Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT

Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module
(NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
First Published: June 12, 2006
Last Updated: June 12, 2006
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module provides Cisco modular access routers with two-way satellite
WAN connectivity in Gilat SkyEdge–compatible satellite communications networks. The
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module functions as the indoor unit (IDU) of a very small aperture terminal
(VSAT), or earthbound station of a satellite communications network. A “very small” dish antenna is
called the outdoor unit (ODU) of a VSAT. As the IDU, the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module serves
as the interface between the ODU and the VSAT LAN. The ODU receives and sends signals to a satellite,
and the satellite sends and receives signals from an earthbound central hub, which controls the entire
operation of the satellite network.
Finding Feature Information in This Module
Your Cisco IOS software release may not support all of the features documented in this module. To reach
links to specific feature documentation in this module and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is
supported, use the “Feature Information for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module
(NM-1VSAT-GILAT)” section on page 171.
Finding Support Information for Platforms and Cisco IOS Software Images
Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco IOS software image
support. Access Cisco Feature Navigator at http://www.cisco.com/go/fn. You must have an account on
Cisco.com. If you do not have an account or have forgotten your username or password, click Cancel at
the login dialog box and follow the instructions that appear.
Contents
•
Prerequisites for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT), page 2
•
Restrictions for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT), page 3
•
Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT),
page 4
Corporate Headquarters:
Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134-1706 USA
Copyright © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Prerequisites for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
•
How to Configure the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT),
page 11
•
Configuration Examples for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module
(NM-1VSAT-GILAT), page 83
•
Additional References, page 100
•
Command Reference, page 102
•
Glossary, page 168
Prerequisites for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
•
The firmware version on the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module must be compatible with the
Cisco IOS software release and feature set on the router:
– For software compatibility information, see the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module
(NM-1VSAT-GILAT) Data Sheet.
– To view the Cisco IOS release and feature set on the router, enter the show version command
in privileged EXEC mode.
– To view the firmware version on the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module, enter the
service-module satellite slot/0 status command in privileged EXEC mode.
•
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module requires an associated central hub, which monitors and
controls the satellite network. You must therefore take one of the following actions:
– Subscribe to a service from a Gilat SkyEdge satellite service provider, who will operate the hub
and install an ODU.
– Purchase and operate your own Gilat SkyEdge hub equipment, obtain and install an ODU, and
acquire the appropriate satellite bandwidth to operate a satellite communications network.
Note
•
Install the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module in the router chassis, connect the network module
to the ODU, and connect the network module to the external power supply. See the “Connecting
Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Modules” chapter of the Cisco Network Modules Hardware
Installation Guide.
•
The hub must be configured to connect to the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module.
•
If you plan to use Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), or
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) on the router satellite interface, then the hub
must be configured to enable transparent tunneling of the protocol packets.
For hardware-related prerequisites, see the “Connecting Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Modules” chapter of the Cisco Network Modules Hardware Installation Guide.
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Restrictions for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Restrictions for the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
•
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module is supported only in Gilat SkyEdge–compatible satellite
communications networks. For more information, go to http://www.gilat.com/.
•
One-way satellite connectivity is currently not supported.
•
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module is designed for Ku-band and C-band satellite networks
using the Gilat SkyEdge Frequency and Time Division Multiple Access (FTDMA) technology.
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module is not compatible with these items:
– Other frequency bands, such as Ka-band
– Other satellite TDMA systems, including Digital Video Broadcasting–Return Channel by
Satellite (DVB-RCS), and Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS)
– Other media access methods, such as Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC)
•
If you use IP routing protocols other than Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2), then
one of the following actions is required:
– On the VSAT router, enable VSAT route update messages to the hub. See the “Enabling or
Disabling VSAT Route Update Messages to the Hub from the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network
Module” section on page 33.
– On the hub router, configure static routes to the VSAT router networks.
