dump the label on a Bacula tape.
• cap – list the device capabilities as defined in the configuration file and as perceived by the Storage
daemon.
The readlabel command can be used to display the details of a Bacula tape label. This can be useful if the
physical tape label was lost or damaged.
In the event that you want to relabel a Bacula, you can simply use the label command which will write over
any existing label. However, please note for labeling tapes, we recommend that you use the label command
in the Console program since it will never overwrite a valid Bacula tape.
Testing your Tape Drive
To determine the best configuration of your tape drive, you can run the new speed command available in
the btape program.
This command can have the following arguments:
file size=n Specify the Maximum File Size for this test (between 1 and 5GB). This counter is in GB.
nb file=n Specify the number of file to be written. The amount of data should be greater than your memory
(f ile size ∗ nb f ile).
skip zero This flag permits to skip tests with constant data.
skip random This flag permits to skip tests with random data.
skip raw This flag permits to skip tests with raw access.
skip block This flag permits to skip tests with Bacula block access.
*speed file_size=3 skip_raw
btape.c:1078 Test with zero data and bacula block structure.
btape.c:956 Begin writing 3 files of 3.221 GB with blocks of 129024 bytes.
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
btape.c:604 Wrote 1 EOF to "Drive-0" (/dev/nst0)
btape.c:406 Volume bytes=3.221 GB. Write rate = 44.128 MB/s
...
btape.c:383 Total Volume bytes=9.664 GB. Total Write rate = 43.531 MB/s
btape.c:1090 Test with random data, should give the minimum throughput.
btape.c:956 Begin writing 3 files of 3.221 GB with blocks of 129024 bytes.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
btape.c:604 Wrote 1 EOF to "Drive-0" (/dev/nst0)
btape.c:406 Volume bytes=3.221 GB. Write rate = 7.271 MB/s
1.10. OTHER PROGRAMS
17
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
...
btape.c:383 Total Volume bytes=9.664 GB. Total Write rate = 7.365 MB/s
When using compression, the random test will give your the minimum throughput of your drive . The test
using constant string will give you the maximum speed of your hardware chain. (cpu, memory, scsi card,
cable, drive, tape).
You can change the block size in the Storage Daemon configuration file.
1.10
Other Programs
The following programs are general utility programs and in general do not need a configuration file nor a
device name.
1.11
bsmtp
bsmtp is a simple mail transport program that permits more flexibility than the standard mail programs
typically found on Unix systems. It can even be used on Windows machines.
It is called:
Usage: bsmtp [-f from] [-h mailhost] [-s subject] [-c copy] [recipient ...]
-c
set the Cc: field
-dnn
set debug level to nn
-f
set the From: field
-h
use mailhost:port as the bsmtp server
-l
limit the lines accepted to nn
-s
set the Subject: field
-?
print this message.
If the -f option is not specified, bsmtp will use your userid. If the option -h is not specified bsmtp will use
the value in the environment variable bsmtpSERVER or if there is none localhost. By default port 25 is
used.
If a line count limit is set with the -l option, bsmtp will not send an email with a body text exceeding that
number of lines. This is especially useful for large restore job reports where the list of files restored might
produce very long mails your mail-server would refuse or crash. However, be aware that you will probably
suppress the job report and any error messages unless you check the log file written by the Director (see the
messages resource in this manual for details).
recipients is a space separated list of email recipients.
The body of the email message is read from standard input.
An example of the use of bsmtp would be to put the following statement in the Messages resource of your
bacula-dir.conf file. Note, these commands should appear on a single line each.
mailcommand = "/home/bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.domain.com -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\"
-s \"Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\" %r"
operatorcommand = "/home/bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.domain.com -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\"
-s \"Bacula: Intervention needed for %j\" %r"
Where you replace /home/bacula/bin with the path to your Bacula binary directory, and you replace
mail.domain.com with the fully qualified name of your bsmtp (email) server, which normally listens on
18
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
port 25. For more details on the substitution characters (e.g. %r) used in the above line, please see the
documentation of the MailCommand in the Messages Resource chapter of this manual.
It is HIGHLY recommended that you test one or two cases by hand to make sure that the mailhost that you
specified is correct and that it will accept your email requests. Since bsmtp always uses a TCP connection
rather than writing in the spool file, you may find that your from address is being rejected because it
does not contain a valid domain, or because your message is caught in your spam filtering rules. Generally,
you should specify a fully qualified domain name in the from field, and depending on whether your bsmtp
gateway is Exim or Sendmail, you may need to modify the syntax of the from part of the message. Please
test.
