USER MANUAL
Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
© Copyright 2017 Photometrics
3440 East Britannia Drive
Tucson, Arizona 85706
Tel: +1 520.889.9933
Fax: +1 520.295.0299
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without the written permission of
Photometrics.
Acrobat and Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries.
Photometrics and PVCAM are registered trademarks of Roper Technologies.
Prime and Prime 95B are trademarks of Photometrics.
Intel Core is a trademark of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
All other brand and product names are the trademarks of their respective owners and manufacturers.
The information in this publication is believed to be accurate as of the publication release date. However, Photometrics does
not assume any responsibility for any consequences including any damages resulting from the use thereof. The information
contained herein is subject to change without notice. Revision of this publication may be issued to incorporate such change.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
LIMITED WARRANTY
Photometrics (“Photometrics,” us,” “we,” “our”) makes the following limited warranties. These limited warranties
extend to the original purchaser (“You”, “you”) only and no other purchaser or transferee. We have complete
control over all warranties and may alter or terminate any or all warranties at any time we deem necessary.
Basic Limited Two (2) Year Warranty
Photometrics warrants this product against substantial defects in materials and/or workmanship for a period of
up to two (2) years after shipment. During this period, Photometrics will repair the product or, at its sole option,
repair or replace any defective part without charge to you. You must deliver the entire product to the Photometrics
factory or, at our option, to a factory-authorized service center. You are responsible for the shipping costs to return
the product. International customers should contact their local Photometrics-authorized representative/distributor
for repair information and assistance, or visit our technical support page at www.photometrics.com.
Limited One (1) Year Warranty on Refurbished or Discontinued Products
Photometrics warrants, with the exception of the CMOS or CCD image sensor device (which carries NO
WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED), this product against defects in materials or workmanship for a period of
up to one (1) year after shipment. During this period, Photometrics will repair or replace, at its sole option, any
defective parts, without charge to you. You must deliver the entire product to the Photometrics factory or, at our
option, a factory-authorized service center. You are responsible for the shipping costs to return the product to
Photometrics. International customers should contact their local Photometrics representative/distributor for repair
information and assistance or visit our technical support page at www.photometrics.com
Normal Wear Item Disclaimer
Photometrics does not warrant certain items against defect due to normal wear and tear. These items include
internal and external shutters, cables, and connectors. These items carry no warranty, expressed or implied.
Software Limited Warranty
Photometrics warrants all of our manufactured software discs or memory devices to be free from substantial
defects in materials and/or workmanship under normal use for a period of one (1) year from shipment.
Photometrics does not warrant that the function of the software will meet your requirements or that operation will
be uninterrupted or error free. You assume responsibility for selecting the software to achieve your intended results
and for the use and results obtained from the software. In addition, during the one (1) year limited warranty, the
original purchaser is entitled to receive free version upgrades. Version upgrades supplied free of charge will be in
the form of a download from the Internet. Those customers who do not have access to the Internet may obtain the
version upgrades on a CD ROM or USB memory device from our factory for an incidental shipping and handling
charge.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Owner’s Manual and Troubleshooting
You should read the owner’s manual thoroughly before operating this product. In the unlikely event that you should
encounter difficulty operating this product, refer to the owner’s manual. If the problem persists, please contact the
Photometrics technical support staff or an authorized service representative.
Your Responsibility
The above Limited Warranties are subject to the following terms and conditions:
You must retain your bill of sale (invoice) and present it upon request for service and repairs or provide other proof of
purchase satisfactory to Photometrics.
You must notify the Photometrics factory service center within thirty (30) days after you have taken delivery of a
product or part that you believe to be defective. With the exception of customers who claim a “technical issue” with
the operation of the product or part, all invoices must be paid in full in accordance with the terms of sale. Failure to
pay invoices when due may result in the interruption and/or cancellation of your two (2) year limited warranty and/
or any other warranty, expressed or implied.
All warranty service must be made by the Photometrics factory or, at our option, an authorized service center.
Before products or parts can be returned for service you must contact the Photometrics factory and receive a return
authorization number (RMA). Products or parts returned for service without a return authorization evidenced by an
RMA will be sent back freight collect.
These warranties are effective only if purchased from the Photometrics factory or one of our authorized
manufacturer’s representatives or distributors.
Unless specified in the original purchase agreement, Photometrics is not responsible for installation, setup, or
disassembly at the customer’s location.
Warranties extend only to defects in materials or workmanship as limited above and do not extend to any product or
part which has:
•• been lost or discarded by you;
•• been damaged as a result of misuse, improper installation, faulty or inadequate maintenance, or failure
to follow instructions furnished by us;
•• had serial numbers removed, altered, defaced, or rendered illegible;
•• been subjected to improper or unauthorized repair; or
•• been damaged due to fire, flood, radiation, or other “acts of God” or other contingencies beyond the
control of Photometrics.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
After the warranty period has expired, you may contact the Photometrics factory or a Photometrics-authorized
representative for repair information and/or extended warranty plans.
Physically damaged units or units that have been modified are not acceptable for repair in or out of warranty and will
be returned as received.
All warranties implied by state law or non-U.S. laws, including the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose, are expressly limited to the duration of the limited warranties set forth above. With the
exception of any warranties implied by state law or non-U.S. laws, as hereby limited, the forgoing warranty is
exclusive and in lieu of all other warranties, guarantees, agreements, and similar obligations of manufacturer or seller
with respect to the repair or replacement of any parts. In no event shall Photometrics’ liability exceed the cost of the
repair or replacement of the defective product or part.
This limited warranty gives you specific legal rights and you may also have other rights that may vary from state
to state and from country to country. Some states and countries do not allow limitations on how long an implied
warranty lasts, when an action may be brought, or the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages,
so the above provisions may not apply to you.
When contacting us for technical support or service assistance, please refer to the Photometrics factory of purchase,
contact your authorized Photometrics representative or reseller, or visit our technical support page at www.
photometrics.com. www.photometrics.com.
U. S. Government Restricted Rights
The software and documentation are provided with Restricted Rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the
Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and
Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer
Software-Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19, as applicable. Contractor/manufacturer is Photometrics, 3440 East
Britannia Drive, Tucson, AZ 85706.