•
If you enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the VSAT router, then you must disable route
update messages to the hub. See the “Enabling or Disabling VSAT Route Update Messages to the
Hub from the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module” section on page 33.
•
PIM and RIP are not compatible on the satellite interface. Also, a specific configuration is required
for the satellite link to support IP multicast routing. See the “Configuring IP Multicast Routing for
the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module” section on page 77.
•
If a large number of VSATs send PIM, OSPF, or EIGRP protocol packets to the hub, then the
inbound channel may become saturated. Extremely large satellite networks may be required to use
only the RIPv2 routing protocol, because the VSAT software on the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network
module automatically optimizes RIPv2 packets for inbound channel bandwidth. To reduce inbound
channel saturation caused by PIM, OSPF, or EIGRP, increase the hello intervals on the VSAT router
satellite interface:
– For PIM, use the ip pim query-interval command.
– For OSPF, use the ip ospf hello-interval command.
– For EIGRP, use the ip hello-interval eigrp command.
•
Transmission of encrypted virtual private network (VPN) traffic over the satellite link is
recommended only when the traffic is accelerated before being encrypted. The reason is that the
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module TCP acceleration and HTTP acceleration features do not work
with VPNs or encrypted data. To perform TCP and HTTP acceleration before the data is encrypted,
use one of the following Performance Enhancement Proxy (PEP) options:
– Rate Based Satellite Control Protocol (RBSCP), a Cisco IOS feature
– A separate PEP device; contact your satellite service provider for information
•
Voice over IP (VoIP) calls are extremely sensitive to jitter and delay, both of which are inherent in
typical satellite links. The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module can use dedicated access (DA)
bandwidth over the satellite link to ensure that VoIP calls receive the highest quality of service.
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Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
To enable the use of DA bandwidth during VoIP calls, you must set up an integrated VoIP gateway
by taking one of the following actions on the router in which the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network
module is installed:
– Configure a VoIP gateway solution, such as Cisco CallManager Express (Cisco CME).
– Install a hardware VoIP gateway, such as one of the following voice-enabled modules:
NM-HDV, NM-HDA, NM-HD-1V, NM-HD-2V, NM-HD-2VE, or EVM-HD.
– Enable the Cisco Multiservice IP-to-IP Gateway feature.
For information about these voice applications, see the Cisco IOS Voice Configuration Library.
•
Do not enable Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) on the satellite interface. By default, CDP is
disabled on the satellite interface to avoid unnecessary traffic.
•
Both the Cisco IOS software on the router and the VSAT software on the NM-1VSAT-GILAT
network module apply QoS features to satellite traffic. These QoS features are applied separately
and sequentially. For outbound traffic (that is, traffic sent by the hub and received by the VSAT),
the VSAT software QoS features are applied first, followed by the Cisco IOS QoS features. The
sequence is reversed for inbound traffic.
•
Because of delays that are inherent to satellite links, using TFTP results in long file-download times.
Therefore, do not use TFTP to download a new Cisco IOS image over the satellite link. Instead, use
FTP, which performs faster downloads by leveraging the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module’s
TCP acceleration feature.
For more information about using FTP, see the “Copying an Image from an FTP Server to a Flash
Memory File System” section of the “Loading and Maintaining System Images” chapter of the
Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Configuration Guide.
•
Booting the router from a network server over the satellite link is not supported, because the bootup
process may time out before the satellite link comes up. Therefore, if you use the following
commands, make sure that you do not specify the satellite network or interfaces:
– boot system command in global configuration mode
– boot command in ROM monitor mode
Note
For hardware-related restrictions, see the “Connecting Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Modules” chapter of the Cisco Network Modules Hardware Installation Guide.
Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
To configure the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT) feature, you
should understand the following concepts:
•
General Satellite Network Components, page 5
•
Satellite Network Management and Provisioning, page 8
•
Outbound and Inbound Directions in a Satellite Communications Network, page 8
•
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module LEDs, page 8
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Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Note
For NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module features and benefits, supported hardware and software, and
other product information, see the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Data Sheet.