When running bsmtp by hand, you will need to terminate the message by entering a ctl-d in column 1 of
the last line.
If you are getting incorrect dates (e.g. 1970) and you are running with a non-English language setting, you
might try adding a LANG=”en US” immediately before the bsmtp call.
In general, bsmtp attempts to cleanup email addresses that you specify in the from, copy, mailhost, and
recipient fields, by adding the necessary < and > characters around the address part. However, if you include
a display-name (see RFC 5332), some SMTP servers such as Exchange may not accept the message if the
display-name is also included in < and >. As mentioned above, you must test, and if you run into this
situation, you may manually add the < and > to the Bacula mailcommand or operatorcommand and
when bsmtp is formatting an address if it already contains a < or > character, it will leave the address
unchanged.
1.12
dbcheck
dbcheck is a simple program that will search for logical inconsistencies in the Bacula tables in your database,
and optionally fix them. It is a database maintenance routine, in the sense that it can detect and remove
unused rows, but it is not a database repair routine. To repair a database, see the tools furnished by the
database vendor. Normally dbcheck should never need to be run, but if Bacula has crashed or you have a
lot of Clients, Pools, or Jobs that you have removed, it could be useful.
The dbcheck program can be found in the <bacula-source>/src/tools directory of the source distribution. Though it is built with the make process, it is not normally ”installed”.
It is called:
Usage: dbcheck [-c config ] [-B] [-C catalog name] [-d debug_level]
<working-directory> <bacula-database> <user> <password> [<dbhost>] [<dbport>]
-b
batch mode
-C
catalog name in the director conf file
-c
Director conf filename
-B
print catalog configuration and exit
-d <nn>
set debug level to <nn>
-dt
print timestamp in debug output
-f
fix inconsistencies
-v
verbose
-?
print this message
If the -B option is specified, dbcheck will print out catalog information in a simple text based format. This
is useful to backup it in a secure way.
$ dbcheck -B
catalog=MyCatalog
db_type=SQLite
db_name=regress
db_driver=
db_user=regress
1.12. DBCHECK
19
db_password=
db_address=
db_port=0
db_socket=
If the -c option is given with the Director’s conf file, there is no need to enter any of the command line
arguments, in particular the working directory as dbcheck will read them from the file.
If the -f option is specified, dbcheck will repair (fix) the inconsistencies it finds. Otherwise, it will report
only.
If the -b option is specified, dbcheck will run in batch mode, and it will proceed to examine and fix (if -f is
set) all programmed inconsistency checks. If the -b option is not specified, dbcheck will enter interactive
mode and prompt with the following:
Hello, this is the database check/correct program.
Please select the function you want to perform.
1) Toggle modify database flag
2) Toggle verbose flag
3) Repair bad Filename records
4) Repair bad Path records
5) Eliminate duplicate Filename records
6) Eliminate duplicate Path records
7) Eliminate orphaned Jobmedia records
8) Eliminate orphaned File records
9) Eliminate orphaned Path records
10) Eliminate orphaned Filename records
11) Eliminate orphaned FileSet records
12) Eliminate orphaned Client records
13) Eliminate orphaned Job records
14) Eliminate all Admin records
15) Eliminate all Restore records
16) All (3-15)
17) Quit
Select function number:
By entering 1 or 2, you can toggle the modify database flag (-f option) and the verbose flag (-v). It can be
helpful and reassuring to turn off the modify database flag, then select one or more of the consistency checks
(items 3 through 9) to see what will be done, then toggle the modify flag on and re-run the check.
The inconsistencies examined are the following:
• Duplicate filename records. This can happen if you accidentally run two copies of Bacula at the same
time, and they are both adding filenames simultaneously. It is a rare occurrence, but will create
an inconsistent database. If this is the case, you will receive error messages during Jobs warning of
duplicate database records. If you are not getting these error messages, there is no reason to run this
check.
• Repair bad Filename records. This checks and corrects filenames that have a trailing slash. They
should not.
• Repair bad Path records. This checks and corrects path names that do not have a trailing slash. They
should.
• Duplicate path records. This can happen if you accidentally run two copies of Bacula at the same
time, and they are both adding filenames simultaneously. It is a rare occurrence, but will create an
inconsistent database. See the item above for why this occurs and how you know it is happening.
• Orphaned JobMedia records. This happens when a Job record is deleted (perhaps by a user issued
SQL statement), but the corresponding JobMedia record (one for each Volume used in the Job) was
not deleted. Normally, this should not happen, and even if it does, these records generally do not take
much space in your database. However, by running this check, you can eliminate any such orphans.
