SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server

SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server
A RCHITECTURE -S PECIFIC I NFORMATION
1. Edition 2004
Copyright ©
This product is intellectual property of SUSE LINUX AG.
It may be copied entirely or in part as long as every copy bears this copyright notice.
All information contained in this book has been gathered with the greatest care.
Errors cannot, however, be completely excluded. SUSE LINUX AG, the authors,
and the translators cannot be held liable for possible errors and their consequences.
The names of software and hardware featured in this book can also be registered
trademarks. They are mentioned without guarantee for their availability for free
use. SUSE LINUX AG generally follows the notation of the manufacturers. The reproduction of product names or trade names and their like in this book (even without special designation) does not allow the assumption that those names can be
safely regarded as free in the context of legislation concerning trademark or brand
protection.
Notices and comments can be sent to documentation@suse.de.
Authors:
Berthold Gunreben
Translators: Vistatec, Rebecca J. Walter
Editors:
Jörg Arndt, Karl Eichwalder, Antje Faber, Berthold Gunreben,
Roland Haidl, Jana Jaeger, Edith Parzefall, Ines Pozo, Thomas Rölz,
Thomas Schraitle, Rebecca Walter
Layout:
Manuela Piotrowski, Thomas Schraitle
Setting:
DocBook-XML, LATEX
This book has been printed on 100 % chlorine-free bleached paper.
Contents
I
Preparatory Measures
3
1
System Requirements for Operating Linux
5
1.1
Hardware for x86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.2
Hardware for Itanium Processor Family . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.3
Hardware for AMD64 and Intel EM64T . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2
3
II
4
Controlling the Installation
9
2.1
Installation on the Computer Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2.2
Installation Using a Serial Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2.3
Installation with SSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2.4
Installation via VNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
2.5
Installation with AutoYaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
Installation Server
13
3.1
Boot Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
3.2
Server for the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Installation
15
Booting for the Installation Process
17
4.1
Booting from CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
4.2
Booting from the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
4.3
Booting from Floppy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
5
6
III
7
iv
Available Installation Methods
21
5.1
Manual Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
5.2
AutoYaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
Rebooting the System and the Boot Sequence
23
6.1
Adjusting the Boot Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
6.2
The Itanium Processor Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
6.3
Redirecting the Boot Source to the Boot CD . . . . . . . . . .
24
Appendix
25
Dealing with Boot Problems
27
7.1
Problems Booting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
7.2
Problems Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
Contents
Introduction
This manual describes the steps necessary to prepare for the installation of
SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server on x86, AMD64, Intel EM64T, and Itanium
Processor Family computers. It introduces the steps required to prepare for
various installation methods and provides useful information.
Required Background
To keep the scope of these guidelines manageable, certain technical assumptions have been made. It is assumed that:
You have some computer experience and are familiar with the common technical terms.
You are familiar with the documentation for your system and the network on which it runs.
You have a basic understanding of Linux systems.
Typographic Conventions
The following typographic conventions are used in this book:
Example
Meaning
YaST
programs
/etc/passwd
files or directories
hplaceholderi
replace the character string
placeholder (including the angle brackets) with the actual value
PATH
an environment variable called PATH
192.168.1.2
the value of a variable
ls
commands
user
Alt -Alt -Del Ctrl "Permission denied"
users
system messages
‘System update’
menu item or button text
press this key
keys to press simultaneously
Acknowledgements
The Linux operating system has developed over a period of several years
from a one-man show of the inventor, Linus Torvald, into a fantastic project
to which countless developers from all over the world have contributed.
Thanks are due to everyone who has helped bring this project to fruition.
2
Contents
Part I
Preparatory Measures
1
The SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server operating system can be operated on
a wide range of hardware. It is simply not possible to list all the different
combinations of hardware SUSE LINUX supports. However, to provide
you with a guide to help you during the planning phase, the minimum requirements are presented here.
If you want to be sure a given computer configuration will work, find
out which computers have been certified by SUSE. Find a list of these
computers on the web page http://www.suse.com/us/business/
certifications/certified_hardware/index.html.