This license is effective until terminated. It will terminate upon the conditions set forth above or if you fail to comply
with any term hereof. Upon termination, you agree that the software and accompanying materials, and all copies
thereof, will be destroyed. This agreement is governed by the laws of the State of Arizona. You acknowledge that you
have read this agreement, you understand it, you agree to be bound by its terms, and that this is the complete and
exclusive statement of the agreement between you and Photometrics regarding the software.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Table of Contents
Overview ......................................................................................................................... 1
About This Manual........................................................................................................................... 1
Precautions....................................................................................................................................... 1
Environmental Requirements............................................................................................................ 2
Storage Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 2
Microscopes, Lenses, and Tripods .................................................................................................... 2
Repairs ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Cleaning .......................................................................................................................................... 2
System Installation............................................................................................................ 3
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Getting to Know Prime..................................................................................................................... 4
Software Compatibility Requirements .............................................................................................. 5
Host Computer Requirements .......................................................................................................... 5
Software Installation ........................................................................................................................ 5
Installing the PCI Express Interface Card .......................................................................................... 6
Connecting Prime to the PCIe Bus.................................................................................................... 8
Connecting Prime with USB3.0......................................................................................................... 9
Theory of Operation ..................................................................................................... 10
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 10
CMOS Image Sensor Structure ...................................................................................................... 10
Gain Combining and Bit-Depth....................................................................................................... 11
Rolling and Global Shutter Readout ............................................................................................... 12
Digital Binning................................................................................................................................ 13
Sensor Clearing............................................................................................................................... 13
Bias Offset...................................................................................................................................... 14
Pixel Noise Filters............................................................................................................................ 14
Operating Features ........................................................................................................ 18
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 18
Gain States..................................................................................................................................... 18
Bias Offset Setting.......................................................................................................................... 18
Clearing Mode Selection ................................................................................................................ 18
Single and Multiple Regions Of Interest.......................................................................................... 19
Device Synchronization (Triggering)................................................................................................ 21
Trigger Modes................................................................................................................................ 21
Expose Out Behaviors..................................................................................................................... 22
Multiple Output Triggers................................................................................................................ 25
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SMART Streaming.......................................................................................................................... 25
Fan Speed Control and Liquid Cooling............................................................................................ 26
Advanced Features......................................................................................................................... 27
Time Stamps................................................................................................................................... 28
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................. 29
System Does Not Boot Normally .................................................................................................... 29
New Hardware Found Dialog Box Does Not Appear ...................................................................... 29
Images Not Displayed .................................................................................................................... 30
Camera Running Too Warm .......................................................................................................... 30
PVCAM Error Message Appears .................................................................................................... 30
Lengthy Pauses During Imaging .................................................................................................... 30
Basic Specifications ........................................................................................................ 31
Prime 95B: Front, Side And Rear Views .......................................................................................... 31
Camera Weight.............................................................................................................................. 31
Power Supply Specifications ........................................................................................................... 32
Liquid Cooling Setup Instructions .................................................................................. 33
INDEX............................................................................................................................. 34
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Chapter 1.
Overview
About This
Manual
This Prime 95B Scientific CMOS Camera User Manual is divided into five chapters.
Photometrics recommends you read this entire manual before operating the camera to
ensure proper use. The chapter contents are briefly described below.
Note: The information in these chapters applies only to the Prime 95B camera and is
currently not applicable to any other Photometrics camera.
•• System Installation — Instructions for connecting the Prime 95B camera to
a computer via the PCI Express interface card or the USB3.0 bus.
•• Theory of Operation — A basic overview of Scientific CMOS camera
technology as used in the Prime 95B camera.
•• Operating Features — Prime 95B features and how to optimize them for
speed and sensitivity, and how to use the different trigger modes.
•• Troubleshooting — Answers to common camera system questions.
•• Basic Specifications — Specifications for Prime 95B system components.
Precautions
The CMOS sensor and other system electronics are extremely sensitive to electrostatic
discharge (ESD). To avoid permanently damaging the system, please observe the
following precautions:
•• If using high-voltage equipment (such as an arc lamp) with the camera
system, turn the camera power on last and when powering down, power
the camera off first.
•• Never connect or disconnect any cable while the system is powered on.
•• The camera’s power should be switched off before disconnecting any
camera system cables. However it is not necessary to power off the
computer to detach the cables.
•• Use caution when triggering high-current switching devices (such as an arc
lamp) near the system. The image sensor can be permanently damaged
by transient voltage spikes. If electrically noisy devices are present, an
isolated, conditioned power line or dedicated isolation transformer is highly
recommended.
•• Always leave one inch of space around the camera for airflow.
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•• Do not operate the camera without cooling (air or liquid).
•• Never open the camera. There are no user-serviceable parts inside the
Prime 95B camera. Opening the camera voids the warranty.
•• Use only the PCI Express interface card, cables and power supply
designated for this camera system. Using non-Prime cables, PCI Express
interface cards or power supplies may result in unexpected errors or
permanent damage to the system.
•• Do not use a C-mount lens with optics that extend behind the lens flange.
Environmental
Requirements
The Prime 95B camera system should be operated in a clean, dry environment. The
camera system’s ambient operating temperature is 0°C to 30°C with 80% relative
humidity, non-condensing.
Storage
Requirements
Store the Prime 95B camera system in its original containers. To protect the system from
excessive heat, cold and moisture, store at an ambient temperature between -20°C and
60°C with a relative humidity of 0% to 90%, noncondensing.
Microscopes,
Lenses, and
Tripods
The camera has a standard threaded video mount and can be mounted to any
microscope that accepts a standard C-mount adapter. The camera is also available in a
configuration compatible with F-mount adapters. The camera also allows you to install
any lens that is compatible with a standard threaded video mount as long as its optics
do not extend behind the flange of the lens. Prime can be mounted to optical tables,
tripods and copy stands using the eight ¼-20 threaded attachment points located near
the camera front and rear on all sides (see figure 1)
Repairs
Please save the original packing materials so you can safely ship the camera to another
location or return it for repairs if necessary. The Prime 95B camera system contains
no user-serviceable parts. Repairs must be done by Photometrics. Should the camera
system require repairs, please contact Photometrics Customer Service.
Note: Do not open the camera. Opening the Prime 95B camera voids the warranty.
Cleaning
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Clean exterior surfaces of the camera with a dry, lint-free cloth. To remove stains,
contact Photometrics Customer Service. To clean the camera’s imaging window, use
only a filtered compressed-air source. Hand-held cans are not recommended as they
may spray propellant onto the window. Do not touch the window.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Chapter 2.
System Installation
Carefully review the Precautions section in the previous chapter before performing any
of the procedures outlined in this chapter. Again, use only a Prime 95B PCI Express
data cable and Prime PCI Express interface card with the camera. Using a different cable
or interface card may result in in unexpected errors or permanent damage to the system.
Introduction
The Prime 95B camera system includes the following hardware components:
•• Prime 95B Scientific CMOS
•• PCI Express (PCIe) interface card
•• PCI Express data cable
•• USB 3.0 SuperSpeed A to B data cable
•• A 12V/12A power supply with international power cord set
•• I/O to 8 BNC trigger break out cable, part number CBL-IO-8-BNC
•• USB memory device containing PVCAM library and drivers
•• Quick Installation Guide
Prime 95B system components are linked by the PCI Express or USB3.0 data cable and
controlled by the host computer system. All of these hardware components should be
included with the shipment. Keep all the original packing materials so you can safely
ship the camera to another location or return it for service.
If you have any difficulty with any step of the instructions, contact Photometrics
Customer Service.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Getting to Know
Prime 95B
Highlights of the Prime 95B camera are shown below: The Prime 95B package includes
the PVCAM drivers designed to allow you to use this camera with a variety of third
party imaging software - To see a list of supported software, visit the Photometrics
website.