20
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
• Orphaned File records. This happens when a Job record is deleted (perhaps by a user issued SQL
statement), but the corresponding File record (one for each Volume used in the Job) was not deleted.
Note, searching for these records can be very time consuming (i.e. it may take hours) for a large
database. Normally this should not happen as Bacula takes care to prevent it. Just the same, this
check can remove any orphaned File records. It is recommended that you run this once a year since
orphaned File records can take a large amount of space in your database. You might want to ensure
that you have indexes on JobId, FilenameId, and PathId for the File table in your catalog before
running this command.
• Orphaned Path records. This condition happens any time a directory is deleted from your system and
all associated Job records have been purged. During standard purging (or pruning) of Job records,
Bacula does not check for orphaned Path records. As a consequence, over a period of time, old unused
Path records will tend to accumulate and use space in your database. This check will eliminate them.
It is recommended that you run this check at least once a year.
• Orphaned Filename records. This condition happens any time a file is deleted from your system and all
associated Job records have been purged. This can happen quite frequently as there are quite a large
number of files that are created and then deleted. In addition, if you do a system update or delete an
entire directory, there can be a very large number of Filename records that remain in the catalog but
are no longer used.
During standard purging (or pruning) of Job records, Bacula does not check for orphaned Filename
records. As a consequence, over a period of time, old unused Filename records will accumulate and use
space in your database. This check will eliminate them. It is strongly recommended that you run this
check at least once a year, and for large database (more than 200 Megabytes), it is probably better to
run this once every 6 months.
• Orphaned Client records. These records can remain in the database long after you have removed a
client.
• Orphaned Job records. If no client is defined for a job or you do not run a job for a long time, you can
accumulate old job records. This option allow you to remove jobs that are not attached to any client
(and thus useless).
• All Admin records. This command will remove all Admin records, regardless of their age.
• All Restore records. This command will remove all Restore records, regardless of their age.
If you are using Mysql, dbcheck will ask you if you want to create temporary indexes to speed up orphaned
Path and Filename elimination.
Mostly for PostgreSQL users, we provide a pure SQL script dbcheck replacement in
examples/database/dbcheck.sql that works with global queries instead of many small queries like
dbcheck. Execution instructions are at the top of the script and you will need to type COMMIT at the end to
validate modifications.
If you are using bweb or brestore, don’t eliminate orphaned Path, else you will have to rebuild
brestore pathvisibility and brestore pathhierarchy indexes.
By the way, I personally run dbcheck only where I have messed up my database due to a bug in developing
Bacula code, so normally you should never need to run dbcheck in spite of the recommendations given above,
which are given so that users don’t waste their time running dbcheck too often.
1.13
bregex
bregex is a simple program that will allow you to test regular expressions against a file of data. This
can be useful because the regex libraries on most systems differ, and in addition, regex expressions can be
complicated.
bregex is found in the src/tools directory and it is normally installed with your system binaries. To run it,
use:
1.14. BWILD
21
Usage: bregex [-d debug_level] -f <data-file>
-f
specify file of data to be matched
-l
suppress line numbers
-n
print lines that do not match
-?
print this message.
The <data-file> is a filename that contains lines of data to be matched (or not) against one or more patterns.
When the program is run, it will prompt you for a regular expression pattern, then apply it one line at a
time against the data in the file. Each line that matches will be printed preceded by its line number. You
will then be prompted again for another pattern.
Enter an empty line for a pattern to terminate the program. You can print only lines that do not match by
using the -n option, and you can suppress printing of line numbers with the -l option.
This program can be useful for testing regex expressions to be applied against a list of filenames.
1.14
bwild
bwild is a simple program that will allow you to test wild-card expressions against a file of data.
bwild is found in the src/tools directory and it is normally installed with your system binaries. To run it,
use:
Usage: bwild [-d debug_level] -f <data-file>
-f
specify file of data to be matched
-l
suppress line numbers
-n
print lines that do not match
-?
print this message.
The <data-file> is a filename that contains lines of data to be matched (or not) against one or more patterns.
When the program is run, it will prompt you for a wild-card pattern, then apply it one line at a time against
the data in the file. Each line that matches will be printed preceded by its line number. You will then be
prompted again for another pattern.
Enter an empty line for a pattern to terminate the program. You can print only lines that do not match by
using the -n option, and you can suppress printing of line numbers with the -l option.