General Satellite Network Components
Figure 1 shows a satellite communications network that includes NM-1VSAT-GILAT network modules.
Not shown in Figure 1 are the terrestrial WAN connections that are also commonly used to connect
VSAT routers to the Internet or an intranet. A terrestrial WAN connection can be used to back up a
satellite link or can serve as a primary link that is backed up by a satellite link.
Figure 1
Satellite Communications Network Using the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module
Land
(HQ, Internet, hub)
Space
(satellite)
Land
(VSATs)
ODU
IDU
1
6
NM-1VSAT
GILAT
RF-IN
RF-OUT
ODU PWR
EXT
RE
ON
DC LOCK SYNC LINE
W0
EN
TX
LINK ETHERNET 1 ACT
4
LINK ETHERNET 0 ACT
CONSOLE
AUX
5
Intranet or
Internet
6
NM-1VSAT
GILAT
3
RF-IN
RF-OUT
ODU PWR
EXT
RE
ON
DC LOCK SYNC LINE
Central hub
W0
EN
TX
4
LINK ETHERNET 1 ACT
LINK ETHERNET 0 ACT
CONSOLE
AUX
5
2
6
4
NM-1VSAT
GILAT
RF-IN
RF-OUT
ODU PWR
ON
EXT
RE
DC LOCK SYNC LINE
W0
EN
TX
LINK ETHERNET 1 ACT
LINK ETHERNET 0 ACT
CONSOLE
AUX
5
117125
Note
1
Corporate headquarters/campus
4
Dish antenna (ODU) at VSAT
2
Dish antenna at hub
5
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module at VSAT
3
Satellite in space
6
Local network at VSAT; for example, a branch office
network connected to an Ethernet port on the router
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Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
At a high level, the many components of an enterprise satellite communications network can be divided
into three categories:
•
Satellite
•
Hub
•
VSATs
Satellite
Placed in orbit around the earth, a satellite is a specialized repeater that receives radio-frequency signals
from earth stations and retransmits them to other earth stations. The satellite also amplifies the signals
and switches the frequencies between the uplink and the downlink carriers. Gilat SkyEdge systems use
geostationary satellites with a fixed satellite-to-earth delay of about 250 ms.
Hub
The central hub—sometimes referred to as the “master earth station” but most often simply called the
“hub”—contains many components, including:
Note
•
Large dish antenna (15 to 36 feet [4.5 to 11 m] in diameter)
•
Satellite network management system (NMS) and provisioning stations, from which a network
operator can monitor and control all components of the enterprise satellite communications network
•
Baseband equipment that handles satellite access, routing between the hub and remote earth
stations, dial backup, quality of service (QoS), TCP acceleration, and HTTP acceleration
•
Optional components: web caches, MPEG transport coder/decoder, application server farms, and
audio/video broadcast programming devices
Throughout this document, the “hub” refers specifically to a Gilat SkyEdge hub.
VSATs
A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) is an earth station that can be divided into two areas:
•
Indoor unit (IDU), which generally serves to connect the local network to the hub through the
satellite link. The IDU components vary, depending on the functions required, but the components
typically include these items:
– Integrated receiver decoder (IRD) for the tuning
– Demodulation and decoding of L-band or other type of intermediate frequency (IF) passed from
the dish
– End-user input/output
•
Outdoor unit (ODU), which includes a “very small” dish antenna (2 to 6 feet [0.5 to 2 m] in
diameter) and its components, shown in Figure 2. The ODU is typically mounted on a building roof
or outer wall, or placed on the ground.
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module functions as the IDU of a VSAT and is connected to the ODU
through coaxial cables. A power supply is connected to the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module to
provide power over the coaxial cables to the ODU.