Convenient Interface
16-bit Data
•41fps
12-bit Data
•82fps
Multiple Cooling Options
Forced Air Cooling
• -10ºC Cooling
• Selectable Fan Speed
Liquid Cooling
• -25ºC Cooling
• Leak-proof, quick-disconnect ports
Advanced Triggering Capabilities
Effective Global Shutter
Up to four selectable expose-out lines
•• USB3.0: Lower Speed Data Connection.
•• DATA : High Speed PCI-Express Connection.
•• Out/In: Liquid Cooling Connections.
•• Initializing: LED blinking indicates the camera is booting up.
•• Power Switch: Turns the camera on and off.
•• Trigger: Hirose HR10A-10R-10S for use with Photometrics’ trigger to BNC
break out cable CBL-IO-8-BNC.
•• DC IN: Connection to external 12V 10A DC power supply.
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Software
Compatibility
Requirements
Host Computer
Requirements
Software
Installation
Unless there is a preferred version specified by a third party software provider, the latest
version of PVCAM is recommended for use with Prime 95B.
The host computer (PC) for Prime must meet the following minimum requirements:
•
Windows 7/8/10 64-bit operating system
•
2.0 GHz or faster Intel processor: either Xeon or Core i7
•
8+ GB RAM
•
250+ GB serial ATA (SATA) HDD and/or >512 GB solid state drive (SSD)
for high-speed imaging and storage
•
512+ MB slot-based ATI/NVIDIA video graphics card (i.e., not an
“onboard/integrated graphics” adapter)
•
USB port for use with the USB memory device or Internet access to obtain
the PVCAM library and interface drivers
•
USB3.0 port for use with the Prime USB3.0 interface
•
An open PCI-Express 4x (4 lane) interface slot or higher for use with the
Prime PCIe interface card
An appropriate Installation Guide is included as an insert with the camera. This guide
provides step-by-step instructions for installing the camera interface software for
Windows-based computers. Additional instructions are included for installing a PCI
Express interface card in the computer.
The Photometrics USB memory device contains the following files:
•• Manuals Directory — contains user manuals in PDF format.
•• Customer Case Studies — application examples
•• Imaging Software – a copy of Open Imaging’s FOSS Application,
Micromanager
•• Technical Notes – detailed background on advanced features
•• For a 64-bit Windows OS, install PVCam64_Setup_X_X_X_X.exe
•• Follow the Installation Guide insert for the version of Windows being used.
Reboot the computer when the installation is complete.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Installing the
PCI Express
Interface Card
As CMOS cameras have developed, the amount of data generated from these products
has exceeded the current capabilities of USB interfaces. The Prime CMOS camera
platform provides both USB 3.0 for convenience and a PCI-Express interface to ensure
that the camera is capable of sustaining the required bandwidth of the camera.
The data rate of the Prime 95B camera is sustainable through both the USB 3.0 and
PCI-Express interfaces.
TIP: PCI Express is a high speed peripheral data bus used by the computer to
communicate with video cards, high speed Solid State Drives, and image frame
grabbers. The PCI Express interface card is simply an adapter between the computer’s
internal PCIe bus and the camera.
While this has benefits in cost, reliability, simplicity, and performance, it is important
that the camera is powered on for 30 seconds before starting the PC. This will ensure
that as the computer goes through the boot process, it discovers the camera on the
PCIe bus.
Install the High Speed PCI Express Interface
Note: The model of PCIe card shipped with the camera may differ from the one shown
in the photo.
Warning: Do not use the PCIe interface supplied with the QImaging optiMOS sCMOS
camera with the Photometrics Prime 95B camera. While they have a common cable
and connector, they are not compatible.
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Before attempting to operate the camera, first install this interface card into the PC with the
following steps:
1. Shut down the PC
2. Unplug the PC from power mains and ensure the camera is turned off
3. Open the side of the computer to access the PCI and PCIe slots
4. Locate an available 4 channel or higher PCIe slot (marked x4). Refer to the
PC’s documentation to locate a suitable slot.
Tip: The PC may have motherboard slot information on the side cover
5. Holding the Prime PCIe card and (being careful not to touch the board
components or PCIe bridge pins) insert it with the proper orientation into the
open slot. The card should slide into place with minimal resistance and snap
when fully inserted.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Connecting
Prime to the
PCIe Bus
The Prime 95B camera data cable is a quick insertion, quick release cable that works
with the interface card and camera. Either end of the cable can be plugged into either
device, and in any order.
The connector can only be inserted with the correct orientation, do not force the
connector. If the connector does not insert, simply turn the connector over and retry.
With the cable connected on both ends of the camera, it is ready to power on the
computer.
1. Verify that the power switch on the side of the camera is in the off position.
2. Connect the power supply to the Power connector on the rear of the
camera.
3. Plug the power cord into the power supply and then into a suitable wall
outlet.
4. Switch on the camera (power switch on the side of camera).
5. Wait 30 seconds before powering on the PC
Tip: The power supply and connector used by the Prime 95B camera is a common
type. However, Photometrics carefully selects power supplies for optimum noise
performance, EMI compliance and stability. Do not swap power supplies with other
lab equipment even though they may meet the connector, voltage and ampere
requirements of the Prime.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Connecting
Prime with
USB3.0
Prime’s USB3.0 interface is ubiquitous and easy to use. To use the interface, the PC
must have an open USB3.0 port. Prime is not USB2.0 compatible. USB3.0 ports are
usually indicated by the SuperSpeed+ logo and are typically blue in color.
Tip: USB devices sharing the same bus as the Prime 95B contend for available
bandwidth, potentially causing the camera to drop frame rate. For this reason,
Photometrics recommends isolating the camera to its own USB3.0 root hub as shown
in the Windows Device Manager.
A method for creating an independent root hub in computers with many USB devices
is to install a PCI Express based USB3.0 interface card for use with the camera. In this
case Photometrics recommends using the PCIe interface described above.
It is not recommended to connect to the Prime 95B external USB3.0 hubs.
Note that the ends of the USB3.0 cable are different between the camera and PC, and
require a specific orientation. The camera has a “Type B” connector and the computer
will have a “Type A” connector. Do not force insertion when connecting the cable – if
significant resistance is encountered stop, reexamine the connection, and if correct,
retry.
With the cable connected on both ends, you are now ready to power on the computer:
1. With the camera off, connect the USB3.0 cable between camera and host
computer.
2. Power the camera on.
3. Wait 30 seconds before launching the application. An LED on the rear of
the camera will stop blinking when the camera is initialized and ready to
communicate.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Chapter 3.
Theory of Operation
Introduction
Backside illuminated scientific CMOS (BSI Scientific CMOS) sensors are a recent
development in image sensor technology. BSI CMOS sensors are able to provide the
highest levels of sensitivity with a near perfect 95% quantum efficiency (QE). This QE
coupled with large pixel CMOS sensors which have high frame rates, high pixel counts,
and low electronic noise provide the most complete low-light scientific imaging solution.
CMOS Image
Sensor Structure
A major difference between traditional CCD sensors and CMOS sensors is the location
where charge-to-voltage conversion of accumulated photoelectrons takes place. CCD
sensors transfer the pixels accumulated signal in charge packets in “bucket brigade”
fashion across the sensor to a common output node where charge is converted to a
voltage. The voltage is then sampled using off-chip Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC)
and transferred to the PC as digital grey values.
