Expand Configuration and Management Manual

Expand Configuration and
Management Manual
Part Number: 862331-001
Published: May 2016
Edition: J06.10 and all subsequent J-series RVUs and H06.21 and all subsequent H-series RVUs
© Copyright 2014, 2016 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for Hewlett Packard Enterprise products and services
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Acknowledgments
Intel®, Itanium®, Pentium®, and Celeron® are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and other countries.
Microsoft ®and Windows® are trademarks of the Microsoft group of companies.
Open Software Foundation, OSF, the OSF logo, OSF/1, OSF/Motif, and Motif are trademarks of the Open Software Foundation, Inc.
OSF MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THE OSF MATERIAL PROVIDED HEREIN, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
OSF shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or
use of this material.
© 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 Open Software Foundation, Inc. This documentation and the software to which it relates are derived in part from
materials supplied by the following:
© 1987, 1988, 1989 Carnegie-Mellon University. © 1989, 1990, 1991 Digital Equipment Corporation. © 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990 Encore Computer
Corporation. © 1988 Free Software Foundation, Inc. © 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 Hewlett-Packard Company. © 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989,
1990, 1991, 1992 International Business Machines Corporation. © 1988, 1989 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. © 1988, 1989, 1990 Mentat
Inc. © 1988 Microsoft Corporation. © 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992 SecureWare, Inc. © 1990, 1991 Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme
AG. © 1986, 1989, 1996, 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. © 1989, 1990, 1991 Transarc Corporation.
This software and documentation are based in part on the Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution under license from The Regents of the University
of California. OSF acknowledges the following individuals and institutions for their role in its development: Kenneth C.R.C. Arnold, Gregory S.
Couch, Conrad C. Huang, Ed James, Symmetric Computer Systems, Robert Elz. © 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989
Regents of the University of California.
Contents
About This Manual................................................................................................17
Intended Audience..............................................................................................................................17
New and Changed Information...........................................................................................................17
Changes to the 862331-001 manual:............................................................................................17
Changes to the 529522-013 manual:............................................................................................18
Changes to the 529522-012 manual:............................................................................................19
Changes to the H06.26/J06.15 manual:........................................................................................19
Changes to the H06.25/J06.14 manual:........................................................................................19
Related Documentation......................................................................................................................20
Guided Procedure for Configuring a ServerNet Node...................................................................20
Manuals.........................................................................................................................................20
Publishing History...............................................................................................................................21
Abbreviations......................................................................................................................................22
Notation Conventions.........................................................................................................................25
Notation for Messages...................................................................................................................25
Notation for Subnet........................................................................................................................26
Change Bar Notation.....................................................................................................................26
I Getting Started...................................................................................................27
1 Configuration Quick Start..............................................................................30
Task Summary...............................................................................................................................30
Assumptions..................................................................................................................................30
Task 1: Configure and Start $NCP................................................................................................30
Where to Find More Information About This Task....................................................................31
Task 2: Start the Expand Manager Process..................................................................................31
Creating a Persistent Version of the Expand Manager Process..............................................31
Where to Find More Information About This Task....................................................................31
Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler Profile(s)...........................................................................32
Where to Find More Information About This Task....................................................................33
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process.............................................................................33
Creating a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process.............................................................33
Creating a Multi-Line Path........................................................................................................41
Where to Find More Information About This Task....................................................................42
Task 5: Start the Expand Line-Handler Process............................................................................42
Establishing a Connection.............................................................................................................43
Starting an Expand Path..........................................................................................................43
Starting Lines in a Multi-Line Path...........................................................................................43
2 Expand Overview..........................................................................................44
Network Transparency..................................................................................................................44
Interactive Access....................................................................................................................44
Programmatic Access..............................................................................................................44
Expand Subsystem and the NonStop Operating System........................................................44
Multiple Communications Environments.......................................................................................46
Leased and Satellite Connections............................................................................................47
X.25 Packet-Switched Networks..............................................................................................47
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Networks......................................................................47
Internet Protocol (IP) Networks................................................................................................47
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks.......................................................................47
ServerNet Clusters...................................................................................................................47
Distributed Control.........................................................................................................................48
Automatic Message Routing..........................................................................................................48
Passthrough Routing................................................................................................................48
Contents
3
Best-Path Routing....................................................................................................................48
Priority Routing.........................................................................................................................49
Fault-Tolerant Operation................................................................................................................49
Network Management...................................................................................................................49
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)............................................................................................49
Event Management Service (EMS)..........................................................................................50
Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP).......................................................................50
Measure...................................................................................................................................50
OSM Interface..........................................................................................................................50
Online Expansion and Reconfiguration.........................................................................................50
Network Security...........................................................................................................................50
Remote Passwords..................................................................................................................51
Enhanced Security Techniques................................................................................................51
3 Planning a Network Design...........................................................................52
Selecting Line Protocols................................................................................................................52
Dedicated Lines........................................................................................................................52
Satellite Connections...............................................................................................................52
X.25 Connections.....................................................................................................................53
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Connections.................................................................53
Internet Protocol (IP) Networks................................................................................................54
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks.......................................................................55
ServerNet Connections............................................................................................................55
Defining Paths Between Systems.................................................................................................56
When to Use a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process......................................................56
When to Use a Multi-Line Path................................................................................................56
When to Use a Multi-CPU Path................................................................................................58
Selecting Special Features............................................................................................................59
Multipacket Frame Feature......................................................................................................60
Variable Packet Size Feature...................................................................................................60
Congestion Control Feature.....................................................................................................60
Large Messages Feature.........................................................................................................60
Designing the Network Topology...................................................................................................61
Common Network Topologies..................................................................................................61
Topology Limitations.................................................................................................................63
Creating a Network Diagram.........................................................................................................63
4 Planning for ServerNet Clusters....................................................................65
Configuration Considerations for Expand and ServerNet Clusters...............................................65
ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP Networks.............................................................66
Considerations for ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP..........................................67
Examples of ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP...................................................67
II Configuring the Expand Subsystem..................................................................71
5 Configuration Overview.................................................................................77
Summary of Configuration Steps..................................................................................................77
Creating a Profile...........................................................................................................................78
Creating Wide Area Network (WAN) Subsystem Devices.............................................................78
Starting the Expand Manager Process..........................................................................................79
6 Configuring the Network Control Process.....................................................80
Step 1: Create a Profile for $NCP.................................................................................................80
ADD Profile Command.............................................................................................................80
Example...................................................................................................................................80
Step 2: Create $NCP.....................................................................................................................81
ADD DEVICE Command..........................................................................................................81
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Considerations.........................................................................................................................82
Example...................................................................................................................................82
Step 3: Start $NCP........................................................................................................................82
$NCP Modifiers.............................................................................................................................82
ABORTTIMER n.......................................................................................................................82
ALGORITHM n.........................................................................................................................83
AUTOMATICMAPTIMER n......................................................................................................83
CONNECTTIME n....................................................................................................................83
FRAMESIZE n..........................................................................................................................84
MAXCONNECTS n..................................................................................................................84
MAXTIMEOUTS n....................................................................................................................84
NETWORKDIAMETER n.........................................................................................................84
REBALTHRESHOLD n.............................................................................................................85
7 Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines..............................86
Required Hardware and Software.................................................................................................86
QIO Subsystem........................................................................................................................87
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver...............................................................................87
NonStop TCP/IP Process.........................................................................................................88
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs).............................................88
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator.............................................................88
Topology Considerations...............................................................................................................88
Summary of Configuration Steps..................................................................................................89
Step 1: Find an Available WAN Line.............................................................................................90
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process..................................................................90
ADD Profile Command.............................................................................................................91
Examples..................................................................................................................................91
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process......................................................................................91
ADD DEVICE Command..........................................................................................................92
Considerations.........................................................................................................................93
Examples..................................................................................................................................93
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process.........................................................................................94
Step 5: Start the Line.....................................................................................................................94
Profile Modifiers.............................................................................................................................94
Modifiers for Special Features.................................................................................................95
PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers..................................................................................95
8 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines................................................................98
Required Hardware and Software.................................................................................................98
QIO Subsystem......................................................................................................................100
NonStop TCP/IP Process.......................................................................................................100
NonStop TCP/IPv6 Process...................................................................................................100
CIP Process...........................................................................................................................101
Redundancy in Ethernet Adapters.........................................................................................101
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)...........................................102
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Subsystem...................................................................102
LAN or ATM Adapters or the CLIM.........................................................................................102
Topology Considerations.............................................................................................................102
Summary of Configuration Steps................................................................................................103
Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use........................................104
Select a NonStop TCP/IP Process.........................................................................................104
Select a SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP..................................................................................104
Creating an Ethernet SUBNET or ATM SUBNET..................................................................105
Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use.....................................105
Select a SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use.......................................................................106
Select a TCP6SAM Process..................................................................................................107
Contents
5
Creating an Ethernet Subnet..................................................................................................108
Step 1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use.............................................................108
Select a CIPSAM Process.....................................................................................................108
Obtain an IP Address to associate with your Expand Line- Handler Process.......................108
Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number....................................................................109
Step 2 (B): Identify an Available UDP Port Number for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use........................110
Step 2 (C): Identify an available UDP Port Number for CIP Use.................................................111
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process................................................................112
ADD Profile Command...........................................................................................................112
Example.................................................................................................................................113
Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process....................................................................................113
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................113
Considerations.......................................................................................................................116
Example.................................................................................................................................116
Step 5: Start the Line-Handler Process.......................................................................................117
Step 6: Start the Line...................................................................................................................117
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line.............................................................................117
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line for CIP.................................................................119
Profile Modifiers...........................................................................................................................121
Recommended Modifiers.......................................................................................................122
Modifiers for Special Features...............................................................................................122
PEXQSIP Modifiers................................................................................................................123
9 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines..........................................................125
Required Hardware and Software...............................................................................................125
QIO Subsystem......................................................................................................................126
ATM Subsystem.....................................................................................................................126
SLSA Subsystem...................................................................................................................127
ATM 3 ServerNet Adapter (ATM3SA).....................................................................................127
Topology Considerations.............................................................................................................127
Summary of Configuration Steps................................................................................................128
Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection...........................................................................................129
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses a PVC..........................................129
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses an SVC........................................129
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses ATMSAP......................................131
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process................................................................132
ADD Profile Command...........................................................................................................133
Example.................................................................................................................................133
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process....................................................................................133
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................133
Considerations.......................................................................................................................136
Examples................................................................................................................................136
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process.......................................................................................137
Step 5: Start the Line...................................................................................................................137
Profile Modifiers...........................................................................................................................138
Recommended Modifiers.......................................................................................................138
Modifiers for Special Features...............................................................................................139
PEXQSATM Modifiers............................................................................................................139
10 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines........................................................142
Required Hardware and Software...............................................................................................142
X25AM Line-Handler Process................................................................................................143
QIO Subsystem......................................................................................................................144
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver.............................................................................144
NonStop TCP/IP Process.......................................................................................................144
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)...........................................144
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Contents
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator...........................................................144
Topology Considerations.............................................................................................................144
Summary of Configuration Steps................................................................................................145
Step 1: Add a NAM Subdevice to the X25AM Line.....................................................................146
Considerations.......................................................................................................................146
Step 2: Start the X25AM Line......................................................................................................146
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process..................................146
ADD Profile Command...........................................................................................................147
Example.................................................................................................................................147
Step 4: Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process......................................................147
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................148
Considerations.......................................................................................................................149
Examples................................................................................................................................149
Step 5: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process.........................................................150
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line.....................................................................................150
Profile Modifiers...........................................................................................................................150
Recommended Modifiers.......................................................................................................150
Modifiers for Special Features...............................................................................................151
X25AM Line-Handler Process Modifiers................................................................................151
PEXQSNAM Modifiers...........................................................................................................151
11 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines.........................................................154
Required Hardware and Software...............................................................................................154
SNAX/APN Line-Handler Process.........................................................................................155
QIO Subsystem......................................................................................................................156
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver.............................................................................156
NonStop TCP/IP Process.......................................................................................................156
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)...........................................156
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator...........................................................156
Topology Considerations.............................................................................................................157
Summary of Configuration Steps................................................................................................157
Step 1: Add the SNAX/APN Line.................................................................................................158
Considerations.......................................................................................................................158
Step 2: Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line..............................................................................158
Considerations.......................................................................................................................159
Example.................................................................................................................................159
Step 3: Start the SNAX/APN Line................................................................................................160
Step 4: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process..................................160
ADD Profile Command...........................................................................................................161
Example.................................................................................................................................161
Step 5: Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process......................................................161
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................162
Considerations.......................................................................................................................163
Examples................................................................................................................................163
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process.........................................................164
Step 7: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line.....................................................................................164
Profile Modifiers...........................................................................................................................164
Recommended Modifiers.......................................................................................................164
Modifiers for Special Features...............................................................................................165
PEXQSNAM Modifiers...........................................................................................................165
12 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines...............................................167
Required Hardware and Software...............................................................................................167
Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP).......................................................................................168
External System Area Network Manager (SANMAN)............................................................168
Message Monitor Process (MSGMON)..................................................................................168
Contents
7
Network Access Method (NAM).............................................................................................168
Network Control Process ($NCP)..........................................................................................168
Cluster Switch........................................................................................................................169
Profile Products......................................................................................................................169
ServerNet Cluster Monitor Process ($ZZSCL).......................................................................169
ServerNet Cluster Product.....................................................................................................169
Wide Area Network (WAN) Subsystem..................................................................................169
X and Y Fabrics......................................................................................................................170
Topology Considerations.............................................................................................................170
Summary of Configuration Steps................................................................................................171
Configuring a ServerNet Node....................................................................................................171
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process.........................171
ADD Profile Command...........................................................................................................171
Example.................................................................................................................................172
Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process........................172
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................172
Considerations.......................................................................................................................174
Example.................................................................................................................................174
Step 3: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes............................................174
Example.................................................................................................................................174
Step 4: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Lines..........................................................................175
Profile Modifiers...........................................................................................................................175
Modifiers for Special Features...............................................................................................175
PEXPSSN Modifiers...............................................................................................................175
13 Configuring Multi-Line Paths.....................................................................178
Configuration Overview...............................................................................................................178
Configuration Considerations.................................................................................................178
Summary of Configuration Steps................................................................................................179
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Path-Logical Device...................................................................179
ADD PROFILE Command......................................................................................................179
Step 2: Create a Profile for Each Line Type................................................................................180
ADD PROFILE Command......................................................................................................180
Step 3: Create a Path-Logical Device.........................................................................................181
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................181
Considerations.......................................................................................................................182
Step 4: Create the Line-Logical Devices.....................................................................................182
ADD DEVICE Command........................................................................................................182
Considerations.......................................................................................................................186
Step 5: Start the Path-Logical Device.........................................................................................187
Step 6: Start the Lines.................................................................................................................187
Starting Specific Lines............................................................................................................187
Configuration Example................................................................................................................187
Path-Logical Device Modifiers.....................................................................................................189
Modifiers for Special Features...............................................................................................189
PEXPPATH Modifiers.............................................................................................................189
Line-Logical Device Modifiers.....................................................................................................190
X25AM Process Modifiers......................................................................................................190
PEXQMSWN and PEXQMSAT Modifiers...............................................................................190
PEXQMNAM Modifiers...........................................................................................................192
PEXQMIP Modifiers...............................................................................................................192
PEXQMATM Modifiers...........................................................................................................194
III Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)..................................................................195
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Contents
14 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands..........................................199
Overview of the Expand Subsystem SCF Interface....................................................................200
Expand Subsystem Objects...................................................................................................200
Object States..........................................................................................................................202
SCF Commands and Objects................................................................................................202
Sensitive and Nonsensitive Commands.................................................................................203
Wild-Card Support..................................................................................................................203
Time Values............................................................................................................................203
SCF and the WAN Subsystem....................................................................................................203
SCF and the SLSA Subsystem...................................................................................................204
ABORT Command.......................................................................................................................204
Considerations.......................................................................................................................205
Examples................................................................................................................................205
ACTIVATE Command..................................................................................................................205
Considerations.......................................................................................................................205
Example.................................................................................................................................205
ALTER Command........................................................................................................................206
ALTER DEVICE Command.........................................................................................................206
Considerations.......................................................................................................................206
ALTER PATH Command..............................................................................................................206
Considerations.......................................................................................................................207
Examples................................................................................................................................207
ALTER LINE Command...............................................................................................................207
Considerations.......................................................................................................................212
Examples................................................................................................................................214
ALTER PROCESS Command.....................................................................................................214
Example.................................................................................................................................216
DELETE ENTRY Command........................................................................................................216
Considerations.......................................................................................................................216
Examples................................................................................................................................217
INFO Command..........................................................................................................................217
INFO PATH Command................................................................................................................217
OBEYFORM Option...............................................................................................................221
Considerations.......................................................................................................................221
INFO LINE Command.................................................................................................................221
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler Processes............................................221
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes...............................................................................225
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes...........................................................................229
OBEYFORM Option...............................................................................................................232
Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes............................233
Considerations.......................................................................................................................236
INFO PROCESS Command........................................................................................................236
CONNECTS Option................................................................................................................242
LINESET Option.....................................................................................................................243
NETMAP Option.....................................................................................................................244
OBEYFORM Option...............................................................................................................247
PATHSET Option....................................................................................................................247
RPT Option.............................................................................................................................249
SUPERPATH Option..............................................................................................................249
SYSTEMS Option...................................................................................................................251
PRIMARY PROCESS Command................................................................................................252
Considerations.......................................................................................................................252
Examples................................................................................................................................252
PROBE PROCESS Command....................................................................................................252
Contents
9
START Command.......................................................................................................................254
Considerations.......................................................................................................................255
Examples................................................................................................................................255
STATS Command........................................................................................................................255
STATS PATH Command..............................................................................................................255
Considerations.......................................................................................................................260
Examples................................................................................................................................260
STATS PATH NODE Command..................................................................................................261
Examples................................................................................................................................264
STATS LINE Command...............................................................................................................264
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes...............................................................................265
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes...........................................................................266
Expand-over-ServerNet, Expand-over-X.25, and Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler
Processes...............................................................................................................................268
SWAN Concentrator Lines.....................................................................................................269
Considerations.......................................................................................................................273
Examples................................................................................................................................273
STATS PROCESS Command.....................................................................................................274
STATUS Command.....................................................................................................................277
STATUS PATH Command...........................................................................................................277
Considerations.......................................................................................................................278
Examples................................................................................................................................278
STATUS LINE Command............................................................................................................279
Considerations.......................................................................................................................284
Examples................................................................................................................................284
STOP Command.........................................................................................................................285
Considerations.......................................................................................................................285
Examples................................................................................................................................285
TRACE Command.......................................................................................................................285
Considerations.......................................................................................................................289
Examples................................................................................................................................289
VERSION Command...................................................................................................................289
Considerations.......................................................................................................................290
Examples................................................................................................................................290
VERSION PROCESS Command................................................................................................290
15 Tracing.......................................................................................................291
Why Tracing Is Important............................................................................................................291
How to Use Tracing.....................................................................................................................291
Tracing $NCP.........................................................................................................................292
Tracing a Path or Single Line.................................................................................................292
Tracing a Line in a Multi-Line Path.........................................................................................292
Tracing Using SCF......................................................................................................................292
PTrace Command Overview.......................................................................................................295
FILTER Command.......................................................................................................................295
Considerations.......................................................................................................................296
Examples................................................................................................................................296
FIND Command...........................................................................................................................296
Considerations.......................................................................................................................297
Examples................................................................................................................................297
FROM Command........................................................................................................................297
Example.................................................................................................................................297
HEX Command............................................................................................................................297
Example.................................................................................................................................298
LABEL Command........................................................................................................................298
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Contents
Example.................................................................................................................................298
NEXT Command.........................................................................................................................298
Example.................................................................................................................................299
OCTAL Command.......................................................................................................................299
Example.................................................................................................................................299
OUT Command...........................................................................................................................299
Example.................................................................................................................................299
RECORD Command...................................................................................................................299
Examples................................................................................................................................300
SELECT Command.....................................................................................................................300
IV Reference Information....................................................................................302
16 Expand Modifiers.......................................................................................306
How to Use This Section.............................................................................................................306
Required Modifiers......................................................................................................................306
Modifier Dictionary.......................................................................................................................308
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN/AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE.........................................308
ASSOCIATEDEV $dev-name.................................................................................................308
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #n.......................................................................................................309
ATMSEL n..............................................................................................................................309
CALLTYPE_PVC/CALLTYPE_SVC/CALLTYPE_ATMSAP...................................................310
CLBIDLETIMER.....................................................................................................................310
CLOCKMODE_DCE/CLOCKMODE_DTE.............................................................................310
CLOCKSPEED_600/CLOCKSPEED_1200 CLOCKSPEED_2400/CLOCKSPEED_4800
CLOCKSPEED_9600/CLOCKSPEED_19200 CLOCKSPEED_38400/CLOCKSPEED_56000
CLOCKSPEED_115200.........................................................................................................310
COMPRESS_OFF/COMPRESS_ON....................................................................................311
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE/ CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE................................311
DELAY n.................................................................................................................................312
DESTATMADDR n.................................................................................................................312
DESTIPADDR n.....................................................................................................................312
DESTIPPORT n.....................................................................................................................313
DOWNIFBADQUALITY ON/ DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF....................................................313
EXTMEMSIZE n.....................................................................................................................313
FLAGFILL_OFF/ FLAGFILL_ON...........................................................................................313
FRAMESIZE n........................................................................................................................314
INTERFACE_RS232/INTERFACE_RS422............................................................................314
IPVER_IPV4/IPVER_IPV6.....................................................................................................314
L2DISCARDONRESET_OFF/L2DISCARDONRESET_ON..................................................315
L2RETRIES n.........................................................................................................................315
L2TIMEOUT n........................................................................................................................315
L4CONGCTRL_OFF/L4CONGCTRL_ON.............................................................................316
L4CWNDCLAMP n.................................................................................................................317
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON.......................................................................318
L4RETRIES n.........................................................................................................................318
L4SENDWINDOW n...............................................................................................................319
L4TIMEOUT n........................................................................................................................319
LIFNAME n.............................................................................................................................320
LINEPRIORITY n...................................................................................................................320
LINETF n................................................................................................................................320
MAXMEM_MB n.....................................................................................................................320
MAXMSGSZ_60KB /MAXMSGSZ_2MB................................................................................321
MAXRECONNECTS n...........................................................................................................321
MAXSECREQ n.....................................................................................................................321
NEXTSYS n............................................................................................................................322
Contents
11
OSSPACE n...........................................................................................................................322
OSTIMEOUT n.......................................................................................................................322
PATHBLOCKBYTES n...........................................................................................................323
PATHPACKETBYTES n.........................................................................................................323
PATHTF n...............................................................................................................................324
PROGRAM n..........................................................................................................................324
PVCNAME n...........................................................................................................................325
QUALITYTHRESHOLD n.......................................................................................................325
QUALITYTIMER n..................................................................................................................325
RETRYPROBE n....................................................................................................................325
RSIZE n..................................................................................................................................326
RXWINDOW n........................................................................................................................326
SPEED n................................................................................................................................326
SPEEDK n..............................................................................................................................327
SRCIPADDR n.......................................................................................................................328
SRCIPPORT n.......................................................................................................................329
STARTUP_OFF/STARTUP_ON.............................................................................................329
SUPERPATH_OFF/SUPERPATH_ON...................................................................................329
TIMERINACTIVITY n.............................................................................................................330
TIMERPROBE n.....................................................................................................................330
TIMERRECONNECT n..........................................................................................................331
TXWINDOW n........................................................................................................................331
V6DESTIPADDR n.................................................................................................................332
V6SRCIPADDR n...................................................................................................................332
Profiles.........................................................................................................................................332
Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers.............................................................332
Multi-Line Path Modifiers........................................................................................................335
17 Subsystem Description..............................................................................338
Expand Subsystem Components................................................................................................338
Expand Line-Handler Processes............................................................................................338
Network Control Process ($NCP)..........................................................................................342
Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP).......................................................................................342
Components Summary..........................................................................................................343
Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model.....................................................................344
Expand Line-Handler Process Layer Functions.....................................................................344
$NCP Layer Functions...........................................................................................................346
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem....................................................................................346
Protocol Packet Types...........................................................................................................347
Packet Synchronization..........................................................................................................349
Example of End-to-End Protocol Packet Exchanges.............................................................349
Layer 4 Send Window............................................................................................................353
Routing and Time Factors...........................................................................................................354
Setting Time Factors..............................................................................................................354
Negotiating Path Time Factors...............................................................................................355
Best-Path Route Selection.....................................................................................................356
Network Routing Table (NRT) and Multiple Path Table (MPT)...............................................356
Calculating Route Time Factors.............................................................................................358
Routing Algorithms.................................................................................................................358
Multi-CPU Paths.....................................................................................................................362
Multi-CPU Routing Examples.................................................................................................364
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation.....................................................................................366
Outgoing Traffic Flow.............................................................................................................367
Incoming Traffic Flow.............................................................................................................371
Message Buffering.......................................................................................................................374
12
Contents
Global Variables.....................................................................................................................374
Stack......................................................................................................................................374
Control Blocks........................................................................................................................375
Line Buffer..............................................................................................................................375
Buffer Pool..............................................................................................................................375
Shared Memory Area for QIO................................................................................................375
Expand-to-NAM Interface............................................................................................................376
Network Access Method (NAM) Processes...........................................................................376
Connection Establishment.....................................................................................................377
Sending and Receiving Data..................................................................................................379
Expand-to-IP Interface.................................................................................................................379
NonStop TCP/IP Processes...................................................................................................380
Expand-over-IP Connection Establishment...........................................................................380
Sending and Receiving Data..................................................................................................382
Forwarding Expand-over-IP Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes...................382
Expand-to-ATM Interface.............................................................................................................383
ATM Subsystem.....................................................................................................................384
Expand-over-ATM Connection Establishment.......................................................................385
Sending and Receiving Data..................................................................................................386
Forwarding Expand-over-ATM Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes...............386
Multipacket Frame Feature..........................................................................................................387
Constructing Multipacket Frames...........................................................................................388
Path Initialization....................................................................................................................390
Multipacket Frame Configuration...........................................................................................390
Multipacket Frame Considerations.........................................................................................391
Variable Packet Size Feature......................................................................................................391
Variable Packet Size Configuration........................................................................................391
Variable Packet Size Considerations.....................................................................................392
Mixing Extended and Nonextended Packets.........................................................................392
Considerations for Paths Using the Variable Packet Size Feature and the Multipacket Frame
Feature...................................................................................................................................393
Congestion Control Feature........................................................................................................393
Congestion Control Configuration..........................................................................................395
Congestion Control Considerations.......................................................................................395
Large Messages Feature.............................................................................................................396
Multi-CPU Feature.......................................................................................................................396
Multi-CPU Paths.....................................................................................................................397
Multi-CPU Configuration........................................................................................................397
Multi-CPU Considerations......................................................................................................397
V Management, Tuning, and Troubleshooting...................................................398
18 Managing the Network..............................................................................401
Accessing Network Resources....................................................................................................401
Using TACL to Manage Remote Files....................................................................................401
Using Disk-File Names...........................................................................................................401
Changing Your Default Values...............................................................................................402
Gaining Access to Remote Nodes.........................................................................................403
Setting Up Network Security........................................................................................................405
Remote File Security..............................................................................................................405
Establishing Global User IDs.................................................................................................405
Establishing Remote Passwords............................................................................................405
Remote Process Security.......................................................................................................407
Remote TACL Processes.......................................................................................................407
Global Remote Passwords.....................................................................................................407
Subnetwork Security..............................................................................................................408
Contents
13
Remote Super ID User...........................................................................................................408
Additional Security Techniques..............................................................................................408
Monitoring Network Activity.........................................................................................................409
Displaying $NCP Information.................................................................................................409
Displaying Expand Line-Handler Process Information...........................................................410
Starting and Stopping Tracing................................................................................................413
Reconfiguring the Network..........................................................................................................413
Adding and Deleting Expand Line-Handler Processes..........................................................413
Adding and Deleting $NCP....................................................................................................414
Changing $NCP Modifiers......................................................................................................414
Changing Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers...............................................................414
Changing Profiles...................................................................................................................414
Adding Nodes to the Network................................................................................................414
Removing Nodes From the Network......................................................................................415
Changing System Names and Numbers................................................................................416
Controlling the Network...............................................................................................................418
Starting and Stopping Expand Line-Handler Processes and $NCP......................................418
Stopping and Starting Lines and Paths..................................................................................418
Switching Primary and Backup Processes.............................................................................419
Rebalancing Multi-CPU Paths................................................................................................419
19 Tuning........................................................................................................420
The Role of Network Tuning........................................................................................................420
Tuning Goals..........................................................................................................................420
Performance Factors...................................................................................................................420
How to Use the Performance Factors Table..........................................................................420
Multipacket Frame Size..........................................................................................................421
Variable Packet Size..............................................................................................................423
Application Message Size......................................................................................................424
Packet Format........................................................................................................................426
Congestion Control................................................................................................................426
Layer 2 Window Size.............................................................................................................427
Processor Type......................................................................................................................427
NAM Interface........................................................................................................................428
Data Compression.................................................................................................................428
Multi-Line Paths......................................................................................................................429
Multi-CPU Paths.....................................................................................................................430
Network Topology...................................................................................................................434
Summary of Tuning Strategies...............................................................................................435
Measuring and Mapping an Expand Network.............................................................................436
What the Utilities Show..........................................................................................................436
Using Measure.......................................................................................................................437
Measuring Passthrough Traffic..............................................................................................440
Setting Measurement Intervals..............................................................................................440
Tuning Examples.........................................................................................................................441
Example 1: Changing Packet Size.........................................................................................441
Example 2: Reducing Passthrough Traffic.............................................................................443
20 Troubleshooting.........................................................................................446
Understanding Your Network.......................................................................................................446
Collecting Network Information...................................................................................................446
EMS........................................................................................................................................446
SCF........................................................................................................................................446
Measure.................................................................................................................................447
ASAP......................................................................................................................................447
Identifying Network Problems......................................................................................................447
14
Contents
User Complaints.....................................................................................................................448
SCF Commands.....................................................................................................................448
Problem Check-List Summary...............................................................................................454
Resolving Specific Network Problems.........................................................................................454
$NCP Problems......................................................................................................................454
Expand Line-Handler Process Problems...............................................................................455
SWAN Concentrator Problems...............................................................................................456
WAN Subsystem Problems....................................................................................................457
Expand-over-X.25 Problems..................................................................................................459
Expand-over-IP Problems......................................................................................................460
Expand-over-ATM Problems..................................................................................................464
Multi-CPU Path Problems......................................................................................................467
Reporting Network Problems......................................................................................................468
Tracing...................................................................................................................................469
Resolving Common Network Problems.......................................................................................470
Slow Response Time.............................................................................................................470
Network Congestion...............................................................................................................471
Node Not Available.................................................................................................................472
Adding Low-Speed Lines to a Multi-Line Path.......................................................................473
Duplicate Node.......................................................................................................................474
21 Support and other resources.........................................................................475
Accessing Hewlett Packard Enterprise Support...............................................................................475
Accessing updates............................................................................................................................475
Websites...........................................................................................................................................475
Customer self repair.........................................................................................................................476
Remote support................................................................................................................................476
Documentation feedback..................................................................................................................476
A SCF Error Messages.......................................................................................477
Expand Error 00001..........................................................................................................................477
Expand Error 00002..........................................................................................................................477
Expand Error 00003..........................................................................................................................477
Expand Error 00004..........................................................................................................................477
Expand Error 00005..........................................................................................................................477
Expand Error 00006..........................................................................................................................478
Expand Error 00007..........................................................................................................................478
Expand Error 00008..........................................................................................................................478
Expand Error 00009..........................................................................................................................478
Expand Error 00010..........................................................................................................................478
Expand Error 00011..........................................................................................................................478
Expand Error 00012..........................................................................................................................479
Expand Error 00013..........................................................................................................................479
Expand Error 00014..........................................................................................................................479
Expand Error 00015..........................................................................................................................479
Expand Error 00016..........................................................................................................................479
Expand Error 00017..........................................................................................................................480
Expand Error 00018..........................................................................................................................480
Expand Error 00019..........................................................................................................................480
Expand Error 00020..........................................................................................................................480
Expand Error 00021..........................................................................................................................480
Expand Error 00022..........................................................................................................................481
Expand Error 00023..........................................................................................................................481
Expand Error 00024..........................................................................................................................481
Contents
15
B Expand and WAN SCF Comparison...............................................................482
Command Comparison.....................................................................................................................482
ALTER Command Comparison........................................................................................................485
Modifier-to-Attribute Comparison................................................................................................485
Altering Timeout Periods.............................................................................................................486
Glossary.............................................................................................................487
Index...................................................................................................................495
16
Contents
About This Manual
The Expand Configuration and Management Manual describes how to plan, configure, and
manage the Expand subsystem on an HPE Integrity NonStop NS-series server and NonStop
BladeSystems.
This manual includes:
•
A configuration “quick start” that provides the basic information required to enable you to
quickly and easily define, start, and modify an Expand line-handler process
•
An explanation of the major features and capabilities of the Expand subsystem
•
A discussion of the decisions you must make before configuring the Expand subsystem
•
An explanation of how to configure the Expand subsystem, including how to use these
subsystems: ServerNet/FX adapter subsystem, X.25 Access Method (X25AM) subsystem,
SNAX/Advanced Peer Networking (SNAX/APN) subsystem, HPE NonStop Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) subsystem, HPE NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystem,
and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) subsystem
•
Detailed descriptions of the contents of each of the Expand profiles
•
A description of the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) interactive interface for the Expand
subsystem, including detailed reference information for each of the Expand subsystem SCF
commands
•
Information about how to manage, maintain, tune, and troubleshoot an Expand network.
Intended Audience
This manual is written for anyone who is responsible for configuring, managing, or maintaining
an Expand network. Application programmers who write network applications might find this
manual useful.
It is assumed that you are familiar with the HPE NonStop operating system, basic
data-communications concepts. You should be familiar with the Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP)
subsystem if you are using it.
New and Changed Information
Changes to the 862331-001 manual:
•
Updated section “Expand Subsystem and the NonStop Operating System” (page 44).
•
Added the following sections:
•
•
◦
“Large Messages Feature” (page 60)
◦
“MAXMEM_MB n” (page 320)
◦
“MAXMSGSZ_60KB /MAXMSGSZ_2MB” (page 321)
◦
“MAXSECREQ n” (page 321)
Updated the Message Histogram in Example 52 (page 256) and Example 53 (page 262).
Updated the following sections:
◦
“Buffer Pool” (page 375)
◦
“Large Messages Feature” (page 396)
◦
“Application Message Size” (page 424)
Intended Audience
17
•
◦
“Profile Modifiers Only” (page 485)
◦
“OSTIMEOUT n” (page 322)
◦
“Congestion Control Considerations” (page 395)
◦
“Multi-Line Path Modifiers” (page 335)
◦
“EXTMEMSIZE n” (page 313)
◦
“L4CONGCTRL_OFF/L4CONGCTRL_ON” (page 316)
◦
“L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON” (page 318)
◦
“Application Message Size” (page 424)
◦
“Data Compression” (page 428)
Added MAXMSGSZ_60KB, MAXMSGSZ_2MB, MAXMEM_MB, and MAXSECREQ modifiers
to the following tables:
◦
Table 12 (page 95)
◦
Table 13 (page 123)
◦
Table 14 (page 139)
◦
Table 15 (page 152)
◦
Table 16 (page 165)
◦
Table 18 (page 176)
•
Added MAXMSGSZ_60KB, MAXMSGSZ_2MB, MAXMEM_MB, MAXSECREQ, and
EXTMEMSIZE in Table 21 (page 189) and Table 41 (page 333).
•
Added error messages 00022, 00023, and 00024 and updated error message 00019 in
“SCF Error Messages” (page 477).
Changes to the 529522-013 manual:
18
•
Updated Example 52 “STATS PATH Command” with new fields and values.
•
Added Cur Recv Queue Messages and Max Recv Queue Messages attributes and
descriptions to the STATS PATH command example.
•
Updated Example 53 “STATS PATH NODE Command” with new fields and values.
•
Added the following attributes and descriptions to the STATS PATH NODE command
example.
◦
Average RTT
◦
RTT Std Dev
◦
Min RTT
◦
Max RTT
•
Added a consideration the “ALTER LINE Command” (page 207).
•
Appended the Delay attribute with * in the following examples as it is an alterable attribute:
◦
Example 34 “INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes
for IPv4 Lines”
◦
Example 35 “INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes
for IPv6 Lines”
◦
Example 82 “SCF INFO LINE, DETAIL Command (Expand-over-IP)”
Changes to the 529522-012 manual:
•
Updated the attribute OStimeout in “INFO PATH Command” (page 217).
Changes to the H06.26/J06.15 manual:
•
Added the modifier “REBALTHRESHOLD n” (page 85).
•
Updated the syntax for the “ALTER PROCESS Command” (page 214).
•
Updated the example Example 42 “INFO PROCESS $NCP, DETAIL Command”.
•
Added the option RebalThreshold in “INFO PROCESS Command” (page 236).
•
Updated the example Example 46 “INFO PROCESS $NCP, OBEYFORM command”.
•
Updated the section “Load Balancing” (page 363).
•
Updated the section “Load Balancing” (page 431)
Changes to the H06.25/J06.14 manual:
•
Updated the section “Task 1: Configure and Start $NCP” (page 30).
•
Updated the section “Step 2: Create $NCP” (page 81).
•
Updated the section “Step 3: Start $NCP” (page 82).
•
Updated the following with description of L4CWNDCLAMP modifier:
•
◦
“Profile Modifiers” (page 94).
◦
“Modifiers for Special Features” (page 122).
◦
“Modifiers for Special Features” (page 139).
◦
“Modifiers for Special Features” (page 151).
◦
“Modifiers for Special Features” (page 165).
◦
“Profile Modifiers” (page 175).
◦
“Path-Logical Device Modifiers” (page 189).
Updated the following tables with description of L4CWNDCLAMP modifier:
◦
PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers (page 95).
◦
PEXQSIP Modifiers for Expand-over-IP Lines (page 123).
◦
PEXQSATM Modifiers for Expand-over-ATM Lines (page 139).
◦
PEXQSNAM Modifiers (page 151).
New and Changed Information
19
◦
PEXQSNAM Modifiers for Expand-over-SNA Lines (page 165).
◦
Single-Line Path Modifiers (page 333).
•
Added the L4CWNDCLAMP modifier option to the “ALTER PATH Command” (page 206).
•
Added the L4CWNDCLAMP modifier option to the “INFO PATH Command” (page 217).
•
Added the option L4CWNDCLAMP in “INFO PATH Command” (page 217).
•
Added the L4CWNDCLAMP modifier option to the example, Example 30 “INFO PATH
$LHPATH, OBEYFORM command”
•
Added the modifier “L4CWNDCLAMP n” (page 317) to the section, Modifier Dictionary.
•
Added the L4CWNDCLAMP modifier option to the “Multi-Line Path Modifiers” (page 335).
•
Updated the section, “Congestion Control Configuration” (page 395).
Related Documentation
You might need a guided procedure or related manuals when configuring and managing an
Expand network:
Guided Procedure for Configuring a ServerNet Node
To prepare an Integrity NonStop NS-series server to become a node in a ServerNet cluster, see
the guided procedure online help for configuring a ServerNet node, which:
•
Creates a ServerNet cluster for the first time
•
Adds a node to an already configured ServerNet cluster
Manuals
•
ASAP Migration Guide for NSX and OMF Users
This guide introduces the Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP) product to users
of the Network Statistics Extended (NSX) and Object Monitoring Facility (OMF) products. It
compares the features and functions of the three products to help these users prepare for
migrating current monitoring configurations to ASAP.
•
ASAP Client Manual
This manual describes using the Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP) Client to
monitor availability, state, and performance statistics that are collected by ASAP Server for
the NonStop operating system and application resources. Reported resource classes include
internal customer Application domains, CPU, Disk, Expand, File, Node, Process,
ProcessBusy, RDF, Spooler, System, Tape, and TMF.
•
ASAP Server Manual
Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP) is an availability, state, and performance
statistics collection infrastructure for the NonStop operating system and application resources.
Reported resource classes include internal customer Application domains, CPU, Disk,
Expand, File, Node, Process, ProcessBusy, RDF, Spooler, System, Tape, and TMF.
•
ASAP Extension Manual
This manual describes using the Availability Statistics and Performance Extension (ASAPX)
to collect, measure, view, and analyze application service-level metrics to track the
productivity, performance, and availability of applications.
20
•
ATM Configuration and Management Manual
This manual describes how to configure, operate, and manage the Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) subsystem on an Integrity NonStop NS-series server. It includes detailed
descriptions of the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) commands used with the ATM
subsystem.
•
Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) Configuration and Management Manual
This manual provides overview about the HPE NonStop Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) subsystem
and the procedures for configuring, managing, and migrating to CIP.
•
Operator Messages Manual
This manual describes all messages that are distributed by the Event Management Service
(EMS). This manual provides an explanation of the cause of each message, a discussion
of its effects on the system, and suggestions for corrective action.
•
ServerNet Cluster Manual
This manual describes the installation, configuration, and management of HPE NonStop
ServerNet Cluster hardware and software.
•
ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and Installation Guide
This manual describes the installation and planning for the 6780 ServerNet Cluster switch.
•
SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN Configuration and Management Manual
This manual describes how to configure the SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN communications
subsystems. It includes detailed descriptions of the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
commands used with the SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN subsystems.
•
TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual
This manual describes how to configure, operate, and manage the NonStop TCP/IP
subsystem. It includes detailed descriptions of the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
commands used with the NonStop TCP/IP subsystem.
•
TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual
This manual describes how to configure, operate, and manage the NonStop TCP/IPv6
subsystem. It includes detailed descriptions of the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
commands used with the NonStop TCP/IP subsystem.
•
TCP/IPv6 Migration Manual
This manual describes migration information for migrating to the NonStop TCP/IPv6
subsystem from the NonStop TCP/IP and Parallel Library TCP/IP subsystems.
•
X25AM Configuration and Management Manual
This manual describes how to configure, operate, and manage the X25AM subsystem. It
includes detailed descriptions of the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) commands used with
the X25AM subsystem.
Publishing History
Part Number
Product Version
Publication Date
529522-010
Expand H01
August 2012
529522-011
Expand H01
February 2013
529522-012
Expand H01
April 2013
Publishing History
21
Part Number
Product Version
Publication Date
529522-013
Expand H01
February 2014
862331-001
Expand H01
May 2016
Abbreviations
This list defines abbreviations and acronyms used in this guide. Both industry-standard terms
and Hewlett Packard Enterprise terms are included.
API.
Application Program Interface
ATM.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATM3SA.
ATM 3 ServerNet Adapter
ASAP.
Availability Statistics and Performance
CAP.
Communications Access Protocol
CIP.
Cluster I/O Protocols
CLIM.
CLuster I/O Module
CLIP.
Communications Line Interface Processor
ConMgr.
Concentrator Manager Process
DLC.
Data Link Control
DSM.
Distributed Systems Management
DV.
Distance Vector
ETF.
Effective Time Factor
EMS.
Event Management Service
FCSA.
Fibre Channel ServerNet Adapter
FTP.
File Transfer Protocol
G4SA.
Gigabit Ethernet 4-port ServerNet Adapter
HC.
Hop Count
22
HDLC.
High-Level Data Link Control
IEEE.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IOAM.
Input/Output Adapter Module
IOP.
Input-Output Process
IP.
Internet Protocol
LAN.
Local Area Network
LNP.
Logical Network Partitioning
LU.
Logical Unit
MPT.
Multiple Path Table
MSH.
Modified Split Horizon
NAM.
Network Access Method
NCP.
Network Control Process
NRT.
Network Routing Table
OOS.
Out Of Sequence
OSI.
Open Systems Interconnection
OSS.
Open System Services
PIN.
Process Identification Number
PU.
Physical Unit
PVC.
Permanent Virtual Circuit
RPT.
Reverse Pairing Table
SAN.
System Area Network
SCF.
Subsystem Control Facility
Abbreviations
23
SCP.
Subsystem Control Point
SEB.
ServerNet Expansion Board
SH.
Split Horizon
SLSA.
ServerNet LAN Systems Access
SNA.
Systems Network Architecture
SVC.
Switched Virtual Circuit
SWAN.
ServerNet Wide Area Network
TACL.
HPE Tandem Advanced Command Language
TCP/IP.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TF.
Time Factor
TFTP.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
UDP.
User Datagram Protocol
WAN.
Wide Area Network
X25AM.
X.25 Access Method
$NCP.
Network Control Process name
$$ZCIP.
Cluster I/O Protocols subsystem
$ZEXP.
Expand Manager Process name
$ZNET.
Subsystem Control Point process name
$ZNUP.
Network Utility Process name
$ZPM.
Persistence Manager Process name
$ZZKRN.
Kernel Subsystem Manager Process name
$ZZLAN.
SLSA Subsystem Manager Process name
24
$ZZSCL.
ServerNet Monitor Process name
$ZZWAN.
WAN Subsystem Manager Process name
Notation Conventions
Notation for Messages
This list summarizes the notation conventions for the presentation of displayed messages in this
manual.
Bold Text
Bold text in an example indicates user input typed at the terminal. For example:
ENTER RUN CODE
?123
CODE RECEIVED:
123.00
The user must press the Return key after typing the input.
Nonitalic text
Nonitalic letters, numbers, and punctuation indicate text that is displayed or
returned exactly as shown. For example:
Backup Up.
lowercase italic letters
Lowercase italic letters indicate variable items whose values are displayed or
returned. For example:
p-register
process-name
[ ] Brackets
Brackets enclose items that are sometimes, but not always, displayed. For
example:
Event number = number [ Subject = first-subject-value ]
A group of items enclosed in brackets is a list of all possible items that can be
displayed, of which one or none might actually be displayed. The items in the list
can be arranged either vertically, with aligned brackets on each side of the list, or
horizontally, enclosed in a pair of brackets and separated by vertical lines. For
example:
LDEV ldev [ CU %ccu | CU %... ] UP [ (cpu,chan,%ctlr,%unit ) ]
{ } Braces
A group of items enclosed in braces is a list of all possible items that can be
displayed, of which one is actually displayed. The items in the list can be arranged
either vertically, with aligned braces on each side of the list, or horizontally,
enclosed in a pair of braces and separated by vertical lines. For example:
LBU { X | Y } POWER FAIL
process-name State changed from old-objstate to objstate
{ Operator Request. }
{ Unknown.
}
| Vertical Line
Notation Conventions
25
A vertical line separates alternatives in a horizontal list that is enclosed in brackets
or braces. For example:
Transfer status: { OK | Failed }
% Percent Sign
A percent sign precedes a number that is not in decimal notation. The % notation
precedes an octal number. The %B notation precedes a binary number. The %H
notation precedes a hexadecimal number. For example:
%005400
P=%p -register E=%e -register
Notation for Subnet
This list summarizes the notation conventions for SUBNET and subnet used in this manual.
UPPERCASE LETTERS
Uppercase letters indicate the NonStop TCP/IP or NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystem
SCF SUBNET object. For example:
Port A is identified by logical interface (LIF) 018, which uses a SUBNET on the
TCP/IP process named $ZB018 in processor 0.
lowercase letters
Lowercase letters indicate the general networking term for subnet. For example:
Multicast datagrams that have a Time-To-Live (TTL) value of 1 are forwarded only
to hosts on the local subnet.
Change Bar Notation
Change bars are used to indicate substantive differences between this manual and its preceding
version. Change bars are vertical rules placed in the right margin of changed portions of text,
figures, tables, examples, and so on. Change bars highlight new or revised information. For
example:
The message types specified in the REPORT clause are different in the COBOL environment
and the Common Run-Time Environment (CRE). The CRE has many new message types and
some new message type codes for old message types. In the CRE, the message type SYSTEM
includes all messages except LOGICAL-CLOSE and LOGICAL-OPEN.
26
Part I Getting Started
Part I consists of these chapters, which describe the Expand subsystem’s major features, discuss
basic network design issues, and provide the basic information required to enable you to quickly define
and start Expand line-handler processes:
Chapter 1
“Configuration Quick Start” (page 30)
Chapter 2
“Expand Overview” (page 44)
Chapter 3
“Planning a Network Design” (page 52)
Chapter 4
“Planning for ServerNet Clusters” (page 65)
Contents
1 Configuration Quick Start..................................................................................30
Task Summary....................................................................................................................................30
Assumptions.......................................................................................................................................30
Task 1: Configure and Start $NCP......................................................................................................30
Where to Find More Information About This Task.........................................................................31
Task 2: Start the Expand Manager Process.......................................................................................31
Creating a Persistent Version of the Expand Manager Process...................................................31
Where to Find More Information About This Task.........................................................................31
Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler Profile(s).................................................................................32
Where to Find More Information About This Task.........................................................................33
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process..................................................................................33
Creating a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process..................................................................33
Creating a Multi-Line Path.............................................................................................................41
Where to Find More Information About This Task.........................................................................42
Task 5: Start the Expand Line-Handler Process.................................................................................42
Establishing a Connection..................................................................................................................43
Starting an Expand Path................................................................................................................43
Starting Lines in a Multi-Line Path.................................................................................................43
2 Expand Overview..............................................................................................44
Network Transparency........................................................................................................................44
Interactive Access.........................................................................................................................44
Programmatic Access....................................................................................................................44
Expand Subsystem and the NonStop Operating System..............................................................44
Multiple Communications Environments.............................................................................................46
Leased and Satellite Connections.................................................................................................47
X.25 Packet-Switched Networks...................................................................................................47
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Networks...........................................................................47
Internet Protocol (IP) Networks.....................................................................................................47
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks.............................................................................47
ServerNet Clusters........................................................................................................................47
Distributed Control..............................................................................................................................48
Automatic Message Routing...............................................................................................................48
Passthrough Routing.....................................................................................................................48
Best-Path Routing.........................................................................................................................48
Priority Routing..............................................................................................................................49
Fault-Tolerant Operation.....................................................................................................................49
Network Management.........................................................................................................................49
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF).................................................................................................49
Event Management Service (EMS)...............................................................................................50
Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP).............................................................................50
Measure.........................................................................................................................................50
OSM Interface...............................................................................................................................50
Online Expansion and Reconfiguration..............................................................................................50
Network Security.................................................................................................................................50
Remote Passwords.......................................................................................................................51
Enhanced Security Techniques.....................................................................................................51
3 Planning a Network Design...............................................................................52
Selecting Line Protocols.....................................................................................................................52
Dedicated Lines.............................................................................................................................52
Satellite Connections.....................................................................................................................52
X.25 Connections..........................................................................................................................53
28
Contents
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Connections......................................................................53
Internet Protocol (IP) Networks.....................................................................................................54
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks.............................................................................55
ServerNet Connections.................................................................................................................55
Defining Paths Between Systems.......................................................................................................56
When to Use a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process...........................................................56
When to Use a Multi-Line Path......................................................................................................56
When to Use a Multi-CPU Path.....................................................................................................58
Selecting Special Features.................................................................................................................59
Multipacket Frame Feature............................................................................................................60
Variable Packet Size Feature........................................................................................................60
Congestion Control Feature..........................................................................................................60
Large Messages Feature...............................................................................................................60
Designing the Network Topology........................................................................................................61
Common Network Topologies.......................................................................................................61
Topology Limitations......................................................................................................................63
Creating a Network Diagram..............................................................................................................63
4 Planning for ServerNet Clusters........................................................................65
Configuration Considerations for Expand and ServerNet Clusters....................................................65
ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP Networks..................................................................66
Considerations for ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP...............................................67
Examples of ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP........................................................67
Contents
29
1 Configuration Quick Start
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
This section provides the basic information to define and start an Expand line-handler process.
This procedure requires that you use the default values provided by the Expand subsystem for
most configuration modifiers. If you want a customized configuration, or if you want to change
your configuration, see Part II “Configuring the Expand Subsystem”.
Task Summary
Configuring and starting an Expand line-handler process involves these tasks:
•
“Task 1: Configure and Start $NCP” (page 30)
•
“Task 2: Start the Expand Manager Process” (page 31)
•
“Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler Profile(s)” (page 32)
•
“Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process” (page 33)
•
“Task 5: Start the Expand Line-Handler Process” (page 42)
Assumptions
At the beginning of this procedure, the Integrity NonStop NS-series server is assumed to be in
this state:
•
The default software configuration provided by Hewlett Packard Enterprise manufacturing
is running.
•
The initial OSM configuration is complete.
•
The ServerNet LAN Systems Access (SLSA) subsystem has been configured and started,
and a LAN adapter has been installed and started.
•
A NonStop TCP/IP process and Ethernet SUBNET have been created and started.
•
The WAN manager process ($ZZWAN) has been created and started.
•
The WAN subsystem Concentrator Manager (ConMgr), WANBoot, TFTP server, and the
SNMP trap multiplexer processes have been created and started.
•
The ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator has been installed, configured, and
started and has an available WAN line.
Task 1: Configure and Start $NCP
The network control process ($NCP) is responsible for initiating and terminating server-to-server
connections and maintaining network-related system tables, including routing information. $NCP
must be running at every node in the Expand network before Expand lines can be started.
To configure and start the network control process, perform these steps:
1. Log on to the Integrity NonStop NS-series server using the super ID (SUPER.SUPER) and
enter the correct password at the Password: prompt.
> LOGON SUPER.SUPER
Password:
2.
At the TACL prompt, start the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF).
> SCF
3.
Create a profile for the network control process.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#PEXPNCP, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS00.PEXPNCP
30
Configuration Quick Start
4.
Create the network control process.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP, IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.NCPOBJ, &
PROFILE PEXPNCP, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, TYPE (62,6), RSIZE 1
5.
Start the network control process
-> START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP
NOTE: Do not log off or exit from SCF after completing this task. The remaining tasks in this
procedure require the use of SCF commands and super ID privileges.
Where to Find More Information About This Task
Configuring the Network Control Process
Task 2: Start the Expand Manager Process
1.
The Expand subsystem requires that the Expand manager process ($ZEXP) be running
during network operation. To start the Expand manager process, enter this command at the
TACL prompt:
> RUN $SYSTEM.SYSnn.OZEXP / NAME $ZEXP, PRI 180, NOWAIT,&
CPU primary / backup
where primary is the number of the processor where the primary process will run and
backup is the processor where the backup process will run.
2.
You can also start the Expand manager process at system startup by including this command
in the system startup file:
OZEXP / NAME $ZEXP, OUT $ZHOME, PRI 180, NOWAIT, &
CPU primary / backup
3.
To verify that the process is started, enter the TACL process-pair directory (PPD) command
at the TACL prompt:
> PPD $ZEXP
Creating a Persistent Version of the Expand Manager Process
Rather than manually create and start (and restart after processor halts) the Expand manager
you should create a persistent generic version.
1. Use the Kernel subsystem SCF ADD PROCESS command to add the $ZEXP process to
the Expand subsystem:
-> ADD PROCESS $ZZKRN.#ZEXP, NAME $ZEXP, AUTORESTART 1, &
PROGRAM $SYSTEM.SYSTEM.OZEXP, PRIMARYCPU 4, BACKUPCPU 7, &
STARTMODE SYSTEM, STARTUPMSG “<bckp-cpu> ”
2.
To start the Expand Manager Process, use the Kernel subsystem SCF START PROCESS
command, as:
-> START PROCESS $ZZKRN.#ZEXP
3.
To verify that the process has started successfully, enter this TACL command:
> STATUS $ZEXP
Where to Find More Information About This Task
•
Configuration Overview
•
For details about the Kernel SCF commands and the creation of generic processes, consult
the SCF Reference Manual for the Kernel Subsystem.
•
If you are using SCF on an Integrity NonStop system for the first time, for more information
on how to modify and save modifications to a configuration file, see the SCF Reference
Manual for H-Series RVUs.
Task 2: Start the Expand Manager Process
31
Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler Profile(s)
Hewlett Packard Enterprise provides profiles, which contain modifiers and default modifier values,
for each type of Expand line-handler process. You can use these profiles to create profiles for
your Expand line-handler processes. To add a profile for an Expand line-handler, perform these
steps:
NOTE: To add an Expand line-handler process that is part of a multi-CPU path, perform either
Step 1 or Step 2 as described below.
1.
If you want add a single-line Expand line-handler process, perform these steps. If you want
to add a multi-line path, got to Step 2.
•
Add a profile to the WAN subsystem for the type of Expand line-handler process that
you want to configure.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#name, &
FILE $SYSTEM.SYS00.profile_name
where name is the name you want to assign to the profile and profile_name is the
name of a profile listed in Table 1.
Table 1 Profiles for Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Processes
2.
Profile Name
Type of Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process
PEXQSSWN
Direct-connect
PEXQSSAT
Satellite-connect
PEXQSNAM
Expand-over-NAM
PEXQSIP
Expand-over-IP
PEXQSATM
Expand-over-ATM
PEXPSSN
Expand-over-ServerNet
If you want to add a multi-line path, perform these steps:
a. Add a profile to the WAN subsystem for the path-logical device using the PEXPPATH
profile:
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#name, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS00.PEXPPATH
where name is the name you want to assign to the profile.
b.
Add a profile for each type of line in the multi-line path:
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#name2, &
FILE $SYSTEM.SYS00.profile_name
where name2 is the name you want to assign to the profile and profile_name is the
name of a profile listed in Table 2:
Table 2 Profiles for Line-Logical Devices
32
Profile Name
Type of Line-Logical Device
PEXQMSWN
Direct-connect
PEXQMSAT
Satellite-connect
PEXQMNAM
Expand-over-NAM
PEXQMATM
Expand-over-ATM
PEXQMIP
Expand-over-IP
Configuration Quick Start
These rules apply when creating profiles for lines in a multi-line path:
•
You can configure a maximum of eight lines in a multi-line path.
•
The lines in a multi-line path can be all the same type or they can be any combination of
dedicated lines, X.25 connections, and SNAX connections. You cannot mix satellite-connect,
Expand-over-ATM, and Expand-over-IP lines with other line types. Expand-over-ServerNet
lines cannot be part of a multi-line path.
•
You must create a profile for each type of line that will be in a multi-line path. Lines of the
same type can share the same profile.
Where to Find More Information About This Task
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process
The Expand subsystem supports a variety of different protocols and communications methods
to enable you to connect systems together in local area network (LAN) and wide area network
(WAN) topologies. These types of Expand line-handler processes can be configured:
•
Direct-connect
•
Satellite-connect
•
Expand-over-IP
•
Expand-over-ATM
•
Expand-over-X.25
•
Expand-over-SNA
•
Expand-over-ServerNet
You can configure an Expand line-handler process to manage a single line Expand line-handler
process, or you can configure a multi-line path. A multi-line path can contain up to eight parallel
lines. You can also configure an Expand line-handler process to be part of a multi-CPU path.
Creating a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process
This subsection explains how to create a single-line Expand line-handler process. If you want to
create a multi-line path, see “Creating a Multi-Line Path” (page 41).
NOTE: How to configure a single-line Expand line-handler process to be part of a multi-CPU
path is described in Step 6.
Satellite-Connect and Direct-Connect Line-Handler Processes
To create a single-line satellite-connect or direct-connect line-handler process, perform these
steps:
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process
33
1.
Find an available WAN line on a SWAN concentrator attached to your server.
-> STATUS ADAPTER $ZZWAN.#*, SUB ALL
Available lines are indicated in the resulting display by the word FREE in the command
display. Example 1 shows a STATUS ADAPTER display. An available line is indicated on
line 1 of CLIP 1 on the SWAN concentrator named S01. This information is shown in boldface
type.
Example 1 SCF STATUS ADAPTER Command
WAN Manager STATUS ADAPTER for ADAPTER
State........... STARTED
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01
Number of clips. 3
Clip 1 status: CONFIGURED
Clip 2 status: CONFIGURED
Clip 3 status: CONFIGURED
WAN Manager STATUS SERVER for CLIP
State:......... STARTED
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01.1
Path A..........: CONFIGURED
Path B..........: CONFIGURED
Number of lines. 2
Line............ 0 : $X25A
Line............ 1 : FREE
WAN Manager STATUS PATH for PATH
State:......... STARTED
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01.1.A
MEDIA TYPE...... ETHERNET
MEDIA ADDRESS... %H000000000000
2.
Using the information obtained from the SCF STATUS ADAPTER command, record the
following information in the SCF ADD DEVICE COMMAND WORKSHEET (see Table 3
(page 36)):
a. The name of the SWAN concentrator with the available WAN line in the concname
field. (For example: S01.)
b. The CLIP (1, 2, or 3) containing the available WAN line in the clipnum field. (For
example: 1.)
c. The line number of the available WAN line in the linenum field. (For example, 1.)
d. Record the configured path that you prefer to use (A or B) in the pathname field. (For
example: A.) Configured paths are indicated by the word CONFIGURED following the
path name in the SCF STATUS ADAPTER command display.
3.
Using the name of the SWAN concentrator with the available WAN line from Step 2a,
determine the names of the preferred and alternate NonStop TCP/IP processes configured
for the SWAN concentrator.
-> INFO ADAPTER $ZZWAN.#concname
The command display shows the names of the preferred and alternate NonStop TCP/IP
processes (or TCP6SAM processes for NonStop TCP/IPv6 environments) in the *TCPIP
Name and *ALTTCPIP Name fields, respectively. An example of an SCF INFO ADAPTER
command is shown in Example 2. The preferred and alternate NonStop TCP/IP process
names are shown in boldface type.
34
Configuration Quick Start
Example 2 SCF INFO ADAPTER Command
WAN Manager Detailed Info Adapter \NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01
*TrackId...........
*ALTTCPIP Name.....
KERNELCODE.........
*SNMPCODE..........
*HOSTIP Address....
ALTHOSTIP Address..
GATEWAYIP Addr.....
ALTGATEWAYIP Addr..
SUBNETMASK.........
ALTSUBNETMASK......
4.
XR4T7D
*TCPIP Name....... $ZB01C
$ZB018
Concentrator Type. SYNC
$SYSTEM.CSS00.C7953P00
$SYSTEM.CSS00.C7849P00
172.016.035.117
172.016.045.119
000.000.000.000
000.000.000.000
%HFFFFFF00
%HFFFFFF00
Using the names of the preferred and alternate NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM processes
shown in the SCF INFO ADAPTER display, determine in which processors the preferred
and alternate processes are running.
-> STATUS PROCESS $tcip_process_preferred
-> STATUS PROCESS $tcip_process_alternate
The command display shows the number of the processor where the NonStop TCP/IP or
TCP6SAM process is running in the PPID field. The first number in parentheses is the
processor number. An example of two SCF STATUS PROCESS commands is shown in
Example 3. The processor numbers are shown in boldface type.
Example 3 SCF STATUS PROCESS Command
-> STATUS PROCESS $ZB018
TCPIP Status process \NODEA.$ZB018
Status: Started
PPID............. ( 0,319)
BPID................ ( 1,292)
Proto
TCP
TCP
TCP
Faddr
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Status
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
Laddr
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Lport
ftp
finger
echo
Fport
*
*
*
SendQ
0
0
0
RecvQ
0
0
0
-> STATUS PROCESS $ZB01C
TCPIP Status process \NODEA.$ZB01C
5.
Status: Started
PPID............. ( 1,303)
BPID................ ( 0,328)
Proto
TCP
TCP
TCP
Faddr
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Status
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
Laddr
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Lport
ftp
finger
echo
Fport
*
*
*
SendQ
0
0
0
RecvQ
0
0
0
Using the information obtained from the SCF STATUS PROCESS commands, record the
processor numbers for the preferred and alternate NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM processes
in the cpunum and altcpunum fields of SCF ADD DEVICE Command Worksheet (see
Table 3), respectively.
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process
35
6.
Add the satellite-connect or direct-connect line-handler process as a device to the WAN
subsystem using the values you recorded in the SCF ADD DEVICE Command Worksheet
(see Table 3).
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name, &
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, TYPE (63,5), RSIZE 0, &
LINETF 3, ADAPTER concname, CLIP clipnum, LINE linenum, &
PATH pathnum, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpunum, NEXTSYS sysnum
NOTE: If you want the satellite-connect or direct-connect line-handler process to be part
of a multi-CPU path, specify the SUPERPATH_ON modifier in the SCF ADD DEVICE
command. You can configure a maximum of 16 paths in a multi-CPU path.
Table 3 SCF ADD DEVICE Command Worksheet
Parameter
Value/Description
device_name
The name you want to assign to the Expand line-handler process.
name
The name of the profile you created in “Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler
Profile(s)” (page 32).
concname
____________________ (Task 4, Step 2a)
clipnum
____________________ (Task 4, Step 2b)
linenum
____________________ (Task 4, Step 2c)
pathname
____________________ (Task 4, Step 2d)
cpunum
____________________ (Task 4, Step 5)
altcpunum
____________________ (Task 4, Step 5)
sysnum
Specifies the number of the system connected to the other end of the line.
System numbers can be displayed using the SCF INFO PROCESS $NCP,
LINESET command.
NOTE: The device name is a string of alphanumeric characters. The string is limited to the
pound (#) sign followed by seven characters. The first character must be an alphanumeric
character. For subsystem-specific naming guidelines, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration
and Management Manual.
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Process
The Expand-over-IP line-handler process must be associated with a NonStop TCP/IP process
for conventional NonStop TCP/IP, a CIPSAM process for Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP), or a
TCP6SAM process for NonStop TCP/IPv6. Expand uses an Ethernet SUBNET and a User
Datagram Program (UDP) port defined for the NonStop TCP/IP process.
The procedure to configure NonStop TCP/IP processes is not described here. For more
information, see Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines.
To create an Expand-over-IP line-handler process, perform this step:
36
Configuration Quick Start
•
Add the Expand-over-IP line-handler process as a device to the WAN subsystem.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS sysnum, &
ASSOCIATEDEV tcpip_process, DESTIPADDR dipaddr,&
DESTIPPORT dipport, SRCIPADDR sipaddr, &
SRCIPPORT sipport
NOTE: To use CIP for IP communications, add the Expand-over-IP line-handler device
in the same way as done in Select a CIPSAM Process for your NonStop TCP/IP process.
The CIP also supports IPv6 communications.
If you want to use IPv6 communications, add the device as:
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 2, NEXTSYS sysnum,&
ASSOCIATEDEV tcp6sam_process or cipsam_process, IPVER_IPV6,&
V6SRCIPADDR ipv6srcaddress, V6DESTIPADDR ipv6destaddress,&
SRCIPPORT sipport, DESTIPPORT dipport
NOTE: If you want the Expand-over-IP line-handler process to be part of a multi-CPU path,
specify the SUPERPATH_ON modifier in the SCF ADD DEVICE command. You can configure
a maximum of 16 paths in a multi-CPU path.
Table 4 SCF ADD DEVICE Syntax: Expand-over-IP
Parameter
Description
device_name
The name you want to assign to the Expand line-handler process.
name
The name of the profile you created in Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler
Profile(s).
cpunum
The number of the primary processor.
sysnum
The number of the system connected to the other end of the line. System
numbers can be displayed using the SCF INFO PROCESS $NCP, LINESET
command.
altcpu
The number of the alternate processor.
tcpip_process
The name of the TCP/IP process you want to associate with the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process. For NonStop TCP/IP, the tcpip_process must be
configured in the same processor pair as the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. For NonStop TCP/IPv6 and CIP, the tcpip_process can be
configured in any processor only if the TCP/IP monitor process is running on
the processor where the Expand-line-handler process is configured.
tcp6sam_process
The name of the NonStop TCP/IPv6 TCP6SAM process you want to associate
with the Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The TCP6SAM process does
not need to be configured in the same processor pair as the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process but there must be a NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystem monitor
process ($ZZTCP.#ZPTMn, where n is the processor number) in the processors
that contain the Expand-over-IP line-handler process pair. If you use NonStop
TCP/IPv6 in INET (IPv4) mode, the additional parameters for IPv6, IPVER_IPV6,
V6SRCIPADDR, and V6DESTIPADDR are not needed. DESTIPADDR is
required for INET operations, however. NonStop TCP/IPv6 has a feature called
logical network partitioning (LNP) that affects configuration. For more information
on this feature, see “Internet Protocol (IP) Networks” (page 54).
cipsam_process*
The name of the CIP transport-service provider process you want to associate
with the Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The CIPSAM process does not
need to be configured in the same processor pair as the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process. In CIP, the monitor process ($ZZCIP.#ZCMn, where n is
the processor number) is configured in all processors by default. Therefore,
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process
37
Table 4 SCF ADD DEVICE Syntax: Expand-over-IP (continued)
Parameter
Description
additional considerations are not required for ensuring its operation in the
Expand-over-IP line-handler process pair. If you use CIP for INET (IPv4)
operations, the additional parameters for IPv6, IPVER_IPV6, V6SRCIPADDR,
and V6DESTIPADDR are not needed. However, the DESTIPADDR parameter
is required for INET operations. CIP has the ability to restrict data
communications to a particular CLIM and this might affect Expand configuration.
For more information on this feature, see “Internet Protocol (IP) Networks”
(page 54).
dipaddr
The IP address used by the remote (destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. The address must be specified by number.
dipport
The UDP port number used by the remote (destination) Expand-over-IP
line-handler process.
sipaddr
The IP address used by the NonStop TCP/IP process specified by
tcpip_process. The address must be specified by number.
sipport
The UDP port number used by this Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Valid
values are in the range 0 through 65536. Do not use well-known ports in the
range 0 through 1023.
ipv6srcaddress
The IP address used by the NonStop TCP/IP process specified by the
tcpipV6_process. The address must be specified by number.
ipv6destaddress
The IP address used by the NonStop TCP/IP process specified by the
tcpipV6_process. The address must be specified by number.
* Supported only on systems running J06.04 and later J-series RVUs.
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Process
The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process must be associated with an Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) line. It can use a switched virtual circuit (SVC) or a permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
connection.
Expand-over-ATM lines can also use the ATMSAP connection option through the SLSA
subsystem.
Configuring the ATM subsystem is not described here; you can find information about this topic
in Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines.
To create an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process, perform this step:
38
Configuration Quick Start
•
Add the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process as a device to the WAN subsystem
Use this command syntax if the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use a PVC
connection:
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, ASSOCIATEDEV atm_line,&
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP, CALLTYPE_PVC, PVCNAME pvc-name,&
NEXTSYS sysnum
Use this command syntax if the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use an SVC
connection:
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, ASSOCIATEDEV atm_line,&
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP, CALLTYPE_SVC, ATMSEL selector-byte,&
DESTATMADDR (isonsap:%hatm-address),
NEXTSYS sysnum
Use this command syntax for an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process using an ATMSAP
connection through the SLSA subsystem:
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, CALLTYPE_ATMSAP,&
LIFNAME lif-name, NEXTSYS sysnum
NOTE: If you want the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process to be part of a multi-CPU path,
specify the SUPERPATH_ON modifier in the SCF ADD DEVICE command. You can configure
a maximum of 16 paths in a multi-CPU path.
Table 5 SCF ADD DEVICE Syntax: Expand-over-ATM
Parameter
Description
device_name
The name you want to assign to the Expand line-handler process.
name
The name of the profile you created in Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler
Profile(s).
cpunum
The number of the primary processor.
altcpu
The number of the alternate processor.
atm_line
The device name of the ATM line you want to associate with this
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process.
lif_name
The name of the logical interface by which LAN access is known to the system.
This name can be up to eight characters long, null-terminated, and
case-sensitive. This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes that use ATMSAP connections though the SLSA subsystem.
pvc_name
The name of the permanent virtual circuit (PVC) used by the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process. This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM
line-handler processes that use PVC connections.
selector-byte
A selector byte for the ATM line used by this Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process. The selector byte is the last (rightmost) byte of the ATM address. This
modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use SVC connections.
atm-address
The 20-byte ATM address configured for the ATM line used by the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process at the remote system. The address
must be preceded by the characters ISONSAP:%H and must be enclosed in
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process
39
Table 5 SCF ADD DEVICE Syntax: Expand-over-ATM (continued)
Parameter
Description
parentheses. This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes that use SVC connections.
sysnum
The number of the system connected to the other end of the line. System
numbers can be displayed using the SCF INFO PROCESS $NCP, LINESET
command.
Expand-over-X.25, Expand-over-SNA and Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes
Expand-over-X.25, Expand-over-SNA, and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes require
the services of these software components:
•
The Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process must be associated with an X25AM process. It
uses a NAM subdevice defined for the X25AM process. You can find information about this
topic in Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines.
•
The Expand-over-SNA line-handler process must be associated with a SNAX/APN
line-handler process. It uses a particular SNAX/APN line and logical unit (LU) defined for
the SNAX/APN line-handler process. You can find more information about this topic in
Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines.
•
The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process must be associated with the ServerNet
monitor process ($ZZSCL), a component of the ServerNet cluster subsystem. You can find
more information about this topic in Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines.
To create an Expand-over-X.25, Expand-over-SNA, or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process, perform this step:
•
Add the Expand-over-SNA, Expand-over-X.25, or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process as a device to the WAN subsystem.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,subtype), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, ASSOCIATEDEV process, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #subdevice, NEXTSYS sysnum
NOTE: If you want the Expand-over-X.25 or Expand-over-SNA line-handler process to be part
of a multi-CPU path, specify the SUPERPATH_ON modifier in the SCF ADD DEVICE command.
You can configure a maximum of 16 paths in a multi-CPU path. Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler processes cannot participate as a member of a multi-CPU path (superpath).
Table 6 SCF ADD DEVICE Syntax: Expand-over-X.25, Expand-over-SNA, and
Expand-over-ServerNet
40
Parameter
Description
device_name
The name you want to assign to the Expand line-handler process.
name
The name of the profile you created in Task 3: Add the Expand Line-Handler
Profile(s).
cpunum
The primary processor number.
altcpu
The alternate processor number.
subtype
The subtype. The subtype is 0 for Expand-over-X.25 and Expand-over-SNA
line-handler processes; it is 4 for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
processes.
Configuration Quick Start
Table 6 SCF ADD DEVICE Syntax: Expand-over-X.25, Expand-over-SNA, and
Expand-over-ServerNet (continued)
Parameter
Description
process
• For Expand-over-X.25: the name of an X25AM line-handler process.
• For Expand-over-SNA: the name of a SNAX/APN line-handler process.
• For Expand-over-ServerNet: must be $ZZSCL.
subdevice
• For Expand-over-X.25: the name of an X25AM subdevice defined for the
X25AM process specified by process.
• For Expand-over-SNA: the name of a local LU (with the NAM protocol)
defined for the SNAX/APN process specified by process.
• For Expand-over-ServerNet: this modifier is not used.
sysnum
The number of the system connected to the other end of the line. System
numbers can be displayed using the SCF INFO PROCESS $NCP, LINESET
command.
Creating a Multi-Line Path
This section describes how to configure a multi-line path.
1. Create the path-logical device.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#path_name, PROFILE name,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS00.LHOBJ, CPU cpunum, ALTCPU altcpu,&
TYPE (63,1), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS sysnum
NOTE: If you want the multi-line path to be part of a multi-CPU path, specify the
SUPERPATH_ON modifier in the SCF ADD DEVICE command. You can configure a
maximum of 16 paths in a multi-CPU path.
Table 7 ADD DEVICE Syntax: Path-Logical Device
Parameter
Description
path_name
The name you want to assign to the path-logical device.
name
The name of the profile you created in Task 2, Step 2a.
cpunum
The number of the primary processor.
altcpu
The number of the alternate processor.
sysnum
The number of the system connected to the other end of the multi-line
path. System numbers can be displayed using the SCF INFO
PROCESS $NCP, LINESET command.
Task 4: Add the Expand Line-Handler Process
41
2.
To create lines in the multi-line path (called line-logical devices), use the SCF ADD DEVICE
command syntax shown for configuring single-line Expand line-handler processes (see
“Creating a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process” (page 33)), but with these exceptions:
•
Use the TYPE modifier values as shown in Table 8.
Table 8 Subtypes for Line-Logical Devices
Type of Line-Logical Device
TYPE Modifier Value
Profile
Direct-connect
(63,6)
PEXQMSWN
Satellite-connect
(63,6)
PEXQMSAT
Expand-over-X.25
(63,2)
PEXQMNAM
Expand-over-SNA
(63,2)
PEXQMNAM
Expand-over-IP
(63,2)
PEXQMIP
Expand-over-ATM
(63,2)
PEXQMATM
•
Omit the NEXTSYS modifier; it was specified when you configured the path-logical
device.
•
Include the MULTI modifier as:
MULTI $path_name
where path_name is the name of the path-logical device you created in Step 1.
These rules apply when creating line-logical devices:
•
You can configure a maximum of eight lines in a multi-line path.
•
The path-logical device and all the line-logical devices with which it is associated must be
configured in the same processor pair.
An example of an SCF ADD DEVICE command that adds a line-logical device for an
Expand-over-SNA line:
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#LINE2, PROFILE MLHSNA,&
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS01.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1,&
TYPE (63,2), RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, ASSOCIATEDEV $SNA1,&
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #SNAM, MULTI $PATH
Where to Find More Information About This Task
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Task 5: Start the Expand Line-Handler Process
Start the single-line Expand line-handler process or path-logical device. When you use this
command to start a path-logical device, the line-logical devices associated with the path are also
started.
-> START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
where device_name is the device name of the Expand line-handler process or path-logical
device.
42
Configuration Quick Start
Establishing a Connection
To establish a connection between two Integrity NonStop NS-series servers, repeat the tasks
described in this section to create an Expand line-handler process at the neighbor system.
If the neighbor system is a NonStop K-series server (or other type of NonStop system), you must
use the system generation program or the COUP interface to the Dynamic System Configuration
(DSC) utility to create an Expand line-handler process at the neighbor system.
For more information, see the System Generation Manual for Expand or the Dynamic System
Configuration (DSC) Manual in the D-series documentation.
After you have configured and started Expand line-handler processes at both the local and
destination systems, you can start the Expand line (or lines).
Starting an Expand Path
To start a single-line path, use this command:
-> START LINE $device_name
where device_name is the name of a single-line Expand line-handler process.
Starting Lines in a Multi-Line Path
To start all the lines in a multi-line path, use this command:
-> START PATH $path_name
where path_name is the name of a the path-logical device.
To start specific lines in a multi-line path, use this command:
-> START LINE $line_name
where line_name is the name of a logical device.
Establishing a Connection
43
2 Expand Overview
The Expand subsystem enables you to connect as many as 255 geographically dispersed
NonStop servers to create a network with the reliability, capacity to preserve data integrity, and
potential for expansion of a single NonStop server.
This section provides a high-level overview of the Expand subsystem by describing these major
features and capabilities:
•
“Network Transparency” (page 44)
•
“Multiple Communications Environments” (page 46)
•
“Distributed Control” (page 48)
•
“Automatic Message Routing” (page 48)
•
“Fault-Tolerant Operation” (page 49)
•
“Network Management” (page 49)
•
“Online Expansion and Reconfiguration” (page 50)
•
“Network Security” (page 50)
Network Transparency
To a user or an application, every server in an Expand network appears to be part of a single
server. When accessing a file or other resource on a server in an Expand network, a user or an
application does not need to know which route to take to reach the destination or whether the
destination is local or remote.
Interactive Access
When accessing a remote file or another resource interactively on an Expand network, you use
the same command or utility that you would normally use to perform the task on your local server.
For example, if you wanted to use the File Utility Program (FUP) DUP command to copy a file
named file1 in volume $myfiles, subvolume subvol1, to a file named file2 in volume
$yrfiles, subvolume subvol2, on your local server, you would use this command:
>fup dup $myfiles.subvol1.file1,$yrfiles.subvol2.file2
If you wanted to copy the same file to a remote server called \remote, you would use this
command:
>fup dup $myfiles.subvol1.file1,\remote.$yrfiles.subvol2.file2
In most cases, the only difference between accessing remote and accessing local resources is
that you must specify the name of the remote server when accessing a remote resource.
Programmatic Access
When accessing a file or another resource programmatically across an Expand network, you
use the same procedure calls you would use when writing a local application. With a few
exceptions, applications that were written to run in a local environment can be used virtually
unchanged in a network environment.
Expand Subsystem and the NonStop Operating System
The Expand subsystem is an extension of the NonStop operating system. You can use the same
methods for remote and local file access because the NonStop operating system and the Expand
subsystem provide a uniform, message-based interface between applications and operating
system processes on different servers. The message-based interface has two parts: the file
system and the message system.
44
Expand Overview
The maximum allowed size of messages sent between Expand processes is determined by the
following factors:
•
If the version of the Expand line handlers at the source and target nodes running on J06.20
or later systems support 2 MB messages, and they both have the MAXMSGZ_2MB option set,
then the maximum allowed message size between those systems is 2 MB. The versions
and configuration of intermediate nodes do not matter.
•
If the version of the Expand line handlers at both the source and target nodes support 60
KB messages and they both have the L4EXTPACKET_ON option set, then the maximum
allowed message size between those systems is 60 KB. The versions and configuration of
intermediate nodes do not matter.
•
If neither of the above conditions are met, then the maximum message size is 32 KB.
•
The file system of the NonStop operating system requires the use of a different set of
procedure calls for messages larger than 56 KB.
NOTE: The large messages feature is not applicable for H-series. It is applicable for J06.20
and all subsequent J-series RVUs.
Single-Server Process Communications
Figure 1 illustrates how a process on one processor uses the file system to make an inquiry of
a process residing on another processor in the same server. The message system relays the
request through the ServerNet system area network (ServerNet SAN).
Figure 1 Single-Server Process Communications
Network Transparency
45
Multi-Node Process Communications
Figure 2 illustrates the same file-system request as Figure 1, except that the disk process resides
on another node in the network rather than on another processor in the same server.
Figure 2 Multi-Node Process Communications
Multi-node process communications is the same as single-server process communications, with
these exceptions:
•
The Expand subsystem redirects the file-system request to a hardware communications
device.
•
A communications line rather than the ServerNet SAN carries the message to the remote
process.
Multiple Communications Environments
Nodes in an Expand network can be connected using a variety of data communications
technologies and protocols. A single network can consist of any combination of these different
data communications methods.
Nodes in an Expand network can be connected by
46
•
Full-duplex leased lines or satellite connections using the High-Level Data Link Control
(HDLC) protocol
•
X.25 virtual-circuit connections to a packet-switched data network (PSDN)
•
Connections to IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) networks
Expand Overview
•
Local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) connections to networks that use
the Internet Protocol (IP)
•
Local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) connections to Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) networks
•
Single-mode fiber-optic cables (ServerNet clusters)
Leased and Satellite Connections
You can connect Expand nodes with leased or satellite lines using either the HDLC Normal
protocol or the HDLC Extended Mode protocol.
•
The HDLC Normal protocol is provided for use with conventional voice-grade leased-line
and switched-line facilities.
•
The HDLC Extended Mode protocol is a satellite-efficient version of HDLC and is provided
for use with satellite connections.
NOTE:
There is no automatic dialing function within the Expand subsystem for dial-up lines.
X.25 Packet-Switched Networks
X.25 is a standard for private and public networks that use packet-switching technology. Some
examples of packet-switched networks include SPRINTNET, TELENET, and TYMNET in the
United States; DATAPAC in Canada; DATEX in Germany; TRANSPAC in France; and PSS in
Great Britain.
Expand-over-X.25 connections are provided with the HPE X.25 Access Method (X25AM) product.
The Expand subsystem uses the NETNAM protocol to communicate with an X25AM line-handler
process.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Networks
SNA was developed by IBM for connecting IBM systems and networks. Expand-over-SNA
connections are provided with the HPE SNAX/Advanced Peer Networking (SNAX/APN) product.
The Expand subsystem uses the NETNAM protocol to communicate with the SNAX/APN
line-handler process.
Internet Protocol (IP) Networks
An IP network adheres to the Internet Protocol—a computer-industry standard protocol. An
ever-increasing number of public and private networks are based on IP, including the Internet
itself. Expand-over-IP connections are provided by the NonStop TCP/IP products.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks
ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching
(constant transmission delay and guaranteed capacity) with those of packet switching (flexibility
and efficiency for intermittent traffic). Expand-over-ATM connections are provided with the ATM
subsystem.
ServerNet Clusters
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
ServerNet Clusters use Expand to provide a high-speed interconnect between servers over a
limited geographic range. Three network topologies are supported: the star, split-star, and tri-star
topologies. The star topology supports up to eight nodes. The split-star topology supports up to
16 nodes. The tri-star topology supports up to 24 nodes
Multiple Communications Environments
47
The 16-node configuration is split between two NonStop cluster switches per external fabric in
what is known as a split-star topology and the 24-node configuration is split between three cluster
switches per external fabric in what is known as a tri-star topology. Using single-mode fiber-optic
cables to link the two centers of the split-star and the three centers of the tri-star allows a greater
distance (up to one kilometer) between the cluster switches and their connected nodes.
For more topology information, see Planning for ServerNet Clusters.
NOTE:
cluster.
The Integrity NonStop NS-series server cannot participate in more than one ServerNet
Distributed Control
The control function of the Expand subsystem is distributed throughout the network. Unlike a
hierarchical network, in which a central computer, or host, controls the communications
environment, nodes in an Expand network communicate with each other as peers. Distributed
networks have these additional advantages:
•
Distributed applications. Applications can be distributed so that multiple nodes share the
processing load.
•
Flexible network topologies. The network topology can be designed without regard to host
or controlling processors.
•
Network reliability. Failure of one node does not necessarily affect the operation of other
nodes in the network.
Automatic Message Routing
The Expand subsystem’s routing facilities ensure that a message sent from any node in the
network will arrive at its destination as long as there is at least one active communications path
available. The Expand subsystem’s routing capabilities also include:
•
Passthrough Routing
•
Best-Path Routing
•
Priority Routing
For more information on adjusting settings so that routing is optimal, see “Time Factors and
Pathchange Messages” (page 355).
Passthrough Routing
The Expand subsystem uses a sophisticated routing scheme that permits intermediate nodes to
route, or pass through, data packets to the destination node. This scheme reduces the number
of lines required between nodes because nodes do not have to be directly connected to exchange
data.
Best-Path Routing
When a message is sent over an Expand network, the Expand subsystem determines the
best-path route to the destination node by calculating time factors (TFs) and the number of
intermediate nodes (or hops) to the destination node. A TF is calculated for a line, path, or route.
The best-path route is the route with the lowest TF and hop count (HC).
The Expand subsystem dynamically revises its best-path route determination if a node or path
status changes when nodes or paths become operational or nonoperational. TF calculation and
best-path route selection are discussed in Subsystem Description.
48
Expand Overview
Priority Routing
You can assign different priorities to messages sent over an Expand network. Priority routing
allows an important message to reach its destination even when the network is congested.
Fault-Tolerant Operation
Using careful configuration and network-topology design, you can configure an Expand network
to be continuously available.
You can configure as many as eight lines between the same two nodes using the Expand
subsystem’s multi-line path feature. The Expand subsystem can simultaneously transmit data
over all the lines, thus increasing overall bandwidth, and will automatically reroute data over
remaining lines if one or more lines fail.
You can configure as many as 16 paths between the same two nodes using the Expand
multi-CPU feature. The Expand multi-CPU feature enables you to spread the communications
load over multiple processors by connecting multiple Expand line-handler processes on separate
processors at one node to Expand line-handler processes on separate processors on another
node. The Expand subsystem transmits data between neighbor nodes over all the paths in a
multi-CPU path, and will automatically reroute data over remaining paths if one or more paths
fail. The Expand subsystem also uses a rebalancing algorithm to ensure that the average
communications load of all the paths in a multi-CPU path is close to equal.
You can also configure lines to be controlled by different communications hardware devices to
ensure that a single hardware failure will not disable a connection between two servers.
Network Management
Network management involves several tasks, including
•
Monitoring, modifying, and controlling the network
•
Resolving network problems
•
Analyzing and tuning network performance
The Expand subsystem supports a variety of network-management utilities and tools to help you
perform these tasks:
•
“Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)” (page 49)
•
“Event Management Service (EMS)” (page 50)
•
“Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP)” (page 50)
•
“Measure” (page 50)
•
“OSM Interface” (page 50)
NOTE: For more information on managing Expand using SCF, see Part III of this manual,
Part III “Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)”.
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
SCF is a Distributed Systems Management (DSM) interface that can be used interactively to
control, configure, and monitor the Expand subsystem. The SCF interfaces to the Expand and
wide area network (WAN) subsystems are used to configure and manage the Expand subsystem.
The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem is described in Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
Commands. The SCF interface to the WAN subsystem is described in the WAN Subsystem
Configuration and Management Manual.
Fault-Tolerant Operation
49
Event Management Service (EMS)
EMS is a DSM interface that provides event collection, logging, and distribution facilities. Both
the Expand and ServerNet adapter subsystems report events to EMS. Event messages are
described in the Operator Messages Manual.
Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP)
The Availability Statistics and Performance (ASAP) monitoring tool provides graphical and tabular
displays of system and network object performance, object state, and entity threshold information.
The Availability Statistics and Performance Extension (ASAPX) product integrates and extends
ASAP monitoring capabilities to single and multi-node application environments. For more
information on ASAP, see these manuals: ASAP Client Manual, ASAP Server Manual, ASAP
Extension Manual, and ASAP Migration Guide for NSX and OMF Users.
Measure
Measure is a tool for monitoring the performance of NonStop servers. In an Expand network,
Measure can help determine node-to-node activity and processor and line use by Expand
line-handler processes. Measure is described in the Measure User’s Guide.
OSM Interface
The HPE Open System Management (OSM) product is the system management tool for Integrity
NonStop NS-series systems. OSM offers a browser-based interface that provides scalability and
high performance. OSM is required for support of Expand functionality. For more information on
OSM, see the OSM User’s Guide.
Online Expansion and Reconfiguration
You can add a new node or new lines to a network or move an existing node to a different location
without disrupting network activity.
You can make changes to your Expand configuration online using the Subsystem Control Facility
(SCF) interfaces to the Expand and WAN subsystems. Table 9 shows the online expansion and
reconfiguration tasks that can be performed with these interfaces.
Table 9 Online Reconfiguration Tasks
Task
SCF for Expand
SCF for WAN
Adding the network control process
No
Yes
Adding an Expand line-handler process
No
Yes
1
Yes
2
1
Reconfiguring the network control process
Yes
Reconfiguring an Expand line-handler process
Yes
Yes
Deleting the network control process
No
Yes
Deleting an Expand line-handler process
No
Yes
2
1
Changes made with SCF for the Expand subsystem are temporary; they do not remain across system loads.
2
Changes made with SCF for the WAN subsystem are permanent; they do remain across system loads.
The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem is described in Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
Commands. The SCF interface to the WAN subsystem is described in the WAN Subsystem
Configuration and Management Manual.
Network Security
The Expand subsystem provides security features to control access to remote servers and files.