This program can be useful for testing wild expressions to be applied against a list of filenames.
1.15
testfind
testfind permits listing of files using the same search engine that is used for the Include resource in Job
resources. Note, much of the functionality of this program (listing of files to be included) is present in the
estimate command in the Console program.
The original use of testfind was to ensure that Bacula’s file search engine was correct and to print some
statistics on file name and path length. However, you may find it useful to see what bacula would do with a
given Include resource. The testfind program can be found in the <bacula-source>/src/tools directory
of the source distribution. Though it is built with the make process, it is not normally ”installed”.
It is called:
Usage: testfind [-d debug_level] [-] [pattern1 ...]
-a
print extended attributes (Win32 debug)
-dnn
set debug level to nn
22
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
read pattern(s) from stdin
-?
print this message.
Patterns are used for file inclusion -- normally directories.
Debug level>= 1 prints each file found.
Debug level>= 10 prints path/file for catalog.
Errors are always printed.
Files/paths truncated is a number with len> 255.
Truncation is only in the catalog.
Where a pattern is any filename specification that is valid within an Include resource definition. If none is
specified, / (the root directory) is assumed. For example:
./testfind /bin
Would print the following:
Dir: /bin
Reg: /bin/bash
Lnk: /bin/bash2 -> bash
Lnk: /bin/sh -> bash
Reg: /bin/cpio
Reg: /bin/ed
Lnk: /bin/red -> ed
Reg: /bin/chgrp
...
Reg: /bin/ipcalc
Reg: /bin/usleep
Reg: /bin/aumix-minimal
Reg: /bin/mt
Lnka: /bin/gawk-3.1.0 -> /bin/gawk
Reg: /bin/pgawk
Total files
: 85
Max file length: 13
Max path length: 5
Files truncated: 0
Paths truncated: 0
Even though testfind uses the same search engine as Bacula, each directory to be listed, must be entered as
a separate command line entry or entered one line at a time to standard input if the - option was specified.
Specifying a debug level of one (i.e. -d1) on the command line will cause testfind to print the raw filenames
without showing the Bacula internal file type, or the link (if any). Debug levels of 10 or greater cause the
filename and the path to be separated using the same algorithm that is used when putting filenames into
the Catalog database.
1.16. BIMAGEMGR
1.16
23
bimagemgr
bimagemgr is a utility for those who backup to disk volumes in order to commit them to CDR disk, rather
than tapes. It is a web based interface written in Perl and is used to monitor when a volume file needs to
be burned to disk. It requires:
• A web server running on the bacula server
• A CD recorder installed and configured on the bacula server
• The cdrtools package installed on the bacula server.
• perl, perl-DBI module, and either DBD-MySQL DBD-SQLite or DBD-PostgreSQL modules
DVD burning is not supported by bimagemgr at this time, but both are planned for future releases.
1.16.1
bimagemgr installation
Installation from tarball: 1. Examine the Makefile and adjust it to your configuration if needed. 2. Edit
config.pm to fit your configuration. 3. Do ’make install’ as root. 4. Edit httpd.conf and change the Timeout
value. The web server must not time out and close the connection before the burn process is finished. The
exact value needed may vary depending upon your cd recorder speed and whether you are burning on the
bacula server on on another machine across your network. In my case I set it to 1000 seconds. Restart httpd.
5. Make sure that cdrecord is setuid root.
Installation from rpm package: 1. Install the rpm package for your platform. 2. Edit /cgi-bin/config.pm to
fit your configuration. 3. Edit httpd.conf and change the Timeout value. The web server must not time out
and close the connection before the burn process is finished. The exact value needed may vary depending
upon your cd recorder speed and whether you are burning on the bacula server on on another machine across
your network. In my case I set it to 1000 seconds. Restart httpd. 4. Make sure that cdrecord is setuid root.
For bacula systems less than 1.36: 1. Edit the configuration section of config.pm to fit your configuration. 2.
Run /etc/bacula/create cdimage table.pl from a console on your bacula server (as root) to add the CDImage
table to your bacula database.
Accessing the Volume files: The Volume files by default have permissions 640 and can only be read by root.
The recommended approach to this is as follows (and only works if bimagemgr and apache are running on
the same host as bacula.
For bacula-1.34 or 1.36 installed from tarball - 1. Create a new user group bacula and add the user apache to
the group for Red Hat or Mandrake systems. For SuSE systems add the user wwwrun to the bacula group.
