TECH BRIEF
Equalizer Series
Gain Equalizers
Harmonic Phase Shifters and Integrated Equalizer Assemblies
Mercury Systems designs and manufactures a series of integrated
equalizers assemblies and harmonic phase-shifter product designs
cover all microwave frequency bands from communication to ultrabroadband with a wide selection of IF bands and input power levels.
These integrated assemblies can consist of isolators, filters, harmonic phase-shifters and couplers (along with multiple equalization functions) integrated into a single package.
Linear Slope Equalizers — 500 MHz to 26.5 GHz
NEGATIVE SLOPE: Attenuation decreases linearly with frequency
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(see Fig. 1). Negative slope equalizers are primarily used for compensating the gain slope in systems where large amounts of cabling may
cause excessive loss at higher frequencies over the operating band.
Refer to the coaxial cable manufacturers’ specifications for attenuation
v/s frequency curves, as it applies to a particular system’s accumulative
cable length.
POSITIVE SLOPE: Attenuation increases linearly with frequency
(Fig. 2). Positive slope equalizers are primarily used for compensating
the gain variation in systems where long lengths of waveguide may
cause excessive loss at the lower frequencies. Mercury is continually
expanding its engineering, manufacturing and testing capabilities to
meet future high-reliability requirements. Our experienced staff works
with our customers to develop a thorough understanding of their needs.
Parabolic Shaped Equalizers — 500 MHz to 26.5 GHz
HALF SINE: Attenuation increases and decreases monotonically
with frequency, and with the maximum attenuation occurring
at mid-band. The relative zero attenuation points or minimums are
at both band ends (Fig. 3). Half sine equalizers are primarily used
for compensating the gain variation present in wide band traveling
wave tubes or solid-state amplifiers where the maximum gain is
at or near mid-band.
INVERTED HALF SINE: Attenuation decreases monotonically
with frequency from both band ends to mid-band where relative
zero attenuation occurs. This type of equalizer compensates
for accumulative gain variations of a system when the gain is
greatest at the highest and lowest operating frequencies,
with minimum gain at or near to mid-band.
The approximate level of insertion loss would be 1.25 dB
maximum at both ends unless otherwise specified.
The insertion loss of these devices is the sum of both absorptive and reflective losses, measured at the highest and lowest frequency of operation for
the Half Sine, and at mid-band for the Inverted Half Sine (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4).
This parameter is specified as a maximum and is referred to at the relative
zero attenuation point. Therefore, the specified attenuation level is relative
to the insertion loss. A typical method for approximating insertion loss,
would be to take 10% of the maximum attenuation point and add 0.25 dB
to that value. For example, if specifying insertion loss of a 10 dB half sine
equalizer, the approximate level of insertion loss would be 1.25 dB maximum
at both ends unless otherwise specified.
Fine Grain Equalizers — 1.5 GHz to 26.5 GHz
Multiple attenuation responses that can be adjusted in frequency and
amplitude (Fig. 5). Fine Grain Equalizers are primarily used for minimizing
gain ripple or gain spikes present in wide band traveling wave tubes, solid
state amplifiers or systems where the phasing in and out of VSWR’s cause
excessive amplitude ringing. This type of equalizer can also be used for
assembling attenuation curves of all shapes and amplitudes within its
adjustment range. This is accomplished by setting each section to a
different frequency and amplitude adjacent to one another (Fig. 6).
TUNING AND OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS: The operation of our fine grain adjustable equalizers can be briefly described as follows. By forward or reverse movement of each resonator short, the electrical length can be varied. Therefore,
the center frequency of these loss responses can be located anywhere within
their operating frequency range. Adjustment of other parameters associated
with each section allows the bandwidth, as well as the amplitude, to be set
independently. Bandwidths of each section may vary as a function of frequency.
Integrated equalizer assemblies can consist of isolators, filters,
harmonic phase-shifters and couplers (along with multiple equalization
functions) integrated into a single package. Integrated equalizers can
be used for many applications. The following are just a few of many
possible combinations:
ISO EQUALIZER: Integrated with input and output isolators, these
equalizers can be installed practically anywhere in a system while
providing isolation to minimize any adverse effect, such as frequency
pulling or mismatch distortion.
TWT “OPTIMIZER”: This combination includes an adjustable equalizer
and harmonic phase shifter, integrated into a single package. This
allows traveling wave tube gain equalization, while providing
harmonic injection capabilities for gain enhancement.
FINE GRAIN COMBINATION EQUALIZER: MICA can provide fine grain
options on linear and half sine curve shapes. This combination allows
system equalization and control over fine grain ripple.
HARMONIC PHASE SHIFTERS — ATTENUATION LEVEL: 0.5 dB to 40 dB
Our harmonic phase-shifter devices are manufactured in frequency
ranges from 500 MHz to 26.5 GHz and provide a differential phaseshift between the fundamental and harmonically related frequencies.
Applications include optimization and enhancement of traveling wave
tubes or amplifiers when a significant amount of power is contained in
the harmonic frequency band or emphasis or de-emphasis of harmonic
levels is required.
Innovation That Matters, Mica, Stealth, Micronetics, Echotek, EchoCore, Ensemble and
MultiCore Plus are registered trademarks, and StreamDirect, Application Ready Subsystem
and ARS are trademarks of Mercury Systems, Inc. Other products mentioned may be
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. Mercury Systems, Inc.
believes this information is accurate as of its publication date and is not responsible for any
inadvertent errors. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Copyright © 2013 Mercury Systems, Inc.
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Integrated Equalizers — 1500 MHz to 26.5 GHz