While providing excellent quantitative photometry and very high image quality, the
large number of transfers and sequential digitization of pixels results in low frame rates.
This speed penalty increases with the number of pixels to be digitized.
CMOS sensors leverage many of the same analog signal concepts used in CCDs, but
places the output node circuitry inside each pixel. This eliminates the charge transfer
process. To read the signal from a given row, the accumulated charge is converted to
a voltage inside the pixel, then each pixel in the row is connected to the appropriate
column voltage bus, where the on-chip ADCs covert the voltages to an 11-bit or 12bit grey value. (Thus far, the on-chip ADCs available on CMOS sensors have limited
dynamic range.)
The parallel digitization of all pixels in a row provides CMOS devices with a tremendous
speed advantage. Imagine a CCD with 1200x1200 pixels – and each pixel’s voltage is
measured in 1 usec. To read a single row, 1200 voltage measurements are performed in
serial fashion taking slightly longer than 1 ms, and when repeated for 1200 rows, the
entire image takes over 1 second to be digitized.
On a CMOS device – the entire 1200 voltage conversions needed to digitize a row
happen in parallel.
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If the time to digitize a pixel remains at 1 us – the time to read the entire frame is now 1.2 ms.
In practice, the time saving is split between faster frame rates and slowing the rate of
pixel measurement to reduce electronic noise. For example, if the time to measure a
pixel was increased to 10 usec to lower noise, the image sensor can still be read in 12.5
ms (for a maximum 82fps).
Of course, there are many challenges to obtaining the same analog performance from
each of the Prime 95B’s 1.4 million pixels, whereas a CCD has a single, common output
node resulting in a uniform response. The most common problems are pixel-to-pixel
non uniformity in gain and offset, random telegraph noise (RTN), and defective pixels
with abnormal noise or dark current characteristics (hot pixels).
Often solutions to these challenges are found in the digital domain, where Prime 95B’s
advanced real time signal processing corrects each pixel for gain and offset variation
using calibration at the factory. To address RTN and other pixel defects, real-time digital
filters are used. These corrections are described further in this manual.
Gain Combining
and Bit-Depth
As discussed in the previous sections, the column ADCs present in scientific CMOS
devices have limited dynamic range. This is addressed by making two measurements of
the accumulated charge in each pixel – the first with very high sensitivity but limited to a
maximum signal of approximately 1000 electrons, and the second with reduced sensitivity
but capable of measuring signals up to the pixel’s 80,000 electron full well capacity.
Combining the two measurements into a single 16-bit value is the function of the digital
“gain combiner.” This mathematical operation is performed on the cameras FPGA. The
result is a single gain of approximately 1.2 e-/ADU.
In practice, the Prime 95B offers both a combined ADC 16-bit output as well as a 12bit single ADC output. The combined gain takes two measurements of a pixel for the
combined ADC 16-bit output. The 12-bit mode is able to sample 2 rows simultaneously
as only a single sample is required resulting in a 2X increase in frame rate.
Since the 12-bit mode does not have the flexibility in dynamic range provided by gaincombining, multiple gain states are provided so that acquisition can be optimized for
the required performance. These gain states are:
•• Full Well - Provides maximum full-well capacity with a gain conversion
factor of ~2e-/ADU
•• Balanced - Provides the best balance between read noise and full-well
capacity with a gain conversion factor of ~1e-/ADU
•• Sensitivity - Provides the highest levels of sensitivity with a gain conversion
factor of ~0.5e-/ADU
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Rolling and
Global Shutter
Readout
Rolling Shutter and Global Shutter are the two primary operating modes of CMOS
image sensors. In Global Shutter readout, a global charge clearing mechanism
begins the exposure period for all pixels. Each pixel accumulates signal charge until
the exposure period ends. At this point, the accumulated charge is transferred and
converted to a voltage in the pixels output node, ending the exposure.
The strength of the Global Shutter approach is that all pixels are exposed at the
same instant in time – an important attribute when imaging fast moving objects. The
downside of this approach is the sensor has two phases, an active image accumulation
phase and a subsequent readout phase. As the phases are not overlapped in time, the
maximum achievable frame rate is lower.
In Rolling shutter readout, exposure and readout are overlapped. This is accomplished
by reading one row, while exposing all of the other rows (The row being digitized
“rolls” through the sensor).
For Prime 95B, the time to digitize a single row is 20µs, and consequently the delay
between the start of exposure between two adjacent rows is approximately 9.6us.
Digitizing 1200 rows of pixels, the time delay from the top to the middle of the
sensor is approximately 24 ms. Since readout and exposure are overlapped, the sensor
achieves the maximum frame rate of 41fps. In the 12-bit mode, as two rows are read
out simultaneously, the row time is effectively halved to 10µs, providing an increase
maximum frame rate of 82fps.
The graphic below depicts the time delay between each row of pixels in a rolling shutter
readout mode with a CMOS camera.
Figure 1: Rolling Shutter Exposure Row by Row Exposure Start/End Offset
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The downside of Rolling Shutter readout is that changes in the scene on similar time
scales is distorted, as each row samples the image at different times. This is the wellknown “rubber band” effect – but can appear in fluorescence microscopy as shaded
illumination when rapidly changing wavelengths.
To maintain the benefit of Rolling Shutter readout and eliminate rolling shutter artifacts,
external illumination can be gated on when all rows are being simultaneously exposed,
and off during the readout phase. This external triggering mode used in combination
with high speed light sources (lasers, LEDs) achieves a pseudo global shutter effect. This
triggering mode is described in the device synchronization section of this manual.
Digital Binning
Highlights of the Prime 95B camera are shown below: CCD image sensors are capable
of charge binning (combining adjacent pixels into one super pixel). This is accomplished
as part of the charge transfer process and has the advantage of increasing signal to
noise in read-noise limited situations, at the expense of spatial resolution.
The lack of a charge transfer process in CMOS devices means true charge binning
is not available in currently available sCMOS sensors. Even so, co-adding pixels is a
convenient means to reduce image data, or increase signal by 4x and improve SNR by
2x as the noise from each pixel adds in quadrature.
Prime includes 2x2 on-camera simulated binning, done on the FPGA. This
mathematically combines signal from adjacent pixels and adjusts the sum so that the
bias offset is only added one time.
Sensor Clearing
In order to capture the highest signal to noise ratio possible, it is important that scientific
cameras minimize any signal that’s not derived from the sample. One contribution to
this background signal is the buildup of charge prior to an exposure, which includes any
light still reaching the sensor and thermally generated sensor dark current. To eliminate
this pre-acquisition charge accumulation, most CCD and CMOS cameras clear the
sensor one or more times prior to exposing the sensor to light. This can be done using a
“fast” readout that is subsequently discarded.
Unlike CCDs, there is limited benefit to performing multiple pre-exposure clearing cycles
with CMOS, because each pixel is reset as part of the normal readout process, and the
charge transfer registers that can hold residual signals are not present.