1.1
1.2
1.3
Hardware for x86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware for Itanium Processor Family . . . . . .
Hardware for AMD64 and Intel EM64T . . . . . . .
6
6
7
System Requirements for Operating Linux
System Requirements
for Operating Linux
1.1
Hardware for x86
Computers based on x86 constitute a cost-effective way of building highperformance systems. The preconditions to operating SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server on this platform are as follows:
CPU The number of CPUs supported depends on the kernel used. Specifically, these are as follows:
Table 1.1:
Kernel
Oldest CPU Type
Maximum Number of CPUs
kernel-default
PentiumPro, Athlon
1
kernel-smp
PentiumPro, Athlon MP
32
kernel-bigsmp
Pentium II, Athlon XP
128
Memory Requirements A minimum of 256 MB is required. The minimum recommended memory is 512 MB. For a multiprocessor system,
256 MB per processor is required.
Boot Methods The computer can be booted from CD, floppy, or the network. A special boot server is required to boot over the network. This
boot server can be configured with SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server.
1.2
Hardware for Itanium Processor
Family
The Itanium Processor Family architecture is 64-bit and allows operation of
large servers.
CPU Itanium II (older Itanium CPUs are no longer supported)
Maximum Number of CPUs The number of CPUs supported depends on
the kernel used. The standard kernel supports 128 CPUs. The special
sn2 kernel from the kernel-sn2 package can be run with up to 512
CPUs.
6
1.2. Hardware for Itanium Processor Family
Boot Methods The computer can be booted from CD or network. A special boot server is required to boot over the network. This can be set
up with SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server.
1.3
Hardware for AMD64 and Intel
EM64T
The AMD64 and Intel EM64T architectures support the simple migration
of x86 software to 64 bits. Like the x86 architecture, they constitute a valuefor-money alternative.
CPU All CPUs available on the market to date are supported.
Maximum Number of CPUs The maximum number of CPUs supported
by AMD64 and Intel EM64T is eight.
Memory Requirements A minimum of 256MB of memory is required. Requirements depend on the application. However, the minimum recommended is 512MB or 256MB per CPU on multiprocessor computers. The theoretical upper limit on the amount of memory supported
by the kernel is 512GB.
1
System Requirements for Operating Linux
Memory A minimum of 512MB RAM is required. 1GB per CPU is recommended.
Boot Methods The computer can be booted from CD or network. A special boot server is required to boot over the network. This can be set
up with SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server.
SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server
7
2
Control the installation one of several ways. The method most frequently
used is to install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server from the computer console. Other options are available for different situations.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Installation on the Computer Console
Installation Using a Serial Console . .
Installation with SSH . . . . . . . . .
Installation via VNC . . . . . . . . . .
Installation with AutoYaST . . . . . .
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10
10
10
11
11
Controlling the Installation
Controlling the Installation
2.1
Installation on the Computer
Console
The simplest way to install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server is via the computer console. Under this method, a graphical installation program guides
you through the installation. This installation method is discussed in detail
in the Installation and Administration manual.
You can still perform the installation on the console without a working
graphics mode. The text-based installation program offers the same functionality as the graphical version. It is also described in Installation and Administration.
2.2
Installation Using a Serial Console
For this installation method, you need a second computer that is connected
by a null modem cable to the computer on which to install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server. On most computers, there are two serial interfaces, ttyS0
and ttyS1. For the installation, you need a terminal program like minicom
or screen. For example, launch the screen program in a local console by
entering the following command:
screen /dev/ttyS0 9600
This means that screen listens to the first serial port with a baud rate of
9600. From this point on, the installation proceeds over this terminal.
An installation carried out using the serial console is very similar to a textbased installation directly on the system. To tell the system to use this installation method, additionally specify the parameter console=ttyS0 at
the boot prompt directly after the boot process has completed and before
the installation system starts.
If your computer’s firmware or BIOS can also communicate over a serial
console, you can carry out the entire installation using this method.
