802.11 standard - stony brook cs

802.11 standard
Acknowledgement: Slides borrowed from Richard Y. Yang @ Yale
IEEE 802.11 Requirements
•
•
•
•
Design for small coverage (e.g. office, home)
Low/no mobility
High data-rate applications
Ability to integrate real time applications and
non-real-time applications
• Use un-licensed spectrum
2
802.11: Infrastructure Mode
• Architecture similar to cellular
– networks station (STA)
802.11 LAN
STA1
802.x LAN
– access point (AP)
BSS1
Portal
Access
Point
Distribution System
Access
Point
ESS
• station integrated into the wireless
LAN and the distribution system
– basic service set (BSS)
• group of stations using the same
AP
– portal
• bridge to other (wired) networks
BSS2
STA2
• terminal with access mechanisms
to the wireless medium and radio
contact to the access point
– distribution system
802.11 LAN
STA3
• interconnection network to form
one logical network (EES:
Extended Service Set) based on
several BSS
3
IEEE 802.11 Physical Layer
• Family of IEEE 802.11 standards:
– unlicensed frequency spectrum: 900Mhz, 2.4Ghz, 5.1Ghz, 5.7Ghz
300 MHz
5.15-5.35 GHz
5.725-5.825 GHz
and 802.11b/g
802.11a
4
The IEEE 802.11 Family
Protocol Release
Data
Freq.
Rate
(typical)
Rate
(max)
Range
(indoor)
Legacy
1997
2.4 GHz
1 Mbps
2Mbps ?
802.11a
1999
5 GHz
25 Mbps
54
Mbps
~30 m
802.11b
1999
2.4 GHz
6.5 Mbps
11
Mbps
~30 m
802.11g
2003
2.4 GHz
25 Mbps
54
Mbps
~30 m
802.11n
2008
2.4/5
GHz
200 Mbps 540
Mbps
~50 m
5
802.11a Modulation
• 3 different physical layer implementation
– Frequency hopping spread spectrum
– Direct sequence spread spectrum
– IR
• Adaptive modulation
– BPSK: 6, 9 Mbps
– QPSK: 12, 18 Mbps
– 16-QAM: 24, 36 Mbps
– 64-QAM: 48, 54 Mbps
6
802.11 - MAC Layer
Traffic services
Asynchronous
Data Service (mandatory)
• exchange of data packets based on “best-effort”
• support of broadcast and multicast
Time-Bounded
Service (optional)
• exchange of bounded delay service
7
802.11 MAC Layer: Access Methods
• DFWMAC-DCF CSMA/CA (mandatory)
– collision avoidance via randomized “back-off“
– ACK packet for acknowledgements
• DFWMAC-DCF w/ RTS/CTS (optional)
– additional virtual “carrier sensing: to avoid hidden
terminal problem
• DFWMAC- PCF (optional)
– access point polls terminals according to a list
8
802.11 CSMA/CA
• CSMA: Listen before transmit
• Collision avoidance
– when transmitting a packet, choose a backoff
interval in the range [0, CW]
• CW is contention window
• Count down the backoff interval when
medium is idle
– count-down is suspended if medium becomes
busy
• Transmit when backoff interval reaches 0
9
802.11 Backoff
• IEEE 802.11 contention window CW is adapted
dynamically depending on collision occurrence
– after each collision, CW is doubled
– thus CW varies from CWmin to CWmax
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g
aSlotTime
20 usec
9 usec
20 usec
(mixed);
9 usec
(g-only)
aCWmin
31 slots
15 slots
15 slots
10
Congestion Avoidance: Example
busy
B1 = 25
wait
B1 = 5
data
data
B2 = 20
busy
cw = 31
wait
B2 = 15
B2 = 10
B1 and B2 are backoff intervals
at nodes 1 and 2
Q: how is the performance of a mixed mode 802.11b/g network? 11
802.11 – RTS/CTS + ACK
Sender sends RTS with NAV (Network allocation Vector, i.e.
reservation parameter that determines amount of time the data
packet needs the medium)
Receiver acknowledges via CTS (if ready to receive)
CTS reserves channel for sender, notifying possibly hidden stations
Sender can now send data at once, acknowledgement via ACK
Other stations store NAV distributed via RTS and CTS
DIFS
sender
data
RTS
SIFS
receiver
CTS SIFS
ACK
DIFS
NAV (RTS)
other
stations
SIFS
NAV (CTS)
defer access
data
t
new contention
12
802.11 – Inter Frame Spacing
Defined different inter frame spacing
SIFS (Short Inter Frame Spacing); 10 us in 802.11b
highest priority, for ACK, CTS, polling response
PIFS (PCF IFS); 30 us in 802.11b
medium priority, for time-bounded service using PCF
DIFS (DCF, Distributed Coordination Function IFS); 50 us in 802.11b
lowest priority, for asynchronous data service
DIFS
DIFS
medium busy
PIFS
SIFS
contention
next frame
t
direct access if
medium is free ≥ DIFS
13
802.11 – Inter Frame Spacing
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g
aSIFSTime
10 usec
16 usec
10 usec
aSlotTime
20 usec
9 usec
20 usec
(mixed);
9 usec (g
only)
aDIFTime
(2xSlot+SIFS)
50 usec
34 usec
50 usec;
28 usec
14
802.11: PCF for Polling (Infrastructure Mode)
PIFS
point
coordinator
D
D
SIFS
U
polled
wireless
stations
NAV
SIFS
NAV
medium
busy
contention free period
contention
period
t
D: downstream poll, or data from point coordinator
U: data from polled wireless station
15
802.11b Frame Format
preamble
2
Sync
SFD
PLCP header
MAC Data
CRC
Preamble (192 usec; or optional 96 short version)
- Sync: alternating 0s and 1s (DSSS 128 bits)
- SFD: Start Frame delimiter: 0000 1100 1011 1101
PLCH (Phsical Layer Convergence Procedure) Header
- payload length
- signaling field: the rate info.
- CRC: 16 bit protection of header
16
802.11 – MAC Data Format
Types
control frames, management frames, data frames
Sequence numbers
important against duplicated frames due to lost ACKs
Addresses
receiver, transmitter (physical), BSS identifier, sender (logical)
Miscellaneous
sending time, checksum, frame control, data
bytes
2
Frame
Control
bits
2
2
6
6
6
2
6
0-2312
Duration/ Address Address Address Sequence Address
Data
ID
1
2
3
number 4
2
4
1
Protocol
To
Type Subtype
version
DS
1
1
From More
DS Frag
1
Retry
1
1
1
4
CRC
1
Power More
WEP Order
Mgmt Data
17
18
A Testbed Result
USRPs
802.11a
• 10% HT, 10% partial HT,
80% perfectly sense each
other
• Each run randomly picks
an AP and two clients
CDF of concurrent flow pairs
Throughput Comparison
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Perfectly
Sense
Partial Hidden
HiddenTerminals
Terminals
802.11
0
0.5
Throughput
1
1.5
2