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Bias Offset
Scientific cameras produce a fixed artificial signal offset known as bias offset. This offset
is present even when no light is falling on the sensor and the exposure time is set to
zero. This preserves quantitation even down to signals of a few electrons per pixel.
Typically, the user subtracts this offset before performing quantitative analysis postacquisition.
The recommended protocol is to capture a new series of bias frames at the start of each
experimental run. The series of frames can be averaged to remove noise, then used
to remove the bias offset during subsequent image analysis. This can also be used to
monitor for light leaks and other systematic effects that can impact experimental results.
Pixel Noise
Filters
Note: The Prime 95B camera ships with an optimized default setting for Real Time
Pixel Noise Filtering. Normally these values do not need to be adjusted. Additionally,
the features described in this section may not be controllable in the software
application. This is an advanced usage section.
In the CMOS sensor section, it was noted that a drawback to current CMOS sensors
is variability in pixel to pixel response. This variability falls into two categories, static
variation in gain and offset and dynamic fluctuations that require real-time Pixel Noise
Filters, also known as “Despeckling”.
The static variation in gain and offset is measured and a correction factor is determined
for every pixel. This fixed pattern noise is measured during manufacture and the
corrections are stored in the camera. These corrections are then applied in real-time to
each image.
The dynamic fluctuations must be detected and corrected in real-time. Prime has
several noise filters for this purpose. Defect detection is based on use of a conditional
median filter. The 3x3 neighborhood surrounding a pixel is examined. If the pixel’s
value exceeds or falls below the median by a given amount, its value is replaced by the
median.
Four filters are available:
Real-time Filters for Random Telegraph Noise:
1. Despeckle Dark Low
2. Despeckle Bright Low
Real-time Filters for Bright (Hot) or Dark Pixels:
3. Despeckle Dark High
4. Despeckle Bright High
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“Dark” filters work on the low side of the local median, while “Bright” filters work on
the high side of the local median. The filter is only applied if the pixel’s value exceeds
(or is below) a threshold expressed as a percent of the local median x 100.
For example, a Despeckle Dark Low threshold of “97” indicates that a pixel that is 3%
below the local median will be replaced with the local median. A Despeckle Bright High
threshold of “300” indicates that a pixel that is 200% brighter than the local median
will be replaced.
The intensity range where each filter operates can be set by a value known as
“Minimum ADU AFFECTED”. Take the “Dark” filters for example – pixel values that
fall below the Minimum ADU Affected will be operated on using Despeckle Dark Low,
and pixel values that lie above the Minimum ADU Affected will be operated on using
Despeckle Dark High settings.
Given the new terminology – a simplified way to visualize the region in which each filter
operates is shown below:
Bright High
Minimum
ADU
Affected
Dark Low
Random Telegraph
Noise
Increasing pixel value
Bright versus
Local Median
Bright Pixels
Dark High
Dark Pixels
Dark versus
Local Median
Bright Low
Figure 2:
Pixel Noise Filters
The general principle for setting the pixel noise filters is to use as little filtering as
possible. Often the best way to determine this is viewing a real-time histogram with
log scaling of the frequency. For setting “Dark Low” and “Bright Low”, block any light
from reaching the sensor and examine the bias histogram. This allows viewing the
histogram’s tail, where the effect of the filters can be seen. Adjust the filters to trim the
non-Gaussian tails from the distribution.
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For “Dark High” and “Bright High”, observe the image with flat, even illumination in
the expected range to be observed. Adjust “Bright High” to eliminate most of the bright
speckles, and adjust “Dark High” to eliminate any dark speckles that might appear.
Although they can be set independently, it is recommended to keep the Minimum ADU
Affected the same for the dark filters and bright filters. This this value should be set
approximately 1.5X the bias level to ensure the Low filters are operating on RTN noise.
Signal Processing
Prime’s special capabilities go well beyond the sensor. Its state of the art algorithms
combined with copious high-speed DDR3 memory and high speed FPGA’s (Field
Programmable Gate Arrays) provide new opportunities for extracting the best
information from acquired images.
Photometrics leveraged the revolution in computational imaging with two new
capabilities, PrimeEnhance™ and PrimeLocate™. Prime’s computational power matches
the latest generation of GP GPU’s while making the technology easy to deploy and
accessible by embedding computational power inside the camera.
Denoising
(PrimeEnhance™)
While camera and sensor manufacturers have made steady progress towards the
perfecting photometric imaging, low light imaging remains difficult due to photon shot
noise, variability in the signal due to fluctuations in light itself.
While a fundamental property of light, these fluctuations behave in a predictable
fashion governed by Poisson statistics. Advanced statistical methods were developed
for estimating the true pixel value. PrimeEnhance uses state-of-the-art denoising to
quantitatively restore the true pixel value by minimizing Poisson and Gaussian noise
variation.
PrimeEnhance is based on searching the pixel’s neighborhood for patches with
similar intensity, pattern and variance. Similarity this leads to a weight that is used to
estimate the local mean. Repeated for every pixel, in multiple iterations with increasing
neighborhood size, results in a 3X to 5X improvement in signal-to-noise ratio,
equivalent to a 9X higher exposure level.
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Figure 3: Improvement in SNR is easily seen in line plots,
along with the preserved quantitation.
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100ms Original
Fig 3b
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Localization
Microscopy
(PrimeLocate™)
130
The hallmark feature of localization microscopy are sparse images of individual point
emitters that blink at random times during an image sequence. By finding the centroid
of each emitter’s diffraction limited spot, and combining the localization results from
800ms original
each frame, a super-resolution image of the
original
fluorescence can be reconstructed.
100ms
Original
Fig 3d
Several variants of this method are now well
STORM and GSDIM being two
Figdeveloped,
3b
examples.
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PrimeLocate uses a local median filter to find the brightest points in the image and
extract ROI’s that surround each point. The number of points and the size of the ROI 100ms denoise
800ms original
are under user control. In this way, only the portion of the image containing localizationFig 3f
Fig 3d
data is transferred to the host computer. This greatly reduces the amount of data to be
processed and stored, often by 100X.
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Figure 4: PrimeLocate finds the emitters (shown
using an inverted lookup table for visibility
in print). In this case, PrimeLocate finds three
emitters – and transfers their surrounding ROI’s
to the host, along with metadata indicating
where the ROI was taken from.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Chapter 4.
Operating Features
Introduction
Gain States
This section explains Prime’s different modes of operation and the best modes to
optimize imaging performance.
Prime 95B has two modes
1. Combined Gain 16-bit output
2. Single Gain 12-bit output
The 16-bit mode provides the best full-well capacity and noise performance. However,
it provides lower frame rates than the single gain outputs.
The 12-bit mode provides the highest frame rates - 2X of the combined gain mode. To
provide imaging flexibility, 3 gain states are provided in this mode:
•• Full Well - Provides maximum full-well capacity with a gain conversion
factor of ~2e-/ADU
•• Balanced - Provides the best balance between read noise and full-well
capacity with a gain conversion factor of ~1e-/ADU
•• Sensitivity - Provides the highest levels of sensitivity with a gain conversion
factor of ~0.5e-/ADU
Bias Offset
Setting
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The factory default bias level is approximately 100 ADU. If supported by the software
application being used, the bias level can be changed. It is recommended that this value
not be changed as the preset values for the defective pixel noise filters are set with this
value.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Clearing Mode
Selection
In normal video-rate imaging, Prime’s clearing mode should be set to “Clear Never.”