50
Expand Overview
Remote Passwords
To access a remote server, you must have a username and user ID on the remote server that
is identical to those on the local server. You use the REMOTEPASSWORD command to set up
two remote passwords for the local username and user ID: one to establish a remote password
for the local server, and one to establish a remote password for the remote server. You again
use the REMOTEPASSWORD command to set up remote passwords for the remote username
and user ID.
NOTE:
Setting up remote passwords is explained in the Guardian User’s Guide.
Before you can access a file on a remote server, you must have the proper security in addition
to remote passwords for both the local and remote servers. Each file has associated security
attributes that can be changed with the FUP SECURE command.
Enhanced Security Techniques
The Safeguard security system enhances the security provided by both the Expand subsystem
and the NonStop operating system. Safeguard enables you to set password expiration dates,
create access control lists, and audit file access.
For an even greater level of security, data encryption devices are available from the HPE Atalla
subsidiary.
Network Security
51
3 Planning a Network Design
This section describes the network design decisions you must make before installing and
configuring a new Expand network or when modifying an existing Expand network. Topics
described in this section include
•
“Selecting Line Protocols” (page 52)
•
“Defining Paths Between Systems” (page 56)
•
“Selecting Special Features” (page 59)
•
“Designing the Network Topology” (page 61)
•
“Creating a Network Diagram” (page 63)
NOTE: This section is intended to help you make some basic design decisions; it is not meant
to be a comprehensive network design guide. You should consult your Hewlett Packard Enterprise
representative for more detailed design information.
Selecting Line Protocols
The Expand subsystem supports a variety of different protocols and communications methods
to enable you to connect systems in local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN)
topologies. This subsection discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each of the protocols
and communications methods supported by the Expand subsystem.
Dedicated Lines
The direct-connect line-handler process implements the High-level Data Link (HDLC) protocol
and operates with conventional voice-grade leased-line and switched-line facilities, private
facilities, and fractional Transmission Group 1 (T1) facilities.
The major benefits of dedicated lines are:
•
Performance. Dedicated lines can be permanently allocated by the telephone network or
carrier and can be conditioned to support fast, reliable data communications.
•
Fault-tolerance. You can use the Expand multi-line path feature to enhance the reliability of
dedicated lines. Using this feature, you can configure up to eight parallel lines between
nodes. You should avoid using channels on the same multiplexer for lines in a multi-line
path between two nodes.
The major disadvantage of dedicated lines is inflexibility. When a dedicated line is leased, it can
only be altered by prior arrangement with the telephone company.
Satellite Connections
The satellite-connect line-handler process implements the satellite-efficient version of the HDLC
protocol, HDLC Extended Mode. HDLC Extended Mode allows a maximum window size of 61
frames (the maximum window size is the number of outstanding frames that can be sent before
an acknowledgment is required) and implements the selective-reject feature. Selective reject
causes only frames that arrive in error to be retransmitted.
The major benefits of satellite connections are:
•
Price-to-performance ratio. Satellite channels can add a large amount of transmission
capacity, significantly reducing the cost of long-distance communications.
•
Fault-tolerance. You can use the multi-line path feature to enhance the reliability of satellite
connections. Using this feature, you can configure up to eight parallel lines between nodes.
The major disadvantage of satellite connections is potentially long propagation delays
(approximately 240 milliseconds) when sending data to the satellite and then to the destination
52
Planning a Network Design
node. The reliability of satellite connections can also be adversely affected by weather and other
atmospheric conditions.
NOTE: You can configure terrestrial lines to use satellite-efficient HDLC Extended Mode. This
type of configuration can enhance the effective capability of terrestrial lines that carry small
messages at high speeds.
X.25 Connections
X.25 is a standard for networks that use packet-switching technology. These networks include
SPRINTNET and TYMNET in the United States; DATAPAC in Canada; DATEX-P in Germany;
TRANSPAC in France; and PSS in Great Britain.
Expand-over-X.25 connections are provided with the X.25 Access Method (X25AM) subsystem.
X25AM supports line speeds of up to 256,000 bps, depending on the X.25 network used, although
speeds above 56,000 bps are not always available.
The major benefits of using X.25:
•
Low cost. The cost of X.25 connections can be less than dedicated lines, depending on
traffic volume. Cost can be further reduced if multiple applications share the same X.25 link.
The Expand subsystem’s implementation of X.25 also has an additional cost-savings benefit:
connections can be automatically disconnected when not in use and then automatically
reconnected when traffic appears.
•
Flexibility. Virtually any point in the world can be reached by a packet-switched data network
(PSDN). A PSDN can easily accommodate changing communications requirements and
network expansion.
•
Low capital cost/high connectivity. X.25 provides a way to connect a large number of systems
through a single line between a NonStop server and an X.25 network. This feature can lower
communications capital costs by reducing the number of modems and controller ports that
must be purchased. For example, a fully connected network of 4 servers requires 6 links,
12 modems, and 12 hardware ports. An X.25 network of 4 servers requires only 4 links, 4
modems, and 4 hardware ports.
•
Fault-tolerance. Reliability is inherent in the structure of an X.25 network. There are usually
several redundant connections between switching systems in an X.25 network; thus, if one
transmission link fails, communications can be rerouted. In addition, you can use the multi-line
path feature to enhance the reliability of X.25 connections. Using this feature, you can
configure up to eight parallel lines between nodes.
The disadvantages of X.25 connections include variable line quality, low speeds, and long
call-setup times. Response time requirements can also rule out the use of X.25 connections
because of the amount of time involved in connection-setup and switching.
NOTE: Accurately estimating workloads is essential to predicting cost and performance of
X.25 links in Expand networks.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Connections
Expand-over-SNA connections are provided with the SNAX/Advanced Peer Networking
(SNAX/APN) subsystem. The SNAX/APN subsystem can be used to connect Expand line-handler
processes across an SNA network. When SNAX/APN is used, the Expand line-handler process
is configured to communicate with a SNAX/APN line-handler process that manages the line.
Selecting Line Protocols
53
The major benefits of SNA are:
•
Cost-effectiveness. Expand-over-SNA allows an existing SNA network to be used to connect
NonStop servers. No new lines or equipment need to be set up if SNAX/APN is already
being used to connect the NonStop server to an SNA network.
•
Fault-tolerance. You can use the Expand multi-line path feature to enhance the reliability of
SNA connections. Using this feature, you can configure up to eight parallel lines between
nodes.
The major disadvantage of SNA connections is the impact of existing SNA traffic on line capacities.
Accurately estimating workloads is essential to predicting cost and performance of SNA links in
an Expand network.
Internet Protocol (IP) Networks
The IP suite is an important industry standard. Expand-over-IP allows NonStop systems to be
interconnected via inexpensive IP-based routers, making a separate Expand network unnecessary.
Expand-over-IP uses a NonStop TCP/IP process to implement the TCP/IP protocol stack. The
Expand-over-IP line-handler process communicates with the NonStop TCP/IP process through
the shared memory of the QIO subsystem.
The major benefits of Expand-over-IP connections are:
•
Cost-effectiveness. Expand-over-IP allows you to route Expand paths over industry-standard
IP routers. IP-based networks allow many applications to share high-speed links.
•
Flexibility. No modifications need to be made to Expand applications to allow them to run
over IP networks. A NonStop server that can access an IP network can be part of the Expand
network.
•
Fault-tolerance. You can use the multi-line path feature to enhance the reliability of
Expand-over-IP connections. Using this feature, you can configure up to eight parallel lines
between nodes.
•
Passthrough capability. Packets sent over an IP network path can be forwarded to another
Expand line-handler process, which can be of a different line type and in a different processor.
NOTE: On NonStop K-series servers, Expand-over-IP line-handler processes are only supported
on D40 and later systems; however, data received by an Expand-over-IP line-handler process
can be forwarded to a different type of Expand line-handler process on a non-D40 system. In
addition, data received by an Expand line-handler process on a non-D40 system can be forwarded
to an Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Expand can use NonStop TCP/IPv6 for IP version 6 communications. You can run NonStop
TCP/IP and NonStop TCP/IPv6 at the same time.
NonStop TCP/IPv6 has three operating modes: INET, INET6, and DUAL. In the INET mode, only
IP version 4 communications are supported. In the DUAL mode, both IPv4 and IPv6
communications are supported. In the INET6 mode, only IPv6 communications are supported.
One of the differences between the conventional NonStop TCP/IP subsystem and NonStop
TCP/IPv6 for Expand is that there are no matching-processor configuration requirements for the
TCP6SAM processes and the Expand line-handler processes. Another difference is that when
you select a TCP6SAM process with which to associate your Expand process, those processes
provide access to all the configured TCP/IP SUBNET objects and their IP addresses.
NonStop TCP/IPv6, however, introduces a feature called logical network partitioning (LNP), that,
when enabled, restricts to which SUBNET objects and IP addresses the TCP6SAM process has
access, much like the conventional NonStop TCP/IP process. When you are planning your
Expand-over-IP environment, you can use LNP to control over which network interfaces (IP
addresses) the Expand line-handler processes run. For examples of working with logical network
54
Planning a Network Design
partitioning, see “Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use” (page
105).
To determine which TCP/IP subsystem is running on your system, use the SCF LISTDEV TCPIP
command. The text after the last period (.) in the Program field on the far right of the display is
either TCPIP, which identifies the process as a conventional NonStop TCP/IP process or
TCP6SAM, which identifies the process as a NonStop TCP/IPv6 process. NonStop TCP/IP can
coexist on the system with NonStop TCP/IPv6.
For more information on LNP and about NonStop TCP/IPv6, see the TCP/IPv6 Configuration
and Management Manual and the TCP/IPv6 Migration Manual. For more information on NonStop
TCP/IP, see the TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual.
The CIP subsystem does not require a matching-processor configuration for the CIPSAM and
Expand line-handler processes. Like NonStop TCP/IPv6, CIP transport service provider processes
(CIPSAM) provide access to all configured Internet interfaces. Also, CIP can be configured to
restrict its communications to a single CLIM. Unlike NonStop TCP/IPv6, CIP cannot be restricted
to a particular interface on that CLIM. For more information on CIP, see the Cluster I/O Protocols
(CIP) Configuration Management Manual.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is based on the efforts of the International
Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Study Group XVIII
to develop Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN) for the high-speed transfer
of voice, video, and data through public networks.
NOTE: The ITU-T carries out the functions of the former Consultative Committee for International
Telegraph and Telephone (CCITT).
ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching
(constant transmission delay and guaranteed capacity) with those of packet switching (flexibility
and intermittent traffic). ATM is a connection-oriented environment.
The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process uses the HPE ATM subsystem to implement
Expand-over-ATM connectivity. The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process communicates with
the ATM subsystem through the shared memory of the QIO subsystem.
The major benefits of Expand-over-ATM connections are:
•
Flexibility. No modifications need to be made to Expand applications to allow them to run
over ATM networks. A NonStop server that can access an ATM network can be part of the
Expand network.
•
Fault-tolerance. You can use the multi-line path feature to enhance the reliability of
Expand-over-ATM connections. Using this feature, you can configure up to eight parallel
lines between nodes.
•
High-speed connectivity and increased throughput. The ATM subsystem supports the ATM
User-Network Interface (UNI) Specification Version 3.0 over a 155 Mbps SONET STS-3c
connection.
•
Passthrough capability. Packets sent over an ATM network path can be forwarded to another
Expand line-handler process, which can be a different line type and in a different processor.
ServerNet Connections
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process provides connectivity to a ServerNet cluster,
which uses this process to provide a very high speed proprietary interconnect between systems
over a limited geographic range.
Selecting Line Protocols
55
The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process accesses the network access method (NAM)
interface of the ServerNet cluster monitor process, $ZZSCL. The major benefits of connections
using ServerNet clusters are:
•
Faster transmission speed and larger packet sizes. The ServerNet II cluster switch uses
router-2 technology, which provides crossbar wormhole routing of ServerNet packets between
12 input ports and 12 output ports. (The ServerNet I cluster switch is not supported.)
•
Fault-tolerance. The ServerNet cluster uses one ServerNet II cluster switch for the X fabric
and one ServerNet II cluster switch for the Y fabric. These two cluster switches can support
up to eight nodes. For fault-tolerance, each node connects to both cluster switches.
•
Connectivity. ServerNet clusters can coexist with ATM or IP networks and other WAN and
LAN products.
•
Manageability. The ServerNet cluster’s quick-disconnect capability makes it easier to
implement planned outages.
An Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can be configured as a single line only;
Expand-over-ServerNet lines cannot participate as a member of a multi-CPU path (superpath).
For more information on adjusting settings so that routing is optimal, see “Time Factors and
Pathchange Messages” (page 355).
Defining Paths Between Systems
Each system in an Expand network can have up to 255 Expand line-handler processes. An
Expand line-handler process can be configured to handle a single line or a path consisting of up
to eight parallel lines. You can also associate up to 16 Expand line-handler processes in separate
processors with one another to form a multi-CPU path.
This subsection provides information to help you determine when to:
•
Configure a single-line Expand line-handler process
•
Configure a multi-line path between neighbor nodes
•
Configure a multi-CPU path
•
Enable the multipacket frame feature
•
Enable the variable packet size feature
•
Enable the congestion control feature
When to Use a Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process
Single-line Expand line-handler processes are less expensive and require somewhat less
processing time than multi-line paths. However, they lack the fault-tolerance that multi-line paths
and multi-CPU paths provide.
When to Use a Multi-Line Path
A path that consists of more than one line is called a multi-line path. A multi-line path can consist
of up to eight parallel lines. The major benefits of configuring a multi-line path are:
56
•
Fault-tolerance is increased. If one or more lines in a multi-line path fail, the Expand
subsystem automatically reroutes data over the remaining lines in the path. You can also
attach lines in the path to different hardware communications devices for an additional level
of fault-tolerance.
•
Bandwidth is increased. The Expand subsystem simultaneously transmits data over all the
lines in a multi-line path, thus increasing overall bandwidth.
•
Multiple communications methods can be mixed in a multi-line path. You can mix
direct-connect lines, X.25 connections, and SNAX connections in the same multi-line path.
Planning a Network Design
You cannot mix satellite-connect and Expand-over-IP lines with other line types.
Expand-over-ServerNet connections cannot be part of a multi-line path.
The major disadvantages of configuring a multi-line path are:
•
Overhead is increased. The Expand subsystem uses a packet-queueing algorithm to select
the best line in a multi-line path on which to queue the next packet. This algorithm requires
additional processing time, which is not required by Expand line-handler processes that
manage a single line.
•
Out-of-sequence (OOS) packet buffering is increased. The frequency of OOS packets
increases when packets are sent over a path that consists of lines of varying speeds. For
example, if the multi-line path contains both 9600 and 56K byte lines, it is likely that frames
traveling on the fast line are received at the destination ahead of the frames traveling on the
slower line. If many OOS packets are received, the receiving node might require an OOS
buffer space that is larger than the default buffer size. When multipacket frames are used,
this situation can cause frames to be discarded at the destination if the maximum allowable
OOS window is exceeded. For these reasons, you should not configure a path with lines
that vary in speed by more than four to one.
Figure 3 illustrates a multi-line configuration with eight dedicated lines and two ServerNet wide
area network (SWAN) concentrators. Four lines are attached to each SWAN concentrator.
Figure 3 Multi-Line Path With Eight Lines and Two SWAN Concentrators
Figure 4 illustrates an eight-line configuration.
Defining Paths Between Systems
57
Figure 4 Multi-Line Path With Eight Lines and Eight SWAN Concentrators
When to Use a Multi-CPU Path
The Expand multi-CPU feature enables you to connect multiple Expand line-handler processes,
each in a separate processor, between two nodes.
The major benefits of configuring a multi-CPU path are:
58
•
Fault-tolerance is increased. If one or more paths in a multi-CPU path fail, the Expand
subsystem automatically reroutes data over the remaining paths. You can also attach paths
to different hardware communications devices for an additional level of fault-tolerance.
•
The communications load is shared among multiple processors. Each Expand line-handler
process (or multi-line path) that is a member of a multi-CPU path is configured in a different
processor so, unlike multi-line paths, no single processor handles all the processing for the
path.
•
Maximum throughput is significantly increased, especially for Expand-over-IP connections.
An Expand-over-IP line-handler process and its associated NonStop TCP/IP process must
be configured in the same processor pair, placing the burden of processing the entire
communications protocol stack for each Expand-over-IP line on one processor. A multi-line
path consisting of Expand-over-IP lines cannot achieve the throughput of a multi-CPU path
because the NonStop TCP/IP processes associated with the additional lines also must reside
in the same processor.
Planning a Network Design
•
For more information on configuring Expand-over-IP line-handler processes, see Configuring
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines.
•
Bandwidth is increased. Traffic between neighbor nodes is distributed over all the paths in
a multi-CPU path, thus increasing overall bandwidth.
•
Multiple communications methods can be mixed in a multi-CPU path. Direct-connect lines,
satellite-connect lines, Expand-over-X.25 connections, Expand-over-SNA connections,
Expand-over-IP connections, and multi-line paths can be members of a multi-CPU path.
Expand-over-ServerNet connections cannot be part of a multi-CPU path.
The major disadvantage of configuring a multi-CPU path is increased overhead. $NCP periodically
runs a rebalancing algorithm that reconsiders the pairings of Expand line handlers on each
multi-CPU path. If the load is unbalanced, $NCP selects different pairs of line handlers. This
algorithm requires additional processing time, which is not required by Expand line-handler
processes that manage multiple lines, and can be slightly disruptive.
Figure 5 shows a multi-CPU path that consists of three paths between nodes \A and \B. Each
Expand line-handler process that is a member of the multi-CPU path is configured in a separate
processor.
Figure 5 Multi-CPU Path With Three Paths
For more information on the multi-CPU paths, see “Multi-CPU Feature” (page 396).
NOTE: You use the SUPERPATH_ON modifier to configure an Expand line-handler process
as part of a multi-CPU path. If you configure parallel paths between two nodes without using the
SUPERPATH_ON modifier, only one path is used at a given time.
Selecting Special Features
The Expand subsystem includes several special features that enable you to profoundly affect
the operation of your network. These features include the:
•
Multipacket frame feature
•
Variable packet size feature
•
Congestion control feature
•
Large Messages feature (SPRs released for J06.20, and later RVUs)
This subsection provides information to help you determine when to use these features.
Selecting Special Features
59
Multipacket Frame Feature
The multipacket frame feature is a performance enhancement designed to increase throughput
and decrease processor overhead for all connection types.
The multipacket frame feature is especially suited for paths in which the default frame size of
132 words (256-byte packets) is used. For this kind of path, a large increase in throughput, along
with less total processor consumption, should be obtained for a given load. These advantages
are achieved by reducing the use of the message system and requiring less processing by the
Expand line-handler process.
The multipacket frame feature can also improve the efficiency of direct-connect and
satellite-connect lines in which the average message size is less than 500 bytes. For these types
of connections, the multipacket frame feature decreases the number of interrupts, reduces the
number of times the Expand line-handler process is dispatched, and causes a reduction in
processor use.
Online transaction processing (OLTP) benefits the most from the multipacket frame feature.
For a complete technical overview of the multipacket frame feature, see “Multipacket Frame
Feature” (page 387).
Variable Packet Size Feature
The variable packet size feature is a performance enhancement designed to increase bulk
transfers over all connection types.
The variable packet size feature provides these benefits:
•
Reduces per-message processor cost for large message sizes
•
Reduces network bandwidth used for Expand overhead for large messages
•
Increases potential throughput in high-bandwidth Expand paths
The variable packet size feature allows you to configure a maximum packet size, which is used
for both single-packet and multipacket frames, on a per-path basis. This feature effectively
overrides the packet size calculated from the FRAMESIZE modifier value.
For a complete technical overview of the variable packet size feature, see “Variable Packet Size
Feature” (page 391).
Congestion Control Feature
Congestion control provides improved throughput over LANs and other networks that are subject
to varying delays. It also improves the response time for message transfers and provides a more
efficient error-recovery mechanism. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that the congestion
control feature be enabled for Expand-over-IP connections and for Expand line-handler processes
that are members of a multi-CPU path.
For a complete technical overview of the congestion control feature, see “Congestion Control
Feature” (page 393).
Large Messages Feature
The large messages feature allows messages with request or reply, or both, of size up to 2 MB
to be sent over an Expand path. This is the maximum size supported by the message system.
Therefore, if large messages are enabled, the maximum message size is the same regardless
of whether the target is locally or remotely connected by any Expand line type. For a complete
technical overview of the variable packet size feature, see “Large Messages Feature” (page 396).
NOTE: This feature is not applicable for H-series. It is applicable for J06.20 and all subsequent
J-series RVUs.
60
Planning a Network Design
Designing the Network Topology
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The pattern of interconnection of systems in a network is called the network topology. Your
goals when designing a network topology should include:
•
Minimizing communications costs
•
Minimizing response time
•
Satisfying the throughput requirements of networked applications
•
Achieving a satisfactory level of network reliability
Common Network Topologies
Several topologies can be used in the design of computer networks:
•
Star
•
Split-Star
•
Tri-star
•
Tree
•
Ring
•
Bus
•
Mesh
•
Mixed
The star, tree, ring, bus, and mesh topologies are illustrated in Figure 6. A mixed topology is a
combination of more than one type of topology. The split-star and tri-star topologies are extensions
of the star topology.
Designing the Network Topology
61
Figure 6 Common Network Topologies
Star Topology
In a star topology, all systems join at a central node, creating a star-shaped configuration. Because
all nodes are connected through the central node, a star network’s reliability depends on the
central node; if the central node fails, the entire network fails.
Split-Star Topology
Used for ServerNet clusters, the split-star topology connects two star topologies. Each star
contains a cluster switch. The two cluster switches are connected by fiber optic cables, each of
which can be up to one kilometer in length. This topology can be used for more than nine and
fewer than 16 nodes. For examples of this topology, see Planning for ServerNet Clusters.
Tri-Star Topology
Used for ServerNet clusters, the tri-star topology connects three star topologies. Each star
contains a cluster switch. The three cluster switches are connected by fiber optic cables, each
of which can be up to one kilometer in length. This topology can be used for up to 24 nodes. For
examples of this topology, see Planning for ServerNet Clusters.
62
Planning a Network Design
Tree Topology
In a tree topology, the shape of the network is that of an upside-down tree that has branches
and subbranches. Network reliability in tree networks depends on the reliability of each connection.
Bus Topology
A bus topology is a common local area network (LAN) topology that consists of a line of cable
with nodes connected along the cable’s entire length.
Mesh Topology
In a mesh topology, each node is connected to every other node in the network. A mesh network
is very reliable because it contains multiple paths between every node. The major disadvantage
of a mesh topology is its high communications cost.
Mixed Topology
A mixed, or unconstrained, topology is a combination of some or all the above-mentioned
topologies.
Topology Limitations
Expand networks are not limited to any particular network topology. However, the resource
limitations described below can affect your network topology design.
Expand Line-Handler Process Limitation
Because each system in an Expand network can contain a maximum of 255 Expand line-handler
processes, each node can have a maximum of 254 neighbors. This restriction limits the size of
any network configured as a fully connected mesh to 255 nodes.
Creating a Network Diagram
Before you configure your Expand network, Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you
create a diagram of the complete network topology. This network diagram shows the network
nodes and the lines that connect the nodes. This type of diagram can help you and the operations
staff monitor systems, recognize problems, and prepare for configuration changes.
Figure 7 shows one way to create a network diagram. Network diagrams should show system
names, system numbers, communications hardware device names, and Expand line-handler
process names.
NOTE: System names and numbers are configured through the SCF interface to the NonStop
operating system subsystem (see the SCF Reference Manual for the Kernel Subsystem).
Creating a Network Diagram
63
Figure 7 Network Diagram
64
Planning a Network Design
4 Planning for ServerNet Clusters
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
This section describes how to plan for the configuration of Expand-over-ServerNet clusters,
discusses considerations for ServerNet topologies, and provides examples of configuring Expand
over ServerNet clusters, ServerNet clusters in combination with ServerNet/FX, ServerNet clusters
in combination with ATM and IP networks, and ServerNet clusters with other communication
methods.
You can configure Expand-over-ServerNet clusters by using either OSM or SCF. The ServerNet
Cluster Manual (for the 6770 cluster switch) and the ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and
Installation Guide provide procedures for configuring Expand-over-ServerNet clusters and
information about recommended ServerNet cluster topology configurations.
This section refers to the network control process ($NCP). $NCP initiates and terminates
node-to-node connections, maintains routing information, selects the best-path route for data
transmission to other nodes in the network, and monitor and logs changes in the status of the
network and its nodes. For more information, see Configuring the Network Control Process.
This section does not address every possible topology or identify every process that must be
running on each system. For more information, see these manuals:
Cluster Switch
Manual
6770
ServerNet Cluster Manual
6780
ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and Installation Guide
The topics described in this section include:
•
“Configuration Considerations for Expand and ServerNet Clusters” (page 65)
•
“ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP Networks” (page 66)
Configuration Considerations for Expand and ServerNet Clusters
Major configuration considerations for Expand and ServerNet clusters include:
•
A route between two nodes that involves a change in technology invokes the use of the
Expand line handlers at every node along the route (including the source and destination
nodes). A change in technology might be a change from an Expand-over-ServerNet line to
an Expand-over-ATM line.
•
Every Expand system number and name must be unique across all networks that can use
Expand to communicate.
•
Each system in an Expand network can support up to 255 Expand line-handler processes.
•
A node can only belong to one ServerNet cluster.
•
The Expand manager process, $ZEXP, must be configured and started.
•
The NonStop ServerNet cluster monitor process, $ZZSCL, must be configured and started
in all Integrity NonStop nodes connected to a ServerNet cluster.
•
As of G06.20, the Expand routing rules reverted to the use of simple time factors. Super
time factors, which were based on SPEEDK attributes, are no longer used. SPEEDK values
are now translated into line time factors that have values from 0 to 186.
•
You must evaluate the distance restrictions between cluster switches and ServerNet cluster
nodes during the planning process. Distance restrictions for cabling ServerNet clusters are
not shown in the topology examples in this section; for more information on cable-distance
Configuration Considerations for Expand and ServerNet Clusters
65
restrictions in ServerNet clusters, see the ServerNet Cluster Manual (for the 6770 switch)
and the ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and Installation Guide.
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process modifier considerations include:
•
FRAMESIZE n modifier: This modifier must be the same for every Expand line-handler
process on every node in the Expand network.
•
PATHTF n, LINETF n, SPEEDK n, SPEED n, and RSIZE n modifiers: These modifiers set
the time factor (TF) for an Expand line. $NCP uses TFs to make routing decisions. If PATHTF,
LINETF, or RSIZE are specified, the value is the time factor; if SPEEDK or SPEED is
specified, the time factor is calculated.
•
LINETF is the recommended setting for ServerNet lines. PATHTF is equivalent to LINETF
for ServerNet lines. They each have a range of 0 to 186 to designate a time factor in selecting
the best lines and paths to other nodes; the smaller the number, the more desirable the path.
•
When you use LINETF, you are setting the time factors directly. For example, if you prefer
to use ServerNet as the best line and ATM as the second best line, you would set the LINETF
as 1 for ServerNet, 2 for ATM, and a value greater than 2 for all the other paths.
•
For more information on time factors, including how they are specified and calculated, see
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP Networks
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
Interoperability is supported between a ServerNet cluster and an ATM network using ATM
adapters or between a ServerNet cluster and an IP network using Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit
Ethernet, or ATM adapters. These technologies allow:
•
Connection over distances greater than five kilometers
•
Use of TCP for internode communications (the IP technology)
•
Reduction of line costs
•
Interoperability between NonStop K-series servers, S-series servers, and Integrity NonStop
servers (the IP technology)
The topics addressed in this subsection include:
•
“Considerations for ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP” (page 67)
•
“Examples of ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP” (page 67)
For more information on IP and ATM adapters, see these manuals:
66
•
TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual
•
TCP/IP (Parallel Library) Configuration and Management Manual
•
TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual
•
ATM Configuration and Management Manual
Planning for ServerNet Clusters
Considerations for ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP
•
Traffic can be distributed in a balanced fashion over the ATM or IP lines by appropriately
configuring the time factors (TFs). For more information on configuring time factors, see
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
•
Be careful when mixing these technologies to ensure a fault-tolerant topology and to prevent
bottlenecks at the inter-technology connection points.
•
If you want to expand your ServerNet cluster by adding nodes, Hewlett Packard Enterprise
recommends that you use the guided procedure. To add a node by using the OSM Service
Connection, log onto the system being added, select the Configure a ServerNet Node
action for the System object, and perform the action. A guided procedure is launched, with
online help available to assist you in performing the procedure.
Examples of ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP
•
ServerNet Clusters Connected By ATM or IP Lines
•
ServerNet Clusters Connected By a Single ATM or IP Line (Not Recommended)
•
ServerNet Clusters Using Layered Topology With Connections to Nodes Outside the Cluster
ServerNet Clusters Connected By ATM or IP Lines
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
Groups of systems at separate locations can use clustering technology to increase performance
within each location and connect to each other by using ATM or IP lines. When systems on
different ServerNet clusters need to communicate with each other, the Expand line handlers are
invoked at every node along the path between the source and the destination node (including
the source and destination nodes). Thus, processor use is higher when networked applications
transfer information between systems located on separate ServerNet clusters. To avoid this
situation, you can provide the ATM or IP connectivity within the ServerNet cluster so that
communications between the ServerNet clusters travels over IT or ATM without invoking line
handlers to change technologies. Figure 8 shows two ATM-connected or IP-connected ServerNet
clusters in a fault-tolerant configuration that incurs line hops. To modify this configuration for
inter-ServerNet cluster communications without line hops, add ATM or IP connections within the
ServerNet cluster as well.
ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP Networks
67
Figure 8 ServerNet Clusters Connected by ATM or IP Lines
ServerNet Clusters Connected By a Single ATM or IP Line (Not Recommended)
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
This topology is not recommended as a solution for enabling communication between two
ServerNet clusters because of higher processor use, traffic bottlenecks, and a lack of overall
network fault tolerance.
Processor use is higher whenever traffic flows between the two ServerNet clusters because of
a technology change between \HHH and \DDD which causes the Expand line handlers to be
used at every node on the route (including the source and destination nodes). For example, when
\GGG requests information from \CCC, six Expand line handlers are invoked: one in \GGG, two
in \DDD, two in \HHH, and one in \CCC.
Line-handler passthrough traffic uses at least twice as much processor time as does direct traffic.
Traffic bottlenecks can occur at \HHH and \DDD when numerous requests for information are
made by systems located on separate ServerNet clusters. Overall network fault tolerance is not
preserved. If \HHH or \DDD becomes unavailable, the two ServerNet clusters are isolated from
each other.
Figure 9 ServerNet Clusters Connected by a Single ATM or IP Line (Not Recommended)
68
Planning for ServerNet Clusters
ServerNet Clusters Using Layered Topology With Connections to Nodes Outside the Cluster
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
In this example, all the systems directly connected to the cluster switches are Integrity NonStop
NS-series systems. (See Figure 10.)
This ServerNet cluster uses the layered topology (for more information on the layered topology,
see the ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and Installation Guide). \Z123, \Z456, and \Z789 can
be NonStop K-series servers (IP lines) or NonStop S-series servers (ATM or IP lines).
The Expand line handlers in \BBB and \EEE (depending on $NCP’s determination of the best-path
route to \Z123) can become heavily stressed if other systems in the ServerNet cluster frequently
communicate with \Z123. (The same condition applies to Expand line handlers in the ServerNet
cluster nodes that communicate with \Z456 and \Z789.) To avoid these potential bottlenecks,
you can run ATM or IP within the ServerNet cluster. Then, these lines are used to communicate
with nodes outside the ServerNet cluster.
ServerNet Clusters Coexisting With ATM or IP Networks
69
Figure 10 ServerNet Cluster Using Layered Topology With Connections to Nodes Outside
the Cluster
70
Planning for ServerNet Clusters
Part II Configuring the Expand Subsystem
Part II consists of these chapters, which provide an overview of the configuration process and explain
how to configure the various types of Expand line-handler processes:
Chapter 5
“Configuration Overview” (page 77)
Chapter 6
“Configuring the Network Control Process” (page 80)
Chapter 7
“Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines” (page 86)
Chapter 8
“Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines” (page 98)
Chapter 9
“Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines” (page 125)
Chapter 10
“Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines” (page 142)
Chapter 11
“Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines” (page 154)
Chapter 12
“Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines” (page 167)
Chapter 13
“Configuring Multi-Line Paths” (page 178)
Contents
5 Configuration Overview.....................................................................................77
Summary of Configuration Steps........................................................................................................77
Creating a Profile................................................................................................................................78
Creating Wide Area Network (WAN) Subsystem Devices..................................................................78
Starting the Expand Manager Process...............................................................................................79
6 Configuring the Network Control Process.........................................................80
Step 1: Create a Profile for $NCP.......................................................................................................80
ADD Profile Command..................................................................................................................80
Example.........................................................................................................................................80
Step 2: Create $NCP..........................................................................................................................81
ADD DEVICE Command...............................................................................................................81
Considerations...............................................................................................................................82
Example.........................................................................................................................................82
Step 3: Start $NCP.............................................................................................................................82
$NCP Modifiers...................................................................................................................................82
ABORTTIMER n............................................................................................................................82
ALGORITHM n..............................................................................................................................83
AUTOMATICMAPTIMER n............................................................................................................83
CONNECTTIME n.........................................................................................................................83
FRAMESIZE n...............................................................................................................................84
MAXCONNECTS n........................................................................................................................84
MAXTIMEOUTS n.........................................................................................................................84
NETWORKDIAMETER n...............................................................................................................84
REBALTHRESHOLD n..................................................................................................................85
7 Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines..................................86
Required Hardware and Software......................................................................................................86
QIO Subsystem.............................................................................................................................87
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver.....................................................................................87
NonStop TCP/IP Process..............................................................................................................88
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)..................................................88
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator..................................................................88
Topology Considerations....................................................................................................................88
Summary of Configuration Steps........................................................................................................89
Step 1: Find an Available WAN Line...................................................................................................90
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process.......................................................................90
ADD Profile Command..................................................................................................................91
Examples.......................................................................................................................................91
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process...........................................................................................91
ADD DEVICE Command...............................................................................................................92
Considerations...............................................................................................................................93
Examples.......................................................................................................................................93
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process..............................................................................................94
Step 5: Start the Line..........................................................................................................................94
Profile Modifiers..................................................................................................................................94
Modifiers for Special Features.......................................................................................................95
PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers.......................................................................................95
8 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines....................................................................98
Required Hardware and Software......................................................................................................98
QIO Subsystem...........................................................................................................................100
NonStop TCP/IP Process............................................................................................................100
NonStop TCP/IPv6 Process........................................................................................................100
72
Contents
CIP Process.................................................................................................................................101
Redundancy in Ethernet Adapters..............................................................................................101
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)................................................102
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Subsystem........................................................................102
LAN or ATM Adapters or the CLIM..............................................................................................102
Topology Considerations..................................................................................................................102
Summary of Configuration Steps......................................................................................................103
Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use..............................................104
Select a NonStop TCP/IP Process..............................................................................................104
Select a SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP.......................................................................................104
Creating an Ethernet SUBNET or ATM SUBNET........................................................................105
Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use..........................................105
Select a SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use............................................................................106
Select a TCP6SAM Process........................................................................................................107
Creating an Ethernet Subnet.......................................................................................................108
Step 1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use..................................................................108
Select a CIPSAM Process...........................................................................................................108
Obtain an IP Address to associate with your Expand Line- Handler Process.............................108
Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number.........................................................................109
Step 2 (B): Identify an Available UDP Port Number for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use.............................110
Step 2 (C): Identify an available UDP Port Number for CIP Use......................................................111
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process.....................................................................112
ADD Profile Command................................................................................................................112
Example.......................................................................................................................................113
Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process.........................................................................................113
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................113
Considerations.............................................................................................................................116
Example.......................................................................................................................................116
Step 5: Start the Line-Handler Process............................................................................................117
Step 6: Start the Line........................................................................................................................117
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line...................................................................................117
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line for CIP......................................................................119
Profile Modifiers................................................................................................................................121
Recommended Modifiers.............................................................................................................122
Modifiers for Special Features.....................................................................................................122
PEXQSIP Modifiers.....................................................................................................................123
9 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines...............................................................125
Required Hardware and Software....................................................................................................125
QIO Subsystem...........................................................................................................................126
ATM Subsystem..........................................................................................................................126
SLSA Subsystem.........................................................................................................................127
ATM 3 ServerNet Adapter (ATM3SA)..........................................................................................127
Topology Considerations..................................................................................................................127
Summary of Configuration Steps......................................................................................................128
Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection................................................................................................129
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses a PVC...............................................129
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses an SVC.............................................129
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses ATMSAP...........................................131
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process.....................................................................132
ADD Profile Command................................................................................................................133
Example.......................................................................................................................................133
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process.........................................................................................133
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................133
Considerations.............................................................................................................................136
Contents
73
Examples.....................................................................................................................................136
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process............................................................................................137
Step 5: Start the Line........................................................................................................................137
Profile Modifiers................................................................................................................................138
Recommended Modifiers.............................................................................................................138
Modifiers for Special Features.....................................................................................................139
PEXQSATM Modifiers.................................................................................................................139
10 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines............................................................142
Required Hardware and Software....................................................................................................142
X25AM Line-Handler Process.....................................................................................................143
QIO Subsystem...........................................................................................................................144
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver...................................................................................144
NonStop TCP/IP Process............................................................................................................144
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)................................................144
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator................................................................144
Topology Considerations..................................................................................................................144
Summary of Configuration Steps......................................................................................................145
Step 1: Add a NAM Subdevice to the X25AM Line..........................................................................146
Considerations.............................................................................................................................146
Step 2: Start the X25AM Line...........................................................................................................146
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process.......................................146
ADD Profile Command................................................................................................................147
Example.......................................................................................................................................147
Step 4: Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process...........................................................147
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................148
Considerations.............................................................................................................................149
Examples.....................................................................................................................................149
Step 5: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process..............................................................150
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line..........................................................................................150
Profile Modifiers................................................................................................................................150
Recommended Modifiers.............................................................................................................150
Modifiers for Special Features.....................................................................................................151
X25AM Line-Handler Process Modifiers.....................................................................................151
PEXQSNAM Modifiers.................................................................................................................151
11 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines.............................................................154
Required Hardware and Software....................................................................................................154
SNAX/APN Line-Handler Process...............................................................................................155
QIO Subsystem...........................................................................................................................156
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver...................................................................................156
NonStop TCP/IP Process............................................................................................................156
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)................................................156
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator................................................................156
Topology Considerations..................................................................................................................157
Summary of Configuration Steps......................................................................................................157
Step 1: Add the SNAX/APN Line......................................................................................................158
Considerations.............................................................................................................................158
Step 2: Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line...................................................................................158
Considerations.............................................................................................................................159
Example.......................................................................................................................................159
Step 3: Start the SNAX/APN Line.....................................................................................................160
Step 4: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process.......................................160
ADD Profile Command................................................................................................................161
Example.......................................................................................................................................161
Step 5: Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process...........................................................161
74
Contents
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................162
Considerations.............................................................................................................................163
Examples.....................................................................................................................................163
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process..............................................................164
Step 7: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line..........................................................................................164
Profile Modifiers................................................................................................................................164
Recommended Modifiers.............................................................................................................164
Modifiers for Special Features.....................................................................................................165
PEXQSNAM Modifiers.................................................................................................................165
12 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines....................................................167
Required Hardware and Software....................................................................................................167
Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP)............................................................................................168
External System Area Network Manager (SANMAN).................................................................168
Message Monitor Process (MSGMON).......................................................................................168
Network Access Method (NAM)..................................................................................................168
Network Control Process ($NCP)................................................................................................168
Cluster Switch..............................................................................................................................169
Profile Products...........................................................................................................................169
ServerNet Cluster Monitor Process ($ZZSCL)............................................................................169
ServerNet Cluster Product...........................................................................................................169
Wide Area Network (WAN) Subsystem.......................................................................................169
X and Y Fabrics...........................................................................................................................170
Topology Considerations..................................................................................................................170
Summary of Configuration Steps......................................................................................................171
Configuring a ServerNet Node..........................................................................................................171
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process...............................171
ADD Profile Command................................................................................................................171
Example.......................................................................................................................................172
Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process..............................172
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................172
Considerations.............................................................................................................................174
Example.......................................................................................................................................174
Step 3: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes.................................................174
Example.......................................................................................................................................174
Step 4: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Lines...............................................................................175
Profile Modifiers................................................................................................................................175
Modifiers for Special Features.....................................................................................................175
PEXPSSN Modifiers....................................................................................................................175
13 Configuring Multi-Line Paths.........................................................................178
Configuration Overview....................................................................................................................178
Configuration Considerations......................................................................................................178
Summary of Configuration Steps......................................................................................................179
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Path-Logical Device........................................................................179
ADD PROFILE Command...........................................................................................................179
Step 2: Create a Profile for Each Line Type.....................................................................................180
ADD PROFILE Command...........................................................................................................180
Step 3: Create a Path-Logical Device...............................................................................................181
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................181
Considerations.............................................................................................................................182
Step 4: Create the Line-Logical Devices..........................................................................................182
ADD DEVICE Command.............................................................................................................182
Considerations.............................................................................................................................186
Step 5: Start the Path-Logical Device...............................................................................................187
Step 6: Start the Lines......................................................................................................................187
Contents
75
Starting Specific Lines.................................................................................................................187
Configuration Example.....................................................................................................................187
Path-Logical Device Modifiers..........................................................................................................189
Modifiers for Special Features.....................................................................................................189
PEXPPATH Modifiers..................................................................................................................189
Line-Logical Device Modifiers...........................................................................................................190
X25AM Process Modifiers...........................................................................................................190
PEXQMSWN and PEXQMSAT Modifiers....................................................................................190
PEXQMNAM Modifiers................................................................................................................192
PEXQMIP Modifiers.....................................................................................................................192
PEXQMATM Modifiers.................................................................................................................194
76
Contents
5 Configuration Overview
This section provides an overview of the Expand subsystem configuration process. Before using
this section and the remaining sections in this manual, you should be familiar with:
•
Planning a Network Design. This section describes network design considerations such as
selecting line protocols. You should design your network and create a network diagram
before attempting to perform the tasks described in this and the remaining sections of this
manual.
•
Planning for ServerNet Clusters. This section provides Expand and ServerNet Cluster
configuration considerations and presents topology examples of ServerNet Clusters coexisting
with other Expand networks. You should be familiar with this section before you design a
network topology that includes ServerNet Clusters.
•
Expand Modifiers. This section provides many modifiers for line-handler processes that
enable you to customize your network. You should be familiar with the information presented
in this section before you add new modifiers or change the default values of Expand modifiers
in your configuration. Modifiers that affect the network control process ($NCP) are discussed
in Configuring the Network Control Process.
•
Subsystem Description. This section provides a high-level technical description of the
architecture and dynamics of the Expand subsystem. You should be familiar with the
information presented in this section before you attempt to configure, manage, or troubleshoot
the Expand subsystem.
Summary of Configuration Steps
Configuring the Expand subsystem involves a number of steps. Table 10 lists each step and
indicates where in this manual the step is described.
Table 10 Configuration Steps
Step
Description
Where This Step Is Described
1.
Start the Expand manager process.
For step 1, information is located in Starting
the Expand Manager Process of this section.
2.
Create a profile for the network control process For steps 2 and 3, information is located in
at each node in the Expand network.
Configuring the Network Control Process.
3.
Create and start the network control process
at each node in the Expand network.
4.
Create profiles for the Expand line-handler
processes.
5.
Create and start the Expand line-handler
processes.
6.
Start the Expand lines.
For steps 4 through 6, information is located in
one of these sections. Which section you select
depends on the type of Expand line-handler
process that you want to configure:
Configuring Direct-Connect and
Satellite-Connect Lines
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Summary of Configuration Steps
77
Creating a Profile
A profile template is a disk file that contains modifiers and default modifier values. Hewlett Packard
Enterprise provides profile templates for the network control process ($NCP) and for the different
types of Expand line-handler processes.
Table 11 lists the profile templates for the Expand subsystem. These profile templates are installed
in $SYSTEM.SYSnn. The modifiers in each profile template are described in the sections listed
in Table 10. A comprehensive list of all the Expand modifiers is provided in Expand Modifiers.
Table 11 Expand Profile Templates
Disk Filename
Description
Device Type and
Subtype
PEXPNCP
Network control process modifiers
62,6
PEXQSSWN
Direct-connect modifiers (single-line)
63,5
PEXQMSWN
Direct-connect modifiers (line-logical device)
63,6
PEXQSSAT
Satellite-connect modifiers (single-line)
63,5
PEXQMSAT
Satellite-connect modifiers (line-logical device)
63,6
PEXQSNAM
Expand-over-NAM modifiers (single-line)
63,0
PEXQMNAM
Expand-over-NAM modifiers (line-logical device)
63,2
PEXQSIP
Expand-over-IP modifiers (single-line)
63,0
PEXQMIP
Expand-over-IP modifiers (line-logical device)
63,2
PEXQSATM
Expand-over-ATM modifiers (single-line)
63,0
PEXQMATM
Expand-over-ATM modifiers (line-logical device)
63,2
PEXPPATH
Path logical device modifiers
63,1
PEXPSSN
Expand-over-ServerNet modifiers
63,4
You can create a profile from one of the profile templates listed in Table 11, from a previously
created profile, or you can create your own profile. You create a profile using the WAN subsystem
SCF ADD PROFILE command. This command allows you to specify the modifiers and modifier
values that will be contained in the profile you are creating. You can display the contents of a
specific profile using the WAN subsystem SCF INFO PROFILE command.
For more information on WAN subsystem SCF commands, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration
and Management Manual.
Creating Wide Area Network (WAN) Subsystem Devices
The network control process and Expand line-handler processes are defined as WAN subsystem
devices. The DEVICE object represents $NCP and Expand line-handler processes in the WAN
subsystem. You use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE command to create the network
control process and Expand line-handler processes.
When you create a device using the SCF ADD DEVICE command, you must specify the profile
that the device will use. Multiple devices can use the same profile, allowing you to create one
profile for each type of Expand line-handler process. For example, you could create a profile
named SLHDIR to be used by all direct-connect line-handler processes. The WAN subsystem
SCF INFO PROFILE command lists the devices that use a specific profile.
The SCF ADD DEVICE command also enables you to specify modifiers and modifier values that
will be used only by the device you are creating. These modifiers and modifier values are part
of the device record for the device and can be different from the modifiers and modifier values
78
Configuration Overview
in the profile used by the device. The modifiers and modifier values used by a specific device
are displayed by the Expand subsystem SCF INFO PATH and INFO LINE commands. You can
also display device-specific modifiers using the WAN subsystem SCF INFO DEVICE command
with the DETAIL option.
For more information on WAN subsystem SCF commands, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration
and Management Manual. For more information on Expand subsystem SCF commands, see
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands.
Starting the Expand Manager Process
The Expand subsystem requires that the Expand manager process ($ZEXP) be running during
network operation. To start the Expand manager process, enter this command at the TACL
prompt:
RUN $SYSTEM.SYSnn.OZEXP / NAME $ZEXP, PRI 180, NOWAIT, CPU primary / backup
where primary is the number of the processor where the primary process will run and backup
is the processor where the backup process will run.
You can also start the Expand manager process at system startup by including this command
in the system startup file:
OZEXP / NAME $ZEXP, OUT $ZHOME, PRI 180, NOWAIT, CPU primary / backup
To verify that the process is started, enter the TACL process-pair directory (PPD) command at
the TACL prompt:
PPD $ZEXP
Starting the Expand Manager Process
79
6 Configuring the Network Control Process
This section explains how to configure and start the network control process ($NCP). Configuring
and starting $NCP involves these steps:
“Step 1: Create a Profile for $NCP” (page 80)
“Step 2: Create $NCP” (page 81)
“Step 3: Start $NCP” (page 82)
You can perform all these steps using the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem. This section
also describes the $NCP profile modifiers in “$NCP Modifiers” (page 82).
Step 1: Create a Profile for $NCP
You can create a profile for $NCP by using the PEXPNCP profile in $SYSTEM.SYSnn. This step
shows how to create a profile using the PEXPNCP profile.
NOTE: You can also create a new profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own
profile. For complete information about profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXPNCP profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXPNCP
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters to be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this profile
name when you create $NCP in Step 2: Create $NCP.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXPNCP
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXPNCP is the disk file name of the profile for $NCP.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a $NCP modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the
PEXPNCP profile are listed in “$NCP Modifiers” (page 82).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a value in modifier_value assigns a new value to
modifier_keyword in profile_name. Default values and ranges of values
for modifiers in the PEXPNCP profile are described in “$NCP Modifiers” (page
82).
Example
This example creates a profile named NCPPROF1. The ALGORITHM modifier in the profile is
set to 1 to specify split horizon. For more information, see “ALGORITHM n” (page 83) and
“Routing Algorithms” (page 358).
80
Configuring the Network Control Process
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#NCPPROF1, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXPNCP, &
ALGORITHM 1
Step 2: Create $NCP
You create $NCP by adding a device to the WAN subsystem.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create $NCP, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE command. The command syntax
is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.NCPOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunum
ALTCPU altcpunum
TYPE (62,6)
RSIZE 1
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#NCP
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of $NCP. This value must
be NCP and must be preceded by the pound sign (#).
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.NCPOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object code for $NCP. This
value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.NCPOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for $NCP in Step 1.
CPU cpunum
indicates the processor where $NCP will normally run. Hewlett Packard Enterprise
recommends that you configure $NCP to run in processors other than 0 and 1.
ALTCPU altcpunum
indicates the processor where the backup $NCP will normally run. Hewlett Packard
Enterprise recommends that you configure the backup $NCP to run in processors
other than 0 and 1.
TYPE (62,6)
is the device type and subtype for $NCP. The device type is always 62 and the
subtype is always 6 for $NCP.
RSIZE 1
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. The RSIZE
value must be set to 1 for $NCP.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is added to
the device record for $NCP.
Modifier names in the PEXPNCP profile are listed in “$NCP Modifiers” (page 82).
modifier_value
Step 2: Create $NCP
81
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword in the device record
for $NCP.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXPNCP profile are
listed in “$NCP Modifiers” (page 82).
Considerations
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified modifier
or its associated value to the profile used by the device. Use the ADD PROFILE command to
add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a profile.
Example
This example creates $NCP. The MAXCONNECTS modifier for the device is set to 10.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP, IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYS01.NCPOBJ, &
PROFILE NCPPROF1, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, TYPE (62,6) RSIZE 1, &
MAXCONNECTS 10
Step 3: Start $NCP
To start $NCP, use the WAN subsystem SCF START DEVICE command. The command syntax
is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP
To make sure $NCP has started successfully, enter this command at the TACL prompt:
> STATUS $NCP
If $NCP was started successfully, you will see a display similar to Example 4:
Example 4 SCF STATUS $NCP Command
System \NODEA
Process
$NCP
2,26
$NCP
3,24
B
Pri PFR %WT Userid
199 P
011 255,255
Swap File Name:
199 P
011 255,255
Swap File Name:
Program file
$SYSTEM.SYS01.NCPOBJ
$SYSTEM.#0
$SYSTEM.SYS01.NCPOBJ
$SYSTEM.#0
Hometerm
$YMIOP.#CLCI
$YMIOP.#CLCI
If $NCP was not started successfully, this message will be displayed:
(Process does not exist)
$NCP Modifiers
These modifiers are included in the PEXPNCP profile. These modifiers are provided to enable
you to customize $NCP routing algorithm, select a network map propagation algorithm, and
modify network connection handling.
ABORTTIMER n
Default:
15,000 (2.5 minutes)
Units:
0.01 seconds
82
Configuring the Network Control Process
Range:
0 to 30,000 (0 to 5 minutes)
This modifier specifies the length of time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that $NCP
will wait before aborting requests destined for a remote system to which an alternate path has
not yet been identified. The ABORTTIMER modifier must be set to the same value on all systems
in the network.
By setting the ABORTTIMER modifier, you can prevent $NCP from completing requests with an
error 250 (all paths to the system are down) before it has sufficient time to receive alternate-path
information. The ABORTTIMER modifier should be used with the modified split horizon (MSH)
routing algorithm. The ABORTTIMER modifier is explained in more detail in “Modified Split Horizon
(MSH)” (page 359).
ALGORITHM n
Default:
0 (MSH)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 or 1
This modifier identifies $NCP routing algorithm to be used. Specify 0 for MSH or 1 for split horizon
(SH). The ALGORITHM modifier must be set to the same value on all systems in the network.
Modified split horizon (MSH) and split horizon (SH) algorithms are explained in detail in “Routing
Algorithms” (page 358).
AUTOMATICMAPTIMER n
Default:
1 (on)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 or 1
This modifier causes $NCP to exchange distance vector (DV) messages at variable rates,
depending on the time factor (TF) of the path involved and the presence or absence of changes
to the network. If you specify 1 (the default), the DV propagation rate is 8 seconds multiplied by
the TF for the path. A value of 0 specifies an algorithm with a 5-minute propagation interval. The
use of DV message exchanges is described in detail in “Regular Maps Exchanges” (page 357).
CONNECTTIME n
Default:
0
Units:
0.01 seconds
Range:
1,000 through 30,000 (10 seconds to 5 minutes)
This modifier specifies the length of time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that $NCP
will wait for a response to its connect (CONN) request. If you specify 0 (the default), $NCP
computes the connect request timer independently for each connection using this formula:
0.5 * tf_to_destination
$NCP Modifiers
83
tf_to_destination is learned through NETMAPs received from neighboring systems. You
can specify a value in the range 1,000 through 30,000 to set the connect request timer to a
noncomputed number of seconds for all connections.
CONN requests are described in “Protocol Packet Types” (page 347) and TFs are described in
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
FRAMESIZE n
Default:
132
Units:
Words
Range:
64 through 250
The $NCP FRAMESIZE modifier specifies the maximum packet size that $NCP can send in the
network. This value must be less than or equal to the Expand line-handler process’s FRAMESIZE
modifier but, it cannot be greater than 250. It is not required that this modifier be the same for
each $NCP in the network.
MAXCONNECTS n
Default:
5
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
1 through 255
This modifier specifies the number of CONN requests that can be outstanding on each path from
the system.
MAXTIMEOUTS n
Default:
3
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
1 through 255
This modifier specifies the maximum number of times $NCP will attempt a CONN request.
NETWORKDIAMETER n
Default:
15
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
1 through 254
This modifier specifies the maximum number of hops (intervening nodes) in a path between two
nodes. You should set n to the longest path between any two nodes in the network plus one.
84
Configuring the Network Control Process
You should use the NETWORKDIAMETER modifier with the SH routing algorithm. The
NETWORKDIAMETER modifier is explained in detail in “Split Horizon (SH)” (page 360).
REBALTHRESHOLD n
Default:
0
Units:
Seconds
Range:
31
-1 through 2 - 1
This modifier specifies the threshold time for auto-rebalance. It also helps to enable and disable
auto-rebalance. REBALTHRESHOLD can have the following values:
•
-1, the auto-rebalance is switched off and the user must manually trigger rebalance.
•
0, the auto-rebalance occurs normally without taking into cognizance this modifier value.
•
Greater than 0, the auto-rebalance occurs if the path has revived after being down beyond
the time period mentioned in this modifier.
$NCP Modifiers
85
7 Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
The direct-connect line-handler process implements the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
Normal protocol and operates with conventional voice-grade leased-line and switched-line
facilities, private facilities, and fractional Transmission Group 1 (T1) facilities. The satellite-connect
line-handler process implements the satellite-efficient version of the HDLC protocol, HDLC
Extended mode.
A direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process can be configured as a single line, as
part of a multi-line path, or as part of a multi-CPU path. This section explains how to configure
a direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process as a single-line or as part of a multi-CPU
path. Configuring direct-connect and satellite-connect lines that are part of a multi-line path is
explained in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Required Hardware and Software
Several hardware and software components are required in addition to the direct-connect or
satellite-connect line-handler process to provide direct-connect or satellite-connect connectivity.
These components are illustrated in Figure 11 and are explained in these subsections.
86
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Figure 11 Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Connectivity Components
QIO Subsystem
QIO is a mechanism for transferring data between processes through a shared memory segment.
The QIO subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence. The QIO
subsystem must be started before Expand line-handler processes can be started.
For more information on the QIO subsystem, see the QIO Configuration and Management Manual.
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver
The WAN shared driver is a set of library procedures that is bound with each input-output process
(IOP) that uses a ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator. The WAN shared driver
is a component of the WAN subsystem. The WAN subsystem is preconfigured and starting during
the system load sequence.
Required Hardware and Software
87
For more information on the WAN subsystem, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
NonStop TCP/IP Process
The NonStop TCP/IP subsystem provides TCP/IP data communications connectivity. NonStop
TCP/IP processes are used by LAN adapters and SWAN concentrators. The NonStop TCP/IP
processes that support the adapter and SWAN concentrators are preconfigured and started
during the system load sequence.
For more information on the NonStop TCP/IP and the NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystems, see the
TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual and the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management
Manual.
For more information on LAN adapters, see the LAN Configuration and Management Manual.
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)
NonStop TCP/IP processes can interface to the network through the ServerNet LAN Systems
Access (SLSA) subsystem. The SLSA subsystem provides QIO-based driver and interrupt
handlers (DIHs) that allow NonStop TCP/IP processes to connect to a LAN adapter. The SLSA
subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system-load sequence. For more information
on the SLSA subsystem, see the LAN Configuration and Management Manual.
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator
The SWAN concentrator is a communications device that provides WAN connections. Hewlett
Packard Enterprise recommends that you configure your satellite-connect or direct-connect
line-handler process in the same processor pair as the SWAN concentrator.
For more information on the SWAN concentrator, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
Topology Considerations
In a single-line path configuration, you configure one single-line direct-connect or satellite-connect
line-handler process for each path to an adjacent node. In a multi-CPU path configuration, you
configure multiple direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler processes, usually in separate
processors, for each path to an adjacent node. In a multi-line path configuration, you configure
a path that consists of multiple lines between two adjacent nodes.
In Figure 12, a single-line path is configured between node \A and node \B and between node
\B and node \A; a multi-CPU path that consists of two paths is configured between node \A and
node \C; and a multi-line path that consists of three lines is configured between node \C and
node \D.
88
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Figure 12 Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler Process Topology
Summary of Configuration Steps
After all hardware and software requirements have been met (see “Required Hardware and
Software” (page 86) for details), configuring and starting a single-line direct-connect or
satellite-connect line-handler process involves these steps:
Step
Tool Used
Step 1: Find an Available WAN Line
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 5: Start the Line
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this section is the syntax used to configure
direct-connect and satellite-connect line-handler processes; it is not meant to show the complete
syntax of the SCF commands described. For more information, see these manuals:
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual for WAN subsystem SCF
commands
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands, for Expand subsystem SCF commands
Summary of Configuration Steps
89
Step 1: Find an Available WAN Line
NOTE: This procedure assumes that a SWAN concentrator has been installed, configured,
and started and has an available WAN line.
A direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process is configured to use an available WAN
line on a SWAN concentrator. You can use the WAN subsystem SCF STATUS ADAPTER
command to find an available WAN line on a SWAN concentrator attached to your server. Available
lines are indicated by the word FREE in the command display.
Example 5 shows an example of a SCF STATUS ADAPTER command. In the example, an
available line is indicated on line 1 of communications line interface processor (CLIP) 1 on the
SWAN concentrator named S01. This information is shown in boldface type.
Example 5 SCF STATUS ADAPTER Command
-> status adapter $zzwan.#*, sub all
WAN Manager STATUS ADAPTER for ADAPTER
State........... STARTED
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01
Number of clips. 3
Clip 1 status: CONFIGURED
Clip 2 status: CONFIGURED
Clip 3 status: CONFIGURED
WAN Manager STATUS SERVER for CLIP
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01.1
State:......... STARTED
Path A..........: CONFIGURED
Path B..........: CONFIGURED
Number of lines. 2
Line............ 0 : $X25A
Line............ 1 : FREE
WAN Manager STATUS PATH for PATH
State:......... STARTED
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01.1.A
MEDIA TYPE...... ETHERNET
MEDIA ADDRESS... %H000000000000
WAN Manager STATUS PATH for PATH
State:......... STARTED
\NODEA.$ZZWAN.#S01.1.B
MEDIA TYPE...... ETHERNET
MEDIA ADDRESS... %H000000000000
For more information on configuring and managing SWAN concentrators, see the WAN Subsystem
Configuration and Management Manual.
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process
You can create a profile for a single-line direct-connect line-handler process using the PEXQSSWN
profile. You can create a profile for a single-line satellite-connect line-handler process using the
PEXQSSAT profile. Both profiles are provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also
create a new profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete
information about profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
90
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
This subsection describes how to create a profile using PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT.
NOTE: Different profiles are provided for direct-connect and satellite-connect lines that are
part of a multi-line path; these profiles are described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXQSSWN or PEXQSSAT profile template, use the WAN subsystem
SCF ADD PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference
profile_name when you create a device for the line-handler process in Step 3:
Create the Line-Handler Process.
$SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXQSSWN is the disk filename of the profile provided for direct-connect
line-handler processes; PEXQSSAT is the disk file name of the profile provided
for satellite-connect line-handler processes.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXQSSWN
and PEXQSSAT profiles are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 94).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT profiles are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page
94).
Examples
In the first example, a profile named SLHSAT is created for a single-line satellite-connect
line-handler process using the PEXQSSAT profile. The L4TIMEOUT modifier is set to 1000 in
the profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#SLHSAT, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQSSAT, &
14TIMEOUT 1000
In the next example, a profile named SLHDIR is created for a single-line direct-connect line-handler
process using the PEXQSSWN profile. The CLOCKSPEED_56000 modifier is set in the profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#SLHDIR, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQSSWN, &
CLOCKSPEED_56000
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process
You create a single-line direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process by adding it as
a device to the WAN subsystem.
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process
91
NOTE: This section explains how to configure single-line direct-connect and satellite-connect
line-handler processes only. Creating direct-connect and satellite-connect lines that are part of
a multi-line path is explained in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create a single-line direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process, use the WAN
subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,5 )
RSIZE rsize
ADAPTER concname
CLIP clipnum
LINE linenum
PATH { A | B }
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#device_name
is the device name of the Expand line-handler process you want to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for an
Expand line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for this Expand line-handler process in Step
2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process.
CPU cpunumber
indicates the processor where this Expand line-handler process will normally run.
Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you specify the same processor as
that configured for the preferred NonStop TCP/IP process used by the SWAN
concentrator specified by concname.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
indicates the processor where the backup Expand line-handler process will
normally run. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you specify the same
processor as that configured for the alternate NonStop TCP/IP process used by
the SWAN concentrator specified by concname.
TYPE (63,5)
is the device type and subtype for this Expand line-handler process. The device
type is always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is 5 for both
single-line direct-connect and satellite-connect line-handler processes.
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
ADAPTER concname
92
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
is the SWAN concentrator you selected for use by this Expand line-handler process
in Step 1: Find an Available WAN Line.
CLIP clipnum
is the CLIP number on the SWAN concentrator specified by concname that
contains an available WAN line. For more information on identifying CLIP values,
see Step 1: Find an Available WAN Line.
LINE linenum
is the number of an available WAN line on the CLIP specified by clipnum. For
more information on identifying line numbers, see Step 1: Find an Available WAN
Line. Valid values are 0 or 1.
PATH { A | B }
is the path (A or B) on the CLIP specified by clipnum that you prefer. The path
must be configured.
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the number (from 0 to 254) of the system
connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify the NEXTSYS modifier,
it defaults to an invalid value (255) and an operator message occurs during the
initialization of the Expand line-handler process. The path will not be operational
until you alter NEXTSYS to a valid value using either the WAN subsystem SCF
ALTER DEVICE command or the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Modifier names in the PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT profiles are listed in “Profile
Modifiers” (page 94).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword. modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXQSSWN and
PEXQSSAT profiles are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 94).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
Examples
In the first example, a device named $DIR6 is created for a single-line direct-connect line-handler
process that uses a SWAN concentrator named S01. The PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier enables
the multipacket frame feature.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#DIR6, PROFILE SLHTER, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,5), &
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process
93
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, CLIP 2, LINE 0, ADAPTER S01, PATH A, &
NEXTSYS 12, PATHBLOCKBYTES 1024
In the next example, a device named $SAT1 is created for a single-line satellite-connect
line-handler process that uses a SWAN concentrator named S02.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#SAT1, PROFILE SLHSAT, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,5), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, CLIP 2, LINE 0, ADAPTER S02, PATH A, &
NEXTSYS 14
In the last example, a device named $DIR2 is created for a direct-connect line-handler process
that uses a SWAN concentrator named S02. $DIR2 is also a member of a multi-CPU path. The
SUPERPATH_ON and L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifiers are required for line-handler processes
that are part of a multi-CPU path. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is recommended for Expand
line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#DIR2, PROFILE SLHTER, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,5), RSIZE 0, &
PATHTF 3, CLIP 2, LINE 0, ADAPTER S02, PATH A, NEXTSYS 13, &
14EXTPACKETS_ON, 14CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process
To start a single-line direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process, use the WAN
subsystem SCF START DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
$ZZWAN.device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the direct-connect or
satellite-connect Expand line-handler process.
This command creates the specified Expand line-handler process and allocates a logical device
(LDEV) number.
Step 5: Start the Line
To start the path and line functions of a single-line direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler
process, use the Expand subsystem SCF START LINE command. The command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the device name of the direct-connect or satellite-connect Expand line-handler
process.
The successful completion of this command leaves the line in the STARTED state.
Profile Modifiers
This subsection lists the modifiers provided for configuring special features. It also describes
default values and value ranges for the modifiers contained in the PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT
profiles.
NOTE: Different profiles are provided for direct-connect and satellite-connect lines that are
part of a multi-line path; these profiles are described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
94
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Modifiers for Special Features
These modifiers are provided in the PEXQSSWN and PEXQPSAT profiles to enable you to
configure special features:
•
PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier for the multipacket frame feature
•
PATHPACKETBYTES modifier for the variable packet size feature
•
L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier for the congestion control feature
•
SUPERPATH_ON modifier for the Expand multi-CPU feature
•
L4CWNDCLAMP modifier for the configuration of the congestion control transmit window
feature
For configuration considerations for these features, see Subsystem Description. For more
information on the advantages and disadvantages of these features, see Planning a Network
Design.
The PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, L4CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON, and
L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in Expand Modifiers.
PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQSSWN defines modifiers for single-line direct-connect
line-handler processes. The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQSSAT defines modifiers for single-line
satellite-connect line-handler processes.
Table 12 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable.
For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile. For a complete description of the modifiers
listed in this table, see Expand Modifiers.
Table 12 PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
CLBDWNLOADRETRIES
✓
2 to 255
CLBDWNLOADTIMR
30 seconds
30 secs to 5:27:67 minutes
CLOCKMODE_DCE
✓
CLOCKMODE_DTE
CLOCKSPEED_600
CLOCKSPEED_1200
CLOCKSPEED_2400
CLOCKSPEED_4800
CLOCKSPEED_9600
CLOCKSPEED_19200
✓
CLOCKSPEED_38400
CLOCKSPEED_56000
CLOCKSPEED_115200
COMPRESS_OFF
✓
COMPRESS_ON
DELAY
10
0 to 511
Profile Modifiers
95
Table 12 PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF
✓
DSRTIMER
1 sec
1 sec to 5:27:67 minutes
EXTMEMSIZE
2048
0 through 32767
FLAGFILL_OFF
FLAGFILL_ON
✓
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
INSPECT
INTERFACE_RS232
✓
INTERFACE_RS422
L2DISCARDONRESET_OFF
L2DISCARDONRESET_ON
✓
L2RETRIES
10
1 through 255
L2TIMEOUT
100 (direct-connect)
20 to 32767
200 (satellite-connect)
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
✓
L4CONGCTRL_ON
L4CWNDCLAMP
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
NEXTSYS
255
0 to 254
OSSPACE
32767
3072 through 32767
OSTIMEOUT
300
10 through 32767
PATHBLOCKBYTES
0
0 through 4095
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 4095
PATHTF
0
0 through 186
1
96
Configuring Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
Table 12 PEXQSSWN and PEXQSSAT Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
PROGRAM
$SYSTEM.CSSnn.C1097P00
(direct-connect)
Range of Values
$SYSTEM.CSSnn.C1098P00
(satellite-connect)
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
0
0 to 99
QUALITYTIMER
60 seconds
0 to 77600 (12hrs)
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
STARTUP_ON
SUPERPATH_OFF
✓
SUPERPATH_ON
TXWINDOW
1
7 (direct-connect)18
(satellite-connect)
2 through 61 (all lines)
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
Profile Modifiers
97
8 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
The Expand-over-IP line-handler process provides connectivity to an Internet Protocol (IP)
network. The Expand-over-IP line-handler process uses the services of the NonStop TCP/IP
subsystem to provide Expand-over-IP connections.
NonStop TCP/IPv6 and CIP support IP version 6 (IPv6) communications. IPv6 supports a larger,
128-bit (16-byte) IP address that helps to address the growing number of machines and devices
on the Internet. You can run NonStop TCP/IP, NonStop TCP/IPv6, and CIP on the same system.
For more information on NonStop TCP/IP, NonStop TCP/IPv6, and CIP see the TCP/IP
Configuration and Management Manual, the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual,
and the Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) Configuration and Management Manual.
An Expand-over-IP line-handler process can be configured as a single line, as part of a multi-line
path, or as part of multi-CPU path. This section explains how to configure an Expand-over-IP
line-handler process as a single-line or as part of a multi-CPU path. Configuring Expand-over-IP
lines that are part of a multi-line path is explained in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Required Hardware and Software
Several hardware and software components are required in addition to the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process to provide Expand-over-IP connectivity.
NOTE: The CLIM hardware component is supported only on systems running J06.04 and later
J-series RVUs.
Figure 13 shows the relationship between the Expand subsystem, the NonStop TCP/IP subsystem
and the LAN adapter or CLuster I/O Module (CLIM). The TCP/IP process in this configuration
can be either a NonStop TCP/IP, CIP (CIPSAM), or NonStop TCP/IPv6 (TCP6SAM) process.
The architecture is different in CIP and NonStop TCP/IPv6 in that the TCP6SAM and CIPSAM
processes do not provide the connectivity. For simplicity, they are shown here as being
interchangeable with the NonStop TCP/IP process for Expand purposes. Also, in the CIP
subsystem, the LAN adapter is actually a CLIM. For more information on the architecture of these
subsystems, see the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual, and the Cluster I/O
Protocols (CIP) Configuration and Management Manual.
98
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Figure 13 Expand-over-IP Connectivity Components with a LAN Adapter or CLIM
Figure 14 illustrates the required components when an ATM 3 ServerNet adapter (ATM3SA) is
used to provide connectivity to an IP network. In this configuration, the TCP/IP process can only
be NonStop TCP/IP; NonStop TCP/IPv6 and CIP do not support ATM communications.
Required Hardware and Software
99
Figure 14 Expand-over-IP Connectivity Components with ATM3SA
QIO Subsystem
QIO is a mechanism for transferring data between processes through a shared memory segment.
The QIO subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence. The QIO
subsystem must be started and running before Expand line-handler processes can be started.
For more information on the QIO enhancements that enable you to have more control over certain
aspects of memory management, see Shared Memory Area for QIO. For more information on
the QIO subsystem, see the QIO Configuration and Management Manual.
NonStop TCP/IP Process
The Expand-over-IP line-handler process uses the services of a NonStop TCP/IP process to
provide TCP/IP connectivity. The NonStop TCP/IP process and SUBNET associated with the
Expand-over-IP line-handler process must be defined and started before the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process can be started. It must be configured in the same processor pair as the
Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
For more information on configuring and managing NonStop TCP/IP processes, see the TCP/IP
Configuration and Management Manual.
NonStop TCP/IPv6 Process
NonStop TCP/IPv6 can also provide TCP/IP connectivity for the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. NonStop TCP/IPv6 can optionally provide support for IP version 6 communications and
has a feature called logical network partitioning (LNP) that allows you to configure the line-handler
100 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
process such that it only has access to a configured set of IP addresses. (In NonStop TCP/IPv6
without LNP, the Expand line-handler process has access to all the IP addresses in the
subsystem.) TCP/IPv6 provides performance enhancements and eliminates the need to configure
the line-handler processes in the same CPU pair as the TCP/IP processes. In addition, NonStop
TCP/IPv6 provides Ethernet failover capabilities. (NonStop TCP/IPv6 only supports LAN adapters.)
The line handler supports the 128-bit addressing scheme used in IPv6 communications in addition
to the 32-bit addresses used by IPv4.
CIP Process
Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) can also provide TCP/IP connectivity for the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process. CIP can optionally provide support for IPv6 communications and has a
feature similar to the NonStop TCP/IPv6 feature of logical network partitioning (LNP) that allows
you to configure the line-handler process such that it only has access to a configured set of IP
addresses. This feature is provided through the PROVIDER SCF object. CIP provides performance
enhancements and eliminates the need to configure the line-handler processes in the same CPU
pair as the TCP/IP processes. In addition, CIP provides Ethernet failover capabilities. (CIP only
supports Ethernet adapters.)
The line handler supports the 128-bit addressing scheme used in IPv6 communications in addition
to the 32-bit addresses used by IPv4.
Redundancy in Ethernet Adapters
Redundancy in Ethernet adapters (or CLIMs) and IP network routes can be applied by multi-line
Expand-over-IP paths and multi-CPU paths, where the member paths are Expand-over-IP. These
configurations offer multiple, parallel connections between a NonStop system and one of its
neighbors. Use these configurations to get potentially greater bandwidth and fault tolerance.
However, all elements, including the network itself, must have redundancy to obtain full benefit
of the configurations.
The decision of which adapter (or CLIM) and path to apply for a particular Expand connection in
conventional NonStop TCP/IP, CIP, and LNP-configured NonStop TCP/IPv6 is made explicitly
by how you configure the adapters (or CLIMs), NonStop TCP/IP processes, and lines. This
selection is independent of the external network. The adapters and lines are applied in parallel,
but if there is no redundancy in the network to which they connect, the effectiveness of the
parallelism is considerably reduced. In these cases, the fault-tolerance decisions made in Expand
for multi-line IP paths can be disruptive rather than helpful.
NonStop TCP/IPv6 configured without LNP and CIP using the default (all interface) PROVIDER
makes a dynamic choice of which adapter (or CLIM) and line to use, among any configured
redundant assortment, based on the destination address of the IP connection and the best route
to that destination. Unless network redundancy is provided implicitly in the destination addresses,
the same adapter/line can be used for all connections to the same neighbor. NonStop TCP/IPv6
(in either LNP or non-LNP mode) and CIP can be configured with a redundancy feature at the
adapter (or CLIM) level called Ethernet failover. This feature allows you to configure two network
interfaces (IP addresses and their associated physical interfaces on the Ethernet adapter) as a
failover pair. Each network interface in this failover pair provides complete, independent network
connectivity in normal conditions and provides backup connectivity for its brother during a failure.
If one member of the failover pair fails, the NonStop TCP/IPv6 or CIP subsystem automatically
routes network traffic destined for the failed interface over its failover brother. Failover in the CIP
subsystem has some restrictions that are not present in NonStop TCP/IPv6.
For more information on configuring Ethernet failover in NonStop TCP/IPv6, see the TCP/IPv6
Configuration and Management Manual. For information about configuring Ethernet failover in
CIP, see the Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) Configuration and Management Manual.
Required Hardware and Software 101
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)
NonStop TCP/IP processes can interface to an IP network through the ServerNet LAN Systems
Access (SLSA) subsystem. The SLSA subsystem provides QIO-based driver and interrupt
handlers (DIHs) that allow NonStop TCP/IP processes to connect to a LAN adapter. The SLSA
subsystem is preconfigured and is started during the system-load sequence.
For more information on the SLSA subsystem, see the LAN Configuration and Management
Manual.
NOTE: The CIP subsystem does not use the SLSA subsystem. See the Cluster I/O Protocols
(CIP) Configuration and Management Manual for more information on the CIP architecture and
migration considerations.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Subsystem
NonStop TCP/IP processes might interface to an IP network through the Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) subsystem. The ATM subsystem provides software that allows NonStop TCP/IP
processes to connect to an ATM ServerNet adapter (ATM3SA). You must install the ATM3SA
and configure and start the ATM subsystem before you can start an Expand-over-IP line-handler
process that uses this connection method.
For more information on the ATM subsystem, see the ATM Configuration and Management
Manual.
LAN or ATM Adapters or the CLIM
NOTE: The CLIM hardware component is supported only on systems running J06.04 and later
J-series RVUs.
You can use a G4SA, an ATM3SA, or a CLIM to provide connectivity to an IP network.
The CLIM is an HPE ProLiant class server configured as a communications device. It provides
Ethernet connectivity for J06.04 and later J-series RVUs on NonStop BladeSystems.
For more information on the G4SA, see the LAN Configuration and Management Manual. For
more information on the ATM3SA, see the ATM Configuration and Management Manual. For
more information on the CLIM, see the Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) Configuration Management
Manual.
Topology Considerations
In a single-line path configuration, you configure one Expand-over-IP line-handler process for
each path to an adjacent node. In a multi-CPU path configuration, you configure multiple
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes, usually in separate processors, for each path to an
adjacent node. In a multi-line path configuration, you configure a path that consists of multiple
lines between two adjacent nodes.
In Figure 15, a single-line path is configured between node \A and node \B; a multi-CPU path
that consists of two paths is configured between node \A and node \C; and a multi-line path that
consists of three lines is configured between node \C and node \D.
102 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Figure 15 Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Process Topology
Summary of Configuration Steps
After all hardware and software requirements have been met (see “Required Hardware and
Software” (page 98) for details), configuring and starting a single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler
process involves these steps. Use Steps A or B depending on which version of TCP/IP you want
to use.
Step
Tool Used
Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use
SCF interface to the NonStop TCP/IP
subsystem
Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use
SCF interface to the NonStop TCP/IPv6
subsystem
Step 1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use
SCF interface to the CIP subsystem
Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number
SCF interface to the NonStop TCP/IP
subsystem
Step 2 (B): Identify an Available UDP Port Number for NonStop TCP/IPv6 SCF interface to the NonStop TCP/IPv6
Use
subsystem
Step 2 (C): Identify an available UDP Port Number for CIP Use
SCF interface to the CIP subsystem
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Summary of Configuration Steps 103
Step
Tool Used
Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 5: Start the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 6: Start the Line
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this section is the syntax used to configure
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes; it is not meant to show the complete syntax of SCF
commands described. For more information, see these manuals:
•
TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual
•
TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use
NOTE: These instructions assume that a NonStop TCP/IP process has already been created.
For more information on creating NonStop TCP/IP processes, see the TCP/IP Configuration and
Management Manual.
A NonStop TCP/IP SUBNET associates a NonStop TCP/IP process with a connection to a
network and an IP address.
Select a NonStop TCP/IP Process
The NonStop TCP/IP process provides access to the NonStop TCP/IP environment. In configuring
Expand-over-IP for this environment, you will be using the name of a NonStop TCP/IP process
for the ASSOCIATEDEV modifier in Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process.
To obtain a list of running NonStop TCP/IP processes, issue this command:
> LISTDEV TCPIP
The SCF LISTDEV command lists all the TCP/IP processes. A program name in the SCF LISTDEV
display of TCPIP means that it's a NonStop TCP/IP process. Example 6 shows a sample result
of the SCF LISTDEV TCPIP command.
Example 6 SCF LISTDEV TCPIP Command
1-> SCF LISTDEV TCPIP
SCF - T9082H01 - (01OCT04) (27APR04) - 12/09/2004 13:25:22 System \DRP25
(C) 1986 Tandem (C) 2003 Hewlett Packard Development Company, L.P.
LDev
136
147
430
434
494
Name
$ZTC13
$ZTC0
$ZTC12
$ZTC10
$ZTC11
PPID
3,485
0,323
3,481
2,478
2,481
BPID
2,485
1,442
2,484
3,478
3,479
Type
(48,0
(48,0
(48,0
(48,0
(48,0
)
)
)
)
)
RSize
32000
32000
32000
32000
32000
Pri
200
200
200
200
200
Program
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCPIP
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCPIP
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCPIP
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCPIP
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCPIP
In the above example, the processes $ZB01A, $ZTCO, and $ZB019 are NonStop TCP/IP
processes. For the rest of this procedure, we will use $ZB01A as our NonStop TCP/IP process.
Select a SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP
You can use the SCF INFO SUBNET command to determine if a SUBNET has been configured
for the NonStop TCP/IP process you plan to associate with the Expand-over-IP line-handler
104 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
process. Example 7 shows an example of an SCF INFO SUBNET command for a NonStop
TCP/IP process named $ZTC01.
Example 7 SCF INFO SUBNET Command
2-> INFO SUBNET $ZB01A.#*
TCPIP Info SUBNET \NODEA.$ZB01A.*
Name
Devicename
#LOOP0
#SN1
#SN2
\NODEB.$NOIOP
\NODEA.$LAN01
\NODEA.$AM1
*IPADDRESS
127.0.0.1
172.16.35.15
172.16.192.20
TYPE
*SUBNETMASK
LOOP-BACK %HFF000000
ETHERNET %HFFFFFF00
ATM
%HFFFFFF00
SuName
QIO *R
OFF N
ON N
ON N
SUBNET names are shown in the Name field, the type of the SUBNET configured is shown in
the Type field, and the IP address assigned to the SUBNET is shown in the IPADDRESS field.
As shown in Example 7, there is one Ethernet SUBNET (#SN1) and one ATM SUBNET (#SN2)
configured.
You must specify the IP address associated with an Ethernet or ATM SUBNET when you define
the Expand-over-IP line-handler process in Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process.
Creating an Ethernet SUBNET or ATM SUBNET
If an Ethernet or ATM SUBNET does not already exist, you can create one using the SCF ADD
SUBNET command. This SCF ADD SUBNET command shown defines an Ethernet SUBNET
named #SN1 for a NonStop TCP/IP process named $ZTC01. The DEVICENAME modifier
specifies the name of the logical interface (LIF) that is used to communicate with the physical
interface (PIF) on an E4SA connected to the system.
-> ADD SUBNET $ZTC01.#SN1, TYPE ETHERNET, &
DEVICENAME $ZZLAN.LAN0, IPADDRESS 123.45.67.89
This SCF ADD SUBNET command shown defines an ATM SUBNET named #SN2 for a NonStop
TCP/IP process named $ZTC01. The DEVICENAME modifier specifies the name of an ATM line
on an ATM3SA connected to the system.
-> ADD SUBNET $ZTC01.#SN2, TYPE ATM, DEVICENAME $AM1, &
IPADDRESS 172.16.192.200, ARPSERVER ON, ATMSEL 1
After the SUBNET is defined, it must be started using the SCF START SUBNET command. This
SCF START SUBNET command shown starts the SUBNET named #SN1:
-> START SUBNET $ZTC01.#SN1
NOTE: You must also perform this step on the destination system before you can define the
local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The destination IP address must be specified when
the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process is defined.
For more information on creating SUBNETs, see the TCP/IP Configuration and Management
Manual.
Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use
NOTE: These instructions assume that a NonStop TCP/IPv6 environment has already been
started. For more information on starting a NonStop TCP/IPv6 environment, see the TCP/IPv6
Configuration and Management Manual.
Step 1 (B) is for use with NonStop TCP/IPv6 only.
Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use 105
Select a SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use
NonStop TCP/IPv6 only supports SUBNETs of type Ethernet. A NonStop TCP/IPv6 SUBNET
associates the NonStop TCP/IPv6 environment with a connection to a network and an IP address.
To obtain a list of running IPv6 and IPv6 SUBNETs, issue this SCF command:
> INFO SUBNET $ZZTCP.*, DETAIL
NOTE: For NonStop TCP/IPv6, we use the SCF INFO SUBNET command to the manager
process ($ZZTCP) for the example because it shows IPv6 address whereas the SCF INFO
SUBNET command to the TCP6SAM process shows only IPv4 addresses. If you are using
NonStop TCP/IPv6 in INET mode (IPv4 addresses only), you can issue the INFO SUBNET
command to the TCP6SAM process.
Example 8 shows a sample result of the SCF INFO SUBNET, DETAIL command.
Example 8 SCF INFO SUBNET, DETAIL Command
TCPIPV6 Detailed Info SUBNET \NODEA.$ZZTCP.#ZPTMF.*
AF_INET:
Name
Devicename
*IPADDRESS/DST_IPADDR TYPE
*SUBNETMASK
SN116
\NODEA.FEF0A
172.10.188.140
ETHERNET %HFFFFFF00
Trace Status........ OFF
Trace Filename......
Interface MTU....... 1500
---Multicast Groups-----State--224.0.0.1
STARTED
LNP... $ZB01A
Index... 1
LOOP0
127.0.0.1
LOOP
%HFF000000
Trace Status........ OFF
Trace Filename......
Interface MTU....... 32768
---Multicast Groups-----State--224.0.0.1
STARTED
LNP... $ZSAM1
Index... 1
AF_INET6:
Name
Devicename
LinkLevelAddress
SN117
\NODEA.FEF0A
fe80::a00:8eff:fe02:46e
*IPV6MTU................... 1500
*IPV6HOPLIMIT.............. 64
*IPV6REACHABLETIME......... 30000 ms
*IPV6RETRANSMITIMER........ 1000 ms
*IPV6DADRETRIES............ 1
*IPV6NUD................... ON
*IPV6RAENABLE.............. ON
LNP... DEFAULT
Index... 0
IPV6PREFIX........ 3ffe:1200:188:2::/64
IPV6PREFIX........ 3ffe:1200:188:1::/64
IPV6ADDRESS....... 3ffe:1200:188:1:a00:8eff:fe02:46e
Creation Type. RA PREFIX
IPV6ADDRESS....... 3ffe:1200:188:2:a00:8eff:fe02:46e
Creation Type. RA PREFIX
MULTICASTADDRESS.. ff02::1:ff02:46e
MULTICASTADDRESS.. ff02::1
*R LNP
N 0
N
0
TYPE
LNP
ETHERNET 0
SUBNET names are shown in the Name field, the type of the SUBNET configured is shown in
the Type field, and the IP address assigned to the SUBNET is shown in the IPADDRESS field.
You must specify the IP address associated with an Ethernet SUBNET when you define the
SRCIPADDR modifier for the Expand-over-IP line-handler process in Step 4: Create the
Line-Handler Process. If the NonStop TCP/IPv6 environment is set up to use logical network
106 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
partitioning (see “Internet Protocol (IP) Networks” (page 54)), as the environment shown in this
example is, the IP address you select is accessible only to the TCP6SAM processes associated
with it. (If the NonStop TCP/IPv6 environment is not set up with LNP, all TCP6SAM processes
have access to all IP addresses in the NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystem.)
In this example, we use SUBNET SN116 and its IP address, 172.10.188.140. Note TCP6SAM
process shown in the LNP field is $ZSAM1. That means $ZSAM1 is the only TCP6SAM process
that has access to the LNP that SUBNET SN116 and its IP address 172.10.188.140 form. Note
also that SN117 shows DEFAULT in the LNP field. If you want to use the default LNP, select a
SUBNET that has DEFAULT in the LNP field.
Select a TCP6SAM Process
The TCP/IP socket access method (TCP6SAM) is the process that provides access to the NonStop
TCP/IPv6 environment. In configuring Expand-over-IP for this environment, you use the name
of a TCP6SAM process for the ASSOCIATEDEV modifier in Step 4: Create the Line-Handler
Process.
To obtain a list of running TCP6SAM processes, issue this command:
> LISTDEV TCPIP
The SCF LISTDEV command lists all the TCP/IP processes. A program name in the SCF LISTDEV
display of TCPIP means that it is a conventional NonStop TCP/IP process whereas a program
name of TCP6SAM means it is a NonStop TCP/IPv6 process. Example 9 shows a sample result
of the SCF LISTDEV TCPIP command.
Example 9 SCF LISTDEV TCPIP Command
1-> listdev tcpip
LDev
256
259
260
261
Name
$ZSAM0
$ZSAM1
$ZSAM2
$ZSAM3
PPID
0,416
1,390
2,310
3,304
BPID
1,389
0,417
3,303
2,311
Type
(48,0
(48,0
(48,0
(48,0
)
)
)
)
RSize
57344
57344
57344
57344
Pri
201
201
201
201
Program
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCP6SAM
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCP6SAM
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCP6SAM
\DRP25.$SYSTEM.SYS55.TCP6SAM
In the above example, all the processes are TCP6SAM processes. In NonStop TCP/IPv6, if
logical network partitioning is not configured, all TCP6SAM processes have access to all the IP
addresses, so you can select any of the TCP6SAM processes for the Expand line-handler process.
However, if logical network partitioning is configured, the TCP6SAM process you select for the
ASSOCIATEDEV modifier must be listed in the LNP field of the SUBNET you want to use.
In this example, we use $ZSAM1 as our TCP6SAM process. As shown in the Example 8 (page 106),
this TCP6SAM process is associated with the IP address 172.10.188.140.
The INFO SUBNET, DETAIL command shows the TCP6SAM processes that are associated
with configured LNPs. If you want to use the default partition in an LNP-configured NonStop
TCP/IPv6 environment, you have to perform several steps because there is no direct way to
determine the TCP6SAM process names for the default partition. (The TCP6SAM process is not
displayed in the INFO SUBNET, DETAIL command.) To find TCP6SAM processes for the default
partition, perform these steps:
1. Issue the SCF INFO SUBNET $ZZTCP.*, DETAIL command.
2. Identify all TCP6SAM processes that are listed in the LNP field of the SUBNET display and
make a note of these process names.
3. Issue the SCF LISTDEV TCPIP command.
4. Use your list of TCP6SAM names to eliminate the LNP-assigned TCP6SAM processes. The
remaining TCP6SAM process(es) is associated with the default LNP. This process has
access only to the SUBNETs in the default partition.
Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use 107
For example, we know from the LISTDEV command shown in Example 8 (page 106) that $ZSAM1
is the only TCP6SAM process associated with an LNP so $ZSAM2, shown in Example 9 (page 107),
is the TCP6SAM for the default partition.
Creating an Ethernet Subnet
If an Ethernet SUBNET does not already exist, you can create one using the SCF ADD SUBNET
command. The SCF ADD SUBNET command shown in this example defines an Ethernet SUBNET
named SN1 for NonStop TCP/IPv6 in IPv4 mode or the TCP/IP/PL environment. The
DEVICENAME modifier specifies the name of the logical interface (LIF) that is used to
communicate with the physical interface (PIF) on an E4SA connected to the system.