2.3
Installation with SSH
If you do not have direct access to the computer hardware and, for example, the installation should be launched from a management console, control the entire installation process over the network. To do this, enter the
10
2.1. Installation on the Computer Console
If you do not have a dhcp server available in your local network, manually assign an IP address to the installation system. Do this by entering the
option HostIP=<ipaddr> at the boot prompt.
As soon as you are logged in to the installation system, launch the actual
installation with the command yast. In this case, a text-based YaST is
launched, as in the case of an installation with serial console. This then
guides you through the installation.
2.4
Installation via VNC
2
Controlling the Installation
parameters UseSSH=1 and SSHPassword=<secret> at the boot prompt.
An SSH daemon is then launched in the system and you can log in to the
system as user root with the password “secret”. To connect, use the command ssh -X root@<ipaddr>.
If you do not have direct access to the system, but you would still like to
have a graphical installation, install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server via
VNC. This method is described in detail in the Installation and Administration manual.
As suitable VNC clients are also available for other operating systems, such
as Microsoft Windows and MacOS, the installation can also be controlled
from computers running those operating systems.
2.5
Installation with AutoYaST
If you need to install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server on a number of computers with similar hardware, it is recommended to perform the installations with the aid of autoyast. In this case, start by installing one SUSE
LINUX Enterprise Server and use this to create the necessary AutoYaST
configuration files.
AutoYaST is extensively documented. After installing the autoyast2
package, find its manual in the /usr/share/doc/packages/
autoyast2/html/ directory.
SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server
11
3
The term installation server covers two quite different things. First, it can
refer to a computer that makes available all the files required by the installation system to carry out the installation. However, where the computer is
booted from the network, it is also possible to make the installation system
itself available from a server.
3.1
3.2
Boot Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Server for the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Installation Server
Installation Server
3.1
Boot Server
You can only boot a computer directly from the network if it is supported
by the computer’s firmware or BIOS. You need several services, such as
dhcp and tftp, and you must configure them appropriately.
A boot server can make life a lot easier for administrators, as this means it
is no longer necessary to supply the computer with boot media. However,
the configuration process takes longer, depending on the computer used.
If you need a boot server, read relevant sections in the Installation and Administration manual. It is also recommended at this point paying closer attention to the services used.
3.2
Server for the Installation
Every installation process requires data contained on the CDs supplied
with SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server. Either insert the relevant CDs into the
computer’s CD-ROM drive or make all this data available on the network.
With SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server, optionally provide all the necessary
data on a single central computer in the network. A YaST module that enables a computer to make the installation source available through SLP has
been specifically developed for this case.
Consult the Installation and Administration manual for details. For the actual
installation, specify the boot parameter install=slp.
14
3.1. Boot Server
Part II
Installation
4
Depending on your requirements, there are several possible ways of installing SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server on your computer. In addition to
the standard installation via CD-ROM, you can also install SUSE LINUX
Enterprise Server directly from the network. Specifically on x86 computers,
there is an additional possibility of installing the software by floppy disk.
4.1
4.2
4.3
Booting from CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Booting from the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Booting from Floppy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Booting for the Installation Process
Booting for the
Installation Process
4.1
Booting from CD-ROM
On all computers that have a bootable CD-ROM drive it is possible to install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server from CDs. You can even launch the
installation from CD-ROM then use an installation server in the network
for the actual installation. Refer to the Installation and Administration manual for information about this option.
Insert the boot CD into the drive and restart the computer. If everything
functions correctly, a boot screen appears. Depending on the hardware
used, this may be graphical or text-based.
At this point, specify any boot parameters necessary for the installation
program linuxrc and the kernel to influence the installation. Find further
reference material in the Installation and Administration manual and in the
kernel documentation. After installing the kernel-docs package, find the
kernel documentation in directory /usr/share/doc/kernel.
4.2
Booting from the Network
If your computer’s firmware or BIOS supports booting from the network,
you can also install SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server entirely from the network. To do this, you need a boot server, as described in the Installation and
Administration manual. An installation server is also required for this installation method, as described in the section Configuration of a Central Installation Server in the Installation and Administration manual.