2. Change ownership of all of your Volume files to root.bacula 3. Edit the /etc/bacula/bacula startup script
and set SD USER=root and SD GROUP=bacula. Restart bacula.
Note: step 3 should also be done in /etc/init.d/bacula-sd but released versions of this file prior to 1.36 do
not support it. In that case it would be necessary after a reboot of the server to execute ’/etc/bacula/bacula
restart’.
For bacula-1.38 installed from tarball - 1.
Your configure statement should include: –with-diruser=bacula –with-dir-group=bacula –with-sd-user=bacula –with-sd-group=disk –with-fd-user=root –withfd-group=bacula 2. Add the user apache to the bacula group for Red Hat or Mandrake systems. For SuSE
systems add the user wwwrun to the bacula group. 3. Check/change ownership of all of your Volume files
to root.bacula
For bacula-1.36 or bacula-1.38 installed from rpm - 1. Add the user apache to the group bacula for Red
Hat or Mandrake systems. For SuSE systems add the user wwwrun to the bacula group. 2. Check/change
ownership of all of your Volume files to root.bacula
bimagemgr installed from rpm ¿ 1.38.9 will add the web server user to the bacula group in a post install
script. Be sure to edit the configuration information in config.pm after installation of rpm package.
24
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
bimagemgr will now be able to read the Volume files but they are still not world readable.
If you are running bimagemgr on another host (not recommended) then you will need to change the permissions on all of your backup volume files to 644 in order to access them via nfs share or other means. This
approach should only be taken if you are sure of the security of your environment as it exposes the backup
Volume files to world read.
1.16.2
bimagemgr usage
Calling the program in your web browser, e.g. http://localhost/cgi-bin/bimagemgr.pl will produce a
display as shown below in Figure 1. The program will query the bacula database and display all volume files
with the date last written and the date last burned to disk. If a volume needs to be burned (last written is
newer than last burn date) a ”Burn” button will be displayed in the rightmost column.
Figure 1
Place a blank CDR disk in your recorder and click the ”Burn” button. This will cause a pop up window as
shown in Figure 2 to display the burn progress.
1.16. BIMAGEMGR
25
Figure 2
When the burn finishes the pop up window will display the results of cdrecord as shown in Figure 3. Close
the pop up window and refresh the main window. The last burn date will be updated and the ”Burn” button
for that volume will disappear. Should you have a failed burn you can reset the last burn date of that volume
by clicking its ”Reset” link.
26
CHAPTER 1. VOLUME UTILITY TOOLS
Figure 3
In the bottom row of the main display window are two more buttons labeled ”Burn Catalog” and ”Blank
CDRW”. ”Burn Catalog” will place a copy of your bacula catalog on a disk. If you use CDRW disks rather
than CDR then ”Blank CDRW” allows you to erase the disk before re-burning it. Regularly committing
your backup volume files and your catalog to disk with bimagemgr ensures that you can rebuild easily in
the event of some disaster on the bacula server itself.
Chapter 2
Bacula RPM Packaging FAQ
1. How do I build Bacula for platform xxx?
2. How do I control which database support gets built?
3. What other defines are used?
4. I’m getting errors about not having permission when I try to build the packages. Do I need to be root?
5. I’m building my own rpms but on all platforms and compiles I get an unresolved dependency for something called
6. I’m building my own rpms because you don’t publish for my platform. Can I get my packages released to sourcefo
7. Is there an easier way than sorting out all these command line options?
8. I just upgraded from 1.36.x to 1.38.x and now my director daemon won’t start. It appears to start but dies silently
9. There are a lot of rpm packages. Which packages do I need for what?
2.1
Answers
1. How do I build Bacula for platform xxx? The bacula spec file contains defines to build for
several platforms:
Red Hat 7.x (rh7), Red Hat 8.0 (rh8), Red Hat 9 (rh9),
Fedora Core (fc1, fc3, fc4, fc5, fc6, fc7, fc8),
Whitebox Enterprise Linux 3.0 (wb3),
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (rhel3, rhel4, rhel5),
Mandrake 10.x (mdk), Mandriva 2006.x (mdv),
CentOS (centos3, centos4, centos5)
Scientific Linux (sl3, sl4, sl5) and
SuSE (su9, su10, su102, su103, su110).