-> ADD SUBNET $ZZTCP.*.SN1, TYPE ETHERNET, &
DEVICENAME $ZZLAN.LAN02, IPADDRESS 123.45.67.89,&
SUBNETMASK %HFFFFFF00
After the SUBNET is defined, it must be started using the SCF START SUBNET command. The
SCF START SUBNET command shown in this example starts the SUBNET named SN1:
-> START SUBNET $ZZTCP.*.SN1
NOTE: You must also perform this step on the destination system before you can define the
local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The destination IP address must be specified when
the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process is defined.
For more information on creating SUBNETs in the NonStop TCP/IPv6 environment, see the
TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual.
Step 1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use
NOTE: The following instructions assume that a CIP environment has already been started.
For information on starting a CIP environment, see the Cluster I/O Protocols (CIP) Configuration
and Management Manual.
Step 1 (C) is for use with CIP only.
Select a CIPSAM Process
The CIP socket access method (CIPSAM) is a process that provides programs access to the
CIP environment. Use a CIPSAM process name for the ASSOCIATEDEV modifier in Step 4:
Create the Line-Handler Process while configuring Expand-over-IP with CIP environment.
To obtain a list of running CIPSAM processes, run this SCF LISTDEV command:
-> LISTDEV TCPIP
The SCF LISTDEV command lists all the TCP/IP processes. A program name in the SCF LISTDEV
display of CIPSAM indicates a CIP socket access method process. Note the process name and
use Example 10 that shows a sample result of the SCF LISTDEV TCPIP command.
Example 10 SCF LISTDEV TCPIP Command
1-> listdev tcpip
LDev Name
256 $ZSAM0
PPID
0,416
BPID
1,389
Type
RSize Pri Program
(48,0 ) 57344 201 \SYSNAME.$DATA.CIPSLH.CIPSAM
In this example, there is one CIPSAM process called $ZSAM0.
Obtain an IP Address to associate with your Expand Line- Handler Process
To obtain an IP address for Expand communications, issue the SCF INFO SUBNET command
for the INFO process.
->INFO SUBNET $ZSAM0.*
108 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
From the displayed devices, select an Ethernet device and note the IP address. Example 11
shows the output of the SCF INFO SUBNET command.
Example 11 SCF INFO SUBNET $ZSAM0
CIP Info SUBNET $\MYSYS.$ZSAM0.*
Name
Devicename
*IPADDRESS
TYPE
*SUBNETMASK SuName QIO *R
#SN0001
lo
127.0.0.1
LOOP-BACK
%HFF000000
OFF
N
#SN0002
DL395N.eth1
172.17.190.101
ETHERNET
%HFFFFFF00
ON
N
#SN0003
DL385N.ETH2
172.17.190.102
ETHERNET
%HFFFFFF00
ON
N
#SN0004
DL385N.ETH3
172.17.190.103
ETHERNET
%HFFFFFF00
ON
N
#SN0005
DL385N.ETH4
172.17.190.104
ETHERNET
%HFFFFFF00
ON
N
#SN0007
DL385Q.BOND0
172.17.190.81
ETHERNET
%HFFFFFF00
ON
N
#SN0008
DL385Q.BOND1
172.17.190.83
ETHERNET
%HFFFFFF00
ON
N
NOTE: Only IPv4 addresses are displayed with the CIP SCF INFO SUBNET command. If you
want to use an IPv6 address, obtain one by using the SCF STATUS CLIM, DETAIL command.
This command displays both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses configured on each interface.
You must specify the IP address associated with an Ethernet SUBNET when you define the
SRCIPADDR modifier for the Expand-over-IP line-handler process in Step 4: Create the
Line-Handler Process.
In this example, we use SUBNET #SN0002 and its IP address, 172.17.190.101.
Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number enables multiple applications to use the same
IP address. An Expand-over-IP line-handler process might share a local IP address with other
applications or with other Expand-over-IP processes. Each must specify a different port number.
To avoid conflict, you should identify an available UDP port number for the IP address you
selected in Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use.
You can use the SCF STATUS PROCESS command to determine which UDP port numbers are
already in use for a particular SUBNET. Example 12 shows an example of a SCF STATUS
PROCESS command for the TCP/IP process named $ZTC01:
Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number 109
Example 12 SCF STATUS PROCESS Command
3-> STATUS PROCESS $ZTC01
TCPIP Status PROCESS \NODEA.$ZTC01
Status:
STARTED
PPID............ ( 0,311)
Proto
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
UDP
UDP
UDP
UDP
State
ESTAB
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
LISTEN
Laddr
172.16.35.15
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
BPID................... ( 1,292)
Lport
1057
9000
2563
telnet
ftp
finger
echo
1029
68
67
69
Faddr
155.186.68.137
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Fport
5000
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
SendQ RecvQ
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UDP port numbers are identified by UDP in the Proto field. UDP port numbers that are in use
are displayed in the Lport field. As shown in Example 12, the UDP port numbers 1029, 68, 67,
and 69 are in use.
Based on the information shown by the SCF STATUS PROCESS command, determine an
available UDP port number. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you do not use a
well-known UDP port number in the range 0 to 1023. You must specify this UDP port number
when you define the Expand-over-IP line-handler process in Step 4: Create the Line-Handler
Process.
NOTE: You must also perform this step on the destination system before you can define the
local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The destination UDP port number must be specified
when the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process is defined.
Step 2 (B): Identify an Available UDP Port Number for NonStop TCP/IPv6
Use
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number enables multiple applications to use the same
IP address. An Expand-over-IP line-handler process might share a local IP address with other
applications or with other Expand-over-IP processes. Each must specify a different port number.
To avoid conflict, identify an available UDP port number for the IP address you selected in Step
1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use.
You can use the SCF STATUS MON command to determine which UDP port numbers are already
in use for a particular SUBNET. To obtain a list of available UDP port numbers, issue this SCF
command:
> STATUS MON $ZZTCP.*
Example 13 shows a sample result of the SCF STATUS MON command.
110
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Example 13 SCF STATUS MON Command
3-> STATUS MON $ZZTCP.*
TCPIPV6 Status MON \NODEC.$ZZTCP.#ZPTM0
Status: STARTED, MASTER
PID............ ( 0,275)
Proto State
UDP
Laddr
16.107.187.84
Lport
5550
Faddr
0.0.0.0
Fport
*
SendQ
0
RecvQ
0
Faddr
Fport
SendQ
RecvQ
Laddr
Lport
Faddr
Fport
16.107.187.84
21600
0.0.0.0
*
--------------- 5050
--------------- *
Laddr fe80::a00:8eff:fe00:897b
Faddr::
SendQ
0
0
RecvQ
0
0
SendQ
RecvQ
TCPIPV6 Status MON \NODEC.$ZZTCP.#ZPTM1
Status: STARTED
PID............ ( 1,287)
Proto State
Laddr
Lport
TCPIPV6 Status MON \NODEC.$ZZTCP.#ZPTM2
Status: STARTED
PID............ ( 2,293)
Proto State
UDP
UDP
TCPIPV6 Status MON \NODEC.$ZZTCP.#ZPTM3
Status: STARTED
PID............ ( 3,271)
Proto State
Laddr
Lport
Faddr
Fport
UDP port numbers are identified by UDP in the Proto field. UDP port numbers that are in use
are displayed in the Lport field. As shown in Example 13, the UDP port numbers 5500 and
21600 are in use. Based on the information shown by the SCF STATUS MON command,
determine an available UDP port number. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you do
not use a well-known UDP port number in the range 0 to 1023. You must specify this UDP port
number when you define the Expand-over-IP line-handler process in Step 4: Create the
Line-Handler Process.
NOTE: You must also perform this step on the destination system before you can define the
local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The destination UDP port number must be specified
when the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process is defined.
Step 2 (C): Identify an available UDP Port Number for CIP Use
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number enables multiple applications to use the same
IP address. An Expand-over-IP line-handler process might share a local IP address with other
applications or with other Expand-over-IP processes. Each must specify a different port number.
To avoid conflict, you must identify an available UDP port number for the IP address you selected
in Step 1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use.
You can use the CIP SCF LISTOPENS MON to determine which UDP port numbers are already
in use for a particular IP address.
->LISTOPENS MON $ZZCIP.*
Example 14 shows a sample result of the SCF LISTOPENS MON command.
Step 2 (C): Identify an available UDP Port Number for CIP Use
111
Example 14 SCF LISTOPENS MON Command
->LISTOPENS MON $ZZCIP.*
CIP Listopens
Openers
\MYSYS. $ZTN2
\MYSYS.$RMAIL
\MYSYS.$MYWEB
\MYSYS.$MYWEB
MON \MYSYS.$ZZCIP.ZCM01
Ppid
Bpid
Proto
1,23
0,24
TCP
1,162
TCP
1,333
0,312
TCP
1,333
0,312
TCP
Lport
telnet
10293
http
http
Provider
TC2
ZTC2
ZTC0
ZTC0
CIP Listopens
Openers
\MYSYS.$ZTN0
\MYSYS.$ZTN0
\MYSYS.$ZTN1
\MYSYS.$TEST6
\MYSYS
MON \MYSYS.$ZZCIP.ZCM02
Ppid
Bpid
Proto
2,24
3,24
TCP
2,24
3,24
TCP
2,35
3,36
TCP
2,325
TCP
2,210
UDP
Lport
telnet
telnet
telnet
10513
5010
Provider
ZTC0
ZTC0
ZTC1
ZTC1
ZTC0
CLIM
CLIM3
CLIM3
CLIM1
CLIM1
CLIM
CLIM1
CLIM1
CLIM2
CLIM2
CLIM1
UDP port numbers are identified by UDP in the Proto field. The UDP port numbers that are in
use are displayed in the Lport field. As shown in Example 14, the UDP port number 5010 is in
use. Based on the information shown by the LISTOPENS command, determine an available
UDP port number. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you do not use a well-known
UDP port number in the range 0 to 1023. You must specify this UDP port number when you
define the Expand-over-IP line-handler process in Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process.
NOTE: You must also perform this step on the destination system before you can define the
local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The destination UDP port number must be specified
when the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process is defined.
The LISTOPENS MON command does not display which IP addresses the port numbers are
associated with. However, the LISTOPENS PROVIDER $ZZCIP.<provider-name>, DETAIL
command displays IP addresses with the ports for the specified Provider. You might need the
INFO PROVIDER $ZZCIP.* command to find the PROVIDER name associated with the CIPSAM
name.
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process
You can create a profile for a single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler process using the PEXQSIP
profile. This profile is provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also create a new
profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete information about
profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection shows you how to create a profile using PEXQSIP.
NOTE: Different profiles are provided for Expand-over-IP lines that are part of a multi-line path;
these profiles are described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXQSIP profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
112
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
profile_name when you create a device for the line-handler process in Step 4:
Create the Line-Handler Process.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXQSIP is the disk filename of the profile provided for Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXQSIP
profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 121).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXQSIP
profile are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 121).
Example
In this example, a profile named SLHIP is created for a single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler
process using the PEXQSIP profile. The AFTERMAXRETIRES_DOWN modifier is set in the
profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#SLHIP, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQSIP, &
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process
You create a single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler process by adding it as a device to the WAN
subsystem.
NOTE: This section explains how to configure single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler processes
only. Creating an Expand-over-IP line that is part of a multi-line path is explained in Configuring
Multi-Line Paths.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create an Expand-over-IP line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE
command. The command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,0 )
RSIZE rsize
ASSOCIATEDEV $tcpip_process
{IPVER_IPV4 | IPVER_IPV6}
SRCIPADDR src_ipddr
SRCIPPORT src_ipport
DESTIPADDR dest_ipaddr
DESTIPPORT dest_ipport
V6SRCIPADDR v6srcip-address
V6DESTIPADDR v6destip-address
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process
113
$ZZWAN.#device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand line-handler
process to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for an
Expand line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for this Expand line-handler process in Step
3: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process.
CPU cpunumber
indicates the processor where this Expand line-handler process runs. This must
be the same processor as configured for the primary NonStop TCP/IP process.
If you are using NonStop TCP/IPv6 or CIP, you need not have the line-handler
on the same CPU as the TCP6SAM or CIPSAM process. There is typically a
monitor process in each CPU. The line-handler process must be on the CPU that
contains a monitor process.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
indicates the processor where the backup Expand line-handler process runs. This
must be the same processor as that configured for the NonStop TCP/IP process.
If you are using NonStop TCP/IPv6 or CIP, you need not have the line-handler
on the same CPU as the TCP6SAM or CIPSAM process. There is typically a
monitor process in each CPU. The line-handler process must be on the CPU that
contains a monitor process.
TYPE (63,0)
is the device type and subtype for this Expand line-handler process. The device
type is always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is 0 for
single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler processes.
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
ASSOCIATEDEV tcpip_process
is a required modifier that specifies the device name of the NonStop TCP/IP,
CIPSAM, or TCP6SAM process you want to associate with this Expand-over-IP
line-handler process. The NonStop TCP/IP process must be configured in the
same processor pair as the Expand-over-IP line-handler process. There is no
default name.
{IPVER_IPV4 | IPVER_IPV6}
specifies whether the destination and source addresses are IPv4 or IPv6. The
default is IPv4. DESTIPADDR and SRCIPADDR are required if IPVER is IPV4
(the default). V6DESTIPADDR and V6SRCIPADDR are required if IPVER is IPV6.
(This attribute applies to NonStop TCP/IPv6 and CIP only.)
SRCIPADDR src_ipaddr
if IPVER is IPv4 (the default), this is a required modifier that specifies an IP address
associated with the NonStop TCP/IP, CIPSAM, or TCP6SAM process used by
114
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
this Expand-over-IP line-handler process. This is the IP address you selected in
Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use, Step 1 (B):
Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use, or Step 1 (C): Select
a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use. The address must be specified by number
(for example, 130.252.12.3). It is not validated and need not be accessible.
The default address is 0.0.0.1.
SRCIPPORT src_ipddr
is a required modifier that specifies the UDP port number used by this
Expand-over-IP line-handler process. This is the port number you selected in Step
2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number, Step 2 (B): Identify an Available
UDP Port Number for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use, or Step 2 (C): Identify an available
UDP Port Number for CIP Use. Valid values are in the range 0 through 65534.
The default is 1024. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you do not use
a well-known port in the range from 0 through 1023.
DESTIPADDR dest_ipaddr
if IPVER is IPv4 (the default), this is a required modifier that specifies the IP
address used by the remote (destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
It is the IP address specified in the remote line-handler process’ SRCIPADDR
modifier. dest_ipaddr must be specified by number (for example,
130.252.12.3). Selecting IP addresses is described in Step 1 (A): Select a
Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use, Step 1 (B): Select a Process and
SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use, and Step 1 (C): Select a Process and
SUBNET for CIP Use. It is not validated and need not be accessible. The default
address is 0.0.0.1.
DESTIPPORT dest_ipport
is a required modifier that specifies the UDP port number used by the remote
(destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler process. It is the port number specified
in the remote line-handler process’ SRCIPPORT modifier. Selecting port numbers
is described in Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number, Step 2 (B):
Identify an Available UDP Port Number for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use, and Step 2
(C): Identify an available UDP Port Number for CIP Use. Valid values are in the
range 0 through 65534. The default value is 1024. Hewlett Packard Enterprise
recommends that you do not use a well-known port in the range from 0 through
1023.
V6SRCIPADDR v6srcip-address
if IPVER is IPv6, this is a required modifier that specifies an IP address associated
with the TCP6SAM process used by this Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
This is the IP address you selected in Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET
for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use or Step 1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP
Use. The address must be specified by number (for example,
31CA:B145:5489:1034:1784:B245:4029:1257). It is not validated and need not
be accessible. (This attribute applies to NonStop TCP/IPv6 and CIP only.)
V6DESTIPADDR v6destip-address
if IPVER is IPv6, this is a required modifier that specifies the IP address used by
the remote (destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler process. It is the IP address
specified in the remote line-handler process’ V6SRCIPADDR modifier.
v6dest_ipaddr must be specified by number (for example,
1611:1071:F881:1167:1611:A071:1881:B167). Selecting IP addresses is described
in Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use or Step
Step 4: Create the Line-Handler Process
115
1 (C): Select a Process and SUBNET for CIP Use. It is not validated and need
not be accessible. (This attribute applies to NonStop TCP/IPv6 only.)
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the number (from 0 through 254) of the system
connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify the NEXTSYS modifier,
it defaults to an invalid value (255), and an operator message occurs during the
initialization of the Expand-over-IP line-handler process. The path will not be
operational until you alter the NEXTSYS modifier to a valid value using either the
WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command or the Expand subsystem SCF
ALTER PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Modifier names in the PEXQSIP profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 121).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword. modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXQSIP profile are
described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 121).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
Example
In this example, a device named $IPLIN1 is created for a single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. The PATHPACKETBYTES modifiers are recommended for Expand-over-IP lines. (The
default for the L4EXTPACKETS_ON and L4CONGCTRL_ON modifiers is ON.)
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#IPLIN1, PROFILE SLHIP, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 251, ASSOCIATEDEV $ZB01A, &
DESTIPADDR 130.252.31.245, DESTIPPORT 1240, &
SRCIPADDR 130.252.31.150, SRCIPPORT 1231, PATHPACKETBYTES 9180&
PATHBLOCKBYTES 9180
In the next example, the same device is created for a NonStop TCP/IPv6 process. Note that
because IPVER_IPV4 is the default, it does not need to be explicitly specified for NonStop TCP/IP;
only IPVER_IPV6 must be specified, as in this example.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#IPLIN1, PROFILE SLHIP, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, &
PATHTF 3, IPVER_IPV6, NEXTSYS 251, ASSOCIATEDEV $ZSAM1, &
V6SRCIPADDR 31CA:B145:5489:1034:1784:B245:4029:1257, &
V6DESTIPADDR 1611:1071:F881:1167:1611:A071:1881:B167, &
SRCIPPORT 11171, &DESTIPPORT 11171, PATHPACKETBYTES 9180, &
PATHBLOCKBYTES 9180
In the next example, the same device is created as part of a multi-CPU path. The
SUPERPATH_ON and L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifiers are required for line-handler processes
116
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
that are part of a multi-CPU path. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is recommended for Expand
line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#IPLIN1, PROFILE SLHIP, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 251, ASSOCIATEDEV $ZB01A, &
DESTIPADDR 130.252.31.245, DESTIPPORT 1240, &
SRCIPADDR 130.252.31.150, SRCIPPORT 1231, PATHPACKETBYTES 9180,&
PATHBLOCKBYTES 9180, SUPERPATH_ON
Step 5: Start the Line-Handler Process
To start a single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF START
DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
device_name
is the device name of the Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
This command creates the specified Expand line-handler process and allocates a logical device
(LDEV) number.
Step 6: Start the Line
To start an Expand-over-IP line, use the Expand subsystem SCF START LINE command. The
command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the device name of the Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
The successful completion of this command leaves the line in the STARTED state.
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line
These examples show how to add a configured IPv6-to-IPv4 tunnel for an Expand line between
\NodeB and \NodeC. The first two examples are configured at the host \NodeB and the second
two examples are configured at the host \NodeC.
NOTE:
These examples apply to NonStop TCP/IPv6 only.
Example 15 shows how to configure an Expand line using configured tunnel for \NodeB.
Step 5: Start the Line-Handler Process
117
Example 15 \NodeB: Configure an Expand-over-TCP/IPv6 Line Using Configured-Tunnel
Add subnet sn2, type ethernet, family dual, ipaddress 16.107.190.91, &
devicename lan04, subnetmask %hffffff00, ipv6prefix "3ffe:a::/64"
Start subnet sn2
Add subnet ipt1, type tunnel, iptsrc 16.107.190.91, iptdst 16.107.188.104, &
family inet6
Alter subnet ipt1, family inet6, ipv6 up
Start subnet ipt1
Info subnet ipt1, detail
== Use ipv6address of configured-tunnel for ipv6gateway route.
Add route v6rt1, family inet6, ipv6destination "3ffe:b::/64", &
ipv6gateway "fe80::106b:be5b", subnet "ipt1"
Start route v6rt1
Example 16 shows how to add an Expand line from \NodeB to \NodeC.
Example 16 Add an Expand Line to \NodeC
allow all errors
abort line $giplco1
stop device $zzwan.#giplco1
delete device $zzwan.#giplco1
== Add profile of IP line
ADD PROFILE $zzwan.#afkslhip, file $data00.t9057afk.sippfr
== Add Expand line handler.
ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#giplco1, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, PROFILE afkslhip,&
IOPOBJECT $data00.t9057afk.lhobj,TYPE (63,0), rsize 1, &
nextsys 102, associatedev $zsam0, & ipver_ipv6, &
destipaddr 16.107.187.84, destipport 5050, &
srcipaddr 16.107.186.66, srcipport 5050, &
v6srcipaddr 3FFE:A::A00:8EFF:FE03:812E, &
v6destipaddr 3FFE:B::A00:8EFF:FE00:897C
delay 2
info device $zzwan.#giplco1
start device $zzwan.#giplco1
Example 17 shows how to configure an Expand line using configured-tunnel for \NodeC.
118
Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Example 17 \NodeC: Configure an Expand-over-NonStop TCP/IPv6 Line Using
Configured-Tunnel
Add subnet sn2, type ethernet, family dual, ipaddress 16.107.188.104, &
devicename lan04, subnetmask %hffffff00, ipv6prefix "3ffe:b::/64"
Start subnet sn2
Add subnet ipt1, type tunnel, iptsrc 16.107.188.104, iptdst 16.107.190.91, &
family inet6
Alter subnet ipt1, family inet6, ipv6 up
Start subnet ipt1
Info subnet ipt1, detail
== Use ipv6address of configured-tunnel for ipv6gateway route.
Add route v6rt1, family inet6, ipv6destination "3ffe:a::/64", &
ipv6gateway "fe80::106b:bc68", subnet "ipt1"
Start route v6rt1
Example 18 shows how to add an Expand line from \NodeC to \NodeB.
Example 18 Add an Expand Line to \NodeB
allow all errors
abort line $giplba1
stop device $zzwan.#giplba1
delete device $zzwan.#giplba1
== Add profile of IP line
ADD PROFILE $zzwan.#afkslhip, file $data00.t9057afk.sippfr
== Add Expand line handler.
ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#giplba1, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, PROFILE afkslhip,&
IOPOBJECT $data00.t9057afk.lhobj,TYPE (63,0), rsize 1, &
nextsys 211, associatedev $zsam0, & ipver_ipv6, &
destipaddr 16.107.186.66, destipport 5050, &
srcipaddr 16.107.187.84, srcipport 5050, &
v6srcipaddr 3FFE:B::A00:8EFF:FE00:897C, &
v6destipaddr 3FFE:A::A00:8EFF:FE03:812E
delay 2
info device $zzwan.#giplba1
start device $zzwan.#giplba1
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line for CIP
These examples show how to add a configured IPv6-to-IPv4 tunnel for an Expand line between
\NodeB and \NodeC. The first two examples are configured at the host \NodeB and the remaining
examples are configured at the host \NodeC.
NOTE:
These examples apply to CIP only.
Example 19 shows how to configure an Expand line using configured-tunnel for \NodeB.
Add a Configured Tunnel for an Expand Line for CIP
119
Example 19 TACL Macro \NodeB: Configure an Expand-over-CIP Line With a Tunnel
climcmd clim1 climconfig tunnel -add mytun1 -ipaddress
3FFE:A::A00:8EFF:FE03:812E -netmask 64 -endpoint 15.76.217.111 -local
15.76.217.35 -intf eth1
== Use ipv6address of configured-tunnel for ipv6gateway route.
climcmd clim1 climconfig route -add mytun1 -net -target abcd:1234::0 -netmask
64
climcmd clim1 ifstart mytun1
Example 20 shows how to add an Expand line from \NodeB to \NodeC.
Example 20 Add an Expand Line to \NodeC
allow all errors
abort line $giplco1
stop device $zzwan.#giplco1
delete device $zzwan.#giplco1
== Add profile of IP line
ADD PROFILE $zzwan.#afkslhip, file $data00.t9057afk.sippfr
== Add Expand line handler.
ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#giplco1, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, PROFILE afkslhip,&
IOPOBJECT $data00.t9057afk.lhobj,TYPE (63,0), rsize 1, &
nextsys 102, associatedev $zsam0, & ipver_ipv6, &
destipaddr 15.76.217.111, destipport 5050, &
srcipaddr 15.76.217.35, srcipport 5050, &
v6srcipaddr 3FFE:A::A00:8EFF:FE03:812E, &
v6destipaddr 3FFE:B::A00:8EFF:FE00:897C
delay 2
info device $zzwan.#giplco1
start device $zzwan.#giplco1
Example 21 shows how to configure an Expand line using a tunnel for \NodeC.
120 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
Example 21 \NodeC: Configure an Expand-over-CIP Line Using a Tunnel
allow all errors
abort line $giplba1
stop device $zzwan.#giplba1
delete device $zzwan.#giplba1
== Add profile of IP line
ADD PROFILE $zzwan.#afkslhip, file $data00.t9057afk.sippfr
== Add Expand line handler.
ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#giplba1, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, PROFILE afkslhip,&
IOPOBJECT $data00.t9057afk.lhobj,TYPE (63,0), rsize 1, &
nextsys 211, associatedev $zsam0, & ipver_ipv6, &
destipaddr 16.107.186.66, destipport 5050, &
srcipaddr 16.107.187.84, srcipport 5050, &
v6srcipaddr 3FFE:B::A00:8EFF:FE00:897C, &
v6destipaddr 3FFE:A::A00:8EFF:FE03:812E
delay 2
info device $zzwan.#giplba1
start device $zzwan.#giplba1
Example 22 shows how to add an Expand line from \NodeC to \NodeB.
Example 22 Add an Expand Line to \NodeB
allow all errors
abort line $giplba1
stop device $zzwan.#giplba1
delete device $zzwan.#giplba1
== Add profile of IP line
ADD PROFILE $zzwan.#afkslhip, file $data00.t9057afk.sippfr
== Add Expand line handler.
ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#giplba1, CPU 2, ALTCPU 3, PROFILE afkslhip,&
IOPOBJECT $data00.t9057afk.lhobj,TYPE (63,0), rsize 1, &
nextsys 211, associatedev $zsam0, & ipver_ipv6, &
destipaddr 16.107.186.66, destipport 5050, &
srcipaddr 16.107.187.84, srcipport 5050, &
v6srcipaddr 3FFE:B::A00:8EFF:FE00:897C, &
v6destipaddr 3FFE:A::A00:8EFF:FE03:812E
delay 2
info device $zzwan.#giplba1
start device $zzwan.#giplba1
Profile Modifiers
This subsection lists the recommended modifiers for single-line Expand-over-IP line-handler
processes and describes the modifiers provided for configuring special features. It also describes
default values and value ranges for all the modifiers contained in the PEXQSIP profile.
NOTE: A different profile is provided for Expand-over-IP lines that are part of a multi-line path;
this profile is described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Profile Modifiers 121
Recommended Modifiers
Recommended modifiers are modifiers that should be used to obtain optimum performance and
efficiency.
L4CONGCTRL_ON
Default:
ON for single-line paths, OFF for multi-line paths (because it is shared by all line types)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
This modifier enables the congestion control mechanism. Because data transfer with the UDP
is not guaranteed, the Expand End-to-End protocol is used to achieve reliable communications
for Expand-over-IP connections. You can avoid congestion and improve error recovery by using
the L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier.
L4CONGCTRL is a path parameter and the path profile sets L4CONGCTRL_OFF because it is
shared by all line types. Therefore, multi-line IP paths default to L4CONGCTRL_OFF and must
specify L4CONGCTRL_ON.
The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is also recommended for Expand line-handler processes that
are part of a multi-CPU path.
You should read the description of the congestion control feature in Subsystem Description,
before using this modifier. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is described in detail in Expand
Modifiers.
PATHPACKETBYTES n
Default:
1024
Units:
Bytes
Range:
0 or 1024 through 9152
This modifier enables the variable packet size feature and specifies the maximum size, in bytes,
of a variable packet. PATHPACKETBYTES can be used on Expand-over-IP lines to increase
the size of frames transmitted between neighboring nodes. It should be set to 9152 for best
performance.
You should read the description of the variable packet size feature in Subsystem Description,
before using this modifier. The PATHPACKETBYTES modifier is described in detail in Expand
Modifiers.
Modifiers for Special Features
In addition to the L4CONGCTRL_ON and PATHPACKETBYTES modifiers, the SUPERPATH_ON
modifier is provided in the PEXQSIP profile to enable you to configure the Expand multi-CPU
feature. The L4CWNDCLAMP modifier is provided in the PEXQSIP profile to enable you to
configure the congestion control transmit window feature.
For configuration considerations for all special features, see Subsystem Description. For more
information on the advantages and disadvantages of each feature, see Planning a Network
Design.
The PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, L4CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON, and
L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in Expand Modifiers.
122 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
PEXQSIP Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQSIP defines modifiers for single-line Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes.
Table 13 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable.
For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile. For a complete description of the modifiers
listed in this table, see Expand Modifiers.
Table 13 PEXQSIP Modifiers for Expand-over-IP Lines
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
1
✓
ASSOCIATEDEV
None
COMPRESS_OFF
✓
Any 8-character string
COMPRESS_ON
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
2
0.0.0.0
Any 36-character string
1
1024
0 through 65534
DESTIPADDR
DESTIPPORT
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF
✓
EXTMEMSIZE
2048
0 through 32767
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
IPVER_IPV4
✓
IPVER_IPV6
L2RETRIES
20
1 through 255
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
L4CONGCTRL_ON
✓
L4CWNDCLAMP
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
Profile Modifiers 123
Table 13 PEXQSIP Modifiers for Expand-over-IP Lines (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
NEXTSYS
255
0 to 254
OSSPACE
32767
3072 to 32767
OSTIMEOUT
300
10 to 32767
0
0 through 9152 or 9180
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 9152 or 9180
PATHTF
0
0 through 186
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
0
0 to 99
QUALITYTIMER
60
0 to 77600 (12hrs)
RETRYPROBE
19
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 through 224000
3
4
PATHBLOCKBYTES
4
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
2
0.0.0.0
Any 36-character string
1
SRCIPPORT
1024
0 through 65534
STARTUP_OFF
✓
SRCIPADDR
STARTUP_ON
SUPERPATH_OFF
✓
SUPERPATH_ON
TIMERINACTIVITY
0 (no timer)
0 through 32767
TIMERPROBE
1
1 through 32767
TIMERRECONNECT
30
30 through 32767
TXWINDOW
7
2 through 25
V6DESTIPADDR
0000:0000:0000:
Any 45-character string
0000:0000:0000:
0000:0000
V6SRCIPADDR
0000:0000:0000:
Any 45-character string
0000:0000:0000:
0000:0000
1
This is a required modifier.
2
This is a required modifier. For IP address syntax, see the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual.
3
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
4
The maximum value is actually 9180, but for performance it is best to use whole multiples of 32, which would cause
a 9152 maximum.
124 Configuring Expand-over-IP Lines
9 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process provides connectivity to an Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) network.
In addition, the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process can use the services of the ServerNet
LAN systems access (SLSA) subsystem to provide Expand-over-ATM connections.
The ATM subsystem provides a PVC and SVC connection, whereas the SLSA subsystem provides
an ATMSAP with lifname connection that enables you to manage PVC connections under
SLSA. In other words, the ATMSAP connection is identical with a PVC connection; only the
subsystem is different, which could potentially make your subsystem configuration process easier.
An Expand-over-ATM line-handler process can be configured as a single line, as part of a multi-line
path, or as part of multi-CPU path.
This section explains how to configure an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process as a single-line
or as part of a multi-CPU path. Configuring Expand-over-ATM lines that are part of a multi-line
path is explained in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
NOTE: Multi-line paths are not recommended. For fault tolerance (that is, a backup line) a
multi-CPU path (superpath) is the recommended approach.
Required Hardware and Software
Several hardware and software components are required in addition to the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process to provide Expand-over-ATM connectivity. These components are illustrated
in Figure 16 and are explained in these subsections.
Required Hardware and Software 125
Figure 16 Expand-over-ATM Connectivity Components
QIO Subsystem
QIO is a mechanism for transferring data between processes through a shared memory segment.
The QIO subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence. The QIO
subsystem must be started and running before Expand line-handler processes can be started.
For more information on QIO enhancements that enable you to have more control over certain
aspects of memory management, see Shared Memory Area for QIO. For more information on
the QIO subsystem, see the QIO Configuration and Management Manual.
ATM Subsystem
ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching
(constant transmission delay and guaranteed capacity) with those of packet switching (flexibility
and intermittent traffic). The ATM subsystem is the Hewlett Packard Enterprise implementation
of the ATM technology. The ATM subsystem supports the ATM User-Network Interface (UNI)
Specification Version 3.0 over a 155 Mbps SONET STS-3c connection.
For more information on configuring and managing the ATM subsystem, see the ATM
Configuration and Management Manual.
126 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
SLSA Subsystem
The SLSA subsystem provides access to parallel LAN and WAN I/O. The SLSA subsystem
provides access to ServerNet adapters, multifunction I/O-board Ethernet adapters, the ServerNet
wide area network (SWAN) concentrator, and Expand-over-ATM line handlers.
For more information on the SLSA subsystem, see the LAN Configuration and Management
Manual.
ATM 3 ServerNet Adapter (ATM3SA)
The ATM3SA provides one bidirectional full-duplex ATM 0C3 port for connection to the UNI. The
UNI is an interface point between ATM end users and a private ATM switch, or between a private
ATM switch and the public carrier ATM network. The UNI interface is defined by standards
adopted by the ATM Forum.
For more information on the ATM3SA, see the ATM Configuration and Management Manual.
Topology Considerations
In a single-line configuration, you configure one Expand-over-ATM line-handler process for each
path to an adjacent node. In a multi-CPU path configuration, you configure multiple
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, usually in separate processors, for each path to an
adjacent node. In a multi-line path configuration, you configure a path that consists of multiple
lines between adjacent nodes.
In Figure 17, a single-line path is configured between node \A and node \B; a multi-CPU path
that consists of two paths is configured between node \A and node \C; and a multi-line path that
consists of three lines is configured between node \C and node \D.
Topology Considerations 127
Figure 17 Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Process Topology
Summary of Configuration Steps
After all hardware and software requirements have been met (see “Required Hardware and
Software” (page 125) for details), configuring and starting a single-line Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process involves these steps:
Step
Tool Used
Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection
SCF interface to the ATM subsystem
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 5: Start the Line
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
128 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this section is the syntax used to configure
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes; it is not meant to show the complete syntax of SCF
commands described. For more information, see:
•
ATM Configuration and Management Manual for ATM subsystem commands
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual for WAN subsystem SCF
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands, for Expand subsystem SCF commands
Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection
NOTE: This procedure assumes that an ATM3SA has already been installed and configured.
For complete information about installing and configuring an ATM3SA, see the ATM Configuration
and Management Manual.
The ATM subsystem provides permanent virtual circuit (PVC), switched virtual circuit (SVC),
or ATM protocol direct service access point (ATMSAP) connections. A PVC connection is
permanently established while an SVC connection is dynamically established. An ATMSAP
connection uses the ServerNet LAN systems access (SLSA) subsystem, but is the same type
of connection as PVC.
You configure your Expand-over-ATM line-handler process differently depending on whether it
will use a PVC, SVC, or ATMSAP connection.
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses a PVC
If your Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use a PVC connection, you must identify the
PVC you plan to use. The SCF INFO PVC command displays the configured name of a PVC.
Example 23 shows an example of an SCF INFO PVC command for an ATM line named $AM1.
Example 23 SCF INFO PVC Command
1-> INFO PVC $AM1.#IP.*
ATM Info PVCName
*VPI
$AM1.#IP.PVC1
23
*VCI
35
The PVC name is displayed in the Name field. As shown in Example 23, a PVC named
$AM1.#IP.PVC1 is configured for line $AM1. PVC names take this form:
$line-name.#atmsap-name.pvc-name.
where $line-name is the name of the ATM line to which the PVC is subordinate, #atmsap-name
is the name of the service access point (SAP) to which service is being provided, and pvc-name
is the name assigned to the PVC. You specify the pvc-name part of the PVC name when you
configure the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process in Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process.
NOTE:
#IP is currently the only supported SAP.
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses an SVC
If your Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use an SVC connection, you must:
•
Obtain selector bytes for the ATM lines that will be used by the Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes at both the local and the remote systems.
•
Identify the ATM address configured for the ATM line that will be used by the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process at the remote system.
Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection 129
Obtaining Selector Bytes for the Local and Remote ATM Lines
The selector byte is the last (rightmost) byte of a 20-byte hexadecimal ATM address. It is used
by the ATM subsystem to direct incoming call requests to the correct ATM subsystem client.
Selector bytes must be coordinated among ATM clients using the same ATM line.
You must obtain unique selector bytes from your network administrator (or whoever coordinates
selector bytes in your ATM network) for the ATM lines that will be used by your local and remote
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes. Specifying a selector byte when configuring an
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process is described in Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process.
Identifying the ATM Address Configured for the Remote ATM Line
You can use the ATM subsystem SCF INFO LINE command with the DETAIL option to display
the ATM address configured for the ATM line that will be used by the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process at the remote system.
Example 24 shows an example of an ATM subsystem SCF INFO LINE command with the DETAIL
option for an ATM line named $AM1 on the remote system \NODEA.
Example 24 ATM Subsystem SCF INFO LINE, DETAIL Command
3-> INFO LINE $AM1, DETAIL
ATM Detailed Info LINE \NODEA.$AM1
*ATMADDR................. ISONSAP: 47
1A
Registered Atm Address... ISONSAP: 47
1A
*UNIVERSION.............. 3.0
00
29
00
29
05
EB
05
EB
80
00
80
00
FF
00
FF
00
E1
00
E1
00
00
00
00
00
00
01
00
01
00
B3
00
B3
F2
00H
F2
00H
UME
*UMECOMMUNITY............
*UMEVPI................. 1
*MAXPVCVPI............... 100
*UMEVCI................... 16
*MAXPVCVCI............... 100
PHYSICAL LAYER
Phys Layer Media Type.... MULTIMODE
Phys Layer Xmit Type.... SONET
ATM LAYER
*MAXVPCS................. 100
*MAXVCCS.................. 1000
*MAXVPIBITS.............. 8
*MAXVCIBITS............... 10
*UNIPORTTYPE............. PRIVATE
The ATM address is shown in the ATMADDR (configured ATM address) field. As shown in
Example 24, the 20-byte hexadecimal ATM address configured for line $AM1 is:
47000580FFE1000000F21A29EB0000000001B300
You must replace the last byte of this ATM address with the selector byte you obtained for the
remote ATM line when specifying the ATM address during Expand-over-ATM line-handler
configuration. For example, if the selector byte you obtained is %H81, then you would specify
this ATM address during Expand-over-ATM line-handler configuration:
47000580FFE1000000F21A29EB0000000001B381
Specifying an ATM address when configuring an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process in
described in Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process.
Verifying the ATM Address and Selector Byte Configuration
After you have configured the local and remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes as
described in Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process, you can verify that the correct ATM
130 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
addresses and selector bytes are configured using the Expand subsystem SCF INFO LINE
command with the DETAIL option.
Example 25 shows an example of an Expand subsystem SCF INFO LINE command with the
DETAIL option for an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process named $ATMBAT and a CallType
of SVC.
Example 25 Expand Subsystem SCF INFO LINE, DETAIL Command for SVC
-> INFO LINE $ATMBAT, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info
LINE
$ATMBAT
(LDEV
206)
L2Protocol
Net^Atm TimeFactor......
570K *SpeedK........
Framesize.......
132 -Rsize...........
3 -Speed........
*LinePriority....
1 StartUp.........
OFF Delay.........
*DownIfBadQuality
OFF *QualityThreshold
96 *QualityTimer..
*Txwindow........
7 *Maxreconnects...
0 *AfterMaxRetries
*Timerreconnect 0:00:30.00 *Retryprobe......
3 *Timerprobe....
*Associatedev....
$AM1 *Associatesubdev
#IP *Timerinactivity
ConnEp....... %H00000000 ListenEp.... %H00000000 *CallType......
*AtmSel......
%H80
*DestAtmAddr.. (ISONSAP:%H47009181000100006170597C0140000C80001081)
NOT_SET
0:00:00.10
0:01:00.00
PASSIVE
0:00:30.00
0:00:00.00
SVC
The selector byte obtained for the local ATM line is displayed in the AtmSel field and the ATM
address for the ATM line used by the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process (including the
selector byte for that ATM line) is displayed in the DestAtmAddr field. As shown in Example 25,
the selector byte for the local ATM line is %H80 and the selector byte the remote ATM line is
%H81.
NOTE: You cannot display the selector bytes currently in use using the ATM subsystem SCF
INFO LINE command (shown in Example 24) because the ATM subsystem SCF INFO LINE
command only displays static configuration information.
Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process That Uses ATMSAP
The SLSA ATMSAP connection offers an ATM Native Mode network interconnect support similar
to that offered by the PVC object within the ATM subsystem. Expand issues native mode frames
directly to the ATM product via a LIF associated with an ATMSAP object.
Figure 18 illustrates ATMSAP use by Expand.
Figure 18 Expand and ATMSAP
For more information on ATMSAP objects, including their management by the SCF ABORT,
ADD, ALTER, DELETE, INFO, NAMES, START, STATS, STATUS, and STOP commands, see
the LAN Configuration and Management Manual.
To configure an ATMSAP object:
Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection 131
1.
Use the ADD ATMSAP command to add an ATMSAP object. You can add a maximum of
128 ATMSAP objects per PIF object. An example of the ADD ATMSAP command:
ADD [ /OUT file-spec/ ] ATMSAP $ZZLAN.ATM01.0.A.ATMSAP01, &
VCC (vpi, vci)
The example above adds an ATMSAP object named $ZZLAN.ATM01.0.A.ATMSAP01.
2.
Add a LIF Object to an ATMSAP Object. Use the ADD LIF command to configure a LIF for
each ATMSAP object. An example of the ADD LIF command that adds a LIF object and
associates it with an ATMSAP object:
ADD LIF $ZZLAN.LIF01, ATMSAP ATM01.0.A.ATMSAP01
The example above adds a LIF object named $ZZLAN.LIF01 and associates it to an ATMSAP
object named $ZZLAN.ATM01.0.A.ATMSAP01.
Verifying the Line-Handler Process
Example 26 shows an example of an Expand subsystem SCF INFO LINE command with the
DETAIL option of an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process named $ATM2BAT and a CallType
of ATMSAP.
Example 26 Expand Subsystem SCF INFO LINE, DETAIL Command for ATMSAP
-> INFO LINE $ATM2BAT, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info
L2Protocol
Framesize....
*LinePriority...
*DownIfBadQuality
*Txwindow...
*Timerreconnect
*CallType...
LINE
Net^Atm
132
1
OFF
7
0:00:30.00
ATMSAP
$ATM2BAT
(LDEV
613)
TimeFactor...
26K
-Rsize....
StartUp...
OFF
*QualityThreshold 96
*Maxreconnects...
0
*Retryprobe…….
3
*LifName..
ATM2LIF
*SpeedK...
-Speed...
Delay...
*QualityTimer
*AfterMaxRetries
*Timerprobe…
*Timerinactivity
OC3
0:00:00.10
0:01:00.00
PASSIVE
0:00:30.00
0:00:00.00
Example 27 shows examples of altering the modifier CALLTYPE and the LIFNAME of an
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process named $ATM2BAT.
Example 27 Altering the CALLTYPE Modifier and LIFNAME
-> ALTER LINE $ATM2BAT, CALLTYPE ATMSAP
-> ALTER LINE $ATM2BAT, LIFNAME LIFEXP01
Step 2: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process
You can create a profile for a single-line Expand-over-ATM line-handler process using the
PEXQSATM profile. This profile is provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also
create a new profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete
information about profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection shows you how to create a profile using PEXQSATM.
NOTE: Different profiles are provided for Expand-over-ATM lines that are part of a multi-line
path; these profiles are described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
132 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXQSATM profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
profile_name when you create a device for the line-handler process in Step 3:
Create the Line-Handler Process.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXQSATM is the disk filename of the profile provided for Expand-over-ATM
line-handler processes.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXQSATM
profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 138).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
PEXQSATM profile are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 138).
Example
In this example, a profile named SLHATM is created for a single-line Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process using the PEXQSATM profile. The AFTERMAXRETIRES_DOWN modifier
is set in the profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#SLHATM, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQSATM, &
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process
You create a single-line Expand-over-ATM line-handler process by adding it as a device to the
WAN subsystem.
NOTE: This section explains how to configure single-line Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes only. Creating an Expand-over-ATM line that is part of a multi-line path is explained
in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE
command. The command syntax depends on whether you use a PVC, SVC, or ATMSAP
connection.
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process 133
Syntax for PVC Connections
Use this command syntax if the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use a PVC connection:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,0 )
RSIZE rsize
ASSOCIATEDEV $atm_line
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP
CALLTYPE_PVC
PVCNAME pvc-name
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
Syntax for SVC Connections
Use this command syntax if the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use an SVC
connection:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,0 )
RSIZE rsize
ASSOCIATEDEV $atm_line
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP
CALLTYPE_SVC
ATMSEL selector-byte
DESTATMADDR (ISONSAP:%Hatm-address)
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
Syntax for ATMSAP Connections
Use this command syntax if the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will use an ATMSAP
connection:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,0 )
RSIZE rsize
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
LIFNAME lif_name
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand line-handler
process to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for an
Expand line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
134 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for this Expand line-handler process in Step
3: Create a Profile for the Line-Handler Process.
CPU cpunumber
indicates the processor where this Expand line-handler process will normally run.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
indicates the processor where the backup Expand line-handler process will
normally run.
TYPE (63,0)
is the device type and subtype for this Expand line-handler process. The device
type is always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is 0 for
single-line Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes.
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
ASSOCIATEDEV atm-line
specifies the device name of the ATM line you want to associate with this
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process, for example, $ATM1. This parameter is
required.
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP
identifies the ATM service access point (SAP). The only currently supported ATM
SAP is #IP.
CALLTYPE_PVC
indicates that a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) connection will be used.
CALLTYPE_SVC
indicates that a switched virtual circuit (SVC) connection will be used.
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
indicates that an ATMSAP connection through the SLSA subsystem will be used.
LIFNAME lif-name
is the name of the logical interface, which represents the name by which LAN
access is known to the system. This name can be up to 8 characters long,
null-terminated, and case-sensitive.
This modifier is only applicable to ATMSAP connections using the SLSA
subsystem.
PVCNAME pvc-name
is the name of the permanent virtual circuit (PVC) that will be used. This is the
PVC name you identified in Step 1: Identify the ATM Connection. For example,
PVC01.
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use PVC connections.
ATMSEL selector-byte
Step 3: Create the Line-Handler Process 135
is a hexadecimal selector byte for the ATM line used by this Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process. This is the selector byte you obtained in Obtaining Selector
Bytes for the Local and Remote ATM Lines.
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use SVC connections.
DESTATMADDR (ISONSAP:%Hatm-address)
is the 20-byte hexadecimal ATM address configured for the ATM line used by the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process at the remote system. This is the ATM
address you identified in “Identifying the ATM Address Configured for the Remote
ATM Line” (page 130). The last byte of this ATM address must be the selector byte
you obtained for the remote ATM line as described in “Obtaining Selector Bytes
for the Local and Remote ATM Lines” (page 130). The address must be preceded
by the characters ISONSAP:%H and must be enclosed in parentheses. For
example:
(ISONSAP:%H47000580FFE1000000F21A29EB0000000001B381)
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use SVC connections.
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the number (from 0 through 254) of the system
connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify the NEXTSYS modifier,
it defaults to an invalid value (255), and an operator message occurs during the
initialization of the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. The path will not be
operational until you alter the NEXTSYS modifier to a valid value using either the
WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command or the Expand subsystem SCF
ALTER PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Modifier names in the PEXQSATM profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page
138).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword. modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXQSATM profile are
described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 138).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
Examples
In this example, a device named $ATMLIN1 is created for a single-line Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process that uses a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) connection.
136 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#ATMLIN1, PROFILE SLHATM, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, &
PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 251, ASSOCIATEDEV $ATM1, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP, CALLTYPE_PVC, PVCNAME PVC01
In the next example, the same device is created as part of a multi-CPU path. The
SUPERPATH_ON and L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifiers are required for line-handler processes
that are part of a multi-CPU path. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is recommended for Expand
line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#ATMLIN1, PROFILE SLHATM, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, &
PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 251, ASSOCIATEDEV $ATM1, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP, CALLTYPE_PVC, PVCNAME PVC01, &
14EXTPACKETS_ON, 14CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON
In the next example, a device named ATMLIN2 is created for a single-line Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process that uses an SVC connection.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#ATMLIN2, PROFILE SLHATM, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, &
PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 251, ASSOCIATEDEV $ATM2, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP, CALLTYPE_SVC, ATMSEL 0, DESTATMADDR &
(ISONSAP:%H47000580FFE1000000F21A29EB0000000001B3)
In the last example, a device named ATMLIN3 is created for a single-line Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process that uses an ATMSAP connection through the SLSA subsystem.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#ATMLIN3, PROFILE SLHATM, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), RSIZE 0, &
PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 251, CALLTYPE_ATMSAP, LIFNAME LIF01
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process
To start a single-line Expand-over-ATM line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF
START DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
$ZZWAN.device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process.
This command creates the specified Expand line-handler process and allocates a logical device
(LDEV) number.
Step 5: Start the Line
To start an Expand-over-ATM line, use the Expand subsystem SCF START LINE command.
The command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the device name of the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process.
The successful completion of this command leaves the line in the STARTED state.
Step 4: Start the Line-Handler Process 137
Profile Modifiers
This subsection lists the recommended modifiers for single-line Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes and describes the modifiers provided for configuring special features. It also describes
default values and value ranges for all the modifiers contained in the PEXQSATM profile.
NOTE: A different profile is provided for Expand-over-ATM lines that are part of a multi-line
path; this profile is described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Recommended Modifiers
Recommended modifiers are modifiers that should be used to obtain optimum performance and
efficiency.
L4CONGCTRL_ON
Default:
ON
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
This modifier enables the congestion control mechanism. Because data transfer with the UDP
is not guaranteed, the Expand End-to-End protocol is used to achieve reliable communications
for Expand-over-ATM connections. You can avoid congestion and improve error recovery by
using the L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is also recommended
for Expand line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path.
You should read the description of the congestion control feature in Subsystem Description,
before using this modifier. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is described in detail in Expand
Modifiers.
PATHPACKETBYTES n
Default:
1024
Units:
Bytes
Range:
0 or 1024 through 9180 (9180 is recommended)
This modifier enables the variable packet size feature and specifies the maximum size, in bytes,
of a variable packet. PATHPACKETBYTES can be used on Expand-over-ATM lines to increase
the size of frames transmitted between neighboring nodes.
You should read the description of the variable packet size feature in Subsystem Description,
before using this modifier. The PATHPACKETBYTES modifier is described in detail in Expand
Modifiers.
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
Default:
ON
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
138 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
This modifier is required for the variable packet size and congestion control features (see
L4CONGCTRL_ON and PATHPACKETBYTES n above). It is also required for Expand line-handler
processes that are part of multi-CPU path. The L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier is described in
detail in Expand Modifiers.
Modifiers for Special Features
In addition to the L4CONGCTRL_ON and PATHPACKETBYTES modifiers, the SUPERPATH_ON
modifier is provided in the PEXQSATM profile to enable you to configure the Expand multi-CPU
feature. The L4CWNDCLAMP modifier is provided in the PEXQSATM profile to enable you to
configure the congestion control transmit window feature.
For configuration considerations for all special features, see “Subsystem Description” (page 338).
For more information on the advantages and disadvantages of each feature, see “Planning a
Network Design” (page 52).
The PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, L4CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON, and
L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in “Expand Modifiers” (page 306).
PEXQSATM Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQSATM defines modifiers for single-line Expand-over-ATM
line-handler processes.
Table 14 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable.
For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile by default. For a complete description of the
modifiers listed in this table, see Expand Modifiers.
Table 14 PEXQSATM Modifiers for Expand-over-ATM Lines
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
1
ASSOCIATEDEV
2
ATMSEL
3
✓
None
Any 8-character string
%H80
0 through %HFF
✓
CALLTYPE_PVC
2
CALLTYPE_SVC
4
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
5
COMPRESS_OFF
✓
COMPRESS_ON
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
2
DESTATMADDR
(ISONSAP:%H00...)
Any valid 20-byte ISO
NSAP ATM address
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF
✓
EXTMEMSIZE
2048
0 through 32767
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
L2RETRIES
20
1 through 255
Profile Modifiers 139
Table 14 PEXQSATM Modifiers for Expand-over-ATM Lines (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
L4CONGCTRL_ON
✓
L4CWNDCLAMP
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
LIFNAME
None
Any 8-character string
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
6
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
NEXTSYS
255
0 to 254
OSSPACE
32767
3072 to 32767
300
10 to 32767
PATHBLOCKBYTES
0
0 through 9152 or 9180(0 is
recommended)
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 9180(9180 is
recommended)
PATHTF
0
0 through 186
PVCNAME
None
Any 8-character string
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
0
0 to 99
QUALITYTIMER
60
0 to 77600 (12hrs)
RETRYPROBE
19
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
65
OSTIMEOUT
7
3
STARTUP_ON
SUPERPATH_OFF
✓
SUPERPATH_ON
TIMERPROBE
140 Configuring Expand-over-ATM Lines
1
1 through 32767
Table 14 PEXQSATM Modifiers for Expand-over-ATM Lines (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
TIMERRECONNECT
30
30 through 32767
TXWINDOW
7
2 through 25
1
This is a required modifier.
2
This modifier is required for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use SVC connections.
3
This modifier is required for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use PVC connections.
4
This modifier is required for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use ATMSAP connections.
5
Although the default value is COMPRESS_ON, we recommend that you turn it off for ATM.
6
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
7
The maximum value is actually 9180, but for performance it is best to use whole multiples of 32, which would cause
a 9152 maximum.
Profile Modifiers 141
10 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
X.25 is a standard for private and public networks that use packet-switching technology.
Expand-over-X.25 connections are provided by the X.25 Access Method (X25AM) product. The
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process uses the NETNAM protocol to access the network access
method (NAM) interface provided by an X25AM line-handler process.
An Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process can be configured as a single line, as part of a multi-line
path, or as part of a multi-CPU path. This section explains how to configure an Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process as a single-line or as part of a multi-CPU path. Configuring Expand-over-X.25
lines that are part of a multi-line path is explained in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Required Hardware and Software
Several hardware and software components are required in addition to the Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process to provide Expand-over-X.25 connectivity. These components are illustrated
in Figure 19 and are explained in these subsections.
142 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
Figure 19 Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process Components
X25AM Line-Handler Process
The Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process uses the services of an X25AM line-handler process
to provide access to X.25 packet-switched data networks (PSDNs). Each X25AM line-handler
process controls a single data communications line and supports both permanent virtual circuits
(PVCs) and switched virtual circuits (SVCs). The X25AM line-handler process associated with
Required Hardware and Software 143
the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process must be configured and started before the
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process can begin exchanging data over an X.25 connection.
For more information on configuring X25AM line-handler processes, see the X25AM Configuration
and Management Manual.
NOTE: You must obtain a subscription to an X.25 value-added network (VAN) or have access
to a dedicated X.25 network, to use an X.25 connection.
QIO Subsystem
QIO is a mechanism for transferring data between processes through a shared memory segment.
The QIO subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence. The QIO
subsystem must be started and running before Expand line-handler processes can be started.
For more information on the QIO subsystem, see the QIO Configuration and Management Manual.
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver
The WAN shared driver is a set of library procedures that is bound with each input-output process
(IOP) that uses a ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator. The WAN shared driver
is a component of the WAN subsystem. The WAN subsystem is preconfigured and started during
the system load sequence.
For more information on the WAN subsystem, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
NonStop TCP/IP Process
The NonStop TCP/IP subsystem provides TCP/IP data communications connectivity. NonStop
TCP/IP processes are used by LAN adapters and SWAN concentrators. The NonStop TCP/IP
processes that support the adapter and SWAN concentrators are preconfigured and started
during the system load sequence.
For more information on the NonStop TCP/IP and the NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystems, see the
TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual and the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management
Manual.
For more information on the LAN adapters, see the LAN Configuration and Management Manual.
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)
NonStop TCP/IP processes can interface to the network through the ServerNet LAN Systems
Access (SLSA) subsystem. The SLSA subsystem provides QIO-based driver and interrupt
handlers (DIHs) that allow NonStop TCP/IP processes to connect to a LAN adapter. The SLSA
subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence.
For more information on the SLSA subsystem and LAN adapters, see the LAN Configuration
and Management Manual.
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator
The SWAN concentrator is a communications device that provides wide area network (WAN)
connections. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you configure the SWAN concentrator
in the same processor pair as the Expand line-handler processes.
For more information on the SWAN concentrator, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
Topology Considerations
An Expand-over-X.25 network must be configured as a logical fully connected mesh. In a
single-line path configuration, you configure one Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process for each
144 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
destination node in the network. In a multi-CPU configuration, you configure multiple
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes, usually in separate processors, for each destination
node in the network. In a multi-line path configuration, you configure a path that consists of
multiple lines between the source and destination nodes.
In Figure 20, a single-line path is configured between node \A and node \C; a multi-CPU path
that consists two paths is configured between node \A and node \B; and a multi-line path that
consists of three lines is configured between node \B and node \C.
Figure 20 Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process Topology
Summary of Configuration Steps
After all hardware and software requirements have been met (see “Required Hardware and
Software” (page 142) for details), configuring and starting a single-line Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process involves these steps.
Step
Tool Used
Step 1: Add a NAM Subdevice to the X25AM Line
SCF interface to the X25AM subsystem
Step 2: Start the X25AM Line
SCF interface to the X25AM subsystem
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler
Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 4: Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Summary of Configuration Steps 145
Step
Tool Used
Step 5: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this section is the syntax used to configure
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes; it is not meant to show the complete syntax of the
SCF commands described. For more information, see:
•
X25AM Configuration and Management Manual for X25AM subsystem SCF commands
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual for WAN subsystem SCF
commands
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands, for Expand subsystem SCF commands
Step 1: Add a NAM Subdevice to the X25AM Line
NOTE: This procedure assumes that an X25AM line-handler process has already been created.
To create an such a process, you must add it as a device to the WAN subsystem. For complete
information about creating X25AM processes, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
An Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process must have access to a NAM subdevice of an X25AM
line. You use the X25AM subsystem SCF ADD SU command to configure a NAM subdevice.
For example, this command creates a NAM subdevice named #XNAM for an X25AM line named
$X2501:
-> ADD SU $X2501.#XNAM, PROTOCOL NAM, DEVTYPE (63,0), &
RECSIZE 128, DESTADDR "3012233490", port 90
For more information, see the X25AM Configuration and Management Manual.
Considerations
These configuration considerations apply to SU objects:
•
The PROTOCOL attribute identifies the protocol that will be used by the subdevice.
Subdevices used by Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes must use the NETNAM
protocol (specified by the argument NAM).
•
The DEVTYPE attribute specifies the subdevice type. The subdevice type for NAM subdevices
is 63,0.
•
The RECSIZE attribute specifies the record size for records transmitted and received by the
subdevice. You should set RECSIZE equal to the Expand packet size.
Step 2: Start the X25AM Line
Before you can start the Expand-over-X.25 line, the X25AM line must be started. (The NAM
subdevice is started automatically when it is added.)
You use the X25AM subsystem SCF START LINE command to start an X25AM line. For example,
this command starts an X25AM line-handler process named $X2501:
-> START LINE $x2501
Step 3: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process
You can create a profile for a single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process using the
PEXQSNAM profile. This profile is provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also
146 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
create a new profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete
information about profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection describes how to create a profile using PEXQSNAM.
NOTE: Different profiles are provided for Expand-over-X.25 lines that are part of a multi-line
path; these profiles are described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXQSNAM profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to 8 alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
profile_name when you create a device for the line-handler process in Step 4:
Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXQSNAM is the disk filename of the profile provided for Expand-over-NAM
line-handler processes.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXQSNAM
profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 150).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
PEXQSNAM profile are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 150).
Example
In this example, a profile named SLHX25 is created for a single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler
process using the PEXQSNAM profile. The COMPRESS_OFF modifier is added to the profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#SLHX25, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQSNAM, &COMPRESS_OFF
Step 4: Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process
You create a single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process by adding it as a device to the
WAN subsystem.
NOTE: This section explains how to configure single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler
processes only. Creating Expand-over-X.25 lines that are part of a multi-line path is explained
in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Step 4: Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process 147
ADD DEVICE Command
To create a single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF
ADD DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,0 )
RSIZE rsize
ASSOCIATEDEV $nam_process
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #subdevice
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand line-handler
process to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for an
Expand line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for this Expand line-handler process in Step
3: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process.
CPU cpunumber
indicates the processor where this Expand line-handler process will normally run.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
indicates the processor where the backup Expand line-handler process will
normally run.
TYPE (63,0)
is the device type and subtype for this Expand line-handler process. The device
type is always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is 0 for
single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes.
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
ASSOCIATEDEV nam_process
specifies the device name of the X25AM line-handler process you want to associate
with this Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process.
ASSOCIATESUBDEV subdevice
is a required modifier that specifies the name of the X25AM subdevice to which
the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process will bind. subdevice is a NAM subdevice
defined for the X25AM line used by the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process.
Adding a subdevice is explained in Step 1: Add a NAM Subdevice to the X25AM
Line.
148 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the number (from 0 to 254) of the system
connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify NEXTSYS, this modifier
defaults to an invalid value (255), and an operator message occurs during the
initialization of the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process. The path will not be
operational until you alter NEXTSYS to a valid value using either the WAN
subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command, or the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER
PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Modifier names in the PEXQSNAM profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page
150).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword. modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXQSNAM profile are
described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 150).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
Examples
In this example, a device named $EXPSL3 is created for a single-line Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process. $EXPSL3 will bind to a NAM subdevice named #XNAM on the X25AM
line-handler process named $X2501. The L4TIMEOUT modifier is recommended for
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#EXPS13, PROFILE SLHX25, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 31, ASSOCIATEDEV $X2501, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #XNAM, 14TIMEOUT 3000
In the next example, the same device is created as part of a multi-CPU path. The
SUPERPATH_ON and L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifiers are required for line-handler processes
that are part of a multi-CPU path. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is recommended for Expand
line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#EXPS13, PROFILE SLHX25, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 31, ASSOCIATEDEV $X2501, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #XNAM, 14TIMEOUT 3000, 14EXTPACKETS_ON, &
14CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON
Step 4: Create the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process 149
Step 5: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line-Handler Process
To start a single-line Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF
START DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
$ZZWAN.device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process.
This command creates the specified Expand line-handler process and allocates a logical device
(LDEV) number.
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-X.25 Line
To start an Expand-over-X.25 line, use the Expand subsystem SCF START LINE command.
The command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the device name of the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process.
The successful completion of this command leaves the line in the STARTED state.
Profile Modifiers
This subsection lists the recommended modifiers for Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes
and describes the modifiers provided for configuring special features. It also describes default
values and value ranges for all the modifiers contained in the PEXQSNAM profile.
NOTE: A different profile is provided for Expand-over-X.25 lines that are part of a multi-line
path; this profile is described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Recommended Modifiers
Recommended modifiers are modifiers that should be used to obtain optimum performance and
efficiency. This modifier is recommended for Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes:
L4TIMEOUTn
Default:
2000 (20 seconds)
Units:
0.01 seconds
Range:
500 through 32,767 (5.00 seconds through 5.27.67 minutes)
This modifier specifies the time interval, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that the
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process will wait for a response to an end-to-end (Layer 4) request
before retrying. L4TIMEOUT should be the same for every Expand line-handler process in the
network.
If a message is not acknowledged within the L4TIMEOUT period, an enquiry (ENQ) will be
initiated. Because retransmissions of an X.25 network can degrade response time, cause network
150 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
link congestion, or cause excessive packet charges, you should set L4TIMEOUT to a value in
excess of the maximum anticipated response time on a loaded link.
NOTE: The Expand End-to-End protocol is explained in “Path Function of the Expand
Subsystem” (page 346).
Modifiers for Special Features
These modifiers are provided in the PEXQSNAM profile to enable you to configure special
features:
•
PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier for the multipacket frame feature
•
PATHPACKETBYTES modifier for the variable packet size feature
•
L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier for the congestion control feature
•
SUPERPATH_ON modifier for the Expand multi-CPU feature
•
L4CWNDCLAMP modifier for the configuration of the congestion control transmit window
feature
For configuration considerations for these features, see Subsystem Description. For more
information on the advantages and disadvantages of these features, see Planning a Network
Design.
The PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, L4CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON, and
L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in Expand Modifiers.
X25AM Line-Handler Process Modifiers
You might need to set this X25AM modifier when configuring an X25AM line-handler process
that will be accessed by an Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process. This modifier is described
in detail in the X25AM Configuration and Management Manual.
L3WINDOWn
Default:
2
Units:
Packets
Range:
1 through 15 (L3MOD128), 1 through 7 (L3MOD8)
This modifier specifies the number of packets that can be outstanding without an acknowledgment
from the network. You should set L3WINDOW to the largest possible value.
NOTE: Some X.25 networks limit the size of L3WINDOW. Consult your vendor for more
information.
PEXQSNAM Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQSNAM defines modifiers for Expand-over-X.25 line-handler
processes.
Table 15 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable.
For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile. For a complete description of the modifiers
listed in this table, see Expand Modifiers.
Profile Modifiers 151
Table 15 PEXQSNAM Modifiers for Expand-over-X.25 Lines
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
✓
1
ASSOCIATEDEV
Any 8-character string
1
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
COMPRESS_OFF
Any 8-character string
✓
COMPRESS_ON
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
EXTMEMSIZE
2048
0 through 32767
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
L2RETRIES
10
1 through 255
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
✓
ON or OFF
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4CONGCTRL_ON
L4CWNDCLAMP
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
NEXTSYS
255
0 through 254
OSSPACE
32767
3072 through 32767
OSTIMEOUT
300
10 through 32767
PATHBLOCKBYTES
0
0 through 4095
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 4095
PATHTF
0
0 through 186
RETRYPROBE
20
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
2
152 Configuring Expand-over-X.25 Lines
Table 15 PEXQSNAM Modifiers for Expand-over-X.25 Lines (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
STARTUP_ON
SUPERPATH_OFF
✓
SUPERPATH_ON
TIMERINACTIVITY
900
0 through 32767
TIMERPROBE
300
1 through 32767
TIMERRECONNECT
30
0 through 32767
TXWINDOW
4
2 through 7
1
This is a required modifier. It has no default value.
2
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
Profile Modifiers 153
11 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) was developed by IBM for connecting IBM systems and
networks. Expand-over-SNA connections are provided with the SNAX/Advanced Peer Networking
(SNAX/APN) product. The Expand-over-SNA line-handler process uses the NETNAM protocol
to access the network access method (NAM) interface provided by a SNAX/APN line-handler
process.
An Expand-over-SNA line-handler process can be configured as a single line, as part of a multi-line
path, or as part of a multi-CPU path. This section explains how to configure an Expand-over-SNA
line-handler process as a single line or as part of a multi-CPU path. Configuring Expand-over-SNA
lines that are part of a multi-line path is explained in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Required Hardware and Software
Several hardware and software components are required in addition to the Expand-over-SNA
line-handler process to provide Expand-over-SNA connectivity. These components are illustrated
in Figure 21 and are explained in these subsections.
154 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
Figure 21 Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process Components
SNAX/APN Line-Handler Process
The Expand-over-SNA line-handler process uses the services of a SNAX/APN line-handler
process to provide access to an IBM SNA network. The SNA network can be a traditional network
of host mainframes and front end processors, an advanced peer-to-peer network of AS400
systems or other workstations, or a mix of these types of networks.
Required Hardware and Software 155
Each Expand-over-SNA line-handler process must be configured to use a particular SNAX/APN
line and logical unit (LU). At least one SNAX/APN line-handler process and one Expand
line-handler process must be configured and started at each end of the SNA network through
which the Expand-over-SNA line-handler process will communicate. A SNAX/APN line and an
associated LU must be configured and started before the Expand-over-SNA line-handler process
can begin exchanging data over an SNA network.
For more information on creating SNAX/APN line-handler processes, see the WAN Subsystem
Configuration and Management Manual. For more information on adding SNAX/APN lines and
LUs, see the SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN Configuration and Management Manual.
QIO Subsystem
QIO is a mechanism for transferring data between processes through a shared memory segment.
The QIO subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence. The QIO
subsystem must be started and running before Expand line-handler processes can be started.
For more information on the QIO subsystem, see the QIO Configuration and Management Manual.
For more information on how the WAN subsystem uses QIO, see the WAN Subsystem
Configuration and Management Manual.
Wide Area Network (WAN) Shared Driver
The WAN shared driver is a set of library procedures that is bound with each input-output process
(IOP) that uses a ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator. The WAN shared driver
is a component of the WAN subsystem. The WAN subsystem is preconfigured and started during
the system load sequence.
For more information on the WAN subsystem, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
NonStop TCP/IP Process
The NonStop TCP/IP subsystem provides TCP/IP data communications connectivity. NonStop
TCP/IP processes are used by the LAN adapters and SWAN concentrators. The NonStop TCP/IP
processes that support these adapters and SWAN concentrators are preconfigured and started
during the system load sequence.
For more information on the NonStop TCP/IP and NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystems, see the
TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual and the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and
Management Manual.
For more information on LAN adapters, see the LAN Configuration and Management Manual.
Local Area Network (LAN) Driver and Interrupt Handlers (DIHs)
NonStop TCP/IP processes can interface to the network through the ServerNet LAN Systems
Access (SLSA) subsystem. The SLSA subsystem provides QIO-based driver and interrupt
handlers (DIHs) that allow NonStop TCP/IP processes to connect to a LAN adapter. The SLSA
subsystem is preconfigured and started during the system load sequence.
For more information on the SLSA subsystem, see the LAN Configuration and Management
Manual.
ServerNet Wide Area Network (SWAN) Concentrator
The SWAN concentrator is a communications device that provides wide area network (WAN)
connections. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you configure the SWAN concentrator
in the same processor pair as the Expand line-handler processes.
For more information on configuring the SWAN concentrator, see the WAN Subsystem
Configuration and Management Manual.
156 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
Topology Considerations
An Expand-over-SNA network must be configured as a logical fully connected mesh. In a
single-line path configuration, you configure one Expand-over-SNA line-handler process for each
destination node in the network. In a multi-CPU configuration, you configure multiple
Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes, usually in separate processors, for each destination
node in the network. In a multi-line path configuration, you configure a path that consists of
multiple lines between the source and destination nodes.
In Figure 22, a single-line path is configured between node \A and node \C; a multi-CPU path
that consists of two path is configured between node \A and node \B; and a multi-line path that
consists of three lines is configured between node \B and node \C.
Figure 22 Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process Topology
Summary of Configuration Steps
After all hardware and software requirements have been met (see “Required Hardware and
Software” (page 154) for details), configuring and starting a single-line Expand-over-SNA
line-handler process involves these steps:
Step
Tool Used
Step 1: Add the SNAX/APN Line
SCF interface to the SNAX/APN subsystem
Step 2: Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line
SCF interface to the SNAX/APN subsystem
Topology Considerations 157
Step
Tool Used
Step 3: Start the SNAX/APN Line
SCF interface to the SNAX/APN subsystem
Step 4: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler
Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 5: Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 7: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this section is the syntax used to configure
Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes; it is not meant to show the complete syntax of the
SCF commands described. For more information, see:
•
SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN Configuration and Management Manual for SNAX/APN subsystem
commands
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual for WAN subsystem SCF
commands
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands, for Expand subsystem SCF commands
Step 1: Add the SNAX/APN Line
NOTE: These instructions assume that a SNAX/APN line-handler process has already been
created. To create such a process, you must add it as a device to the WAN subsystem. For more
information on creating SNAX/APN line-handler processes, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration
and Management Manual.
At least one SNAX/APN line must be configured and started at each end of the SNA network
through which the Expand-over-SNA line-handler process will communicate.
You use the SNAX/APN subsystem SCF ADD LINE command to configure a SNAX/APN line.
For example, this command creates a SNAX/APN line called $SNAPA:
-> ADD LINE $SNAPA, RECSIZE 524, MAXPUS 1, MAXLUS 30, &
STATION PRIMARY, MAXLOCALLUS 10, POLLINT 0.01
For details about configuring SNAX/APN lines, see the SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN Configuration
and Management Manual. SCF ADD LINE attributes are also described in the SNAX/XF and
SNAX/APN Configuration and Management Manual.
Considerations
POLLINT should be set to the minimum value (0.01 seconds) on Synchronous Data Link Control
(SDLC) lines for best performance.
Step 2: Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line
You must configure a local and a remote logical unit (LU) for the SNAX/APN line. The
Expand-over-SNA line-handler process is configured to use a particular local LU.
You use the SNAX/APN subsystem SCF ADD LU command to add the local LU. For example,
this command creates a local LU with a subdevice name of #LLUA for the SNAX/APN line
$SNAPA:
-> ADD LU $SNAPA.#LLUA, TYPE (14,21), SNANAME LUA, PROTOCOL NAM, &
DLUNAME #RLUA, RSPTYPE ER
Before you can add the remote LU, you must add a remote physical unit (PU); the remote LU
will be subordinate to this PU. You use the SNAX/APN SCF ADD PU command to add a remote
158 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
PU. For example, this command creates a remote PU with a subdevice name of #RPUA for the
SNAX/APN line $SNAPA:
-> ADD PU $SNAPA.#RPUA, TYPE (13,21), ADDRESS %HC1, RECSIZE 521, &
MAXLUS 30
After you have created the remote PU, you use the SNAX/APN subsystem SCF ADD LU command
to add the remote LU. For example, this command creates a remote LU with a subdevice name
of #RLUA for the SNAX/APN line $SNAPA:
-> ADD LU $SNAPA.#RLUA, TYPE (14,21), SNANAME LUB, PUNAME #RPUA
For details about configuring LUs and PUs, and SCF ADD LU and ADD PU command attributes,
see the SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN Configuration and Management Manual.
Considerations
This configuration considerations apply to local LU object attributes:
•
The PROTOCOL attribute must be set to NAM.
•
The local SNANAME on one system must match the remote LU SNANAME on the other
system.
•
If the local LU is to initiate sessions, DLUNAME must be defined (matching the last part of
the remote LU object name). If the remote PU has DYNAMIC ON, remote LUs will always
be able to initiate sessions. However, DLUNAME must be specified in one of the two systems
in order for the connection to become active.
Example
Figure 23 shows the SCF commands used to configure a SNAX/APN line, local LU, remote PU,
and remote LU at two nodes in an Expand network.
Step 2: Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line 159
Figure 23 SNAX/APN Line Configuration Example
Step 3: Start the SNAX/APN Line
Before you can start the Expand-over-SNA line, the SNAX/APN line (and its associated PUs and
LUs) must be started. To start a SNAX/APN line, use the SNAX/APN subsystem SCF START
LINE command. This command starts a SNAX/APN line named $SNAPA and its associated PUs
and LUs:
-> START LINE $SNAPA, SUB ALL
For details about starting SNAX/APN lines, see the SNAX/XF and SNAX/APN Configuration and
Management Manual.
Step 4: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process
You can create a profile for a single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler process using the
PEXQSNAM profile. This profile is provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also
160 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
create a new profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete
information about profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection shows you how to create a profile using PEXQSNAM.
NOTE: Different profiles are provided for Expand-over-SNA lines that are part of a multi-line
path; these profiles are described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXQSNAM profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
profile_name when you create a device for the line-handler process in Step 5:
Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXQSNAM is the disk filename of the profile provided for Expand-over-NAM
line-handler processes.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXQSNAM
profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 164).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
PEXQSNAM profile are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 164).
Example
In this example, a profile named SLHSNA is created for a single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler
process using the PEXQSNAM profile. The AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN is set in the profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#SLHSNA, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQSNAM, &
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
Step 5: Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process
You create a single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler process by adding it as a device to the
WAN subsystem.
NOTE: This section explains how to configure single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler
processes only. Creating Expand-over-SNA lines that are part of a multi-line path is explained
in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Step 5: Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process 161
ADD DEVICE Command
To create a single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF
ADD DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,0 )
RSIZE rsize
ASSOCIATEDEV $nam_process
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #subdevice
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand line-handler
process to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for an
Expand line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for this Expand line-handler process in Step
4: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process.
CPU cpunumber
indicates the processor where this Expand line-handler process will normally run.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
indicates the processor where the backup Expand line-handler process will
normally run.
TYPE (63,0)
is the device type and subtype for this Expand line-handler process. The device
type is always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is 0 for
single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes.
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
ASSOCIATEDEV nam_process
specifies the device name of the SNAX/APN line-handler process you want to
associate with this Expand-over-SNA line-handler process.
ASSOCIATESUBDEV subdevice
is a required modifier that specifies the name of the SNAX/APN subdevice to
which the Expand-over-SNA line-handler process will bind. subdevice is a local
LU (with the NAM protocol) defined for the SNAX/APN line-handler process
specified with the ASSOCIATEDEV modifier. Adding LUs is explained in “Step 2:
Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line” (page 158).
162 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the number (from 0 through 254) of the system
connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify NEXTSYS, this modifier
defaults to an invalid value (255) and an operator message occurs during the
initialization of the Expand-over-SNA line-handler process. The path will not be
operational until you alter NEXTSYS to a valid value using either the WAN
subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command, or the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER
PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Modifier names in the PEXQSNAM profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page
164).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword. modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXQSNAM profile are
described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 164).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
Examples
In this example, a device named $EXPSL4 is created for a single-line Expand-over-SNA
line-handler process. $EXPSL4 will bind to subdevice #LLUA on the SNAX/APN line $SNAPA.
(For the commands used to configure #LLUA and $SNAPA, see Figure 23 (page 160).) The
L4TIMEOUT modifier is recommended for Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#EXPS14, PROFILE SLHSNA, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 32, ASSOCIATEDEV $SNAPA, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #LLUA, 14TIMEOUT 3000
In the next example, the same device is created as part of a multi-CPU path. The
SUPERPATH_ON and L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifiers are required for line-handler processes
that are part of a multi-CPU path. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is recommended for Expand
line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#EXPS14, PROFILE SLHSNA, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,0), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 3, NEXTSYS 32, ASSOCIATEDEV $SNAPA, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #LLUA, 14TIMEOUT 3000, 14EXTPACKETS_ON, &
14CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON
Step 5: Create the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process 163
Step 6: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Process
To start a single-line Expand-over-SNA line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF
START DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
$ZZWAN.device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand-over-SNA
line-handler process.
This command creates the specified Expand line-handler process and allocates a logical device
(LDEV) number.
Step 7: Start the Expand-over-SNA Line
To start an Expand-over-SNA line, use the Expand subsystem SCF START LINE command.
The command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the device name of the Expand-over-SNA line-handler process.
The successful completion of this command leaves the line in the STARTED state.
Profile Modifiers
This subsection lists the recommended modifiers for Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes
and describes the modifiers provided for configuring special features. It also describes default
values and value ranges for all the modifiers contained in the PEXQSNAM profile.
NOTE: A different profile is provided for Expand-over-SNA lines that are part of a multi-line
path; this profile is described in Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Recommended Modifiers
Recommended modifiers are modifiers that should be used to obtain optimum performance and
efficiency. This modifier is recommended for Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes:
L4TIMEOUT n
Default:
2000 (20 seconds)
Units:
0.01 seconds
Range:
500 through 32,767 (5.00 seconds through 5.27.67 minutes)
This modifier specifies the time interval, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that the
Expand-over-SNA line-handler process will wait for a response to an end-to-end (Layer 4) request
before retrying. L4TIMEOUT should be the same for every Expand line-handler process in the
network.
If a message is not acknowledged within the L4TIMEOUT period, an enquiry (ENQ) will be
initiated. Because retransmissions of an SNA network can degrade response time, cause network
164 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
link congestion, or cause excessive packet charges, you should set L4TIMEOUT to a value in
excess of the maximum anticipated response time on a loaded link.
NOTE: The Expand End-to-End protocol is explained in “Path Function of the Expand
Subsystem” (page 346).
Modifiers for Special Features
These modifiers are provided in the PEXQSNAM profile to enable you to configure special
features:
•
PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier for the multipacket frame feature
•
PATHPACKETBYTES modifier for the variable packet size feature
•
L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier for the congestion control feature
•
SUPERPATH_ON modifier for the Expand multi-CPU feature
•
L4CWNDCLAMP modifier for the configuration of the congestion control transmit window
feature
For configuration considerations for these features, see Subsystem Description. For more
information on the advantages and disadvantages of these features, see Planning a Network
Design.
The PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, L4CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON, and
L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in Expand Modifiers.
PEXQSNAM Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQSNAM defines modifiers for Expand-over-SNA line-handler
processes.
Table 16 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable.
For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile. For a complete description of the modifiers
listed in this table, see Expand Modifiers.
Table 16 PEXQSNAM Modifiers for Expand-over-SNA Lines
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
✓
1
ASSOCIATEDEV
Any 8-character string
1
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
COMPRESS_OFF
Any 8-character string
✓
COMPRESS_ON
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
EXTMEMSIZE
2048
0 through 32767
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
L2RETRIES
10
1 through 255
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
✓
L4CONGCTRL_ON
Profile Modifiers 165
Table 16 PEXQSNAM Modifiers for Expand-over-SNA Lines (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
L4CWNDCLAMP
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
NEXTSYS
255
0 through 254
OSSPACE
32767
3072 through 32767
OSTIMEOUT
300
10 through 32767
PATHBLOCKBYTES
0
0 through 4095
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 4095
PATHTF
0
0 through 186
RETRYPROBE
20
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
2
STARTUP_ON
SUPERPATH_OFF
✓
SUPERPATH_ON
TIMERINACTIVITY
900
0 through 32767
TIMERPROBE
300
1 through 32767
TIMERRECONNECT
30
0 through 32767
TXWINDOW
4
2 through 7
1
This is a required modifier. It has no default value.
2
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
166 Configuring Expand-over-SNA Lines
12 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process provides connectivity to a ServerNet Cluster,
which uses this process to provide a high-speed interconnect between systems over a limited
geographic range. The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process uses the NETNAM protocol
to access the network access method (NAM) interface of the ServerNet cluster monitor process,
$ZZSCL.
An Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can be configured as a single line only;
Expand-over-ServerNet lines cannot participate as a member of a multi-CPU path (superpath).
Required Hardware and Software
Several hardware and software components are required in addition to the Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process to provide Expand-over-ServerNet connectivity. Figure 24 illustrates the
process of a local application sending a message to a remote node.
Figure 24 Expand-over-ServerNet Connectivity Components
Figure 24 depicts a local node consisting of three processors: Processor 1 is running an
application, Processor 2 is running the ServerNet cluster monitor process ($ZZSCL), and
Processor 3 is running an Expand-over-ServerNet line handler.
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The application makes a communications request to the message system. The message system
forwards the request to the Expand-over-ServerNet line handler, which in turn forwards the
request to the ServerNet cluster monitor process ($ZZSCL). The line handler and $ZZSCL provide
the various security permissions to allow the message system to send the message outside the
Required Hardware and Software 167
node. The message system then forwards the communications request to the processor switches,
through the NonStop Cluster Switches, and out on the line to the remote node.
The message system at the remote node sends the request to its line handler and $ZZSCL
process for permissions, then forwards it to the remote application.
The components shown for this communications request and other components necessary for
Expand-over-ServerNet lines are described in subsequent sections.
Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP)
The Expand subsystem requires that the Expand manager process ($ZEXP) be running during
network operation. For more information on running this process, see “Task 2: Start the Expand
Manager Process” (page 31).
External System Area Network Manager (SANMAN)
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The External System Area Network Manager (SANMAN) is a new process pair that runs in every
Integrity NonStop NS-series server connected to a ServerNet cluster. SANMAN provides the
services needed to manage the external ServerNet fabrics and the system’s access to the fabrics.
SANMAN:
•
Manages the external ServerNet fabrics.
•
Initializes, monitors, configures, and controls the NonStop Cluster Switches.
•
Communicates with other processes or objects that require information from or about the
external fabrics.
Message Monitor Process (MSGMON)
MSGMON is a new monitor process that resides in each processor of a server and runs various
functions required by the message system. MSGMON is a helper for the ServerNet cluster
subsystem. MSGMON handles communications between the ServerNet monitor (SNETMON)
and individual processors. MSGMON also logs events from and generates events on behalf of
the IPC subsystem.
MSGMON is a persistent process. After it is started, it terminates only in the event of an internal
failure or a termination message from the persistence monitor, $ZPM. MSGMON is not a process
pair.
NOTE: MSGMON is compatible only with G06.09 and later RVUs of the NonStop operating
system.
Network Access Method (NAM)
NAM is a pair of message system dialects that allow use of another process, such as X.25 or
SNAX, as an Expand communications medium. NAM contains connection establishment, data
transfer, and disconnection phases. For more information, see “Expand-to-NAM Interface” (page
376).
Network Control Process ($NCP)
The network control process ($NCP) initiates and terminates server-to-server connections and
maintains network-related system tables, including routing information. $NCP must be running
at every node in the Expand network before Expand lines can be started.
168 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Cluster Switch
A cluster switch is a 12-port network switch designed for use in ServerNet networks. In a ServerNet
cluster, a cluster switch provides the physical junction point that enables multiple nodes to connect
to the network. For more information on the cluster switch, see the ServerNet Cluster Manual
(for the 6770 cluster switch) or the ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and Installation Guide.
Profile Products
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
To create a ServerNet cluster that operates with other Expand line types, order individual profile
products for the line types you are using. Profile products include those in Table 17:
Table 17 Profile Products Needed for Compatibility With Other Expand Lines
Profile
Line Types Supported
Expand/ServerNet (T0509H0x)
Expand-over-ServerNet
Expand/SWANgroup (T0532H0x)
X.25NETDIRECTNETSATELLITEIPATM Required for new users
Expand/FastPipe (T0533H0x)
IPATM
Required for everyone
Required for new users
ServerNet Cluster Monitor Process ($ZZSCL)
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The ServerNet cluster monitor process, $ZZSCL, monitors and responds to events relevant to
ServerNet cluster operations and is responsible for discovering and managing the cluster.
The ServerNet cluster monitor process is not limited to a particular processor pair; it can migrate
within a user-specified set. A member of a ServerNet cluster monitor process pair can go down
without its processor going down. If both primary and backup processes fail, the ServerNet
monitor can be absent for a short period, until the persistence manager starts a new ServerNet
cluster monitor process. Because data traffic does not involve the ServerNet monitor, it could
continue during this time.
$ZZSCL must be configured and started before the Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes
can be started. For more information on configuring $ZZSCL, see the ServerNet Cluster Manual.
ServerNet Cluster Product
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
ServerNet clusters enable multiple Integrity NonStop NS-series servers to work together and
appear to client applications as one large processing entity. ServerNet clusters extend the
ServerNet X and Y fabrics outside the system boundary and allow the ServerNet protocol to be
used for intersystem messaging. For more information on the ServerNet Cluster product, see
the ServerNet Cluster Manual.
Wide Area Network (WAN) Subsystem
You create an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process by adding it as a device to the WAN
subsystem. For each node in a ServerNet cluster, you must create one Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process for every other node in the cluster. The WAN subsystem is preconfigured
and started during the system load sequence. For more information on the WAN subsystem, see
the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
Required Hardware and Software 169
X and Y Fabrics
X and Y fabrics are a collection of connected routers and ServerNet links that, together, provide
an interconnection for Integrity NonStop NS-series servers. Each processor connects to both
fabrics. The X fabric and the Y fabric are not connected to each other; therefore, a ServerNet
packet cannot cross from one fabric to the other and a failure in one fabric does not affect the
other fabric.
Topology Considerations
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
A ServerNet cluster must be configured as a logical fully connected mesh—each server must
have one Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process for each other node in the ServerNet
cluster. A ServerNet cluster can consist of up to 24 nodes. Figure 25 is an example of
Expand-over-ServerNet lines in a four-node ServerNet cluster configuration.
Figure 25 Expand-over-ServerNet Topology
170 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Summary of Configuration Steps
After all hardware and software requirements have been met (see “Required Hardware and
Software” (page 167) for details), configuring Expand-over-ServerNet connections involves these
steps:
Step
Tool Used
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Process
Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet
Line-Handler Process
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 3: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 4: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem.
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this subsection is the syntax used to configure
Expand-over-ServerNet connections; it is not meant to show the complete syntax of SCF
commands described. For more information, see:
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual for WAN subsystem SCF
commands
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands, for Expand subsystem SCF commands
Configuring a ServerNet Node
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
To prepare an Integrity NonStop NS-series server to become a node in a ServerNet cluster, see
the guided procedure online help, which:
•
Creates a ServerNet cluster for the first time
•
Adds a node to an already configured ServerNet cluster
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler
Process
You can create a profile for the Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes using the
PEXPSSN profile. This profile is provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also
create a new profile from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete
information about profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection shows you how to create a profile using PEXPSSN.
ADD Profile Command
To create a profile from the PEXPSSN profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
Summary of Configuration Steps 171
profile_name when you create devices for the Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler processes in Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet
Line-Handler Process.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.profile_filename
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXPSSN is the disk filename of the profile provided for Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler processes.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXPSSN
profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 175).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
PEXPSSN profile are described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 175).
Example
In this example, a profile named PEXPSSN is created for an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process using the PEXPSSN profile. The AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN modifier is set in the
profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#PEXPSSN, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXPSSN &,
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler
Process
You create an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process by adding it as a device to the WAN
subsystem. For each system you add to the ServerNet cluster, you must configure line-handler
processes for all the other systems in the cluster. On all other systems in the cluster, you must
configure a line-handler process for the system you are adding.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
DEVICE command. The command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,4 )
RSIZE rsize
ASSOCIATEDEV $ZZSCL
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
172 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for an
Expand line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process in Step 1: Create a Profile for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler
Process.
CPU cpunumber
indicates the processor where this Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process
will normally run.
NOTE: Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you use the “Notation for
Subnet” (page 26)to configure line handlers, to avoid configuring them in
processors 0 and 1. For more information, see “Considerations” (page 174).
ALTCPU altcpunumber
indicates the processor where the backup Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process will normally run.
TYPE (63,4)
is the device type and subtype for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
The device type is always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is
always 4 for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
ASSOCIATEDEV $ZZSCL
specifies the device name of the ServerNet cluster monitor process, $ZZSCL.
$ZZSCL is the default, but it can be changed.
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the Expand node number (from 0 to 254) of
the system connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify NEXTSYS,
this modifier defaults to an invalid value (255), and an operator message occurs
during the initialization of the Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process. The
path will not be operational until you alter NEXTSYS to a valid value using either
the WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command, or the Expand subsystem
SCF ALTER PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is added to
the device record for this Expand line-handler process.