Make sure your computer’s firmware or BIOS is configured so it boots from
the network. After switching on the computer, you may need to activate
the network boot process by pressing an appropriate function key. In case
of doubt, consult the manual for your computer.
Once the boot process has successfully completed, a boot prompt appears,
allowing you to specify any boot parameters at this point.
4.3
Booting from Floppy
Booting from floppy is not supported on all architectures. The boot process
is different from the other boot methods in that several floppies are needed
during the boot process.
18
4.1. Booting from CD-ROM
First, configure the BIOS on your computer so it can boot from floppy. Then
insert the kernel floppy and all the other floppies requested in the correct
sequence.
After the boot process has completed, linuxrc prompts for an installation
source. In this case, use an installation source on the network or make other
installation sources available locally. In case of difficulty, consult the SUSE
LINUX Enterprise Server support team.
SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server
4
Booting for the Installation Process
If you can only start your system from floppies, create boot floppies from
the floppy images supplied. For further information, refer to the Installation
and Administration manual.
19
5
The SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server installation is usually controlled manually on each system. An automatic installation mode is also available.
5.1
5.2
Manual Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
AutoYaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Available Installation Methods
Available
Installation Methods
5.1
Manual Installation
Whenever you control the installation using a console, it is said to be a
manual installation. This includes installation over the console, over a serial console, over SSH, and over VNC.
In each of these cases, you are guided through the installation sequence by
graphical or text-based instructions.
Braille display can also be used as the output console. This enables the visually impaired to install and administer this operating system without
assistance.
5.2
AutoYaST
In the case of AutoYaST, simply pass an appropriate configuration file to
the installation system. This file is written in XML, but it can also be created
by a YaST module. As soon as the installation has been initiated, AutoYaST
takes over and carries out the entire installation. In this case, no further interaction is required.
22
5.1. Manual Installation
6
To ensure that your system automatically starts following the installation,
make the appropriate configuration settings in your firmware or BIOS.
6.1
6.2
6.3
Adjusting the Boot Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
The Itanium Processor Family . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Redirecting the Boot Source to the Boot CD . . . . 24
Rebooting the System and the Boot Sequence
Rebooting the System
and the Boot Sequence
6.1
Adjusting the Boot Sequence
On many computers, it is necessary to alter the boot sequence defined in
the BIOS. After the computer firmware has been installed, specify the default device from which the computer should be booted.
6.2
The Itanium Processor Family
I IPF
If you have manually altered the kernel or initrd on your system, run
/sbin/elilo before shutting down the computer. If you leave out this
step, your system may not be bootable. J
6.3
Redirecting the Boot Source to the
Boot CD
To facilitate the installation process and avoid accidental installations, the
default setting on the installation CD for SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server
is that your system is booted from the first hard disk. At this point an installed boot loader normally takes over control of the system. This means
that the boot CD must not be removed from the drive during an installation.
24
6.1. Adjusting the Boot Sequence
Part III
Appendix
7
Prior to delivery, SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server is subjected to an extensive test program. Despite this, occasionally problems can occur during
installation.
7.1
7.2
Problems Booting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Problems Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Dealing with Boot Problems
Dealing with Boot Problems
7.1
Problems Booting
The computer boots the installed system
Change your computer’s firmware or BIOS so that the boot sequence
is correct. To do this, consult the manual for your hardware.
The computer hangs
Change the console on your computer so that the kernel outputs are
visible. Be sure to check the last outputs. This is normally done by
. If this does not solve the problem, consult the SUSE
pressing F2 LINUX Enterprise Server support staff.
7.2
Problems Installing
During the installation various problems which cannot be contained in advance can occur. What is important at this point is how to obtain useful information:
Check the outputs on the various consoles. You can switch consoles
with the key combination
-Alt -Fn . For example, obtain a shell in which to execute various
Ctrl commands by pressing Ctrl -Alt -F2 .
Try launching the installation in failsafe mode.
Check the system messages on a console in the installation system by
entering the command dmesg.
28
7.1. Problems Booting