The package build is controlled by a mandatory define set at the beginning of the file. These
defines basically just control the dependency information that gets coded into the finished rpm
package as well as any special configure options required. The platform define may be edited in the
spec file directly (by default all defines are set to 0 or ”not set”). For example, to build the Red Hat
7.x package find the line in the spec file which reads
%define rh7 0
and edit it to read
%define rh7 1
27
28
CHAPTER 2. BACULA RPM PACKAGING FAQ
Alternately you may pass the define on the command line when calling rpmbuild:
rpmbuild -ba --define "build_rh7 1" bacula.spec
rpmbuild --rebuild --define build_rh7 1" bacula-x.x.x-x.src.rpm
2. How do I control which database support gets built? Another mandatory build define controls
which database support is compiled, one of build sqlite, build mysql or build postgresql. To get the
MySQL package and support either set the
%define mysql 0
OR
%define mysql4 0
OR
%define mysql5 0
to
%define mysql 1
OR
%define mysql4 1
OR
%define mysql5 1
in the spec file directly or pass it to rpmbuild on the command line:
rpmbuild -ba --define "build_rh7 1" --define "build_mysql 1" bacula.spec
rpmbuild -ba --define "build_rh7 1" --define "build_mysql4 1" bacula.spec
rpmbuild -ba --define "build_rh7 1" --define "build_mysql5 1" bacula.spec
3. What other defines are used?
Three other building defines of note are the depkgs version, docs version and rescuever identifiers.
These two defines are set with each release and must match the version of those sources that are being
used to build the packages. You would not ordinarily need to edit these. See also the Build Options
section below for other build time options that can be passed on the command line.
4. I’m getting errors about not having permission when I try to build the packages. Do I
need to be root?
No, you do not need to be root and, in fact, it is better practice to build rpm packages as a non-root
user. Bacula packages are designed to be built by a regular user but you must make a few changes on
your system to do this. If you are building on your own system then the simplest method is to add write
permissions for all to the build directory (/usr/src/redhat/, /usr/src/RPM or /usr/src/packages). To
accomplish this, execute the following command as root:
chmod -R 777 /usr/src/redhat
chmod -R 777 /usr/src/RPM
chmod -R 777 /usr/src/packages
If you are working on a shared system where you can not use the method above then you need to
recreate the appropriate above directory tree with all of its subdirectories inside your home directory.
Then create a file named
.rpmmacros
in your home directory (or edit the file if it already exists) and add the following line:
%_topdir /home/myuser/redhat
%_tmppath /tmp
Another handy directive for the .rpmmacros file if you wish to suppress the creation of debug rpm
packages is:
2.1. ANSWERS
29
%debug_package %{nil}
5. I’m building my own rpms but on all platforms and compiles I get an unresolved dependency for something called /usr/afsws/bin/pagsh.
This is a shell from the OpenAFS (Andrew File System). If you are seeing this then you chose to
include the docs/examples directory in your package. One of the example scripts in this directory is
a pagsh script. Rpmbuild, when scanning for dependencies, looks at the shebang line of all packaged
scripts in addition to checking shared libraries. To avoid this do not package the examples directory.
If you are seeing this problem you are building a very old bacula package as the examples have been
removed from the doc packaging.
6. I’m building my own rpms because you don’t publish for my platform. Can I get my
packages released to sourceforge for other people to use?
Yes, contributions from users are accepted and appreciated.
Please examine the directory
platforms/contrib-rpm in the source code for further information.
7. Is there an easier way than sorting out all these command line options?
Yes, there is a gui wizard shell script which you can use to rebuild the src rpm package. Look in the
source archive for platforms/contrib-rpm/rpm wizard.sh. This script will allow you to specify build
options using GNOME dialog screens. It requires zenity.
8. I just upgraded from 1.36.x to 1.38.x and now my director daemon won’t start. It appears
to start but dies silently and I get a ”connection refused” error when starting the console.
What is wrong?
Beginning with 1.38 the rpm packages are configured to run the director and storage daemons as a
non-root user. The file daemon runs as user root and group bacula, the storage daemon as user bacula
and group disk, and the director as user bacula and group bacula. If you are upgrading you will need
to change some file permissions for things to work. Execute the following commands as root:
chown bacula.bacula /var/bacula/*
chown root.bacula /var/bacula/bacula-fd.9102.state
chown bacula.disk /var/bacula/bacula-sd.9103.state
Further, if you are using File storage volumes rather than tapes those files will also need to have
ownership set to user bacula and group bacula.
9. There are a lot of rpm packages. Which packages do I need for what?
For a bacula server you need to select the packsge based upon your preferred catalog database: one of
bacula-mysql, bacula-postgresql or bacula-sqlite. If your system does not provide an mtx package you
also need bacula-mtx to satisfy that dependancy. For a client machine you need only install baculaclient. Optionally, for either server or client machines, you may install a graphical console baculagconsole and/or bacula-wxconsole. The Bacula Administration Tool is installed with the bacula-bat
package. One last package, bacula-updatedb is required only when upgrading a server more than one
database revision level.