Modifier names in the PEXPSSN profile are listed in “Profile Modifiers” (page 175).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword in the device record
for this Expand line-handler process.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the PEXPSSN profile are
described in “Profile Modifiers” (page 175).
Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process 173
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
•
Here are recommended configuration guidelines for configuring Expand-over-ServerNet line
handlers. (If you use the “Notation for Subnet” (page 26), processors 0 and 1 will automatically
be avoided.)
a. Configure primary and backup Expand-over-ServerNet line handlers in processors in
different enclosures (except for two-processor systems, which have only one enclosure).
b. Avoid configuring an Expand-over-ServerNet line handler on processors 0 and 1, if
possible. Some other processes can only run in processors 0 and 1, increasing the
impacts of CPU halts. Note that (b) can only be applied in systems with at least three
enclosures. On a four-processor system, the process pair is to be configured according
to (a), meaning that one of the sides of the pair will run in either processor 0 or 1.
c. Avoid configuring the Expand-over-ServerNet line handler on processors outside the
tetrahedron (processors greater than 9) whenever possible. There are more ServerNet
components (routers and links) along the paths from these processors to the external
fabrics than along paths that originate in processors within the tetrahedron. Consequently,
the probability that these paths might fail in the presence of hardware faults is higher.
Example
In this example, a device named #SC001 is created for an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#SC001, PROFILE PEXPSSN, &
IOPOBJECT$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 2, ALTCPU 5, TYPE (63,4), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 1, ASSOCIATEDEV $ZZSCL, NEXTSYS 102, &
COMPRESS_OFF, PATHBLOCKBYTES 0, PATHPACKETBYTES 4095
Step 3: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes
To start an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process, use the WAN subsystem SCF START
DEVICE command. You must start each Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process that you
created in Step 2: Create a Device for the Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process. The
command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
$ZZWAN.device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the device name of the Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process.
This command creates the specified Expand line-handler process and allocates a logical device
(LDEV) number.
Example
In this example, the device named #SC001 is started.
-> START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#SC001
174 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Step 4: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
NOTE: Do not perform this step unless you have already physically connected the Integrity
NonStop NS-series server to the ServerNet cluster. Connecting a Integrity NonStop NS-series
server to a ServerNet cluster is described in the ServerNet Cluster Manual.
To start an Expand-over-ServerNet line, use the Expand subsystem SCF command START
LINE. The command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the device name of the Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process.
NOTE:
Wait about five seconds after starting the device before you start the line.
The successful completion of this command leaves the line in the STARTED state. To check the
status of the line, enter this SCF command:
STATUS LINE $device_name
For the next steps, such as installing a new cluster, migration, or adding a node, see the ServerNet
Cluster Manual or the ServerNet Cluster 6780 Planning and Installation Guide.
Profile Modifiers
This subsection lists the modifiers provided for configuring special features. It also describes
default values and value ranges for all the modifiers contained in the PEXPSSN profile.
Modifiers for Special Features
The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is provided in the PEXPSSN profile to enable you to configure
the congestion control feature. The L4CWNDCLAMP modifier is provided in the PEXPSSN profile
to enable you to configure the congestion control transmit window feature. For configuration
considerations for congestion control feature, see Subsystem Description. For more information
on the advantages and disadvantages of congestion control feature, see Planning a Network
Design. The L4CONGCTRL_ON and L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in Expand
Modifiers.
NOTE: The multipacket frame and variable packet size features are not supported on
Expand-over-ServerNet connections.
PEXPSSN Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXPSSN defines modifiers for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
processes.
Table 18 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable.
For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile. For a complete description of the modifiers
listed in this table, see Expand Modifiers.
Step 4: Start the Expand-over-ServerNet Lines 175
Table 18 PEXPSSN Modifiers for Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
1
✓
ASSOCIATEDEV
$ZZSCL
COMPRESS_OFF
✓
Any 8-character string
COMPRESS_ON
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE ✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
EXTMEMSIZE
8192
0 through 32767
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
L2RETRIES
10
1 through 255
L2TIMEOUT
100
20 through 32767
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
✓
L4CONGCTRL_ON
L4CWNDCLAMP
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
NEXTSYS
255
0 through 254
OSSPACE
32767
3072 through 32767
OSTIMEOUT
300
10 through 32767
PATHBLOCKBYTES
0
0 through 4095
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 4095
PATHTF
0
0 through 186
RETRYPROBE
10
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
2
176 Configuring Expand-over-ServerNet Lines
Table 18 PEXPSSN Modifiers for Expand-over-ServerNet Lines (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
STARTUP_ON
SUPERPATH_OFF
OFF
TIMERPROBE
30
30 through 32767
TIMERRECONNECT
60
0 through 32767
TXWINDOW
7
2 through 7
1
This is a required modifier.
2
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
Profile Modifiers 177
13 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
The Expand multi-line path feature enables you to configure as many as eight lines between the
two adjacent nodes. The Expand subsystem can simultaneously transmit data over all the lines
in a multi-line path, thus increasing overall bandwidth, and will automatically retransmit data over
remaining lines if one or more lines fail. A multi-line path can be part of a multi-CPU path.
This section explains how to configure the Expand multi-line path feature.
NOTE: For more information on the benefits and disadvantages of configuring multi-line paths,
see Planning a Network Design.
Configuration Overview
A multi-line path requires a logical device to manage the path function (called a path-logical
device) and a separate logical device for each line in the path (called a line-logical device).
Each line-logical device is associated with a path-logical device. The path-logical device and the
line-logical devices with which it is associated are regarded as a single Expand line-handler
process by the Expand subsystem.
NOTE: The path and line functions of an Expand line-handler process are described in detail
in “Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model” (page 344).
Figure 26 shows the logical devices required for a multi-line path that consists of four lines.
Figure 26 Logical Devices for a Multi-Line Path
Configuration Considerations
Consider these when configuring a multi-line path:
•
You can configure a maximum of eight lines in a multi-line path.
•
The lines in a multi-line path can be all the same type (for example, all dedicated), or they
can be any combination of dedicated lines, X.25 connections, and SNAX connections. You
cannot mix satellite-connect, Expand-over-ATM, and Expand-over-IP lines with other line
types.
•
A path-logical device and the line-logical devices with which it is associated must be
configured in the same processor pair.
•
A multi-CPU path that consists of Expand-over-IP lines can achieve better throughput than
a multi-line path that consists of Expand-over-IP lines. For more information on the multi-CPU
paths and Expand-over-IP, see “When to Use a Multi-CPU Path” (page 58).
•
For multi-line paths, the configured line speed, the packet size, and the DELAY parameter
(if applicable) are used to calculate when an outgoing packet will arrive at the other side.
This calculation is then used to select the best line for data transmission. The line speed is
configured using the same parameters used to set the time factor for the line, but with different
priorities. For this purpose SPEEDK overrides SPEED, which overrides LINETF, then RSIZE.
178 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Regardless of how the time factor is calculated, SPEED will be based on the resulting time
factor using the formula:
SPEED = 224000 / (time_factor_of_line)
•
When PathTF is set for a multi-line path, the line state and number of lines in the path are
ignored and the PathTF setting is a constant value assigned to the time factor for the path.
For more information on this recommended setting, see “PATHTF n” (page 324).
Summary of Configuration Steps
Configuring and starting a multi-line path involves these steps:
Task
Tool Used
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Path-Logical Device
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 2: Create a Profile for Each Line Type
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 3: Create a Path-Logical Device
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 4: Create the Line-Logical Devices
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 5: Start the Path-Logical Device
SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
Step 6: Start the Lines
SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
NOTE: The SCF command syntax shown in this section is the syntax used to configure multi-line
paths; it is not meant to show the complete syntax of the SCF commands described. For more
information, see:
•
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual for WAN subsystem SCF
commands
•
Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands, for Expand subsystem SCF commands
Step 1: Create a Profile for the Path-Logical Device
You can create a profile for a path-logical device using the PEXPPATH profile. This profile is
provided in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also create a profile from an existing
profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete information about profiles, see the WAN
Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection shows you how to create a profile using PEXPPATH.
ADD PROFILE Command
To create a profile from the PEXPPATH profile template, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXPPATH
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
profile_name when you create the device for the path in Step 3: Create a
Path-Logical Device.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXPPATH
Summary of Configuration Steps 179
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
PEXPPATH is the disk filename of the profile provided for path-logical devices.
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the PEXPPATH
profile are listed in “PEXPPATH Modifiers” (page 189).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
PEXPPATH profile are described in “PEXPPATH Modifiers” (page 189).
Step 2: Create a Profile for Each Line Type
You must create a profile for each type of line that will be in the multi-line path. For example, if
the multi-line path will consist of one direct-connect line and one Expand-over-SNA line, you
must create two profiles, one for each line type. If the multi-line path will consist of two
direct-connect lines, you need only create one profile because both lines can share the same
profile.
You can create a profile for a line-logical device using one of the line-logical device profiles.
These profiles are installed in the $SYSTEM.SYSnn subvolume. You can also create a profile
from an existing profile, or you can create your own profile. For complete information about
profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
This subsection shows you how to create a profile using one of the line-logical device profiles.
ADD PROFILE Command
To create a profile from one of the line-logical device profile templates, use the WAN subsystem
SCF ADD PROFILE command. The command syntax is:
ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
, FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.diskfile_name
[, modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.profile_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, a user-defined name of up to eight alphanumeric
characters that will be used to identify the new profile. You will reference this
profile_name when you create the device for the line in Step 4: Create the
Line-Logical Devices.
FILE $SYSTEM.SYSnn.diskfile_name
specifies the name of an existing disk file that will be used to create the new profile.
Table 19 lists the disk filenames that are provided for line-logical devices. These
disk files are installed in $SYSTEM.SYSnn.
Table 19 Profiles for Line-Logical Devices
Disk Filename
Type of Line-Logical Device
PEXQMSWN
Direct-connect
PEXQMSAT
Satellite-connect
PEXQMNAM
Expand-over-NAM
180 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Table 19 Profiles for Line-Logical Devices (continued)
Disk Filename
Type of Line-Logical Device
PEXQMIP
Expand-over-IP
PEXQMATM
Expand-over-ATM
modifier_keyword
is the name of a modifier in profile_name. Modifier names in the line-logical
device profiles are listed in “Line-Logical Device Modifiers” (page 190).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the modifier specified by modifier_keyword.
Specifying a modifier_value assigns a new value to modifier_keyword in
profile_name. Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the
line-logical device profiles are described in “Line-Logical Device Modifiers” (page
190).
Step 3: Create a Path-Logical Device
You create a path-logical device by adding a device to the WAN subsystem.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create a path-logical device, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE command. The
command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
[,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#path_name
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
ALTCPU altcpunumber
TYPE (63,1)
RSIZE 0
NEXTSYS sys_number
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.#path_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the name of the path-logical device you want
to add.
IOPOBJECT $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ
is the name of the object file containing the executable object code for an Expand
line-handler process. This value must be $SYSTEM.SYSnn.LHOBJ.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for the path in Step 1: Create a Profile for
the Path-Logical Device.
CPU cpunumber
is the processor number where the path-logical device will normally run.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
is the processor number where the backup path-logical device will normally run.
TYPE (63,1)
Step 3: Create a Path-Logical Device 181
is the device type and subtype for the path-logical device. The device type is
always 63 for Expand line-handler processes. The subtype is always 1 for
path-logical devices.
RSIZE 0
The RSIZE value must be set to 0.
NEXTSYS sys_number
is a required modifier that specifies the number (from 0 through 254) of the system
connected to the other end of the path. If you do not specify NEXTSYS, this
modifier defaults to an invalid value (255) and an operator message occurs during
the initialization of the path-logical device. The path will not be operational until
you alter NEXTSYS to a valid value using either the WAN subsystem SCF ALTER
DEVICE command or the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER PATH command.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this path-logical device.
Modifier names in the PEXPPATH profile are listed in “PEXPPATH Modifiers”
(page 189).
NOTE: If the multi-line path will be part of a multi-CPU path, you must specify the
SUPERPATH_ON and L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifiers when you configure the path-logical
device. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is recommended for multi-CPU paths.
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword. modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this path-logical device.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in PEXPPATH are described in
“PEXPPATH Modifiers” (page 189).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, L4EXTPACKETS_ON).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
Step 4: Create the Line-Logical Devices
You must create a line-logical device for each line in the multi-line path. You create a line-logical
device by adding it as a device to the WAN subsystem. All line-logical devices must be configured
in the same processor pair as the path-logical device with which they are associated.
ADD DEVICE Command
To create a line-logical device, use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE command. The
command syntax is:
ADD
,
,
,
DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
IOPOBJECT iop_object_filename
PROFILE profile_name
CPU cpunumber
182 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
,
,
,
,
,
[,
ALTCPU altcpununumber
TYPE ( 63, devsubtype )
RSIZE rsize
MULTI $path_name
required_modifier modifier_value ...
modifier_keyword [ modifier_value ] ] ...
$ZZWAN.device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the name of the line-logical device to add.
IOPOBJECT iop_object_filename
is the name of the object file containing the executable object for code for a
line-logical device. This value must be the same as that of the associated path
device.
PROFILE profile_name
is the name of the profile you created for this type of line in Step 2: Create a Profile
for Each Line Type.
CPU cpunumber
is the processor number where the line-logical device will normally run.
ALTCPU altcpunumber
is the processor number where the backup line-logical device will normally run.
TYPE devsubtype
is the device subtype for this line-logical device. The device subtypes for line-logical
devices are listed in Table 20.
Table 20 Device Subtypes for Line-Logical Devices
Type of Line-Logical Device
Subtype
Profile Disk Filename
Direct-connect
6
PEXQMSWN
Satellite-connect
6
PEXQMSAT
Expand-over-NAM
2
PEXQMNAM
Expand-over-IP
2
PEXQMIP
Expand-over-ATM
2
PEXQMATM
RSIZE rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
MULTI path_name
is the name of the path-logical device you want to associate with this line. (You
created a path-logical device in Step 3: Create a Path-Logical Device.)
required_modifier modifier_value
is the name of a required modifier and its associated value in profile_name.
required_modifier and modifier_value are added to the device record
for this line-logical device.
Step 4: Create the Line-Logical Devices 183
Required Modifiers for Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines
ADAPTER concname
is the ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator to be used by this line.
Selecting a SWAN concentrator is explained in “Step 1: Find an Available WAN
Line” (page 90). For more information on adding SWAN concentrators, see the
WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
CLIP clipnum
is the communications line interface processor (CLIP) number on the SWAN
concentrator specified by concname that contains an available WAN line. For
more information on identifying CLIP numbers, see “Step 1: Find an Available
WAN Line” (page 90).
LINE linenum
is the number of an available WAN line on the CLIP specified by clipnum. For
more information on identifying line numbers, see “Step 1: Find an Available WAN
Line” (page 90). Valid values are 0 or 1.
PATH { A | B }
is the path (A or B) on the CLIP specified by clipnum that you prefer. The path
must be configured. For more information on adding Ethernet paths, see the WAN
Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
modifier_keyword
is the name of an optional modifier in profile_name. modifier_keyword is
added to the device record for this line-logical device.
Modifier names in the line-logical device profiles are listed in “Line-Logical Device
Modifiers” (page 190).
modifier_value
is the value you want to assign to the optional modifier specified by
modifier_keyword modifier_value assigns a value to modifier_keyword
in the device record for this line-logical device.
Default values and ranges of values for modifiers in the line-logical device profiles
are described in “Line-Logical Device Modifiers” (page 190).
Required Modifiers for Expand-over-IP Lines
SRCIPADDR src_ipaddr
is a required modifier that specifies the IP address associated with the NonStop
TCP/IP process used by this Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Determining
IP addresses is described in “Step 1 (A): Select a Process and SUBNET for
NonStop TCP/IP Use” (page 104). The address must be specified by number (for
example, 130.252.12.3). It is not validated and need not be accessible. The default
is 0.0.0.1.
SRCIPPORT src_ipddr
is a required modifier that specifies the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number
used by this Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Determining port numbers is
described in “Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number” (page 109). Valid
values are in the range 0 through 65534. The default is 1024. Hewlett Packard
Enterprise recommends that you do not use a well-known port in the range from
0 through 1023.
184 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
DESTIPADDR dest_ipaddr
is a required modifier that specifies the IP address used by the remote (destination)
Expand-over-IP line. It is the IP address specified in the remote line’s SRCIPADDR
modifier. Determining IP addresses is described in “Step 1 (A): Select a Process
and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IP Use” (page 104). The address must be specified
by number (for example, 130.252.12.3). It is not validated and need not be
accessible. The default is 0.0.0.1.
DESTIPPORT dest_ipport
is a required modifier that specifies the port number used by the remote
(destination) Expand-over-IP line. It is the port number specified in the remote
line-handler process’ SRCIPPORT modifier. Determining port numbers is described
in “Step 2 (A): Identify an Available UDP Port Number” (page 109). Valid values
are in the range 0 through 65534. The default is 1024. Hewlett Packard Enterprise
recommends that you do not use a well-known port in the range from 0 through
1023.
V6DESTIPADDR v6dest_ipport
is a required modifier that specifies the IP address used by the remote NonStop
TCP/IPv6 (destination) Expand-over-IP line. It is the IP address specified in the
remote line’s V6SRCIPADDR modifier. Determining IP addresses is described in
“Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use” (page
105). The address must be specified by number (for example,
1611:1071:F881:1167:1611:A071:1881:B167). It is not validated and need not be
accessible. The default is 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000.
V6SRCIPADDR v6src_ipaddr
is a required modifier that specifies the IP address associated with the NonStop
TCP/IPv6 process used by this Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Determining
IP addresses is described in “Step 1 (B): Select a Process and SUBNET for
NonStop TCP/IPv6 Use” (page 105). The address must be specified by number
(for example, 31CA:B145:5489:1034:1784:B245:4029:1257). It is not validated
and need not be accessible. The default is
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000.
Required Modifiers for Expand-over-ATM Lines
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP
identifies the ATM service access point (SAP). The only currently supported ATM
SAP is #IP.
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
indicates that the ATMSAP connection through the SLSA subsystem will be used.
Either CALLTYPE_ATMSAP, CALLTYPE_PVC, or CALLTYPE_SVC is required.
CALLTYPE_PVC
indicates that a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) connection will be used. Either
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP, CALLTYPE_PVC, or CALLTYPE_SVC is required.
CALLTYPE_SVC
indicates that a switched virtual circuit (SVC) connection will be used. Either
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP, CALLTYPE_PVC, or CALLTYPE_SVC is required.
LIFNAME lif_name
Step 4: Create the Line-Logical Devices 185
is the name of the ATMSAP connection that will be used. For example, LIF01.
Identifying LIF names is described in “Configuring an Expand Line-Handler Process
That Uses ATMSAP” (page 131).
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use ATMSAP connections.
PVCNAME pvc_name
is the name of the PVC connection that will be used. For example, PVC01.
Identifying PVC names is described in “Configuring an Expand Line-Handler
Process That Uses a PVC” (page 129).
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use PVC connections.
ATMSEL selector_byte
is a hexadecimal selector byte for the ATM line used by this Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process. Obtaining selector bytes is described in “Obtaining Selector
Bytes for the Local and Remote ATM Lines” (page 130).
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use SVC connections.
DESTATMADDR (ISONSAP:%Hatm_address)
is the 20-byte ATM address configured for the ATM line used by the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process at the remote system. The address must
be preceded by the characters ISONSAP:%H and must be enclosed in parentheses.
For example:
(ISONSAP:%H47000580FFE1000000F21A29EB0000000001B300)
Identifying ATM addresses is described in “Identifying the ATM Address Configured
for the Remote ATM Line” (page 130).
This modifier is only applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that
use SVC connections.
Required Modifiers for Expand-over-NAM Lines
ASSOCIATEDEV $nam_process
is a required modifier that specifies the device name of the X25AM line-handler
process or SNAX/APN line-handler process you want to associate with this
Expand-over-X.25 or Expand-over-SNA line.
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #subdevice
is a required modifier that specifies the name of an X25AM subdevice to which
the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process will bind or the subdevice name of the
SNAX/APN logical unit (LU) used by the Expand-over-SNAX line-handler process.
Configuring X25AM subdevices is explained in “Step 1: Add a NAM Subdevice
to the X25AM Line” (page 146). Configuring a SNAX/APN LUs is explained in “Step
2: Add the LUs for the SNAX/APN Line” (page 158).
Considerations
•
Not all modifiers have associated values (for example, CLOCKMODE_DCE).
•
The modifier_keyword and modifier_value parameters do not add the specified
modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to the profile used by the device. Use the
ADD PROFILE command to add a modifier, or a modifier and its associated value, to a
profile.
186 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Step 5: Start the Path-Logical Device
To start the path-logical device, use the WAN subsystem SCF START DEVICE command. When
you use this command on the path-logical device, the line-logical devices associated with the
path are also started. The command syntax is:
START DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
$ZZWAN.#device_name
specifies, via the WAN subsystem, the path-logical device name or a line-logical
device name.
This command creates a process for the specified path-logical device or line-logical device and
allocates one logical device (LDEV) number for the logical-path device and one LDEV number
for each logical-line device.
Step 6: Start the Lines
To start all the lines in the multi-line path, use the Expand subsystem SCF START PATH
command. The command syntax is:
START PATH $device_name
device_name
is the path-logical device name.
The successful completion of this command leaves the path and all the lines in the path in the
STARTED state.
Starting Specific Lines
To start specific lines in a multi-line path, use the Expand subsystem SCF START LINE command.
The command syntax is:
START LINE $device_name
device_name
is the line-logical device name.
The successful completion of this command leaves the specified line and its associated path in
the STARTED state. Other lines in the multi-line path are not started.
Configuration Example
This example shows a multi-line path with one direct-connect line and one Expand-over-SNA
line. Figure 27 illustrates the configuration of this example.
Step 5: Start the Path-Logical Device 187
Figure 27 Multi-Line Configuration Example
NOTE: The SWAN concentrator used by the SNAX/APN process $SNA1 is shown as a
transparent box because it is not configured in this command example.
These command examples show the WAN subsystem SCF commands used to configure the
multi-line path shown in Figure 27.
•
This SCF ADD PROFILE command creates a profile for a path-logical device named
EXPPATH using the PEXPPATH profile:
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#EXPPATH, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXPPATH
•
This SCF ADD PROFILE command creates a profile named MLHTER that will be used by
the direct-connect line in the multi-line path. MLHDIR is created using the PEXQMSWN
profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#MLHDIR, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQMSWN
•
This SCF ADD PROFILE command creates a profile named MLHSNA that will be used by
the Expand-over-SNA line in the multi-line path. MLHSNA is created using the PEXQMNAM
profile.
-> ADD PROFILE $ZZWAN.#MLHSNA, FILE $SYSTEM.SYS01.PEXQMNAM
•
This SCF ADD DEVICE command creates a path-logical device named $PATH. Note that
$PATH uses the EXPPATH profile created above.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#PATH, PROFILE EXPPATH, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,1), &
RSIZE 0, PATHTF 1, NEXTSYS 21, l4TIMEOUT 3000
This SCF ADD DEVICE command creates a line-logical device named $LINE1 for the
direct-connect line. Note MLHDIR profile created above is used.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#LINE1, PROFILE MLHDIR, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 0, ALTCPU 1, TYPE (63,5), &
RSIZE 0, LINETF 2, MULTI $PATH, CLIP 2, LINE 0, &
ADAPTER SWAN003A, PATH A
•
This SCF ADD DEVICE command creates a line-logical device named $LINE2 for the
Expand-over-SNA line. Note MLHSNA profile created above is used.
-> ADD DEVICE $ZZWAN.#LINE2, PROFILE MLHSNA, IOPOBJECT &
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.LHOBJ, CPU 1, ALTCPU 2, TYPE (63,2), &
RSIZE 0, LINETF 3, MULTI $PATH, ASSOCIATEDEV $SNA1, &
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #SNAM
188 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Path-Logical Device Modifiers
This subsection describes the modifiers provided to configure special features and the default
values and ranges for the modifiers contained in the PEXPPATH profile.
Modifiers for Special Features
These modifiers are provided in the PEXPPATH profile to enable you to configure special features:
•
PATHBLOCKBYTES for the multipacket frame feature
•
PATHPACKETBYTES for the variable packet size feature
•
L4CONGCTRL_ON for the congestion control feature
•
SUPERPATH_ON for the Expand multi-CPU feature
•
L4CWNDCLAMP for the configuration of the congestion control transmit window feature
For configuration considerations for these features, see Subsystem Description. For more
information on the advantages and disadvantages of these features, see Planning a Network
Design.
The PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, L4CONGCTRL_ON, SUPERPATH_ON, and
L4CWNDCLAMP modifiers are described in detail in Expand Modifiers.
PEXPPATH Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXPPATH defines modifiers for path-logical devices. Table 21
lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if applicable. For
modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default Value” column
to indicate which modifier is present in the profile. For a complete description of the modifiers
listed in this table, see “Expand Modifiers” (page 306).
Table 21 PEXPPATH Modifiers
Modifier
Default Value
COMPRESS_OFF
✓
Range of Values
COMPRESS_ON
EXTMEMSIZE
8192
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
✓
0 through 32767
L4CONGCTRL_ON
L4CWNDCLAMP
32767
2000 through 2147483647
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
✓
L4RETRIES
3
3 through 255
L4SENDWINDOW
254
187 through 254
L4TIMEOUT
2000
50 through 32767
MAXMEM_MB
0
0 through 1024
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
✓
MAXSECREQ
2
2 through 32
255
0 through 254
1
NEXTSYS
Path-Logical Device Modifiers 189
Table 21 PEXPPATH Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
OSSPACE
32767
3072 through 32767
OSTIMEOUT
300
10 through 32767
PATHBLOCKBYTES
0
0 through 4095
PATHPACKETBYTES
1024
0 through 4095
PATHTF
0 (not set)
0 through 186
SUPERPATH_OFF
✓
SUPERPATH_ON
1
This is a required modifier. The default value is invalid and must be changed.
Line-Logical Device Modifiers
This subsection lists the modifiers for line-logical devices and describes the default value and
range of values for each modifier in the PEXQMSWN, PEXQMNAM, PEXQMSAT, PEXQMATM,
and PEXQMIP profiles. For a complete description of the modifiers listed in this subsection, see
Expand Modifiers.
NOTE: There are no required modifiers for direct-connect and satellite-connect lines in a
multi-line path.
X25AM Process Modifiers
You might need to set this X25AM modifier when configuring an X25AM process to be used by
an Expand-over-X.25 line. This modifier is described in detail in the X25AM Configuration and
Management Manual.
L3WINDOW n
Default:
2
Units:
Packets
Range:
1 through 15 (L3MOD128), 1 through 7 (L3MOD8)
This modifier specifies the number of packets that can be outstanding without an acknowledgment
from the network. You should set L3WINDOW to the largest possible value.
NOTE: Some X.25 networks limit the size of L3WINDOW. Consult your vendor for more
information.
PEXQMSWN and PEXQMSAT Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQMSWN defines modifiers for direct-connect lines in multi-line
paths. The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQMSAT defines modifiers for satellite-connect lines in
multi-line paths. Table 22 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this
profile, if applicable. For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the
“Default Value” column to indicate which modifier is present in the profile.
190 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Table 22 PEXQMSWN and PEXQMSAT Modifiers
Modifier
Default Value
CLOCKMODE_DCE
✓
Range of Values
CLOCKMODE_DTE
CLOCKSPEED_600
CLOCKSPEED_1200
CLOCKSPEED_2400
CLOCKSPEED_4800
CLOCKSPEED_9600
CLOCKSPEED_19200
✓
CLOCKSPEED_38400
CLOCKSPEED_56000
CLOCKSPEED_115200
DELAY
10
0 through 511
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF
✓
FLAGFILL_OFF
FLAGFILL_ON
✓
FRAMESIZE
132
INTERFACE_RS232
✓
64 through 2047
INTERFACE_RS422
L2DISCARDONRESET_OFF
L2DISCARDONRESET_ON
✓
L2RETRIES
10
1 through 255
L2TIMEOUT
100
20 through 32767
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
PROGRAM
$SYSTEM.CSSnn.C1097P00
(direct-connect)
$SYSTEM.CSSnn.C1098P00
(satellite-connect)
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
0
0 to 99
QUALITYTIMER
60 seconds
0 to 77600 (12hrs)
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
Line-Logical Device Modifiers 191
Table 22 PEXQMSWN and PEXQMSAT Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
7 (direct-connect)
2 through 61
STARTUP_ON
TXWINDOW
18 (satellite-connect)
PEXQMNAM Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQMNAM defines modifiers for Expand-over-NAM lines in
multi-line paths. Table 23 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this
profile, if applicable. For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the
“Default Value” column to indicate which modifier is present in the profile.
Table 23 PEXQMNAM Modifiers
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
✓
1
ASSOCIATEDEV
Any 8-character string
1
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
Any 8-character string
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE ✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
L2RETRIES
10
1 through 255
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
RETRYPROBE
20
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
STARTUP_ON
TXWINDOW
1
7
2 through 61
This is required modifier. It has no default value.
PEXQMIP Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQMIP defines modifiers for Expand-over-IP lines in multi-line
paths. Table 24 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this profile, if
applicable. For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the “Default
Value” column to indicate which modifier is present in the profile.
192 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Table 24 PEXQMIP Modifiers
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
1
ASSOCIATEDEV
✓
None
Any 8-character string
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE ✓
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
2
0.0.0.1
Any 36-character string
1
1024
0 through 65534
DESTIPADDR
DESTIPPORT
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF
✓
FRAMESIZE
132
IPVER_IPV4
✓
64 through 2047
IPVER_IPV6
L2RETRIES
20
1 through 255
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
MAXRECONNECTS
0
0 through 32767
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
0
0 to 99
QUALITYTIMER
60 seconds
0 to 77600 (12hrs)
RETRYPROBE
19
1 through 255
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
2
0.0.0.1
Any 36-character string
SRCIPPORT
1
1024
0 through 65534
STARTUP_OFF
✓
SRCIPADDR
STARTUP_ON
TXWINDOW
7
2 through 25
V6DESTIPADDR
0000:0000:0000:
Any 45-character string
0000:0000:0000:
0000:0000
V6SRCIPADDR
0000:0000:0000:
Any 45-character string
0000:0000:0000:
0000:0000
1
This is a required modifier.
2
This is a required modifier. For IP address syntax, see the TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual, TCP/IP
(Parallel Library) Configuration and Management Manual, or TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual.
Line-Logical Device Modifiers 193
PEXQMATM Modifiers
The disk file $SYSTEM.SYSnn.PEXQMATM defines modifiers for Expand-over-ATM lines in
multi-line paths. Table 25 lists the default value and range of values for each modifier in this
profile, if applicable. For modifiers that are mutually exclusive, a check mark (✓) is shown in the
“Default Value” column to indicate which modifier is present in the profile.
Table 25 PEXQMATM Modifiers
Modifier
Default Value
Range of Values
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
OFF
ON or OFF
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
✓
ON or OFF
None
Any 8-character string
1
ASSOCIATEDEV
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE ✓
2
ATMSEL
%H80
3
CALLTYPE_PVC
ON or OFF
0 through %HFF
✓
2
CALLTYPE_SVC
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
2
DESTATMADDR
(ISONSAP:%H00...)
Any valid ISO NSAP ATM address
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF
✓
FRAMESIZE
132
64 through 2047
L2RETRIES
20
1 through 255
LINEPRIORITY
1
1 through 9
LINETF
0
0 through 186
0
0 through 32767
PVCNAME
None
Any 8-character string
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
0
0 to 99
QUALITYTIMER
60 seconds
0 to 77600 (12hrs)
RXWINDOW
7
2 through 15
SPEED
0
0 or 1200 through 224000
SPEEDK
NOT_SET
0 through 4,000,000,000
STARTUP_OFF
✓
MAXRECONNECTS
3
STARTUP_ON
TXWINDOW
7
2 through 25
1
This is a required modifier.
2
This modifier is required for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use SVC connections.
3
This modifier is required for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use PVC connections.
194 Configuring Multi-Line Paths
Part III Subsystem Control Facility (SCF)
Part III consists of these chapters, which describe the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) interface to
the Expand subsystem:
Chapter 14
“Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands” (page 199)
Chapter 15
“Tracing” (page 291)
Contents
14 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands..............................................199
Overview of the Expand Subsystem SCF Interface.........................................................................200
Expand Subsystem Objects........................................................................................................200
Object States...............................................................................................................................202
SCF Commands and Objects......................................................................................................202
Sensitive and Nonsensitive Commands......................................................................................203
Wild-Card Support.......................................................................................................................203
Time Values.................................................................................................................................203
SCF and the WAN Subsystem.........................................................................................................203
SCF and the SLSA Subsystem.........................................................................................................204
ABORT Command............................................................................................................................204
Considerations.............................................................................................................................205
Examples.....................................................................................................................................205
ACTIVATE Command.......................................................................................................................205
Considerations.............................................................................................................................205
Example.......................................................................................................................................205
ALTER Command.............................................................................................................................206
ALTER DEVICE Command..............................................................................................................206
Considerations.............................................................................................................................206
ALTER PATH Command...................................................................................................................206
Considerations.............................................................................................................................207
Examples.....................................................................................................................................207
ALTER LINE Command....................................................................................................................207
Considerations.............................................................................................................................212
Examples.....................................................................................................................................214
ALTER PROCESS Command..........................................................................................................214
Example.......................................................................................................................................216
DELETE ENTRY Command.............................................................................................................216
Considerations.............................................................................................................................216
Examples.....................................................................................................................................217
INFO Command................................................................................................................................217
INFO PATH Command......................................................................................................................217
OBEYFORM Option....................................................................................................................221
Considerations.............................................................................................................................221
INFO LINE Command.......................................................................................................................221
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler Processes..................................................221
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes....................................................................................225
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes................................................................................229
OBEYFORM Option....................................................................................................................232
Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes.................................233
Considerations.............................................................................................................................236
INFO PROCESS Command.............................................................................................................236
CONNECTS Option.....................................................................................................................242
LINESET Option..........................................................................................................................243
NETMAP Option..........................................................................................................................244
OBEYFORM Option....................................................................................................................247
PATHSET Option.........................................................................................................................247
RPT Option..................................................................................................................................249
SUPERPATH Option...................................................................................................................249
SYSTEMS Option........................................................................................................................251
PRIMARY PROCESS Command.....................................................................................................252
Considerations.............................................................................................................................252
196 Contents
Examples.....................................................................................................................................252
PROBE PROCESS Command.........................................................................................................252
START Command.............................................................................................................................254
Considerations.............................................................................................................................255
Examples.....................................................................................................................................255
STATS Command.............................................................................................................................255
STATS PATH Command...................................................................................................................255
Considerations.............................................................................................................................260
Examples.....................................................................................................................................260
STATS PATH NODE Command........................................................................................................261
Examples.....................................................................................................................................264
STATS LINE Command....................................................................................................................264
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes....................................................................................265
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes................................................................................266
Expand-over-ServerNet, Expand-over-X.25, and Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler Processes...268
SWAN Concentrator Lines..........................................................................................................269
Considerations.............................................................................................................................273
Examples.....................................................................................................................................273
STATS PROCESS Command...........................................................................................................274
STATUS Command...........................................................................................................................277
STATUS PATH Command................................................................................................................277
Considerations.............................................................................................................................278
Examples.....................................................................................................................................278
STATUS LINE Command..................................................................................................................279
Considerations.............................................................................................................................284
Examples.....................................................................................................................................284
STOP Command..............................................................................................................................285
Considerations.............................................................................................................................285
Examples.....................................................................................................................................285
TRACE Command............................................................................................................................285
Considerations.............................................................................................................................289
Examples.....................................................................................................................................289
VERSION Command........................................................................................................................289
Considerations.............................................................................................................................290
Examples.....................................................................................................................................290
VERSION PROCESS Command.....................................................................................................290
15 Tracing...........................................................................................................291
Why Tracing Is Important..................................................................................................................291
How to Use Tracing..........................................................................................................................291
Tracing $NCP..............................................................................................................................292
Tracing a Path or Single Line......................................................................................................292
Tracing a Line in a Multi-Line Path..............................................................................................292
Tracing Using SCF............................................................................................................................292
PTrace Command Overview.............................................................................................................295
FILTER Command............................................................................................................................295
Considerations.............................................................................................................................296
Examples.....................................................................................................................................296
FIND Command................................................................................................................................296
Considerations.............................................................................................................................297
Examples.....................................................................................................................................297
FROM Command..............................................................................................................................297
Example.......................................................................................................................................297
HEX Command.................................................................................................................................297
Example.......................................................................................................................................298
Contents 197
LABEL Command.............................................................................................................................298
Example.......................................................................................................................................298
NEXT Command...............................................................................................................................298
Example.......................................................................................................................................299
OCTAL Command............................................................................................................................299
Example.......................................................................................................................................299
OUT Command.................................................................................................................................299
Example.......................................................................................................................................299
RECORD Command.........................................................................................................................299
Examples.....................................................................................................................................300
SELECT Command..........................................................................................................................300
198 Contents
14 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
This section describes the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) interface to the Expand subsystem
and provides SCF command syntax. For general information about running SCF, see the SCF
Reference Manual for H-Series RVUs.
Topics described in this section include:
•
“Overview of the Expand Subsystem SCF Interface” (page 200)
•
“SCF and the WAN Subsystem” (page 203)
•
“SCF and the SLSA Subsystem” (page 204)
•
“ABORT Command” (page 204)
•
“ACTIVATE Command” (page 205)
•
“ALTER Command” (page 206)
•
“ALTER DEVICE Command” (page 206)
•
“ALTER PATH Command” (page 206)
•
“ALTER LINE Command” (page 207)
•
“ALTER PROCESS Command” (page 214)
•
“DELETE ENTRY Command” (page 216)
•
“INFO Command” (page 217)
•
“INFO PATH Command” (page 217)
•
“INFO LINE Command” (page 221)
•
“INFO PROCESS Command” (page 236)
•
“PRIMARY PROCESS Command” (page 252)
•
“PROBE PROCESS Command” (page 252)
•
“START Command” (page 254)
•
“STATS Command” (page 255)
•
“STATS PATH Command” (page 255)
•
“STATS PATH NODE Command” (page 261)
•
“STATS PROCESS Command” (page 274)
•
“STATUS Command” (page 277)
•
“STATUS PATH Command” (page 277)
•
“STATUS LINE Command” (page 279)
•
“STOP Command” (page 285)
•
“TRACE Command” (page 285)
•
“VERSION Command” (page 289)
•
“VERSION PROCESS Command” (page 290)
199
Overview of the Expand Subsystem SCF Interface
The Expand subsystem SCF interface is provided to configure, control, and display information
about configured objects within the Expand subsystem. This subsection provides information on
these topics:
•
Expand Subsystem Objects
•
Object States
•
SCF Commands and Objects
•
Sensitive and Nonsensitive Commands
•
Time Values
Expand Subsystem Objects
The SCF objects for the Expand subsystem correspond to process components within the
subsystem. There are four Expand object types:
•
LINE
•
PATH
•
PROCESS
•
ENTRY
Figure 28 shows the Expand subsystem objects supported by SCF and their hierarchical order.
Figure 28 Expand Subsystem Object Hierarchy
LINE and PATH Objects
A line is a single communications link between two adjacent nodes in a network; a path is a
logical connection between two adjacent nodes that can consist of multiple lines.
Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Processes
An Expand line-handler process that manages a single line consists of a single logical device
that manages both path and line functions. The path and line functions can be defined as:
•
The path function corresponds to the functions defined by Layers 3 and 4 of the Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model. You specify the PATH object when you
want to display Layer 3 and 4 information or alter Layer 3 and 4 attributes for a single-line
Expand line-handler process.
•
The line function corresponds to the functions defined by Layer 2 of the OSI Reference
Model. You specify the LINE object when you want to display Layer 2 information or alter
Layer 2 attributes for a single-line Expand line-handler process.
200 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
NOTE: For more information on how the Expand subsystem relates to the OSI Reference
Model, see “Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model” (page 344).
Multi-Line Paths
A multi-line path consists of multiple logical devices: a single logical device manages the path
function (called a path logical device) and separate logical devices (called line logical devices)
manage each of the lines in the path.
You must specify the PATH object when you want to manage a path logical device and the LINE
object when you want to manage a line logical device. The LINE object is subordinate to the
PATH object when it describes a line logical device.
NOTE: SCF will return an error message if you try to use the LINE object to manage a path
logical device or the PATH object to manage a line logical device.
Multi-CPU Paths
A multi-CPU path consists of up to 16 individual Expand paths, including multi-line paths. Each
Expand line-handler process (or multi-line path) that is a member of a multi-CPU path is configured
in a different processor.
You use SCF commands to manage multi-CPU paths in the same way that you use SCF
commands to manage single-line Expand line-handler processes.
Expand-over-NAM, IP, ATM, ServerNet, and X.25 Connections
Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, Expand-over-ServerNet, and
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes use the Layer 2 (line function) services of another
process. For example, an Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process uses the Layer 2 services
provided by an X25AM line-handler process.
LINE and PATH Object Names
A LINE object name can be the device name of an Expand line-handler process that manages
a single line, or it can be the device name of a line logical device (a line in a multi-line path).
A PATH object name can be the device name of an Expand line-handler process that manages
a single line, or it can be the device name of a path logical device.
These are some typical device names:
$SYS1
An Expand line-handler process that manages a single line to the node named \SYS1
$PATH
A path logical device
$LINE1, $LINE2, and so on
Line logical devices
PROCESS Object
The PROCESS object type might see the Expand manager process ($ZEXP), the network control
process ($NCP), or an Expand line-handler process.
ENTRY Object
The ENTRY object type identifies an entry in the network routing table (NRT). You use the ENTRY
object to delete a system name from the NRT if the system associated with that name is not
connected to the network. The ENTRY object type applies only to the object name $NCP.
Overview of the Expand Subsystem SCF Interface 201
Object States
Objects can have operational states, such as STOPPED or STARTED. The exact sequence of
states an object goes through varies from object to object and from subsystem to subsystem.
Some subsystem commands recognize only a few states. Applicable states are discussed with
each subsystem description.
The operational state of an object at a given instant is important. For example, certain commands
have no effect on objects when those objects are in a particular state but can affect the object
when it is in another state.
These states are recognized by the Expand subsystem:
State
Description
ABORTING
The object is being aborted. Typically, this state is triggered by an ABORT
command or by a device malfunction. In this state, no new links are allowed and
drastic measures are applied to reach the STOPPED state. This state is
irrevocable.
DIAGNOSING
This state is entered when the object is being diagnosed by a diagnostic process.
STARTED
The object is initialized and ready for normal data traffic.
STARTING
The object is being initialized and is attempting to start.
STOPPED
The object is not ready for normal operations. STOPPED is equivalent to down,
not ready, or killed.
SCF Commands and Objects
Table 26 lists the SCF commands and objects that are applicable to the Expand subsystem.
Table 26 Expand Commands and Object Types
Object Types
Command
PROCESS(Line
Handler)
PROCESS($NCP) ENTRY
PATH
LINE
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
STATUS
X
X
STOP
X
X
X
X
ABORT
ACTIVATE
X
ALTER
X
DELETE
X
INFO
PRIMARY
X
X
PROBE
X
X
START
STATS
X
TRACE
VERSION
X
X
X
202 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Sensitive and Nonsensitive Commands
SCF commands are either sensitive or nonsensitive. Sensitive commands can change the
state or configuration of subsystem objects, start or stop tracing, or change the values of statistics
counters; they can cause communications to cease if improperly used. Nonsensitive commands
request information or status but do not affect operation. The use of sensitive commands is limited
to these user IDs:
•
Members of the super group (group ID 255)
•
Members of the user group that owns the process to which the command is sent
Table 27 lists the sensitive and nonsensitive Expand SCF commands.
Table 27 Sensitive and Nonsensitive Expand SCF Commands
Sensitive Commands
Nonsensitive Commands
ABORT
INFO
ACTIVATE
PROBE
ALTER
STATS (without the RESET option)
DELETE
STATUS
PRIMARY
VERSION
START
STATS (with the RESET option)
STOP
TRACE
Wild-Card Support
Object name templates (wild cards) are supported for most WAN subsystem SCF commands
as described in the SCF Reference Manual for H-Series RVUs.
Time Values
The variable time is used for attributes that require a time interval to be specified. The syntax
of time is
HH:MM:SS.hh
where HH is an integer that specifies hours, MM is an integer that specifies minutes, SS is an
integer that specifies seconds, and hh is an integer that specifies hundredths of a second. The
attribute descriptions in this section provide the range of values that are valid for that attribute.
In the displays generated by the INFO command, HH is an integer in the range 0 through 24. MM
and SS are integers in the range 0 through 60, and hh is an integer in the range 0 through 99.
For example, 5:27.02 is 5 minutes, 27 seconds, and 2 hundredths of a second.
SCF and the WAN Subsystem
On Integrity NonStop NS-series servers, you use the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem to
create $NCP and the Expand line-handler processes. You can also use the SCF interface to the
WAN subsystem to perform certain network-management tasks. The SCF interface to the WAN
subsystem is described in the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
SCF and the WAN Subsystem 203
This list explains when to use the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem versus when to use
the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem:
•
Use the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem to add $NCP and the Expand line-handler
processes to the system.
•
You can use either the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem or the SCF interface to the
WAN subsystem to change modifier values for Expand line-handler processes and $NCP.
Consider these when choosing which SCF interface to use:
◦
Changes made with the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem are temporary (they
do not remain across system loads) while changes made with the SCF interface to the
WAN subsystem are permanent (they do remain across system loads).
◦
You can change any Expand modifier using the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem
(ALTER DEVICE command).
◦
You can change most, but not all, Expand modifiers using the SCF interface to the
Expand subsystem (ALTER LINE and ALTER PATH commands). Most Expand modifiers
have corresponding attribute names in Expand SCF.
◦
Certain Expand SCF attributes do not correspond to Expand modifiers. You can change
these attribute values only by using the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem.
◦
Use the Expand subsystem STOP LINE or STOP PATH command before you change
attribute values using the ALTER LINE or ALTER PATH command.
◦
Use the WAN subsystem STOP DEVICE command to stop an Expand line-handler
process before you change modifier values using the ALTER DEVICE command.
•
The SCF interface to the WAN subsystem handles Expand line-handler processes and $NCP
as devices (DEVICE object). It does not provide LINE, PATH, PROCESS, or ENTRY objects
for the Expand subsystem. Do not confuse the WAN subsystem PATH and PROCESS
objects with the Expand subsystem PATH and PROCESS objects.
•
Use the WAN subsystem START DEVICE command to start an Expand line-handler process
in the primary and backup processors. Use the Expand subsystem START PATH or START
LINE command to start path and line functions after the Expand line-handler process is
started.
•
Use the Expand subsystem STOP PATH or STOP LINE command before you use the STOP
DEVICE command to stop the Expand line-handler process in the primary and backup
processors.
For a complete comparison of the Expand and WAN subsystem SCF interfaces, see Expand
and WAN SCF Comparison.
SCF and the SLSA Subsystem
For more information on the management of the ATMSAP connection object by the SCF ABORT,
ADD, ALTER, DELETE, INFO, NAMES, START, STATS, STATUS, and STOP commands, see
the LAN Configuration and Management Manual.
ABORT Command
The ABORT command terminates the operation of LINE or PATH objects as quickly as
possible—only enough processing is done to ensure the security of the subsystem. The objects
are left in the STOPPED state. ABORT is a sensitive command.
The ABORT command syntax is:
ABORT { PATH path-name | LINE line-name }
204 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
PATH path-name
indicates the device name of a path.
LINE line-name
indicates the device name of a line.
Considerations
•
If a line is specified, the execution of this command terminates activity on the specified line.
•
If a path is specified, the execution of this command terminates activity on all lines associated
with the specified path.
•
To terminate activity nondisruptively, use the STOP Command. The STOP command
terminates the operation of a LINE or PATH object only after all activity on the line or path
stops. The ABORT command halts all activity abruptly: your files and listings could be
inconsistent or incomplete if aborted when files are open over a line or path.
•
The lines or paths are placed in the STOPPED state and the communications line interface
processor (CLIP) remains loaded if lines or paths are for a ServerNet wide area network
(SWAN) concentrator.
•
You can abort several lines or paths with a single ABORT command by specifying multiple
PATH or LINE objects using parentheses as:
PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ...)
LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
Examples
The first SCF command aborts one line and the second SCF commands aborts two lines:
-> ABORT LINE $LHCMP2
-> ABORT LINE ($LHCMP2,$LHCMP3)
The first SCF command aborts one path and the second SCF command aborts two paths:
-> ABORT PATH $PTS
-> ABORT PATH ($PTS,$PTS2)
ACTIVATE Command
The ACTIVATE command initiates an immediate rebalance of a multi-CPU path to a specified
neighbor system. ACTIVATE is a sensitive command.
The ACTIVATE command syntax is:
ACTIVATE PROCESS $NCP, REBAL [ system-name ]
system-name
specifies the multi-CPU path to be rebalanced. If no system name is specified, all
multi-CPU paths on the system are rebalanced.
Considerations
You can schedule automatic rebalancing of multi-CPU paths by using the ALTER PROCESS
command.
Example
This SCF command initiates the immediate rebalance of the multi-CPU path to the system named
\NODEA:
-> ACTIVATE PROCESS $NCP, REBAL \NODEA
ACTIVATE Command 205
ALTER Command
The ALTER command changes the values for PATH object types, LINE object types, and the
PROCESS $NCP object type. ALTER is a sensitive command.
The ALTER command syntax is:
ALTER { PROCESS $NCP | PATH path-name | LINE line-name }
ALTER DEVICE Command
The WAN subsystem ALTER DEVICE command changes the values of a data communications
subsystem object.
The ALTER DEVICE command changes only the specified attributes of the target object. For
more information on this command, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management
Manual.
The ALTER DEVICE command has this syntax (you must specify one or more attributes):
ALTER DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device-name
[ , ADAPTER conc-name
]
[ , CLIP clip-num
]
[ , HIGHPIN "ON" | "OFF"
]
[ , IOPOBJECT object-file-name
]
[ , LINE line-num
]
[ , modifier-keyword [ modifier-value ]
]...
[ , PATH path-name
]
[ , [ RECSIZE | RSIZE ] max-rex-size
]
[ , RESET
[ ( modifier-keyword [ modifier-keyword ... ] ) ] ]
[ , TYPE ( type , sub-type )
]
Considerations
The default value for HIGHPIN is "ON" because Hewlett Packard Enterprise expects that no one
would ever want a line handler to run at low pin. However, if you want to change this value to
"OFF" you must do so explicitly by issuing this commands to SCF:
1->
2->
3->
4->
5->
abort line $lh01
stop device $zzwan.#lh01
alter device $zzwan.#lh01, highpin off
start device $zzwan.#lh01
start line $lh01
Note that in Step 1, you must stop the line to stop the device, and in Step 2, you must stop the
device to alter the device.
ALTER PATH Command
The ALTER PATH command is described below. The PATH object type takes this form:
PATH path-name attribute-spec [, attribute-spec ]...
where path-name is the device name of a path and attribute-spec is one
of this attribute name and value combinations:
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
COMPRESS { ON | OFF } ]
L4CONGCTRL { ON | OFF } ]
L4CWNDCLAMP integer ]
L4EXTPACKETS { ON | OFF } ]
L4RETRIES integer ]
L4SENDWINDOW n]
L4TIMEOUT time ]
NEXTSYS system-number ]
206 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
[
[
[
[
[
OSSPACE integer ]
OSTIMEOUT time ]
PATHBLOCKBYTES integer ]
PATHPACKETBYTES integer ]
SUPERPATH { ON | OFF } ]
Table 28 lists the path attributes that have corresponding profile modifiers.
Table 28 ALTER PATH Attributes and Corresponding Profile Modifiers
SCF Attribute
Profile Modifier
COMPRESS
COMPRESS_OFF/COMPRESS_ON
L4CONGCTRL
L4CONGCTRL_OFF/L4CONGCTRL_ON
L4CWNDCLAMP
L4CWNDCLAMP n
L4EXTPACKETS
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON
L4RETRIES
L4RETRIES n
L4SENDWINDOW
L4SENDWINDOW n
L4TIMEOUT
L4TIMEOUT n
NEXTSYS
NEXTSYS n
OSSPACE
OSSPACE n
OSTIMEOUT
OSTIMEOUT n
PATHBLOCKBYTES
PATHBLOCKBYTES n
PATHPACKETBYTES
PATHPACKETBYTES n
SUPERPATH
SUPERPATH_OFF/SUPERPATH_ON
For more information on each path attribute, see the description of the corresponding profile
modifier in Expand Modifiers.
Considerations
•
You can alter several paths with a single ALTER command by specifying multiple PATH
objects using parentheses as:
-> PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command changes the value of the path’s NEXTSYS attribute to system 100 and the
value of its TIMERINACTIVITY attribute to 9 minutes and 30 seconds:
-> ALTER PATH $PATH1, NEXTSYS 100, TIMERINACTIVITY 9:30.00
This SCF command changes the value of the TIMERINACTIVITY attribute to 10 minutes for two
different paths:
-> ALTER PATH ($PATH2,$PATH3), TIMERINACTIVITY 10:00.00
ALTER LINE Command
The ALTER LINE command is described below. The LINE object type takes this form:
LINE line-name attribute-spec [, attribute-spec ]...
ALTER LINE Command 207
where line-name is the device name of a line and attribute-spec is one of
this attribute name and value combinations:
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
AFTERMAXRETRIES { DOWN | PASSIVE } ]
ASSOCIATEDEV device-name ]
ASSOCIATESUBDEV subdevice-name ]
ATMSEL selector-byte ]
CALLTYPE { PVC | SVC | ATMSAP} ]
CLBDWNLOADRETRIES integer ]
CLBDWNLOADTIMR time ]
CLBIDLETIMER time ]
CLOCKMODE { DTE | DCE } ]
CLOCKSPEED { 600 | 1200 | 2400 | 4800 | 9600 |
19200 | 38400 | 56000 | 115200 } ]
CONNECTTYPE { ACTIVEANDPASSIVE | PASSIVE } ]
DELAY time ]
DESTATMADDR atm-address ]
DESTIPADDR ip-address ]
DESTIPPORT integer]
DOWNIFBADQUALITY { ON | OFF } ]
DSRTIMER time ]
FLAGFILL { ON | OFF } ]
IDLETIMEOUT time ]
INTERFACE { RS232 | RS422 } ]
IPVER (IPv4 | IPv6 } ]
L2DISCARDONRESET { ON | OFF } ]
L2RETRIES integer ]
L2TIMEOUT time ]
LIFNAME lif-name ]
LINEPRIORITY 1-9 ]
LINETF integer ]
MAXRECONNECTS integer ]
PROGRAM file-spec ]
PVCNAME pvc-name ]
QUALITYTHRESHOLD 0 to 99 ]
QUALITYTIMER time ]
RETRYPROBE integer ]
RXWINDOW integer ]
SPEED{1.2 | 2.4 | 4.8 | 9.6 | 19.2 | 56 | 64 | 128 | 224 }]
SPEEDK bps or symbolic names such as ETHER10
SRCIPADDR ip-address ]
SRCIPPORT integer ]
TIMERBIND time ]
TIMERINACTIVITY time ]
TIMERPROBE time ]
TIMERRECONNECT time ]
TXWINDOW integer ]
V6DESTIPADDR ipv6-address ]
V6SRCIPADDR ipv6-address ]
Table 29 lists the line attributes that have corresponding profile modifiers.
Table 29 ALTER LINE Attributes and Corresponding Profile Modifiers
SCF Attribute
Profile Modifier
AFTERMAXRETRIES
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN/AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
ASSOCIATEDEV
ASSOCIATEDEV $dev-name
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #n
ATMSEL
ATMSEL n
CALLTYPE
CALLTYPE_PVC/CALLTYPE_SVC/CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
CLOCKMODE
CLOCKMODE_DCE/CLOCKMODE_DTE
208 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Table 29 ALTER LINE Attributes and Corresponding Profile Modifiers (continued)
SCF Attribute
Profile Modifier
CLOCKSPEED
CLOCKSPEED_600/CLOCKSPEED_1200
CLOCKSPEED_2400/CLOCKSPEED_4800
CLOCKSPEED_9600/CLOCKSPEED_19200
CLOCKSPEED_38400/CLOCKSPEED_56000
CLOCKSPEED_115200
CONNECTTYPE
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE/
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
DELAY
DELAY n
DESTATMADDR
DESTATMADDR n
DESTIPADDR
DESTIPADDR n
DESTIPPORT
DESTIPPORT n
DOWNIFBADQUALITY
DOWNIFBADQUALITY ON/ DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF
FLAGFILL
FLAGFILL_OFF/ FLAGFILL_ON
INTERFACE
INTERFACE_RS232/INTERFACE_RS422
IPVER
IPVER_IPV4/IPVER_IPV6
L2DISCARDONRESET
SCF STATS LINE Command (Expand-over-ATM)
L2RETRIES
L2RETRIES n
L2TIMEOUT
L2TIMEOUT n
LIFNAME
LIFNAME n
LINEPRIORITY
LINEPRIORITY n
LINETF
LINETF n
MAXRECONNECTS
MAXRECONNECTS n
PROGRAM
PROGRAM n
PVCNAME
PVCNAME n
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
QUALITYTHRESHOLD n
QUALITYTIMER
QUALITYTIMER n
RETRYPROBE
RETRYPROBE n
RXWINDOW
RXWINDOW n
SPEED
SPEED n
SPEEDK
SPEEDK n
SRCIPADDR
SRCIPADDR n
SRCIPPORT
SRCIPPORT n
TIMERINACTIVITY
TIMERINACTIVITY n
TIMERPROBE
TIMERPROBE n
TIMERRECONNECT
TIMERRECONNECT n
TXWINDOW
TXWINDOW n
ALTER LINE Command 209
Table 29 ALTER LINE Attributes and Corresponding Profile Modifiers (continued)
SCF Attribute
Profile Modifier
V6DESTIPADDR
V6DESTIPADDR n
V6SRCIPADDR
V6SRCIPADDR n
For more information on the line attributes that have corresponding profile modifiers, see the
description of the corresponding profile modifier in Expand Modifiers.
These Line attributes do not have corresponding profile modifiers:
CLBDWNLOADRETRIES integer
specifies the maximum number of times that the Expand line-handler process will
try to download a communications line interface processor (CLIP). This attribute
applies to ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrators. The valid range
for this attribute is 2 to 255. The default is 3.
CLBDWNLOADTIMR time
specifies the time interval that the Expand line-handler process will wait for the
successful completion of a communications line interface processor (CLIP)
download operation. This attribute applies to ServerNet wide area network (SWAN)
concentrators only. The time interval is specified in the format described in “Time
Values” (page 203).
The valid range for this attribute is 30.00 seconds to 5:27.67 minutes. The default
is 30.00 seconds.
CLBIDLETIMER time
specifies the time interval that the Expand line-handler process will wait before
sending successive status probes to the communications line interface processor
(CLIP). A value of 0 indicates that no status probe will be issued. This attribute
applies to ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrators only. The time
interval is specified in the format described in “Time Values” (page 203).
The valid range for this attribute is 0 to 5:27.67 minutes. The default is 10.00
seconds.
DSRTIMER time
specifies the amount of time that the line-handler process should wait after a Data
Set Ready (DSR) signal from the modem has shut off before it returns a modem
status message. This attribute applies to ServerNet wide area network (SWAN)
concentrators only. The time interval is specified in the format described in “Time
Values” (page 203).
The valid range for this attribute is 1.0 seconds to 5:27.67 minutes. The default
is 1.0 second.
IDLETIMEOUT time
specifies the time interval to wait after modem loss before timing out following the
loss of a Data Set Ready (DSR) signal from the modem. The time interval is
specified in the format described in “Time Values” (page 203).
This attribute applies only to intelligent modems. For lines attached to a ServerNet
wide area network (SWAN) concentrator, IDLETIMEOUT is used as the idle
transmit timer and idle receive timer for Layer 2 running on the communications
line interface processor (CLIP).
210 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
The valid range for this attribute is 0.50 seconds to 5:27.67 minutes. The default
is 10 seconds.
RETRYPROBE integer
specifies the number of times the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will retry its probe of the network access method (NAM), or
how many times the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process
will retry the probe of the remote Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process before declaring the network unavailable. A value of 0 indicates that
timeouts are ignored and the connect state is maintained.
The valid range for this attribute is 1 to 255. These are the default values:
Expand-over-NAM lines:
20
Expand-over-ServerNet lines
10
Expand-over-IP lines:
19
Expand-over-ATM lines:
19
TIMERBIND time
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will wait for a completion of its bind request to the NAM
process. The time interval is specified in the format described in “Time Values”
(page 203).
The TIMERBIND attribute does not apply to Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM
line-handler processes. A value of 0 indicates an indefinite interval (no timer).
The valid range for this attribute is 0 to 9:06:07.00 hours. The default value for
Expand-over-NAM lines is 30.00 seconds and the default value for
Expand-over-ServerNet lines is 60.00 seconds.
TIMERINACTIVITY time
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM line-handler process will
wait during a period of inactivity before requesting disconnection from the network
service provided by the network access method (NAM) process, or the time interval
the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will wait during a period of user data
inactivity before suppressing non-essential maintenance traffic (netmaps) so that
an external process can disconnect from the network. In both cases, the line
remains ready and the next user data traffic brings the line out of the inactive
state.
This attribute is applicable only for Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-X.25, and
Expand-over-SNAX line-handler processes. The valid range for this attribute is 0
to 32767 seconds. The default value for Expand-over-X.25 and Expand-over-SNAX
lines is 15:00 minutes, the default value for Expand-over-IP lines is 0 (no timer).
TIMERPROBE time
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will wait to send out a probe to obtain the status of the NAM
process, or the time interval that the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process will wait to probe the remote Expand-over-IP or
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. The time interval is specified in the format
described in “Time Values” (page 203).
ALTER LINE Command
211
Probes will continue to be sent out the number of times specified by the
RETRYPROBE attribute. If the TIMERPROBE/RETRYPROBE cycle expires
without a returned status, then the Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-ServerNet,
Expand-over-ATM, or Expand-over-IP line-handler process declares the network
unavailable.
The valid ranges for these attribute:
Expand-over-IP lines:
1 through 32767
Expand-over-ATM lines:
1 through 32767
Expand-over-X.25 lines:
1 through 32767
Expand-over-SNA lines:
1 through 32767
Expand-over-ServerNet lines:
30 through 32767
The default values for these attribute:
Expand-over-IP lines:
1
Expand-over-ATM lines:
1
Expand-over-X.25 lines:
300
Expand-over-SNA lines:
300
Expand-over-ServerNet lines:
30
TIMERRECONNECT time
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-ATM,
Expand-over-IP, or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process will wait for a
connection request to succeed. The range does not include 0. The time interval
is specified in the format described in “Time Values” (page 203).
Expand line-handler processes on opposite ends of an X25AM line should use
different values for TIMERRECONNECT.
The valid range for this attribute is 30.00 through 32767 seconds for
Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM lines and 0 through 32767 seconds for
Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet lines.
The default value for this attribute is 30.00 seconds for Expand-over-NAM,
Expand-over-ATM lines, and Expand-over-IP lines, and 60.00 seconds for
Expand-over-ServerNet lines.
Considerations
•
You can alter several lines with a single ALTER command by specifying multiple LINE objects
using parentheses as:
-> LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
•
Except for LINEPRIORITY and DELAY changing any other object attribute requires the lines
to be in STOPPED state.
212 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Table 30 specifies the applicable ALTER LINE attributes for the different types of line-handler
processes.
Table 30 ALTER LINE Attributes
Direct- and
SatelliteConnect
Expand- Over- Expand- Over- ExpandNAM
ServerNet
Over-IP
ExpandOver- ATM
AFTERMAXRETRIES
X
X
X
X
ASSOCIATEDEV
X
X
X
X
Attribute
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
X
ATMSEL
X
CALLTYPE
X
CLBDWNLOADRETRIES
X
CLBDWNLOADTIMR
X
CLBIDLETIMER
X
CLOCKMODE
X
CLOCKSPEED
X
CONNECTTYPE
DELAY
X
X
X
DESTATMADDR
X
DESTIPADDR
X
DESTIPPORT
X
DOWNIFBADQUALITY
X
DSRTIMER
X
FLAGFILL
X
IDLETIMEOUT
X
INTERFACE
X
X
IPVER
X
X
L2DISCARDONRESET
X
L2RETRIES
X
L2TIMEOUT
X
X
X
LIFNAME
X
LINEPRIORITY
X
X
X
X
X
LINETF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MAXRECONNECTS
PROGRAM
X
PVCNAME
X
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
X
X
X
QUALITYTIMER
X
X
X
ALTER LINE Command 213
Table 30 ALTER LINE Attributes (continued)
Direct- and
SatelliteConnect
Expand- Over- Expand- Over- ExpandNAM
ServerNet
Over-IP
ExpandOver- ATM
RETRYPROBE
X
X
X
X
RXWINDOW
X
X
Attribute
SPEED
X
X
X
X
X
SPEEDK
X
X
X
X
X
SRCIPADDR
X
SRCIPPORT
X
TIMERBIND
X
TIMERINACTIVITY
X
TIMERPROBE
X
TIMERRECONNECT
TXWINDOW
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
V6DESTIPADDR
X
V6SRCIPADDR
X
Examples
This SCF command changes the value of the line’s L2TIMEOUT attribute to 10 seconds:
-> ALTER LINE $LINEX, L2TIMEOUT 10.00
This SCF command disables the transmission of FLAGs when the line-handler process $LHBIT
is in the idle state:
-> ALTER LINE $LHBIT, FLAGFILL OFF
This SCF command changes the value of the TIMERPROBE attribute for two different lines:
-> ALTER LINE ($LHX251,$LHX252), TIMERPROBE 4:30.50
ALTER PROCESS Command
The ALTER PROCESS command changes the values of the attributes of the network control
process ($NCP). This command changes only the specified attributes of $NCP. ALTER PROCESS
is a sensitive command.
The ALTER PROCESS command for $NCP has this syntax:
ALTER PROCESS $NCP attribute-spec [ attribute-spec
] ...
where attribute-spec for the PROCESS object type for $NCP has this attribute name and
value combination:
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
ABORTTIMER time ]
AUTOREBAL { ON | OFF } ]
AUTOREBALTIME { time | ( time, start-time ) } ]
CONNECTTIME time ]
MAXCONNECTS integer ]
MAXTIMEOUTS integer ]
NETWORKDIAMETER integer ]
REBALTHRESHOLD integer ]
MSG43 { ON | OFF } ]
214 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
[ MSG46 { ON | OFF } ]
[ MSG48 { ON | OFF } ]
[ MSG49 { ON | OFF } ]
Table 31 lists the $NCP attributes that have corresponding profile modifiers.
Table 31 ALTER PROCESS Attributes and Corresponding Profile Modifiers
SCF Attribute
Profile Modifier
ABORTTIMER
ABORTTIMER n
CONNECTTIME
CONNECTTIME n
MAXCONNECTS
MAXCONNECTS n
MAXTIMEOUTS
MAXTIMEOUTS n
NETWORKDIAMETER
NETWORKDIAMETER n
REBALTHRESHOLD
REBALTHRESHOLD n
For more information on the $NCP attributes that have corresponding profile modifiers, see the
description of the corresponding profile modifier in Configuring the Network Control Process.
These $NCP attributes do not have corresponding profile modifiers:
AUTOREBAL { ON | OFF }
enables (ON) or disables (OFF) automatic rebalancing of the multi-CPU paths on
the system. The time at which automatic rebalancing will occur is determined by
the AUTOREBALTIME attribute. The default value is ON.
AUTOREBALTIME time | ( time, start-time )
determines when automatic rebalancing of multi-CPU paths on the system will
occur.
When time is specified, rebalancing will occur periodically at the time interval
specified starting after the command is run.
When (time, start-time) is specified, rebalancing will occur periodically at the
time interval specified starting at the time of day specified in start-time. The time
of day must be specified using a 24-hour clock and the local time of the system
on which $NCP resides.
The format of time interval (time) and time of day (start-time) is:
[DDD/]HH:MM:SS
where
[DDD/]
specifies the number of days and is an integer in the range 0 to 999. When [DDD/]
is specified in the starting time (start-time), it represents the number of days
that the specified time of day will be skipped before the first automatic rebalancing
will occur.
HH
specifies the hours and is an integer in the range 0 to 23.
MM
specifies the minutes and is an integer in the range 0 to 59.
SS
specifies seconds and is an integer in the range 0 to 59.
ALTER PROCESS Command 215
The default time interval is 1/0:0:0 (24 hours) and the default start time is 0:0:0
(midnight). The minimum time interval (time) is 15 minutes.
MSG43 { ON | OFF }
enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the reporting of event message 43 to the Event
Message Service (EMS) collector, $0. Event message 43 is equivalent to console
message 43. This is a critical message. It means that the connection to the
indicated system has been lost. The default value is OFF.
MSG46 { ON | OFF }
enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the reporting of event message 46 to the EMS
collector, $0. Event message 46 is equivalent to console message 46. This is not
a critical message. It means a connection has been made with the indicated remote
system. The default value is OFF.
MSG48 { ON | OFF }
enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the reporting of event message 48 to the EMS
collector, $0. Event message 48 is equivalent to console message 48. This is a
critical message. It means a change in processor status has occurred at the
indicated system. The default value is OFF.
MSG49 { ON | OFF }
enables (ON) or disables (OFF) the reporting of event message 49 to the EMS
collector, $0. Event message 49 is equivalent to console message 49. This is a
critical message. It means that the local $NCP has not received a status message
from $NCP at the indicated system for three time periods. The default value is
OFF.
Example
This SCF command changes the maximum number of $NCP connect requests to 10 and enables
the reporting of event message 43 to the EMS collector, $0:
-> ALTER PROCESS $NCP, MAXCONNECTS 10, MSG43 ON
DELETE ENTRY Command
The DELETE ENTRY command applies only to the network control process ($NCP). The command
removes system names from the network routing table (NRT) if the systems are not connected
within the network. DELETE ENTRY is a sensitive command.
The DELETE ENTRY command has this syntax:
DELETE ENTRY $NCP.{ * | system-number | \system-name }
* | system-number | \system-name
is the name or number of the system being deleted from the NRT. An asterisk (*)
specifies that all entries in the NRT should be deleted.
Considerations
An attempt to delete a system that is connected within the network results in the return of an
error message. To disconnect a system, use the ABORT PATH command described earlier in
this section.
216 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Examples
This SCF command removes from the NRT all the names of systems that are not connected
within the network:
-> DELETE ENTRY $NCP.*
This SCF command removes the system name \NODEA from the NRT if the system named
\NODEA is not connected within the network:
-> DELETE ENTRY $NCP.\NODEA
INFO Command
The INFO command displays the current or default attribute values for the specified objects.
INFO is a nonsensitive command.
The INFO command has this syntax:
INFO [ / OUT file-spec / ]
{ PROCESS $NCP | PATH path-name | LINE line-name }
[, DETAIL ]
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated by the command to be directed to the specified
file.
PATH path-name
indicates the device name of a path.
LINE line-name
indicates the device name of a line.
PROCESS $NCP
indicates the network control process ($NCP).
The OBEYFORM option is used with the INFO command and can be used on the PATH, LINE,
and PROCESS object types. The output is in the form of an ALTER command and allows for
easy creation of SCF command files. These command files can be used for configuration backup
and helps operators to easily restore configuration settings. For more information on OBEYFORM
option, see “INFO PATH Command” (page 217) on page“OBEYFORM Option” (page 221), “INFO
LINE Command” (page 221) on page,“OBEYFORM Option” (page 232), and “INFO PROCESS
Command” (page 236) on page “OBEYFORM Option” (page 247).
INFO PATH Command
The display for a path without the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 28. The
asterisk (*) indicates that the attribute can be altered using the ALTER command, described
earlier in this section.
Example 28 INFO PATH Command
-> INFO PATH $LHPATH
EXPAND Info Path
Name
$LHPATH
*Compress
ON
*Nextsys
#255
*L4Retries
3
*L4Timeout
0:00:20.00
Name
INFO Command 217
is the device name of the path.
Compress
shows whether Layer 4 data compression is enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF).
Nextsys
is the system number of the neighbor system on this path.
L4Retries
specifies the number of times the line-handler process will try an end-to-end (Layer
4) request before reporting an error.
L4Timeout
reports the time interval for the Layer 4 timer.
Example 29 shows the display format for a path with the DETAIL option. The asterisk (*) indicates
that the attribute can be altered using the ALTER command, described earlier in this section.
Example 29 INFO PATH, DETAIL Command
-> INFO PATH $LHPATH, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info PATH $LHPATH
*Compress....
ON
*OStimeout... 0:00:03.00
*L4Timeout... 0:00:20.00
*L4ExtPackets
ON
*L4CWNDClamp.
*PathBlockBytes
*PathPacketBytes
*Nextsys........ #255
*L4Retries......
3
*L4SendWindow... 254
*L4CongCtrl.....
ON
32767
Local
0
1024
Remote
0
0
*OSspace..... 32767
*PathTF..
1
TimeFactor
1
*Superpath...
ON
Negotiated
0
0
Maximum
9180
9180
Compress
shows whether Layer 4 data compression is enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF).
Nextsys
is the system number of the neighbor system on this path.
OSspace
displays the maximum buffer size (in words) for storing out-of-sequence (OOS)
packets.
See the note under “OSSPACE n” (page 322) that explains why the recommended
setting for OSSPACE is to not specify it, but to let the default be used.
OStimeout
reports the amount of time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that OOS
packets are held before they are discarded. For example, an OStimeout value
of 300 is equal to 3 seconds.
L4Retries
specifies the number of times the line-handler process will try an end-to-end (Layer
4) request before reporting an error.
PathTF
218 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
is the path time factor. PATHTF has a range of 0 to 186, with a default of 0 (unset).
If you set PATHTF, it overrides any other parameter (RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK,
or LINETF) in calculating the time factor for the path. When PATHTF is set for a
multi-line path, the line state and number of lines in the path are ignored and the
PATHTF setting is a constant value assigned to the time factor for the path. If
PATHTF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting the time
factor.
L4Timeout
reports the time interval for the Layer 4 timer.
L4SendWindow
is the maximum number of outstanding packet send requests in any single transport
connection.
TimeFactor
reports the current time factor for this path. The time factor is used by NCP when
calculating the best route between systems and represents the cost of using the
path. The lower the time factor, the more desirable the path.
The time factor is calculated based upon the parameters you have set. Previously,
path time-factor calculations made within a node were made using the device/line
settings (RSIZE, SPEED, and SPEEDK) and from looking at the aggregate values
of time factors for the line if the path was a multi-line path. As of G06.20, the two
direct time-factor settings (LINETF and PATHTF) can be applied to override the
RSIZE, SPEED, and SPEEDK calculations within a node.
If PATHTF is set to a nonzero value, the time factor and PATHTF will be the same.
If PATHTF is not set (zero), the TimeFactor field will display the time factor being
used by the path.
If a line in the path fails and PATHTF is not set (zero), $NCP updates its NETMAP
table to reflect the decrease in path bandwidth. Reactivation of the line updates
the NETMAP table to reflect the increase in bandwidth. If a communications
hardware device fails, $NCP updates its NETMAP table to reflect the decrease
in bandwidth for all lines connected to the failed device.
L4ExtPackets
shows whether the extended packet format is enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF).
Extended packet format uses a larger packet header, which can reduce throughput
on lower-speed lines. It can provide higher throughput and less OOS processing
in paths with multiple high-speed lines. This feature is negotiated between end
systems and should be enabled at both end systems.
L4CongCtrl
shows whether congestion control is enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF). Congestion
control is used to avoid bottlenecks and deadlocks. If the congestion control feature
is enabled on both ends of a connection, it is executed for traffic in both directions.
Traffic in a given direction is subject to congestion control if the sender has
congestion control enabled and the receiver supports it. The receiver does not
have to have the congestion control feature enabled to support it.
L4CWNDCLAMP
Specifies the maximum value for the congestion control transmit window. The
packet rate transmitted over the path does not exceed the L4CWNDCLAMP value.
INFO PATH Command 219
Expand uses a window scale factor of 5, for packet sequencing and window values.
To calculate the L4CWNDCLAMP value, use the following formula:
L4CWNDCLAMP = <Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> / 32
Where,
<Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> is size of the congestion window
To calculate the size of the congestion window, use the following formula:
<Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> = bandwidth * delay
Where,
<Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> is the maximum amount of data on
the network circuit in bits. (bandwidth delay product)
bandwidth is the capacity of the data link in bits per second
delay is the end-to-end delay in seconds (round trip time).
You can use the bandwidth delay product (BDP) to calculate the maximum amount of data that
can be in transit in the network. It is used to tune systems to the type of network being used. If
given the actual data link speed and delay on the network, the network capacity can be calculated.
Conversely, If you want to limit the amount of data sent, it can be used to calculate the maximum
value to limit or clamp the window.
For more information, see “L4CWNDCLAMP n” (page 317).
Superpath
reports ON if the path is configured to be a member of a multi-CPU path and OFF
if it is not. The Expand line-handler process at the other end of the path must be
configured with SUPERPATH_ON or the multi-CPU path feature will not be
enabled. You can display the current setting of the SUPERPATH attribute using
the STATUS PATH command.
PathBlockBytes
shows the multipacket frame parameters for these four fields:
Local
Currently configured local value
Remote
Most recent value from the remote path
Negotiated
Amount that is currently in use; the lesser of the Local and Remote values
Maximum
Maximum value available on this path
PathPacketBytes
shows the variable packet parameters for these four fields:
Local
Currently configured local value
Remote
Most recent value from the remote path
Negotiated
Amount that is currently in use; the lesser of the Local and Remote values
Maximum
Maximum value available on this path
220 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
OBEYFORM Option
The output is in the form of an ALTER PATH command. This allows for easy creation of SCF
command files for configuration backup.
Example 30 INFO PATH $LHPATH, OBEYFORM command
-> INFO PATH $LHPATH,OBEYFORM
ALTER PATH $LHPATH ,&
COMPRESS ON ,&
NEXTSYS 144 ,&
OSSPACE 32767 ,&
OSTIMEOUT 0:00:03.00 ,&
L4RETRIES 3 ,&
PATHTF 0 ,&
L4TIMEOUT 0:00:20.00 ,&
L4SENDWINDOW 254 ,&
L4EXTPACKETS ON ,&
L4CONGCTRL ON ,&
L4CWNDCLAMP 32767 ,&
SUPERPATH 0FF ,&
PATHBLOCKBYTES 8192 ,&
PATHPACKETBYTES 8192
NOTE:
The OBEYFORM option cannot be used in combination with the DETAIL option.
Considerations
You can display information about several paths with a single INFO command by specifying
multiple PATH objects using parentheses as:
PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
INFO LINE Command
The format of the INFO LINE display varies according to the line-handler process type. The first
three lines of the display are common for all line types. The rest of the lines vary according to
the line type.
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler Processes
For both direct-connect and satellite-connect line-handler processes, the display for a LINE object
without the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 31. The asterisk (*) indicates an
alterable attribute.
Example 31 INFO LINE Command, Direct- and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler Processes
-> INFO LINE $SWNLBA1
EXPAND
Name
$SWNLBA1
Info
LINE
Address
*Delay
(102,211) 0:00:00.10
Framesize
132
*SpeedK
NOT_SET
*L2Timeout
0:00:08.25
Name
is the device name of the line.
Address
reports the Layer 2 primary and secondary addresses (system numbers).
INFO LINE Command 221
Delay
specifies the time interval that a data bit spends on the line during message
transmission. For the time interval format, see “Time Values” (page 203). In this
case, Delay is 0.10 seconds. The line-handler process uses the transmission
size, the amount of delay before the message can be dispatched, and the DELAY
modifier value to select the most efficient line for data transmission within a path
that consists of multiple line logical devices. This value should match the expected
transmission delay across the communications facility.
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier value
to calculate the packet size and determine the size of the frame buffers. If the
default FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 132 words.
SpeedK
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. A value of
NOT_SET means that this parameter was not set. For a discussion of SPEEDK,
see “SPEEDK n” (page 327).
L2Timeout
reports the time interval of the Layer 2 T1 timer.
For direct-connect line-handler and satellite-connect line-handler processes, the display for a
LINE object with the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 32. The asterisk (*)
indicates an alterable attribute.
Example 32 INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Direct- and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler
Processes
-> INFO LINE $SWNLBA1, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info LINE $SWNLBA1
(LDEV 310)
L2Protocol
SWAN_DIRECT TimeFactor......
inf *SpeedK........
NOT_SET
Framesize.......
132 -Rsize...........
-Speed........
*LinePriority....
1 StartUp.........
OFF *Delay......... 0:00:00.10
*DownIfBadQuality
OFF *QualityThreshold
96 *QualityTimer.. 0:01:00.00
*TxWindow........
7 Address.......(102,211) *Autoload......
ON
LineBufSize.....
47288 *Dsrtimer.....0:00:01.00 *Idletimeout... 0:00:10.00
*Interface.......
RS232 Readbuffers.....
8 *L2Retries.....
10
DRtimeout..... 0:00:03.00 *CLBidleTimer 0:00:10.00 Threshold.....
500
*L2Timeout..... 0:00:08.25 Protocolid......
1 Flagfill......
ON
*ClockMode......
DCE *ClockSpeed
19200 *CLBdwnloadRetries
3
*CLBdwnloadTimr 0:00:30.00 *Program.........
$SYSTEM.CSS12.C1097P00
*LineTf..........
0
L2Protocol
lists the name of the Layer 2 protocol process associated with the Expand
line-handler process.
TimeFactor
reports the current time factor for this line. For a discussion on time factors,
including how to calculate them, see “Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
SpeedK
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. A value of
NOT_SET means that this parameter was not set. For a discussion of SPEEDK,
see “SPEEDK n” (page 327).
222 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier value
to calculate the packet size and determine the size of the frame buffers. If the
default FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 132 words.
Rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
Speed
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm.
LinePriority
This can be set in the range 1 to 9. The default is 1. The higher the number, the
lower priority to use that line. If lines have equal priority, the relative line speeds
and transmission delays are used to select the next line.
StartUp
specifies that the line will be disabled (OFF) or enabled (ON) after a system load.
Delay
specifies the time interval, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that a data
bit spends on the line during message transmission. The line-handler process
uses the transmission size, the amount of delay before the message can be
dispatched, and the DELAY modifier value to select the most efficient line for data
transmission within a path that consists of multiple-line logical devices. This value
should match the expected transmission delay across the communications facility.
In the example above, it is 0.10 seconds.
DownIfBadQuality
This can be set either ON or OFF. The default is OFF. If set to ON and the
QualityTimer expires, an EMS message is generated and the line is aborted. If
set to OFF and the QualityTimer expires, an EMS message is generated and the
line is not aborted.
QualityThreshold
This can be set in the range 0 to 99. The default is 0. If the line reports quality
lower than this percentage value, a timer is started.
QualityTimer
This can be set in the range of 0 through 12 hours. The default is 0. Specifies the
time interval to wait after the line quality drops below the threshold value specified
in the QualityThreshold before taking the action specified in the parameter
DownIfBadQuality.
TxWindow
reports the number of Expand packets that the line-handler process can send
before receiving a reply.
Address
specifies the Layer 2 primary and secondary addresses. Addresses are system
numbers.
INFO LINE Command 223
Autoload
reports whether or not the automatic downloading of microcode to the
communications line interface processor (CLIP) is enabled or disabled. In the
example above, it is enabled (ON). If AUTOLOAD is ON, the microcode is
downloaded to the CLIP whenever the CLIP restarts.
LineBufSize
reports the size of the Expand line buffer.
Dsrtimer
specifies the time interval, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that the
communications line interface processor (CLIP) will wait for the Data Set Ready
(DSR) signal from the modem before informing the Communications Access
Process (CAP) of no detection.
Idletimeout
reports the time interval to wait after modem loss before timing out.
Interface
reports the electrical interface (RS-232 or RS-449) used.
Readbuffers
shows the number of read frame buffers in the line buffer. Expand automatically
adjusts Readbuffers to be TXWINDOW + 4 for lines that use the SWAN
concentrator.
L2Retries
specifies the number of times that the line-handler process will retry a request at
Layer 2 before reporting an error.
DRtimeout
specifies the time interval that the line-handler process Communications Access
Process (CAP) will wait for a response to a request it has sent to the
communications line interface processor (CLIP).
CLBIdleTimer
specifies the time interval between communications line interface processor (CLIP)
status probes.
Threshold
specifies the number of information frames that must be sent and received before
line quality is calculated.
L2Timeout
specifies the length of time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that the
line-handler process will wait for a response to request at Layer 2 before retrying.
Protocolid
reports the communications line interface processor (CLIP) protocol identifier.
Flagfill
specifies whether a specific bit pattern called FLAG will be set during the idle
period for a line. A value of OFF causes the ServerNet wide area network (SWAN)
224 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
concentrator to keep an idle line in the MARK HOLD instead of the IDLE FLAGS
state. Some modems and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) require the
idle line state to be configured with FLAGFILL ON.
ClockMode
indicates whether the clocking signals for the communications line interface
processor (CLIP) clock are enabled (DTE) or disabled (DCE).
ClockSpeed
reports the clock rate (in bits per second) when ClockMode is DTE.
CLBdwnloadRetries
specifies the maximum number of times that the line-handler process will try to
download a communications line interface processor (CLIP).
CLBdwnloadTimr
specifies the time interval that the line-handler process will wait for successful
completion of a communications line interface processor (CLIP) download
operation.
Program
reports the file name of the communications line interface processor (CLIP)
program that will be downloaded.
LineTF
is the line time factor. LINETF has a range of 0 to 186, with a default of 0 (unset).
If you set LINETF, it overrides the RSIZE, SPEED, or SPEEDK parameters in
calculating the time factor for the line (PATHTF overrides all parameters, including
LINETF). If LINETF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting
the time factor.
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes
For Expand-over-IP line-handler processes, the display for a LINE object without the DETAIL
option has the format as shown in Example 33. The asterisk (*) indicates an alterable attribute.
Example 33 INFO LINE Command, Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes
-> INFO LINE $IPTAH0
Name
$IPTAH0
Delay
Framesize
0:00:00.10
132
*Associatedev
$ZTC02
*Maxreconnects
3
*Aftermaxretries
PASSIVE
Name
is the device name of the line.
Delay
is the expected line time required for a bit to arrive at the other end of the line.
This value is considered in multi-line paths to help packets arrive in the correct
order at the destination system.
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier value
INFO LINE Command 225
to calculate the packet size and determine the size of the frame buffers. If the
default FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 132 words.
Associatedev
reports the name of the NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM process associated with
the Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Maxreconnects
reports the maximum number of times the Expand-over-IP line-handler process
will try to connect to the remote system.
Aftermaxretries
is the line state after retries have been exhausted for the line. DOWN means the
line state will be down. PASSIVE means the Expand-over-IP process will issue
passive connect requests.
Example 34 shows the display format for a LINE object with the DETAIL option for Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes for IPv4 lines. The asterisk (*) indicates an alterable attribute.
Example 34 INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes for
IPv4 Lines
-> INFO LINE $IPTAH0, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info
LINE
$IPTAH0
(LDEV
175)
L2Protocol
Net^Ip TimeFactor......
3 *SpeedK........
NOT_SET
Framesize.......
132 -Rsize...........
3 -Speed........
*LinePriority....
1 StartUp.........
OFF *Delay......... 0:00:00.10
*DownIfBadQuality
OFF *QualityThreshold
96 *QualityTimer.. 0:01:00.00
*Txwindow........
7 *Maxreconnects...
0 *AfterMaxRetries
PASSIVE
*Timerreconnect 0:00:30.00 *Retryprobe......
19 *Timerprobe.... 0:00:01.00
*Associatedev....
$ZTC02 *LineTf..........
0 *Timerinactivity 0:00:00.00
*IPVer
IPV4*DestIpAddr 16.107.189.66 *DestIpPort......
5744
*SrcIpAddr
16.107.188.54
*SrcIpPort.......
5744
*V6DestIpAddr ::*V6SrcIpAddr
::
Example 35 shows the display format for a LINE object with the DETAIL option for Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes for IPv6 lines. The asterisk (*) indicates an alterable attribute.
Note IPv6 display format is the same as the IPv4 display format. If the IPv6 addresses are not
set, they are displayed as:: (two colons).
226 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Example 35 INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes for
IPv6 Lines
-> INFO LINE $IPTAH0, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info
LINE
$IPTAH0
(LDEV
175)
L2Protocol
Net^Ip TimeFactor......
3
Framesize.......
132 -Rsize...........
3
*LinePriority....
1 StartUp.........
OFF
*DownIfBadQuality
OFF *QualityThreshold
96
*Txwindow........
7 *Maxreconnects...
0
*Timerreconnect 0:00:30.00 *Retryprobe......
19
*Associatedev....
$ZTC02 *LineTf..........
0
*IPVer
IPV6
*DestIpAddr 16.107.190.66 *DestIpPort......11171
*SrcIpAddr
16.107.188.67 *SrcIpPort.......11171
*V6DestIpAddr
fe80::a00:8eff:fe00:897b
*V6SrcIpAddr
fe80::a00:8eff:fe00:897a
*SpeedK........
-Speed........
*Delay.........
*QualityTimer..
*AfterMaxRetries
*Timerprobe....
*Timerinactivity
NOT_SET
0:00:00.10
0:01:00.00
PASSIVE
0:00:01.00
0:00:00.00
L2Protocol
is the Layer 2 protocol process associated with the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process.
TimeFactor
reports the current time factor for this line. For a discussion on time factors,
including how to calculate them, see “Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
SpeedK
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. A value of
NOT_SET means that this parameter was not set. For a discussion of SPEEDK,
see “SPEEDK n” (page 327).
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier to
calculate the packet size and determine the size of the frame buffers. If the default
FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 132 words.
Rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
Speed
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm.
LinePriority
This can be set in the range 1 to 9. The default is 1. The higher the number, the
lower priority to use that line. If lines have equal priority, the relative line speeds
and transmission delays are used to select the next line.
Startup
indicates whether the line will be enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF) after a system
load.
Delay
INFO LINE Command 227
is the expected line time required for a bit to arrive at the other end of the line.
This value is considered in multi-line paths to help packets arrive at the destination
system in the correct order.
DownIfBadQuality
This can be set either ON or OFF. The default is OFF. If set to ON and the
QualityTimer expires, an EMS message is generated and the line is aborted. If
set to OFF and the QualityTimer expires, an EMS message is generated and the
line is not aborted.
QualityThreshold
This can be set in the range 0 to 99. The default is 0. If the line reports quality
lower than this percentage value, a timer is started.