The Prime 95B is continuously clearing the sensor while there are no images being
acquired. This eliminates unnecessary sensor clearing and maximizes frame rates.
If a CMOS sensor has an electronic global clearing function, “Clear Never” also ensures
there is no sensor clearing while readout is taking place, otherwise a portion of the
image would be removed before it could be digitized.
The following waveforms show how the overlap behavior of “Clear Never” functions
for the Prime camera.
Figure 5
Tip: In some software applications, multiple clearing modes may be listed as they are
required for other cameras, but when using Prime, be sure to only use “Clear PreSequence”.
For time-lapse acquisitions with a significant delay between frames, clearing before
each exposure may be necessary to clear accumulated dark current. If the time lapse
is acquired under computer timing control, individual snaps taken with “Clear PreSequence” turned on will be cleared with each new acquisition.
If the time-lapse is acquired using timing generated by the camera or an external timing
generator, “Clear Pre-Sequence” will clear the sensor only for the first frame. In this
case, “Clear Pre-Exposure” should be used as there is no concern over maximizing
frame rate when each frame is separated by several seconds or more.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Single and
Multiple Regions
Of Interest
Regions of Interest (ROIs) are image sub regions selected by the user to be captured
and delivered to the host PC in place of the full image. This can substantially increase
frame rates and lower the amount of data that needs to be processed.
Frame rates increase with decreasing numbers of rows contained in the ROI. By
reducing the number of rows, frame rates above 1000fps are achievable with small
ROIs. As a result, the sensor architecture, if any pixel in a row is part of the ROI, the
entire row is digitized. Reducing the number of columns in the ROI does not improve
the frame rate of the camera, but it does reduce the amount of data acquired, saving
computer resources and processing time.
Note: Very small ROI’s of less than 2000 pixels can result in data transfer problems
during high-speed DMA data transfers to host memory. If a small ROI does not return
an image, try changing the ROI boundary to make it larger than 2000 pixels, or chose
a different starting pixel for the ROI.
Prime 95B supports advanced multi-ROI acquisition in part due to the exceptionally
powerful on camera FPGA. Up to 16 user defined ROIs can be collected and sent to the
host PC. The regions may overlap.
This is excellent for reducing the amount of data to the essential in high frame rate
experiments. This can also speed up frame rates depending on the number of rows in
the bounding envelope that encloses all ROIs.
To use this feature, it must be supported in the third party imaging application being
used. For programmers, an example application is included in the PVCAM SDK,
available from Photometrics at no additional cost.
Few Rows skipped
Many Rows skipped
ROI 1
ROI 1
ROI 2
ROI 3
ROI 2
Many Rows skipped
Few Rows skipped
Figure 6: The multi-region selection on the left will result in a higher frame rate than the selection on the
right, due to a smaller number of rows to be digitized.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Device
Synchronization
(Triggering)
Prime offers several methods of integrating with external hardware devices. Each
camera has a 10-pin, Hirose HR212-10RC-10SDL(74) connector on the back of the
camera for trigger input/output operations. The signals provided to the user are:
Trigger In
Inputs initiate an exposure or sequence
Trigger Ready Out
Status indicating if the camera can accept another trigger
Read Out
Status indicating the camera is currently digitizing
Expose Out 1
Output for controlling illumination source 1
Expose Out 2
Output for controlling illumination source 2
Expose Out 3
Output for controlling illumination source 3
Expose Out 4
Output for controlling illumination source 4
A special BNC breakout cable is provided to
easily access these signals, and each break out
BNC cable is labeled according to its function.
Note that one BNC output is a spare for
future use.
Trigger Modes
Prime supports four trigger modes and three expose out behaviors. The triggering
modes and expose out behaviors of the camera are described as:
Timed Mode (Internal)
Timed mode is the default triggering mode for Prime. This means, the software/
application initiates the start of a sequence of acquisitions. Once initiated, each frame
captured in the sequence is controlled by the internal timing generators of the camera.
Camera settings, expose out behavior and sequence size are set in the software
application prior to acquiring the sequence. Timed mode is used when synchronization
with other devices is either not required or is controlled independently through the
software.
Trigger-First Mode
Similar to Timed Mode but requires a hardware trigger from the I/O connector.
Hardware triggers enable a higher precision of acquisition timing than software triggers.
Rising edge of an external trigger initiates the start of a sequence of acquisitions.
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Once initiated, each frame capture in the sequence is controlled by the internal timing
generators of the camera. Camera settings, expose out behavior and sequence size is
set in the software application prior to acquiring the sequence.
Edge Mode
Like Trigger-First Mode, Edge Mode requires a hardware trigger but this time for every
frame. The rising edge of the external trigger initiates capture of a single frame. Each
frame requires an external trigger from the I/O connector. Camera settings, expose
out behavior and sequence size is set in the software application prior to acquiring the
sequence.
Expose Out
Behaviors
The settable Expose out behaviors provide flexibility in different experimental scenarios.
Note: All timing diagrams below are shown with Edge triggering mode
First Row
The “Expose Out” signal leaving the camera is high only when the first row of a single
frame is being exposed. The length of the signal is equal to the exposure time for the
first row. Exposure time is equal to what is set in the software application.
Although “First Row” behavior provides the maximum camera frame rates, it does not
avoid the overlap due to rolling shutter. This mode is not recommended if trying to
alternate between excitation wavelengths.
Trigger
Ready
Trigger
In
Frame
Exposure
Expose
Figure 7
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Any Row
The “Expose Out” I/O signal leaving the camera is high when any row in a single frame
is exposing. The length of the Expose Out signal is equal to the time between the start
of the first row’s exposure and the end of the last row’s exposure. Each line exposes
for the same amount of time which is equal to what is set in the software application.
Maximum camera frame rates are not possible in this mode but this does avoid frame
overlap.
Trigger
Ready
Trigger
In
Frame
Exposure
n x line time
n x line time
Expose
Figure 8
All Rows
The “Expose Out” I/O signal leaving the camera is high only when all rows within a
single frame are exposing simultaneously. The length of the Expose Out signal is equal
to the time between the start of the last row’s exposure and the end of the first row’s
exposure, which is also equal to the exposure time set in the software application. Each
row exposes for the length of time as defined by the software application plus the time
required for each row to start exposing.
Trigger
Ready
Trigger
In
Frame
Exposure
Expose
n x line time
n x line time
Figure 9
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
All Rows provides an effective global shutter with the speed and low noise benefits
of rolling shutter, but eliminates rolling shutter motion artifacts. This mode is
recommended for synchronizing the camera with high speed light sources that alternate
excitation wavelengths for high speed multi-channel fluorescence. In this mode, user
defined exposure time + 24ms defines the camera frame rate in 16-bit mode. For 12-bit
mode, the frame rate is defined by user defined exposure time + 12.5ms.