10. Support for RHEL3/4/5, CentOS 3/4/5, Scientific Linux 3/4/5 and x86 64
The examples below show explicit build support for RHEL4 and CentOS 4. Build support for x86 64
has also been added.
Build with one of these 3 commands:
rpmbuild --rebuild \
--define "build_rhel4 1" \
--define "build_sqlite 1" \
bacula-1.38.3-1.src.rpm
rpmbuild --rebuild \
--define "build_rhel4 1" \
--define "build_postgresql 1" \
bacula-1.38.3-1.src.rpm
rpmbuild --rebuild \
--define "build_rhel4 1" \
30
CHAPTER 2. BACULA RPM PACKAGING FAQ
--define "build_mysql4 1" \
bacula-1.38.3-1.src.rpm
For CentOS substitute ’--define "build_centos4 1"’ in place of rhel4.
For Scientific Linux substitute ’--define "build_sl4 1"’ in place of rhel4.
For 64 bit support add ’--define "build_x86_64 1"’
2.2
Build Options
The spec file currently supports building on the following platforms:
Red Hat builds
--define "build_rh7 1"
--define "build_rh8 1"
--define "build_rh9 1"
Fedora Core build
--define "build_fc1
--define "build_fc3
--define "build_fc4
--define "build_fc5
--define "build_fc6
--define "build_fc7
--define "build_fc8
--define "build_fc9
1"
1"
1"
1"
1"
1"
1"
1"
Whitebox Enterprise build
--define "build_wb3 1"
Red Hat Enterprise builds
--define "build_rhel3 1"
--define "build_rhel4 1"
--define "build_rhel5 1"
CentOS build
--define "build_centos3 1"
--define "build_centos4 1"
--define "build_centos5 1"
Scientific Linux build
--define "build_sl3 1"
--define "build_sl4 1"
--define "build_sl5 1"
SuSE build
--define "build_su9 1"
--define "build_su10 1"
--define "build_su102 1"
--define "build_su103 1"
--define "build_su110 1"
--define "build_su111 1"
Mandrake 10.x build
--define "build_mdk 1"
Mandriva build
--define "build_mdv 1"
MySQL support:
for mysql 3.23.x support define this
--define "build_mysql 1"
if using mysql 4.x define this,
currently: Mandrake 10.x, Mandriva 2006.0, SuSE 9.x & 10.0, FC4 & RHEL4
--define "build_mysql4 1"
if using mysql 5.x define this,
currently: SuSE 10.1 & FC5
--define "build_mysql5 1"
PostgreSQL support:
--define "build_postgresql 1"
2.3. RPM INSTALL PROBLEMS
31
Sqlite support:
--define "build_sqlite 1"
Build the client rpm only in place of one of the above database full builds:
--define "build_client_only 1"
X86-64 support:
--define "build_x86_64 1"
Supress build of bgnome-console:
--define "nobuild_gconsole 1"
Build the WXWindows console:
requires wxGTK >= 2.6
--define "build_wxconsole 1"
Build the Bacula Administration Tool:
requires QT >= 4.2
--define "build_bat 1"
Build python scripting support:
--define "build_python 1"
Modify the Packager tag for third party packages:
--define "contrib_packager Your Name <youremail@site.org>"
Install most files to /opt/bacula directory:
--define "single_dir_install 1"
Build the rescue files:
--define "build_rescue 1"
2.3
RPM Install Problems
In general the RPMs, once properly built should install correctly. However, when attempting to run the
daemons, a number of problems can occur:
• Wrong /var/bacula Permissions
By default, the Director and Storage daemon do not run with root permission. If the /var/bacula is
owned by root, then it is possible that the Director and the Storage daemon will not be able to access
this directory, which is used as the Working Directory. To fix this, the easiest thing to do is:
chown bacula:bacula /var/bacula
Note: as of 1.38.8 /var/bacula is installed root:bacula with permissions 770.
• The Storage daemon cannot Access the Tape drive
This can happen in some older RPM releases where the Storage daemon ran under userid bacula, group
bacula. There are two ways of fixing this: the best is to modify the /etc/init.d/bacula-sd file so that
it starts the Storage daemon with group ”disk”. The second way to fix the problem is to change the
permissions of your tape drive (usually /dev/nst0) so that Bacula can access it. You will probably
need to change the permissions of the SCSI control device as well, which is usually /dev/sg0. The
exact names depend on your configuration, please see the Tape Testing chapter for more information
on devices.