QualityTimer
This can be set in the range of 0 through 12 hours. The default is 0. Specifies the
time interval to wait after the line quality drops below the threshold value specified
in the QualityThreshold before taking the action specified in the parameter
DownIfBadQuality.
Txwindow
is the number of Expand packets that the Expand-over-IP line-handler process
can send before receiving a reply.
Maxreconnects
is the maximum number of times the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will try
to connect to the remote system.
AfterMaxRetries
is the line state after all retries have been exhausted for the line.
Timerreconnect
is the time interval the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will wait for a
successful connection.
Retryprobe
is the number of times the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will retry the probe
of the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process before concluding that the
network is unavailable.
Timerprobe
is the time interval that the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will wait to probe
the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Associatedev
reports the name of the NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM process associated with
the Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
LineTF
is the line time factor. LINETF has a range of 0 to 186, with a default of 0 (unset).
If you set LINETF, it overrides the RSIZE, SPEED, or SPEEDK parameters in
calculating the time factor for the line (PATHTF overrides all parameters, including
228 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
LINETF). If LINETF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting
the time factor.
Timerinactivity
is the time interval the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will wait while the line
is inactive before it requests the disconnection of the network service. The default
value is 0 (no timer).
IPVer
specifies whether the destination and source addresses are IPv4 or IPv6. The
default is IPv4.
DestIpAddr
is the TCP/IP address used by the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
It is used only if the IPVER is IPv4.
DestIpPort
is the port number used by the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process. It is
used for both IPVER IPv4 and IPv6.
SrcIpAddr
is the TCP/IP address used by the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. It
is used only if the IPVER is IPv4.
SrcIpPort
is the port number used by the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. It is
used for both IPVER IPv4 and IPv6.
V6DestIpAddr
is the destination NonStop TCP/IPv6 address used by the remote Expand-over-IP
line-handler process. It is used only if the IPVER is IPv6.
V6SrcIpAddr
is the source NonStop TCP/IPv6 address used by the local Expand-over-IP
line-handler process. It is used only if the IPVER is IPv6.
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes
For Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, the display for a LINE object without the DETAIL
option has the format as shown in Example 36. The asterisk (*) indicates an alterable attribute.
Example 36 INFO LINE Command, Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes
-> INFO LINE $AMLBA0
EXPAND
Name
$AMLBA0
Info
LINE
Delay
Framesize *Associatedev *Associatesubdev
0:00:00.10
132
$AM2
#IP
Name
is the device name of the line.
Delay
INFO LINE Command 229
is the expected line time required for a bit to arrive at the other end of the line.
This value is considered in multi-line paths to help packets arrive at the destination
system in the correct order.
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier to
calculate the packet size and determine the size of the frame buffers. If the default
FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 132 words.
Associatedev
reports the name of the ATM line associated with the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process.
Associatesubdev
reports the name of the ATM service access point (SAP). The only currently
supported ATM SAP is #IP.
Example 37 shows the display format for a LINE object with the DETAIL option for
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). The asterisk
(*) indicates an alterable attribute.
Example 37 INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes
-> INFO LINE $AMLBA0, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info
LINE
L2Protocol
Net^Atm
Framesize.......
132
*LinePriority....
1
*DownIfBadQuality
OFF
*Txwindow........
7
*Timerreconnect 0:00:30.00
*Associatedev....
$AM2
ConnEp....... %H2061CF10
*PvcName.........
PVC10
*LineTf..........
0
$AMLBA0
(LDEV
307)
TimeFactor......
1
-Rsize...........
StartUp.........
OFF
*QualityThreshold
96
*Maxreconnects...
0
*Retryprobe......
19
*Associatesubdev
#IP
ListenEp.... %H00000000
*SpeedK........
-Speed........
Delay.........
*QualityTimer..
*AfterMaxRetries
*Timerprobe....
*Timerinactivity
*CallType......
OC12
0:00:00.10
0:01:00.00
PASSIVE
0:00:01.00
0:00:00.00
PVC
L2Protocol
is the Layer 2 protocol process associated with the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process.
TimeFactor
reports the current configured or calculated time factor for this line. For a discussion
about time factors, including how to calculate them, see “Routing and Time Factors”
(page 354).
SpeedK
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. A value of
NOT_SET means that this parameter was not set. For a discussion of SPEEDK,
see “SPEEDK n” (page 327).
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier to
calculate the packet size and determine the size of the frame buffers. If the default
FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 132 words.
230 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Rsize
specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
Speed
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm.
LinePriority
This can be set in the range 1 to 9. The default is 1. The higher the number, the
lower priority to use that line. If lines have equal priority, the relative line speeds
and transmission delays are used to select the next line.
Startup
indicates whether the line will be enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF) after a system
load.
Delay
is the expected line time required for a bit to arrive at the other end of the line.
This value is considered in multi-line paths to help packets arrive at the destination
system in the correct order.
DownIfBadQuality
This can be set either ON or OFF. The default is OFF. If set to ON and the
QualityTimer expires, an EMS message is generated and the line is aborted. If
set to OFF and the QualityTimer expires, an EMS message is generated and the
line is not aborted.
QualityThreshold
This can be set in the range 0 to 99. The default is 0. If the line reports quality
lower than this percentage value, a timer is started.
QualityTimer
This can be set in the range of 0 through 12 hours. The default is 0. Specifies the
time interval to wait after the line quality drops below the threshold value specified
in the QualityThreshold before taking the action specified in the parameter
DownIfBadQuality.
Txwindow
is the number of Expand packets that the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process
can send before receiving a reply.
Maxreconnects
is the maximum number of times the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will
try to connect to the remote system.
AfterMaxRetries
is the line state after all retries have been exhausted for the line.
Timerreconnect
is the time interval the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will wait for a
successful connection.
Retryprobe
INFO LINE Command 231
is the number of times the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will retry the
probe of the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process before concluding
that the network is unavailable.
Timerprobe
is the time interval that the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will wait to
probe the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process.
Associatedev
reports the name of the ATM line associated with the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process.
Associatesubdev
reports the name of the ATM service access point (SAP). The only currently
supported ATM SAP is #IP.
Timerinactivity
is the time interval the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will wait while the
line is inactive before it requests the disconnection of the network service. This
modifier does not apply to Expand-over-ATM lines.
ConnEp
is the connection endpoint control block address. (This field is for internal Hewlett
Packard Enterprise use only.)
ListenEp
is the listen endpoint control block address. (This field is for internal Hewlett
Packard Enterprise use only.)
CallType
indicates whether a permanent virtual circuit (PVC), a switched virtual circuit
(SVC), or the SLSA ATMSAP connection option is used.
PvcName
is the name of the permanent virtual circuit (PVC).
LineTF
is the line time factor. LINETF has a range of 0 to 186, with a default of 0 (unset).
If you set LINETF, it overrides the RSIZE, SPEED, or SPEEDK parameters in
calculating the time factor for the line (PATHTF overrides all parameters, including
LINETF). If LINETF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting
the time factor.
OBEYFORM Option
The output is in the form of an ALTER LINE command, containing the alterable modifiers for the
corresponding line type. This allows for easy creation of SCF command files for configuration
backup.
232 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Example 38 INFO LINE $<line-name>, OBEYFORM command for Expand over ATM line
-> INFO LINE $ATM,OBEYFORM
ALTER LINE $ATM ,&
LINEPRIORITY 1 ,&
SPEEDK OC12 ,&
QUALITYTIMER 0:01:00.00 ,&
QUALITYTHRESHOLD 96 ,&
DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF ,&
MAXRECONNECTS 0 ,&
AFTERMAXRETRIES PASSIVE ,&
TIMERRECONNECT 0:00:30.00 ,&
RETRYPROBE 19 ,&
TIMERPROBE 0:00:01.00 ,&
TIMERINACTIVITY 8:20:50.00 ,&
LINETF 0 ,&
ASSOCIATEDEV $ATM ,&
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #IP ,&
CALLTYPE PVC ,&
PVCNAME PVC00 ,&
TXWINDOW 7
NOTE:
The OBEYFORM option cannot be used in combination with the DETAIL option.
Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes
For Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, the display for a
LINE object without the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 39. The asterisk (*)
indicates an alterable attribute.
Example 39 INFO LINE Command, Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet
Line-Handler Processes
-> INFO LINE $SC151
EXPAND
Info
Name
$SC151
LINE
Delay
Framesize *L2Timeout *Associatedev *Associatesubdev
0:00:00.10
132
0:00:01.00
$ZZSCL
Name
is the device name of the line.
Delay
specifies the time interval, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that a data
bit spends on the line during message transmission. The line-handler process
uses the transmission size, the amount of delay before the message can be
dispatched, and the DELAY modifier value to select the most efficient line for data
transmission within a path that consists of multiple line logical devices.
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier value
to calculate the packet size. The FRAMESIZE modifier value also determines the
size of the frame buffers.
L2Timeout
reports the time interval of the Layer 2 T1 timer.
INFO LINE Command 233
Associatedev
reports the name of the X25AM or SNAX/APN process associated with the
Expand-over-NAM process. For Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes,
this field shows $ZZSCL.
Associatesubdev
reports the name of the NAM subdevice that will be activated by the
Expand-over-NAM process. The subdevice name for Expand-over-X.25
line-handler processes is the name of an X25AM subdevice. For Expand-over-SNA
line-handler processes it is the subdevice name of a SNAX/APN logical unit (LU).
This field is not used by Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
Example 40 shows the display format for a LINE object with the DETAIL option for
Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes. The asterisk (*) indicates
an alterable attribute.
Example 40 INFO LINE, DETAIL Command, Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet
Line-Handler Processes
-> INFO LINE $SC151, DETAIL
L2Protocol
Net^Nam TimeFactor......
1
Framesize.......
132 -Rsize...........
1
*LinePriority....
1 StartUp.........
OFF
*Rxwindow........
7 *Timerbind... 0:01:00.00
*Txwindow........
7 *Maxreconnects...
0
*Timerreconnect 0:01:00.00 *Retryprobe......
10
*Associatedev....
$ZZSCL *Associatesubdev
*ConnectType..... ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
*LineTf..........
0
*SpeedK........
-Speed........
Delay.........
*L2Timeout.....
*AfterMaxRetries
*Timerprobe....
*Timerinactivity
NOT_SET
0:00:00.10
0:00:01.00
PASSIVE
0:00:30.00
0:00:00.00
L2Protocol
lists the name of the Layer 2 protocol process associated with the
Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process.
TimeFactor
reports the current time factor for this line. For a discussion about time factors,
including how to calculate them, see “Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
SpeedK
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. A value of
NOT_SET means that this parameter was not set. For a discussion of SPEEDK,
see “SPEEDK n” (page 327).
Framesize
specifies the maximum size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames
can be sent. The Expand subsystem also uses the FRAMESIZE modifier value
to calculate the packet size. The FRAMESIZE modifier value also determines the
size of the frame buffers.
Rsize
displays the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE can
be 0 if the time factor is set using some other modifier.
Speed
calculates the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm.
234 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
LinePriority
can be set in the range 1 to 9. The default is 1. The higher the number, the lower
priority to use that line. If lines have equal priority, the relative line speeds and
transmission delays are used to select the next line.
StartUp
shows that the line will be disabled (OFF) or enabled (ON) after a system load.
Delay
reports the time interval between transmissions. For a description of the time
interval format, see “Time Values” (page 203).
Rxwindow
specifies the number of packets that the input-output process (IOP) will send to
the line-handler process before the line-handler process must send a reply.
Timerbind
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will wait for a completion of its bind request to the NAM
process. For a description of the time interval format, see “Time Values” (page
203).
L2Timeout
specifies the time interval that the line-handler process will wait for a response to
request at Layer 2 before retrying. For a description of the time interval format,
see “Time Values” (page 203).
Txwindow
reports the number of Expand packets that the line-handler process can send
before receiving a reply.
Maxreconnects
is the maximum number of times the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will try a connect request after successfully binding to the
NAM interface.
AfterMaxRetries
lists the line state after all retries have been exhausted for the Expand-over-NAM
or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process. DOWN causes the line state to
be down. PASSIVE causes the Expand-over-NAM process to switch to
PASSIVECONNECTONLY (which supersedes the function of
ACTIVEANDPASSIVECONNECT). This attribute applies to Expand-over-NAM
and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes that have the
MAXRECONNECTS modifier set to a nonzero value.
Timerreconnect
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will wait for a connection request to succeed. For a description
of the time interval format, see “Time Values” (page 203).
Retryprobe
INFO LINE Command 235
reports the number of times that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will retry its probe of the NAM before deciding that the network
is unavailable.
Timerprobe
specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will wait to obtain the status of the NAM process. For a
description of the time interval format, see “Time Values” (page 203).
Associatedev
reports the name of the X25AM or SNAX/APN process associated with the
Expand-over-NAM process. For Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes,
this field shows $ZZSCL.
Associatesubdev
reports the name of the NAM subdevice that will be activated by the
Expand-over-NAM process. The subdevice name for Expand-over-X.25
line-handler processes is the name of an X25AM subdevice. For Expand-over-SNA
line-handler processes, it is the name of a SNAX/APN logical unit (LU). This field
is not used by Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
Timerinactivity
specifies the time interval that an Expand-over NAM (i.e., Expand-over-X.25 or
Expand-over-SNA) line-handler process will wait during a period of inactivity before
requesting disconnection from the network service provided by the NAM process.
For a description of the time interval format, see “Time Values” (page 203).
Timerinactivity does not apply to Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
Connecttype
lists the Layer 2 Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process
connect type. ACTIVEANDPASSIVE causes the network access method (NAM)
to first issue a call request and, if unsuccessful, wait for an incoming call request.
PASSIVE causes the NAM to wait for incoming call requests; it will not initiate
connect requests.
LineTF
is the line time factor. LINETF has a range of 0 to 186, with a default of 0 (unset).
If you set LINETF, it overrides the RSIZE, SPEED, or SPEEDK parameters in
calculating the time factor for the line (PATHTF overrides all parameters, including
LINETF). If LINETF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting
the time factor.
Considerations
You can display information about several lines with a single INFO command by specifying
multiple LINE objects using parentheses as:
LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
INFO PROCESS Command
The INFO PROCESS command causes the display of selected information for the network control
process ($NCP). The information displayed can be the current attribute settings for the local
$NCP, the status of a selected path and the status of the started lines that make up that path,
or the status of the network as viewed from a selected system.
The SUB and SEL options are not supported.
236 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
The INFO PROCESS command has this syntax:
INFO [ /OUT file-spec / ] PROCESS $NCP
[ , { CONNECTS | LINESET | NETMAP | PATHSET | SUPERPATH |
SYSTEMS | RPT system-name } ]
[ , AT { system-list | * } ]
[ , TO { system-list | * } ]
[ , DETAIL ]
/OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated by the command to be directed to the specified
file.
CONNECTS
displays the systems that are connected or connecting, and only the entry for
which the connection is established. If the path is a superpath, the CONNECTS
option displays all the paths in the superpath.
LINESET
displays the status of a selected path and the status of the started lines that make
up that path.
NOTE: The LINESET option only displays information on active lines (lines that
have been started at least after a system load). To see information on all configured
lines, use the SCF command LISTDEV TYPE 63.
NETMAP
displays the status of the network as seen from a specific system.
PATHSET
displays the NCP pathmap information, similar to the LINESET option but in a
different format. This new format displays both the line-handler LDEV and name
in addition to the other information already in the LINESET option.
SUPERPATH
displays the paths comprising each multi-CPU path on the system.
RPT system-name
displays the reverse pairing table (RPT) for the specified multi-CPU path.
SYSTEMS
displays all known systems. If no connection is established, the SYSTEMS option
displays an infinite time factor and hop count. The SYSTEMS option is similar to
the CONNECTS option, except that the CONNECTS option displays only the
systems connected.
NOTE: If none of the formatting options (LINESET, NETMAP, PATHSET, SUPERPATH, and
RPT) are specified, local $NCP information is displayed.
AT { system-list | * }
where
system-list
is ( [ sys-a [ , sys-b [ , sys-c [ , .... ] ] ] ] ).
INFO PROCESS Command 237
sys-a
is {\system-name | system-number }.
sys-b
is {\system-name | system-number }.
sys-c
is {\system-name | system-number }.
If the NETMAP, SUPERPATH, or RPT option is chosen, only one system can be
specified.
If the SUPERPATH option is chosen, the display lists the multi-CPU paths on a
remote node.
If the RPT option is chosen, the display lists the reverse pairing table (RPT) on a
remote node.
If the AT option is omitted, the SCF target system is assumed.
If AT * is specified and the LINESET or PATHSET option is chosen, the display
is the status of a selected path and the lines that make up the path of all accessible
nodes in the network.
TO { system-list | * }
where
system-list
is ( [ sys-a [ , sys-b [ , sys-c [ , .... ]]]] ).
sys-a
is {\system-name | system-number }.
sys-b
is {\system-name | system-number }.
sys-c
is {\system-name | system-number }.
The TO option is valid only when NETMAP has been selected. It causes the
display of the network status as viewed from the system specified in the AT option
through the system specified in the TO option.
If the TO option is omitted and the NETMAP option is selected, the status of the
whole network as seen from the system specified in the AT option is displayed.
If this option is specified as TO * and the NETMAP option is selected, the status
of the whole network as seen from the system specified in the AT option is
displayed.
DETAIL
causes detailed information of $NCP attributes to be displayed. If not specified,
only one line of $NCP attribute information is displayed.
The display for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command without the DETAIL option has the format
as shown in Example 41. The asterisk (*) denotes an alterable attribute.
238 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Example 41 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP
EXPAND Info PROCESS $NCP AT \NODEA (151)
Name
$NCP
AutomaticMaptimer
ON
Framesize
#132
*Maxtimeouts
3
*Maxconnects
5
Name
is the device name of the network control process ($NCP).
AutomaticMaptimer
reports the current map-propagation rate in effect in the Expand network.
Framesize
reports the network-wide frame size (in words) used by all line-handler processes
in the Expand network. $NCP uses this value to calculate the number of entries
in the distance vector (DV) or map packet (that is, the maximum size of the map
packet).
Maxtimeouts
defines the maximum number of retry attempts allowed to establish a connection.
Maxconnects
specifies the maximum number of times $NCP will attempt a connection (CONN)
request.
The display for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the DETAIL option has the format as
shown in Example 42. The asterisk (*) denotes an alterable attribute.
Example 42 INFO PROCESS $NCP, DETAIL Command
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Info PROCESS
Max System Number..
Algorithm..........
*Connecttime........
*Maxtimeouts........
*NetworkDiameter....
*Message 43.........
Message 45.........
Message 47.........
*Message 49.........
Next Rebalance Time
*RebalThreshold.....
Trace File Name....
$NCP
AT \NODEA
(117)
254 *Aborttimer.........
MODIFIEDSPLIT
AutomaticMaptimer..
0:00:00.00
Framesize..........
3 *Maxconnects........
15
Type...............
OFF
Message 44.........
ON *Message 46.........
ON *Message 48.........
OFF *AutoRebal..........
0/00:00:00 *AutoRebalTime......
0
\NODEA.$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.NCPLOG
0:00:40.00
ON
132
5
(62,6)
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
1/00:00:00
Max System Number
reports the highest valid system number allowed within the network.
Aborttimer
specifies the length of time $NCP will wait before aborting requests destined for
a remote system to which an alternate path has not yet been identified.
ABORTTIMER must be set to the same value on all systems in the network.
Algorithm
INFO PROCESS Command 239
identifies the $NCP routing algorithm to be used. In this case, it is modified split
horizon (MSH).
AutomaticMaptimer
specifies a distance vector (DV) propagation rate of 8 seconds multiplied by the
time factor (TF) for the path (ON), or an algorithm with a 5-minute propagation
interval (OFF).
Connecttime
specifies the amount of time, in seconds, that $NCP will wait for a response to its
connection request. If 0 is shown, $NCP computes the connection request timer
independently for each connection using this formula:.
5 seconds * tf_to_destination, where tf_to_destination is the time
factor to the destination system.
Framesize
is used by $NCP to compute the maximum size, in words, of a distance vector
(DV) packet.
NOTE: The network control process FRAMESIZE modifier and the Layer 2 SCF
FRAMESIZE modifier have the same name. Both the network control process
and the Layer 2 FRAMESIZE modifiers are configured using the SCF interface
to the WAN subsystem. Expand modifiers are described in Expand Modifiers
Maxtimeouts
defines the maximum number of retry attempts allowed to establish a connection.
Maxconnects
specifies the maximum number of times $NCP will attempt a connection (CONN)
request.
NetworkDiameter
specifies the maximum number of intervening systems (hops) in a path between
two systems.
Type
reports the device type (device-type,subtype). $NCP is 62,6.
Message 43
reports whether the reporting of event message 43 to $0 is enabled (ON) or
disabled (OFF). Message 43 is a critical message. It means that the connection
to the indicated system has been lost.
Message 44
reports whether the reporting of event message 44 to $0 is enabled (ON). Message
44 is not critical. It means that the indicated line is now ready to accept network
requests.
Message 45
reports whether the reporting of event message 45 to $0 is enabled (ON). Message
45 is a critical message. It means that the indicated line is no longer ready.
Message 46
240 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
reports whether the reporting of event message 46 to $0 is enabled (ON) or
disabled (OFF). Message 46 is not critical. It means a connection has been made
with the indicated remote system.
Message 47
reports whether the reporting of event message 47 to $0 is enabled (ON). Message
47 is a critical message. It means that an end-to-end acknowledgment was not
received from the indicated system within the configured Layer 4 timeout interval
Message 48
reports whether the reporting of event message 48 to $0 is enabled (ON) or
disabled (OFF). Message 48 is a critical message. It means that a change in
processor status has occurred at the indicated system.
Message 49
reports whether the reporting of event message 49 to $0 is enabled (ON) or
disabled (OFF). Message 49 is a critical message. It means that $NCP has not
received a status message from $NCP at the indicated system for three time
periods.
AutoRebal
reports whether automatic rebalancing of the multi-CPU paths on the system is
enabled (ON) or disabled (OFF).
Next Rebalance Time
shows the time of day of the next scheduled automatic rebalancing of multi-CPU
paths on the system. The time of day is displayed in this format:
[DDD/]HH:MM:SS
where
[DDD/]
shows the number of days that the specified time of day will be skipped before
the next automatic rebalancing will occur.
HH
shows the hours.
MM
shows the minutes.
SS
shows the seconds.
RebalThreshold
specifies the threshold time for auto-rebalance. It also helps to enable and disable
auto-rebalance. RebalThreshold can have the following values:
•
-1, the auto-rebalance is switched off and the user must manually trigger
rebalance.
•
0, the auto-rebalance occurs normally without taking into cognizance this
modifier value.
•
Greater than 0, the auto-rebalance occurs if the path has revived after being
down beyond the time period mentioned in this modifier.
AutoRebalTime
INFO PROCESS Command 241
reports the time interval for automatic rebalancing of the multi-CPU paths on the
system. Rebalancing will occur periodically at the time interval shown. The time
interval is displayed in the format described for the Next Rebalance Time
attribute.
Trace File Name
the name of the trace file specified in the SCF TRACE command.
CONNECTS Option
The INFO PROCESS $NCP CONNECTS option displays the systems that are connected or
connecting, and only the entry for which the connection is established. If the path is a multi-CPU
path (superpath), the CONNECTS option displays all the paths in the multi-CPU path. It is basically
a summary of the NETMAP command, but shows only the connected entries.
Example 43 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, CONNECTS Option
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, CONNECTS
EXPAND
Info
PROCESS
$NCP, CONNECTS
CONNECTS AT \NODEA (117) #LINESETS=7 TIME:
System
82 \NODEB
Time(Dist)
1(01)
123 \NODEC
160 \NODED
254 \NODEE
4(02)
4(02)
7(03)
Lset:LHname
1:$SPATH1
3:$SPATH2
3:$SPATH2
5:$IPTAH1
1:$SPATH1
(Ldev)
( 122)&
( 121)*
( 121)*
( 125)+
( 122)*
FEB 24,2003 13:55:29
Lset:LHname (Ldev)
2:$SPATH0 ( 123)&
System
indicates the number and the name of the system, or node.
Time(Dist)
these entries show the time factor (TIME) and number of hops (DISTANCE) for
each path between systems in the network and the selected system. A value of
inf (--) (for infinite) indicates that there is no connection to the selected system.
Each row and column entry represents a path connecting the selected system to
the system listed in the leftmost column. (For more information on the TF, see
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).) An asterisk (*) indicates the Expand
line-handler process selected for traffic to each known node in the network; this
is also the line-handler process used for the $NCP connection protocol with each
node.
For multi-CPU paths, the asterisk has a different meaning for non-neighbor nodes
than for neighbor nodes. For non-neighbor nodes, the asterisk indicates the Expand
line-handler process selected for the pair between the local node and each remote
node; all traffic to the remote node uses the indicated line-handler process. For
neighbor nodes, traffic can also be directed to any of the other Expand line-handler
processes in the multi-CPU path; an asterisk in this case indicates the line-handler
process used for the $NCP connection protocol and an ampersand (&) is shown
beside the other members of the multi-CPU path.
Lset:LHname
Lset (lineset) indicates the path number, or lineset number. LHname is the name
of the line handler involved.
Ldev
242 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device. After the LDEV number, an asterisk (*), or plus (+), or ampersand (&)
symbol indicates:
* indicates that the line is connected
+ indicates that the line is in the process of connecting
& indicates that the LDEV is a multi-CPU path
LINESET Option
The information displayed for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the LINESET option is
taken from $NCP’s path table. It is a subset of the information shown by the NETMAP command.
They both have an AT option to show information from the viewpoint of another system.
$NCP updates its path table when it receives a READY or NOT READY message from an Expand
line-handler process. If an Expand line-handler process is not started after a system load, then
the line does not appear in $NCP’s path table and thus does not appear in the display for the
INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the LINESET option.
NOTE: If a pre-G06.12 system that can support only 63 linehandlers runs the command, INFO
PROCESS $NCP, LINESET, AT \NEW to send the LINESET request to a system that can display
255 linehandlers, the number of entries in the reply is limited to 63, the number of entries that
the pre-G06.12 system can display.
The display for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the LINESET option has the format
as shown in Example 44:
Example 44 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, LINESET Option
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, LINESET
EXPAND
Info
PROCESS
LINESETS AT \NODEA
LINESET
NEIGHBOR
1 S
\NODEB
(082)
$NCP
, LINESET
(117) #LINESETS=7 TIME:
LDEV
122
2 S
\NODEB
(082)
123
3 S
\NODEB
(082)
121
4
\NODEB
(082)
131
5
\NODEB
(082)
125
6
\NODEF
(247)
132
7
\NODEF
(247)
175
TF
PID
LINE
1 ( 1, 334)
1
1 ( 0, 333)
1
1 ( 0, 332)
1
-- -- ----1
3 ( 2, 271)
1
-- -- ----1
-- -- ----1
2
3
4
FEB 24,2003 13:55:04
LDEV
STATUS
122
READY
123
READY
121
READY
FileErr#
131 NOT READY (066)
125
READY
132 NOT READY (066)
212
254
256
259
NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT
READY
READY
READY
READY
(066)
(066)
(066)
(066)
AT \nnn (xxx)
is the name (nnn) and number (xxx) of the system selected.
#LINESETS=nn
is the number of paths (nn) connected through this system.
INFO PROCESS Command 243
LINESET n
these entries describe each communications path (LINESET) directly connected
to the selected system. If the path is a multi-line path, the logical device (LDEV)
number associated with each line logical device is also displayed. An “S” next to
a LINESET indicates that it is a member of a multi-CPU path.
NEIGHBOR
indicates the neighbor node that data is transmitted to over the path.
LDEV
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device.
TF
indicates time factors in this display. To use old time-factor values, use the
command INFO PROCESS $NCP, OLDLINESET.
If you are using the OLDLINESET option on a G06.20 node, the command INFO
PROCESS $NCP, LINESET, AT \remote, where \remote is a G06.19 node,
displays super time factor information, and the command INFO PROCESS $NCP,
OLDLINESET, AT \remote displays non-super time factor information.
PID
is the process ID.
LINE
indicates the device name of a line.
LDEV
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device.
STATUS
indicates the status of the line: ready or not ready.
FileErr#
shows the most recent file system error number, if any, associated with each line.
NETMAP Option
The display for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the NETMAP option has the format
as shown in Example 45:
244 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Example 45 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, NETMAP Option
-> INFO PROC $NCP,NETMAP
EXPAND
Info
PROCESS
$NCP, NETMAP
NETMAP AT \NODEA (117) #LINESETS=7 TIME:
FEB 24,2003 13:54:46
SYSTEM
82 \NODEB
TIME
1(01)&
inf(--)
(DISTANCE) BY
1(01)&
1(01)*
PATH
inf(--)
3(01)
inf(--)
123 \NODEC
4(02)
inf(--)
4(02)
inf(--)
6(02)
inf(--)
[
[
6]
7]
151 \NODEG
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
[
[
6]
7]
160 \NODED
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)+
inf(--)
[
[
6]
7]
247 \NODEF
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
inf(--)
[
[
6]
7]
254 \NODEE
7(03)*
inf(--)
7(03)
7(03)
inf(--)
9(03)
inf(--)
[
[
6]
7]
4(02)*
INDEX
[ 6]
[ 7]
--------------------------------------------------------------LINESETS AT \NODEA
LINESET
NEIGHBOR
1 S
\NODEB
(082)
LDEV
122
2 S
\NODEB
(082)
123
3 S
\NODEB
(082)
121
4
\NODEB
(082)
131
5
\NODEB
(082)
125
6
\NODEF
(247)
132
7
\NODEF
(247)
175
(117) #LINESETS=7
TF
PID
LINE
1 ( 1, 334)
1
1 ( 0, 333)
1
1 ( 0, 332)
1
-- -- ----1
3 ( 2, 271)
1
-- -- ----1
-- -- ----1
2
3
4
LDEV
STATUS
122
READY
123
READY
121
READY
FileErr#
131 NOT READY (066)
125
READY
132 NOT READY (066)
212
254
256
259
NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT
READY
READY
READY
READY
(066)
(066)
(066)
(066)
AT \nnn (xxx)
is the name (nnn) and number (xxx) of the system from which the network is
viewed.
#LINESETS=n
indicates that there are n communications paths (LINESETS) directly connected
to the selected system. The LINESETS are listed in detail after the NETMAP table.
The systems in the network are listed by the system number followed by the
system name.
SYSTEM
indicates the number and the name of the system, or node.
TIME (DISTANCE) BY PATH
INFO PROCESS Command 245
these entries show the time factor (TIME) and number of hops (DISTANCE) for
each path between systems in the network and the selected system. A value of
inf (--) (for infinite) indicates that there is no connection to the selected system.
Each row and column entry represents a path connecting the selected system to
the system listed in the leftmost column. (For more information on the TF, see
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).) An asterisk (*) indicates the Expand
line-handler process selected for traffic to each known node in the network; this
is also the line-handler process used for the $NCP connection protocol with each
node.
For multi-CPU paths, the asterisk has a different meaning for non-neighbor nodes
than for neighbor nodes. For non-neighbor nodes, the asterisk indicates the Expand
line-handler process selected for the pair between the local node and each remote
node; all traffic to the remote node uses the indicated line-handler process. For
neighbor nodes, traffic can also be directed to any of the other Expand line-handler
processes in the multi-CPU path; an asterisk in this case indicates the line-handler
process used for the $NCP connection protocol and an ampersand (&) is shown
beside the other members of the multi-CPU path.
INDEX
indicates the associated LINESET number for the entry in the particular row. The
index number is used to identify the LINESET associated with any NETMAP entry.
LINESET n
these entries describe each communications path (LINESET) directly connected
to the selected system. If the path is a multi-line path, the logical device (LDEV)
number associated with each line logical device is also displayed. An “S” next to
a LINESET indicates that it is a member of a multi-CPU path.
NEIGHBOR
indicates the neighbor node that data is transmitted to over the path.
LDEV
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device.
TF
indicates time factors in this display.
If you are using the OLDNETMAP option on a G06.20 node, the command INFO
PROCESS $NCP, LINESET, AT \remote, where \remote is a G06.19 node,
displays super time factor information, and the command INFO PROCESS $NCP,
OLDLINESET, AT \remote displays non-super time factor information.
PID
is the process ID.
LINE
indicates the device name of a line.
LDEV
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device.
STATUS
246 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
indicates the status of the line: ready or not ready.
FileErr#
is the last file-system error returned for the path. For recovery information on file
errors, see “Identifying Network Problems” (page 447).
OBEYFORM Option
The output is in the form of an ALTER PROCESS command. This allows for easy creation of
SCF command files for configuration backup.
Example 46 INFO PROCESS $NCP, OBEYFORM command
ALTER PROCESS $NCP ,&
AUTOREBAL OFF ,&
AUTOREBALTIME 1/00:00:00 ,&
REBALTHRESHOLD 0 ,&
MSG43 OFF ,&
MSG46 OFF ,&
MSG48 OFF ,&
MSG49 OFF ,&
CONNECTTIME 0:00:00.00 ,&
ABORTTIMER 0:02:30.00 ,&
MAXTIMEOUTS 3 ,&
MAXCONNECTS 5 ,&
NETWORKDIAMETER 15
NOTE:
The OBEYFORM option cannot be used in combination with the DETAIL option.
PATHSET Option
The PATHSET option displays the NCP pathmap information, similar to the LINESET option but
in a different format. This format displays both the line-handler LDEV and name in addition to
the other information already in the LINESET option.
INFO PROCESS Command 247
Example 47 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, PATHSET Option
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, PATHSET
EXPAND Info PROCESS
$NCP
PATHSETS AT \NODEA
Ls Neighbor(node)
1 S \NODEB (082)
2 S \NODEB
(082)
3 S \NODEB
(082)
4
(082)
\NODEB
(066)
5
\NODEB
6
\NODEF
(247)
7
\NODEF
(247)
,PATHSETS
(117) #LINESETS=7 TIME:
FEB 24,2003 13:55:18
TF (Cpu,Pin) Line Name
(LDEV) Status FileErr#
1 ( 1, 334)
$SPATH1 ( 122)
1
$SPATH1 ( 122) READY
1 ( 0, 333)
$SPATH0 ( 123)
1
$SPATH0 ( 123) READY
1 ( 0, 332)
$SPATH2 ( 121)
1
$SPATH2 ( 121) READY
----- (--,-----)
$IPSTAH ( 131)
1
$IPSTAH ( 131) NOT READY
(082)
3 ( 2, 271)
$IPTAH1 ( 125)
1
$IPTAH1 ( 125) READY
----- (--,-----)
$IPSFIJ ( 132)
1
$IPSFIJ ( 132) NOT READY (066)
----- (--,-----)
$IPFIJP ( 175)
1
$IPFIJ02 ( 212) NOT READY (066)
2
$IPFIJ03 ( 254) NOT READY (066)
3
$IPFIJ00 ( 256) NOT READY (066)
4
$IPFIJ01 ( 259) NOT READY (066)
Ls
indicates each communications path (LINESET) directly connected to the selected
system. If the path is a multi-line path, the logical device (LDEV) number associated
with each line logical device is also displayed. An “S” next to a LINESET indicates
that it is a member of a multi-CPU path.
Neighbor(node)
indicates the neighbor node that data is transmitted to over the path.
TF
reports the current time factor for this line. For a discussion on time factors,
including how to calculate them, see “Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).
Cpu, Pin
uniquely identifies a process. This number consists of the processor number and
the process identification number (PIN).
Line
indicates the line number.
Name
indicates the device name of the line.
Ldev
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device.
Status
indicates the status of the line; whether it is ready or not ready.
FileErr
248 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
shows the most recent file system error number, if any, associated with each line.
For recovery information on file errors, see “Identifying Network Problems” (page
447).
RPT Option
The display for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the RPT option has the format as
shown in Example 48:
Example 48 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, SUPERPATH Option
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, RPT \NODEA
EXPAND
Info
PROCESS
$NCP
, RPT
SUPERPATHS AT \NODEB (85) #SUPERPATHS=1
S-PATH
1
NEIGHBOR
\NODEA
(102)
SYS/LDEV
80 234
TIME: APR 26,2000 13:55:01
SYS/LDEV
190 245
SYS/LDEV
SYS/LDEV
AT \nnn (xxx)
is the name (nnn) and number (xxx) of the system at which the reverse pairing
table (RPT) is viewed.
SPATH n
these entries describe information kept in the RPT for each multi-CPU path (SPATH)
on the selected system. When data is transmitted to a non-neighbor node over a
multi-CPU path, the RPT is used to direct traffic from the remote node to the
Expand line-handler process from which a connection initiation was received. The
source system numbers and the logical devices (LDEVs) to which traffic from the
source system should be directed are shown in the SYS/LDEV columns. Only
entries with valid LDEVs are displayed. For more information on the RPT, see
“Network Routing Table (NRT) and Multiple Path Table (MPT)” (page 356).
NEIGHBOR
indicates the neighbor node that data is transmitted to over the path.
SYS/LDEV
indicates the number and the name of the system, or node, and the logical device
(LDEV) number.
SUPERPATH Option
The display for the INFO PROCESS $NCP command with the SUPERPATH option has the
format as shown in Example 49:
INFO PROCESS Command 249
Example 49 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, SUPERPATH Option
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, SUPERPATH
EXPAND
Info
PROCESS
$NCP
SUPERPATHS AT \NODEA
S-PATH
1
NEIGHBOR
\NODEB
(082)
, SUPERPATH
(117) #SUPERPATHS=1
LDEV
122
121
123
TF
1
1
1
LF
1.00
1.00
1.00
TIME: FEB 24,2003 13:55:48
LCPU
1
0
0
RCPU
1
2
0
AT \nnn (xxx)
is the name (nnn) and number (xxx) of the system from which the multi-CPU
paths are viewed.
SPATH n
these entries describe each multi-CPU path (SPATH) on the selected system. The
effective time factor (ETF) is an extension of the path time factor (TF) that is used
to select a path in a multi-CPU path. The ETF represents not only the speed of
the path, but also the resources available on the path to accommodate more
traffic. The LCPU and RCPU fields report the local processor and remote processor
numbers. For more information on the ETF, see “Best-Path Route Selection” (page
356).
NEIGHBOR
indicates the neighbor node that data is transmitted to over the path.
LDEV
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device.
TF
indicates super time factors in this display.
LF
indicates the load factor for the path in a multi-CPU path (superpath). The effective
time factor (ETF) is calculated based on the load factor (ETF = LF * TF).
LCPU
indicates the local processor number.
RCPU
indicates the remote processor number.
Superpath Rebalancing Considerations
A Superpath rebalance can introduce a temporary disruption in the network, similar to but, in
general, less than that caused by an Expand path change. For that reason, it is recommended
that rebalances be limited to off-peak hours unless an imbalance is clearly causing immediate
problems.
250 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
SYSTEMS Option
The SYSTEMS option displays all known systems. If no connection is established, the SYSTEMS
option displays an infinite time factor and hop count. The SYSTEMS option is similar to the
CONNECTS option, except that the CONNECTS option displays only the systems connected.
Example 50 INFO PROCESS $NCP Command, SYSTEMS Option
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, SYSTEMS
EXPAND
Info
PROCESS
$NCP, SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS AT \NODEA (117) #LINESETS=7 TIME:
System
82 \NODEB
123
151
160
247
254
Time(Dist)
1(01)
\NODEC
\NODEG
\NODED
\NODEF
\NODEE
4(02)
inf(--)
32767(--)
inf(--)
7(03)
Lset:LHname
1:$SPATH1
3:$SPATH2
3:$SPATH2
(Ldev)
( 122)&
( 121)*
( 121)*
FEB 24,2003 13:55:37
Lset:LHname (Ldev)
2:$SPATH0 ( 123)&
5:$IPTAH1 ( 125)+
1:$SPATH1 ( 122)*
System
indicates the number and the name of the system, or node.
Time(Dist)
These entries show the time factor (TIME) and number of hops (DISTANCE) for
each path between systems in the network and the selected system. A value of
inf (--) (for infinite) indicates that there is no connection to the selected system.
Each row and column entry represents a path connecting the selected system to
the system listed in the leftmost column. (For more information on the TF, see
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354).) An asterisk (*) indicates the Expand
line-handler process selected for traffic to each known node in the network; this
is also the line-handler process used for the $NCP connection protocol with each
node.
For multi-CPU paths, the asterisk has a different meaning for non-neighbor nodes
than for neighbor nodes. For non-neighbor nodes, the asterisk indicates the Expand
line-handler process selected for the pair between the local node and each remote
node; all traffic to the remote node uses the indicated line-handler process. For
neighbor nodes, traffic can also be directed to any of the other Expand line-handler
processes in the multi-CPU path; an asterisk in this case indicates the line-handler
process used for the $NCP connection protocol and an ampersand (&) is shown
beside the other members of the multi-CPU path.
Lset:LHname
Lset (lineset) displays the status of a selected path and the status of the started
lines that make up that path. LHname is the name of the line handler involved.
Ldev
indicates the logical device (LDEV) number associated with each line logical
device. After the LDEV number, an asterisk (*), or plus (+), or ampersand (&)
symbol indicates:
* indicates that the line is connected
+ indicates that the line is in the process of connecting
& indicates that the LDEV is a multi-CPU path
INFO PROCESS Command 251
PRIMARY PROCESS Command
The PRIMARY PROCESS command causes the backup process to become the primary process
and the primary to become the backup. PRIMARY PROCESS is a sensitive command.
The PRIMARY PROCESS command has this syntax:
PRIMARY PROCESS { line-name | path-name | $NCP } , cpu-number
line-name | path-name
is the name of the line or path to be switched to the backup processor.
$NCP
causes the backup processor to become the primary processor and the primary
to become the backup for $NCP.
cpu-number
is the processor number that will now become the primary processor for the
specified line or path.
Considerations
•
If the specified processor is not either the backup or primary processor, an error is returned.
•
If the specified processor is currently the primary processor, a warning is returned.
•
The PRIMARY PROCESS command is not supported directly for Expand-over-IP or
Expand-over-PTCPIP line-handler processes. However, if you want to switch an
Expand-over-TCPIP or an Expand-over-PTCPIP line to the backup CPU, you can abort the
line handler, use the PRIMARY PROCESS command, and then restart the line in the backup
CPU.
•
The PRIMARY PROCESS command is used after an ABORT PATH command to switch to
the backup $NCP and reinitialize the node. See “Node Not Available” (page 472).
•
You can switch processors for objects with a single PRIMARY PROCESS command by
specifying multiple objects using parentheses as:
PROCESS ( object-name , object-name [ , object-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command causes the backup processor (CPU 6) to become the primary processor
and the primary to become the backup for $LINEX:
-> PRIMARY PROCESS $LINEX, 6
This SCF command causes the backup processor (CPU 1) to become the primary processor
and the primary to become the backup for $NCP:
-> PRIMARY PROCESS $NCP, 1
This SCF command causes the backup processor (CPU 0) to become the primary processor
and the primary to become the backup for $LHCOM and $LHBAL:
-> PRIMARY PROCESS ($LHCOM, $LHBAL), 0
PROBE PROCESS Command
The PROBE PROCESS command applies only to $NCP. PROBE displays the current paths to
one or more, or all, of the remote systems within a network, from a specified system within the
network. PROBE PROCESS is a nonsensitive command.
252 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
The PROBE PROCESS command has this syntax:
PROBE [ / OUT file-spec / ] PROCESS $NCP
[ , AT { \system-name | system-number } ]
[ , TO { system-list | * } ]
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated by the command to be directed to the specified
file.
AT { \system-name | system-number }
is a specific system name or system number from which the probe is made. If this
option is omitted, the SCF target system name is assumed and the probe is made
from the SCF target system. Entering the SYSTEM \system-name |
system-number command before issuing the PROBE command is equivalent
to the AT attribute.
TO { system-list | * }
where
system-list is ( [ sys-a [ , sys-b [ , sys-c [ , .... ]]]] ).
sys-a
is { \system-name | system-number }.
sys-b
is { \system-name | system-number }.
sys-c
is { \system-name | system-number }.
system-list identifies the system, or systems, to which the probe is made.
*
denotes all accessible systems in the network. That is, the probe is made to all
accessible systems. If the TO parameter is omitted, * is assumed and the probe
is made to all accessible systems in the network.
Assume that you have entered these commands:
-> SYSTEM \NODEA
-> PROBE PROCESS $NCP, TO (\NODEB, \NODEC, \NODED, &
-> \NODER, \NODEQ)
The display resulting from these commands has the format as shown in Example 51:
Example 51 PROBE PROCESS $NCP Command
>PROBE PROCESS $NCP, AT \NODEA, TO (\NODEB,\NODEC,\NODEW,\NODER,\NODEQ)
NETPROBES AT \NODEA
(003)
Time: MAR 11,2000 11:20:37
2 \NODEB - * (00002 ms)
4 \NODEC - \NODER - \NODED - \NODEW - \NODEB - * (00003 ms)
5 \NODED - \NODEW - \NODEH - \NODEB - * (00002 ms)
6 \NODER - \NODED - \NODEW - \NODEH - \NODEB - *
(00003 ms)
7 \NODEQ - * (00003 ms)
NETPROBES AT \NODEA (003)
indicates the system name and system number from which the probe was made.
PROBE PROCESS Command 253
2 \NODEB - * (00002 ms)
indicates that the probe was made from the system named \NODEA to the system
named \NODEB. The list begins with \NODEB and ends at the system from which
the probe was made, indicated by the asterisk *. The connection is direct—there
is no system in between. The value in parentheses (00002 ms) indicates that the
round-trip time for this probe was 2 milliseconds.
4 \NODEC - \NODER - \NODED - \NODEW - \NODEB - * (00003 ms)
indicates that the probe was made from \NODEA to \NODEC. The list begins with
\NODEC and ends at the system from which the probe was made, indicated by
the asterisk *. The systems in between are \NODER, \NODED, \NODEW, and
\NODEB. The value in parentheses (00003 ms) indicates that the round-trip time
for this probe was 3 milliseconds.
5 \NODED - \NODEW - \NODEH - \NODEB - * (00002 ms)
indicates that the probe was made from \NODEA to \NODED. The list begins with
\NODED and ends at the system from which the probe was made, indicated by
the asterisk *. The systems in between are \NODEW, \NODEH, and \NODEB.
The value in parentheses (00002 ms) indicates that the round-trip time for this
probe was 2 milliseconds.
6 \NODER - \NODED - \NODEW - \NODEH - \NODEB - * (00003 ms)
indicates that the probe was made from \NODEA to \NODER. The list begins with
\NODER and ends at the system from which the probe was made, indicated by
the asterisk *. The systems in between are \NODED, \NODEW, \NODEH, and
\NODEB. The value in parentheses (00003 ms) indicates that the round-trip time
for this probe was 3 milliseconds.
7 \NODEQ - * (00003 ms)
indicates that the probe was made from \NODEA to \NODEQ. The list begins with
\NODEQ and ends at the system from which the probe was made, indicated by
the asterisk *. The connection is direct; there is no system in between. The value
in parentheses (00003 ms) indicates that the round-trip time for this probe was 3
milliseconds.
NOTE: The preceding display shows that only two systems, \NODEB and \NODEQ, are
connected directly to the local system (\NODEA). This display also shows that all systems except
\NODEQ are connected to the local system (\NODEA) through \NODEB.
START Command
The START command initiates the operation of a line or path. The successful completion of the
START command leaves the line or path in the STARTED state. START is a sensitive command.
The START command has this syntax:
START { PATH path-name | LINE line-name }
line-name | path-name
is the name of the line or path to be started.
254 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Considerations
•
If PATH is the object type, all lines associated with the path are started.
•
If LINE is the object type, the line is started.
•
If the communications line interface processor (CLIP) is in the boot state, the CLIP firmware
is downloaded.
•
The nonerror completion of the START command indicates only that the subsystem was
able to initiate processing for the START operation. It does not indicate that the START
operation completed successfully.
•
You can start several lines or paths with a single START command by specifying multiple
LINE or PATH objects using parentheses as:
-> LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
-> PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command starts a line named $LHCMP2:
-> START LINE $LHCMP2
This SCF command starts a path named $PTS and all lines associated with it:
-> START PATH $PTS
This SCF commands starts lines named $LHCMP3 and $LHCMP4:
-> START LINE ($LHCMP3,$LHCMP4)
STATS Command
The STATS command displays statistical information about Expand paths and lines and $NCP.
STATS without the RESET option is a nonsensitive command; STATS with the RESET option
is a sensitive command.
NOTE: Analyzing these statistics requires a thorough understanding of the Expand subsystem.
For an explanation of the packet types listed below, see Subsystem Description.
If you are collecting STATS on a regular basis, be sure to reset them on a regular basis also, so
that they will not overflow and display invalid values.
STATS PATH Command
The STATS PATH command has this syntax:
STATS
[ / OUT file-spec / ] PATH path-name
[ , TO { nnn | \node_name } ]
[ , RESET ]
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated by the command to be directed to the specified
file.
path-name
is the name of the path.
nnn
is the decimal node number.
node_name
STATS Command 255
is the name of the node, such as \NODEA.
RESET
resets the statistical counters for the specified path. This is a sensitive command.
The display for a PATH object has the format as shown in Example 52:
Example 52 STATS PATH Command
-> STATS PATH $ENS21
EXPAND
Stats PATH
$ENS21,
PPID ( 0,
Reset Time.... AUG 7,2013 18:35:05
Current Ext Mem KBytes Used
Number of Known Systems
Ext Mem Allocation Fails
Current QIO KBytes Used
Current QIO MDs Used
Cur Recv Queue Messages
909), BPID ( 1,
1033)
Sample Time.. AUG 7,2013 05:39:54
448
0
0
0
0
100
Max Ext Mem KBytes Used
Number of OOS Timeouts
QIO Allocation Fails
Max QIO KBytes Used
Max QIO MDs Used
Max Recv Queue Messages
512
0
0
112
2
400
------------------------- LEVEL 4 MESSAGE HISTOGRAM -----------------------<=
64..
194206
<= 128..
33240
<= 256..
176303
<= 512..
19272
<= 1024..
26389
<= 2048..
0
<= 4096..
123
<= 32K..
0
<= 60K..
1408
<= 256K..
95
<=
1M..
0
>
1M..
0
-------------------------- LEVEL 4 DETAIL --------------------------------SENT: LRQ
LCMP
CANCEL
ACK
NAK
ENQ
PING
16561
2
0
22
0
0
0
RCVD: LRQ
LCMP
CANCEL
ACK
NAK
ENQ
PING
2
7655
0
91
0
1
0
L4 Packets Discarded
4
LCMP Mismatch Errors
0
Cur OOS in K Bytes
0
Max OOS Used in K Bytes
0
-------------------------- LEVEL 3 DETAIL --------------------------------SENT: PKTS
FORWARDS
LINKS
CONN
TRACE
NCPM
PCHG
16601
0
7661
8
0
0
8
RCVD: PKTS
FORWARDS
LINKS
CONN
TRACE
NCPM
PCHG
7766
0
2
8
0
0
8
Sent:
Av Packets/Frame
1.0
Av Bytes/Frame
101
Rcvd:
Av Packets/Frame
1.0
Av Bytes/Frame
103
Bad Dest Pin Rcvd
0
Bad Src Pin Rcvd
0
Bad Checksum Rcvd
0
Looping Packets
0
Pckt Too Small/Large
0
Misc Bad Packets
1
------------------------ QUEUE
Security Requests
L3 Transfer
L3 Waiting LDONE
L5 Waiting EXT/Shared Memory
L4 Waiting Shared Memory
------------------------ LEVEL
Xmit Timeouts
ReXmit Packets
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
256 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
DEPTHS
-----------------------CURRENT
0
MAXIMUM
2
CURRENT
0
MAXIMUM
0
CURRENT
0
MAXIMUM
1
CURRENT
0
MAXIMUM
1
CURRENT
0
MAXIMUM
0
4 / CONGESTION CONTROL ---------------------0
ReXmit Timeouts
0
0
ReIdle Timeouts
20
Reset Time
is the last time the statistics counters were reinitialized.
Sample Time
is the time of the current statistics display.
Current Ext Mem KBytes Used
is the current amount of extended memory used, in KBytes.
Max Ext Mem KBytes Used
is the maximum amount, in KBytes, of extended memory used because the last
statistics reset or line-handler process start.
Number of Known Systems
is the total number of nodes known to this path.
Number of OOS Timeouts
is the total number of out-of-sequence (OOS) timeouts because statistics were
last reset using the STATS RESET command or because the line-handler process
was started. OOS timeouts occur when the OOS timer expires before the next
packet in the sequence arrives. If your system experiences a large number of
OOS timeouts, you might want to increase the OSTIMEOUT value by using the
ALTER Command described earlier in this section.
Ext Mem Allocation Fails
is the number of extended memory allocation failures because statistics were last
reset using the STATS RESET command or because the line-handler process
was started.
QIO Allocation Fails
is the number of QIO memory allocation failures because statistics were last reset
using the STATS RESET command or because the line-handler process was
started.
Current QIO KBytes Used
is the current total number of kilobytes of QIO memory space, including overhead
and control data, being used to support messages over the specified path.
Max QIO KBytes Used
is the maximum total number of kilobytes of QIO memory space because the last
statistics reset or line-handler process start, including overhead and control data,
that was used at any one instant to support messages over the specified path.
Current QIO MDs Used
indicates the current QIO message descriptors used. A message descriptor is an
internal structure used for sending and receiving messages to and from QIO.
Max QIO MDs Used
indicates the maximum QIO message descriptors used because the last statistics
reset or line-handler process start. A message descriptor is an internal structure
used for sending and receiving messages to and from QIO.
Cur Recv Queue Messages
STATS PATH Command 257
indicates the current number of messages in the receive queue. A receive queue
is an internal queue used for sending and receiving messages to and from QIO.
Max Recv Queue Messages
indicates the peak number of messages received since the last statistics reset or
the line-handler process has started. A receive queue is an internal queue used
for sending and receiving messages to and from QIO.
LEVEL 4 MESSAGE HISTOGRAM
is the overall count of messages sent and received by this node over this path,
classified by size in bytes because statistics were last reset using the STATS
RESET command, or because the line-handler process was started. The counts
do not include any passthrough traffic. Note that not every request is completed,
because a CANCEL request might have been issued.
LEVEL 4 DETAIL
is the total number of packets sent and received, broken down by message type,
because statistics were last reset using the STATS RESET command, or because
the line-handler process was started. Sent relates to packets originating from this
node. Rcvd refers to packets destined for this node.
These Expand message types reported:
LRQ
LINK request
LCMP
LINK completion message
CANCEL
CANCEL request
ACK
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
NAK
Negative ACKNOWLEDGMENT
ENQ
ENQUIRY request
PING
PING requests and replies
NOTE: The sum of PING requests and PING replies is shown because PING
requests and PING replies only occur in pairs. The Expand message types are
defined and described in “Message Handling and Buffer Allocation” (page 366).
L4 Packets Discarded
is the number of incoming Level 4 packets discarded because they were duplicates
or received too far out of sequence.
LCMP Mismatch Errors
is the number of incoming message completions discarded because they could
not be matched with a message link request.
Cur OOS in K Bytes
is the amount of memory, in kilobytes, currently being used to store packets
received out of sequence on this path.
258 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Max OOS Used in K Bytes
is the maximum amount of memory, in kilobytes, that has been used to store
packets received out of sequence on this path.
LEVEL 3 DETAIL
is the total number of packets sent and received, broken down by message type,
because statistics were last reset using the STATS RESET command, or because
the line-handler process was started. Sent relates to packets originating from this
node. Rcvd refers to packets destined for this node.
These Expand message types reported:
PKTS
Packets
FORWARDS
Packets forwarded
LINKS
Links
CONN
CONNECT request
TRACE
TRACE/PROBE request
NCPM
$NCP-to-$NCP message
PCHG
PATHCHANGE message
Av Packets/Frame
returns the average number of packets in each block of data if the value of
PathBlockBytes is greater than 0.
Av Bytes/Frame
returns the average number of bytes received or sent in each block of data.
Bad Dest Pin Rcvd
is the number of incoming packets discarded because they contained an invalid
destination ID.
Bad Src Pin Rcvd
is the number of incoming packets discarded because they contained an invalid
source ID.
Bad Checksum Rcvd
is the number of incoming packets discarded because they contained an invalid
checksum value.
Looping Packets
is the number of incoming packets discarded because they contained the same
source ID as the receiver. This can happen if the underlying transport medium is
looping back packets or if there is a system with a duplicate node number in the
network.
STATS PATH Command 259
Pckt Too Small/Large
is the number of incoming packets discarded because they contained either less
or more data than expected when the packet was read into the local buffers.
Misc Bad Packets
is the number of packets received that were discarded for other reasons than bad
source pin, bad dest pin, bad checksum, looping, or out of sequence.
QUEUE DEPTHS CURRENT / MAXIMUM
displays the current queue depths and the maximum queue depths because the
last reset or line-handler process start, for these queues.
Security Requests
is the current or maximum number of secure requests queued for security checking.
L3 Transfer
is the current or maximum number of level 3 packets queued for transfer.
L3 Waiting LDONE
is the current or maximum number of level 3 requests awaiting an LDONE reply
from the remote.
L5 Waiting EXT/Shared Memory
is the current or maximum number of level 5 requests awaiting extended or shared
memory.
L4 Waiting Shared Memory
is the current or maximum number of level 4 requests awaiting shared memory.
LEVEL 4 / CONGESTION CONTROL
displays the congestion control statistics for the specified path.
Xmit Timeouts
is the number of transmission timeouts.
ReXmit Timeouts
is the number of retransmission timeouts.
ReXmit Packets
is the number of retransmitted packets.
ReIdle Timeouts
is the number of idle timeouts causing the congestion window to be reduced.
Considerations
You can display statistics for several paths with a single STATS PATH command by specifying
multiple PATH objects using parentheses as:
PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command displays statistical information for a path named $PATH1:
-> STATS PATH $PATH1
This SCF command displays statistical information for two paths names $PATH2 and $PATH3:
260 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
-> STATS PATH ($PATH2,$PATH3)
STATS PATH NODE Command
The STATS PATH NODE command has this syntax:
STATS [ / OUT file-spec / ] PATH path-name
[ , TO { nnn | \node-name } ]
[ , RESET ]
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated by the command to be directed to the specified
file.
path-name
is the name of the path.
TO nnn
is the destination system, where nnn is the decimal node number.
node-name
is the destination node name, such as \NODEA.
RESET
resets the statistical counters for the PATH to NODE. This is a sensitive command.
The display for a NODE object has the format as shown in Example 53:
STATS PATH NODE Command 261
Example 53 STATS PATH NODE Command
SCF > STATS PATH $ENS21,TO \CRYPTO
EXPAND
Stats PATH $ENS21, PPID ( 0,
909), BPID ( 1,
1033)
STATS TO NODE \CRYPTO (254)
Reset Time.... AUG 7,2013 17:17:40
Sample Time.. AUG 8,2013 11:15:49
---------------------------- MESSAGE HISTOGRAM -------------------------<=
64..
194206 <= 128..
33240
<= 256..
176303
<= 512..
19272 <= 1024..
26389
<= 2048..
0
<= 4096..
123 <= 32K..
0
<= 60K..
1480
<= 256K..
95 <=
1M..
0
>
1M..
0
---------------------------- PACKET STATISTICS -------------------------Control
Data
Links
LRQs
LCMPs
Sent
10
10467
1556
10452
15
Rcvd
84
1564
9
9
1555
Sent
Rcvd
Cancel
0
0
Ack
7
84
Nak
0
0
Enq
3
0
Ping
0
0
LCMP Mismatches
0
Packets Discarded
0
------------------------- CONGESTION CONTROL STATISTICS ----------------Xmit Timeouts
2
ReXmit Timeouts
4
Rexmit Packets
6
ReIdle Timeouts
5
Current CWND
439
Max CWND
32767
Average RTT (ms)
45
RTT Std Dev (ms)
12
Min RTT (ms)
40
Max RTT (ms)
60
-------------------------------- QUEUE DEPTHS --------------------------Pending Pend Cancel
Transfer
Ack
Wait
CUR
0
0
0
0
0
MAX
1
0
2
2
2
Active
Oos
CUR
0
0
MAX
0
0
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
Reset Time
is the last time the statistics counters were reinitialized.
Sample Time
is the time of the current statistics display.
MESSAGE HISTOGRAM
is the overall count of messages sent and received by this node over this path,
classified by size in bytes because statistics were last reset using the STATS
RESET command, or because the line-handler process was started. The counts
do not include any passthrough traffic. Note that not every request is completed,
because a CANCEL request might have been issued.
PACKET STATISTICS
is the total number of packets sent and received, broken down by message type,
because statistics were last reset because the line-handler process was started.
262 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Sent relates to packets originating from this node. Rcvd refers to packets destined
for this node.
These packet statistics are reported:
Control
Control packets
Data
Data packets
Links
Links
LRQs
Link requests
LCMPs
Link completion messages
Cancel
Cancel request
Ack
Acknowledgment
Nak
Negative Acknowledgment
Enq
Enquiry request
Ping
PING requests and replies
LCMP Mismatches
is the number of incoming message completions discarded because they could
not be matched with a message link request.
Packets Discarded
is the number of incoming Level 4 packets discarded because they were duplicates
or were received too far out-of-sequence.
CONGESTION CONTROL STATISTICS
displays the congestion control statistics for the specified path.
Xmit Timeouts
is the number of transmission timeouts.
ReXmit Timeouts
is the number of retransmission timeouts.
ReXmit Packets
is the number of retransmitted packets.
ReIdle Timeouts
is the number of idle timeouts causing the congestion window to be reduced.
Current CWND
displays the current congestion control window (CWND) value.
STATS PATH NODE Command 263
Max CWND
displays the maximum congestion control window (CWND) value attained.
Average RTT
displays the average Round Trip Time (RTT) value.
RTT Std Dev
displays the RTT Standard Deviation Time value.
Min RTT
displays the Minimum Round Trip Time (RTT) value.
Max RTT
displays the Maximum Round Trip Time value.
QUEUE DEPTHS
displays the queue depth statistics for the specified path.
Pending
displays the number of pending requests queued.
Pend Cancel
displays the number of queued cancels.
Transfer
displays the number of queued transfers.
Ack
displays the number of queued messages awaiting acknowledgment from the
remote node.
Wait
displays the number of queued messages sent and acknowledged, awaiting replies
from the remote node.
Active
displays the number of messages received from the remote node and linked to
the local processes.
Oos
displays the number of out-of-sequence packets.
Examples
This SCF command displays statistical information for a path named $PATH1:
-> STATS PATH NODE1, TO NODE2
STATS LINE Command
The STATS LINE command has this syntax:
STATS [ / OUT file-spec / ] LINE line-name
[ , RESET ]
264 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated by the command to be directed to the specified
file.
RESET
resets the statistical counters for the specified line. STATS LINE is a sensitive
command.
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes
For Expand-over-IP line-handler processes, the display for a LINE object has the format as shown
in Example 54:
Example 54 STATS LINE Command, Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Processes
-> STATS LINE $LNFIJ
EXPAND
Stats LINE $LNFIJ, PPID ( 2,
69), BPID ( 3,
69)
Resettime... MAR 07,1997 16:06:48
Sampletime... JUN 13,2000 16:33:44
Conn Cmd
0
0
Sent
Rcvd
Conn Resp
0
0
Invalid Frames Rcvd
Frames Dropped
Mem Low
0
0
0
Data
0
0
Query Cmd
0
0
Query Resp
0
0
Invalid IP Addr Rcvd
Tx Window Available
Line Quality
0
10
100
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
Resettime
is the last time the statistics counters were reinitialized.
Sampletime
is the last time the statistics were collected.
Conn Cmd
is the command used to initiate a connect with a remote system. A connect
command is similar to the HDLC SABM frame.
Conn Resp
is the response to a connect command. This command completes the lowest level
of Expand-over-IP connection establishment.
Data
is the number of data frames sent and received.
Query Cmd
is the command used to probe the system for “I’m alive” status. A query command
is similar to the HDLC RR frame.
Query Resp
STATS LINE Command 265
is the response to the query command that indicates that the remote system is
up and running.
Invalid Frames Rcvd
indicates that the frame received was too small (not big enough for frame headers).
Invalid IP Addr Rcvd
indicates that the frame received was from an unexpected system. Check SRC
and destination addresses if this value increases and the line is not connecting.
This indicates a problem with configuration.
Frames Dropped
indicates the number of frames that have been dropped.
Tx Window Available
indicates the number of outstanding messages waiting for a reply.
Mem Low
is the number of times a memory low indication was given to the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process from QIO. If the number is increasing, then the QIO resources
are running low.
Line Quality
is the line-quality value computed every 500 frames. This value is not alterable.
Line quality is computed using this formula:
100 * (( TOTAL FRAMES - ERROR FRAMES ) / TOTAL FRAMES)
Line Quality reports a value below 100 only when the result of the formula is
95 or less; that is, when less than 95 percent of the packets are error-free.
Low line quality generally indicates a Layer 2 problem. For Layer 2 troubleshooting
information, see Troubleshooting.
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes
For Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, the display for a LINE object has the format as
shown in Example 55:
Example 55 STATS LINE Command, Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Processes
-> STATS LINE $LNFIJ
EXPAND
Stats LINE $LNFIJ, PPID (
Resettime... JUN 14,2000 16:06:48
Conn Cmd
Conn Resp
Sent
0
0
Rcvd
0
0
Invalid Frames Rcvd
0
Frames Dropped
0
Mem Low
0
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
266 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
2,
69), BPID ( 3,
69)
Sampletime... JUN 14,2000 16:33:44
Data
Query Cmd
Query Resp
0
0
0
0
0
0
Invalid ATM Addr Rcvd
0
Tx Window Available
0
Line Quality
100
Resettime
is the last time the statistics counters were reinitialized.
Sampletime
is the last time the statistics were collected.
Conn Cmd
is the command used to initiate a connect with a remote system. A connect
command is similar to the HDLC SABM frame.
Conn Resp
is the response to a connect command. This command completes the lowest level
of Expand-over-ATM connection establishment.
Data
is the number of data frames sent and received.
Query Cmd
is the command used to probe the system for “I’m alive” status. A query command
is similar to the HDLC RR frame.
Query Resp
is the response to the query command that indicates that the remote system is
up and running.
Invalid Frames Rcvd
indicates that the frame received was too small (not big enough for frame headers).
Invalid ATM Addr Rcvd
indicates that the frame received was from an unexpected system. Check SRC
and destination addresses if this value increases and the line is not connecting.
This indicates a problem with configuration.
Frames Dropped
indicates the number of frames that have been dropped.
Tx Window Available
indicates the number of outstanding messages waiting for a reply.
Mem Low
is the number of times a memory low indication was given to the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process from QIO. If the number is increasing, then the QIO resources
are running low.
Line Quality
is the line-quality value computed every 500 frames. This value is not alterable.
Line quality is computed using this formula:
100 * (( TOTAL FRAMES - ERROR FRAMES ) / TOTAL FRAMES)
Line Quality reports a value below 100 only when the result of the formula is
95 or less; that is, when less than 95 percent of the packets are error-free.
Low line quality generally indicates a Layer 2 problem. For Layer 2 troubleshooting
information, see Troubleshooting.
STATS LINE Command 267
Expand-over-ServerNet, Expand-over-X.25, and Expand-over-SNA Line-Handler
Processes
For Expand-over-ServerNet, Expand-over-X.25, and Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes,
the display for a LINE object has the format as shown in Example 56.
Example 56 STATS LINE Command, Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Processes
-> STATS LINE $SNSLQ3
EXPAND
Stats LINE $SNSLQ3, PPID ( 2,
29), BPID ( 3,
58)
Resettime... JUN 09,2000 12:15:33
Sampletime... JUN 09,2000 12:48:11
MsgSent
RepRecv
MsgTout
ErrRecv
LastErr
Bind
4
4
0
0
0
Aconn
4
4
0
0
0
MsgSent
RepRecv
MsgTout
ErrRecv
LastErr
Unbind
4
4
0
0
0
Data
1399463
1399460
0
1
160
Proc lookup failures
0
Pconn
0
0
0
0
0
Query
32
32
0
0
0
Disc
0
0
0
0
0
MsgRecv
RepSent
ErrSent
LastErr
Notif
0
0
0
0
Data
1364604
1364604
0
0
Inactivity timeouts
0
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
Resettime
is the last time the statistics counters were reinitialized.
Sampletime
is the last time the statistics were collected.
Bind
indicates the line handler bind to an associate device (such as $ZZSCL or
$X25AM).
Aconn
indicates the number of connects while in active mode.
Pconn
indicates the number of connects while in passive mode. An active connect
message is expected as the reply.
Query
indicates that the Expand line-handler process is connected to the remote
(destination) Expand line-handler process, but no data has been received within
the inactivity interval (SCF TIMERPROBE attribute). The Expand line-handler
268 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
process is sending Probe messages to the remote Expand line-handler process
to verify that it is operational.
Queries test the connection to the associate device and do not go all the way
through to the remote line handler.
Disc
indicates the number of disconnect packets from the network service provided by
the network access method (NAM) process. Used for X25 and SNAX, disconnect
packets are sent to AssociateDev when the line is going inactive. You can set
X.25 and SNAX lines to go inactive after a specified period with no in/out traffic.
The line remains up, but the underlying protocol is disconnected (this saves money
on the line).
Unbind
indicates the number of line-handler unbinds from an associate device (such as
$ZZSCL or $X25AM). The line handler unbinds with the associate device when
it aborts.
Data
indicates the number of data frames sent. Normal ServerNet traffic is not counted
here because normal data traffic by-passes the line handler for these processes.
Notif
indicates the notification message (NAM protocol). The Expand line handler does
not originate the notification message, but must receive it. The associate device
notifies the linehandler of any process changes on the remote system or the
connection (such as if the phandle changes).
Data
indicates the number of data frames received. Normal ServerNet traffic is not
counted here because normal data traffic by-passes the line handler for these
processes.
Proc lookup failures
process lookup failures indicate the number of failures to see the associate device.
Inactivity timeouts
indicates how many timeouts there were because of inactivity. Used for
Expand-over-X25 and Expand-over-SNAX.
SWAN Concentrator Lines
For Expand line-handler processes using ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrators,
the display for a LINE object has the format shown in Example 57:
STATS LINE Command 269
Example 57 STATS LINE Command, SWAN Concentrator Lines
-> STATS LINE $SWNLCW1
EXPAND
Stats LINE
$SWNLCW1, PPID ( 2,
Resettime... JUN 12,2000 09:29:43
20), BPID ( 3,
21)
Sampletime... JUN 13,2000 15:31:47
---------------- LEVEL 2 -----------------I-Frames
S-Frames
U-Frames
Sent
227
890
9
Rcvd
220
898
9
------------------------ LEVEL 2
SABM
DISC
Sent
7
0
Rcvd
1
1
RNR
0
0
Sent
Rcvd
REJ
0
0
DETAIL ----------------------------------UA
DM
CMDR
RR
0
2
0
890
1
6
0
898
SREJ
0
0
I-FRM
227
220
I-FRM(P)
0
0
---------------------------- DRIVER ---------------------------------------Total Frms..
2000 Line Quality..
100 No Buffer...
0
Err Frms....
0 BCC Errs......
0 Modem Errs..
0
Rcv OverRun
+0
------------------------- CLIP SPECIFIC -----------------------------------FCS Errs....
0 Addr Errs.....
0 Length Errs.
0
Rcv Abort...
0 Timeout.......
5 No Buffer...
0
CTS State...
OFF DSR State.....
OFF DCD State...
ON
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
Resettime
is the last timestamp that the statistics counters were reinitialized.
Sampletime
is the last timestamp that the statistics were collected.
LEVEL 2
shows the counts of the Layer 2 frames sent and received by this input-output
process (IOP) because statistics were last reset using the STATS RESET
command or because the line-handler process was started. The headings see
the Expand frame types, which are based on High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC)
protocol definitions.
I-Frames
are information frames. This number is the total of the Information Frames (I-FRM)
and Information Frame with Poll Bit (I-FRM(P)) frame counts in the LEVEL 2
DETAIL set of statistics in this display.
S-Frames
are supervisory frames. This number is the total of the Receive Ready (RR),
Receive Not Ready (RNR), Reject (REJ), and Selective Reject (SREJ) frames
270 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
transmitted because the last time the statistics were reset. SREJ frames apply
only to satellite-connect lines.
U-Frames
are unnumbered (nonsequenced) frames. This number is the total of the Set
Asynchronous Balanced Mode (SABM), Disconnect (DISC), and Unnumbered
Acknowledgment (UA) frame counts in the LEVEL 2 DETAIL set of statistics in
this display. The Disconnect Mode (DM) and Command Reject (CMDR) frame
counts are not included in the U-frames count because the last time the statistics
were reset.
LEVEL 2 DETAIL
is the number of Expand frames sent and received through this input-output
process (IOP), shown by frame type. If your system receives a large number of
SABM, DISC, RR, or I-FRM(P) frames relative to the total number of information
frames (I-Frames), your system might have a noisy line. For more information on
troubleshooting Layer 2 problems, see Troubleshooting.
SAMB
specifies set asynchronous balanced mode.
DISC
specifies disconnect.
UA
specifies unnumbered acknowledgment frame counts.
DM
specifies disconnect mode.
CMDR
specifies command reject frame counts.
RR
specifies receive ready frames.
RNR
specifies receive not ready frames.
REJ
specifies reject frames.
SREJ
specifies selective reject frames. These apply only to satellite-connect lines.
I-FRM
specifies information frames.
I-FRM(P)
specifies information frames with poll bit frame counts.
DRIVER
STATS LINE Command 271
displays the counters used to account for errors in received frames. The driver
counters apply only to the link between the input-output process (IOP) and the
communications line interface processor (CLIP), that is, the CLB.
Total Frms
is the total number of frames that have been transmitted and received between
the communications access process (CAP) and the CLIP because THRESHOLD
number of frames was last transmitted. THRESHOLD applies only to lines attached
to the SWAN concentrator.
Line Quality
is the line-quality value computed every 500 frames. This value is not alterable.
Line quality is computed using this formula:
100 * (( TOTAL FRAMES - ERROR FRAMES ) / TOTAL FRAMES)
Line Quality reports a value below 100 only when the result of the formula is
95 or less; that is, when less than 95 percent of the packets are error-free.
Low line quality generally indicates a Layer 2 problem. For Layer 2 troubleshooting
information, see Troubleshooting.
No Buffer
is the number of times read buffer space for the driver could not be obtained to
read a frame because statistics were reset using the STATS RESET command.
Err Frms
is the number of times the Layer 2 timer expired when the line was up and not
idle, plus the number of frames received with BCC errors because the THRESHOLD
number of frames was last transmitted.
BCC Errs
is the number of invalid frames received from the CSS driver because the
THRESHOLD number of frames was last transmitted.
Modem Errs
is the number of times the Carrier Detect (CD) or Data Set Ready (DSR) signal
was lost by the communications hardware device for this IOP because statistics
were last reset using the STATS RESET command or because the line-handler
process was started.
Rcv OverRun
is the number of frames received that were longer than the maximum frame size
expected because statistics were last reset using the STATS RESET command
or because the line-handler process was started. This problem is caused by the
loss of modem synchronization.
CLIP SPECIFIC
displays error counts on frames received from the modem and reported by the
HDLC protocol running in the CLIP, because statistics were last reset using the
STATS RESET command or because the line-handler process was started.
FCS Errs
is the number of Frame Checksum (FCS) errors detected in frames received from
the modem.
Addr Errs
272 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
is the number of frames received with the wrong address field detected by the
Layer 2 protocol running in the CLIP.
Length Errs
is the number of U-frames and S-frames received that were longer than the
expected frame size.
Rcv Abort
is the number of frames that ended in the abort sequence.
Timeout
is the number of times a frame went unacknowledged for a user-specified amount
of time (Layer 2 T1 timer).
No Buffer
is the number of frames that arrived while all CLIP buffers were full and before
the IOP could process them. The IOP disables READ until space is available.
CTS State
is the state (ON or OFF) of the Clear To Send (CTS) signal.
DSR State
is the state (ON or OFF) of the Data Set Ready (DSR) signal.
DCD State
is the state (ON or OFF) of the Data Carrier Detect (DCD) signal.
Considerations
You can display statistics for several lines with a single STATS LINE command by specifying
multiple LINE objects using parentheses as:
LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command displays the statistical information for a line named $LHSL1:
-> STATS LINE $LHSL1
This SCF command displays the statistical information for two lines named $LHSL2 and $LHSL3:
-> STATS LINE ($LHSL2,$LHSL3)
STATS LINE Command 273
STATS PROCESS Command
The STATS PROCESS command displays statistical information about the network control
process ($NCP).
Depending on the option you choose, the STATS command for $NCP displays these statistics
information:
•
Detailed packet statistics that represent the communications occurring between two specified
systems in the network
•
Aggregate packet statistics occurring at the specified system
The STATS command for the network control process has this syntax:
STATS [
[
[
[
/
,
,
,
OUT file-spec / ] PROCESS $NCP
{ NETFLOW | LOCALFLOW } ]
AT { system-list | * } ]
TO { system-list | * } ]
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated for the command to be directed to the specified
file.
{ NETFLOW | LOCALFLOW }
NETFLOW displays packet statistics that represent the communications occurring
between two specified systems in the network.
LOCALFLOW displays aggregate packets statistics occurring at the specified
systems.
AT { system-list | * }
where
system-list
is ( [ sys-a [ , sys-b [ , sys-c [ , .... ]]]] ).
sys-a
is { \system-name | system-number }.
sys-b
is { \system-name | system-number }.
sys-c
is { \system-name | system-number }.
If the NETFLOW option is chosen, only one system name or number can be
specified.
If the AT option is omitted, the SCF target system name is used.
If * is specified and the LOCALFLOW option is chosen, the aggregate packet
statistics occurring at all accessible systems in the network are displayed.
TO { system-list | * }
where
system-list
is ( [ sys-a [ , sys-b [ , sys-c [ , .... ]]]] ).
274 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
sys-a
is { \system-name | system-number }.
sys-b
is { \system-name | system-number }.
sys-c
is { \system-name | system-number }.
This parameter is valid only when the NETFLOW option is specified. It results in
the display of packet statistics for all systems specified in the TO parameter, as
viewed from the system specified in the AT parameter.
If the TO parameter is omitted and the NETFLOW option is specified, the status
of the entire network is displayed, as viewed from the system specified in the AT
parameter.
Similarly, if * is specified and the NETFLOW option is specified, the status of the
entire network is displayed, as viewed from the system specified in the AT
parameter.
Assume that you have entered this command:
-> STATS PROCESS $NCP, NETFLOW, AT \N1,
TO ( 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15)
The resulting display has the format as shown in Example 58 (example display of $NCP statistics
with NETFLOW option):
Example 58 STATS PROCESS $NCP Command, NETFLOW Option
->STATS PROCESS $NCP, NETFLOW, AT \N1, TO ( 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15)
EXPAND
Stats Process $NCP, NETFLOW
Sampletime....
JUN
8,2000 20:20:1
NETWORK
2
4
5
6
7
9
10
13
14
15
SYSTEM
\NODEB
\NODET
\NODEC
\NODER
\NODEA
\NODEH
\NODEW
\NODEX
\NODET
\NODE1
TOTAL
LINKS-SENT
469
0
0
0
47
6
0
0
0
0
STATISTICS AT
TOTAL
PKTS-SENT
1133
0
0
0
110
165
0
0
0
0
\N1
(003)
TOTAL
LINKS-RCVD
102
0
0
0
8
54
0
0
0
0
TOTAL
PKTS-RCVD
1132
0
0
0
110
114
0
0
0
0
Sampletime
is the last time that the STATS command was performed.
NETWORK STATISTICS AT \N1 (003)
is the name and number of the system from which the network is viewed.
SYSTEM
lists the system numbers and names that communicated with the system specified
in the AT parameter.
TOTAL LINKS-SENT
STATS PROCESS Command 275
reports the total number of link requests issued by this system to a selected system
because the line-handler process was started.
TOTAL PKTS-SENT
reports the total number of packets sent from this system to a selected system
because the line-handler process was started.
TOTAL LINKS-RCVD
reports the total number of link requests received by this system from a selected
system because the line-handler process was started.
TOTAL PKTS-RCVD
reports the total number of packets received by this system from a selected system
because the line-handler process was started.
Assume that you have entered this command:
-> STATS PROCESS $NCP, LOCALFLOW, AT (\NODEC,\NODET,5,6,7,9)
The resulting display has the format as shown in Example 59:
Example 59 STATS PROCESS $NCP Command, LOCALFLOW Option
->STATS PROCESS $NCP, LOCALFLOW, AT (\NODEC,\NODET,5,6,7,9)
EXPAND
Stats Process $NCP, LOCALFLOW
Sampletime....
JUN
9, 2000 20:20:18
AGGREGATE PACKET STATISTICS
SYSTEM
2 \NODEC
4 \NODET
5 \NODEW
6 \NODER
7 \NODEA
9 \NODEH
TOTAL
PKTS-SENT
23784
14567
26735
31765
24567
30921
TOTAL
PKTS-RCVD
20874
32421
23451
26547
34582
28906
TOTAL
PASSTRU-SENT
9876
7289
10002
8902
5901
9876
TOTAL
PASSTRU-RCVD
1132
28292
10627
9028
8976
11192
Sampletime
is the last time that the STATS command was performed.
SYSTEM
is a list of the system numbers and names for which the aggregate packet statistics
are displayed.
TOTAL PKTS-SENT
reports the total number of packets sent by this system.
TOTAL PKTS-RCVD
reports the total number of packets received by this system.
TOTAL PASSTRU-SENT
reports the total number of passthrough packets forwarded from this system.
TOTAL PASSTRU-RCVD
reports the total number of passthrough packets received by this system.
276 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
STATUS Command
The STATUS command displays the dynamic state, last error, and modifiable values of the
specified object. It also displays specific subsystem attributes and values. STATUS is a
nonsensitive command.
The STATUS command has this syntax:
STATUS [ / OUT file-spec / ]
{ PATH path-name | LINE line-name }
[, DETAIL ]
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated for the command to be directed to the specified
file.
PATH path-name
indicates the device name of a path.
LINE line-name
indicates the device name of a line.
STATUS PATH Command
The display for a path without the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 60:
Example 60 STATUS PATH Command
-> STATUS PATH $LHPATH2
EXPAND
Status PATH
Name
$LHPATH2
State
STARTED
PPID
1, 20
BPID
2, 26
Lines #
1
Name
is the device name of the path.
State
indicates the summary state of the path. The path is in the STARTED, STARTING,
DIAGNOSING (for SWAN concentrators only), or STOPPED state.
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
Lines #
reports the total number of lines associated with the path.
The display for a path with the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 61:
STATUS Command 277
Example 61 STATUS PATH, DETAIL Command
-> STATUS PATH $PATM4WI, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Status
PPID........ ( 1,
295)
State.......
STARTED
Trace Status
OFF
Line LDEVs..
148 184
Trace File Name....
PATH $PATM4WI
BPID........... ( 2,
Number of Lines..
Superpath........
189 347
none
270)
4
OFF
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
State
indicates the summary state of the path. The path is in the STARTED, STARTING,
DIAGNOSING (for SWAN concentrators only), or STOPPED state.
Number of Lines
reports the total number of lines associated with the path.
Trace Status
indicates whether the path is being traced.
Superpath
reports ON if the path is currently a member of a multi-CPU path and OFF if it is
not. The Expand line-handler process at the other end of the path must be
configured with SUPERPATH_ON or the multi-CPU path feature will not be
enabled. The configured value can be displayed using the INFO PATH command.
Line LDEVs
displays the LDEV identifiers for all the lines (up to eight) associated with the path.
Trace File Name
the name of the trace file specified in the SCF TRACE command.
Considerations
You can display the status information for several paths with a single STATUS PATH command
by specifying multiple PATH objects using parentheses as:
PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command summarizes the status on path $PATH1:
-> STATUS PATH $PATH1
This SCF command gives a detailed display of the status on path $PATH1:
-> STATUS PATH $PATH1, DETAIL
This SCF command summarizes the status on paths $PATH2 and $PATH3:
-> STATUS PATH ($PATH2,$PATH3)
278 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
STATUS LINE Command
The display for a LINE object without the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 62:
Example 62 STATUS LINE Command
-> STATUS LINE $SWNLCW1
EXPAND
Name
$SWNLCW1
Status LINE
State Status
STARTED READY
PPID
2, 20
BPID
3, 21
CIU-Path
A
ConMgr-LDEV
70
Name
is the device name of the line.
State
indicates the summary state of the line. The line is in either the STARTED or
STOPPED state.
STATUS
indicates the status of the line: ready or not ready.
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
CIU-Path
indicates which ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator path (A or B)
is being used by this line to communicate with the SWAN concentrator. This field
only applies to lines connected to a SWAN concentrator.
ConMgr-LDEV
is the logical device (LDEV) number of the concentrator manager (ConMgr)
process. The ConMgr process is part of the WAN subsystem. This field only
applies to lines connected to a ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator.
For direct-connect and satellite-connect line-handler processes, the display for a LINE object
with the DETAIL option has the format as shown in Example 63:
STATUS LINE Command 279
Example 63 STATUS LINE, DETAIL Command, Direct- and Satellite-Connect Line-Handler
Processes
-> STATUS LINE $SWNYE2, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Status
PPID...............
State..............
Trace Status.......
ConMgr-LDEV........
SWAN Track Id......
Line...............
IP Address.........
Trace File Name....
LINE $SWNYE2
( 2,
327)
STARTED
OFF
72
X017NU
1
172.17.208.82
none
BPID.................
Path LDEV............
Clip Status..........
Status
Clip.................
Path.................
Effective line priority
( 3,
277)
303
LOADED
READY
1
B
1
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
State
indicates the summary state of the line. The line is in either the STARTED or
STOPPED state.
Path LDEV
contains the logical device (LDEV) number of the path associated with this line.
Trace Status
indicates whether the line is being traced.
Clip Status
indicates the state of the communications line interface processor (CLIP) on the
ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator used by this line.
ConMgr-LDEV
is the logical device (LDEV) number of the concentrator manager (ConMgr)
process. The ConMgr process is part of the WAN subsystem.
STATUS
indicates the status of the line: ready or not ready.
SWAN Track Id
is the configuration track ID of the SWAN concentrator used by this line. Each
SWAN concentrator is assigned a unique configuration track ID.
Clip
indicates which communications line interface processor (CLIP) (0, 2, or 3) on the
SWAN concentrator is used by this line.
Line
indicates which line (0 or 1) in the CLIP on the SWAN concentrator is used by this
line.
280 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Path
indicates which SWAN concentrator path (A or B) is being used by this line to
communicate with the SWAN concentrator.
IP Address
is the Internet Protocol (IP) address associated with the SWAN concentrator path
(A or B) being used by this line to communicate with the SWAN concentrator.
Each SWAN path is assigned a unique IP address.
Effective line priority
indicates the effective priority of the line.
Trace File Name
the name of the trace file specified in the SCF TRACE command.
For an Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, Expand-over-ServerNet, or Expand-over-NAM
line-handler process, the display for a LINE object with the DETAIL option has the format as
shown in Example 64:
Example 64 STATUS LINE, DETAIL Command, LINE Object
-> STATUS LINE $SC151, DETAIL
EXPAND
Detailed Status
PPID...............
State..............
Trace Status.......
Detailed State.....
Detailed Info...
Trace File Name....
LINE $SC151
( 2,
282) BPID.................
STARTED Path LDEV............
OFF Effective line priority
CONNECTED Status
None
\NODEA.$DATA00.STATUS.TRC
( 3,
282)
109
1
READY
PPID
is the primary process ID.
BPID
is the backup process ID.
State
indicates the summary state of the line. The line is either in the STARTED or
STOPPED state.
Path LDEV
contains the logical device (LDEV) number of the path associated with this line.
Trace Status
indicates whether the line is being traced.
Effective line priority
indicates the effective priority of the line.
Detailed State
indicates a more detailed state. These are the detailed states:
ACCEPT
STATUS LINE Command 281
indicates that a switched virtual circuit (SVC) connection has been accepted from
the remote system. This state applies to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes
that use SVC connections only.
BINDING
indicates that the Expand-over-IP or line-handler process is binding to the local
NonStop TCP/IP process, that the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process is
binding to the configured permanent virtual circuit (PVC) name, or that the
Expand-over-NAM line-handler process is binding to the local network access
method (NAM) process.
CALLING
indicates that the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process is attempting to establish
a switched virtual circuit (SVC) connection to the remote system. This state applies
to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use SVC connections only.
CONNECTED
indicates that a connection has been established.
CONNECTING
indicates that the Expand line-handler process is attempting to connect to the
remote (destination) Expand line-handler process.
DISCONNECTING
indicates that the inactivity timer expired for the Expand line-handler process; it
sent a disconnect message, and is waiting for a reply.
DOWN
indicates that the Layer 2 functions of the Expand line-handler process are down.
DOWN SOCKET
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes only.
DOWN WAIT
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes only.
INACTIVE
indicates that the Expand line-handler process is inactive. It is either waiting for
data to send or is waiting for an active connect from the other side.
LISTEN
indicates that the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process is waiting for switched
virtual circuit (SVC) connection establishment from the remote system. This state
applies to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use SVC connections
only.
PASSIVE
indicates that the Expand line-handler process is waiting for the remote
(destination) Expand line-handler process to initiate a connection.
QUERY
282 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
indicates that the Expand line-handler process is connected to the remote
(destination) Expand line-handler process, but no data has been received within
the inactivity interval (SCF TIMERPROBE attribute). The Expand line-handler
process is sending Probe messages to the remote Expand line-handler process
to verify that it is operational.
RECONNECTING
indicates that the Expand line-handler process received data while it was inactive,
sent an active connect, and is waiting for a reply.
REPASSIVE
indicates that the Expand line-handler process received data while it was inactive,
sent an passive connect, and is waiting for a reply.
SETOPT_CALLING
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-ATM
line-handler processes only.
SETOPT_LISTEN
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-ATM
line-handler processes only.
SOCKET_REUSE
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes only.
SOCKET SETUP
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes only.
SOCKET_SPACE
an internal state that should not persist. This state applies to Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes only.
WAIT
indicates that the Expand line-handler process is waiting for another process or
subsystem. For more information, see the Detailed Info field.
Status
indicates the readiness status of the line or whether there is an error.
Detailed Info
displays the last error message returned to the Expand-over-IP or
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process; this field is not displayed for
Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes. This field
provides more information about the current detailed state. Each message returned
to this field corresponds to an Event Management Service (EMS) event number
generated by the Expand subsystem. Table 32 lists the messages and their
corresponding event numbers.
Trace File Name
the name of the trace file specified in the SCF TRACE command.