Rolling Shutter Mode
The Rolling Shutter Expose Out Mode is similar to First Row Mode, except that the
Expose Out signal is high only when all rows are exposing.
When Exposure time is less than readout time:
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
When Exposure time is more than readout time:
Below is a comparison of the different Expose Out behaviors under different exposure
time lengths:
Expose < Frame Time
Expose = Frame Time
Expose > Frame Time
Exposure
Row 1 Expose Out
Any Row Expose Out
All Row Expose Out
Rolling Shutter Mode
Figure 10
From this comparison, the following conditions can be defined for each expose out
behavior:
First Row
Any Row
All Row
Rolling
Expose
Expose
Expose
Shutter Mode
Expose =< Frame Time
Yes
Yes
No
No
Expose > Frame Time
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Exposure Overlap
Yes
Yes
No
No
Simulated Global Shutter
No
No
Yes
Yes
41fps (16-bit), 82 fps (12-bit)
(Full Frame)
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Multiple Output
Triggers
The Prime 95B camera has four independent trigger output signals. This enables
hardware control over light sources that cycle through different excitation wavelengths
during a sequence acquisition. For example, a multi-wavelength LED light source can
rapidly switch between two different fluorochromes.
The enabled outputs are simply cycled with each frame in a sequence. For example,
if two outputs are enabled, the output trigger signal is routed to output 1, output 2,
output 1, output 2, and so on.
If all four outputs are enabled the sequence would be as follows:
Trigger 1
Trigger 2
Figure 11
Trigger 3
Trigger 4
Texpose
SMART
Streaming
Sequenced Multiple Acquisition Real Time Streaming, aka SMART Streaming, is an
exclusive Photometrics camera feature that enables Prime to capture a continuous
sequence of images, while cycling through a maximum of 16 pre-programmed
exposure time values. This avoids the overhead of host communication time, resulting
in very high frame rate imaging while maintaining the correct exposure level for each
fluorophore.
The maximum exposure time per frame is 10 seconds in keeping with the SMART
Streaming high frame rate benefits.
When Multiple Output Triggers is combined with SMART streaming, it is possible to
control the exposure time of each output independently. This is much faster than using
software-based methods for control timing of illumination devices.
Trigger 1
Trigger 2
Figure 12
Trigger 3
Trigger 4
T1 T2
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T4
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The following table shows the frame rate advantages possible using multiple trigger
outputs and multiple triggers with SMART Streaming™ enabled.
Method
Exposures
USB Control
USB Control
Multi Trigger Out
Multi Trigger Out
Multi Trigger Out +
Channel 1 50ms, Channel
2 50ms
Channel 1 50ms, Channel
2 10ms
Channel 1 50ms, Channel
2 50ms
Channel 1 50ms, Channel
2 10ms
Channel 1 50ms, Channel
SMART Streaming
Fan Speed
Control and
Liquid Cooling
2 10ms
Time for 100 images
FPS
61 seconds
1.6 fps
71 seconds
1.4 fps
6 seconds
16fps
6 seconds
16fps
4 seconds
25 fps
Fans are often used to remove heat from the camera due to their convenience.
However, under demanding conditions, fan vibration isolation is insufficient for single
molecule localization, high magnification imaging or use with micromanipulators.
Prime solves this problem in two ways. First, a new, innovate fan mounting system was
developed that isolates fan vibration from the rest of the camera. Side by side testing
with competing products indicated that Prime outperforms alternatives in terms of
vibration isolation.
Secondly, the fan has variable speed control. The lower the fan speed, the lower the
vibration transferred. Prime provides three fan speeds, and even on the lowest setting,
it can still reach nominal -15º C sensor cooling in a 23º C ambient.
To achieve the ultimate in low vibration performance, the fan can be completely turned
off in software. Prime provides liquid cooling ports for this purpose. Fan speed settings
include:
1.High
2.Medium
3.Low
4. Off (Liquid cooling)
Note: If the camera is inadvertently left on with the air and liquid cooling disabled,
a protection circuit will trip preventing the camera from overheating. This circuit
disables current to the sensor cooling system until the camera returns. In this case the
camera is unable to cool the sensor. When setting Prime on a flat surface, be careful
to not block the air vents.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Advanced
Features
The ideas behind two of Prime’s unique signal processing capabilities are described in
Chapter 3, Theory of Operation. This section clarifies the settings that control each
feature.
PrimeEnhance
In many applications, the only control over PrimeEnhance is a simple “on/off”
checkbox. PrimeEnhance also provides controls over:
1. Number of iterations through algorithm
2. Gain = Prime system gain x 100
3. Offset = Prime bias offset - 100
4. Lambda Multichannel System = Controls weights in distance calculation
At the time of this writing, Iterations is fixed at three. Future versions of Prime will also
allow a choice of Iterations = 2. Iterations = 2 will provide less denoising, but will be ~
2x faster in frame rate.
Gain and Offset are determined by the camera’s design and uses appropriate default
values. In the future these will become default “read only” rather than settable
properties.
Currently, the Lambda is fixed and will disappear in future versions of PrimeEnhance.
PrimeLocate
In addition to a control to enable PrimeLocate, additional control parameters provided
are:
1. The number of ROIs returned per frame (1..512)
2. The size of the ROIs returned (1..15)
Note that the size of the ROIs is given as a “radius”. The actual ROI patch size is 2 x
radius + 1. The smallest ROI is a 3x3 pixel region (radius=1), and the largest ROI is a
31x31 pixel region (radius=15).
If it is required to go outside of these ranges, please contact Photometrics customer
service. These ranges were chosen based on the specific use case of STORM imaging,
but may be changed in future camera updates.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Time Stamps
Prime 95B is able to output “metadata” that describes data associated with each frame.
Metadata contains useful information like the exposure time, ROI location and time
stamps. Metadata is inserted directly into the frame buffer and transferred together
with the image data.
Time stamps are particularly useful. Prime generates Driver Generated Timestamps (for
legacy support) in the host PC and Hardware Timestamps generated in the camera.
The accuracy of Prime’s Hardware Timestamps is approximately 20 µsec, one row read
time from the sensor. This is far better than the 1 ms accuracy of Driver Generated
Timestamps. Hardware Timestamps are given in units of 1 ns.
To display Hardware Timestamps in the Micro-Manager application, metadata must
be enabled for Prime in the Device Property Browser. When acquiring a sequence,
Hardware Timestamps will be displayed in the metadata tab with the prefix “FMD” (for
Frame metadata).
Note: Prime has timestamps for “Bof” for “Begin of Frame” and “Eof” for “End of
Frame” events, which differ by approximately 10 ms, which was the preset exposure
time.
Figure 13
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Chapter 5.
Troubleshooting
For difficulty in troubleshooting
or if the symptoms are not listed
here, contact Photometrics
Customer Service.
System Does
Not Boot
Normally
If the operating system does not boot normally after the interface card is installed, try
reseating the PCIe card. If this is unsuccessful, try installing the new card in another
open PCIe 4x or higher slot. If this does not work:
1. Turn off the computer and remove the newly installed interface card.
2. Turn the computer on. If the system boots normally, there is probably an
interrupt conflict between a previously installed device
If you need assistance resolving the interrupt conflict, contact Photometrics Customer
Service.