32
CHAPTER 2. BACULA RPM PACKAGING FAQ
Chapter 3
GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002
c
Copyright 2000,2001,2002
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
not allowed.
Preamble
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document ”free”
in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and
publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made
by others.
This License is a kind of ”copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be
free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed
for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free
documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software
does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
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works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the
copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a worldwide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The
”Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
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A ”Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it,
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A ”Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject
33
34
CHAPTER 3. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the
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The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of
legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The ”Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of
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The ”Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover
Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be
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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input
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The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies
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large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
35
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document,
numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover,
and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally
prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited
to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as
many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either
include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque
copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using
public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If
you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing
any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and
3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version
to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and
from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the
Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version
gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of
the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this
requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use
the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the
Document’s license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled ”History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the
title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no
section Entitled ”History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher
of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated
in the previous sentence.
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CHAPTER 3. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy
of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it
was based on. These may be placed in the ”History” section. You may omit a network location for a
work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of
the version it refers to gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled ”Acknowledgements” or ”Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and
preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section
numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section Entitled ”Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified
Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ”Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any
Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections
and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these
sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s
license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled ”Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your
Modified Version by various parties–for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved
by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as
a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by
arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names
for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined
in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant
Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined
work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections
may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different
contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of
the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ”History” in the various original documents,
forming one section Entitled ”History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled ”Acknowledgements”, and
any sections Entitled ”Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled ”Endorsements”.
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
37
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License,
and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included
in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License,
provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other
respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works,
in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an ”aggregate” if the copyright resulting from
the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual
works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other
works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document
is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket
the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under
the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from
their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license
notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English
version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version
will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled ”Acknowledgements”, ”Dedications”, or ”History”, the requirement
(section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under
this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full
compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License
from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail
to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a
particular numbered version of this License ”or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been
published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
Foundation.
38
CHAPTER 3. GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put
the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
c
Copyright YEAR
YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover
Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU
Free Documentation License”.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the ”with...Texts.” line
with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST,
and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those
two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in
parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their
use in free software.
General Index
GNU Free Documentation, 33
Listing Blocks with bls, 7
Listing Jobs with bls, 7
Lists
Extracting with Include or Exclude, 9
After bscan, 14
Answers , 27
R
Bacula
- RPM Packaging FAQ , 27
Bcopy, 14
Bcopy Command Options, 14
Bextract, 8
bimagemgr
Installation , 23
Usage , 24
Bimagemgr , 23
bimagemgr Installation , 23
bimagemgr Usage , 24
bls, 6
Listing Blocks, 7
Listing Jobs, 7
bregex, 20
Bscan
After, 14
bscan, 10
Bsmtp, 17
Btape, 14
Btape Commands, 15
Build Options, 30
bwild, 21
Options
bcopy Command, 14
Other Programs, 17
program
bcopy, 14
bextract, 8
bls, 6
bregex, 20
bscan, 10
bsmtp, 17
btape, 14
bwild, 21
dbcheck, 18
testfind, 21
Programs
Other, 17
RPM Install Problems, 31
Specifying
Specifying
Specifying
Specifying
Catalog
Using bscan to Compare a Volume to an existing, 12
Commands
btape, 15
Count
Using bscan to Correct the Volume File
Count, 14
a Device Name For a File, 5
a Device Name For a Tape, 5
the Configuration File, 5
Volumes, 5
Tape
Specifying a Device Name For a, 5
Testfind, 21
Tools
Volume Utility, 5
Dbcheck, 18
Drive
Using btape to Verify your Tape, 15
Using bscan to Compare a Volume to an existing
Catalog, 12
Using bscan to Correct the Volume File Count, 14
Using bscan to Recreate a Catalog from a Volume,
12
Using btape to Verify your Tape Drive, 15
Extracting From Multiple Volumes, 10
Extracting With a Bootstrap File, 10
Extracting with Include or Exclude Lists, 9
FAQ
R
- RPM Packaging , 27
Bacula
File
Extracting With a Bootstrap, 10
Specifying a Device Name For a, 5
Volume
Using bscan to Recreate a Catalog from a Volume, 12
Volume Utility Tools, 5
Volumes
Extracting From Multiple, 10
Specifying, 5
GNU Free Documentation License, 33
License
39