STATUS LINE Command 283
Table 32 Messages and Corresponding Event Numbers
Message
Event Number
Internal error nnn, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
8
Shared Memory error nnn, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
9
Unexpected QIO event, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
10
TCP error nnn, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
11
Response error nnn, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
12
Ownership error
13
Associate TCP process unavailable
14
Shared memory system unavailable
15
Connect retries exhausted
16
Timeout waiting for assoc TCP process, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
17
ATM subsystem error nnn, Info %Hxxx, Loc %yyy
18
ATM subsystem unavailable
19
PVC unavailable, error nnn
20
SVC unavailable, error nnn
21
Associate NAM process unavailable
23
NAM process error nnn
24
NAM process timeout
25
NAM service down
26
ATM LIF error, error nnn
28
ATM LIF not found
29
ATM LIF is stopped
30
ATM LIF access state is down
31
ATM LIF inaccessible
32
For cause, effect, and recovery information for the event numbers generated by the Expand
subsystem, see the Operator Messages Manual.
Considerations
You can display the status information for several lines with a single STATUS LINE command
by specifying multiple LINE objects using parentheses as:
LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command summarizes the status on line $LINE1:
-> STATUS LINE $LINE1
This SCF command gives a detailed display of the status on path $LINE1:
-> STATUS LINE $LINE1, DETAIL
This SCF command summarizes the status on paths $LINE2 and $LINE3:
-> STATUS PATH ($LINE2,$LINE3)
284 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
STOP Command
The STOP command terminates the activity of an object normally. It nondisruptively deletes all
connections to and from an object. Upon successful completion, configured objects are left in
the STOPPED state and nonconfigured objects are deleted. This is a sensitive command.
The STOP command has this syntax:
STOP { PATH path-name | LINE line-name }
Considerations
•
If PATH is the object type, all lines associated with the path are stopped.
•
If LINE is the object type, only the line is stopped.
•
The STOP command only stops objects that are not actively used. If you want to stop activity
on a line or path object that is still active, use the ABORT command as described in “ABORT
Command” (page 204).
•
You can stop several paths or lines with a single STOP PATH or STOP LINE command by
specifying multiple PATH or LINE objects using parentheses as:
PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command stops the line named $LHCMP2:
-> STOP LINE $LHCMP2
This SCF command stops all lines associated with the path named $PTS:
-> STOP PATH $PTS
This SCF command stops the lines named $LHCMP3 and $LHCMP4:
-> STOP LINE ($LHCMP3,$LHCMP4)
TRACE Command
The TRACE command can request the capture of target-defined data items, alter trace parameters,
and end tracing. TRACE is a sensitive command.
An SCF trace produces a trace file that can be displayed using the commands available in the
PTrace program. The trace file is created by SCF. The PTrace program is described in the PTrace
Reference Manual and in Tracing.
The TRACE command has this syntax for tracing Expand paths:
TRACE [
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
/
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
OUT file-spec / ] PATH path-name
BACKUP]
COUNT count ]
NOCOLL ]
PAGES pages ]
RECSIZE size]
SELECT select-spec ]
TO file-spec ]
WRAP ]
or
TRACE PATH path-name, STOP
STOP Command 285
The TRACE command has this syntax for tracing Expand lines:
TRACE [
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
/
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
OUT file-spec / ] LINE line-name
BACKUP]
COUNT count ]
NOCOLL]
PAGES pages ]
RECSIZE size]
SELECT select-spec ]
TO file-spec ]
WRAP ]
or
TRACE LINE line-name, STOP
The TRACE command has this syntax for tracing the network control process ($NCP):
TRACE [
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
/
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
OUT file-spec / ] PROCESS $NCP
BACKUP ]
COUNT count ]
NOCOLL]
PAGES pages ]
RECSIZE size]
SELECT select-spec ]
TO file-spec ]
or
TRACE PROCESS $NCP, STOP
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated for the command to be directed to the specified
file.
PATH path-name
is the device name of the path to be traced.
LINE line-name
is the device name of the line to be traced.
BACKUP
specifies that only the backup path should have its trace started or stopped. If
omitted, specifies that only the primary line is to be traced. The object must be
running as a process pair if this syntax is used. If the primary path is being traced
when a takeover by the backup path occurs, the trace of the same path continues.
However, most events that were being traced before the path switch will no longer
be traced because the path being traced is no longer the primary. If neither path
is designated, the primary path is traced.
COUNT count
count is an integer in the range -1 to (32K -1). It specifies the number of trace
records to be captured. If COUNT is not specified (or is specified as -1), records
are accumulated until the trace is stopped.
NOCOLL
indicates that the trace collector process should not be initiated. The disk file is
to be written to by the operating system.
286 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
PAGES pages
pages is an integer in the range 4 to 64. PAGES controls how much space, in
units of pages, is allocated in the extended data segment used for tracing. PAGES
can be specified only when the trace is being initiated. The default value is 64
pages.
RECSIZE size
size is an integer in the range 16 to 4050. It controls the length of the data in the
trace data records. The trace header is not included in RECSIZE. The default is
120 bytes. 8 bytes are used for the header, and 120 bytes are used for trace data.
A RECSIZE of 500 is recommended for $NCP traces. If PATHBLOCKBYTES or
PATHPACKETBYTES is enabled, a RECSIZE greater than the
PATHBLOCKBYTES or PATHPACKETBYTES is recommended for Expand traces
to avoid truncating the data records.
SELECT select-spec
select-spec is one of the parameter specification combinations described in
Table 33, Table 34, or Table 35. You can specify either the keyword or the bit
number.
The select-spec for $NCP is described in Table 33.
Table 33 $NCP Trace Records
Mask
Keyword
L0
Trace Record
Bits
Meaning
Type (decimal)
0
Packet sent by $NCP
0
0
Packet received by $NCP
1
L2
2
Layer 2 events
2
L4
4
Layer 4 events
4
4
System abort message
6
4
System connect message
6
0-31
Sets all trace record types
ALL
The select-spec for the LINE object is described in Table 34.
Table 34 LINE Object Trace Records
Mask
Keyword
L0
Trace Record
Bits
Meaning
Type (decimal)
1
0
Frames out, nonextended
0
Frames in, nonextended
0
Frames out, extended
0
Frames in, extended
8
L2
2
Layer 2 events
2
L4
4
Layer 4 events
4
L5
5
Security events
198
1
1
1
2
0
1
7
TRACE Command 287
Table 34 LINE Object Trace Records (continued)
Mask
Keyword
Bits
Trace Record
Meaning
Type (decimal)
3
CLBI
10
CLB inbound frames
248
CLBO
11
CLB outbound frames
249
CLIPDI
15,16
CLIP inbound frames
3
255
CLIPDO
15,17
CLIP outbound frames
CLIPL2
15,21
CLIP Layer 2 events
ALL
0-31
Sets all 32 bits
3
3
255
3
255
1
Applies only to lines not attached to a ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator.
2
Applies only to $NCP.
3
Applies only to lines attached to a SWAN concentrator.
The select-spec for PATH objects is described in Table 35.
Table 35 PATH Object Trace Records
Mask
Keyword
L0
Bits
Trace Record
Meaning
Type (decimal)
1
0
Frames out, nonextended
0
Frames in, nonextended
0
Frames out, extended
0
Frames in, extended
8
L3
3
Layer 3 events
3
L4
4
Layer 4 events
4
4
Line-handler process to $NCP message
5
4
System abort messages
6
L5
5
Security events
198
ALL
0-31
Sets all 32 bits
1
1
1
1
0
1
7
Applies only to paths not attached to a ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator.
TO file-spec
file-spec specifies the file to which tracing is to be initiated. The file might have
been previously created by you as an unstructured file with file code 0.
WRAP
causes the trace segment data to wrap instead of stopping the trace when it
reaches the end of file. The default is FALSE.
STOP
discontinues the trace currently in progress.
288 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
Considerations
•
Unless otherwise instructed by your Hewlett Packard Enterprise representative, select all
the trace record types. This is the default.
•
The PROCESS name of the network control process is always $NCP.
•
The keyword L0 applies to both LINE and PATH objects. When L0 is used with LINE, all
frames sent and received on that line are traced. When L0 is used with PATH, all frames
for which this system is either the source or the destination are traced in the PATH trace.
•
The keyword ALL selects all mask bits.
•
Selecting a keyword that does not apply to the object type specified has no effect.
•
All keywords apply when the object is a single-line path. For keyword L0, it is handled as a
LINE object.
•
You can trace several objects with a single TRACE command by specifying multiple objects
using parentheses as:
PATH ( path-name , path-name [ , path-name ] ... )
LINE ( line-name , line-name [ , line-name ] ... )
Examples
This SCF command initiates a trace of communications line interface processor (CLIP) inbound
and outbound frames for $LINE1. One-thousand trace records are captured. The trace records
are written to the file X1:
-> TRACE LINE $LINE1, TO X1,SELECT(CLIPDI,CLIPDO), COUNT 1000
This SCF command terminates an existing trace of path $PATH1:
-> TRACE PATH $PATH1, STOP
This SCF command initiates a trace of the network control process:
-> TRACE PROCESS $NCP, TO NCPTRC, SELECT ALL, RECSIZE 500, WRAP
This SCF command initiates a trace of two lines named $LINE2 and $LINE3:
-> TRACE LINE ($LINE2,$LINE3)
VERSION Command
The VERSION command displays the version level of the Expand manager process ($ZEXP),
the network control process ($NCP), or an Expand line-handler process. VERSION is a
nonsensitive command.
The VERSION command has this syntax:
VERSION [ / OUT file-spec / ] PROCESS
{ process-name | $NCP | $ZEXP }
/ OUT file-spec /
causes any SCF output generated for the command to be directed to the specified
file.
process-name
is the device name of an Expand line or path.
VERSION Command 289
Considerations
•
The VERSION command helps in troubleshooting. When reporting a suspected Expand
problem to Hewlett Packard Enterprise, include the versions of $ZEXP, $NCP, and an Expand
line-handler process.
•
You can display version information for several objects with a single VERSION command
by specifying multiple objects using parentheses as:
PROCESS ( object-name , object-name [ , object-name ] ... )
Examples
These examples show the version information returned for a specified process.
VERSION PROCESS Command
Example 65 shows the displays for the VERSION PROCESS command:
Example 65 VERSION PROCESS Command
-> VERSION PROCESS $SC254, DETAIL
Detailed VERSION PROCESS \DRP25.$SC254
SYSTEM \DRP25
EXPAND (LH) - T9057H01 - (01OCT2004_07DEC04_H01
GUARDIAN - T9050 - (R06)
SCF KERNEL - T9082H01 - (01OCT04) (27APR04)
EXPAND PM - T9117H01 - (01OCT2004) - (06DEC04)
290 Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) Commands
15 Tracing
This section describes the tracing process when the SCF TRACE command is used with
commands available in the PTrace facility. The SCF TRACE command allows you to select the
records that you want written to a disk file. PTrace commands allow you to select which of those
records you want formatted and sent to an output device. The output device can be a terminal,
spooler, or printer.
•
“Why Tracing Is Important” (page 291)
•
“How to Use Tracing” (page 291)
•
“Tracing Using SCF” (page 292)
•
“PTrace Command Overview” (page 295)
•
“FILTER Command” (page 295)
•
“FIND Command” (page 296)
•
“FROM Command” (page 297)
•
“HEX Command” (page 297)
•
“LABEL Command” (page 298)
•
“NEXT Command” (page 298)
•
“OCTAL Command” (page 299)
•
“OUT Command” (page 299)
•
“RECORD Command” (page 299)
•
“SELECT Command” (page 300)
For general information about PTrace, see the PTrace Reference Manual. For more information
on the SCF TRACE command, see “TRACE Command” (page 285).
NOTE: For the Expand subsystem, PTrace is primarily a Hewlett Packard Enterprise internal
tool. Because Expand uses Hewlett Packard Enterprise proprietary protocols, internal state
information is not provided to customers.
Why Tracing Is Important
Tracing allows Hewlett Packard Enterprise personnel to see the history of a data communications
link, including significant points in the internal processing of the traced entity. Isolating a data
communications problem using an Expand trace is easier than using a system dump.
How to Use Tracing
For tracing to be effective, make sure you follow these guidelines:
•
Always trace both ends of a path.
•
Ensure that all traces for a particular problem are taken at the same time.
•
If the data rate is high, or if the trace is expected to run for many hours, preallocate the file
space for the trace file using the File Utility Program (FUP). A 3- or 4-megabyte file is generally
sufficient for all but the longest or most work-intensive traces.
•
Gather a $NCP trace even if you do not believe the problem involves $NCP. It is better to
have too much information than too little.
Why Tracing Is Important 291
Tracing $NCP
To start a trace of $NCP, enter
-> TRACE PROCESS $NCP, TO $file-name, SELECT ALL, WRAP, &
RECSIZE 500
To stop the trace, enter
-> TRACE PROCESS $NCP, STOP
$file-name specifies the name of the file to which the trace records will be written.
Tracing a Path or Single Line
To start a trace of a path or a single-line Expand line-handler process, enter
-> TRACE PATH $path-name, TO $file-name, SELECT ALL, WRAP
To stop the trace, enter
-> TRACE PATH $path-name, STOP
$path-name specifies the name of the path logical device or single-line Expand line-handler
process. $file-name specifies the name of the file to which the trace records will be written.
Tracing a Line in a Multi-Line Path
To start a trace of a line that is part of a multi-line path, enter
-> TRACE LINE $line-name, TO $file-name, SELECT ALL, WRAP
To stop the trace, enter
-> TRACE LINE $line-name, STOP
$line-name specifies the name of the line logical device. $file-name specifies the name of
the file to which the trace records will be written.
Tracing Using SCF
To trace records, you enter the SCF TRACE command using keywords to select records (see
“TRACE Command” (page 285) for details about your options). This command is sent to the
Expand product module that has been bound into the SCF Kernel. The product module converts
this command into the Subsystem Programmatic Interface (SPI) format that is understood by the
Subsystem Control Process (SCP). SCP sends a response to the product module after it receives
the SPI buffer, indicating whether the command has been accepted.
If the command is accepted by SCP, SCP translates the SPI buffer into a bit mask that it sends
to the Expand manager ($ZEXP). The Expand manager sends the bit mask to either $NCP or
the line-handler process, depending on the object type specified in the TRACE command. The
$NCP or Expand line-handler process, when it receives this bit mask, calls the SCP trace module
defined within the Expand subsystem. The SCP trace module causes the selected records to be
sent to the SCP Trace Collector.
NOTE: If you have selected the NOCOLL option in the TRACE command, the SCP Trace
Collector will not be initiated and the SCP Trace module in the Expand subsystem will send the
selected records directly to the disk file you have specified.
The SCP trace module in Expand continues to trace records that meet the selected criteria until
you stop the trace using the STOP keyword in the TRACE command, or when the maximum file
size has been reached and the WRAP option has not been specified. After you have stopped
the trace, you can use the PTrace commands to look at the records.
Enter the RUN command (explicitly or implicitly) to initiate the PTrace facility. After initiated, enter
the FROM command, which causes the Expand product module in PTrace to send an OPEN to
the disk file specified. You can then use several of the PTrace commands (such as RECORD,
NEXT, and FIND) to send the records from the disk to memory. If you have issued the FILTER
292 Tracing
or SELECT command, the Expand product module will check each record sent from the disk file
as a result of the RECORD, NEXT, or FIND command to verify that it meets the criteria you have
set using the FILTER or SELECT command. Records that do not meet the criteria will not be
sent to the terminal or printer; the records will be discarded. The PTrace facility does not function
in block mode; it only functions in conversational mode.
Figure 29 shows the relationship of the tracing process components when SCF is used.
Tracing Using SCF 293
Figure 29 Tracing Process Using SCF
294 Tracing
PTrace Command Overview
Consider these, when you are using the PTrace facility:
•
You have not been provided trace-format information to read these formats because you
do not have the source code. Therefore, when reporting problems, select the ALL option
available in the SCF TRACE command.
•
You should always specify the source disk file using the PTrace FROM command before
any other PTrace command.
•
Use the SELECT and FILTER commands to format and print a subset of the records that
have been traced.
When using PTrace commands, remember that the SELECT and FILTER commands establish
criteria against which records are compared. Records that match are formatted and displayed;
those that do not are ignored. The FIND, NEXT, and RECORD commands determine the range
of records in the currently opened trace file that will be examined.
Table 36 briefly describes commands that are useful when formatting Expand trace records using
the PTrace facility.
Table 36 PTrace Commands Summary
Command
Description
FILTER
Prevents the selected types of information within a record from being displayed or
printed to the output device.
FIND
Searches the trace records sent from the disk file for the specified string.
FROM
Opens the specified trace disk file.
HEX
Displays or prints the data portion of the trace record in hexadecimal.
LABEL
Formats state machine entries, frames, packets, message headers, and data.
NEXT
Specifies the number of records or specifies a time after which records are to be
displayed or printed.
OCTAL
Displays or prints the data portion of the trace record in octal.
OUT
Directs the trace records to a line printer or a spooler.
RECORD
Prints records within the specified range or prints all records.
SELECT
Selects records by type to be sent to the output device.
For details about the PTrace facility, see the PTrace Reference Manual. The remainder of this
section describes the commands that are of particular interest to persons tracing Expand
information.
FILTER Command
The FILTER command prevents the selected type of information from being sent to the output
device.
FILTER { option | option,option,...option | RESET }
option
defines the type of information you do not want to display or print to the output
device. You can specify one or more options separated by commas:
NOHDR
filters trace record header information.
PTrace Command Overview 295
NOL2
filters Layer 2 frame header information.
NOL2RR
filters Layer 2 Receive Ready (RR) frame information.
NOL3
filters packet header information.
NOL4
filters message header information.
NODATA
filters packet data.
NODIAL
filters dialect information.
RESET
resets all selection options to the default, which does not filter information.
Considerations
The PTrace facility filters the selected information types until you invoke the default, which does
not filter information. You can invoke the default in one of these ways:
•
Issue the FROM command
•
Issue the FILTER command again
•
Issue the FILTER command with the RESET option
If you issue the FILTER command with one set of selection options and then reissue it with a
different set of selection options, the options entered with the second FILTER command are used
to determine the trace information sent to the output device. The previously entered selection
options are overridden; selection options are not cumulative. For example, if you enter the
command FILTER NOL2,NOL3, Layer 2 frame header information and Layer 3 packet header
information will not be sent to the output device. If you then enter the command FILTER NOHDR,
only trace record header information will be filtered. Layer 2 and 3 header information will be
sent to the output device.
If you are tracing the $NCP process, note NOL2, NOL4, and NODATA selection options do not
apply. If you want to filter state machine information, use the SELECT command.
Examples
This command filters Layer 2 Receive Ready (RR):
?FILTER NOL2RR
This command resets the filter to the default, so no information is filtered:
?FILTER RESET
FIND Command
The FIND command searches the formatted output of trace records for the specified string of
alphanumeric characters. Only records matching the SELECT and FILTER options are examined.
F[IND]
296 Tracing
[ [ B[OTH] ] "string" ]
BOTH
specifies that you want the search to be case-insensitive; that is, that PTrace
should handle uppercase and lowercase characters the same when searching
for a match.
string
is an optional alphanumeric string. The string can be a maximum of 80 characters.
Considerations
When you enter the FIND command with a string parameter, PTrace begins searching at the
first record in the file. If you enter the FIND command without a string parameter, PTrace
searches for the string parameter specified in the last FIND command. In this case, PTrace
begins the search at the record following the last record in which the previously specified string
parameter was found. However, if you enter the FIND command without a string parameter
and no previous FIND command with a string parameter has been issued, an error is returned.
While the PTrace facility processes the FIND command, trace records will not be sent to the
output device. If the specified string is found in an output line, the entire record is sent to the
output device.
Examples
This example searches the trace file for both uppercase and lowercase occurrences of the
character string EXPAND03:
?FIND BOTH "EXPAND03"
This example searches for the next occurrence of a previously specified string:
?FIND
FROM Command
The FROM command causes PTrace to open the specified trace file. Each time a trace file is
opened using the FROM command, all options selected using the other PTrace commands are
reset to their defaults.
FROM file-name
file-name
specifies the name of the disk file to be opened. This file name is the one you
specified in the SCF TRACE command.
Example
?FROM $TEST.TRACE1
HEX Command
The HEX command, if set to ON, prints the data portion of a trace record, including the record
header, in hexadecimal format.
HEX
{ ON | OFF }
ON | OFF
ON enables printing in hexadecimal format. OFF disables printing in hexadecimal
format and enables printing in octal format. The default is OFF.
FROM Command 297
Example
?HEX ON
LABEL Command
The LABEL command formats state machine entries, frames, packets, message headers, and
message data when set to ON (or defaults). This command is useful only for personnel who have
source code listings.
LABEL { ON | OFF }
ON | OFF
ON enables formatting of trace record information. This is the default when first
entering PTrace. OFF disables formatting of trace record information.
Example
?LABEL OFF
NEXT Command
The NEXT command defines which records to send to the output device. You can select the
records by specifying a count and/or a timestamp. You can specify the count by entering an
integer or by pressing a function key at the 6530 terminal. Only records matching the SELECT
and FILTER options are displayed.
N[EXT] [ count ] [ AFTER timestamp
] [ F-key
]
count
is an integer that specifies the number of records to send to the output device.
The valid range is 0 through 255. If you do not specify a count, one record is sent.
timestamp
specifies a time in hh:mm:ss.tt format, where ss and tt are optional. After a
record is found that has a timestamp greater than or equal to the timestamp
specified, the count parameter or F-key that is pressed will be used to determine
the number of records sent to the output device.
F-key
is pressed to specify the number of lines to display at the 6530 terminal. Table 37
lists the number of lines that are sent when specific function keys are pressed.
Table 37 Number of Trace Lines Displayed
F Key
Number of Lines
F Key
Number of Lines
F1
1
F9
9
F2
2
F10
10
F3
3
F11
11
F4
4
F12
12
F5
5
F13
13
F6
6
F14
14
298 Tracing
Table 37 Number of Trace Lines Displayed (continued)
F Key
Number of Lines
F Key
Number of Lines
F7
7
F15
15
F8
8
F16
16
Example
?NEXT 15 AFTER 13:01
OCTAL Command
The OCTAL command, when set to ON, prints the data portion of a trace record, including the
record header, in octal format.
OCTAL
{ ON | OFF }
ON | OFF
ON enables printing in octal format. OFF disables printing in octal format and
enables printing in hexadecimal format. ON is the default.
Example
?OCTAL ON
OUT Command
The OUT command allows you to direct trace records from your terminal screen to the spooler
or to a line printer.
OUT [ TO file-name ] | STOP
file-name
specifies the name of the spooler or line printer to which you want to direct the
trace records.
STOP
closes the spooler or line printer specified in the previous OUT command. As a
result, subsequent trace records are displayed at your terminal.
Example
?OUT $s.#tester
RECORD Command
The RECORD command displays selected records by number. You can select records individually,
in a range, or ALL. If you select records within a range, only records or record portions that meet
the criteria you have defined using the SELECT and FILTER commands are displayed.
RECORD [ first ] | first,last
| ALL
first
is an integer that specifies the record number of the first, or only, record displayed.
OCTAL Command 299
last
is an integer that specifies the record number of the last record to be displayed.
ALL
specifies that all records in the trace file are to be displayed.
NOTE: The first record in the trace file (the trace file header record) is record number 0. The
first data record is record number 1. A slash (/) can be used in place of a comma. Press the
BREAK key to terminate the display of records.
Examples
This example displays records numbered 1 through 36:
?RECORD 1/36
This example displays records numbered 5 through 200:
?RECORD 5,200
SELECT Command
The SELECT command sets the selection criteria for the record types sent to the output device.
When PTrace is determining which records to display in response to a NEXT, FIND, or RECORD
command, it checks the selection bit mask to determine whether the record is of a type you want
to display. This selection criteria is in addition to the selection criteria you have set using the
FILTER command.
If you do not specify a mask or keyword, ALL bits are set.
SELECT [mask [, mask ] ...] | [ mask [, keyword ] ...]
mask
is an integer that specifies the selection mask directly. The mask can be specified
in decimal, octal, hexadecimal, or binary notation. The hexadecimal and octal
notation is listed in Table 38.
keyword
is one of the keywords listed in Table 38.
Table 38 shows the SELECT options that have meaning when formatting Expand traces.
Table 38 SELECT Options for Expand
Keyword
SCF Bit
Hex Mask
Octal Mask
Line
PATH
L0
00
%H80000000
%20000000000
X
X
Frames in, direct-connect
X
X
Frames out, direct-connect
X
X
Frames in,
satellite-connect
X
X
Frames out,
satellite-connect
L2
02
%H20000000
%04000000000
L3
03
%H10000000
%02000000000
300 Tracing
X
X
$NCP Description
X
Packets sent by $NCP
X
Layer 2 events
Layer 3 events
Table 38 SELECT Options for Expand (continued)
Keyword
SCF Bit
Hex Mask
Octal Mask
Line
PATH
$NCP Description
L4
04
%H08000000
%01000000000
X
X
X
X
X
Layer 4 events
Expand line-handler
process to $NCP
messages
X
System ABORT messages
X
System CONNECT
messages
X
X
EMS messages
L5
05
%H04000000
%00400000000
X
X
Security events
DI
09
%H00800000
%00020000000
X
X
Frames in, SWAN
concentrator
X
X
Frames in, IP packets
X
X
Frames out, SWAN
concentrator
X
X
Frames out, IP packets
DO
09
%H00400000
%00020000000
CLBI
10
%H00200000
%00010000000
X
CLB inbound frames,
SWAN concentrator
CLBO
11
%H00100000
%00004000000
X
CLB outbound frames,
SWAN concentrator
CLIPDI
15, 16
%H00018000
%00000300000
X
CLIP inbound frames,
SWAN concentrator
CLIPDO
15, 17
%H00014000
%00000240000
X
CLIP outbound frames,
SWAN concentrator
CLIPL2
15, 21
%H00010400
%00002020000
X
CLIP requests and
responses, CLIP Layer 2
state machine, frames in
and out
ALL
0 to 31
%HFFFFFFF
%37777777777
X
CLIP requests and
responses, CLIP Layer 2
state machine, frames in
and out
SELECT Command 301
Part IV Reference Information
Part IV consists of these chapters, which provide reference information:
Chapter 16
“Expand Modifiers” (page 306)
Chapter 17
“Subsystem Description” (page 338)
Contents
16 Expand Modifiers...........................................................................................306
How to Use This Section..................................................................................................................306
Required Modifiers............................................................................................................................306
Modifier Dictionary............................................................................................................................308
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN/AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE..............................................308
ASSOCIATEDEV $dev-name......................................................................................................308
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #n............................................................................................................309
ATMSEL n...................................................................................................................................309
CALLTYPE_PVC/CALLTYPE_SVC/CALLTYPE_ATMSAP.........................................................310
CLBIDLETIMER..........................................................................................................................310
CLOCKMODE_DCE/CLOCKMODE_DTE..................................................................................310
CLOCKSPEED_600/CLOCKSPEED_1200 CLOCKSPEED_2400/CLOCKSPEED_4800
CLOCKSPEED_9600/CLOCKSPEED_19200 CLOCKSPEED_38400/CLOCKSPEED_56000
CLOCKSPEED_115200..............................................................................................................310
COMPRESS_OFF/COMPRESS_ON..........................................................................................311
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE/ CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE.....................................311
DELAY n......................................................................................................................................312
DESTATMADDR n.......................................................................................................................312
DESTIPADDR n...........................................................................................................................312
DESTIPPORT n...........................................................................................................................313
DOWNIFBADQUALITY ON/ DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF.........................................................313
EXTMEMSIZE n..........................................................................................................................313
FLAGFILL_OFF/ FLAGFILL_ON.................................................................................................313
FRAMESIZE n.............................................................................................................................314
INTERFACE_RS232/INTERFACE_RS422.................................................................................314
IPVER_IPV4/IPVER_IPV6..........................................................................................................314
L2DISCARDONRESET_OFF/L2DISCARDONRESET_ON........................................................315
L2RETRIES n..............................................................................................................................315
L2TIMEOUT n.............................................................................................................................315
L4CONGCTRL_OFF/L4CONGCTRL_ON..................................................................................316
L4CWNDCLAMP n......................................................................................................................317
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON............................................................................318
L4RETRIES n..............................................................................................................................318
L4SENDWINDOW n....................................................................................................................319
L4TIMEOUT n.............................................................................................................................319
LIFNAME n..................................................................................................................................320
LINEPRIORITY n.........................................................................................................................320
LINETF n.....................................................................................................................................320
MAXMEM_MB n..........................................................................................................................320
MAXMSGSZ_60KB /MAXMSGSZ_2MB.....................................................................................321
MAXRECONNECTS n.................................................................................................................321
MAXSECREQ n...........................................................................................................................321
NEXTSYS n.................................................................................................................................322
OSSPACE n................................................................................................................................322
OSTIMEOUT n............................................................................................................................322
PATHBLOCKBYTES n................................................................................................................323
PATHPACKETBYTES n...............................................................................................................323
PATHTF n....................................................................................................................................324
PROGRAM n...............................................................................................................................324
PVCNAME n................................................................................................................................325
QUALITYTHRESHOLD n............................................................................................................325
QUALITYTIMER n.......................................................................................................................325
Contents 303
RETRYPROBE n.........................................................................................................................325
RSIZE n.......................................................................................................................................326
RXWINDOW n.............................................................................................................................326
SPEED n.....................................................................................................................................326
SPEEDK n...................................................................................................................................327
SRCIPADDR n.............................................................................................................................328
SRCIPPORT n.............................................................................................................................329
STARTUP_OFF/STARTUP_ON..................................................................................................329
SUPERPATH_OFF/SUPERPATH_ON........................................................................................329
TIMERINACTIVITY n...................................................................................................................330
TIMERPROBE n..........................................................................................................................330
TIMERRECONNECT n................................................................................................................331
TXWINDOW n.............................................................................................................................331
V6DESTIPADDR n......................................................................................................................332
V6SRCIPADDR n........................................................................................................................332
Profiles..............................................................................................................................................332
Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers..................................................................332
Multi-Line Path Modifiers.............................................................................................................335
17 Subsystem Description..................................................................................338
Expand Subsystem Components.....................................................................................................338
Expand Line-Handler Processes.................................................................................................338
Network Control Process ($NCP)................................................................................................342
Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP)............................................................................................342
Components Summary................................................................................................................343
Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model..........................................................................344
Expand Line-Handler Process Layer Functions..........................................................................344
$NCP Layer Functions................................................................................................................346
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem..........................................................................................346
Protocol Packet Types.................................................................................................................347
Packet Synchronization...............................................................................................................349
Example of End-to-End Protocol Packet Exchanges..................................................................349
Layer 4 Send Window.................................................................................................................353
Routing and Time Factors.................................................................................................................354
Setting Time Factors...................................................................................................................354
Negotiating Path Time Factors....................................................................................................355
Best-Path Route Selection..........................................................................................................356
Network Routing Table (NRT) and Multiple Path Table (MPT)....................................................356
Calculating Route Time Factors..................................................................................................358
Routing Algorithms......................................................................................................................358
Multi-CPU Paths..........................................................................................................................362
Multi-CPU Routing Examples......................................................................................................364
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation..........................................................................................366
Outgoing Traffic Flow...................................................................................................................367
Incoming Traffic Flow...................................................................................................................371
Message Buffering............................................................................................................................374
Global Variables..........................................................................................................................374
Stack............................................................................................................................................374
Control Blocks.............................................................................................................................375
Line Buffer...................................................................................................................................375
Buffer Pool...................................................................................................................................375
Shared Memory Area for QIO......................................................................................................375
Expand-to-NAM Interface.................................................................................................................376
Network Access Method (NAM) Processes................................................................................376
Connection Establishment...........................................................................................................377
304 Contents
Sending and Receiving Data.......................................................................................................379
Expand-to-IP Interface......................................................................................................................379
NonStop TCP/IP Processes........................................................................................................380
Expand-over-IP Connection Establishment.................................................................................380
Sending and Receiving Data.......................................................................................................382
Forwarding Expand-over-IP Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes........................382
Expand-to-ATM Interface..................................................................................................................383
ATM Subsystem..........................................................................................................................384
Expand-over-ATM Connection Establishment.............................................................................385
Sending and Receiving Data.......................................................................................................386
Forwarding Expand-over-ATM Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes....................386
Multipacket Frame Feature...............................................................................................................387
Constructing Multipacket Frames................................................................................................388
Path Initialization.........................................................................................................................390
Multipacket Frame Configuration................................................................................................390
Multipacket Frame Considerations..............................................................................................391
Variable Packet Size Feature...........................................................................................................391
Variable Packet Size Configuration.............................................................................................391
Variable Packet Size Considerations...........................................................................................392
Mixing Extended and Nonextended Packets...............................................................................392
Considerations for Paths Using the Variable Packet Size Feature and the Multipacket Frame
Feature........................................................................................................................................393
Congestion Control Feature..............................................................................................................393
Congestion Control Configuration...............................................................................................395
Congestion Control Considerations.............................................................................................395
Large Messages Feature..................................................................................................................396
Multi-CPU Feature............................................................................................................................396
Multi-CPU Paths..........................................................................................................................397
Multi-CPU Configuration..............................................................................................................397
Multi-CPU Considerations...........................................................................................................397
Contents 305
16 Expand Modifiers
The Expand subsystem provides many modifiers to allow you to customize your network. These
modifiers are contained in the profiles. Some modifiers are required, some are optional, some
only appear in certain profiles, and others appear in several profiles.
This section describes the modifiers that are related to the configuration of Expand line-handler
processes. Modifiers that affect the network control process ($NCP) are discussed in “Configuring
the Network Control Process” (page 80).
How to Use This Section
The modifiers described in this section are presented in three different ways to meet your needs:
•
Required modifiers are listed in Required Modifiers
•
All the Expand modifiers are listed in alphabetical order in Modifier Dictionary. Each modifier
is described in detail.
•
Tables listing all the Expand modifiers and the profiles in which they appear are provided in
Profiles.
Required Modifiers
Required modifiers are modifiers that are necessary for successful network operation. Not all
modifiers are required for all types of Expand line-handler processes. Table 39 lists the required
modifiers.
Table 39 Required Modifiers
Modifier
Description
ASSOCIATEDEV
Can be used to associate:
• The logical device name of a NAM process with an
Expand-over-NAM line-handler process.
• A NonStop TCP/IP process with an Expand-over-IP line-handler
process.
• An Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) line with an
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process.
• The ServerNet monitor process ($ZZSCL) with an
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-X25, Expand-over-SNA, and
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes only.
Default: $ZZSCL for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
There is no default value for Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-IP, and
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes.
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
Must be used to specify
• The name of the X25AM subdevice to which an Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process will bind.
• The subdevice name of the SNAX/APN logical unit (LU) used by
an Expand-over-SNA line-handler process.
• The name of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) service
access point (SAP) used by an Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process.
Required by: Expand-over-X25 and Expand-over-SNA, and
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes only.
Default: There is no default value for Expand-over-NAM line-handler
processes; the default value is #IP for Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes (the only value allowed for Expand-over-ATM).
306 Expand Modifiers
Table 39 Required Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
Description
ATMSEL
Specifies a hexadecimal selector byte for the ATM line used by the
local Expand-over-ATM line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use
switched virtual circuit (SVC) connections.
Default: %H80
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
Specifies that an ATM protocol direct service access point (ATMSAP)
connection will be used.
Required by: Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that run
through the SLSA subsystem.
Default: PVC (CALLTYPE_PVC modifier) is the default connection
type.
CALLTYPE_PVC
Specifies that a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) connection will be
used.
Required by: Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes.
Default: PVC is the default connection type.
CALLTYPE_SVC
Specifies that a switched virtual circuit (SVC) connection will be used.
Required by: Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes.
Default: PVC (CALLTYPE_PVC modifier) is the default connection
type.
DESTATMADDR
Specifies the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) address configured
for the ATM line used by the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process
at the remote system.
Required by: Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use
switched virtual circuit (SVC) connections.
Default: 20-byte null address.
DESTIPADDR
Specifies the Internet Protocol (IP) address used by a remote
(destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-IP line-handler processes if IPVER is
IPv4.
Default: 0.0.0.0.
DESTIPPORT
Specifies the port number used by a remote (destination)
Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-IP line-handler processes if IPVER is
IPv4.
Default: 1024.
NEXTSYS
Specifies the number of the system connected to the other end of the
line.
Required by: All types of Expand line-handler processes.
Default: 255.*
PVCNAME
Specifies the name of a permanent virtual circuit (PVC).
Required by: Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use
PVC connections.
Default: None
SRCIPADDR
Specifies the Internet Protocol (IP) address associated with a NonStop
TCP/IP process used by a local Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only.
Required Modifiers 307
Table 39 Required Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
Description
Default: 0.0.0.0.
SRCIPPORT
Specifies the port number used by a local Expand-over-IP line-handler
process.
Required by: Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only.
Default: 1024.
V6DESTIPADDR
Specifies the destination NonStop TCP/IPv6 address used by the
remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-IP line-handler processes if IPVER is
IPv6.
Default: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000.
V6SRCIPADDR
Specifies the source NonStop TCP/IPv6 address used by the remote
Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
Required by: Expand-over-IP line-handler processes if IPVER is
IPv6.
Default: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000.
*The default value for this modifier is invalid and must be changed.
Modifier Dictionary
This subsection lists in alphabetical order all the modifiers used to configure Expand line-handler
processes and describes each modifier in detail. Default values and value ranges are described,
if applicable.
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN/AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE
Default:
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
These modifiers are applicable to Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, and
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes only.
The AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN modifier causes the Expand line-handler process to go to
the DOWN state after the maximum number of retries (as specified by the MAXRECONNECTS
modifier) has been exhausted.
The AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE modifier causes the Expand line-handler process to switch
to passive connect mode after the maximum number of retries (as specified by the
MAXRECONNECTS modifier) has been exhausted. For Expand-over-NAM and
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, if the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE modifier
is specified together with the CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier, the
AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE modifier will override the connect-type modifier, changing the
connect mode to active.
ASSOCIATEDEV $dev-name
Default:
$ZZSCL for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes
308 Expand Modifiers
None for Expand-over-IP line-handler processes
None for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes
None for Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Any eight-character string
This modifier is used for Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, and
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes only. This modifier associates the logical device
name of an X25AM or SNAX/APN line-handler process with an Expand-over-X.25 or
Expand-over-SNA line-handler process. This modifier is also used to associate a NonStop TCP/IP
process with an Expand-over-IP line-handler process, an ATM line with an Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process, the $ZZSCL process with an Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process.
ASSOCIATESUBDEV #n
Default:
No default for Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes
#IP for Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
This modifier is required for Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes
only. n might specify these:
•
The name of an X25AM subdevice to which the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process will
bind.
•
The subdevice name of the SNAX/APN logical unit (LU) used by the Expand-over-SNA
line-handler process.
•
The name of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) service access point (SAP) used by
the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. The only currently supported SAP is #IP.
ATMSEL n
Default:
%H80
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through %HFF
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use switched virtual
circuits (SVCs) only. It specifies a hexadecimal selector byte for the ATM line used by the local
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. The selector byte is used by the ATM subsystem to
direct incoming call requests to the correct ATM subsystem client. Selector bytes must be
coordinated among ATM clients using the same ATM line. The selector byte is the last (rightmost)
byte in an ATM address.
Modifier Dictionary 309
CALLTYPE_PVC/CALLTYPE_SVC/CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
Default:
CALLTYPE_PVC
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
These modifiers are applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes only. The
CALLTYPE_PVC modifier indicates that a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) connection will be
used. The CALLTYPE_SVC modifier indicates that a switched virtual circuit (SVC) connection
will be used. The CALLTYPE_ATMSAP modifier indicates that the ATMSAP connection through
the SLSA subsystem will be used.
CLBIDLETIMER
Default:
10
Units:
Seconds
Range:
0.001 through 5:27.0
This modifier is applicable only to SWAN SAT line, which applies to the connection from the
NonStop operating system to the SWAN adapter. Default value is the best value. When the data
connection from the operating system to the SWAN adapter is idle, the Timer determines how
often the linehandler process on the operating system will send a status probe to the SWAN
adapter.
CLOCKMODE_DCE/CLOCKMODE_DTE
Default:
CLOCKMODE_DCE
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
These modifiers are applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect Expand line-handler
processes only. The CLOCKMODE_DCE modifier disables the communications line interface
processor (CLIP) clock on the ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator used by the
line. It causes the SWAN concentrator to provide no clocking. The CLOCKMODE_DTE modifier
enables the communications line processor (CLIP) clock. This modifier enables the internally
generated clock when it is used with the CLOCK modifier.
CLOCKSPEED_600/CLOCKSPEED_1200
CLOCKSPEED_2400/CLOCKSPEED_4800
CLOCKSPEED_9600/CLOCKSPEED_19200
CLOCKSPEED_38400/CLOCKSPEED_56000 CLOCKSPEED_115200
Default:
CLOCKSPEED_19200
Units:
Kilobits per second (Kbps)
310 Expand Modifiers
Range:
Not applicable
These modifiers are applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect Expand line-handler
processes only. These modifiers override the default speed of the internally generated
communications line interface processor (CLIP) on the ServerNet wide area network (SWAN)
concentrator. The CLOCKMODE_DTE modifier must also be specified to enable the internal
clock.
COMPRESS_OFF/COMPRESS_ON
Default:
COMPRESS_OFF (for SPRs released for J06.20, and later RVUs) COMPRESS_ON (for
previous SPRs)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These path modifiers are applicable to all Expand line types. The COMPRESS_ON modifier
specifies that data compression will be performed. Data compression causes multiple consecutive
blanks, zeros, and nulls to be shortened for data transmission. You can stop data compression
from being performed by using the COMPRESS_OFF modifier.
On slow lines (SWAN, SNAX, or X.25), you may be able to increase the net line throughput by
using the COMPRESS_ON modifier because compression causes the number of bytes transmitted
to be reduced; however, on faster lines or if data being transmitted is not compressible and the
COMPRESS_ON modifier is used, throughput can actually be reduced (processor cycles are
required to perform compression).
If compressed data is received by an Expand line-handler process that does not have compression
configured, the data will still be decompressed. Therefore, it is not mandatory that the
COMPRESS_ON modifier be configured at both ends of a line.
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE/ CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE
Default:
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These modifiers are applicable to Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, and
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
For Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, the
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE modifier indicates to the network access method (NAM)
that it should first issue call requests and then, if the requests are unsuccessful, then wait for an
incoming call request.
For Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, the
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE modifier indicates that the Expand-over-IP or
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process sends a Connect request; if the Connect request is
unsuccessful, then the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process waits for an
incoming Connect request.
Modifier Dictionary
311
For Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, the
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier causes the network access method (NAM) to wait for
incoming connect requests; the NAM will not initiate connect requests.
For Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, the
CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier indicates that the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process will wait for incoming call requests; it will not initiate connect requests.
If specified with AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE, the CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier will
revert to active connect mode. To get the line up in passive connect mode, add the
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN modifier.
DELAY n
Default:
10 (0.10 second)
Units:
Milliseconds
Range:
0 through 511 (0 to 5.11 seconds)
This Layer 2 modifier is applicable to direct-connect Expand line-handler processes only. This
modifier sets the amount of time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that a data bit spends
on the line during message transmission. The Expand line-handler process uses the transmission
size, the amount of delay before the message can be dispatched, and the DELAY modifier value
to select the most efficient line for data transmission within a path that consists of multiple lines.
Transmission delay is usually minimal on a terrestrial link. Transmission delay on a satellite link
is greater than on a terrestrial link.
DESTATMADDR n
Default:
(ISONSAP:%H0000000000000000000000000000000000000000)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Any valid ISO NSAP ATM address
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use switched virtual
circuits (SVCs). This modifier specifies the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) address configured
for the ATM line used by the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process at the destination system.
The address must be specified by number in the form (ISONSAP:%Hatm-address) where
atm-address is the 20-byte ATM address.
DESTIPADDR n
Default:
0.0.0.1
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Any 36-character string
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only. This modifier specifies
the Internet Protocol (IP) address used by the remote (destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. It is the IP address specified in the remote line-handler process’ SRCIPADDR modifier.
312 Expand Modifiers
The address must be specified by number (for example, 130.252.12.3). It is not validated and
need not be accessible. Configuring IP addresses is explained in the TCP/IP Configuration and
Management Manual.
DESTIPPORT n
Default:
1024
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 65534
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only. This modifier specifies
the port number used by the remote (destination) Expand-over-IP line-handler process. It is the
port number specified in the remote line-handler process’ SRCIPPORT modifier. Port numbers
are explained in the TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual.
DOWNIFBADQUALITY ON/ DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF
Default:
OFF
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
If set ON and the QUALITYTIMER timer expires, an EMS message is generated and the line is
aborted (see the QUALITYTIMER n and QUALITYTHRESHOLD n parameters). If set OFF and
the QUALITYTIMER timer expires, an EMS message is generated and the line is not aborted.
This modifier is applicable to both single-line and multi-line IP, ATM, satellite, and SWAN
line-handler processes.
EXTMEMSIZE n
Default:
8192 KB (for H- and J-series releases)
Units:
Kilobytes
Range:
0 through 32767 KB (32 megabytes)
This modifier allows you to specify the base size of extended memory for Expand’s internal buffer
pool. To specify more than 32 MBs, use MAXMEM_MB.
FLAGFILL_OFF/ FLAGFILL_ON
Default:
FLAGFILL_ON
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
Modifier Dictionary 313
These Layer 2 modifiers are applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect Expand line-handler
processes only. The FLAGFILL_ON modifier causes a specific bit pattern called FLAG to be set
during the idle period for a line. You can use the FLAGFILL_OFF modifier to cause bit-synchronous
controllers to keep an idle line in the MARK HOLD instead of the IDLE FLAGS state. Some
modems and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) require the idle line state to be configured
with the FLAGFILL_ON modifier.
FRAMESIZE n
Default:
132
Units:
Words
Range:
64 through 2047
This Layer 2 modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the maximum
size frame that can be sent in the network; smaller frames can be sent. The FRAMESIZE modifier
is also used by the Expand subsystem to calculate the packet size, which determines the size
of the frame buffers.
The Expand subsystem calculates the packet size (in words) using this formula:
packet_size = FRAMESIZE - 4
If the default FRAMESIZE modifier value is used, the packet size is 128 words. The FRAMESIZE
modifier, packet size, and frame buffers are described in Subsystem Description.
NOTE: The line-handler FRAMESIZE value must be the same for every Expand line-handler
process on every node in the network. However, the FRAMESIZE modifier value specified for
the network control process ($NCP) must be equal to or less than the line-handler FRAMESIZE,
but it does not have to be the same on all nodes in the network.
INTERFACE_RS232/INTERFACE_RS422
Default:
INTERFACE_RS232
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These communications hardware modifiers are applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect
line-handler processes only. The INTERFACE_RS232 modifier specifies that RS-232 is the type
of modem connected to the interface. The INTERFACE_RS422 modifier specifies that RS-422
is the type of modem connected to the interface.
IPVER_IPV4/IPVER_IPV6
Default:
IPv4
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
This modifier specifies whether to create an IPv4 or an IPv6 socket. If IPv4, the ASSOCIATEDEV
parameter can see any NonStop TCP/IP product and the SRCIPADDR and DESTIPADDR
314 Expand Modifiers
modifiers are used for the local and remote IP addresses. If IPv6, the ASSOCIATEDEV parameter
must see NonStop TCP/IPv6 and the V6SRCIPADDR and V6DESTIPADDR modifiers are used
for the local and remote IP addresses.
L2DISCARDONRESET_OFF/L2DISCARDONRESET_ON
Default:
L2DISCARDONRESET_ON
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These Layer 2 modifiers are applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect line-handler
processes only. The L2DISCARDONRESET_ON modifier causes unacknowledged High-Level
Data Link Control (HDLC) frames to be discarded at the transmitting node and causes recovery
to take place at Layer 4 when either the transmitting or the receiving node initiates a link reset
(SABM-UA exchange).
The L2DISCARDONRESET_ON modifier should be enabled on direct-connect and
satellite-connect lines in paths that contain multiple high-speed lines that are prone to outages
or significant variances in transmission delay.
L2RETRIES n
Default:
20 for Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM
10 for all other line types
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
1 through 255
This Layer 2 modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the number
of times that the Expand line-handler process will retry a request at Layer 2 before reporting an
error. A minimum value of 3 is recommended for the L2RETRIES modifier.
The purpose of the L2RETRIES modifier is to bridge common failures without unnecessarily
rerouting traffic. A correct value for the L2RETRIES modifier depends on a thorough knowledge
of the network and the application. In general, the L2RETRIES modifier should be selected so
that the result of this algorithm is greater than the characteristic short-term failure mode of the
network and 15 seconds less than the delay tolerance of the application:
L2RETRIES * L2TIMEOUT * 3
The result of this algorithm is the point at which the Expand line-handler process will declare the
line unusable and begin rerouting. For most networks the result will be a value that allows you
to bridge 10-second to 30-second network outages.
NOTE: The L2TIMEOUT modifier is the time interval that the Expand line-handler process will
wait for a response to a request at Layer 2 before retrying. You can modify the Layer 2 timeout
using the L2TIMEOUT modifier.
L2TIMEOUT n
Default:
100 (1.00 second) for direct-connect lines
200 (2.00 seconds) for satellite-connect lines
Modifier Dictionary 315
Units:
0.01 seconds
Range:
20 through 32767
This Layer 2 modifier is applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect line-handler processes
only. This modifier specifies the length of time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that
the Expand line-handler process will wait for a response to a request at Layer 2 before retrying.
(The number of retries is determined by the L2RETRIES modifier.)
You can calculate the value of the L2TIMEOUT modifier using this algorithm:
((txw + 1) * fsz * 16) / (lspd / 100)) + (2 * dl) + 10
where txw is the TXWINDOW modifier value, fsz is the FRAMESIZE modifier value, lspd is
the line speed in bits per second (actual, not configured), and dl is the DELAY modifier value.
The result of this algorithm should be the worst-case possible delay for a successful transmission.
However, you should remember that a limit less than 0.5 seconds can be affected by vendor
rerouting over alternate facilities, and a limit greater than 0.5 seconds can seriously affect recovery
times in case of actual failure.
When the multipacket frame feature or variable packet size feature is used, the value specified
for the L2TIMEOUT modifier should be based on the transmission time required for the larger
configured PATHBLOCKBYTES or PATHPACKETBYTES modifier value rather than on the
configured FRAMESIZE modifier value.
When the multipacket frame feature is used, you can calculate the value of the L2TIMEOUT
modifier using this algorithm:
(((txw + 1) * pathblockbytes * 8) / (lspd / 100)) + (2 * dl) + 10
When the variable packet size feature is used, you can calculate the value of the L2TIMEOUT
modifier using this algorithm:
(((txw + 1) * pathpacketbytes * 8) / (lspd / 100)) + (2 * dl) + 10
The result of these algorithms is a one-hundredth of a second value.
NOTE: If you use the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER LINE command to set the L2TIMEOUT
modifier, you must convert the result of this algorithm to a time interval. For example, if the result
was 300 (3 seconds), you would enter this command:
ALTER LINE $device_name, L2TIMEOUT 3.00.
For more information on the multipacket frame and variable packet size features, see Subsystem
Description.
L4CONGCTRL_OFF/L4CONGCTRL_ON
Default:
L4CONGCTRL_ON for Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM lines
L4CONGCTRL_OFF for other line types and multi-line paths
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These path modifiers are applicable to all Expand line types. The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier
enables the congestion control mechanism on the Expand node for sending packets on a path.
Congestion control mechanisms regulate system resources to avoid network bottleneck and
resource contention situations.
316 Expand Modifiers
L4CONGCTRL is a path parameter and the path profile sets L4CONGCTRL_OFF because it is
shared by all line types. Therefore, multi-line IP paths default to L4CONGCTRL_OFF and must
specify L4CONGCTRL_ON.
The L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier is also recommended for Expand line-handler processes that
are part of a multi-CPU path. L4CONGCTRL_ON is set automatically for line-handler processes
that enable 2 MB message support (MAXMSGSZ_2MB).
You should read the description of the congestion control feature in Subsystem Description,
before using this modifier.
L4CWNDCLAMP n
Default:
0 (Set this value to 32767 if MAXMSGSZ_60KB is in effect and to 262143 if MAXMSGSZ_2MB
is specified.)
Units:
Integers
Range:
0, 2000 through 2147483647
The default value of this modifier is zero. The value 32767 is used if MAXMSGSZ_60KB is in
effect or 262143 is used if MAXMSGSZ_2MB is specified.
The path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types if the congestion control feature is enabled
(L4CONGCTRL_ON). It specifies the maximum value for the congestion control transmit window.
The packet rate transmitted over the path does not exceed the L4CWNDCLAMP value. Expand
uses a window scale factor of 5, for packet sequencing and window values. To calculate the
L4CWNDCLAMP value, use the following formula:
L4CWNDCLAMP = <Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> / 32
Where,
<Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> is size of the congestion window
To calculate the size of the congestion window, use the following formula:
<Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> = bandwidth * delay
Where,
<Congestion_window_size_in_Bytes> is the maximum amount of data on
the network circuit in bits. (bandwidth delay product)
bandwidth is the capacity of the data link in bits per second
delay is the end-to-end delay in seconds (round trip time).
You can use the bandwidth delay product (BDP) to calculate the maximum amount of data that
can be in transit in the network. It is used to tune systems to the type of network being used. If
given the actual data link speed and delay on the network, the network capacity can be calculated.
Conversely, If you want to limit the amount of data sent, it can be used to calculate the maximum
value to limit or clamp the window.
Example
Consider a data link speed of 50 megabits per second and a delay of 200 milliseconds. Therefore,
the maximum congestion window capacity is calculated as:
50,000,000 bits per second X 0.200 seconds = 10,000,000 bits
This means, the path can have 10,000,000 bits (or 1,250,000 byte) outstanding before an ack
is required. When this window capacity is in use, the data link is fully utilized.
Modifier Dictionary 317
To set a limit on the bandwidth to be used, use the cwnd (L4CWNDCLAMP) clamp. To calculate
the cwnd clamp value, choose the desired maximum amount of bandwidth the path should use
and then, using the BDP formula, calculate the cwnd clamp size. For example, to limit the path
to use only 30 megabits of the 50 megabit link, the calculation is as follows:
30,000,000 bits per second X 0.200 seconds = 6,000,000 bits
And convert the cwnd clamp value to bytes. Applying Expand's window scale factor gives a clamp
value of 23437.
6,000,000 / 8 = 750,000 bytes
75,000 bytes / 32 = 23437 (L4CWNDCLAMP)
NOTE: The congestion control feature must be enabled through the modifier L4CONGCTRL_ON
to use the L4CWNDCLAMP modifier.
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON
Default:
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These path modifiers are applicable to all Expand line types. The L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier
enables an extended packet header format of 64 bytes for all lines in a path. The extended packet
header format allows increased throughput over high bandwidth and multi-line paths.
The L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier is required for the variable packet size and congestion control
features. The L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier is also required to support the larger message size
of 60K bytes. If the modifier is not set ON, the message size will be 32K bytes.
L4EXTPACKETS_ON is set automatically for line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU
path (SUPERPATH_ON) or enable 2 MB message support (MAXMSGSZ_2MB).
The L4EXTPACKETS_OFF modifier specifies that the older 16-byte packet header format should
be used. It can be used to provide performance compatibility with lower-speed lines.
L4RETRIES n
Default:
3
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
1 through 255
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the number of
times that the Expand line-handler process will try an end-to-end (Layer 4) request before reporting
an error. You should read the description of Layer 4 retries in Subsystem Description, before
using this modifier.
NOTE: The L4RETRIES modifier value should be set to the same value for every Expand
line-handler process on every node in the network.
318 Expand Modifiers
L4SENDWINDOW n
Default:
254
Units:
Packets
Range:
187 through 254
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the size, in
packets, of the Layer 4 send window. This window determines how many packets are sent before
an acknowledgment is required. The default value allows up to 254 unacknowledged packets in
any single end-to-end (Layer 4) connection.
The L4SENDWINDOW modifier value should be reduced from the default of 254 for paths that
consist of multiple lines of greatly varying speeds. Using the default value in this type of
configuration can cause the retransmission of many packets during error-recovery and can
increase out-of-sequence (OOS) packet processing.
For example, if a path has two lines, one at a speed of 224 Kbps and the other at a speed of
19.2 Kbps, setting the L4SENDWINDOW modifier to its lower limit of 187 will help ensure that
packets traveling on the faster line are not discarded because they are too far ahead of packets
traveling on the slower line.
L4TIMEOUT n
Default:
2000 (20.00 seconds)
Units:
0.01 seconds
Range:
50 through 32767 (0.5 seconds through 5:27.67 minutes)
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the time interval,
in one-hundredth of a second increments, that the Expand line-handler process will wait for a
response to an end-to-end (Layer 4) request before retrying. You should read the description of
the Layer 4 timeout in Subsystem Description, before using this modifier.
The Layer 4 timeout should not expire until all Layer 2 activity related to a specific message
transmission has ceased. Therefore, the L4TIMEOUT modifier value should be large enough to
span the worst case (the sum of the intermediate Layer 2 timers for the longest end-to-end route).
This algorithm can be used to determine the L4TIMEOUT value:
L4TIMEOUT = (((l2retries * l2timeout * 3) + 10) * q)
l2retries is the number of times that the Expand line-handler process will try a request at
Layer 2 before reporting an error. (You can modify this value using the L2RETRIES modifier as
described in “L2RETRIES n” (page 315).)
l2timeout is the time interval, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that the Expand
line-handler process will wait for a response to a request at Layer 2 before retrying. (You can
modify this value using the L2TIMEOUT modifier as described “L2TIMEOUT n” (page 315).)
q is the hop count (HC) of the longest end-to-end route in the network.
For Expand-over-X.25 connections, you should set the L4TIMEOUT modifier to a value larger
than the maximum anticipated response time on a loaded link.
NOTE: The L4TIMEOUT modifier should be set to the same value for every Expand line-handler
process on every node in the network.
Modifier Dictionary 319
LIFNAME n
Default:
None
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that use the ATMSAP
connection through the SLSA subsystem. This modifier identifies the name of the logical interface
by which LAN access is known to the system. Only the name portion of the LIF name should be
specified (for example, LIF01).
LINEPRIORITY n
Default:
1
Units:
Integers
Range:
1 through 9
This modifier is applicable to all multi-line types. It can be set in the range 1 to 9. The default is
1. The higher the number, the lower priority to use that line. If lines have equal priority, the relative
line speeds and transmission delays are used to select the next line.
LINETF n
Default:
0 (unset)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 186
The LINETF modifier has a range of 0 to 186 to designate the line time factor in selecting the
best path to other nodes in the network. A smaller number indicates a more desirable path for
routing. If you set the LineTF, it overrides the RSIZE, SPEED, or SPEEDK parameters in
calculating the time factor for the line (PathTF overrides all parameters, including LINETF).
If LINETF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting the time factor. Either
RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, LINETF, or PATHTF must be set, else the line handler will display a
configuration error. For more information on establishing time factors, see “Setting Time Factors”
(page 354).
MAXMEM_MB n
Default:
0 (not set)
Units:
MB
Range:
0 to 1024 MB
320 Expand Modifiers
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. It specifies the maximum amount of
memory the line handler is allowed to use for messages. The EXTMEMSIZE parameter does
the same, but is limited to 32767 KB. This option specifies the maximum memory size in
Megabytes and can go up to 1024 (1 GB). If it is zero or not specified, then EXTMEMSIZE is
used. If EXTMEMSIZE is also not specified, the maximum memory size defaults to 8192 KB on
J-series.
MAXMSGSZ_60KB /MAXMSGSZ_2MB
Default:
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
These path modifiers are applicable to all Expand line types. They control the maximum size of
request and reply data that the line handler can transfer in a single message. MAXMSGSZ_60KB
is the default and keeps the maximum size at 60 KB. MAXMSGSZ_2MB enables maximum of
2 MB messages. If MAXMSGSZ_2MB is set, L4EXTPACKETS_ON and L4CONGCTRL_ON are
set automatically, and the default value of L4CWNDCLAMP changes to 262143. Line handlers
enabled for 2 MB messages take about 2 MB more memory than before, along with the setting
of EXTMEMSIZE or MAXMEM_MB. All the line handlers in a multi-CPU path must have the same
setting.
MAXRECONNECTS n
Default:
0
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 32767
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, and
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes.
For Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, this modifier specifies
the maximum number of times the Expand line-handler process will try a connect request after
successfully binding to the network access method (NAM) interface.
For Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, this modifier specifies the
maximum number of times the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will
try to connect to the remote Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. A value
of 0 indicates an infinite number of retries.
MAXSECREQ n
Default:
2
Units:
Integers
Range:
2 through 32
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. It specifies the maximum number of
security requests that the line handler is allowed to process in parallel. Historically, this value
Modifier Dictionary 321
has been fixed at 2. A higher value might improve performance when applications send a large
number of messages that require security validation, especially over Expand/Snet or Expand/IB
lines. However, a higher value takes time away from other processing and can potentially impact
the overall performance.
CAUTION: Typically, you do not need to change the MAXSECREQ n value. If you need to
change this to a higher value, you must test the effect in your environment before deploying the
change.
NEXTSYS n
Default:
255
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 254
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the number of
the system connected to the other end of the line. If you do not specify the NEXTSYS modifier,
it defaults to an invalid value (255), and an operator message occurs during the initialization of
this Expand line-handler process. The path will not be operational until you alter the NEXTSYS
modifier to a valid value using either the WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command or the
Expand subsystem SCF ALTER PATH command.
OSSPACE n
Default:
32767
Units:
Words
Range:
3072 through 32767
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier defines the maximum buffer
size for storing out-of-sequence (OOS) packets, in words. The OOS buffer is in the data segment
or the extended data segment. Networks that include multi-line paths might require all Expand
line-handler processes to have more than the default buffer size for storing OOS packets.
NOTE: The OSSPACE modifier is currently ignored. The amount of space allocated to
out-of-sequence (OOS) packets is limited by the OSTIMEOUT modifier and by the base size of
the line handler’s data segment. The OSSPACE modifier can be used in the future, in which case
its default, units, and range might be different. For this reason, the recommended setting for
OSSPACE is to not specify it, but to let the default be used.
OSTIMEOUT n
Default:
300 (3 seconds)
Units:
0.01 seconds
Range:
10 through 32767 (0.1 seconds through 5:27.67 minutes)
322 Expand Modifiers
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the amount of
time, in one-hundredth of a second increments, that out-of-sequence (OOS) packets are held
before they are discarded. For example, an OSTIMEOUT modifier value of 300 is equal to 3
seconds. In general, the OSTIMEOUT modifier value should be greater than the L2TIMEOUT
modifier value and less than the L4TIMEOUT modifier value.
The OSTIMEOUT modifier must be set to the same value for every Expand line-handler process
on every node in the network. If congestion control is enabled for any system in the network, an
OSTIMEOUT modifier value of at least 300 (3 seconds) is recommended.
PATHBLOCKBYTES n
Default:
0
Units:
Bytes
Range:
0 or 1024 through 9180 for Expand-over-ATM and Expand-over-IP lines
0 or 1024 through 4095 for all other Expand line types
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the maximum
size, in bytes, of a multipacket frame. You should read the description of the multipacket frame
feature in Subsystem Description, before using this modifier.
The value of n must be larger than the result of this equation:
n > framesize * 4
where framesize is the configured frame size, in words, as specified by the FRAMESIZE
modifier. If n is not greater than the result of this equation, the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier will
be set to zero, the multipacket frame feature will be permanently disabled, and an operator
message will be logged.
If both the PATHBLOCKBYTES and PATHPACKETBYTES modifiers are enabled, the
PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier value must be greater than or equal to the PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier value. If the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier value is less than the PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier value, the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier value is automatically changed to the
PATHPACKETBYTES modifier value.
A value of 0 (the default) specifies that the multipacket frame feature will be disabled.
A value of 0 is recommended for Expand-over-ATM lines.
PATHPACKETBYTES n
Default:
1024
Units:
Bytes
Range:
0 or 1024 through 9180 for Expand-over-ATM and Expand-over-IP lines
0 or 1024 through 4095 for all other Expand line types
This path modifier is applicable to all Expand line types. This modifier specifies the maximum
size, in bytes, of a variable packet. You should read the description of the variable packet size
feature in Subsystem Description, before using this modifier.
The variable packet size feature cannot be used if the FRAMESIZE modifier is 517 or more
words. This feature does not provide any benefit on paths configured with the
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF modifier, which specifies that the extended 64-byte packet header format
Modifier Dictionary 323
not be used. Nonextended frames are not fragmentable and therefore must use the network-wide
FRAMESIZE modifier value.
The value of n must be larger than the result of this equation:
n > framesize * 4
where framesize is the configured frame size, in words, as specified by the FRAMESIZE
modifier. If n is not greater than the result of this equation, PATHPACKETBYTES will be set to
zero, the variable packet size feature will be permanently disabled, and an operator message
will be logged.
To enable the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier, the setting must be greater than or equal to 1024.
If the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier was set to a value less than 1024, but greater than 0, it is
automatically changed to 1024.
If both the PATHBLOCKBYTES and PATHPACKETBYTES modifiers are enabled, the
PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier must be greater than or equal to the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier
value. If the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier value is less than the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier
value, the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier value automatically changes to the PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier value.
A value of 0 specifies that the variable packet size feature will be disabled.
A value of 9152 is recommended for Expand-over-ATM lines.
PATHTF n
Default:
0 (unset)
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 186
The PATHTF has a range of 0 to 186 to designate the time factor in selecting the best path to
other nodes. A smaller number indicates a more desirable path for routing. If you set PATHTF,
it overrides any other parameter (RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, or LINETF) in calculating the time
factor for the path.
When PATHTF is set for a multi-line path, the line state and number of lines in the path are
ignored and the PATHTF setting is a constant value assigned to the time factor for the path.
If PATHTF is left unset (a zero value), this parameter is not used in setting the time factor. Either
RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, LINETF, or PATHTF must be set, else the line handler will display a
configuration error. For more information on establishing time factors, see “Setting Time Factors”
(page 354).
PROGRAM n
Default:
$SYSTEM.CSSnn.C1097P00 for direct-connect lines
$SYSTEM.CSSnn.C1098P00 for satellite-connect lines
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
This modifier is applicable to direct-connect and satellite-connect Expand line-handler processes
only. This modifier identifies the specific microcode file where the data link control (DLC) task is
located. The microcode file is downloaded to the ServerNet wide area network (SWAN)
324 Expand Modifiers
concentrator communications line interface processor (CLIP) when the line is started. For more
information on the DLC tasks, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management Manual.
PVCNAME n
Default:
None
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Not applicable
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes that used permanent
virtual circuit (PVC) connections. This modifier identifies the name of the PVC used by the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. Only the name portion of the PVC name should be
specified (for example, PVC01).
QUALITYTHRESHOLD n
Default:
98
Units:
Integers
Range:
0 through 99
If the line reports quality lower than this percentage value, a timer is started. See also
DOWNIFBADQUALITY ON/ DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF and QUALITYTIMER n.
This modifier is applicable to both single-line and multi-line IP, ATM, satellite, and SWAN
line-handler processes.
QUALITYTIMER n
Default:
0
Units:
hh:mm:ss
Range:
0 through 12 hours
This modifier specifies the time interval to wait after the line quality drops below the threshold
value specified in the QUALITYTHRESHOLD before taking the action specified in the parameter
DOWNIFBADQUALITY. See also QUALITYTHRESHOLD n and DOWNIFBADQUALITY ON/
DOWNIFBADQUALITY OFF.
This modifier is applicable to both single-line and multi-line IP, ATM, satellite, and SWAN
line-handler processes.
RETRYPROBE n
Default:
19 for IP and ATM lines
10 for Expand-over-ServerNet lines
20 for Expand-over-NAM lines
Modifier Dictionary 325
Units:
seconds
Range:
1 through 255
This modifier specifies the number of times the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler process will retry its probe of the network access method (NAM), or how many times
the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will retry the probe of the remote
Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process before declaring the network
unavailable. A value of 0 indicates that timeouts are ignored and the connect state is maintained.
See also TIMERPROBE n and TIMERRECONNECT n.
RSIZE n
Default:
None
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 186
This required modifier specifies the time factor of the line for the Expand routing algorithm. RSIZE
must always be set to 1 for $NCP and set to 0 for the path device of a multi-line path.
Starting with G06.20, you can use the new parameters, LINETF n and PATHTF n, to set values
for lines that will override all other parameters in calculating time factors. Either RSIZE, SPEED,
SPEEDK, LINETF, or PATHTF must be set or the line handler will display a configuration error.
If LINETF, PATHTF, SPEED, or SPEEDK are set, any RSIZE value is ignored.
To change the line time factor with the ALTER LINE command, use the LINETF modifier. For
more information on establishing time factors, see “Setting Time Factors” (page 354).
RXWINDOW n
Default:
7
Units:
Packets
Range:
2 through 15 for all line types
This modifier is applicable to all Expand line types.
For Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, this modifier specifies
the number of packets that the network access method (NAM) process can send to the Expand
line-handler process before requiring acknowledgment.
For Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, this modifier is meaningless
but is kept for commonality between the line types. For example, because an Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes uses QIO to communicate with its associated NonStop TCP/IP process,
the Expand-over-IP line-handler process must read all the messages on its receive queue at one
time; it cannot limit the number of messages read to the RXWINDOW modifier value because
of QIO limitations.
SPEED n
Default:
0
326 Expand Modifiers
Units:
bits per second (bps)
Range:
0 or 1200 through 224000
This modifier provides a way of creating the time factor, and has a maximum value of 224,000.
Its use is no longer recommended.
Starting with G06.20, you can use the new parameters, LINETF n and PATHTF n, to set time
factors for lines that will override all other parameters in calculating time factors. PATHTF overrides
RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, or LINETF, whereas LINETF overrides RSIZE, SPEED, and SPEEDK
(but not PATHTF). Either RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, LINETF, or PATHTF must be set, else the
line handler will display a configuration error.
The formula to convert from SPEED to LINETF is:
LINETF = (224000 + (SPEED / 2)) / SPEED
For more information on establishing time factors, see “Setting Time Factors” (page 354).
SPEEDK n
Default:
none. (The value NOT_SET is displayed)
Units:
Kbps as integers, integers with K or M suffixes, or symbolic names
Range:
1 through 4,000,000,000 and symbolic values shown in table below
Either RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, LINETF, or PATHTF must be set, else the line handler will
display a configuration error.
You can specify SPEEDK values in Kbps or use symbolic names for line types that have fixed
speeds. The available names are listed in Table 40 (page 327).
Here are the rules for converting SPEEDK to a time factor:
if SPEEDK >= 21000 then the time factor = 1
For SPEEDK values less than 21000 the time factor will be based on the formula:
TF = Round( (4000000000 / SpeedK ) / 190000)
where the remainder is rounded up if it is.7 or larger.
This calculation will give a time factor of 1 for all lines which have a SPEEDK of 21000 or faster.
If old profiles are used, a ServerNet line and an ATM line would all have the same time factor of
1. This calculation will also limit the maximum time factor to 186.
Starting with G06.20, you can use the new parameters, LINETF n and PATHTF n, to set time
factors for lines that will override all other parameters in calculating time factors. PATHTF overrides
RSIZE, SPEED, SPEEDK, or LINETF, whereas LINETF overrides RSIZE, SPEED, and SPEEDK
(but not PATHTF). For more information on establishing time factors, see “Setting Time Factors”
(page 354).
Table 40 shows the time-factor conversions for various SPEEDK settings:
Table 40 Time Factor and SPEEDK Conversions
SPEEDK
Time Factor
9
186
19
186
Symbol
Modifier Dictionary 327
Table 40 Time Factor and SPEEDK Conversions (continued)
SPEEDK
Time Factor
Symbol
48
186
56
186
64
186
128
164
224
94
256
82
500
42
1000
21
1544
13
2000
10
4000
5
5200
4
7000
3
10500
2
16000
1
TOKEN16
44736
1
T3
51840
1
OC1
80000
1
ETHER100
155000
1
OC3
274000
1
T4
400000
1
SNET
622000
1
OC12
1000000
1
SNET2
1240000
1
OC24
2480000
1
OC48
10000000
1
40000000
1
T1
TOKEN4
ETHER10
SRCIPADDR n
Default:
0.0.0.1
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Any 36-character string
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only. This modifier specifies
the Internet Protocol (IP) address associated with the NonStop TCP/IP process used by the local
328 Expand Modifiers
Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Because a NonStop TCP/IP process can have more than
one IP address, you must specify to the Expand-over-IP line-handler process which IP address
to use.
The address must be specified by number (for example, 130.252.12.3). It is not validated and
need not be accessible. Configuring IP addresses is explained in the TCP/IP Configuration and
Management Manual.
SRCIPPORT n
Default:
1024
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
0 through 65534
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only. This modifier specifies
the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number used by the local Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. UDP port numbers are explained in the TCP/IP Configuration and Management Manual.
STARTUP_OFF/STARTUP_ON
Default:
STARTUP_OFF
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These Layer 2 modifiers are applicable to all Expand line-handler process types. The
STARTUP_OFF modifier specifies that the line will be disabled after a system load. The
STARTUP_ON modifier specifies that the line is brought up automatically after a system load.
SUPERPATH_OFF/SUPERPATH_ON
Default:
SUPERPATH_OFF
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
ON or OFF
These modifiers apply to all Expand line types except for Expand-over-ServerNet. The
SUPERPATH_ON modifier enables the Expand multi-CPU feature, which allows you to spread
the communications load over multiple processors by connecting multiple Expand line-handler
processes, each in a separate processor, between two adjacent nodes. These Expand line-handler
processes are regarded as a single path by the Expand subsystem. multi-line paths can be part
of a multi-CPU path. The Expand multi-CPU feature significantly increases the maximum
throughput of an Expand path, especially for Expand-over-IP connections.
When the SUPERPATH_ON modifier is specified and there is an existing multi-CPU path, the
new path joins the multi-CPU path. If there is no existing multi-CPU path, then a multi-CPU path
is created that has the new path as its sole member. There can be no more than 32 multi-CPU
paths in a system and each multi-CPU path can consist of no more than 16 paths. Expand
line-handler processes at both ends of the path must be configured with SUPERPATH_ON or
the multi-CPU feature is not enabled.
Modifier Dictionary 329
Expand line-handler processes that use the SUPERPATH_ON modifier also should use congestion
control. The extended packet format is required for Expand line-handler processes that are part
of a multi-CPU path. For more information on congestion control, see
“L4CONGCTRL_OFF/L4CONGCTRL_ON” (page 316). For more information on the extended
packet format, see “L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON” (page 318).
The Expand multi-CPU feature is described in detail in “Multi-CPU Feature” (page 396).
TIMERINACTIVITY n
Default:
900 for Expand-over-X.25 and Expand-over-SNA lines
0 (no timer) for Expand-over-IP
Units:
seconds
Range:
0 through 32767 for Expand-over-NAM lines
This modifier specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM line-handler process will wait
during a period of inactivity before requesting disconnection from the network service provided
by the network access method (NAM) process, or the time interval the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process will wait during a period of user data inactivity before suppressing non-essential
maintenance traffic (netmaps) so that an external process can disconnect from the network. In
both cases, the line remains ready and the next user data traffic brings the line out of the inactive
state.
This attribute is applicable only for Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-X.25, and Expand-over-SNA
line-handler processes. The valid range for this attribute is 0 to 32767 seconds. The default value
for Expand-over-X.25 and Expand-over-SNAX lines is 15:00 minutes (900 seconds), the default
value for Expand-over-IP lines is 0 (no timer).
TIMERPROBE n
Default:
1 for Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM
300 for Expand-over-X.25 and Expand-over-SNA
30 for Expand-over-ServerNet
Units:
seconds
Range:
1 through 32767 seconds for Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM, Expand-over-X.25 and
Expand-over-SNA
30 through 32767 for Expand-over-ServerNet
This specifies time interval that the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process will wait to send out a probe to obtain the status of the NAM process, or the time interval
that the Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will wait to probe the remote
Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. The time interval is specified in the
format described in “Time Values” (page 203); the time values section applies only to ALTER
PATH or ALTER LINE commands. For the ADD DEVICE command, the format of the time is just
plain seconds.
Probes will continue to be sent out the number of times specified by the RETRYPROBE attribute.
If the TIMERPROBE/RETRYPROBE cycle expires without a returned status, the
Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-ServerNet, Expand-over-ATM, or Expand-over-IP line-handler
process declares the network unavailable.
330 Expand Modifiers
See also RETRYPROBE n and TIMERRECONNECT n.
TIMERRECONNECT n
Default:
30 for Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM, and Expand-over-NAM
5 for Expand-over-ServerNet
Units:
seconds
Range:
30 through 32767 for Expand-over-IP, Expand-over-ATM
0 through 32767 for Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet
This specifies the time interval that the Expand-over-NAM, Expand-over-ATM, Expand-over-IP,
or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process will wait for a connection request to succeed.
The range does not include 0. The time interval is specified in the format described in “Time
Values” (page 203); the time values section applies only to ALTER PATH or ALTER LINE
commands. For the ADD DEVICE command, the format of the time is just plain seconds.
Expand line-handler processes on opposite ends of an X25AM line should use different values
for TIMERRECONNECT.
See also RETRYPROBE n and TIMERPROBE n.
TXWINDOW n
Default:
18 for satellite-connect lines
4 for all Expand-over-NAM lines
7 for all other line types
Units:
Packets
Range:
2 through 7 for Expand-over-X.25, Expand-over-ServerNet, and Expand-over-NAM lines
and 2 through 25 for Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM lines
This modifier is applicable to all Expand line types.
For Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes, this modifier specifies
the number of packets that the Expand line-handler process can send before receiving
acknowledgment from the network access method (NAM) process.
For satellite-connect and direct-connect line-handler processes, this modifier specifies the number
of packets that the Expand line-handler process can send before receiving a reply. When using
the multipacket frame feature with satellite-connect line-handler processes, you do not need to
have a large TXWINDOW modifier value if the PATHBLOCKBYTES or PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier value is large.
The product of the TXWINDOW modifier value multiplied by the larger of the PATHPACKETBYTES
or PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier values must allow the space for line buffers to fit within 131064
words. The maximum TXWINDOW modifier value is calculated using this formula:
maxtxwindow = int ((131064/(max(pathpacketbytes, pathblockbytes ) +4)-2)/2
Therefore, a satellite-connect line with either a PATHBLOCKBYTES or PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier value of 4095 will only have space for 31 buffers. The TXWINDOW modifier will be set
to 14 and readbuffers will be set to 16, although the default TXWINDOW modifier value is 18. If
Modifier Dictionary 331
these limits are exceeded, event message 93, cause 8 “Attribute Invalid” is displayed: the
TXWINDOW modifier value and readbuffers will have been reduced to fit within 64K words.
For Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes, this modifier specifies the
number of packets that the Expand-over-IP line-handler process can send to the NonStop TCP/IP
process or that the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process can send to the ATM subsystem
before waiting for a reply.
The TXWINDOW modifier value should be the same at both ends of the Expand connection.
V6DESTIPADDR n
Default:
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Any 45-character string
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only. This modifier specifies
the destination Internet Protocol (IP) address associated with the NonStop TCP/IPv6 process
used by the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
The default must be changed before the line is started. The address must be specified by number
(for example, 1611:1071:F881:1167:1611:A071:1881:B167). Configuring NonStop TCP/IPv6
addresses is explained in the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual.
V6SRCIPADDR n
Default:
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000
Units:
Not applicable
Range:
Any 45-character string
This modifier is applicable to Expand-over-IP line-handler processes only. This modifier specifies
the source Internet Protocol (IP) address associated with the NonStop TCP/IPv6 process used
by the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Because a NonStop TCP/IPv6 process can
have more than one IP address, you must specify to the Expand-over-IP line-handler process
which IP address to use.
The default must be changed before the line is started. The address must be specified by number
(for example, 31CA:B145:5489:1034:1784:B245:4029:1257). Configuring NonStop TCP/IPv6
addresses is explained in the TCP/IPv6 Configuration and Management Manual.
Profiles
This subsection lists the modifiers that are contained in each of the profiles.
Single-Line Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers
Table 41 lists the modifiers in the profiles provided for single-line Expand line-handler processes.
332 Expand Modifiers
Table 41 Single-Line Path Modifiers
Modifier
PEXQSSWN PEXQSSAT PEXQSIP PEXQATM PEXQSNAM PEXPSSN PEXQSFX
AFTERMAXRETRIES_
DOWN
X
X
X
X
X
AFTERMAXRETRIES_
PASSIVE
X
X
X
X
X
ASSOCIATEDEV
X
X
X
X
X
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
X
X
ATMSEL
X
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
X
CALLTYPE_PVC
X
CALLTYPE_SVC
X
CLOCKMODE_DCE
X
X
CLOCKMODE_DTE
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_600
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_1200 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_2400 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_4800 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_9600 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_19200 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_38400 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_56000 X
X
CLOCKSPEED_115200 X
X
COMPRESS_OFF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
COMPRESS_ON
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CONNECTTYPE_
ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
X
X
X
X
X
CONNECTTYPE_
PASSIVE
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
DELAY
X
X
DESTATMADDR
X
DESTIPADDR
X
DESTIPPORT
X
DOWNIFBADQUALITY X
_OFF
X
X
X
DOWNIFBADQUALITY X
_ON
X
X
X
EXTMEMSIZE
X
X
X
X
FLAGFILL_OFF
X
X
FLAGFILL_ON
X
X
Profiles 333
Table 41 Single-Line Path Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
PEXQSSWN PEXQSSAT PEXQSIP PEXQATM PEXQSNAM PEXPSSN PEXQSFX
FRAMESIZE
X
X
INTERFACE_RS232
X
X
INTERFACE_RS422
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
IPVER_IPV4
X
IPVER_IPV6
X
L2DISCARDONRESET_ X
OFF
X
L2DISCARDONRESET_ X
ON
X
L2RETRIES
X
X
L2TIMEOUT
X
X
L4CONGCTRL_OFF X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4CONGCTRL_ON
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4CWNDCLAMP
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4EXTPACKETS_ON X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4RETRIES
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4SENDWINDOW
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
L4TIMEOUT
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LIFNAME
X
LINEPRIORITY
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
LINETF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MAXMEM_MB
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MAXRECONNECTS
MAXSECREQ
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
NEXTSYS
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
OSSPACE
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
OSTIMEOUT
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PATHBLOCKBYTES
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PATHPACKETBYTES X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PATHTF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PROGRAM
X
X
PVCNAME
QUALITYTHRESHOLD X
334 Expand Modifiers
X
X
X
X
Table 41 Single-Line Path Modifiers (continued)
Modifier
PEXQSSWN PEXQSSAT PEXQSIP PEXQATM PEXQSNAM PEXPSSN PEXQSFX
QUALITYTIMER
X
X
RETRYPROBE
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
RXWINDOW
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SPEED
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SPEEDK
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SRCIPADDR
X
SRCIPPORT
X
STARTUP_OFF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
STARTUP_ON
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SUPERPATH_OFF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SUPERPATH_ON
X
X
X
X
X
TIMERINACTIVITY
X
TIMERPROBE
X
X
X
X
X
TIMERRECONNECT
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
TXWINDOW
X
X
V6DESTIPADDR
X
V6SRCIPADDR
X
X
Multi-Line Path Modifiers
These modifiers are included in the PEXPPATH profile provided for path logical devices:
•
COMPRESS_OFF
•
COMPRESS_ON
•
EXTMEMSIZE
•
L4CONGCTRL_OFF
•
L4CONGCTRL_ON
•
L4CWNDCLAMP
•
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
•
L4EXTPACKETS_ON
•
L4RETRIES
•
L4SENDWINDOW
•
L4TIMEOUT
•
MAXMEM_MB
•
MAXMSGSZ_2MB
•
MAXMSGSZ_60KB
•
MAXSECREQ
•
NEXTSYS
Profiles 335
•
OSSPACE
•
OSTIMEOUT
•
PATHBLOCKBYTES
•
PATHPACKETBYTES
•
PATHTF
•
SUPERPATH_OFF
•
SUPERPATH_ON
Table 42 lists the modifiers in the profiles provided for line-logical devices.
Table 42 Modifiers for Line-Logical Devices
Modifier
PEXQMSWN
PEXQMSAT
PEXQMNAM
PEXQMIP
PEXQATM
AFTERMAXRETRIES_
DOWN
X
X
X
AFTERMAXRETRIES_
PASSIVE
X
X
X
ASSOCIATEDEV
X
X
X
ASSOCIATESUBDEV
X
X
ATMSEL
X
CALLTYPE_ATMSAP
X
CALLTYPE_PVC
X
CALLTYPE_SVC
X
CLOCKMODE_DCE
X
X
CLOCKMODE_DTE
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_600
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_1200
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_2400
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_4800
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_9600
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_19200
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_38400
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_56000
X
X
CLOCKSPEED_115200
CONNECTTYPE_
ACTIVEANDPASSIVE
X
X
X
CONNECTTYPE_ PASSIVE
X
X
X
DELAY
X
X
DESTATMADDR
X
DESTIPADDR
X
DESTIPPORT
X
336 Expand Modifiers
Table 42 Modifiers for Line-Logical Devices (continued)
Modifier
PEXQMSWN
PEXQMSAT
PEXQMNAM
PEXQMIP
PEXQATM
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_OFF X
X
X
X
DOWNIFBADQUALITY_ON
X
X
X
X
FLAGFILL_OFF
X
X
FLAGFILL_ON
X
X
FRAMESIZE
X
X
X
X
INTERFACE_RS232
X
X
INTERFACE_RS422
X
X
X
IPVER_IPV4
X
IPVER_IPV6
X
L2DISCARDONRESET_OFF X
X
L2DISCARDONRESET_ON
X
X
L2RETRIES
X
X
L2TIMEOUT
X
X
X
X
LIFNAME
X
X
LINEPRIORITY
X
X
X
X
X
LINETF
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MAXRECONNECTS
QUALITYTHRESHOLD
X
X
X
X
QUALITYTIMER
X
X
X
X
PROGRAM
X
X
PVCNAME
X
RETRYPROBE
X
X
X
RXWINDOW
X
X
X
X
X
SPEED
X
X
X
X
X
SPEEDK
X
X
X
X
X
SRCIPADDR
X
SRCIPPORT
X
STARTUP_OFF
X
X
X
X
X
STARTUP_ON
X
X
X
X
X
TIMERINACTIVITY
X
X
TIMERPROBE
X
X
X
TIMERRECONNECT
X
X
X
X
X
X
TXWINDOW
X
X
V6DESTIPADDR
X
V6SRCIPADDR
X
Profiles 337
17 Subsystem Description
This section provides a high-level technical description of the architecture and dynamics of the
Expand subsystem. You should be familiar with the information presented in this section before
you attempt to configure, manage, or troubleshoot the Expand subsystem.
•
“Expand Subsystem Components” (page 338)
•
“Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model” (page 344)
•
“Path Function of the Expand Subsystem” (page 346)
•
“Routing and Time Factors” (page 354)
•
“Message Handling and Buffer Allocation” (page 366)
•
“Message Buffering” (page 374)
•
“Expand-to-NAM Interface” (page 376)
•
“Expand-to-IP Interface” (page 379)
•
“Expand-to-ATM Interface” (page 383)
•
“Multipacket Frame Feature” (page 387)
•
“Variable Packet Size Feature” (page 391)
•
“Congestion Control Feature” (page 393)
•
“Large Messages Feature” (page 396)
•
“Multi-CPU Feature” (page 396)
Expand Subsystem Components
The Expand subsystem comprises these major components:
•
“Expand Line-Handler Processes” (page 338)
•
“Network Control Process ($NCP)” (page 342)
•
“Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP)” (page 342)
Expand Line-Handler Processes
An Expand line-handler process is responsible for
•
Maintaining the communications path between two adjacent nodes. A path is a logical
connection that can consist of one or more parallel lines. A line is a single physical
communications link between two nodes.
•
Implementing the Hewlett Packard Enterprise proprietary End-to-End protocol. The
End-to-End protocol is explained in “Path Function of the Expand Subsystem” (page 346).
•
Establishing a connection with an X.25 Access Method (X25AM) line-handler process, a
SNAX/Advanced Peer Networking (SNAX/APN) line-handler process, a NonStop TCP/IP
process, or a ServerNet monitor process ($ZZSCL), if these communications methods are
used.
•
Forwarding packets addressed to other nodes.
Each system in an Expand network can contain as many as 255 Expand line-handler processes.
338 Subsystem Description
Expand Path Types
You can configure an Expand path as
•
A single-line path, which is a path that consists of one line.
•
A multi-line path, which is a path that consists of more than one line. You can configure a
multi-line path to consist of up to eight parallel lines.
•
A member of a multi-CPU path, which is a path that consists of more than one path. You
can configure a multi-CPU path to consist of up to 16 parallel paths, including multi-line
paths.
An Expand line-handler process that manages a single line performs both path and line functions
with a single logical device.
A multi-line path requires a logical device to manage the path function (called a path logical
device) and a separate logical device for each line in the path (called a line logical device).
Each line logical device is associated with the path logical device that manages the path to which
the line belongs. The path logical device and the line logical devices with which it is associated
are regarded as a single Expand line-handler process and must be configured in the same
processor pair.
A multi-CPU path is created by associating Expand line-handler processes with one another
using the SUPERPATH_ON modifier. Each line-handler process that is a member of a multi-CPU
path is configured in a different processor.
NOTE: The path and line functions of an Expand line-handler process are described in more
detail in “Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model” (page 344).
Expand Line-Handler Process Types
Expand line-handler processes can be categorized as:
•
•
Those that contain all the protocol levels necessary to perform both path and line functions.
These types of Expand line-handler processes include:
◦
Direct-connect
◦
Satellite-connect
Those that require another type of process to perform line functions. These types of Expand
line-handler processes include:
◦
Expand-over-NAM
◦
Expand-over-IP
◦
Expand-over-ServerNet
◦
Expand-over-ATM
The different types of Expand line-handler processes are described in these subsections. For
more information on how to configure Expand line-handler processes, see Configuration Overview.
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Expand Line-Handler Processes
The direct-connect line-handler process implements the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
Normal protocol. This type of Expand line-handler process is provided for use with conventional
voice-grade leased-line and switched-line facilities, private facilities, and fractional Transmission
Group 1 (T1) facilities.
The satellite-connect line-handler process implements the satellite-efficient version of the HDLC
protocol, the HDLC Extended Mode protocol. Unlike the HDLC Normal protocol implemented by
Expand Subsystem Components 339
direct-connect Expand line-handler processes, the HDLC Extended Mode protocol uses the
maximum window size of 61 frames (the maximum number of outstanding frames before an
acknowledgment is required) and implements the selective reject feature. Selective reject causes
only frames that arrive in error to be retransmitted.
