Antenna Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas Objectives In this

Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Dipole antenna.
Radiation pattern of a dipole antenna.
Input impedance of a dipole antenna.
Half-wavelength dipole antenna.
Monopole antenna.
Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Dipole Antenna
The Hertz dipole has a limitation that its radiation resistance is too small and consequently is not a very efficient radiator.
In practice dipole antennas of lengths comparable to the wavelength are used.
A dipole antenna of length 2H oriented in the z-direction with its center at the origin of the coordinate system is shown in Fig.
For these antennas since the length is comparable to the wavelength, the current distribution can not be uniform as we
assumed for the Hertz dipole.
However, as we mentioned, obtaining the current distribution is a difficult task and is beyond the scope of this course.
The rigorous analysis show that the current distribution on a linear dipole antenna is sinusoidal with zero current at the ends
of the antenna. The current distribution is given as
The radiation electric field due to the dipole can be obtained by dividing the dipole into small Hertz dipoles with appropriate
currents and superposing their radiation fields with proper phase.
Assuming that
Where we have defined
, the total field at a point is given as
The function
of the dipole.
gives the variation of the electric field as a function of
, and hence gives the E-plane radiation pattern
Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Radiation Pattern of a Dipole Antenna
The current distribution and the radiation pattern of dipoles of different lengths are shown in Fig.
Since the electric field is independent of
, the H-plane radiation pattern is a circle which is same as that of the Hertz
dipole.
The three dimensional radiation patterns for the dipole antennas of length
are shown in Figs.
In general a dipole antenna has multiple beams and multiple nulls. Generally, finding the directions of the nulls is easier
compared to finding the directions of the maximum radiation. We therefore obtain the directions of the nulls and place one
maximum approximately half way between two adjacent nulls.
The directions of the nulls can be obtained by equating
Where
to zero. The directions of the nulls are
Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Input Impedance of a Dipole Antenna
Since the current has to be zero at the tip of the antenna, the current at the input of the antenna changes as the length of
the dipole changes.
In other words, the terminal impedance (input impedance) of the dipole is a function of length.
The input impedance of the dipole is given as
The input impedance is a function of the dipole length and can vary from
When
to
.
. In this case the input impedance is
.
When
NOTE
The input impedance of a dipole antenna is not a monotonic function of length as it was in case of the Hertz dipole.
Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Half Wavelength Dipole antenna
The most commonly used dipole is the half wavelength dipole (
This antenna offers many advantages like
(1)
Reasonable size
(2)
Radiation pattern with single maximum
(3)
Manageable input impedance
A
For the
-dipole is shown in Fig.
-dipole
.
The current distribution on the dipole is
The radiation electric field is given as
The radiation pattern for the dipole is shown in Fig.
The total power radiated by the
-dipole is
-dipole).
Solving the integral numerically the total radiated power and the radiation resistance of the
The radiation resistance of the
-dipole is about 73 ohms. The dipole due to the near fields has a reactance of
about 34 ohms which can be removed by reducing the length of the dipole to about
The
For the
-dipole are
.
-dipole dipole has an impedance which can be easily matched to 50 ohms using impedance transformers.
-dipole dipole we have following parameters:
Radiation pattern very similar to the Hertz dipole
BWFN = 180 deg
HPBW = 78 deg
Directivity = 1.64 = 2.15 dB
Input resistance = 73.1 ohm
Effective Aperture =
Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Monopole Antenna
The monopole antennas are commonly used for the medium wave radio broadcasting. They also find application in walkietalkies, other hand sets and cars.
A monopole antenna is vertically mounted above the ground and is excited at the base as shown in Fig.
A monopole antenna is equivalent to a dipole as shown in the above Figure.
The radiation characteristics of a monopole antenna and a dipole of double its length are identical except the radiation
resistance and the radiated power.
Since the monopole antenna radiates only in half space (above the ground), it radiates half the power compared to the
corresponding dipole and consequently has the radiation resistance half of that of the corresponding dipole.
The monopole antennas find applications at low frequencies where the wavelengths become excessively long.
This antenna is also suited for medium wave transmission, because for that wavelength the earth behaves like a good
conductor and therefore supports only vertical polarization.
The monopole antenna naturally provides vertically polarized waves and an isotropic radiation pattern on the ground which
is most suited for broadcasting applications.
Module 7 : Antenna
Lecture 50 : Linear Antennas
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Dipole antenna.
Radiation pattern of a dipole antenna.
Input impedance of a dipole antenna.
Half-wavelength dipole antenna.
Monopole antenna.