New Hardware
Found Dialog
Box Does Not
Appear
If the New Hardware Found dialog box does not appear after installing a new interface
card to the computer and booting Windows 7:
1. Make sure the new interface card is inserted in an expansion slot according
to the computer manufacturer’s instructions
2. Ensure Prime 95B is connected and powered on at least 10 seconds before
starting the computer when using the PCIe interface.
3. When using the USB3.0 interface, wait for the LED on the rear of the
camera to stop blinking before checking for “New Hardware Found” and
opening the application.
It is possible that due to the power states settings of your computer, the PCI-Express
card was not properly detected. Following this boot up procedure to see if the camera is
detected, when using the PCI-Express interface:
1. Turn on Camera
2. Wait for LED to stop blinking
3. Turn on Computer
4. When computer has booted, power cycle the camera
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
5. When the LED stops blinking, restart computer
If the New Hardware Found dialog box still does not appear, contact Photometrics
Customer Service.
Images Not
Displayed
If no images appear:
1. Confirm the camera switch is set to on.
2. Confirm that the Prime 95B camera is selected in the imaging software
application.
3. Power off the camera and the host computer and check all system
connections (particularly the DATA and power cables), then restart.
4. Confirm the camera is operational by taking an image with a standard
C-mount lens attached to the camera. Using normal room lighting, place
the camera on a table about three meters away from an object and acquire
an image.
If the problem persists, contact Photometrics Customer Service.
Camera Running
Too Warm
PVCAM Error
Message
Appears
Lengthy Pauses
During Imaging
It is normal for the camera to be slightly warm to the touch while in operation.
However, if it is more than slightly warm to the touch (and at least one inch of space
has been left around the external cooling fins for airflow), switch off the camera
immediately and contact Photometrics Customer Service.
If a PVCAM error message appears, note the message’s number code and contact
Photometrics Customer Service.
If you notice lengthy pauses marked by a lot of disk activity while imaging:
•• Close any other programs that may be running.
•• Install more physical memory (RAM) in your computer system.
Camera Hang
with ROIs
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If you encounter any issues with ROIs when using the USB 3.0 interface - redraw
the ROI with a slightly different size. Due to how the USB 3.0 interface functions, an
extremely small percentage of ROI configurations may not work optimally.
©2017 Photometrics. All rights reserved.
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Chapter 6.
Basic Specifications
Prime 95B: Front,
Side And Rear
Views
A12B345678
Figure 14: Prime 95B Front View
Camera Weight
Prime 95B Side View
Prime 95B Rear View
Weight: 3.8 lbs. (1.7 kg)
Sensor
Specifications
Window
UV grade fused-silica
Broadband MgF2 anti-reflective
coating on both surfaces
BSI Scientific CMOS Sensor Array
Sensor
GPixel GSense 144BSI
Sensor Process
Backside illuminated scientific CMOS
Resolution
1200 x 1200
Pixel Size
11µm x 11µm
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Power Supply
Specifications
Voltage Input:
100-240 V~ @ 50-60 Hz
Current Input:
2.5 A (110V nominal)
Voltage Output:
+12V @ 8 A
Maximum Power Output:
140 W
Power Supply Weight:
1.80 lb (0.82 kg)
Supply Cable Length:
4 ft. / 1.22 m
Certifications:
CE, UL, CUL, FCC, PSE
Efficiency level VI
Note: CE certification applies to the Prime camera only when the camera system
operates with a CE-approved power supply
FIGURE 19. Prime Power Supply Top View
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
Appendix
Liquid Cooling Setup Instructions
Warning: Use of equipment not originally provided by Photometrics for use with
liquid cooled cameras will void any and all warranty coverage of the product.
1.
Unpack the cooler and hose assembly.
2. Confirm the cooler and hoses are pre-filled with blue-colored coolant.
3. Press one hose connector into its mate on the cooler.
4. Repeat with the second hose connector.
5. Press each hose connector on to its mating connector on the camera:
Circulator Out > Camera In
Camera Out > Circulator In
Listen for the “click.”
6. Pull each connector to ensure they are locked.
7. Inspect the set-up to insure the hose connectors are secure at the cooler and
camera.
8. Set both the pump speed and fan speed to level 10 on the front display on the
Circulator.
9. Plug-in the cooler and turn it on.
10. Look through the clear cover on the coolant reservoir to observe the liquid level
and confirm circulation (The liquid surface will appear agitated with normal
circulation).
11. Turn on the camera power and continue the setup per QuickStart Guide.
12. Use Software to set the camera fan speed to “off” - DO NOT turn off camera
fan without liquid circulating.
Please note there is no temperature adjustment on the unit.
Power Supply
Power Cable
Data Cable (USB 3.0 or PCI Express)
Figure 20.
Cooler Hose
(Camera In > Circulator Out)
PC Computer
Liquid Cooled Prime 95B
Setup Diagram
Cooler Hose
(Camera Out > Circulator In)
Camera
Head
Cooler
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Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
INDEX
A
O
Advanced Features, 27
Operating Frequencies, 18
B
Bias Offset, 13-14, 18, 27
Binning, 13
P
PCIe Connection, 3, 5-9, 29
Power Connector, 8
Power Supply, 2-4, 8, 32
C
Calibration, 11
Cleaning, 2
Clearing Mode, 18-19
CMOS Sensor Structure, 10
Computer (Host), 3, 5, 30
Connecting PCIe Bus, 6, 8
Connecting USB3.0, 9
Connectors, 6, 8, 9, 21, 22,
Power Switch, 4, 8
Precautions, 1, 3
PrimeEnhance, 16
PrimeLocate, 17
PVCam, 3-5, 20, 30
R
Repairs, 2
D
Region Of Interest (ROI), 17, 19-20, 27-28
Denoising (PrimeEnhance), 16, 27
Rolling Shutter, 12-13, 22, 24-25
E
Environmental Requirements, 2
Expose Out, 21-14
S
Sensor Structure, 10
Sensor Clearing, 13, 18
Signal Processing, 11, 16, 27
F
Filters (Despeckle), 14-16
Fan Speed Control, 26
SMART Streaming, 25-26
Software, 4-5, 14, 18-23, 25-26, 30
Software Installation, 5
G
Specifications, 31-32
Gain Combining, 11
Gain States, 18
Global Shutter, 4, 12, 24
Storage, 2, 5
H
Time Stamps, 28
Host Computer Requirements , 5
T
Trigger Modes, 21-22
Tripods, 2
Troubleshooting, 29-30
I
Imaging Window, 2
I/O Connector, 21- 22, 32
USB3.0, 1, 3-5, 9, 29
L
Lenses, 2
Liquid Cooling, 4, 26, 25
Localization Microscopy (PrimeLocate), 17
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U
©2017 Photometrics. All rights reserved.
w
Warranties, iii - iv
35
Prime 95B™ Scientific CMOS User Manual
www.photometrics.com
Main Phone: +1 520.889.9933
Support: +1 604.530.5800 / +1 800.874.9789
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36