Although the satellite-connect line-handler process is provided for use with satellite connections,
it can also be used to manage terrestrial lines. This type of configuration can enhance the reliability
of terrestrial lines that carry small messages at high speeds.
Expand-over-NAM Line-Handler Processes
Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes use the NETNAM protocol to access the network
access method (NAM) interface provided by an X25AM or a SNAX/APN line-handler process.
NOTE: For more information on the Expand-to-NAM interface, see “Expand-to-NAM Interface”
(page 376).
Expand-over-NAM With X25AM
The X25AM subsystem provides access to X.25 packet-switched data networks (PSDNs). The
X25AM subsystem consists of a layered set of protocols that corresponds to the lower three
layers of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Reference Model.
Each X25AM line-handler process controls a single data communications line and supports both
permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) and switched virtual circuits (SVCs). Up to 254 circuits can be
configured for each X25AM line-handler process. One X25AM line-handler process can service
multiple Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes.
When it interfaces to an X25AM line-handler process, the Expand-over-X.25 line-handler process
sends data over one virtual circuit running in the X25AM line-handler process; the X25AM
line-handler process manages the physical communications line. The Expand-over-X.25
line-handler process is also responsible for
•
Establishing the connection between itself and the X25AM line-handler process
•
Reestablishing communications with the remote server when an unavailable network service
becomes available again
•
Error recovery
Expand-over-NAM With SNAX/APN
The SNAX/APN subsystem provides access to IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) networks.
The SNA network can be a traditional network of host mainframes and front end processors, an
advanced peer-to-peer network of IBM AS400 systems, or a mix of these two types of networks.
SNAX access methods support a wide range of physical connections to IBM systems and
networks, including
•
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) connections, using RS-232, RS-449, X.21, and V.35
electrical interfaces
•
X.25 packet-switched networks
•
Token Ring networks
•
Host channel connections
The SNAX/APN subsystem consists of a service-manager process and one or more SNAX/APN
line-handler processes. Each Expand-over-SNA line-handler process is configured to use a
particular SNAX/APN line and logical unit (LU). At least one SNAX/APN line and one Expand
line must be configured and started at each end of the SNA network through which the
Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes will communicate.
340 Subsystem Description
Expand-over-IP Line-Handler Process
The Expand-over-IP line-handler process uses the NonStop TCP/IP subsystem to provide
connectivity to an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
The Expand-over-IP line-handler process is a client to a NonStop TCP/IP process. The
Expand-over-IP process communicates with the NonStop TCP/IP process through the shared
memory of the QIO subsystem.
The NonStop TCP/IP process provides a Guardian file-system interface to the Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in addition to raw (direct) access
to IP. The Expand-over-IP line-handler process uses the UDP services provided by the TCP/IP
process to transmit data across an IP network.
NOTE:
379).
For more information on the Expand-to-IP interface, see “Expand-to-IP Interface” (page
Expand-over-ServerNet Line-Handler Process
NOTE:
The Integrity NonStop NS1000 server does not support ServerNet clusters.
The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process uses a pair of NonStop cluster switches,
processor switches, plug-in cards (PICs), fiber-optic cables, and the ServerNet monitor process
($ZZSCL) to connect to a ServerNet cluster.
Each ServerNet cluster uses at least two NonStop cluster switches for routing; one for the X-fabric
and one for the Y-fabric. For the star topology, introduced with the G06.09 RVU, these switches
can support up to eight nodes per switch. For the split-star topology, introduced with the G06.12
RVU, two switches for each fabric can support up to 16 nodes (eight nodes per switch). For the
tri-star topology, introduced with the G06.14 RVU, three switches for each fabric can support up
to 24 nodes (eight nodes per switch). For more information on the cluster switches, see the
ServerNet Cluster Manual.
Each switch connects to two processor switches per node. At least two plug-in cards are required
for ServerNet connections between system enclosures in each node. Two fiber-optic cables are
required for each node, for attachment to the X and Y cluster switches. The
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process uses the NETNAM protocol to access the NAM
interface of the ServerNet cluster monitor process ($ZZSCL).
NOTE: For more information on the Expand-to-NAM interface, see “Expand-to-NAM Interface”
(page 376).
The Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process manages security-related messages and
forwards packets outside the ServerNet cluster. Other messages, such as incoming and outgoing
data, usually bypass the Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process and are handled directly
by the ServerNet fabrics and the NonStop cluster switches; the Expand software is not involved.
Expand-over-ATM Line-Handler Process
The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process uses the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
subsystem to provide connectivity to an ATM network. The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process
communicates with the ATM subsystem through the shared memory of the QIO subsystem.
The ATM subsystem, which is Hewlett Packard Enterprise’s implementation of the ATM protocol,
consists of hardware and software components that reside on an Integrity NonStop NS-series
server. The ATM 3 ServerNet adapter (ATM3SA) provides one bidirectional full-duplex ATM OC3
port for connection to the User-Network Interface (UNI). The Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process uses the services provided by the ATM subsystem to transmit data across an ATM
network.
Expand Subsystem Components 341
NOTE: For more information on the Expand-to-ATM interface, see “Expand-to-ATM Interface”
(page 383).
Network Control Process ($NCP)
The network control process, $NCP, is a process in each node of an Expand network. $NCP
uses services provided by the network utility process, $ZNUP. $ZNUP is part of the NonStop
operating system.
Network Control Process Functions
The network control process, $NCP, is responsible for these functions:
•
Initiating and terminating node-to-node connections.
•
Maintaining the network-related system tables, including routing information.
•
Calculating the most efficient way to transmit data to other nodes in the network.
•
Monitoring and logging changes in the status of the network and its nodes.
•
Informing the network control processes at neighbor nodes of changes in line or Expand
line-handler process status (for example, lines UP or DOWN). Neighbor nodes are two
nodes that have a path configured between them.
•
Informing Expand line-handler processes when all paths are DOWN. Expand line-handler
processes respond by aborting pending requests.
•
Grouping Expand line-handler processes in a multi-CPU path to a particular neighbor node.
The network control process runs as logical device number 1.
Network Utility Process Functions
The network utility process, $ZNUP, answers requests that must wait for system information. It
also responds to requests for the time at remote systems, the process information of remote
processes, device-information requests, and traffic statistics.
The network utility process runs as logical device number 4.
Expand Manager Process ($ZEXP)
The Expand manager process, $ZEXP, provides the interface between the Expand subsystem
and the Subsystem Control Point (SCP). The Expand manager process must be started and
named $ZEXP. SCP is the managing process for the Subsystem Control Facility (SCF). The
Expand manager process directs SCF commands to the appropriate Expand line-handler process
and forwards responses from Expand line-handler processes to the appropriate user.
NOTE: The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem is described in Subsystem Control Facility
(SCF) Commands.
342 Subsystem Description
Components Summary
Figure 30 illustrates an Expand network environment.
Figure 30 Expand Network Environment
Expand Subsystem Components 343
Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model
The Expand line-handler process and $NCP components of the Expand subsystem contain some
of the functions defined in the lower five layers of the OSI Reference Model. The Expand
subsystem does not provide any Application Layer or Presentation Layer functions; these functions
in addition to some Session Layer functions, are provided by the message and file systems.
This subsection describes these topics:
•
“Expand Line-Handler Process Layer Functions” (page 344)
•
“$NCP Layer Functions” (page 346)
Figure 31 compares the Expand subsystem’s protocol layers to the OSI Reference Model.
NOTE: The Expand subsystem was not designed to match the OSI framework. The OSI
Reference Model is used in this discussion as a common point of reference to help explain the
functions of the various layers of the Expand subsystem.
Figure 31 Expand Subsystem Protocol Layers
Expand Line-Handler Process Layer Functions
An Expand line-handler process implements several different protocols, including the Hewlett
Packard Enterprise proprietary End-to-End protocol. These protocols provide some of the
functions defined by the lower five layers of the OSI Reference Model.
344 Subsystem Description
OSI Session Layer (Layer 5)
The OSI Session Layer coordinates processes and is responsible for the setup and termination
of a communications path.
These path functions of the End-to-End protocol correspond to some of the OSI Session Layer
functions:
•
System-to-system connection establishment and termination
•
Security processing (remote passwords, accessing Safeguard)
OSI Transport Layer (Layer 4)
The OSI Transport Layer accepts data from the OSI Session Layer and passes it to the OSI
Network Layer. The OSI Transport Layer provides end-to-end data integrity between processes
and verifies that messages received are correct.
These path functions of the End-to-End protocol correspond to some of the OSI Transport Layer
functions:
•
Message management and buffering between processes (end-to-end). This includes
reassembling messages from incoming packets and multiplexing outbound messages over
available lines
•
Request/response matching
•
Flow control
•
Canceled-request handling
The Transport Layer, or path function, of the Expand line-handler process corresponds to the
Expand SCF PATH object.
OSI Network Layer (Layer 3)
The OSI Network Layer governs the switching and routing of information between nodes in the
network and is responsible for error-checking and recovery.
These line functions of the End-to-End protocol correspond to some of the OSI Network Layer
functions:
•
Routing incoming passthrough traffic to another Expand line-handler process
•
Error-checking and recovery
The Network Layer, or path function, of the Expand line-handler process corresponds to the
Expand SCF PATH object.
OSI Data Link Layer (Layer 2)
The OSI Data Link Layer defines the rules for transmission on the physical medium.
Direct-connect line-handler processes provide one of these versions of the High-Level Data Link
Control (HDLC) protocol at the Data Link Layer depending on the communications device used:
•
HDLC using Asynchronous Balanced Mode (HDLC-ABM)
•
HDLC-ABM using Transparent Byte Synchronous Framing
Satellite-connect line-handler processes provide the HDLC protocol using Asynchronous Balanced
Mode Extended (HDLC-ABME) at the Data Link Layer.
Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes use the Data Link Layer services provided by an
X25AM (Expand-over-X.25) or SNAX/APN (Expand-over-SNA) line-handler process.
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes use the NETIP protocol at the Data Link Layer. The
NETIP protocol provides Expand-over-IP line-handler processes with a QIO-based interface to
send Layer 2 frames over IP-based networks via TCP/IP.
Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model 345
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes use the NETATM protocol at the Data Link Layer.
The NETATM protocol provides Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes with a QIO-based
interface to send Layer 2 frames over ATM-based networks.
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes use the Data Link Layer services provided by
the ServerNet monitor process, $ZZSCL.
The Data Link Layer, or line function, of the Expand line-handler process corresponds to the
Expand SCF LINE object.
OSI Physical Layer (Layer 1)
The OSI Physical Layer provides the ability to transmit and receive bits between nodes. It specifies
the physical medium used and defines the electrical interfaces to the network and the bit-level
data flow.
The Physical Layer (Layer 1) of the Expand subsystem includes the drivers, interrupt handlers,
and hardware communications devices that control the physical line.
Expand-over-IP connections are provided through the Ethernet 4 ServerNet adapter (E4SA) or
the ATM 3 ServerNet adapter (ATM3SA). Expand-over-ATM connections are provided through
the ATM3SA.
The ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator provides WAN connections for
direct-connect, satellite-connect, Expand-over-X.25, and Expand-over-SNA connections. SWAN
concentrators are connected to the server through dual E4SAs.
The End-to-End protocol is described in “Path Function of the Expand Subsystem” (page 346).
$NCP Layer Functions
As shown in Figure 31 (page 344), $NCP provides some functions of both the OSI Transport and
Network Layers.
$NCP at the OSI Transport Layer
$NCP provides part of the OSI Transport Layer function because it monitors processor UP and
DOWN notifications.
$NCP at the OSI Network Layer
$NCP provides these OSI Transport Layer functions:
•
Maintaining network routing information
•
Calculating the most efficient way to transmit data to other nodes in the network
•
Exchanging routing information with $NCPs at neighbor nodes
•
Grouping the Expand line-handler processes in a multi-CPU path to a particular neighbor
node
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem
This subsection describes the end-to-end (Layer 3) and packet routing (Layer 4) messages that
are generated by the End-to-End protocol. Layers 3 and 4 of the End-to-End protocol provide
the path function of the Expand subsystem.
This subsection describes these topics:
•
“Protocol Packet Types” (page 347)
•
“Packet Synchronization” (page 349)
•
“Example of End-to-End Protocol Packet Exchanges” (page 349)
•
“Layer 4 Send Window” (page 353)
346 Subsystem Description
You must be familiar with the information in this subsection before you can effectively tune or
troubleshoot an Expand network. Layer 3 and Layer 4 protocol statistics are reported by the
Expand SCF STATS PATH command.
NOTE: This subsection does not describe the protocols used by Expand line-handler processes
at the OSI Data Link Layer (Layer 2). For more information regarding standards such as HDLC
and X.25, see the documentation provided for these standards.
Protocol Packet Types
The End-to-End protocol defines these types of packets:
Connection Request (CONN REQ)
A CONN REQ is a connection-establishment–request-setup packet. Before data can be exchanged
between two nodes over one or more physical lines, a logical communications path must be
opened between the nodes. $NCP selects the best path to the destination node and directs the
Expand line-handler process to send a CONN REQ packet, which is the first packet to be sent
by $NCP when a logical communications path is to be opened.
Connection Response (CONN RSP)
A CONN RSP is a connection-establishment–response-setup packet. This packet is sent by
$NCP when it receives a CONN REQ packet, which indicates to the requesting $NCP that the
responding $NCP is available for connection establishment.
Connection Acknowledgment (CONN ACK)
A CONN ACK is a connection-establishment–acknowledgment-setup packet. This packet is sent
by $NCP when it receives a CONN RSP packet, which confirms to both the requesting and the
responding $NCPs that a logical connection has been established.
Connection Reset (CONN RST)
A CONN RST is a connection-establishment–reset-setup packet. This packet is sent by $NCP
at one of the two end nodes if a packet sequence problem is detected during connection
establishment.
Node Status (NODE STAT)
A NODE STAT is a connection-establishment–system-status setup packet. This packet is sent
only from C-series nodes and is exchanged by the requesting and responding $NCP to inform
the other $NCP of its respective processor status and operating system version numbers. NODE
STAT packets must be exchanged before any other data can be exchanged over a logical
connection.
NOTE: For D-series and G-series nodes, the processor status and operating system version
numbers are sent in the connection-establishment request/reply packets.
Node Status Acknowledgment (NODE ACK)
A NODE ACK is a connection-establishment–system-status acknowledgment setup packet. This
packet is exchanged by the requesting and responding $NCPs to acknowledge the receipt of a
NODE STAT packet. The exchange of this packet completes the logical connection-establishment
setup between $NCP at two C-series end nodes.
Link Request (LRQ)
An LRQ is a request data packet. LRQ packets are exchanged between Expand line-handler
processes over an open communications path. The buffer used to hold the LRQ is not deallocated
until a response to the LRQ is received.
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem 347
A single request message might require multiple LRQ packets. The first LRQ includes
request-message size information. The recipient of the LRQ uses the request message size
information to allocate sufficient buffer space to receive the request message. LRQs also include
a MORE bit to indicate that additional LRQs will be sent.
Link Complete (LCMP)
An LCMP is a reply data packet. These packets are exchanged between Expand line-handler
processes over an open communications path.
A single reply message might require multiple LCMP packets. A reply message is sent in response
to each request message whether or not data is requested by the sender of the request message
(the requester). When the requester receives an LCMP, it uses the buffer space initially allocated
for the LRQ to receive the LCMP. After all the LCMPs have been received, the buffer is
deallocated.
Link Cancel Request (LCAN)
An LCAN is a control packet that is sent in response to a user request to abort a prior LRQ.
Data Packet Acknowledgment (ACK)
An ACK is a control packet. It is a positive acknowledgment of a data packet (either an LRQ or
an LCMP). LRQ and LCMP packets can include acknowledgments. An ACK is only used to
acknowledge data packets if no other data packets are ready to be sent.
Negative Data Packet Acknowledgment (NAK)
A NAK is a control packet. It is a negative acknowledgment of a data packet (either an LRQ or
an LCMP) and is evidence of some type of network trouble or potential configuration mismatch.
Data Packet Enquiry (ENQ)
An ENQ is a control packet. If a data packet (either an LRQ or an LCMP) is not acknowledged
within the Expand Level 4 timeout period, the sending Expand line-handler process sends an
ENQ, and the Level 4 timer is reset and restarted. The sending line-handler process continues
to send ENQs each time the Level 4 timeout expires until one of this occurs:
•
The request is acknowledged.
•
The Expand Level 4 retry limit has been reached.
•
An LCMP corresponding to an LRQ is received before the LRQ is acknowledged.
NOTE: You can control the Expand Level 4 timeout and retry limits by setting the L4TIMEOUT
and L4RETRIES modifiers. These modifiers are explained in Expand Modifiers.
Path Change Status (PCHG CMD)
A PCHG CMD is a path-status-notification change packet. It is exchanged by the Expand
line-handler processes at neighbor nodes when the path status between the two nodes changes
and there are still active lines remaining.
Path Change Status Response (PCHG RSP)
A PCHG RSP is a path-status-response change packet. It is sent by an Expand line-handler
process to another Expand line-handler process in response to a PCHG CMD packet.
Trace Request (TRACE)
A TRACE is a data packet that is sent in response to an SCF PROBE command. It contains the
identifier of each node it encounters on its route from its sender to its receiver.
348 Subsystem Description
PING Message
A PING message is sent by an Expand line-handler process to measure the round trip time to a
neighbor node. The information obtained by sending a PING message is used to calculate the
effective time factor (ETF) of a path that is a member of a multi-CPU path. For more information
on PING messages, see “Calculating Route Time Factors” (page 358).
Packet Synchronization
Each End-to-End protocol packet includes a sequence number that is used for synchronization.
LRQs and LCMPs are numbered sequentially. The first LRQ sent is sequence number 0, the
second is sequence number 1, and so on.
ACK sequence numbers indicate the acknowledgment of specific LRQs and LCMPs. For example,
an ACK sequence number of 3 acknowledges the receipt of LRQs with sequence numbers up
to but not including 3. In Figure 32 (page 350), the first ACK sent from node \A acknowledges
LRQ sequence numbers 0, 1, and 2.
NAK sequence numbers indicate the negative acknowledgment of specific requests. For example,
a NAK sequence number 1 indicates that LRQ sequence number 0 was received but that LRQ
sequence number 1 was not. Figure 33 (page 350) shows an example of NAK sequence numbering.
ENQ sequence numbers indicate how many packets have been sent. For example, when an
ENQ sequence number 3 is sent, the sender is telling the recipient that it has sent packets with
sequence numbers up to but not including 3. Figure 34 (page 351) shows an example of ENQ
sequence numbering.
Example of End-to-End Protocol Packet Exchanges
Figure 32 (page 350), Figure 33 (page 350), Figure 34 (page 351), and Figure 35 (page 352) illustrate
four different End-to-End protocol packet exchanges. Figure 32 (page 350) shows an error-free
exchange of data; the remaining figures illustrate how the protocol recovers from problem
situations.
Normal Data Exchange
Figure 32 is an example of an error-free exchange of data. Node \A sends two LRQs to node \B.
Node \B sends ACK sequence number 2 to indicate the positive acknowledgment of node \A’s
LRQs and then replies to each LRQ with an LCMP. Node \A acknowledges node \B’s LCMPs
by sending ACK sequence number 2.
NOTE: The sequence number of an LCMP does not necessarily match the sequence number
of a corresponding LRQ. The explicit ACK can not be seen if other data packets are being
transmitted.
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem 349
Figure 32 Normal Exchange
Data Exchange With Lost Data
Figure 33 shows a data exchange in which a packet is not received. This problem is usually
caused by network congestion and/or line failures and is indicated by a large number of NAKs
on the SCF STATS display.
Figure 33 Lost Data
350 Subsystem Description
Node \A sends three LRQs to node \B. Node \B receives LRQ sequence number 0 and LRQ
sequence number 2 but does not receive LRQ sequence number 1. Node \B starts its
out-of-sequence (OOS) timer as soon as LRQ sequence number 2 is received out of order. When
the OOS timeout period has been reached, node \B sends NAK sequence number 1 to notify
node \A that it has not received LRQ sequence number 1. Node \A then resends its message
starting at LRQ sequence number 1.
Node \B sends ACK sequence number 3 to positively acknowledge LRQ sequence number 0,
LRQ sequence number 1, and LRQ sequence number 2; and it then responds to each LRQ with
an LCMP. Node \A acknowledges the receipt of node \B’s LCMPs by sending ACK sequence
number 3.
If node \B did not acknowledge node \A’s ENQ, node \A would continue sending ENQs until it
reached its Level 4 retry limit or until node \B acknowledged the ENQ, whichever came first.
NOTE: The default OOS timeout is 300 (3 seconds). The OOS timeout can be controlled with
the Expand SCF ALTER PATH command or the WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command.
You can control the Expand subsystem’s retry limit by setting the L4RETRIES modifier. This
modifier is explained in Expand Modifiers.
Data Exchange With Lost Acknowledgment
Figure 34 shows a data exchange in which messages are received successfully but the recipient’s
acknowledgment is not received by the sender. This problem is usually caused by network
congestion, or by an Expand Level 4 timeout period that is too short, and is indicated by a large
number of ENQs on the SCF STATS display.
Figure 34 Lost Acknowledgment
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem 351
Node \A sends three LRQs to node \B. Node \B sends ACK sequence number 3 to acknowledge
all three LRQs. Node \A does not receive an acknowledgment within the Expand Level 4 timeout
period, so it sends an ENQ sequence number 3 to node \B. The ENQ sequence number 3
indicates to node \B that node \A has sent LRQ sequence numbers 0 through 2.
Node \B receives the ENQ, responds by resending ACK sequence number 3 to acknowledge
the three LRQs, and then sends an LCMP in response to each LRQ. Node \A acknowledges
node \B’s LCMPs with ACK sequence number 3.
If node \B did not acknowledge node \A’s ENQ, node A would continue to send ENQs until it
reached its Level 4 retry limit or until node \B acknowledged the ENQ.
Data Exchange With Buffer Pool Failure
Figure 35 illustrates a data exchange in which the destination node is unable to allocate sufficient
buffer space to accept the sending node’s request. This problem is usually caused by insufficient
buffer pool space and is indicated by pool failures in the SCF STATS display.
Figure 35 Buffer Pool Failure
NOTE: The OOS buffer and the buffer pool are described in “Message Handling and Buffer
Allocation” (page 366) and “Message Buffering” (page 374).
Node \A sends LRQ sequence number 0 to node \B. Because node \B is unable to allocate buffer
space for the message, it replies with NAK sequence number 0 with its wait bit set. The wait bit
indicates to node \A that a resource limitation has occurred and that node \A should not resend
its LRQ until the wait condition has cleared.
Node \A looks for responses to send to node \B and sends LCMP sequence number 0. This
LCMP is a response to a prior request from node \B. When node \B acknowledges the LCMP
with ACK sequence number 1, it deallocates its buffer and releases sufficient resources to receive
352 Subsystem Description
node \A’s LRQ. Node \A resends its initial LRQ (which is now assigned LRQ sequence number
1) along with two more LRQs. Node \B acknowledges all three LRQs with ACK sequence number
4 and then responds with three LCMPs. Node \A acknowledges node \B’s LCMPs with ACK
sequence number 3.
Layer 4 Send Window
The size of the Layer 4 send window determines how many packets are sent before an
acknowledgment is required. The default value for the Layer 4 send window is 254, allowing as
many as 254 unacknowledged outstanding packets in any single end-to-end connection.
NOTE: You can alter the size of the Layer 4 send window with the L4SENDWINDOW modifier.
This modifier is explained in Expand Modifiers.
Path Function of the Expand Subsystem 353
Routing and Time Factors
This subsection explains how $NCP implements its routing scheme. It describes these topics:
•
“Setting Time Factors” (page 354)
•
“Negotiating Path Time Factors” (page 355)
•
“Best-Path Route Selection” (page 356)
•
“Network Routing Table (NRT) and Multiple Path Table (MPT)” (page 356)
•
“Calculating Route Time Factors” (page 358)
•
“Routing Algorithms” (page 358)
•
“Multi-CPU Paths” (page 362)
•
“Multi-CPU Routing Examples” (page 364)
$NCP provides a sophisticated automatic routing scheme to ensure that a message gets to its
destination in the most efficient way possible. This most efficient way is called the best-path
route. $NCP determines the best-path route based on the time factors (TFs) and hop counts
(HCs) of available routes. $NCP maintains routing information in the network routing table
(NRT) and, for multi-CPU paths, in the multiple path table (MPT) and reverse pairing table
(RPT).
A time factor of 1 represents the best path and a time factor of 186 represents the least-favorable
path.
A path is one or more lines between two nodes.
Paths to a neighbor are called direct paths or single-hop paths. A direct path can be a single-line
path, a multi-line path, or a multi-CPU path that is made up of one or more multi-line or single-line
paths.
How the path time factor is determined depends on the type of path, as:
•
If a path consists of only one line—as in the case of single-line path—the time factor for
the path is the same as the time factor for the line. The time factor setting, regardless of how
it is set, is used directly to calculate the path’s time factor.
•
If a path consists of more than one line—as in the case of a multi-line path—the path time
factor is derived from a composite of the time factors for the single lines that make up the
multi-line path. Accordingly, the path time factor can possibly change as lines go up or down.
(Note, however, that if you set PATHTF n, it sets the path time factor directly, regardless of
the line time factors and line states.)
The formula for calculating a path time factor from the line time factor is (the ROUND function
rounds to the nearest integer):
PATHTF = ROUND(224000 / (224000 / LINETF1 + 224000 / LINETF2 + …))
•
Expand’s multi-CPU paths are made up of two or more direct paths to the same neighbor
that operate in parallel. So the calculation of a multi-CPU path time factor is done in a very
similar way as the time factor for a multi-line path (where you have parallel lines).
The time factor for a path to a remote (multi-hop) node is calculated as the sum of the time factors
for all direct (single-hop) paths that make up the path. The result is the called the aggregate TF
for the entire multi-hop path.
Setting Time Factors
The PATHTF, LINETF, SPEEDK, SPEED, and RSIZE modifiers all establish time factors. You
set these modifiers by using the ALTER LINE or the ALTER DEVICE command, the latter of
which alters the line device and is retained through a cold load.
354 Subsystem Description
As of G06.20, it is recommended that you use LINETF to specify priorities for individual lines.
PATHTF changes routing behavior for multi-line paths, forcing a constant time factor rather than
letting the path’s time factor be the aggregate of the time factors of the lines that are currently
operational.
For example, you can use PATHTF to set your own time factor in selecting the path, so if you
prefer to use ServerNet as the best path and ATM as the second best path, then you would set
the PATHTF as 1 for ServerNet, 2 for ATM, and a value greater than 2 for all other paths. The
smaller the number, the more desirable the path. The range is 0 through 186.
The order of selection for the various time factor parameters is (highest to lowest): PATHTF,
LINETF, SPEEDK, SPEED, or RSIZE. One of these time-factor parameters must be set, else
the line handler will display a configuration error.
PATHTF n has a range of 0 to 186 to designate the time factor in selecting the best path to other
nodes. A smaller number indicates a more desirable path for routing. PATHTF overrides all other
parameters in calculating the time factor for the path. When PATHTF is set for a multi-line path,
the line state and number of lines in the path are ignored and the PATHTF setting is a constant
value assigned to the time factor for the path. PATHTF used on a single-line path device is the
same as using LINETF on the line device.
LINETF n has a range of 0 to 186 to designate the line time factor in selecting the best path to
other nodes in the network. A smaller number indicates a more desirable path for routing. LINETF
overrides the RSIZE, SPEED, or SPEEDK parameters in calculating the time factor for the line.
SPEEDK n can still be used but is not recommended. If you use this setting, every line equivalent
to or faster than a SPEEDK of 21000 has a time factor of 1.
SPEED n provides a way of creating the time factor, and has a maximum value of 244,000. Its
use is no longer recommended.
RSIZE n has a range of 0 to 186 to designate the line time factor in selecting the best path to
other nodes in the network. A smaller number indicates a more desirable path for routing.
As always, the actual time factor used for a path between two immediate neighbors is negotiated
and the larger of their respective calculations is used.
Time Factors and Pathchange Messages
When a line comes up, Pathchange messages are exchanged to verify and negotiate various
parameters between the line handlers on each side of the line. One of the parameters negotiated
is the line’s time factor, the larger time factor being used by both sides.
Time Factors and Netmap Messages
Netmap messages are exchanged between the NCPs of neighboring systems to spread network
topology information. Netmap messages contain the total time factor and number of hops from
the sender to each other system in the network.
Time Factors and Line Status Messages
The EXPLH_EXPNCP_LINE_STATUS message is sent from the line handler to NCP to report
both a change in line status and various parameters of a line that has come up, such as nextsys,
time factor, and delay factor.
Negotiating Path Time Factors
During connection to a remote node, the calculated path time factors are negotiated to the higher
time factor. $NCP is informed of this negotiated time factor and updates its NETMAP table
information. This negotiated time factor is used by $NCP to calculate the route time factor.
If a line in the path fails, $NCP updates its NETMAP table to reflect the decrease in path
bandwidth. Reactivation of the line updates the NETMAP table to reflect the increase in bandwidth.
If a communications device fails, $NCP updates its NETMAP table to reflect the decrease in
Routing and Time Factors 355
bandwidth for all lines connected to the failed communications device. (Note, however, that if
PATHTF n is used to set the time factor, this does not apply; instead, the time factor is constant.)
Best-Path Route Selection
Although $NCP can be aware of several routes to a destination node, only a single route is active
at any one time. This single route, which is the most efficient route at a given point in time, is
called the best-path route.
$NCP uses this criteria to select the best-path route to a specific node:
•
The route must have the lowest TF of all possible routes.
•
If two or more routes have the same TF, the route that has the lowest hop count (HC)—the
fewest intervening nodes—is selected. Each path between two nodes is one hop. For
example, a route that includes one passthrough node has a HC of 2; a route that includes
two passthrough nodes has an HC of 3, and so on.
•
If two or more routes have the same TF and HC, the first path that is operational after the
node is started is selected.
If $NCP determines that the best-path route to a destination node is a multi-CPU path, the NRT
lookup routine selects a path within the multi-CPU path that spreads the load over all the paths
in the multi-CPU path. Path selection is performed using the path’s effective time factor (ETF).
The ETF is an extension of the path TF that represents both the speed of the path and the
resources available on the path to accommodate more traffic.
The ETF indicates the inverse proportion of traffic that should be sent over a path compared to
an unloaded path that has a TF of 1. For example, a path that has a TF of 6 reports an ETF of
12 when it is half loaded. The ratio between a path’s ETF and its base TF is called the load
factor (LF) of the path.
To compute a path’s ETF, aggregate line utilization must be determined in both directions on the
path. Information obtained by the congestion control feature, along with information about local
memory usage, is used to compute the ETF. If there has been no recent traffic on a path, a
separate extended packet called a PING message is sent to measure the round-trip time to the
neighbor node.
Network Routing Table (NRT) and Multiple Path Table (MPT)
The network routing table (NRT) resides in each processor in each node in the network. The
NRT associates each destination node with the logical device (LDEV) number of the Expand
line-handler process that is chosen to use to send messages to that node (the best-path route).
The NonStop operating system uses the NRT to select the appropriate line LDEV for message
transmission to other nodes.
The additional routing information required for multi-CPU paths is maintained in the multiple
path table (MPT). The NRT contains an entry that points to the MPT. Like the NRT, the MPT
resides in each processor in each node in the network. MPT entries are assigned to specific
multi-CPU paths by $NCP. The MPT also includes an entry called the reverse pairing table
(RPT), which contains information about Expand line-handler pairs. For more information on
pairing, see “Multi-CPU Paths” (page 362).
The $NCP at each node depends on the routing information it receives from neighbor $NCPs to
keep the routing information in the NRT and MPT up to date. Each node updates its NRT and
MPT as it becomes aware of changes in network status, thus allowing message traffic to be
routed correctly.
356 Subsystem Description
$NCP sends routing information to the $NCPs at its neighbor nodes at these times:
•
As soon as $NCP becomes aware of a change in the network, such as a line going up or
down or a node being added or deleted.
•
During a regular maps exchange. (Maps exchanges are described in “Regular Maps
Exchanges” (page 357).)
Immediate Network Updates
If the communications line between nodes \C and \D in Figure 36 were to fail, for example, both
nodes \C and \D would immediately notify the neighbor nodes \A, \B, and \E. Nodes that are not
immediate neighbors would be notified during a regular maps exchange. This same
neighbor-informing scheme is used when a communications line becomes available or when a
new node is added to the network.
For a multi-line path, the procedure is the same as that just described above, with one exception:
a line-ready or a line-not-ready condition can cause a change in a path TF without causing a
change in the best-path route. For a multi-CPU path, the procedure is the same as that described
for single-line paths.
Figure 36 $NCP Exchange of Network Change Information
Regular Maps Exchanges
A maps exchange is a periodic sharing of network map information. Maps messages, called
distance vector (DV) messages, are exchanged at variable-rate intervals by default. You can
specify a fixed five-minute interval exchange by setting the AUTOMATICMAPTIMER modifier.
Routing and Time Factors 357
NOTE: The AUTOMATICMAPTIMER modifier is explained in Configuring the Network Control
Process.
Calculating Route Time Factors
A route is a sequence of one or more paths through the network. The Expand subsystem
calculates route TFs for you by adding together the TFs of all the lines, paths, or multi-CPU paths
in the route; the total is the route TF. This is the same both types of time factor.
Figure 37 shows a simple five-node network. TFs are assigned to the lines between nodes. The
double lines between nodes \A and \B indicate a two-line path.
Note the route from node \A to node \D through node \B. The TF for this route is 5, which is the
total of the TFs between node \A and node \B (TF 4) and node \B and node \D (TF 1).
Figure 37 Sample Network With Time Factors
Routing Algorithms
Routing algorithms determine what and how much routing information $NCP will share with the
$NCPs at its neighbor nodes. You can select from two different routing algorithms by setting the
ALGORITHM modifier: modified split horizon (MSH) and split horizon (SH). MSH is the default
algorithm.
358 Subsystem Description
NOTE: ALGORITHM 0 specifies MSH, and ALGORITHM 1 specifies SH. The ALGORITHM
modifier is explained in Configuring the Network Control Process.
Modified Split Horizon (MSH)
When the modified split horizon (MSH) algorithm is used, $NCP tells its neighbor $NCP the
best-path route to a destination node. If that route leads through the neighbor being updated,
$NCP tells its neighbor $NCP that no route exists to the destination.
Figure 38 (page 360) shows the routing information known by node \D when the MSH algorithm
has been selected. Each entry indicates the TF and HC to each node from the perspective of
node \D. For example, the best-path route from node \D to node \A by means of node \C is 2(2)
(TF 2 and HC 2). Node \C reports to node \D that no path exists from itself to node \B because
its best-path route leads through node \D.
The advantage of the MSH algorithm is its efficiency: it requires less processing time than the
SH algorithm and avoids loop routing. (Loop routing is a disadvantage of the SH algorithm; it is
explained in “Split Horizon (SH)” (page 360).)
The disadvantage of the MSH algorithm is that the network might experience temporary
discontinuity, which occurs because $NCPs are not immediately aware of alternate paths that
can exist to a destination node.
For example, suppose that the path fails between node \D and node \B. Node \D is not aware of
an alternate path, although one exists through node \C. Before node \D can reroute traffic through
node \C, these events must occur:
•
Node \D must inform node \C of the failed path.
•
Node \C must update its best-path route.
•
Node \C must inform node \D of its new best-path route information.
Node \D might complete requests with an error 250 (all paths to the system are down) before it
receives alternate path information.
You can offset this disadvantage of the MSH algorithm by specifying the ABORTTIMER modifier,
which enables you to ensure that $NCP has an opportunity to obtain alternate routing information
before requests are completed with an error 250. The opportunity interval is the number of minutes
you have defined as the ABORTTIMER modifier value.
NOTE: The ABORTTIMER modifier is explained in more detail in Configuring the Network
Control Process.
Routing and Time Factors 359
Figure 38 Routing Information With the MSH Algorithm
Split Horizon (SH)
When the split horizon (SH) algorithm is used, $NCP tells its neighbor $NCP the best-path route
or the second-best route to a destination node. If the best-path route leads through the neighbor
being updated, $NCP will tell its neighbor $NCP its second-best route as long as that route does
not lead directly through the neighbor being updated.
Figure 39 shows the routing information known by node \D when the SH algorithm has been
selected. Each entry indicates the TF and HC to each node from the perspective of node \D.
Notice that with the SH algorithm, node \C reports to node \D that a path does exist from itself
to node \B; this is its second-best path.
360 Subsystem Description
Figure 39 Routing Information With the SH Algorithm
The advantage of the SH algorithm is that alternate paths are immediately known (temporary
discontinuity never occurs).
The disadvantage of the SH algorithm is that it increases the occurrence of loop routing, which
results in excessively long routes. Loop routing most often occurs in large, multi-ringed networks.
For example, in Figure 39 (page 361), suppose the path fails between node \D and node \E. If a
Routing and Time Factors 361
message is sent from node \A to node \E, the Expand subsystem will attempt to reroute traffic
in this sequence:
•
Through nodes \B, \A, \C, and \D. This route is not usable because it uses the failed path
between nodes \D and \E.
•
Through nodes \C, \A, \B, and \D. This route is also not usable because it uses the failed
path between nodes \D and \E.
After these two failed rerouting attempts, the Expand subsystem will determine that the path
between nodes \D and \E has failed.
You can offset this disadvantage of the SH algorithm by specifying the NETWORKDIAMETER
modifier, which defines the maximum HC that is acceptable between two nodes. If a route is
calculated that exceeds this limit, packets are discarded. By specifying the NETWORKDIAMETER
modifier, you increase the speed with which unreachable nodes are discovered.
NOTE: The NETWORKDIAMETER modifier is explained in more detail in Configuring the
Network Control Process.
Multi-CPU Paths
To guarantee message order when a multi-CPU path is used, one Expand line-handler process
at each source node and one Expand line-handler process at each destination node are paired;
all messages between that source and destination node are sent through this Expand line-handler
pair.
Whether the source and destination nodes are regarded as a group of processors or as a single
system, and when the Expand line-handler pair is formed, depends on whether the source and
the destination nodes are neighbors.
Non-Neighbor Nodes
For non-neighbor nodes, the Expand line-handler pairs are similar to those used by single-line
and multi-line paths—they apply to each source and destination system combination. The NRTs
in all processors in the entire system point to the same path, so global NRT updates are used.
The Expand line-handler pair is established by $NCP when the connection is first made to the
remote node. The pairing is symmetrical; messages traveling in either direction use the same
Expand line-handler pair.
When $NCP initiates a connection to a non-neighbor node and the best-path route to the node
is a multi-CPU path, $NCP selects one Expand line-handler process in the multi-CPU path and
starts the connection over that Expand line-handler process. The neighbor node directs traffic
from all its processors to the Expand line-handler process from which the connection initiation
was received using information maintained in the reverse pairing table (RPT).
Neighbor Nodes
For neighbor nodes, Expand line-handler pairs apply only to each source and destination processor
combination, not to entire systems. This method allows traffic between neighbor nodes to be
distributed over all the paths in the multi-CPU path. Message order is preserved only between
processor pairs instead of between entire systems.
$NCP does not establish Expand line-handler pairs with a neighbor node. Instead, when the first
message is sent from a processor in the source node to each processor in the destination node,
the NRT lookup routine in the source processor selects an Expand line-handler process and
saves that process in the NRT in its processor; subsequent messages sent from the same
processor in the source node to the same processor in the destination node are sent using the
same Expand line-handler process.
When selecting an Expand line-handler process, the NRT lookup routine selects a process that
spreads the load over all the paths in the multi-CPU path. Pairing information is not broadcast
362 Subsystem Description
to other processors, and pairings are not symmetrical; messages between the same two
processors in the reverse direction can use a different Expand line-handler pair.
NOTE: $NCP does not know which Expand line-handler processes have been paired; this
information is maintained separately in each processor in its MPT.
Load Balancing
The formation of Expand line-handler pairs can interfere with the requirement to balance traffic
over all paths in a multi-CPU path. In addition, traffic patterns can change radically over time,
causing imbalances to occur after the formation of Expand line-handler pairs. (This is especially
true for non-neighbor pairs because they tend to be made when the multi-CPU path is first started
and no traffic information is available.) For these reasons, $NCP periodically runs a rebalancing
algorithm that reconsiders the pairings of Expand line-handler processes on each multi-CPU
path. If the load is unbalanced, $NCP changes some Expand line-handler pairs.
Multi-CPU path (superpath) rebalancing is run periodically to correct path selection as traffic
patterns change. It has three goals:
•
CPU Matching: Make sure all source/destination pairs are using a path with the most CPU
matches available (same local/remote CPU).
•
Load Factor Balancing: Try to make the load factors of all paths within 0.5 of each other.
•
Pair Count Balancing: Spread those pairs whose traffic have no adverse impact on load
factors (LFs) over all paths.
CAUTION: A multi-CPU rebalance can introduce a temporary disruption in the network, similar
to but in general less than that caused by an Expand path change. For that reason, it is
recommended that rebalances be limited to off-peak hours unless an imbalance is clearly causing
immediate problems.
The three goals are handled in three separate steps.
1. First, CPU matching is done for each source/destination pair by looking for line handlers
that have better CPU matches than their current owner. If more than one path has the best
match, choose the one that yields the lowest predicted load-factor spread. The pair is moved
without regard for anti-thrashing bits (see below) or possible increase in the load-factor
spread.
2. Next, the load factors are balanced. The load-factor spread is the highest load factor minus
the lowest load factor; this step tries to minimize the load factor spread until it is less than
0.5. To do this, calculate the sensitivity of each path's load factor to its total traffic, assuming
a linear relationship between average LF and total traffic. This is used to predict the effect
on the load factors of moving traffic from one line handler to another.
Then consider moving each pair from each other line handler to the one with the lowest load
factor, and of moving each pair from the line handler with the highest load factor to each
other line handler and predict the resulting change in load factors.
Choose the single move that results in the lowest predicted load factor spread, put it on the
output change list, update the load factors according to the predicted changes, and check
the new load factor spread value. This is continued until the load factor spread is less than
0.5 or no moves can be found that improve the load factor spread.
Routing and Time Factors 363
3.
Lastly, the pair counts are balanced. Use the path selection algorithm described above with
current LF information to determine the goal number of pairs for each line handler. To prevent
new line handlers with low LFs and no current pairs from taking on more pairs than they can
actually handle, those line handlers with too few pairs have their goals reduced by half their
shortfall.
Then consider moving each pair from the line handler with the highest excess pairs to each
line handler with a dearth. Choose the move that results in the lowest predicted load-factor
spread with no increase from previous efforts. If more than one path has the same lowest
load-factor spread, choose the one with the largest pair-count shortfall. This is continued
until there are no excess pairs or all possible moves increase the load-factor spread.
A maximum of 16 moves can be put on the output change list. All the above stop when that count
is reached. Pairs on the change list are flagged with an anti-thrashing bit; selection of those pairs
for moving is avoided during the next one rebalance.
Because rebalancing is slightly disruptive, $NCP changes Expand line-handler pairs only at these
times:
•
When a new path comes up. (This is similar to what happens in normal paths when a new
path that has a lower TF is discovered.)
•
At configurable times during the day. You can use the SCF ALTER PROCESS,
AUTOREBALANCE command to specify when rebalancing should occur. Both the time of
day and the interval between rebalance attempts can be specified, allowing you to schedule
a rebalance when traffic is minimal.
•
Immediately. You can use the SCF RESET PROCESS command to cause an immediate
rebalance.
•
When a path goes down. (In this case, the rebalancing algorithm is not actually used; instead,
new connections are set up according to the current load.)
•
If a path is revived after being down for a defined amount of time.
Multi-CPU Routing Examples
The routing decisions made for multi-CPU paths depend on each possible combination of source
and destination node; Figure 40 shows multi-CPU routing for these combinations.
In Figure 40, the network includes four normal paths and two multi-CPU paths. A multi-CPU path
that consists of three paths is configured between node \B and node \C, and a multi-CPU path
that consists of two paths is configured between node \C and node \E.
364 Subsystem Description
Figure 40 Network Containing Normal Paths and Multi-CPU Paths
Combination 1: Local Source Node and Neighbor Destination Node
In this scenario, the source node is the local node and the destination node is a neighbor; a
message is sent directly from one node to the other. When the first message destined for each
processor in the neighbor node is sent, the originating processor selects a local path to the
destination node and selects a pair of Expand line-handlers for the source and destination
processor combination. Subsequent messages from that originating processor to that destination
processor use the same path.
For example, in Figure 40 (page 365), if the process named PRCB on node \B sends a message
to the process named PRCC on node \C and $NCP determines that multi-CPU path 1 is the
best-path route, the NRT in processor 0 selects the Expand line-handler process in processor 2
to transmit the message because its remote Expand line-handler process is in the same processor
as PRCC.
If PRCB (or any other process in processor 0 on node \B) sends another message to PRCC (or
any other process in processor 1 on node \C), $NCP immediately uses the same Expand
Routing and Time Factors 365
line-handler to transmit the message, this time because an Expand line-handler pairing has been
initiated.
Combination 2: Local Source Node and Non-Neighbor Destination Node
In this scenario, the source node is the local node and the destination node is a non-neighbor
node. An Expand line-handler process is selected by $NCP when the connection between the
nodes is first established and all processors in the system use this Expand line-handler process.
For example, in Figure 40 (page 365), when $NCP on node \B first detects the existence of node
\F and determines that the best-path route to node \F is through the multi-CPU path 1, $NCP
selects an Expand line-handler process from one of those on processors 1, 2, or 4 based on the
communications load and then updates the NRT in all processors in the system. If the process
named PRCB on node \B (or any other process on node \B) sends a message to the process
named PRCF on node \F (or any other process on node \F), the NRT in processor 0 returns the
Expand line-handler process selected by $NCP, regardless of the current communications load.
Combination 3: Passthrough Traffic to a Neighbor Destination Node
In this scenario, a message is received that is destined for a neighbor node connected by a
multi-CPU path. The message is routed to the Expand line-handler process specified by the
reverse pairing table (RPT)—if one exists. The RPT is established when the neighbor connects
to the originator of the passthrough message. The Connect Request, Reply, and Ack messages
are forward by $NCP, which sets the RPT entry in all processors in the system. If a message is
received from a neighbor node and no RPT entry exists, the message is dropped.
For example, in Figure 40 (page 365), when $NCP on node \A first detects the existence of node
\C, $NCP sends a Connect Request message to node \B which is forwarded through multi-CPU
path 1 to node \C. Later, when the Connect Ack message is sent from node \A to node \C, $NCP
on node \B sets a pointer in the RPT of all its processors to the Expand line-handler process
which received the Connect Ack message. If PRCA on node \A sends a message to PRCC on
node \C, the NRT returns the Expand line-handler saved in the RPT when the message is received
on node \B.
Combination 4: Passthrough Traffic to a Non-Neighbor Destination Node
In this scenario, a message is received that is destined for a non-neighbor node. The processor
that receives the message simply selects a local path. Passthrough nodes do not preserve
message order, so no Expand line-handler pairing must be established.
For example, in Figure 40 (page 365), if the process named PRCA on node \A sends a message
to the process named PRCF on node \F and $NCP determines that the best-path route is through
node \B and multi-CPU path 1, the NRT on processor 3 on node \B selects an Expand line-handler
process from one of those in processors 1, 2, or 4 based on communications load when the
message is received on node \B. The Expand line-handler process for subsequent messages
also is selected based on the communications load.
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation
This subsection presents a high-level overview of how data is sent and received over an Expand
network and how incoming and outgoing data is buffered. It is necessary to understand this
information to effectively configure, manage, and troubleshoot an Expand network.
This subsection describes these topics:
•
“Outgoing Traffic Flow” (page 367)
•
“Incoming Traffic Flow” (page 371)
NOTE: This subsection refers to modifiers that allow you to control message handling and
buffer allocation. For more information on these modifiers, see Expand Modifiers.
366 Subsystem Description
Outgoing Traffic Flow
Outgoing traffic is data that is sent from the local node to another node in the network. Outgoing
traffic includes
•
Locally originated traffic (requests and replies created by a process at the local node that
are destined for a remote node).
•
$NCP traffic (messages created by the local $NCP that are destined for the $NCP at a
neighboring node).
•
Passthrough traffic (requests or replies created at a remote node that are being forwarded
to another node).
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation 367
Locally Originated Traffic Flow
Figure 41 illustrates the path of a locally originated outgoing message.
Figure 41 Flow of an Outgoing Local Message
When a process creates a message that is destined for a remote node, the message system
uses the NRT to route the message to the Expand line-handler process that can most efficiently
transmit the message to the destination node.
When the Expand line-handler process acquires an outgoing message from the message system,
it queues the message to its list of pending outgoing messages for the appropriate destination
node. The Expand line-handler process maintains a different pending outgoing messages list for
each destination node.
The Expand line-handler process checks the security of messages that have the security bit set.
The file system sets the security bit (LSECUREB) on certain requests such as OPENs. Checking
the security of a message involves obtaining the remote password from the USERID file and
attaching it to the outgoing message. If no remote password exists for the destination node, the
request is completed with an error (file-system error 48, security violation) and is not sent.
If the COMPRESS_ON modifier is set, the Expand line-handler process tries to compress the
data in the message. When compression is configured, groups of consecutive zeros (0), spaces,
and NULLs are replaced with indicator and count values. These values are removed and replaced
368 Subsystem Description
with the original characters when the message is received and decompressed by the destination
Expand line-handler process.
The Expand line-handler process prioritizes each outgoing message according to the message’s
Expand priority, which is based on the priority level of the application process that created the
message, unless the SETMODE 71 procedure is used. SETMODE 71 can be used to assign to
a message a priority level that is higher or lower than the application process priority.
After the security check, data compression, and message prioritization have been performed,
the Expand line-handler process queues the message to its list of outgoing messages for the
destination node. When a message is queued to the outgoing messages list, it occupies buffer
space in the Expand line-handler process buffer pool.
NOTE:
374).
The Expand line-handler process buffer pool is explained in “Message Buffering” (page
The Expand line-handler process formats the highest-priority message into standard
size-and-format transmission units, called packets. Messages that are too large to fit into one
packet are fragmented into as many packets as are required to contain the entire message.
NOTE: The Expand line-handler process obtains packet-size information from the value
assigned to the FRAMESIZE or PATHPACKETBYTES modifier.
Packets are sent sequentially until the total message is sent. The Expand line-handler process
does not mix packets from different locally originated messages, but it might interleave packets
from locally originated messages with passthrough and $NCP packets. ($NCP and passthrough
traffic flow is discussed in “$NCP and Passthrough Traffic Flow” (page 369).)
When all the packets that make up the total message have been sent, the Expand line-handler
process queues the message to its list of unacknowledged messages. When the Expand
line-handler process receives an acknowledgment from the destination node for the message,
it processes the message differently depending on whether the message is a request or a reply
to a previous request.
If the message is a request, the Expand line-handler process queues the message to its list of
messages waiting for replies and does not release the buffer pool used by the message. If the
message is a reply, the Expand line-handler process releases the buffer pool used by the
message.
NOTE: Requests are formatted into request data packets, or LRQs. Replies are formatted into
reply data packets, or LCMPs. LRQs and LCMPs are explained in “Protocol Packet Types” (page
347).
$NCP and Passthrough Traffic Flow
Figure 42 illustrates the path of outgoing $NCP and passthrough traffic.
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation 369
Figure 42 Flow of Outgoing $NCP and Passthrough Traffic
The message system uses the NRT to route passthrough packets from the incoming Expand
line-handler process (the one that received the packets) to the Expand line-handler process that
can most efficiently transmit the packets to the destination system.
Similarly, the message system uses the NRT to route locally generated $NCP packets to the
Expand line-handler process that can most efficiently transmit the message to the $NCP at a
neighboring node.
When the Expand line-handler process acquires a passthrough or $NCP packet from the message
system, it queues the packet to its list of pending $NCP/passthrough traffic for the appropriate
destination node. The Expand line-handler process maintains a different pending
$NCP/passthrough traffic list for each path.
The Expand line-handler process moves passthrough and $NCP packets from its list of pending
$NCP/passthrough traffic to its list of outgoing $NCP/passthrough traffic. When passthrough and
$NCP traffic is queued to the outgoing list, it occupies buffer space in the Expand line-handler
process buffer pool.
$NCP formats $NCP messages into packets before sending them to the appropriate Expand
line-handler process for transmission. Passthrough traffic is already in the form of packets; it is
not reassembled into messages before being forwarded to the destination node.
NOTE: $NCP obtains packet size information from the value assigned to the network control
process FRAMESIZE modifier.
When they are transmitted, $NCP and passthrough packets are given precedence over locally
originated traffic and can be interleaved with packets from locally originated messages.
After $NCP or passthrough packets have been sent, the Expand line-handler process releases
the buffer pool used by the packets.
NOTE: The Expand line-handler process does not require an end-to-end (Layer 4)
acknowledgment for $NCP and passthrough packets before it releases buffer pool space. This
requirement is not necessary because $NCP and passthrough traffic do not use Layer 4 services.
370 Subsystem Description
Incoming Traffic Flow
Incoming traffic is data that is received from another system in the network. Incoming traffic
includes
•
Locally destined traffic (packets received from a remote node that are destined for a process
at the local node).
•
$NCP traffic (packets received from $NCP at a neighbor node that are destined for $NCP
at the local node).
•
Passthrough traffic (packets received from a remote node that are destined for another
remote node).
Figure 43 illustrates the paths of different types of incoming traffic.
As shown in Figure 43, the Expand line-handler process manages different types of incoming
packets differently. These subsections describe each type of packet and explain how each is
processed by the Expand line-handler process.
Figure 43 Flow of Incoming Packets
Out-of-Sequence (OOS) Packets
OOS packets are destined for a process at the local system but are not received in the same
order in which they were sent. For example, if the Expand line-handler process receives packet
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation 371
3 before packet 1, it considers packet 3 to be an OOS packet. When the Expand line-handler
process receives an OOS packet, it places the packet in its OOS buffer.
NOTE: The OOS buffer is used only if the first packet (which contains the message header)
is not received first. If the first packet is received first but subsequent packets are out of sequence,
packets are placed in the buffer pool and the OOS buffer is not used. The OOS buffer is described
in more detail in “Line Buffer” (page 375).
Request Packets
An incoming request packet, or an LRQ, is a fragment of a request message destined for a
process at the local node. The first LRQ includes the length of the total message, in bytes. The
Expand line-handler process reserves memory from its buffer pool for the total message based
on the length information contained in the first packet.
NOTE:
LRQs are also described in “Protocol Packet Types” (page 347).
As the Expand line-handler process receives each packet of the request message, it places the
packet in the reserved buffer pool space. If the first packet is received out of sequence, the
Expand line-handler process places packets in the OOS buffer.
When the Expand line-handler process has received all the packets of the request message and
has reassembled the message in the reserved buffer pool space, it decompresses the message
(if the message was compressed by the sending Expand line-handler process) and performs a
message-level checksum. If packets are received out of sequence, the Expand line-handler
process retrieves them from the OOS buffer. If the message’s security bit is set, the Expand
line-handler process also checks security.
Security-checking involves acquiring the remote password from the USERID file and comparing
it to the remote password that is attached to the incoming request message. If the passwords
do not match, an error is returned to the sender of the LRQ (the requester). If the Safeguard
product is being used, the request message is also checked by Safeguard, and Safeguard’s
response is incorporated into the message.
After the request message is successfully processed, the message system routes the request
to the appropriate process, and the Expand line-handler process releases the buffer pool used
by the request message.
Reply Packets
An incoming reply packet, or an LCMP, is a fragment of a reply message that is a reply to a
request previously generated by a process (the requester) at the local node.
NOTE:
LCMPs are also described in “Protocol Packet Types” (page 347).
The Expand line-handler process matches the reply to the request and places the incoming reply
packets into the buffer pool occupied by the matching request. If packets are received out of
sequence, the Expand line-handler process retrieves them from the OOS buffer and moves them
to the buffer pool space for the reply.
When the Expand line-handler process has received all the packets of the reply message and
has reassembled it, it decompresses the reply message (if the reply message was compressed
by the sending Expand line-handler process) and performs a message-level checksum. No
security-checking is performed on reply messages; all security-checking is done on request
messages.
After the reply message is successfully processed, the message system routes the reply message
to the appropriate process, and the Expand line-handler process releases the buffer pool used
by the reply message.
372 Subsystem Description
$NCP and Passthrough Packets
An incoming $NCP packet is a packet received from the $NCP at a neighbor node and destined
for the $NCP of the local node. An incoming passthrough packet is a packet received from a
remote node and destined for another remote node.
When the Expand line-handler process receives a $NCP or a passthrough packet, it buffers the
packet in its buffer pool. If the packet is a passthrough packet, the Expand line-handler process
routes the packet to the outgoing Expand line-handler process that can most efficiently transmit
the packet to its destination node. If the packet is a $NCP packet, the Expand line-handler process
routes the packet to the local $NCP.
After the packet has been routed to the appropriate process ($NCP or Expand line-handler), the
Expand line-handler process releases the buffer pool used by the packet.
NOTE: For more information on outgoing $NCP and passthrough packet handling, see “$NCP
and Passthrough Traffic Flow” (page 369).
Message Handling and Buffer Allocation 373
Message Buffering
The previous subsection showed that Expand line-handler processes buffer incoming and outgoing
requests so that data can be transferred between processes on different nodes. This subsection
describes in greater detail the data space allocated to the Expand line-handler process for
message transfer and how you can affect the size of that buffer space. It is necessary to
understand this information before you can effectively configure or troubleshoot an Expand
network.
This subsection describes these topics:
•
“Global Variables” (page 374)
•
“Stack” (page 374)
•
“Control Blocks” (page 375)
•
“Line Buffer” (page 375)
•
“Buffer Pool” (page 375)
•
“Shared Memory Area for QIO” (page 375)
NOTE: This subsection refers to modifiers that allow you to control message buffering. For
more information on these modifiers, see Expand Modifiers.
Figure 44 illustrates the Expand line-handler process data space.
Figure 44 Expand Line-Handler Process Data Space
Global Variables
The global variables space contains the Expand subsystem software global variables. The Expand
subsystem determines how much global variables space to allocate according to the number of
lines in a path controlled by the Expand line-handler process.
Stack
The Expand subsystem allocates 700 words to the stack.
374 Subsystem Description
Control Blocks
The Expand subsystem preallocates space for many data structures that are likely to be used
during normal operation.
Line Buffer
The line buffer is used to buffer incoming and outgoing messages after they have been formatted
into packets by the Expand line-handler process. The line buffer for Expand-over-NAM and
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes is located in the Expand line-handler process
data space.
Read frame buffers are used to buffer incoming messages; write frame buffers are used to buffer
outgoing messages. In most cases, the Expand subsystem allocates enough buffer space for
the maximum number of read and write frame buffers. You can adjust this with the TXWINDOW
modifier. If you are using a satellite connection (which uses the maximum window size of 61
frames) with a FRAMESIZE modifier value of over 512 words, the Expand subsystem automatically
reduces the number of transmit and read buffers available to fit within 64K words.
The size of each frame buffer is determined by the maximum size assigned to the
PATHBLOCKBYTES, PATHPACKETBYTES, and FRAMESIZE modifiers. Frame buffers are a
minimum of 1024 bytes and a maximum of 4095 bytes, or 9180 bytes in the case of
Expand-over-IP or Expand-over-ATM.
NOTE: You can also control the frame buffer size by setting the FRAMESIZE or
PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier. However, the FRAMESIZE modifier value must be the same at
each node in the network. For this reason, you must not modify the FRAMESIZE modifier value
on a per-node basis.
Buffer Pool
A buffer pool space of 1024 pages (2 MBs) is allocated by default. The buffer pool is used by
the Expand line-handler process to buffer incoming and outgoing messages while they are sent
and received from the line buffer. Figure 42 (page 370), Figure 43 (page 371), and Figure 44 (page
374) show when the buffer pool is used.
The SCF attribute EXTMEMSIZE n allows you to specify the base size of extended memory for
the pool, from a default of 2 MB to as much as 32 MB in increments of 1 KB. The attribute
MAXMEM_MB n allows you to specify a size up to 1024 MB (1 GB) in increments of 1 MB.
Although MAXMEM_MB attribute was added in conjunction with Large Messages support, it can
be used with any line handler.
This extra memory is of invaluable help to applications such as the Remote Database Facility
(RDF) which in the past suffered from memory pool problems and thus reduced performance.
If MAXMEM_MB specifies a large amount of memory (over about 600 MB), the line handler may
not be able to obtain the amount requested, especially if the QIO memory segment is in flat
space. In this scenario, the line handler tries to get as much memory possible. If it gets at least
600 MB and 7/8 of the amount requested, it issues an EMS warning and continues to run instead
of stopping. Therefore, you need not know how much memory is available when configuring the
line handler.
Shared Memory Area for QIO
QIO is a mechanism for transferring data between processes through a shared memory segment.
QIO is used by Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes. The
Expand-over-IP line-handler process uses QIO to transfer data to its associated NonStop TCP/IP
process. The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process uses QIO to transfer data to its associated
ATM line.
Message Buffering 375
NOTE: QIO memory is not the same as Extended Memory. Expand-over-ATM and
Expand-over-IP have both QIO and Extended Memory requirements.
The QIO subsystem has been enhanced as of G06.17 to allow you to have more control over
certain aspects of memory management. You can now configure QIO to run in the Kseg2 memory
segment and you can also control where QIO runs in the flat memory segment. Configuring QIO
to run in Kseg2 can improve performance for NonStop TCP/IPv6 but also imposes constraints
that affect all QIO clients (including NonStop TCP/IPv6). As discussed in the QIO Configuration
and Management Manual, you must consider these constraints in addition to a variety of other
factors before changing the default QIO configuration.
Some of the constraints affecting NonStop TCP/IPv6 (in addition to other QIO clients) include
the reduction of QIO memory space to 128 MB when QIO is moved to Kseg2. This restriction
impacts the number of LIFs that you can configure on your system because LIFs use QIO memory.
This restriction also impacts the number of sockets that can be opened because open sockets
use QIO memory as well. Therefore, 128 MB cannot be sufficient for your NonStop TCP/IPv6 or
other QIO client needs.
NOTE:
The default configuration for the QIO subsystem has not changed.
Whether you use the default QIO configuration or one of the newly-supported custom
configurations, you do not need to change anything in NonStop TCP/IPv6; all changes are made
in the QIO subsystem.
For more information on the QIO subsystem, see the QIO Configuration and Management Manual.
Expand-to-NAM Interface
This subsection describes how Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
processes access a network access method (NAM) interface. The information presented in
this subsection will help you effectively configure, manage, and troubleshoot an Expand network
that includes X.25, SNA, or ServerNet connections.
Topics described in this subsection include:
•
“Network Access Method (NAM) Processes” (page 376)
•
“Connection Establishment” (page 377)
•
“Sending and Receiving Data” (page 379)
You should be familiar with the information in “Expand Line-Handler Processes” (page 338),
“Expand Subsystem and the OSI Reference Model” (page 344), and “Message Handling and
Buffer Allocation” (page 366) before reading this subsection.
NOTE: This subsection refers to modifiers that allow you to control various aspects of the
Expand-to-NAM interface. For more information on these modifiers, see Expand Modifiers.
Network Access Method (NAM) Processes
Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes (which include Expand-over-X.25 and
Expand-over-SNA), and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes do not use the Data
Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) services provided by the Expand End-to-End protocol; instead, these
376 Subsystem Description
line-handler processes use the Layer 2 services of a NAM process. The type of NAM process
used depends on these type of Expand line-handler process:
•
Expand-over-X.25 line-handler processes use the Layer 2 services provided by an X25AM
line-handler process.
•
Expand-over-SNA line-handler processes use the Layer 2 services provided by an SNAX/APN
line-handler process.
•
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes use the Layer 2 services provided by the
ServerNet monitor process, $ZZSCL.
Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes use the NETNAM protocol
to communicate with the NAM interface of the NAM process that provides Layer 2 services.
Connection Establishment
Figure 45 illustrates the events that occur when Expand-over-NAM and Expand-over-ServerNet
line-handler processes successfully establish a connection through a NAM interface.
Figure 45 Expand-over-NAM Connection Establishment
Expand-to-NAM Interface 377
Bind Requests and Subdevices
Before an Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can begin
exchanging data with another Expand line-handler process, it must first access a subdevice of
the NAM process.
NOTE: If the NAM process is an X25AM line-handler process, subdevices are associated with
each line that is controlled by the X25AM line-handler process. X25AM subdevices enable
applications to communicate over a virtual circuit. An X25AM subdevice is roughly analogous to
a virtual circuit.
The Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process accesses a subdevice
by sending a bind request to the NAM process. A bind request is roughly equivalent to an OPEN
procedure. The Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process will continue
to send bind requests to the NAM process at regular intervals (default intervals are 60 seconds
for Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes and 30 seconds for Expand-over-NAM
line-handler processes) until the request is successful. There is no limit to the number of times
the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can retry the bind request.
You can control the bind timeout period by setting the Expand SCF TIMERBIND attribute. (The
TIMERBIND attribute does not correspond to an Expand modifier and can be changed only by
using the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem.)
After the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process has successfully
bound to a subdevice, it tries to establish a connection through the NAM process to a neighbor
Expand line-handler process. There are two ways the Expand-over-NAM or
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can attempt to establish a call: active connect or
passive connect.
The default connect method is active connect. You can cause the Expand-over-NAM or
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process to use the active connect method by specifying the
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE modifier.
Active Connect Request
When the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process issues an active
connect request, the NAM process tries to initiate a connection. If the request is successful,
the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can begin sending and
receiving data over the connection.
If the request is not successful within a certain timeout period, the Expand-over-NAM or
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process cancels the active connect request and issues a
passive connect request. When the NAM process receives a passive connect request, it waits
for an incoming connect request; this waiting period allows the process to receive a connect
request from a remote Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process.
If the passive connect request is not successful within the timeout period, the Expand-over-NAM
or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process will issue another active connect request. The
line-handler process will continue to alternately issue active and passive connect requests until
a request is successful.
The default connect timeout period is 60 seconds for Expand-over-ServerNet and 30 seconds
for Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes. You can control the connect timeout period by
setting the Expand SCF TIMERRECONNECT attribute. (The TIMERRECONNECT attribute does
not correspond to an Expand modifier and can be changed only by using the SCF interface to
the Expand subsystem.)
Specifying the MAXRECONNECTS modifier enables you to limit the number of times the
Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process will attempt a connect request.
If you specify the MAXRECCONNECTS modifier, you can also control what happens after the
reconnect limit has been reached by specifying the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE or
AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN modifier.
378 Subsystem Description
Passive Connect Request
When the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process issues a passive
connect request, the NAM waits for an incoming connect request. You can cause the line-handler
process to use the passive connect method by specifying the CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier.
The passive connect request is successful when the NAM process receives a connect request
within a certain timeout period. After the passive connect request is successful, the
Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can begin sending and
receiving data over the connection.
If the connection request is not successful within the timeout period, the Expand-over-NAM or
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process will continue to issue passive connect requests at
regular intervals until a connect request is received.
The default connect timeout period is 60 seconds for Expand-over-ServerNet and 30 seconds
for Expand-over-NAM line-handler processes. You can control the connect timeout period with
the Expand SCF TIMERRECONNECT attribute. (The TIMERRECONNECT attribute does not
correspond to an Expand modifier and can be changed only by using the SCF interface to the
Expand subsystem.)
You can limit the number of times the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process will attempt a connect request by specifying the MAXRECONNECTS modifier. If you
specify MAXRECONNECTS, you can also control what happens after the reconnect limit is
reached by specifying the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE or AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
modifier.
Sending and Receiving Data
Specifying the TXWINDOW modifier enables you to control how many packets the
Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process can send before receiving
acknowledgment from the NAM process. You can also control how many packets the NAM
process can send to the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler process
before requiring acknowledgment by specifying the RXWINDOW modifier.
After a connection is established, the Expand-over-NAM or Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler
process periodically probes the subdevice to which it is bound to ensure that the line is still
operational. If the line-handler process does not receive a response to its probe within a certain
timeout period, it will retry the probe a specified number of times. If the retry limit is reached
before a response is received, the line-handler process will declare the connection inoperable.
You can set the probe frequency rate, timeout period, and retry limit using the Expand SCF
attributes TIMERINACTIVITY, TIMERPROBE, and RETRYPROBE.
Expand-to-IP Interface
This subsection describes how the Expand-over-IP line-handler process accesses an Internet
Protocol (IP) network. You should be familiar with the information presented in this subsection
before attempting to configure, manage, or troubleshoot an Expand network that includes IP
connections.
Topics discussed in this subsection include
•
“NonStop TCP/IP Processes” (page 380)
•
“Expand-over-IP Connection Establishment” (page 380)
•
“Sending and Receiving Data” (page 382)
•
“Forwarding Expand-over-IP Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes” (page 382)
NOTE: This subsection refers to modifiers that allow you to control various aspects of the
Expand-to-IP interface. For more information on these modifiers, see Expand Modifiers.
Expand-to-IP Interface 379
NonStop TCP/IP Processes
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes do not use the Data Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) services
of the Expand End-to-End protocol; instead, these line-handler processes use the NETIP protocol
at Layer 2 to communicate with a NonStop TCP/IP or NonStop TCP/IPv6 (TCP6SAM) process.
The QIO mechanism is used to transfer data between the Expand-over-IP line-handler process
and its associated NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM process.
NOTE: Because the QIO mechanism involves data sharing, the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process and its associated NonStop TCP/IP process must reside in the same processor pair.
However, the TCP/IPv6 architecture removes this restriction, so when the NonStop TCP/IPv6
subsystem is used for TCP/IP connectivity, the Expand-over-IP line-handler process does not
need to reside in the same processor pair as the TCP6SAM process.
NonStop TCP/IP and TCP6SAM processes provide a Guardian file-system interface to the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in addition to raw
(direct) access to the Internet Protocol (IP). (However, raw-socket support is limited with the
NonStop TCP/IPv6 subsystem. For more information on the raw-socket programming limitations,
see the TCP/IP and TCP/IPv6 Programming Manual. The Expand-over-IP line-handler process
uses the UDP services provided by the TCP/IP subsystem to transmit data across an IP network.
UDP is a minimal datagram protocol that provides a mechanism for identifying the ultimate
destination in a host, such as an application program or other high-level process.
NOTE: The Expand End-to-End protocol already provides the sequencing, error-recovery, and
congestion control functions that a reliable stream transport service such as TCP/IP provides,
making it unnecessary for the Expand-to-IP interface to duplicate these functions.
Each NonStop TCP/IP process appears to an IP network as a separate host and is associated
with a separate IP address. An IP address is a 4-octet (32-bit) numeric value identifying a
particular network (network address portion) and a local host on that network (local address
portion). A NonStop TCP/IP process can be associated with more than one IP address. There
can also be more than one NonStop TCP/IP process on the system at any one time; each process
acts as a separate NonStop TCP/IP host.
NonStop TCP/IPv6 provide a feature called single IP which allows a single TCP6SAM process
to act as a single host for all 16 processors. NonStop TCP/IPv6 also provides the option of using
IP version 6 (IPv6) communications. IPv6 provides several new networking features and a longer,
128-bit IP address.
Both TCP and UDP use a 16-bit port number to select a socket on the host. TCP and UDP add
to IP the capability of having several simultaneous sessions with a given host. Multiple sessions
are accommodated by specifying a port number, which identifies the communications path, along
with the IP address. Each end of the communications path is assigned a port number for that
session.
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes perform addressing by specifying a unique combination
of a destination IP address, destination port number, source IP address, and source port number.
Expand-over-IP Connection Establishment
When the system is started up, the Expand-over-IP line-handler process waits for the NonStop
TCP/IP or TCP6SAM process (with which it is associated) and the QIO Monitor process (QIOMON)
to start. These processes must be running before Expand-over-IP lines can be started. Next, the
Expand-over-IP line-handler process binds to its associated NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM
process.
After the Expand-over-IP line-handler process has successfully bound to the NonStop TCP/IP
or TCP6SAM process, it tries to establish a connection to the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler
process. There are two ways the Expand-over-IP line-handler process can attempt to establish
a connection: active connect or passive connect.
380 Subsystem Description
The default connect method is active connect. You can cause the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process to use the active connect method by specifying the
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE modifier.
Active Connect Request
When the Expand-over-IP line-handler process issues an active connect request, it tries to
initiate a connection by sending a Connect Command frame to the remote Expand-over-IP
line-handler process.
NOTE: Because UDP is a connectionless protocol, there is no actual connection to the remote
Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
When the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process receives the Connect Command frame,
it responds with a Connect Response frame. When the response is received, the local
Expand-over-IP line-handler process considers the line to be up. Various path parameters are
then exchanged with the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
If the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process does not receive a response within the timeout
period, it sends another Connect Command frame. It will continue to send Connect Command
frames indefinitely until a response is received.
The default connect timeout period is 60 seconds. You can alter the connect timeout period with
the Expand SCF TIMERRECONNECT attribute. (The TIMERRECONNECT attribute does not
correspond to an Expand modifier and can be changed only by using the SCF interface to the
Expand subsystem.)
You can limit the number of times the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will send a Connect
Command frame by specifying the MAXRECONNECTS modifier. If you specify
MAXRECONNECTS, you can also control what happens after the reconnect limit has been
reached by specifying the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE or AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
modifier.
Passive Connect Request
When the Expand-over-IP line-handler process issues a passive connect request, it waits for
an incoming Connect Command frame from the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
You can cause the Expand-over-IP line-handler process to use the passive connect method by
specifying the CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier.
NOTE: Because UDP is a connectionless protocol, there is no actual connection to the remote
Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
The passive connect request is successful when the Expand-over-IP line-handler process receives
a Connect Command within the connect timeout period. After the passive connect request is
successful, the local Expand-over-IP line-handler process considers the line to be up. Various
path parameters are then exchanged with the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process.
If the connection request is not successful within the timeout period, the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process will continue to issue passive connect requests at regular intervals until a
Connect Command frame is received.
The default connect timeout period is 60 seconds. You can alter the connect timeout period with
the Expand SCF TIMERRECONNECT attribute. (The TIMERRECONNECT attribute does not
correspond to an Expand modifier and can therefore be changed only by using the SCF interface
to the Expand subsystem.)
You can limit the number of times the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will send a Connect
Command frame by specifying the MAXRECONNECTS modifier. If you specify
MAXRECONNECTS, you can also control what happens after the reconnect limit has been
reached by specifying the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE or AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
modifier.
Expand-to-IP Interface 381
Sending and Receiving Data
After a connection has been established, the local and remote Expand-over-IP line-handler
processes communicate through their associated NonStop TCP/IP or TCP6SAM processes using
the QIO mechanism. You can control how many packets the Expand-over-IP line-handler process
can send to the NonStop TCP/IP process before waiting for a reply by specifying the TXWINDOW
modifier.
NOTE: The RXWINDOW modifier is meaningless for Expand-over-IP connections but is
provided to maintain commonality among the different line types. Because the Expand-over-IP
line-handler process uses QIO to communicate with the NonStop TCP/IP process and the NonStop
TCP/IPv6 process, the Expand-over-IP line-handler process must read all the messages on its
receive queue at one time; it cannot limit the number of messages read to the RXWINDOW
modifier value because of QIO limitations.
To detect loss of connection through the IP network, the Expand-over-IP line-handler process
sends a Probe message to the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process at periodic intervals
of inactivity.
If the Expand-over-IP line-handler process does not receive a response to its Probe message,
it will consider the line down after exceeding the maximum number of Probe message retries.
The default inactivity interval (the amount of time the Expand-over-IP line-handler process will
wait before sending a Probe message to the remote Expand-over-IP line-handler process) is 60
seconds. You can alter the inactivity interval with the Expand SCF TIMERPROBE attribute.
The default number of Probe messages retries is 3. You can control the number of times the
Expand-over-IP line-handler process will retry Probe messages with the Expand SCF
RETRYPROBE attribute.
Forwarding Expand-over-IP Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes
Packets received by an Expand-over-IP line-handler process can be forwarded to another type
of Expand line-handler process, either on the same processor or on a different processor. Packet
forwarding is performed via the message system; this allows servers without Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes and pre-D40 systems to access an IP network.
Figure 46 illustrates the flow of packets between two applications, one of which is running an
Expand-over-IP line-handler process and one of which is not. In the figure, Expand-over-IP
line-handler processes are running on nodes 1 and 2.
382 Subsystem Description
Figure 46 Expand-over-IP Packet Forwarding
Expand-to-ATM Interface
This subsection describes how the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process accesses an
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network. You should be familiar with the information
presented in this subsection before attempting to configure, manage, or troubleshoot an Expand
network that includes ATM connections.
Topics discussed in this subsection include:
•
“ATM Subsystem” (page 384)
•
“Expand-over-ATM Connection Establishment” (page 385)
•
“Sending and Receiving Data” (page 386)
•
“Forwarding Expand-over-ATM Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes” (page
386)
NOTE: This subsection refers to modifiers that allow you to control various aspects of the
Expand-to-ATM interface. For more information on these modifiers, see Expand Modifiers.
Expand-to-ATM Interface 383
ATM Subsystem
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes do not use the Data Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) services
of the Expand End-to-End protocol; instead, these line-handler processes communicate with the
ATM subsystem. The QIO mechanism is used to transfer data between the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process and the ATM subsystem.
The ATM subsystem, which is Hewlett Packard Enterprise’s implementation of the ATM protocol,
consists of hardware and software components that reside on an Integrity NonStop NS-series
server. The ATM 3 ServerNet adapter (ATM3SA) provides one bidirectional full-duplex ATM OC3
port for connection to the User-Network Interface (UNI). The UNI is an interface point between
ATM end users and a private ATM switch, or between a private ATM switch and the public carrier
ATM network. The Expand-over-ATM line-handler process uses the services provided by the
ATM subsystem to transmit data across an ATM network.
Each ATM3SA is described by a LINE object that represents the ATM line or link connected to
the ATM3SA. Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs), switched virtual circuits (SVCs), and
ATMSAP connections through the SLSA subsystem can be configured for an ATM line.
PVC Connections
A PVC is a permanently established virtual circuit. Each PVC is associated with a PVC name
during ATM subsystem configuration. A PVC is described by the PVC object, which is subordinate
to the LINE object.
An Expand-over-ATM line-handler process that uses a PVC connection performs addressing by
specifying a PVC name.
SVC Connections
An SVC is a dynamically established virtual circuit. Each SVC is automatically assigned an SVC
name by the ATM3SA when the circuit is established. An SVC is described by the SVC object,
which is subordinate to the LINE object.
An Expand-over-ATM line-handler process that uses an SVC connection performs addressing
by specifying these information:
•
The ATM address configured for the ATM line used by the remote Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process.
•
The selector bytes for the ATM lines used by the Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes
on both the local and remote systems.
An ATM line is associated with a 20-byte hexadecimal ATM address. The last (rightmost) byte
of the ATM address is called the selector byte. The selector byte is used by the ATM subsystem
to direct incoming call requests to the correct ATM subsystem client. An SVC is established when
the system with the higher system number sends an SVC call request to the system with the
lower system number.
NOTE:
Selector bytes must be coordinated among ATM clients using the same ATM line.
ATMSAP Connections
The SLSA ATM protocol direct service access point (ATMSAP) connection offers an ATM Native
Mode network interconnect support similar to that offered by the PVC object within the ATM
subsystem. Expand issues native mode frames directly to the ATM product via a LIF associated
with an ATMSAP object.
An ATMSAP object can be configured to interface to a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) object. A
LIF object must be associated with the ATMSAP object to provide host access to the ATMSAP
object. A PVC connection provides a static permanent virtual circuit. A PVC is defined with a
VCC attribute for the ATMSAP. The VCC is comprised of a VPI, VCI pair.
384 Subsystem Description
LIF objects are associated with either a CIP object, a LEC object, or an ATMSAP object. No
objects can be configured subordinate to an ATMSAP object.
Expand-over-ATM Connection Establishment
When the system is started up, the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process waits for the ATM
line it will use and the QIO Monitor process (QIOMON) to start. The ATM line and the QIOMON
process must be running before Expand-over-ATM lines can be started. Next, the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process binds to the ATM subsystem.
After the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process has successfully bound to the ATM line, it tries
to establish a connection to the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process. There are two
ways the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process can attempt to establish a connection: active
connect or passive connect.
The default connect method is active connect. You can cause the Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process to use the active connect method by specifying the
CONNECTTYPE_ACTIVEANDPASSIVE modifier.
Active Connect Request
When the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process issues an active connect request, it tries to
initiate a connection by sending a Connect Command frame to the remote Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process.
When the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process receives the Connect Command frame,
it responds with a Connect Response frame. When the response is received, the local
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process considers the line to be up. Various path parameters are
then exchanged with the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process.
If the local Expand-over-ATM line-handler process does not receive a response within the timeout
period, it sends another Connect Command frame. It will continue to send Connect Command
frames indefinitely until a response is received.
The default connect timeout period is 60 seconds. You can alter the connect timeout period with
the Expand SCF TIMERRECONNECT attribute. (The TIMERRECONNECT attribute does not
correspond to an Expand modifier and can be changed only by using the SCF interface to the
Expand subsystem.)
You can limit the number of times the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will send a Connect
Command frame by specifying the MAXRECONNECTS modifier. If you specify
MAXRECONNECTS, you can also control what happens after the reconnect limit has been
reached by specifying the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE or AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
modifier.
Passive Connect Request
When the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process issues a passive connect request, it waits
for an incoming Connect Command frame from the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process. You can cause the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process to use the passive connect
method by specifying the CONNECTTYPE_PASSIVE modifier.
The passive connect request is successful when the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process
receives a Connect Command within the connect timeout period. After the passive connect
request is successful, the local Expand-over-ATM line-handler process considers the line to be
up. Various path parameters are then exchanged with the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler
process.
If the connection request is not successful within the timeout period, the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process will continue to issue passive connect requests at regular intervals until a
Connect Command frame is received.
Expand-to-ATM Interface 385
The default connect timeout period is 60 seconds. You can alter the connect timeout period with
the Expand SCF TIMERRECONNECT attribute. (The TIMERRECONNECT attribute does not
correspond to an Expand modifier and can therefore be changed only by using the SCF interface
to the Expand subsystem.)
You can limit the number of times the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will send a Connect
Command frame by specifying the MAXRECONNECTS modifier. If you specify
MAXRECONNECTS, you can also control what happens after the reconnect limit has been
reached by specifying the AFTERMAXRETRIES_PASSIVE or AFTERMAXRETRIES_DOWN
modifier.
Sending and Receiving Data
After a connection has been established, the local and remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes communicate through their associated ATM lines using the QIO mechanism. You can
control how many packets the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process can send to the ATM line
before waiting for a reply by specifying the TXWINDOW modifier.
NOTE: The RXWINDOW modifier is meaningless for Expand-over-ATM connections but is
provided to maintain commonality among the different line types. Because the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process uses QIO to communicate with the ATM line, the Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process must read all the messages on its receive queue at one time; it cannot limit
the number of messages read to the RXWINDOW modifier value because of QIO limitations.
To detect loss of connection through the ATM network, the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process
sends a Probe message to the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process at periodic intervals
of inactivity.
If the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process does not receive a response to its Probe message,
it will consider the line down after exceeding the maximum number of Probe message retries.
The default inactivity interval (the amount of time the Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will
wait before sending a Probe message to the remote Expand-over-ATM line-handler process) is
60 seconds. You can alter the inactivity interval with the Expand SCF TIMERPROBE attribute.
The default number of Probe messages retries is 3. You can control the number of times the
Expand-over-ATM line-handler process will retry Probe messages with the Expand SCF
RETRYPROBE attribute.
Forwarding Expand-over-ATM Packets to Other Expand Line-Handler Processes
Packets received by an Expand-over-ATM line-handler process can be forwarded to another
type of Expand line-handler process, either on the same processor or on a different processor.
Packet forwarding is performed via the message system; this allows servers without
Expand-over-ATM line-handler processes to access an ATM network. Figure 47 illustrates the
flow of packets between two applications, one of which is running an Expand-over-ATM
line-handler process and one of which is not. In the figure, Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes are running on nodes 1 and 2.
386 Subsystem Description
Figure 47 Expand-over-ATM Packet Forwarding
Multipacket Frame Feature
The multipacket frame feature is a performance enhancement designed to increase throughput
and processor efficiency on all connection types. This subsection briefly describes how the
multipacket frame feature works so that you can effectively configure and use this feature in your
network.
This subsection includes these topics:
•
“Constructing Multipacket Frames” (page 388)
•
“Path Initialization” (page 390)
•
“Multipacket Frame Configuration” (page 390)
•
“Multipacket Frame Considerations” (page 391)
Before reading this subsection, you should be familiar with the material presented in the subsection
“Expand-to-NAM Interface” (page 376).
NOTE: For more information on the advantages and disadvantages of the multipacket frames
feature, see Planning a Network Design. For more information on how to configure this feature,
see the configuration section for the type of Expand line-handler process you want to configure.
Multipacket Frame Feature 387
Constructing Multipacket Frames
When the multipacket frame feature is selected, the Expand line-handler process combines
multiple Expand packets into a single frame, called a multipacket frame, before sending the
packets to the Layer 2 protocol. How the multipacket frame is handled by the Layer 2 protocol
depends on these type of Layer 2 protocol used:
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is HDLC or HDLC Extended Mode, each multipacket frame is handled
as a single HDLC-type frame.
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is replaced by a NAM interface, such as X25AM, each multipacket
frame is handled as a single NAM message.
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is NETIP (the protocol used by Expand-over-IP line-handler processes),
each multipacket frame is handled as a separate UDP frame.
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is NETATM (the protocol used by Expand-over-ATM line-handler
processes), each multipacket frame is handled as a separate ATM frame.
When the multipacket frame feature is not selected, Expand packets are sent to Layer 2 separately.
How Expand packets are handled by the Layer 2 protocol depends on these type of Layer 2
protocol used:
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is HDLC or HDLC Extended Mode, each packet is handled as a
separate HDLC-type frame.
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is a NAM interface, each Expand packet is handled as a separate
NAM message.
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is NETIP, each Expand packet is handled as a separate UDP frame.
•
If the Layer 2 protocol is NETATM, each Expand packet is handled as a separate ATM
frame.
Figure 48 shows how Expand packets are sent over a direct-connect (HDLC) connection when
the multipacket frame feature is not selected.
In Figure 48, a message is passed to a direct-connect Expand line-handler process that requires
six Expand packets. The Expand line-handler process sends each packet in a separate HDLC-type
frame.
388 Subsystem Description
Figure 48 Multipacket Frame Feature Not Selected
Figure 49 (page 390) shows how the same message is handled when the multipacket frame
feature is selected.
In Figure 49 (page 390), a message is passed to the direct-connect line-handler process with the
multipacket frame feature selected. The direct-connect line-handler process still fragments the
message into six Expand packets but now constructs one large multipacket frame to hold all six
packets. If the entire multipacket frame fits inside one HDLC-type frame, it is sent across the line
in one frame.
When constructing a multipacket frame, an Expand line-handler process continues to add packets
to the multipacket frame until the frame can no longer accommodate another full packet or until
the current number of packets in the multipacket frame is equal to 32.
Multipacket Frame Feature 389
Figure 49 Multipacket Frame Feature Selected
Path Initialization
Before an Expand line-handler process at one end of a path will begin assembling multipacket
frames, the path must be initialized and the Expand line-handler processes at both ends of the
path must exchange maximum multipacket frame size information. Individual packets are sent
across the path until the path is initialized and the maximum multipacket frame size is determined.
Multipacket frames are created from all available packets at the time the multipacket frame is
created—a timer is not used. As a result, no extra delays are incurred waiting for additional
packets.
Multipacket Frame Configuration
The FRAMESIZE modifier determines the maximum Expand packet size, in bytes, according to
this formula:
packet_size = ( FRAMESIZE - 4 ) * 2
For example, the default value for the FRAMESIZE modifier is 132, establishing a maximum
packet size of 128 words (or 256 bytes). The FRAMESIZE modifier must be the same value for
every Expand line-handler process in the network.
390 Subsystem Description
NOTE: The multipacket frame feature does not change the requirement that all Expand
line-handler processes in the network must be configured with the same value for the FRAMESIZE
modifier.
You select the multipacket frame feature and determine the maximum size of a multipacket frame
by specifying the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier. A value of 0 disables the multipacket frame
feature. The default is 0. The PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier is explained in detail in Expand
Modifiers.
Multipacket Frame Considerations
Consider these when configuring the multipacket frame feature:
•
In a multi-line path configuration, a line and its associated multipacket frame remain selected
for outbound traffic until the multipacket frame is full or the maximum packet count (32) has
been reached. After a multipacket frame is full, it is transmitted, and another line and its
associated multipacket frame can be selected. Partially filled multipacket frames are
transmitted if the Expand line-handler process is momentarily inactive.
•
Because the multipacket frame feature is configured on a path-by-path basis, all lines in a
multi-line path will transport multipacket frames, or none will.
•
The value specified for the L2TIMEOUT modifier should be based on the transmission time
required for the configured PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier value rather than the configured
FRAMESIZE modifier value.
NOTE: For more configuration considerations, see “Considerations for Paths Using the Variable
Packet Size Feature and the Multipacket Frame Feature” (page 393).
Variable Packet Size Feature
The variable packet size feature is a performance enhancement designed to improve bulk transfers
over all connection types. The variable packet size feature effectively overrides the packet size
calculated from the FRAMESIZE modifier value by allowing you to configure a maximum packet
size, which is used for both single-packet and multipacket frames, on a per-path basis.
This subsection briefly describes how the variable packet size feature works so that you can
effectively configure and use this feature in your network. It includes these topics:
•
“Variable Packet Size Configuration” (page 391)
•
“Variable Packet Size Considerations” (page 392)
•
“Mixing Extended and Nonextended Packets” (page 392)
•
“Considerations for Paths Using the Variable Packet Size Feature and the Multipacket Frame
Feature” (page 393)
Variable Packet Size Configuration
You select the variable packet size feature and configure the maximum packet size for each path
in the network by specifying the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier. A value of 0 disables the variable
packet size feature. The default is 1024 (bytes), which is also the minimum size. Hewlett Packard
Enterprise recommends that you select a network-side value for PATHPACKETBYTES and
configure all servers to this value.
The PATHPACKETBYTES modifier is explained in detail in Expand Modifiers.
Variable Packet Size Feature 391
Variable Packet Size Considerations
Consider these when configuring the variable packet size feature:
•
The variable packet size feature does not change the requirement that all Expand line-handler
processes in the network must be configured with the same value for the FRAMESIZE
modifier. The FRAMESIZE modifier value is used to provide compatibility with D-series
nodes running pre-D30 software and nonextended packets that cannot be fragmented. Large
packets that are destined for pre-D30 systems are fragmented at the last D30 node in the
packet’s route. This ensures compatibility with nodes that require packets to fit within the
size determined by the FRAMESIZE modifier.
•
The variable packet size feature cannot be used if the FRAMESIZE modifier value is 517 or
more words.
•
The variable packet size feature does not provide any benefit on paths configured with the
L4EXTPACKETS_OFF modifier, which specifies that the extended 64-byte packet header
format not be used. Nonextended frames are not fragmentable and therefore must use the
network-wide FRAMESIZE modifier value.
•
If a large packet encounters a path with a smaller packet size, the Expand line-handler
process automatically breaks the large packet into maximum size packets for that path.
Packet fragmentation occurs as a variable size passthrough packet is forwarded, but the
next hop path has a smaller value for the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier than does the
receiving path. Packet fragmentation is performed in the outgoing Expand line-handler
process because Expand paths have no knowledge of other paths’ configurations.
•
The value specified for the L2TIMEOUT modifier should be based on the transmission time
required for the configured PATHPACKETBYTES modifier value rather than on the configured
FRAMESIZE modifier value.
Mixing Extended and Nonextended Packets
In Figure 50, packets sent from node \A to node \B can use variable-sized packets. Packets sent
from node \B to node \C and from node \A to node \C cannot use variable-sized packets because
the L4EXTPACKETS_OFF modifier causes both directions of data flow to use nonextended
packets. Therefore, if all data is from node \A to node \C, there is no benefit to enabling the
variable packet size feature, because nonextended packets revert to FRAMESIZE modifier-sized
packets.
392 Subsystem Description
Figure 50 Mixing Extended and Nonextended Packets
Considerations for Paths Using the Variable Packet Size Feature and the Multipacket
Frame Feature
The main difference between the variable packet size feature and the multipacket frame feature
is that the multipacket frame feature benefits users who send many small concurrent requests,
while the variable packet size feature benefits users who send large blocks of data (bulk transfers).
Packet size and multipacket frame size can be configured and negotiated separately on each
path.
With variable packet size, the Expand line-handler process should be able to send a full variable
packet inside a multipacket frame. For this reason, the value of the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier
must be equal to or greater than the value of the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier.
Congestion Control Feature
Congestion in a network occurs when performance on a connection degrades because of the
saturation of a resource that is needed to deliver data from the source to the destination.
Congestion control mechanisms regulate system resources to avoid network bottleneck and
resource contention situations.
This subsection describes these topics:
•
“Congestion Control Configuration” (page 395)
•
“Congestion Control Considerations” (page 395)
Congestion control provides improved throughput over LANs and other types of networks that
are subject to varying delays. It also improves the response time for message transfers and
provides a more efficient error-recovery mechanism. For these reasons, Hewlett Packard
Enterprise recommends that the congestion control feature be enabled for all types of connections.
The congestion control feature can be enabled in one direction only for each connection. If the
congestion control feature is enabled on both ends of a connection, then it is executed for traffic
in both directions. Traffic in a given direction is subject to congestion control if the sender has
congestion control enabled and the receiver supports it. The receiver does not have to have the
congestion control feature enabled to support it.
Congestion Control Feature 393
NOTE: The congestion control feature is supported on NonStop K-series servers with D30
and later versions of the operating system installed, or with the D20 operating system and
T9057ABS installed.
In Figure 51, congestion control is enabled on nodes \A and \C. Congestion control is supported,
but not enabled, on node \B. Traffic from node \A to node \B and from node \C to node \B is
subject to congestion control. Traffic from node \B to either node \A or \C is not subject to
congestion control.
Figure 51 Congestion Control Not Enabled
Nodes that support congestion control are compatible with nodes that do not. However,
connections between such nodes will not use congestion control. In Figure 52, congestion control
is enabled on nodes \A and \C but is not enabled on node \B. Therefore, traffic from node \A or
node \C to node \B is not subject to congestion control.
394 Subsystem Description
Figure 52 Congestion Control Not Supported
The congestion control feature uses end-to-end mechanisms for congestion control and
error-recovery. It does not provide any mechanisms for indicating congestion along intermediate
nodes.
Congestion Control Configuration
You select the congestion control feature by specifying the L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier. This
modifier enables the congestion control mechanism for sending packets on a specific path. The
L4CONGCTRL_OFF modifier enables you to disable the congestion control feature. You can
also configure the congestion control transmit window using the L4CWNDCLAMP modifier. The
default is L4CONGCTRL_ON for Expand-over-IP line-handler processes and L4CONGCTRL_OFF
for all other Expand line-handler types.
Congestion Control Considerations
If congestion control is enabled on a node, the out-of-sequence (OOS) timer on the receiver end
of the connection should be set to 300 (3 seconds) which is the default value or greater. This
timer value is set with the OSTIMEOUT modifier. A value of 300 is appropriate for networks with
both congestion-controlled and non-congestion-controlled connections. For networks with
congestion control enabled for all connections, a greater value such as 1000 (10 seconds) should
be used for the OSTIMEOUT modifier value.
If the congestion control feature is not enabled, the Expand line-handler process uses a static
flow control window to limit the maximum number of outstanding unacknowledged requests.
There is no selective retransmission of a lost packet; all packets are retransmitted, starting from
the packet for which an acknowledgment was not received.
If congestion is experienced on the network and packets are lost or delayed, a large number of
packets can be retransmitted, increasing the network traffic and congestion. Because congestion
is already being experienced on the network, it is likely that the retransmission will also cause
lost packets, so the whole retransmission sequence continues, drastically decreasing throughput.
Congestion Control Feature 395
Large Messages Feature
The large messages feature allows you to send a maximum size of 2 MB of messages over an
expand path.
Supporting messages up to 2 MB requires an Expand line handler to take more memory and
increases the size of the Expand message header. Increasing the maximum message size to
support to 2 MB must be configured. Large messages can be sent between systems only if both
sides support the feature, enable the feature, and are running on NonStop systems that support
the feature. Intermediate (passthrough) systems need not be considered.
The Expand line handlers on the requester and server side reserve a buffer for each outstanding
message from the time the request is sent until the reply is received. Thus, the maximum number
of outstanding messages that a line handler can support is limited by the amount of available
memory. While enabling the Large Messages feature, make sure to configure the line handler
with enough memory to support the expected number and size of the outstanding messages.
The maximum allowed memory size is 1 GB, which can be set with the EXTMEMSIZE (32 MB
and under) or MAXMEM_MB attribute.
Large messages when sent are fragmented into packets whose size is controlled by FRAMESIZE,
PATHPACKETBYTES, and PATHBLOCKBYTES attributes. No changes are required at the Data
Link Layer (L2). Passthrough systems need not be upgraded or reconfigured.
All the line handlers in a multi-CPU path (superpath) must have the same Large Message
configuration, regardless of what the negotiated Large Message setting is. The negotiated
configuration of the first path to come up in the superpath determines the setting for the entire
superpath. If an individual path with a different setting comes up later, an EMS warning is issued.
The path is up, but it runs under the limit set for the superpath. If the superpath allows a larger
message size than an individual line handler, then data transfer across that path may hang or
return an error.
Although it is generally true that larger message lengths yield higher performance, there are
limitations. If a message must be divided into more fragments than can be sent without
acknowledgment, then further message length increases might not improve performance.
NOTE: This feature is not applicable for H-series. It is applicable for J06.20 and all subsequent
J-series RVUs.
Multi-CPU Feature
The Expand multi-CPU feature enables you to spread the communications load over multiple
processors by connecting multiple Expand line-handler process, each in a separate processor,
between two adjacent nodes. The Expand multi-CPU feature significantly increases the maximum
throughput of an Expand path, especially for Expand-over-IP connections, because an
Expand-over-IP line-handler process and its associated NonStop TCP/IP process must be
configured in the same processor pair. This subsection describes briefly how the Expand
multi-CPU feature works so that you can effectively configure and use this feature in your network.
It includes:
•
“Multi-CPU Paths” (page 397)
•
“Multi-CPU Configuration” (page 397)
•
“Multi-CPU Considerations” (page 397)
NOTE: For more information on the Expand-over-IP line-handler processes, see “Expand-to-IP
Interface” (page 379).
396 Subsystem Description
Multi-CPU Paths
The multi-CPU path is the fundamental component of the Expand multi-CPU feature. A multi-CPU
path can consist of up to 16 individual Expand paths, including multi-line paths. Each Expand
line-handler process (or multi-line path) that is a member of a multi-CPU path can be configured
in a different processor.
One Expand line-handler process at each source node and one Expand line-handler process at
each destination node are paired to guarantee message order; all messages between that source
and destination node are sent through this Expand line-handler pair.
NOTE: For more information on the formation about Expand line-handler pairs, see “Multi-CPU
Paths” (page 362).
Multi-CPU Configuration
You configure an Expand line-handler process (or a path logical device, in the case of a multi-line
path) as member of a multi-CPU path using the SUPERPATH_ON modifier. The
SUPERPATH_OFF modifier indicates that the path is not part of a the multi-CPU path. The
default is SUPERPATH_OFF.
NOTE: The SUPERPATH_ON and SUPERPATH_OFF modifiers are described in detail in
Expand Modifiers.
When a path comes up and any number of other paths to the same destination node are already
up, the action of $NCP is determined by the configuration of the new path. If it is configured with
the SUPERPATH_OFF modifier, then the new path becomes a redundant normal path to the
node. If it is configured with the SUPERPATH_ON modifier and one or more the existing paths
are in a multi-CPU path, then the new path joins the multi-CPU path. If there is no preexisting
multi-CPU path, then a multi-CPU path is created with the new path as its sole member.
When a path comes up, it negotiates its multi-CPU membership with the Expand line-handler
process on the other end of the connection. Both sides of the connection must be configured
with the SUPERPATH_ON modifier or neither the local nor the remote Expand line-handler
process is considered to be a member of the multi-CPU path.
Multi-CPU Considerations
Consider these when configuring the Expand multi-CPU feature:
•
You cannot configure more than 32 multi-CPU paths in a system.
•
Each multi-CPU path can consist of up to 16 paths.
•
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes cannot be part of a multi-CPU path.
•
Extended packets (L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier) must be configured for Expand
line-handler processes that are part of a multi-CPU path. Not specifying extended packets
will cause an error message.
•
Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you specify the congestion control feature
(L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier) when configuring Expand line-handler processes that are
part of a multi-CPU path.
For more information on configuring extended packets, see
“L4EXTPACKETS_OFF/L4EXTPACKETS_ON” (page 318). For more information on configuring
the congestion control feature, see “Congestion Control Feature” (page 393).
Multi-CPU Feature 397
Part V Management, Tuning, and Troubleshooting
Part V consists of these chapters, which provide management, tuning, and troubleshooting information:
Chapter 18
“Managing the Network” (page 401)
Chapter 19
“Tuning” (page 420)
Chapter 20
“Troubleshooting” (page 446)
Contents
18 Managing the Network...................................................................................401
Accessing Network Resources.........................................................................................................401
Using TACL to Manage Remote Files.........................................................................................401
Using Disk-File Names................................................................................................................401
Changing Your Default Values.....................................................................................................402
Gaining Access to Remote Nodes..............................................................................................403
Setting Up Network Security.............................................................................................................405
Remote File Security...................................................................................................................405
Establishing Global User IDs.......................................................................................................405
Establishing Remote Passwords.................................................................................................405
Remote Process Security............................................................................................................407
Remote TACL Processes............................................................................................................407
Global Remote Passwords..........................................................................................................407
Subnetwork Security....................................................................................................................408
Remote Super ID User................................................................................................................408
Additional Security Techniques...................................................................................................408
Monitoring Network Activity..............................................................................................................409
Displaying $NCP Information......................................................................................................409
Displaying Expand Line-Handler Process Information................................................................410
Starting and Stopping Tracing.....................................................................................................413
Reconfiguring the Network...............................................................................................................413
Adding and Deleting Expand Line-Handler Processes...............................................................413
Adding and Deleting $NCP..........................................................................................................414
Changing $NCP Modifiers...........................................................................................................414
Changing Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers.....................................................................414
Changing Profiles........................................................................................................................414
Adding Nodes to the Network......................................................................................................414
Removing Nodes From the Network...........................................................................................415
Changing System Names and Numbers.....................................................................................416
Controlling the Network....................................................................................................................418
Starting and Stopping Expand Line-Handler Processes and $NCP............................................418
Stopping and Starting Lines and Paths.......................................................................................418
Switching Primary and Backup Processes..................................................................................419
Rebalancing Multi-CPU Paths.....................................................................................................419
19 Tuning............................................................................................................420
The Role of Network Tuning.............................................................................................................420
Tuning Goals...............................................................................................................................420
Performance Factors........................................................................................................................420
How to Use the Performance Factors Table................................................................................420
Multipacket Frame Size...............................................................................................................421
Variable Packet Size....................................................................................................................423
Application Message Size...........................................................................................................424
Packet Format.............................................................................................................................426
Congestion Control......................................................................................................................426
Layer 2 Window Size...................................................................................................................427
Processor Type............................................................................................................................427
NAM Interface..............................................................................................................................428
Data Compression.......................................................................................................................428
Multi-Line Paths...........................................................................................................................429
Multi-CPU Paths..........................................................................................................................430
Network Topology........................................................................................................................434
Contents 399
Summary of Tuning Strategies....................................................................................................435
Measuring and Mapping an Expand Network...................................................................................436
What the Utilities Show................................................................................................................436
Using Measure............................................................................................................................437
Measuring Passthrough Traffic....................................................................................................440
Setting Measurement Intervals....................................................................................................440
Tuning Examples..............................................................................................................................441
Example 1: Changing Packet Size..............................................................................................441
Example 2: Reducing Passthrough Traffic..................................................................................443
20 Troubleshooting.............................................................................................446
Understanding Your Network............................................................................................................446
Collecting Network Information.........................................................................................................446
EMS.............................................................................................................................................446
SCF.............................................................................................................................................446
Measure.......................................................................................................................................447
ASAP...........................................................................................................................................447
Identifying Network Problems...........................................................................................................447
User Complaints..........................................................................................................................448
SCF Commands..........................................................................................................................448
Problem Check-List Summary.....................................................................................................454
Resolving Specific Network Problems..............................................................................................454
$NCP Problems...........................................................................................................................454
Expand Line-Handler Process Problems....................................................................................455
SWAN Concentrator Problems....................................................................................................456
WAN Subsystem Problems.........................................................................................................457
Expand-over-X.25 Problems.......................................................................................................459
Expand-over-IP Problems...........................................................................................................460
Expand-over-ATM Problems.......................................................................................................464
Multi-CPU Path Problems............................................................................................................467
Reporting Network Problems............................................................................................................468
Tracing.........................................................................................................................................469
Resolving Common Network Problems............................................................................................470
Slow Response Time...................................................................................................................470
Network Congestion....................................................................................................................471
Node Not Available......................................................................................................................472
Adding Low-Speed Lines to a Multi-Line Path............................................................................473
Duplicate Node............................................................................................................................474
400 Contents
18 Managing the Network
This section explains how to access network resources, set up network security, and monitor,
reconfigure, and control an Expand network.
•
“Accessing Network Resources” (page 401)
•
“Setting Up Network Security” (page 405)
•
“Monitoring Network Activity” (page 409)
•
“Reconfiguring the Network” (page 413)
•
“Controlling the Network” (page 418)
For more information on the commands described in this section, see:
•
For Expand Subsystem Control Facility (SCF) commands, see Subsystem Control Facility
(SCF) Commands.
•
For WAN subsystem SCF commands, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and
Management Manual.
•
For Kernel subsystem SCF commands, see the SCF Reference Manual for the Kernel
Subsystem.
•
For general SCF commands, see the SCF Reference Manual for H-Series RVUs.
•
For a comparison of the commands provided by the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem
and the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem, see Expand and WAN SCF Comparison.
Accessing Network Resources
This subsection describes how to use Hewlett Packard Enterprise commands and utilities to
access resources on remote nodes in an Expand network. Topics explained in this section include:
•
“Using TACL to Manage Remote Files” (page 401)
•
“Using Disk-File Names” (page 401)
•
“Changing Your Default Values” (page 402)
•
“Gaining Access to Remote Nodes” (page 403)
Using TACL to Manage Remote Files
One of the major features of the Expand subsystem is network transparency. Because access
to the network is transparent to the user, the Expand subsystem does not include its own network
commands. This subsection describes how to use TACL commands to manage remote files.
NOTE: Selected TACL commands are described in this subsection. For the syntax and reference
information about all TACL commands and programs, see the TACL Reference Manual.
Using Disk-File Names
A disk file has a unique file name consisting of four parts, with each part separated by a period.
An example of a disk file name is
\WEST.$DISK1.SUBVOL2.FILENAME
•
The node name (\WEST) is the name of the node (system) where the file resides. All nodes
must be named. A node name always begins with a backslash (\) and is limited to eight
Accessing Network Resources 401
characters including the backslash. You can omit the node name if the file resides on the
current default node.
•
The volume name ($DISK1) is the name of the disk volume where the file resides. The
volume name must begin with a dollar sign ($), followed by one to seven alphanumeric
characters. The character following the dollar sign must be a letter.
•
The subvolume name (SUBVOL2) is the name of a set of files in the same disk volume.
The subvolume name can contain from one to eight alphanumeric characters and must
begin with a letter.
•
The file identifier (FILENAME) is the name of an individual file. The file name can contain
from one to eight alphanumeric characters and must begin with a letter.
A fully qualified file name has four parts: node name, volume name, subvolume name, and file
identifier. A partially qualified file name omits one or more of the parts.
These are examples of partially qualified file names:
FERN.HERST
SUBVOL2.FILEA
HERST
FILENAME
This is an example of a fully qualified file name for a file that resides on the node named \MEL:
\MEL.$GERT.FERN.HERST
You must use a fully qualified file name when accessing a file on a remote node in your network.
Changing Your Default Values
Each user on the system has two sets of default values: current default values and saved
default values. Saved default values are in effect when you log on. Current default values define
your present location or frame of reference in the system and network. You can move around
on the system and network by changing the current system, volume, and subvolume defaults.
The current defaults serve another important function—when you specify a partial file name in
a command, the operating system uses your current default values to supply missing parts of a
file name. This process of adding parts to file names is known as file-name expansion.
NOTE: In some situations, the TACL program does not supply the subvolume name by default.
If a volume name is immediately followed by a file identifier, the TACL program does not recognize
it as a valid file name and does not supply the subvolume name. For example, VOL1.MYFILE is
not a valid name, but VOL1.SUBVOL.MYFILE and SUBVOL.MYFILE are valid file names.
VOLUME Command
You can use the VOLUME command to change your current default node, volume, or subvolume.
This example changes the default subvolume from $GERT.STEIN (on your home node) to the
subvolume RHALL on \LONE.$WELL:
VOLUME \LONE.$WELL.RHALL
After you enter this command, your current defaults become node \LONE, volume $WELL, and
subvolume RHALL. For example, the TACL program will expand the partial file name SECT12
to \LONE.$WELL.RHBALL.SECT12.
To change your current subvolume from \LONE.$SAG.RHALL to \LONE.$SAG.VITA, enter this:
VOLUME VITA
If you enter the VOLUME command with no options, all your current defaults (node, volume, and
subvolume) are reset to your saved defaults.
402 Managing the Network
SYSTEM Command
Use the SYSTEM command to change your current default node name. After you use the SYSTEM
command, you can omit the node name from the name of a file on a remote node.
This example sets the current default node name to \LONE:
SYSTEM \LONE
After you enter the SYSTEM \LONE command, file names you specify are assumed to reside
on node \LONE. Entering SYSTEM without specifying a node name resets the current default
node to your saved default node.
NOTE: Changing the current default node does not log you onto the other node. To log onto
a node other than the one where your current TACL process is running, you must first start a
remote TACL process on that node. Logging on to a remote node is described in “Starting and
Quitting a Remote TACL Process” (page 403).
WHO Command
You can check your saved defaults using the WHO command, which shows you when the current
node, volume, or subvolume is different from your saved default.
In this example, the local node is \MEL and the current node is a remote node named \STU.
15> WHO
Home terminal: $Stein
TACL process: \MEL.$Z103
Primary CPU: 4 (Cyclone)
Backup CPU: 5 (TXP)
Default Segment File: $GERT.#6539
Pages allocated: 8 Pages Maximum: 1024
Bytes Used: 13364 (0%) Bytes Maximum: 1024
Current volume:
$GERT.STEIN Current system: \STU
Saved volume:
$WELL.RHALL
Userid: 6,66 Username: SUPPORT.STEIN Security: “NUNU”
Gaining Access to Remote Nodes
When Integrity NonStop NS-series servers form a network using the Expand subsystem, access
to a file can be restricted to users on the local node where the file resides, or access can be
allowed for users on any node in the network.
If a file is available only to local users, you must be logged onto the local node to access it. To
log onto a node other than the one where your current TACL process is running, you must first
start a remote TACL process on that node.
NOTE: Safeguard can secure a file so that only specific individuals can access that file. For
more information on the Safeguard, see the Safeguard Administrator’s Manual.
Starting and Quitting a Remote TACL Process
NOTE: Before you can start a TACL process on any remote node, you must be established
as a user on that node and have the same user ID and user name on both the local and remote
nodes. You must also have remote passwords set up between your local node and the remote
node. Establishing global user IDs and remote passwords is described in “Setting Up Network
Security” (page 405).
To start a TACL process on a remote node, enter a command that specifies the node, followed
by a period and the TACL program file name. For example, if your local node is part of a network
that includes the \HERST node, you can start a TACL process on \HERST by entering this
command:
\HERST.TACL
Accessing Network Resources 403
The TACL program returns the initial TACL prompt, and you can now log onto the \HERST
system.
A remote TACL started this way does not have a backup process. If you want the remote TACL
process to run as a process pair, enter this command instead of the previous command:
\HERST.TACL / NAME, CPU 1 / 2
The NonStop operating system assigns a name to the process pair and starts the process in
processor 1 with a backup process in processor 2.
If you do not know the processor numbers for the remote system, start the primary process as:
\HERST.TACL / NAME /
Then, after you are logged on, determine the processor numbers for the remote system and
issue a BACKUPCPU command. For example:
BACKUPCPU 4
If you use the SYSTEM or VOLUME command to change your current default node, you can
start a remote TACL process without specifying the node name. For example, these commands
start a TACL process in the node \HERST:
SYSTEM \HERST
TACL
When you are ready to quit the remote TACL process, enter the EXIT command. For example:
5> EXIT
Are you sure you want to stop this TACL (\HERST.$Z100)?
Enter YES (or Y) to stop the remote process and return to the TACL process on your local node.
If you do not want to stop the process, enter any other character or simply press RETURN.
Stopping a remote TACL process returns you to your local TACL process.
Running a Program on a Remote Node
When you want to run a program on the network, the program file must reside on the node where
the program is to run. You can use the explicit and implicit RUN commands to run a program at
a remote node the same way you would use these commands to run a program on the local
node.
NOTE: These examples and explanations assume that the proper network access rights are
in effect.
For example, to run a program named MYPROG on the remote node \CITY using an explicit
RUN command, you would type this command:
RUN \CITY.MYPROG
To run the same program using an implicit RUN command, you would type this command:
\CITY.MYPROG
When you run a program on a remote node, the default volume and subvolume names remain
in effect. Unless you use the SYSTEM command to change the default node, the local node
remains the default. If, for example, the default node was the local node when the RUN
\CITY.MYPROG command was executed, MYPROG looks for any files it needs on the local node
unless a remote node is explicitly specified in the MYPROG program file.
You can omit the remote node name from the RUN command if you first issue a SYSTEM
command to change the default node to the remote node. In this example, the RUN command
runs the editor in system \XYZ. The file YOURFILE is also assumed to reside on system \XYZ.
SYSTEM \XYZ
TEDIT YOURFILE
This command sequence runs \CITY.$DEFLT.DEFLT.MYPROG in processor 3 of the system
named \CITY. The IN file is a disk file located on system \XYZ; the OUT file is a process named
$SPL running on system \SYS45.
404 Managing the Network
SYSTEM \CITY
RUN MYPROG /IN \XYZ.$CAT.SUB.FNAME, OUT \SYS45.$SPL, CPU 3/
Setting Up Network Security
One of the first tasks you must perform after completing the network configuration is to set up
access to remote resources for network users. To access a process, device, or file on a remote
system, a user must have the appropriate access. Topics explained in this section include:
•
Remote File Security
•
Remote Process Security
•
Remote TACL Processes
•
Global Remote Passwords
•
Subnetwork Security
•
Remote Super ID User
•
Additional Security Techniques
Remote File Security
A user on node \WEST who wants to access a file (including a disk file, device, or process) on
a node \EAST must satisfy these requirements:
•
The user must also be established as a user on node \EAST.
•
The user must have matching remote passwords established on both nodes.
•
To access a disk file, the user on node \WEST must have authority to access the file on
node \EAST as a remote accessor.
Each of these requirements is described in these subsections.
Establishing Global User IDs
Each user is known to the local node by a user name and a user ID (for example, ADMIN.BILL
and 6,14). A user can access files on a remote node only if the user’s user name and user ID
are also known to the remote node.
For example, if ADMIN.BILL, who is on node \WEST, wants to access a file on remote node
\EAST, the remote node must also have a user identified as ADMIN.BILL with a user ID of 6,14.
A super group user (user ID 255,255) or a group manager at node \EAST must add ADMIN.BILL
with the TACL ADDUSER command.
You can also use the Safeguard command interpreter, SAFECOM, to define user authentication
records. For more information on SAFECOM, see the Safeguard Administrator’s Manual.
You can verify user names and IDs with the USERS command. As shown in this example, the
USERS command returns the default group and user of the user’s logon, the group user ID, the
current security, and the default volume and subvolume:
1> USERS
GROUP . USER
ADMIN .BILL
I.D. #
6,14
SECURITY
NONO
DEFAULT VOLUMEID
$PUBS.BILL
Establishing Remote Passwords
After user IDs for network users are added to relevant nodes on the network, remote passwords
must be established for each remote node. Remote passwords are specified with the TACL
REMOTEPASSWORD command or the RPASSWRD program.
For example, ADMIN.BILL (user ID 6,14) was added at nodes \WEST and \EAST. At node \WEST,
these commands are entered to establish an allow-access remote password to node \WEST:
Setting Up Network Security 405
logon admin.bill
remotepassword \west, shazam
The allow-access password for ADMIN.BILL for \WEST from all other nodes is SHAZAM.
At node \EAST, these commands are entered:
logon admin.bill
remotepassword \west, shazam
The user at node \EAST entered the matching password and now has remote access to node
\WEST as ADMIN.BILL.
ADMIN.BILL, logged on at node \EAST, does not have the same status at \WEST as does the
ADMIN.BILL at \WEST. Because ADMIN.BILL at \EAST is a remote accessor of \WEST, he
cannot access disk files on \WEST that are secured for local access only.
Also, if ADMIN.BILL on \EAST creates a process on \WEST that tries to access the home terminal
on \EAST, the attempt will fail because remote passwords to allow access from \WEST to \EAST
have not been established.
For ADMIN.BILL to gain access to \EAST from \WEST, an allow-access password must be
defined for ADMIN.BILL at \EAST, matched by a request-access password at \WEST. For
example, this is entered first at \EAST and then at \WEST:
logon admin.bill
remotepassWOrd \east, aardvark
Now users logged on as ADMIN.BILL at either node \WEST or \EAST have access to both nodes.
Remote Password Considerations
These considerations apply to remote passwords:
•
When matching remote passwords are established at both nodes, a user does not need to
specify the remote password to gain access to the remote node. Furthermore, the super IDs
at the various nodes in a network can set up the appropriate allow-access and request-access
passwords for all users so that the users themselves need not be concerned with
REMOTEPASSWORD commands. When the appropriate passwords are established for a
user, the user can access files remotely without being aware of the network passwords.
•
The absence of an allow-access password prevents remote access by anyone acting as
that user. Thus, if MARKETING.SUE does not supply an allow-access password, no remote
user with the same user ID can access MARKETING.SUE’s home system as
MARKETING.SUE.
•
A remote password, after defined, remains in effect until modified by a subsequent
REMOTEPASSWORD command. This command removes the remote password for the
system \EAST:
remotepassword \east
This command removes all the user’s remote passwords:
remotepassword
•
Request-access passwords and allow-access passwords can be specified at any time.
Remote access is permitted as soon as both remote passwords are defined (provided they
match).
•
Remote passwords are independent of local passwords. In the preceding example,
ADMIN.BILL could prevent unauthorized persons from logging on as ADMIN.BILL by entering
this command with password LOCBILL at either system:
password locbill
406 Managing the Network
Remote Process Security
These security considerations apply to remote processes:
•
With respect to a specific node, each process in the network is either local or remote. A
process is remote to a node if it has these characteristics:
◦
The process is running on a remote node.
◦
The process’ creator is on a remote node.
◦
The process’ creator is node.
Therefore, a process that is running on a node can be remote with respect to that node.
These restrictions prevent a remote process from creating another process to access a file
whose security specifies local access only.
•
A remote process cannot suspend nor activate a local process. A remote process cannot
stop a local process, unless the stop mode of the local process is 0 (which allows anyone
to stop it).
•
A remote process cannot put a local process in a debug state.
Remote TACL Processes
Openers of a file are either local or remote with respect to the file. A local user is logged onto
the node on which the file resides. A remote user is logged on to a different node in the same
network.
A remote accessor of a node can become a local accessor by running a TACL process in the
remote node and logging on. For example, if remote passwords are established so that user
ADMIN.BILL at \WEST can access node \EAST, ADMIN.BILL can issue this commands:
1> \east.tacl
TACL 1> logon admin.bill
Password:
ADMIN.BILL is now logged on as the local ADMIN.BILL on node \EAST. Therefore, ADMIN.BILL
can access disk files on \EAST owned by ADMIN.BILL even if they are secured “OOOO” (local
owner only) along with other files that are only accessible locally.
A remote user can be prevented from becoming a local user if the local super ID specifies “A”
(any local user) as the execute security for the TACL program file. This prevents anyone on a
remote node from starting a TACL process on the local node.
Also, a user who has the same user name as a user in another node cannot log on to that node
without knowing the local password for that user name. For example, ADMIN.BILL on node
\WEST cannot log onto node \EAST if ADMIN.BILL at \EAST has a local password that is unknown
to ADMIN.BILL at \WEST.
Global Remote Passwords
In some networks, it is not desirable for all users to have access to all nodes. However, it is
desirable to allow network access for certain users without forcing them to enter or even know
all the required REMOTEPASSWORD commands. In this case, a global remote password can
be established for these users.
At each node, a user named NET.ACCESS is established and these commands are issued:
LOGON NET.ACCESS
PASSWORD local-password
REMOTEPASSWORD \WEST, global-password
REMOTEPASSWORD \EAST, global-password
REMOTEPASSWORD \NYNY, global-password
.
Setting Up Network Security 407
.
.
REMOTEPASSWORD \system-n, global-password
The REMOTEPASSWORD command is used for each node on the network. The global remote
password is the same for all nodes and is known only to the system managers. The local password
is different for each node and is given only to users who are allowed to access all nodes on the
network.
Only users who know the local password can log on as NET.ACCESS. While logged on as
NET.ACCESS, these users can access remote files. For example, this command allows users
to access remote files secured for access by NET.ACCESS:
LOGON NET.ACCESS, local-password
Subnetwork Security
In a large network, it is sometimes desirable to allow users to access some nodes but not others.
For example, users on system \SANFRAN are allowed to access nodes \LA, \SEATTLE, and
\CUPRTNO but not the \NEWYORK and \CHICAGO nodes.
In this case, the preceding examples can be extended to allow access to any number of
subnetworks (that is, any collection of individual nodes). A user such as NET.WEST is established
at each node of the subnetwork, and a password scheme like the one used in the previous
example allows certain users to log on as NET.WEST.
Subnetworks implemented in this manner can overlap or include one another. \CHICAGO might
be accessible from \NEWYORK by logging on as NET.EAST, and from \PHOENIX by logging
on as NET.MIDWEST. Similarly, each system in the network might have a user called
NET.GLOBAL, who is allowed to access every other node.
Remote Super ID User
On a single system, a super ID user can access any file. On a network, the capabilities of the
super ID can be local, global, or somewhere in between local and global as:
•
To make the super ID exclusively a local super ID user, do not issue REMOTEPASSWORD
commands for the super ID at any node.
•
To make the super ID a global super ID, issue REMOTEPASSWORD commands (as
described in “Global Remote Passwords” (page 407)) at every node, and give every super
ID the same password.
In this case, if a disk file is secured A, G, O, or -, a remote super ID user can still gain access
to the file by running the TACL program on that system and logging on as the local super
ID.
•
To make the super ID capabilities somewhere between a local and global super ID user,
issue REMOTEPASSWORD commands (as defined in “Global Passwords”) at every node,
but give each super ID a distinct password.
Thus, any disk file can be protected from remote access by giving it A, G, O, or - security. (The
remote super ID can then access files security N, C, or U.) A remote super ID cannot log on as
a local super ID user because the password for the local super ID is unknown.
Additional Security Techniques
The Safeguard security system extends the security offered by the NonStop operating system.
Safeguard does not need to be installed on every system on the network and can be controlled
by a single system. Safeguard adds these features:
•
User aliases
•
File-sharing groups
408 Managing the Network
•
Multiple group membership for users and user aliases
•
Further user authentication such as expiration dates, temporary suspension, and forced
password-change intervals
•
Authorization access to all objects including files, devices, named processes, and disks
using access control lists
•
Auditing of file access, logon/logoff, and changes to security or security controls
•
Controlled file and process creation
Safeguard is described in the Safeguard Administrator’s Manual.
Monitoring Network Activity
Network monitoring includes gathering statistical information, checking the status of hardware
and software components, and displaying configuration values. This subsection is organized
according to these network monitoring tasks:
•
Displaying $NCP Information
•
Displaying Expand Line-Handler Process Information
•
Starting and Stopping Tracing
Displaying $NCP Information
The SCF interfaces to the Expand and WAN subsystems provide commands that can be used
to display statistics and status information for $NCP.
Table 43 lists the Expand subsystem SCF commands that display $NCP information.
Table 43 Expand SCF Commands for $NCP Information
SCF Command
Information Reported
INFO PROCESS $NCP, CONNECTS
Displays only the known systems that are connected or connecting
and only the entry for which the connection is established. If the
path is a superpath, it displays all the paths in the superpath. This
is basically a summary of the NETMAP command showing only
the connected entries.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, DETAIL
Displays the current modifier settings for $NCP.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, LINESET
Displays the status of a selected path and the status of the started
lines that make up that path using Super Time Factors.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, NETMAP
Displays the status of network as seen from a specific system.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, OLDLINESET
Displays the status of a selected path and the status of the started
lines that make up that path using the previous time-factor values.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, OLDNETMAP
Displays the status of the network as seen from a specific system.
It is displayed in the format used before the introduction of Super
Time Factors.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, PATHSETS
Displays the NCP pathmap information similar to the LINESET
command, but displays it in a different format. This format displays
both the line-handler LDEV and name in addition to the other
information already in the LINESET command. It also includes all
the information displayed in the LINESET command, which are:
entry number (this is the LINESET column), neighbor name and
node number, linehandler LDEV, Timefactor, CPU, PIN, Status,
and FileErr Number. The new information added to this display is
the path/line name.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, RPT
Displays the information kept in the reverse pairing table (RPT)
for each multi-CPU path on the selected system.
Monitoring Network Activity 409
Table 43 Expand SCF Commands for $NCP Information (continued)
SCF Command
Information Reported
INFO PROCESS $NCP, SUPERPATH
Displays the paths comprising each multi-CPU path on the system.
The effective time factor (ETF) and base time factor (TF) is
displayed for each path.
INFO PROCESS $NCP, SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS is similar to the CONNECTS command, but displays
all known systems. It displays only the entries where a connection
is established. If no connection is established, it displays an infinite
time factor and hop count.
LISTDEV $NCP
Displays the logical device (LDEV) name and number, primary
and backup processor and process ID, device type and subtype,
configured RSIZE value, priority level of the device, and fully
qualified program file name for $NCP.
or
LISTDEV TYPE 62
PROBE PROCESS $NCP
Displays the current paths from one or more, or all, of the remote
systems in the network to a selected system in the network.
STATS PROCESS $NCP, LOCALFLOW
Displays aggregate packet statistics occurring at a selected
system.
STATS PROCESS $NCP, NETFLOW
Displays packet statistics that represent the communications
occurring between two selected systems in the network.
TRACE PROCESS $NCP
Displays target-defined data items, alter trace parameters, and
end tracing.
VERSION PROCESS $NCP
Displays the version level of $NCP.
Table 44 lists the WAN subsystem SCF commands that display $NCP information.
Table 44 WAN SCF Commands for $NCP Information
SCF Command
Information Reported
INFO DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP
Displays the primary and backup processors, type, record size,
object file, and profile used by $NCP. The DETAIL option can be
used to display device-specific modifiers and modifier values.
INFO PROFILE $ZZWAN.#ncp_profile
Displays a list of the modifiers and modifier values contained in
the profile used by $NCP. The profile for $NCP is PEXPNCP.
STATUS DEVICE $ZZWAN.#NCP
Displays the dynamic state, logical device (LDEV) number, and
primary process identification number (PIN) of $NCP.
Displaying Expand Line-Handler Process Information
The SCF interfaces to the Expand and WAN subsystems provide commands that display
information and status information for a selected Expand line-handler process.
Table 45 lists the Expand subsystem SCF commands that display general Expand line-handler
process information.
Table 45 Expand SCF Commands for Expand Line-Handler Processes
SCF Command
Information Reported
LISTDEV EXPAND
LISTDEV TYPE 63
Displays all the configured Expand line-handler processes on a
system. Information displayed includes the logical device name
and number, primary and backup processor and process
identification number (PIN), device type and subtype, configured
RSIZE value, priority level of the device, and the fully qualified
program file name of the process.
VERSION PROCESS $device_name
Displays the version level of the Expand line-handler process.
or
410 Managing the Network
When you use the SCF LISTDEV command to list all the configured Expand line-handler
processes, you can use the subtype displayed to identify the type of Expand line-handler process.
Table 46 lists the subtype values associated with single-line Expand line-handler processes.
Table 46 Subtype Values for Single-Line Line-Handler Processes
Line Type
Subtype
Direct-connect
5
Satellite-connect
5
Expand-over-NAM
0
Expand-over-IP
0
Expand-over-ATM
0
Expand-over-ServerNet
4
Table 47 lists the subtype values associated with multi-line paths (path and line logical devices).
Table 47 Subtype Values for Multi-Line Paths (Path and Line Logical Devices)
Line Type
Subtype
Path logical device
1
Direct-connect line logical device
6
Satellite-connect line logical device
6
Expand-over-NAM line logical device
2
Expand-over-IP line logical device
2
Expand-over-ATM line logical device
2
Table 48 lists the WAN subsystem SCF commands that display Expand line-handler process
information.
Table 48 WAN SCF Commands for Expand Line-Handler Process Information
SCF Command
Information Reported
INFO DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
Displays the primary and backup processors, type, record
size, object file, and profile used by a selected Expand
line-handler process. The DETAIL option can be used to
display device-specific modifiers and modifier values.
INFO PROFILE $ZZWAN.#profile_name
Displays a list of the modifier values contained in a
selected Expand profile and the device names of the
Expand line-handler processes currently using that profile.
STATUS DEVICE $ZZWAN.#device_name
Displays the dynamic state, logical device (LDEV) number,
and primary and backup process identification numbers
(PINs) for a selected Expand line-handler process.
Displaying Line Information
The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem provides commands that display line (Layer 2)
statistics, status information, and modifier values for a selected Expand line-handler process.
Monitoring Network Activity
411
NOTE: The Expand subsystem SCF STATS LINE command examines Layer 2 processes and
can provide you with some basic information about line status. However, several Expand
line-handler processes use the services of another process to provide Layer 2 functions:
•
For Expand-over-NAM line-handler process Layer 2 information, you should also examine
the appropriate X25AM, SNAX/APN, or ServerNet process.
•
For Expand-over-IP line-handler process Layer 2 information, you should also examine the
appropriate NonStop TCP/IP process.
•
For Expand-over-ATM line-handler process Layer 2 information, you should also examine
the appropriate Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) line.
Table 49 lists the Expand subsystem SCF commands that can be used to display line information.
Table 49 Expand SCF Commands for Line Information
SCF Command
Information Reported
INFO LINE $device_name
Displays the current Layer 2 attribute values associated with a
selected Expand line-handler process. Information displayed
includes FRAMESIZE, L2TIMEOUT, and other attribute values.
The DETAIL option can be used to display additional information.
STATS LINE $device_name
Displays Layer 2 statistics for a selected Expand line-handler
process. Information displayed includes number of Layer 2 frames,
information frames, supervisory frames, and unnumbered frames
sent and received by the selected Expand line-handler process.
STATUS LINE $device_name
Displays status information for a selected Expand line-handler
process. Information displayed includes the summary state of the
line, primary process ID (PID), and backup process ID (PID). For
satellite-connect and direct-connect line-handler processes, the
ServerNet wide area network (SWAN) concentrator path being
used by the line and the logical device (LDEV) number associated
with the concentrator manager (ConMgr) process are also
displayed. The DETAIL option can be used to display additional
information.
Displaying Path Information
Table 50 lists the Expand subsystem SCF commands that display path (Layer 3 and Layer 4)
statistics, status information, and modifier values for a selected Expand line-handler process.
Table 50 Expand SCF Commands for Path Information
SCF Command
Information Displayed
INFO PATH $device_name
Displays the current and default Layer 4 attribute values for a
selected Expand line-handler process. Information displayed
includes COMPRESS, NEXTSYS, L4RETRIES, and L4TIMEOUT
attribute values. The DETAIL option can be used to display
additional information.
STATS PATH $device_name
Displays Layer 3 and 4 statistics for a selected Expand line-handler
process. Information displayed includes statistics on extended
memory, QIO, OOS, messages, packets, queue depths, and
congestion control.
STATUS PATH $device_name
Displays status information for a selected Expand line-handler
process. Information displayed includes the summary state of the
path, the primary and backup process IDs (PIDs), and the number
of lines associated with the path. The DETAIL option can be used
to display additional information, such as the logical device (LDEV)
number for lines.
412 Managing the Network
Starting and Stopping Tracing
The Expand subsystem SCF TRACE command allows you to select the records that you want
written to a disk file. You can then use PTrace commands to select records to be formatted and
sent to an output device.
Table 51 lists the Expand subsystem SCF commands that can be used to start and stop tracing.
Table 51 Expand SCF Commands for Tracing
SCF Command
Action Performed
TRACE PROCESS $NCP, TO $file_name, SELECT ALL, Starts a trace of $NCP. The $file_name parameter
WRAP, RECSIZE 1024
specifies the name of the file to which the trace records
will be written.
TRACE PROCESS $NCP, STOP
Stops the $NCP trace.
TRACE LINE $device_name, TO $file_name, SELECT
ALL,WRAP, RECSIZE 512
Starts a trace of the specified line. The $file_name
parameter specifies the name of the file to which the trace
records will be written.
TRACE LINE $device_name, STOP
Stops the trace of the specified line.
TRACE PATH $device_name, TO $file_name, SELECT
ALL, WRAP, RECSIZE 512
Starts a trace of a path or a single-line Expand process.
The $device_name parameter specifies the name of the
path logical device or single-line Expand line-handler
process. The $file_name parameter specifies the name
of the file to which the trace records will be written.
TRACE PATH $device_name, STOP
Stops the trace of a path or a single-line Expand
line-handler process.
For more information on the tracing process and using PTrace to format and display trace records,
see Tracing.
Reconfiguring the Network
Network reconfiguration tasks include:
•
Adding and Deleting Expand Line-Handler Processes
•
Adding and Deleting $NCP
•
Changing $NCP Modifiers
•
Changing Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers
•
Changing Profiles
•
Adding Nodes to the Network
•
Removing Nodes From the Network
•
Changing System Names and Numbers
NOTE: Configuration changes made with the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem are
permanent (they remain in effect after system loads and processor reloads); changes made with
the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem are temporary (they do not remain in effect after
system loads and processor reloads).
Adding and Deleting Expand Line-Handler Processes
The SCF interface to the WAN subsystem provides commands to add and delete Expand
line-handler processes from your system configuration. You use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD
DEVICE command to add and the SCF DELETE DEVICE command to delete an Expand
line-handler process.
Reconfiguring the Network 413
Adding and Deleting $NCP
The SCF interface to the WAN subsystem provides commands to add and delete $NCP from
your system configuration. You use the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE command to add
and the SCF DELETE DEVICE command to delete $NCP.
Changing $NCP Modifiers
You can use the WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command to change any $NCP modifier
value in the device record for $NCP.
You can use the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER PROCESS command to change this $NCP
modifier values:
ABORTTIMER
CONNECTTIME
MAXCONNECTS
MAXTIMEOUTS
NETWORKDIAMETER
The Expand subsystem SCF ALTER PROCESS command can also be used to enable or disable
the reporting of event messages 43, 46, 48, and 49; this cannot be done using the WAN subsystem
SCF ALTER DEVICE command.
Changing Expand Line-Handler Process Modifiers
You can use the WAN subsystem SCF ALTER DEVICE command to change any modifier or
modifier value in the device record for a specific Expand line-handler process.
You can use the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER LINE and ALTER PATH commands to change
certain Expand line-handler process modifiers and modifier values. Modifiers that can be changed
using the Expand SCF commands are listed in Expand Modifiers.
NOTE: Certain Expand profile modifiers do not have corresponding attribute names in Expand
SCF and therefore can be changed only by using the SCF interface to the WAN subsystem. In
addition, certain Expand SCF attributes do not correspond to Expand profile modifiers and
therefore can be changed only by using the SCF interface to the Expand subsystem. These
modifiers and attributes are listed in Expand Modifiers.
Changing Profiles
You cannot alter a profile directly (there is no ALTER PROFILE command). However, you can
alter a modifier in a profile indirectly by deleting and reading the profile or by using the ADD
PROFILE command with the LIKE option.
For more information on profiles, see the WAN Subsystem Configuration and Management
Manual.
NOTE: When you use the ALTER DEVICE command to change a modifier or modifier value
for a specific device, you are changing the device record for that device, not the profile used by
that device. Modifiers and modifier values that are part of a device record can be different from
the modifiers and modifiers values in the profile used by a device.
Adding Nodes to the Network
This subsection explains how to add a new node (system) to the network using the management
commands described in the preceding subsections. This explanation is presented in three steps.
414 Managing the Network
Step 1: Create and start Expand line-handler processes at adjacent nodes
Using the WAN subsystem SCF ADD DEVICE and START DEVICE commands, you must create
and then start an Expand line-handler process at the new node for each link to an adjacent (or
neighbor) node. You must also create and start an Expand line-handler process at each adjacent
system for the link to the new system.
Creating and starting Expand line-handler processes is explained in detail in Configuring the
Expand Subsystem.
NOTE: Before you can start an Expand line-handler process, other processes might need to
be present and running in your system. For more information, see Configuring the Expand
Subsystem.
Step 2: Start the lines
After the Expand line-handler processes are created and started, you must start the
communications lines using one of these Expand subsystem SCF commands:
START LINE $device_name
START PATH $device_name
NOTE: Use the Expand subsystem SCF START PATH command for multi-line paths. The
SCF START LINE command affects the specified line and its associated path logical device; it
does not affect other lines in a multi-line path.
Step 3: Verify that the lines have started
You can verify that the lines have started by using one of the Expand subsystem SCF commands
described in Table 52.
Table 52 Expand SCF Status Commands
Command
Status Reported If the Line Is
Operational
Status Reported If the Line Is Not
Operational
STATUS LINE $device_name
STARTED
STOPPED
STATUS PATH $device_name
STARTED
STOPPED
INFO PROCESS $NCP, LINESET
READY
NOT READY (nnn )*
*A file-system error is reported in parentheses (nnn). For more information, see the Operator Messages Manual.
After the Expand lines have been started, the Expand software at the new node automatically
queries the existing nodes in the network for information about accessible systems. The Expand
subsystem then automatically selects the best path to each accessible node and establishes
end-to-end connections. The existing nodes update their routing tables automatically.
Removing Nodes From the Network
This subsection explains how to remove a node from the network using the management
commands described in the preceding subsections. This explanation is presented in two steps.
Step 1: Stop the lines
You must stop the Expand lines at the local node and the corresponding Expand lines at adjacent
(or neighbor) nodes using one of these Expand subsystem SCF commands:
ABORT LINE $device_name
ABORT PATH $device_name
NOTE: Use the Expand subsystem SCF ABORT PATH command for multi-line paths. The
SCF ABORT LINE command affects the specified line and its associated path logical device; it
does not affect other lines in the multi-line path.
Reconfiguring the Network 415
Step 2: Verify that the lines have stopped
You can verify that the lines have stopped by using the one of the Expand subsystem SCF
commands described in Table 52 (page 415).
NOTE: If you are permanently removing a node from the network, it is suggested that you also
remove its node (system) name and number from the network routing table (NRT) at each
remaining node in the network. This prevents name and number conflicts with future nodes. For
a description of the commands to use to remove node names and numbers from the NRT, see
Changing System Names and Numbers.
Changing System Names and Numbers
This subsection explains how to change a system name and number using the management
commands described in the preceding subsections. This explanation is presented in eight steps.
Generally, changing a system name or number is only necessary if more than one system in the
network has the same name or number, resulting in a conflict.
CAUTION: If you must change a system name or number, use extreme caution. Changing a
system name or number can adversely affect products and applications that are currently using
the system name or number.
After you change a node number, you might lose access to alternate-key files, such as OSS
configuration files. For more information, see the appropriate manuals describing the alternate-key
files. For example, the Open System Services Management and Operations Guide has a
subsection on changing a node number.
Step 1: Save the current configuration file
As a precaution, use the SCF SAVE command to save the current configuration files on the
duplicate nodes. For example, this command saves the configuration file at
$SYSTEM.ZSYSCONF.CONF0101:
-> SAVE CONFIG 1.1
The SCF SAVE command is described in detail in the SCF Reference Manual for G-Series RVUs.
Step 2: Isolate the duplicate nodes
You must isolate all nodes with the duplicate names or numbers from the network by stopping
all connections between these nodes and those adjacent to them using one of these Expand
subsystem SCF commands:
ABORT LINE $device_name
ABORT PATH $device_name
NOTE: Use the ABORT PATH command for multi-line paths. This command affects the specified
line and its associated path logical device; it does not affect other lines in the multi-line path.
Step 3: View the current system name and number
View the settings for the system name and number (shown below in bold type) using the Kernel
subsystem SCF INFO SUBSYS command. This is an example of a display produced by the SCF
INFO SUBSYS command.
3-> info subsys $zzkrn
NONSTOP KERNEL - Info SUBSYS
\TAHITI.$ZZKRN
Current Settings
*DAYLIGHT_SAVING_TIME................ USA66
*NONRESIDENT_TEMPLATES................ $SYSTEM.SYSTEM.TEMPLATE
*POWERFAIL_DELAY_TIME................. 30
416 Managing the Network
*RESIDENT_TEMPLATES................... $SYSTEM.SYSTEM.RTMPLATE
SUPER_SUPER_IS_UNDENIABLE............ OFF
*SYSTEM_NAME...........................\TAHITI
*SYSTEM_NUMBER.........................82
SYSTEM_PROCESSOR_TYPE............... NSR-W
*TIME_ZONE_OFFSET..................... -08:00
Pending Changes (will take effect at next manual reload or hard reset of the system).
None
The SCF INFO SUBSYS command is described in detail in the SCF Reference Manual for the
Kernel Subsystem.
Step 4: Change the system name and/or system number
You must change the system name and/or system number of one of the duplicate nodes. To
change the system name or number, use the Kernel subsystem SCF ALTER command. For
example:
ALTER, SYSTEM_NAME \EAST
ALTER, SYSTEM_NUMBER 44
If you are changing both the system name and system number, you can more efficiently use
system resources (because these attributes are stored in the server hardware) by grouping them
into one command rather than by entering each separately; for example:
ALTER, SYSTEM_NAME \EAST, SYSTEM_NUMBER 44
CAUTION: Be sure that you enter the ALTER command correctly. SCF has no knowledge of
a system name or number that has not been brought up (in an Expand network) because the
most recent load of the local system.
CAUTION: If the system name and number are to be changed, they should be done at the
same time with a single system load.
The ALTER command is described in detail in the SCF Reference Manual for the Kernel
Subsystem.
Step 5: Confirm the changes
Confirm the changes with another INFO command (changes are shown below in boldface type).
The INFO command displays both the current and the changed values, which take effect at the
next system load.
NONSTOP KERNEL - Info SUBSYS
\TAHITI.$ZZKRN
Current Settings
*DAYLIGHT_SAVING_TIME ................
*NONRESIDENT_TEMPLATES................
*POWERFAIL_DELAY_TIME.................
*RESIDENT_TEMPLATES...................
SUPER_SUPER_IS_UNDENIABLE............
*SYSTEM_NAME..........................
*SYSTEM_NUMBER........................
SYSTEM_PROCESSOR_TYPE ...............
*TIME_ZONE_OFFSET.....................
USA66
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.TEMPLATE
30
$SYSTEM.SYSTEM.RTMPLATE
OFF
\TAHITI
82
NSR-W
-08:00
Pending Changes (will take effect at next manual reload or hard reset
of the system).
SYSTEM_NUMBER........................ 44
SYSTEM_NAME.......................... \EAST
Reconfiguring the Network 417
Step 6: Perform a system load
Because the attributes that change the system name and number are stored in a SEEPROM in
the Integrity NonStop NS-series server backplane, changes to them will not take effect until you
perform a system load.
NOTE: You must perform the system load using the Start System button or the Start System
command (under the Operations menu) in OSM. For more information, see the online help within
OSM.
Step 7: Delete the system name and/or system number from all NRTs
After the system name or system number have been changed and the system loaded, this Expand
subsystem SCF command should be performed:
DELETE ENTRY $NCP.*
The above command should be performed at every other node in the network to avoid conflicts
in the network routing tables (NRTs) such as duplicate system names or numbers.
8: Reconnect the nodes to the network
After all nodes in the network have been reset with the SCF DELETE ENTRY $NCP command,
you can safely reconnect the nodes to the network.
NOTE: The deleted system name and/or system number might appear in the SCF INFO
PROCESS $NCP, LINESET display until the node is reconnected.
Controlling the Network
Network control tasks include:
•
Starting and Stopping Expand Line-Handler Processes and $NCP
•
Stopping and Starting Lines and Paths
•
Switching Primary and Backup Processes
•
Rebalancing Multi-CPU Paths
Starting and Stopping Expand Line-Handler Processes and $NCP
The SCF interface to the WAN subsystem provides commands to control Expand line-handler
processes and $NCP. You use the WAN subsystem SCF START DEVICE command to start
and the SCF STOP DEVICE command to stop Expand line-handler processes and $NCP.
Stopping and Starting Lines and Paths
The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem provides commands to control lines and paths.
Table 53 describes each of these commands and the actions they perform.
Table 53 Expand SCF Control Commands
SCF Command
Action Performed
ABORT LINE $device_name
Terminates the operation of a line as quickly as possible. Only
enough processing is done to ensure the security of the
subsystem. The selected line is placed in the STOPPED state.
ABORT PATH $device_name
Terminates the operation of a path as quickly as possible.
Activity on all lines associated with the path is terminated. Only
enough processing is done to ensure the security of the
subsystem. The selected path and all associated lines are
placed in the STOPPED state.
418 Managing the Network
Table 53 Expand SCF Control Commands (continued)
SCF Command
Action Performed
START LINE $device_name
Initiates the operation of a line. Successful completion places
the line in the STARTED state. The command affects the
specified line and its associated path logical device; it does not
start all lines in a multi-line path.
START PATH $device_name
Initiates the operation of a path. Successful completion places
the path, and all lines associated with the path, in the STARTED
state.
STOP LINE $device_name
Terminates the activity of a line. The command deletes all
connections to and from the line in a nondisruptive manner. The
selected line is placed in the STOPPED state. The command
cannot be used if the line is in the STARTED state.
STOP PATH $device_name
Terminates the activity of a path and all lines associated with
the path. The command deletes all connections to and from the
path and all associated lines in a nondisruptive manner. The
selected path and associated lines are placed in the STOPPED
state. The command cannot be used if the path is in the
STARTED state.
Switching Primary and Backup Processes
The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem provides commands to change the primary and
backup processes, Table 54 describes these commands.
Table 54 Expand SCF Commands for Switching Processors
SCF Command
Action Performed
PRIMARY PROCESS $device_name
Causes the backup process to become the primary process, or
the primary process to become the backup process, for a
selected Expand line-handler process.
PRIMARY PROCESS $NCP
Causes the backup process to become the primary process, or
the primary process to the backup process, for $NCP.
Rebalancing Multi-CPU Paths
The SCF interface to the Expand subsystem provides commands to rebalance multi-CPU paths.
You can schedule load balancing to occur automatically at periodic intervals using the SCF
ALTER PROCESS $NCP command, or you can manually initiate load balancing using the SCF
ACTIVATE PROCESS $NCP command.
Exactly when you should rebalance a multi-CPU path depends on the volatility of the traffic
pattern. For example:
•
If the traffic pattern is nearly constant, then load balancing can be initiated after a change
in the status of the multi-CPU path.
•
If the pattern changes somewhat during the day, but slowly from day to day, then load
balancing should be done after a day during off-peak hours.
•
If the pattern changes radically, load balancing should be done an hour or so into each new
traffic pattern to establish new path assignments.
For more information on load balancing, see “Load Balancing” (page 431).
Controlling the Network 419
19 Tuning
This section provides guidelines for improving network performance and describes the tools
available for measuring performance.
•
“The Role of Network Tuning” (page 420)
•
“Performance Factors” (page 420)
•
“Measuring and Mapping an Expand Network” (page 436)
•
“Tuning Examples” (page 441)
To obtain the greatest benefit from this section, you should be familiar with the material presented
in Expand Overview and Planning a Network Design.
NOTE: Adjusting the Expand frame size (FRAMESIZE modifier) in an existing network is not
considered in this section because all nodes in the network must be adjusted simultaneously;
this is impractical for most existing networks. With the multipacket frame and variable packet-size
features, the Expand subsystem will send frames larger than the configured frame size. Therefore,
this section discusses network tuning considerations in terms of Expand packet sizes instead of
frame size.
The Role of Network Tuning
Tuning is the tactical adjustment of a network’s dynamic resources to achieve some well-defined
performance goals. Tuning is influenced by—and can influence the activities of—network planning,
configuration, management, and troubleshooting.
Tuning Goals
These tuning goals are common to the operation of most networks:
•
Optimizing resource use or minimizing cost
•
Maximizing the throughput of a certain resource
•
Minimizing network delay or improving network response time
In this section, resource use refers to processor utilization (the percentage of time the processor
is busy during a given time period); throughput refers to the amount of traffic that can be handled
by an Expand line-handler process; network delay refers to the time required to process a
network request; and network response time refers to user response time (the time between
keyboard lock and keyboard unlock).
Although it is not possible to address all three tuning goals simultaneously, you can take certain
actions to improve network efficiency in one or more of these areas. After goals have been set,
tuning should become a routine operations exercise involving the balancing of network resources.
Ideally, a network should be designed so that it can be adjusted to accommodate growth of
existing applications, permit additional applications, and take advantage of new technology.
Tuning should not adversely affect fault-tolerant network-design goals.
Performance Factors
This subsection describes the factors that can be adjusted to improve Expand line-handler process
performance and processor utilization. Performance factors, and their relative effect on the tuning
goals described earlier in this section, are shown in Table 55.
How to Use the Performance Factors Table
To use Table 55, vertically scan the Tuning Goals columns. A value of 1 indicates the greatest
effect or impact and is thus the first factor you should examine when attempting to achieve a
420 Tuning
specific tuning goal; a value of 6 indicates the least impact. For example, if you are attempting
to optimize resource use, you will look at multipacket frame size, variable-packet size, and
application message size first and Layer 2 window size last.
If more than one performance factor is given the same priority (for example, multipacket frame
size, variable-packet size, and application message size are all valued at 1), this is an indication
that the factors are interrelated and should be examined simultaneously.
Table 55 Performance Factors
Tuning Goals
Performance Factors
Resource Use/Cost
Throughput
Network Delay
Multipacket Frame Size
1
2
3
Variable Packet Size
1
1
3
Application Message Size
1
1
1
Packet Format
5
4
3
Congestion Control
5
1
1
Layer 2 Window Size
6
4
5
Processor Type
(See Note 1)
(See Note 1)
(See Note 1)
NAM Interface
2
2
1
Data Compression
4
3
4
Multi-Line Paths
3
3
3
Multi-CPU Paths
3
3
4
Network Topology
(See Note 2)
(See Note 2)
(See Note 2)
Note 1. Faster processors provide faster response time and higher throughput, given sufficient bandwidth. Though
this factor has a very large impact on the noted goal, it is the most costly or difficult factor to change.
Note 2. Network topology, particularly the location of passthrough nodes, can affect resource use, throughput, and
response time.
The performance goals listed in Table 55 are described in detail in the remainder of this subsection.
Multipacket Frame Size
The multipacket frame feature is designed to reduce processor use at nodes where the workload
is high and the configured frame size must remain unchanged. This feature enables multiple
packets to be placed in a single frame (instead of a single packet in a single frame). The
multipacket frame feature is supported for all line types.
The multipacket frame feature does not change the requirement that all Expand line-handler
processes in the network must be configured with the same frame size (FRAMESIZE modifier).
Instead, the multipacket frame feature enables you to increase the size of frames exchanged on
selected paths while still maintaining a single frame size throughout the network.
Throughput and Frame Size
NOTE: This information is not relevant for Expand-over-IP lines. Hewlett Packard Enterprise
recommends that you configure the variable packet size feature (PATHPACKETBYTES modifier)
and extended packet format (L4EXTENDED_ON modifier) for Expand-over-IP lines. These
modifiers effectively override the packet size calculated from the FRAMESIZE modifier.
The improved throughput achieved by the use of the multipacket frame feature declines when
the frame size (FRAMESIZE modifier) is configured to a value that is greater than the default of
Performance Factors 421
132 words. The multipacket frame feature cannot be used if the frame size is greater than 516
words. When the frame size is greater than 516 words, the use of multipacket frames actually
lowers throughput below that achieved when the multipacket frame feature is not selected.
Figure 53 shows throughput gains and losses resulting from the use of multipacket frames.
Figure 53 Throughput With and Without Multipacket Frames
Processor Use and Message Size
Multipacket frames can improve the processor efficiency of all line types. Direct-connect and
satellite-connect lines benefit when the average message size is less than 500 words; using
multipacket frames for these configurations decreases the number of interrupts, reducing the
number of times the direct-connect or satellite-connect line-handler process is dispatched and
causing a reduction in processor use.
There is no improvement in throughput or response time when using multipacket frames over
fixed bandwidth facilities.
Latency and Multi-Line Paths
On multi-line paths, applications that send messages just below the size of the configured
multipacket frame size might experience higher latency because all data is sent across only one
line. For more information on the multi-line paths, see “Multi-Line Paths” (page 429).
422 Tuning
Multipacket Frame Configuration
The multipacket frame size is determined by the value assigned to the PATHBLOCKBYTES
modifier.
When the variable packet-size feature (PATHPACKETBYTES modifier) is used, the Expand
subsystem should be able to send a full variable-size packet inside a multipacket frame. For this
reason, the PATHBLOCKBYTES modifier must be set to a value greater than or equal to the
PATHPACKETBYTES modifier value. For an explanation of the variable packet-size feature,
see Variable Packet Size.
When the multipacket frame feature is used, the value specified for the L2TIMEOUT modifier
should be based on the transmission time required for the configured PATHBLOCKBYTES
modifier value rather than on the configured FRAMESIZE modifier value. You can calculate the
value of the L2TIMEOUT modifier using this formula:
(((txw + 1) * pathblockbytes * 8 ) / (lspd / 100) + (2 * dl) + 10
where txw is the TXWINDOW modifier value, pathblockbytes is the PATHBLOCKBYTES
modifier value, lspd is the line speed in bits per second (actual, not configured), and dl is the
DELAY modifier value. The result of this formula is a one-hundredth of a second value.
NOTE: If you use the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER LINE command to set the L2TIMEOUT
modifier, you must convert the result of this formula to a time interval. For example, if the result
is 300 (3 seconds), you will enter this command:
ALTER LINE $device_name, L2TIMEOUT 3.00
For more information on configuring the multipacket frame feature, see “Multipacket Frame
Feature” (page 387).
Variable Packet Size
The variable packet-size feature is designed to improve bulk transfers across Expand connections.
This feature enables you to configure a maximum packet size for each path for both single-packet
and multipacket frames. This feature effectively overrides the value configured for the FRAMESIZE
modifier between configured nodes. The variable packet-size feature is supported for all line
types.
The variable packet-size feature provides these benefits:
•
Reduces per-message processor cost for large message sizes
•
Reduces network bandwidth used for Expand overhead for large messages
•
Increases potential throughput in high-bandwidth Expand paths
The variable packet-size feature is especially suited for transferring large messages, such as in
tape backup and restores, and file transfers. Although small online transaction processing (OLTP)
requests transfer fastest with smaller frame sizes, larger bulk transfers are much more expensive
to form into small packets and route in multihop networks.
Extended Packet Format
The extended packet format (L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier) provides a means to fragment
packets in transit across the network. The extended packet format must be enabled for the
variable packet-size feature to function.
Although the extended packet format adds considerably more overhead than the nonextended
packet format—the extended packet header size is 64 bytes and the nonextended packet header
size is 16 bytes—the larger packet size more than compensates for the increased overhead.
The variable packet-size feature is designed to increase the data-per-packet percentage so that
Performance Factors 423
only about 10 percent of available bandwidth is used for non-user data. For more information on
the extended and nonextended packet formats, see “Packet Format” (page 426).
Latency and Multi-Line Paths
On multi-line paths, applications that send messages just below the size of the configured variable
packet size might experience higher latency because all data is sent across only one line. For
more information on the multi-line paths, see “Multi-Line Paths” (page 429).
Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM Connections
Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that the variable packet size feature be enabled for
Expand-over-IP and Expand-over-ATM connections. For best performance, the variable packet
size should be set to 4095 bytes for Expand-over-IP and 8192 for Expand-over-ATM connections.
Variable Packet-Size Configuration
The variable packet size is determined by the value assigned to the PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier. Because the Expand subsystem sends larger frames than those configured by the F
RAMESIZE modifier when the variable packet-size feature is enabled, the value specified for the
L2TIMEOUT modifier should be compatible with the largest possible packet rather than the frame
size. You can calculate the value of the L2TIMEOUT modifier using this formula:
(((txw + 1) * pathpacketbytes * 8) / (lspd / 100)) + (2 * dl) + 10
where txw is the TXWINDOW modifier value, pathpacketbytes is the PATHPACKETBYTES
modifier value, lspd is the line speed in bits per second (actual, not configured), and dl is the
DELAY modifier value. The result of this formula is a one-hundredth of a second value.
NOTE: If you use the Expand subsystem SCF ALTER LINE command to set the L2TIMEOUT
modifier, you must convert the result of this formula to a time interval. For example, if the result
is 300 (3 seconds), you will enter this command:
ALTER LINE $device_name, L2TIMEOUT 3.00
For more information on configuring the variable packet-size feature, see “Variable Packet Size
Feature” (page 391).
Application Message Size
Application message size is the number of data bytes sent to an Expand line-handler process
by a higher-level process. The application message size has a major effect on Expand line-handler
process processor overhead and Expand subsystem overhead, which can affect throughput. By
increasing the application message size, you can greatly increase potential throughput and
decrease processor use.
If 2 MB messages are enabled, it is possible to reach a size where further increases do not
improve performance. This occurs when messages are divided into so many packets that waiting
on TXWINDOW or L4 window availability becomes dominant.
Application Message Size and Data Flow
Figure 54 shows the flow of data from an application on one node to an application on another
node through an Expand-over-IP line-handler process. Application A, in its request to QIO, defines
the application message size.
424 Tuning
Figure 54 Application Data Flow for Expand-over-IP
As shown in Figure 54 (page 425), QIO recognizes that the data is to be sent to an application
that is not on the local node, and it routes the request to the appropriate Expand line-handler
process.
If the Expand packet size is large enough to hold all the message from the application, the Expand
line-handler process puts the message into a single packet. If the Expand packet size is smaller
than the message that the application wants to send, the Expand line-handler process must send
more packets across the message system to the NonStop TCP/IP process.
Expand Subsystem Overhead
It is important to consider Expand subsystem overhead when using facilities with limited bandwidth.
Application message size and Expand packet size have significant effects on subsystem overhead.
The number of Expand packets required for an application message is calculated using this
formula:
1 + $INT((app_msg + fsm) / (packet_size - pkt))
app_msg
is the user message size in bytes.
fsm
represents the file system and Expand message header information (in bytes)
sent at the start of each message.
packet_size
Performance Factors 425
is the maximum number of bytes per packet. If the variable packet size feature is
used, packet_size is the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier value; otherwise,
packet_size is equal to (frame_size - 4 )* 2 where frame_size is the
FRAMESIZE modifier value. The default is 256.
pkt
represents the Expand Layer 2 and packet header information (in words) sent at
the start of every Expand frame.
The values of fsm and pkt vary according to the oldest version of the Expand subsystem at the
originating and destination nodes.
Packet Format
The Expand subsystem enforces a minimum value of 1024 bytes for the variable-packet size
(set with the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier). The default value for PATHPACKETBYTES (1024
bytes) yields the same data-per-packet percentage as nonextended packets with a frame size
of 132 words.
Table 56 compares the data-per-packet percentages for nonextended packet
(L4EXTPACKETS_OFF modifier) and extended packet (L4EXTPACKETS_ON modifier) header
formats. An Expand network using a frame size of 132 words is assumed.
Table 56 Data-Per-Packet Percentages
Packet Header
Format
PATHPACKETBYTES Modifier Packet Size
Value (Bytes)
(Bytes)
Packet
Header
(Bytes)
Data Portion
(Bytes)
Percentage
(Bytes)
Nonextended
Any
256
16
240
93.75
Extended
0
256
64
192
75.00
Extended
1024
1024
64
960
93.75
Extended
4095
4095
64
4031
98.44
NOTE: The variable packet-size feature cannot be used with the L4EXTPACKETS_OFF
modifier.
Although the data-per-packet percentage is highest when the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier is
set to 4095 bytes, there are other effects of using a 4095-byte packet size that you must consider.
One of these considerations is the effect of the packet size on a multi-line path. For more
information on the packet size and multi-line paths, see “Multi-Line Paths” (page 429).
Congestion Control
The Expand subsystem’s congestion control feature improves throughput in networks that are
subject to varying delays. The congestion control feature allows a connection to reach an
equilibrium point slowly and then pick up speed as additional bandwidth is found. An additional
mechanism allows quick error-recovery without wasting bandwidth and is more efficient than the
out-of-sequence timer recovery provided by Expand line-handler processes that do not use the
congestion control feature.
In networks with low delay variance and few or no errors, the congestion control feature provides
up to 8 percent improvement in response time with no significant difference in processor utilization.
In networks with high delay variance, the benefits of congestion control are more significant, as
recovery from lost packets because of congestion is handled much more efficiently. In networks
with high error or packet-loss rates, congestion control provides a more efficient error-recovery
mechanism; however, congestion control cannot solve problems caused by noisy lines or poorly
configured bridges and routers.
426 Tuning
Expand-over-IP Connections
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) services provided
by a NonStop TCP/IP process to transmit data across an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Because
data transfer with UDP is not guaranteed, the Expand End-to-End protocol is used to achieve
reliable communications for Expand-over-IP connections. You can avoid congestion and improve
error-recovery by enabling the congestion control feature on Expand-over-IP connections.
Congestion Control Configuration
You can enable the congestion control feature for outgoing transmissions on a per-connection
basis using the L4CONGCTRL_ON modifier. Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you
enable the congestion control feature for all connections in your Expand network.
If your network contains some Expand line-handler processes that support the congestion control
feature and some that do not, Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that you enable the
feature for all connections that are capable of congestion control and set the out-of-sequence
(OOS) timeout value (OSTIMEOUT modifier) to the default value of 300 (3 seconds) for all Expand
line-handler processes.
If all nodes in the network are running D30 or later versions of the Expand subsystem, then
Hewlett Packard Enterprise recommends that the congestion control feature be enabled for all
Expand line-handler processes and that the OOS timeout value be set to 1000 (10 seconds).
For more information on configuring the congestion control feature, see “Congestion Control
Feature” (page 393).
Layer 2 Window Size
At the OSI Data Link Layer (Layer 2), the mechanisms for flow control and windowing are provided
by the particular Layer 2 protocol used (for example, HDLC or, if a network access method (NAM)
is used, SNAX/APN, X25AM, or ServerNet).
Small Layer 2 windows (as specified with the TXWINDOW modifier) tend to use communications
lines inefficiently. Large Layer 2 windows can be used effectively when propagation delay is long
or line quality is very high.
NOTE: A small Layer 2 window size can be used to cope with poor quality lines when line
efficiency is not important.
For Expand-over-IP connections, the TXWINDOW modifier specifies the number of packets the
Expand-over-IP line-handler process can send to the NonStop TCP/IP process (with which it is
associated) before waiting for a reply from the NonStop TCP/IP process; it does not control the
transfer of data across the link.
Processor Type
The processing power of the Integrity NonStop NS-series servers (through which a message is
transmitted) determines throughput if there are no bottlenecks in the other components of the
network. The relative processor power factors are a good starting point for estimating Expand
line-handler process performance limits.
Process location and load balancing within a system can also have a major impact on network
performance. The same type of analysis used for any other NonStop™ process can also be
applied to Expand line-handler processes.
NAM Process Configuration
Configuring an Expand-over-NAM line-handler process and a NAM process in the same processor
is more processor-efficient than configuring these processes in separate processors.
However, when an Expand line-handler process and the NAM process it uses are in the same
processor, total throughput is limited. Because you can configure an Expand line-handler process
Performance Factors 427
and its associated NAM process in separate processors, you can achieve a combined processor
usage of greater than 100 percent for this type of Expand connection.
NOTE: In general, the newer processor types are faster than the older processor types. Contact
your Hewlett Packard Enterprise representative for detailed performance information regarding
a specific type of Hewlett Packard Enterprise processor.
For more information on the Expand-over-NAM line-handler process configuration, see Configuring
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines and Configuring Multi-Line Paths.
Expand-over-IP Configuration
Expand-over-IP line-handler processes use a NonStop TCP/IP process to provide TCP/IP
connectivity. The NonStop TCP/IP process associated with the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process must be configured in the same processor pair as the Expand-over-IP line-handler
process.
With NonStop TCP/IPv6, the Expand line-handler process must be configured in a processor
where a TCP6MON process is running; this usually yields a free choice of processor. It is not
necessary nor beneficial in any way to co-locate the Expand line-handler process and the
TCP6SAM process.
For more information on the Expand-over-IP line-handler process configuration, see Configuring
Direct-Connect and Satellite-Connect Lines.
NAM Interface
When a NAM interface is used, Layer 2 functions are managed by the NAM process, thus reducing
the load on the Expand line-handler process. Although the Expand line-handler process has a
potentially greater upper throughput limit when it uses a NAM interface, overall system processor
requirements are not reduced because some of the workload is shifted to the NAM process.
There is also an additional cost per packet for the interprocess message between the Expand
line-handler process and the NAM process.
On a high-powered processor, such as an Integrity NonStop NS-series server, this extra available
processor power can allow an Expand line-handler process to drive multiple high-speed lines
and greatly extend throughput.
The relationship between the size of the Expand packet and the NAM network native packet size
has a major influence on the available Expand line-handler process bandwidth. Each Expand
packet passed to the NAM is handled as a message by the NAM.
If the NAM network native packet size is smaller than the Expand packet size, the NAM process
must fragment the Expand packet. If the Expand packet size is smaller than the NAM packet
size, the number of messages to the NAM will be higher than if the Expand packet size were the
same size as the NAM packet size.
Data Compression
Data compression indirectly affects Expand line-handler process performance. By shortening
the length of a message, compression can reduce the number of packets transmitted.
If compression is enabled and data is not compressible, however, data compression actually
causes messages to be slightly longer because the Expand subsystem inserts a compression
word every 255 words (510 bytes) of the message.
Data compression is most effective on slower lines (SWAN, SNAX, or X.25). You can increase
network efficiency on these lines by analyzing routine data to determine the degree of
compressibility and then setting the frame size to carry the largest data-compressed message.
This technique is an effective way to economize processor resources for point-to-point links with
heavy, large-block message traffic.
428 Tuning
On fast lines, such as ATM, ServerNet and most IP, the processor time taken to compress and
decompress data negates the advantages of reducing the amount of data sent over the line.
Data compression is configured using the COMPRESS_ON modifier.
Multi-Line Paths
The multi-line path feature enables you to configure eight parallel lines between the same two
nodes. The advantages of multi-line paths include increased fault-tolerance and additional
bandwidth.
The main disadvantage of multi-line paths is increased processor overhead, which occurs primarily
because extra processing must be done to select the best line for each frame transmitted and
to guarantee sequencing of packets received across multiple lines. However, the reduction in
queuing delays that results from using a multi-line path usually offsets the extra processor delay.
The interaction of some elements of the Expand network determine the degree of improvement
multiple lines might achieve. These are the elements that control the service rate of the Expand
line-handler processes (including the NAM process, if used), and the use of the lines in the path.
These elements include:
•
Processor type
•
Packets per message
•
Window size
•
Variable packet size
NOTE: Line message rate can also affect the degree of improvement achieved by multiple
lines. For example, if the line message rate is low, multiple lines will not significantly improve
performance. An application, rather than a line, might sometimes be the cause of a bottleneck.
Processor Type
The processor overhead for serving multiple lines is greater than the processor overhead for
serving one line per path for an equivalent volume of throughput. The degree of increased cost
depends on the processor type, the version of the Expand software used, and the speed
differences (if any) between the lines.
Packets Per Message
Although a large message fragmented into small packets might make more efficient use of the
communications bandwidth than a message in a single large packet, it takes more processor
time for the fragmentation and the reassembly.
A single high-speed line might be a better solution than multiple lines, especially from the
standpoint of processor efficiency, when a single important application dominates the performance
considerations. If the variable packet-size feature is used with multiple lines, the
PATHPACKETBYTES modifier value should be configured to use all lines in the multi-line path
equally.
For more information on the variable packet-size feature, see “Variable Packet-Size Configuration”
(page 424).
Window Size
If a line is added to a path using a different protocol or telecommunications network at Layer 1,
the path might have different delay characteristics from the original single line. It might be
necessary to change the Layer 2 window size (TXWINDOW modifier) to minimize any delays
introduced by switches or new protocols.
In some situations, the HDLC Extended protocol might be advantageous on terrestrial links.
Some terrestrial networks, especially those that include private switches and CBXs, can have
Performance Factors 429
variable delays that at times are as great as a 0.25-second satellite hop. If queuing for an Expand
line-handler process occurs in such a network, yet the process and communications use is low,
switching delay might be the cause and using the HDLC Extended protocol might be advisable.
Variable Packet Size
Variable packet size effectively increases the Expand packet size to 1024 bytes or greater.
Multi-line paths can distribute data across available lines more evenly when the packet size is
smallest. Applications that send messages just below the size of the configured variable packet
size over multi-line paths might notice an increase in latency because all data is sent across only
one line.
For example, a four-line path with a variable packet size (PATHPACKETBYTES modifier) of
4095 bytes will only use the first line for all requests of 4 KBs or less unless multiple requests
are received simultaneously. If the PATHPACKETBYTES modifier is configured at the default
(1024 bytes), requests larger than 4 KBs will use all four lines more evenly.
The general formula for configuring the variable packet size for multi-line paths using low to
medium bandwidth lines is:
PATHPACKETBYTES = average_message_size / number_of_lines
If the average message size is not known, you can use the Expand subsystem SCF command
PATH STATS to display a histogram of message sizes.
Multi-CPU Paths
The multi-CPU path is the fundamental component of the Expand multi-CPU feature. A multi-CPU
path can consist of up to 16 individual Expand paths, including multi-line paths.
Expand-over-ServerNet line-handler processes cannot participate as members of a Superpath.
The main advantages of the Expand multi-CPU feature include:
•
Higher total throughput
•
More even spreading of the communications load over multiple processors
•
Reduced message system interprocessor traffic
The main disadvantage of the Expand multi-CPU feature is that its advantages are available only
when traffic fits a certain pattern. For example, if most traffic occurs between the same two
nodes—or if these nodes are direct neighbors and traffic is sent between the same two processors
in one direction—then the Expand multi-CPU feature cannot spread the load effectively. Other
disadvantages include:
•
Increased processor overhead
•
The possibility of occasional disruptions during load balancing
The interaction of some elements of the system and of the Expand network determine the degree
of performance improvement that the Expand multi-CPU feature might achieve. These are the
elements that control how well the Expand multi-CPU feature can spread traffic over its constituent
paths.
These elements include:
•
Traffic Pattern
•
Load Balancing
Traffic Pattern
Unlike a multi-line path, which can spread traffic evenly over all of its lines regardless of the traffic
pattern, a single path within a multi-CPU path is assigned to traffic between each pair of endpoints.
430 Tuning
This path assignment is fixed until traffic is rebalanced over all the paths in the multi-CPU path.
For this reason, the more that traffic is spread across different endpoints, the better a multi-CPU
path can spread the load across its member paths.
NOTE: Endpoints are considered to be different if they are on different nodes or, if the remote
node is a neighbor node, on different local and remote processors and different directions.
For example, if nearly all traffic in an Expand network is sent between the same two processes
in one direction, then the multi-CPU path can only assign this traffic to one path and the other
paths will remain virtually idle.
In another scenario, the traffic pattern might not be optimal at first, but a change in configuration
could improve it; often this configuration change will benefit overall performance in addition to
multi-CPU path performance. For example, if nearly all traffic is between the same two
non-neighbor nodes but on different processors on each node, the multi-CPU path can only
assign the traffic to one path. However, if new paths are configured directly between these nodes,
making them neighbors, then the multi-CPU path can spread the traffic over multiple paths.
You should be aware of the traffic pattern in your network before configuring multi-CPU paths.
Load Balancing
When a multi-CPU path initially assigns paths to each pair of endpoints, the traffic pattern is
usually not yet known. Load balancing is used to correct this problem as more information is
gathered by moving Expand line-handler process pairs from more heavily loaded paths to more
lightly loaded paths within the multi-CPU path. A slight disruption occurs in message transfer
occurs when pairs are changed. This disruption is similar to what can occur when a better route
is found in the Expand network and connections are reestablished over the new best-path route.
You can schedule load balancing to occur automatically at periodic intervals or you can initiate
it manually. Exactly when you should rebalance a multi-CPU path depends on the volatility of
the traffic pattern. For example:
•
If the pattern is nearly constant, then load balancing can be initiated after a change in the
status of the multi-CPU path.
•
If the pattern changes somewhat during the day, but slowly from day to day, then load
balancing should be done after a day during off-peak hours.
•
If the pattern changes radically, load balancing should be done an hour or so into each new
traffic pattern to establish new path assignments.
A maximum of 16 moves can be put on the output change list. All the above stop when that count
is reached. Pairs on the change list are flagged with an anti-thrashing bit; selection of those pairs
for moving is avoided during the next one rebalance.
Because rebalancing is slightly disruptive, $NCP changes Expand line-handler process pairs
only at the these times:
•
When a new path comes up. (This is similar to what happens in normal paths when a new
path that has a lower TF is discovered.)
•
At configurable times during the day. You can use the SCF ALTER PROCESS,
AUTOREBALANCE command to specify when rebalancing should occur. Both the time of
day and the interval between rebalance attempts can be specified, allowing you to schedule
a rebalance when traffic is minimal.
•
Immediately. You can use the SCF ACTIVATE PROCESS command to cause an immediate
rebalance.
•
When a path goes down. (In this case, the rebalancing algorithm is not actually used; instead,
new connections are set up according to the current load.)
•
If a path is revived after being down for a defined amount of time.
Performance Factors 431
Superpath Load Distribution
The Superpaths feature does not distribute the load equally over all paths. A superpath distributes
the load based on three criteria:
•
CPU Matching
•
Load Factor Balancing
•
Pair Count Balancing
CPU Matching
This takes effect when the two systems are directly connected with a superpath; that is, they are
direct neighbors. The system matches up the local and remote CPUs of the two processes
sending and receiving the messages with a line handler on the same CPUs.
Figure 55 illustrates two systems that have a superpath connecting them, with a line handler on
CPU 1 and CPU 3:
Figure 55 CPU Matching
A process on \A in CPU 1 that is communicating with a process on \B in CPU 1 will use the line
handler configured on CPU 1. If another process on \A in CPU 1 is started that also communicates
with a process on \B in CPU 1, the same line handler would be used (the one on CPU 1). This
is because of the CPU matching rules.
If no line handler directly connects the two CPUs, a best match is done. A process on \A in CPU
0 that is communicating with a process on \B in CPU 3 will use the line handler configured on
CPU 3. That is the line handler that has the best match—the remote Rhinelander CPU matches
the destination process CPU.
Load Factor Balancing
If there are no matching CPUs, then the load would be distributed based on the load factor of
the paths in the superpath.
If a process on \A in CPU 0 is communicating with a process on \B in CPU 2, the line handler
chosen is based on the load factor of the two lines.
432 Tuning
After the CPU pair has been established the line handler is used for all communication between
the two CPUs. In an example of CPU 0 to CPU 2 and assuming that the line handler in CPU 3
is the one chosen, all traffic from CPU 0 to CPU 2 uses the line handler in CPU 3.
NOTE: The selection algorithm is such that the more loaded line can still be chosen. When a
new connection is being established, the selection algorithm not only looks at the load factor,
but also checks to see if this path has been chosen recently. A loaded path can still be chosen
as the one for a new connection. This way, a single line that looks unused at the time won't get
all the new connections assigned to it, but they will be distributed over the superpath.
Pair Count Balancing
If the loads are fairly close, the number of CPU pairs using the paths in a superpath is looked at
in determining the connection.
Figure 56 depicts the loading for systems that are direct neighbors and are connected with a
superpath, plus connections for non-neighbors:
Figure 56 Pair Count Balancing for Neighbors and Non-Neighbors
\A and \B are connected with a superpath, \C is connected to \B, and \D connects to \C.
In reference to \A, \B is a neighbor and \C and \D are non-neighbors. When \A makes a connection
to \C, the load is not distributed over different paths, but only one path is used for all traffic to \C.
The \B records which line handler is used for \A's connection to \C to make sure that the correct
path is used. This is done by setting an entry in the reverse pairing table so \B knows which line
handler to send the packets from \C to \A.
The reverse pairing table on \B can be displayed with the SCF command:
-> INFO PROCESS $NCP, RPT \A
This displays which line handlers \B and \A are using for the connections which \A has that go
through \B.
When \A makes a connection to \D, a different line handler might be selected as the one to carry
the traffic from \A to \D. This way, the load to different non-neighbors can be distributed among
the different paths in the superpath. However, the traffic to a single non-neighbor only uses one
of the paths in the superpath.
Performance Factors 433
Superpath Rebalancing
Superpath rebalancing is run periodically to correct path selection as traffic patterns change. It
has three goals:
•
CPU Matching: Make sure all source/destination pairs are using a path with the most CPU
matches available (same local/remote CPU).
•
Load Factor Balancing: Try to make the load factors (LF = ETF / TF) of all paths within 0.5
of each other.
•
Pair Count Balancing: Spread those pairs whose traffic have no adverse impact on load
factors (LFs) over all paths in inverse proportion to their effective time factors (ETFs).
The three goals are handled in three separate steps.
1. First, CPU matching is done for each source/destination pair by looking for line handlers
that have better CPU matches than their current owner. If more than one path has the best
match, choose the one that yields the lowest predicted load-factor spread. The pair is moved
without regard for anti-thrashing bits (see below) or possible increase in the load-factor
spread.
2. Next, the load factors are balanced. The load-factor spread is the highest load factor minus
the lowest load factor; this step tries to minimize the load factor spread until it is less than
0.5. To do this, calculate the sensitivity of each path's load factor to its total traffic, assuming
a linear relationship between average ETF and total traffic. This is used to predict the effect
on the load factors of moving traffic from one line handler to another.
Then consider moving each pair from each other line handler to the one with the lowest load
factor, and of moving each pair from the line handler with the highest load factor to each
other line handler and predict the resulting change in load factors.
Choose the single move that results in the lowest predicted load factor spread, put it on the
output change list, update the load factors according to the predicted changes, and check
the new load factor spread value. This is continued until the load factor spread is less than
0.5 or no moves can be found that improve the load factor spread.
3.
Lastly, the pair counts are balanced. Use the path selection algorithm described above with
current ETF information to determine the goal number of pairs for each line handler. To
prevent new line handlers with low ETFs and no current pairs from taking on more pairs
than they can actually handle, those line handlers with too few pairs have their goals reduced
by half their shortfall.
Then consider moving each pair from the line handler with the highest excess pairs to each
line handler with a dearth. Choose the move that results in the lowest predicted load-factor
spread with no increase from previous efforts. If more than one path has the same lowest
load-factor spread, choose the one with the largest pair-count shortfall. This is continued
until there are no excess pairs or all possible moves increase the load-factor spread.
Network Topology
Network topology is the pattern of interconnection of nodes in the network. Network topology,
particularly the location of passthrough nodes, can affect response time. Passthrough traffic is
shown in Figure 57.
434 Tuning
Figure 57 Passthrough Traffic
As shown in Figure 57, node \B handles passthrough traffic between node \A and node \C, so it
must have two Expand line-handler processes: one for node \A and one for node \C. As a result,
passthrough traffic uses at least twice as much processor time as does direct traffic.
NOTE: The advantages and disadvantages of different network topologies are discussed in
Planning a Network Design.
Passthrough data has a 4-to-1 priority over locally originated data. This ratio is tuned fairly well
for small passthrough packets. If all nodes in a route are configured for a large variable packet
size (PATHPACKETBYTES modifier) such as 4095 bytes, the intermediate nodes can send up
to 16 KBs of passthrough traffic between packets of a locally originated message.
Configuring a large variable packet size might have undesirable consequences at nodes in
Expand networks that support network applications and provide connectivity between other
network nodes. Using the default value for PATHPACKETBYTES (1024 bytes) allows a maximum
of 4 KBs of passthrough data between locally originated packets; however, each local request
can now be up to 1 KBs.
Summary of Tuning Strategies
Table 57 summarizes the strategies that you can use to achieve your tuning goals.
Table 57 Summary of Tuning Strategies
Goal
Strategies
To optimize resource use and minimiz