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Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module supports only the ODU equipment and power supply that come
in the “Sat Kit” provided by a Gilat SkyEdge satellite service provider.
Figure 2
ODU Components
1
3
2
4
5
6
127467
Note
Figure
Callout
ODU Component
Function
1
Low noise block converter
(LNB)
Amplifies and converts high-frequency satellite signals into
lower-frequency signals.
2
Transmit reject filter
Filters out transmitted signals so that only signals received
from the satellite enter the LNB.
3
Feed horn
Captures signals from and transmits energy to the reflector.
4
Orthomode transducer
(OMT)
Separates transmitted signals from received signals, which
have different polarization and frequency.
5
Solid state block converter
and power amplifier
(SSPA)
Amplifies and converts the low-frequency signals from the
IDU to high-frequency signals for transmission across the
satellite link.
6
Reflector
Concave dish surface that focuses the energy received from
the satellite to the feed horn and that transfers the energy
transmitted by the feed horn to the satellite.
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Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Satellite Network Management and Provisioning
The satellite network is provisioned and managed primarily from the central hub, where the network
management system (NMS) is used to manage satellite access, configure the VSAT software on the
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module, and monitor and control all components of the satellite network.
From the VSAT, the Cisco IOS software on the router is used to perform the initial configuration of the
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module to establish the backbone link to the hub. The Cisco IOS software
is also used to configure VSAT IP addresses and Cisco IOS software features. Some features require
configuration from both the hub NMS and the VSAT router Cisco IOS software.
You can use the following tools to monitor your NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module from the VSAT:
•
CiscoView
•
Network-based Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)—CiscoWorks and MIB browsers
•
Cisco IOS CLI—service-module satellite slot/0 status command and various show and debug
commands
Outbound and Inbound Directions in a Satellite Communications Network
The outbound direction applies to signals transmitted from the hub to the VSAT. Within a VSAT
network, the outbound direction applies to RF communication from the dish antenna (ODU) to the
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module (IDU). From the VSAT perspective, the outbound direction is
the receive path. Gilat SkyEdge outbound signals include user data and timing data that are compatible
with the Digital Video Broadcasting–Satellite (DVB-S) standard.
The inbound direction applies to signals transmitted from the VSAT to the hub. Within a VSAT network,
the inbound direction applies to RF communication from the NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module to the
dish antenna. From the VSAT perspective, the inbound direction is the transmit path. Inbound signals
include user data and retransmission requests.
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module LEDs
The NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module has six LEDs, shown in Figure 3 and described in Table 1.
Figure 3
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module LEDs
NM-1VSAT
GILAT
EXT
RX
ON
DC LOCK SYNC LINE
1
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2
3
4
TX
5
RF-OUT
EN
6
117347
ODU PWR
RF-IN
Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Table 1
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module LED Descriptions
Figure
Ref.
LED
State
Meaning
Possible Causes and Corrective Actions
1
Blinking
ODU power DC level is correct, and the
VSAT1 software on the network module
is running.
Normal indication. No action required.
Steady on
ODU power supply is connected properly, Wait until the VSAT software completes the
but the VSAT software on the network
boot process.
module is not running.
Off
ODU power supply is not connected or is
outside the specified DC range.
Check ODU power supply connections. See the
“Connecting Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Modules” chapter of the Cisco
Network Modules Hardware Installation Guide.
On
DVB2 (outbound3) receiver is locked.
Normal indication. No action required.
Off
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module does The VSAT parameters are configured
not see or recognize the DVB carrier signal incorrectly. See the “Configuring the Initial
from the hub.
VSAT Parameters for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT
Network Module” section on page 12.
2
EXT
DC
RX
LOCK
The network module is not properly connected
to the LNB.4 Check the RF5 cables or contact
your satellite service provider.
The dish antenna is misaligned. Contact your
satellite service provider.
There is a hub failure, or the hub is configured
incorrectly. Contact your satellite service
provider.
3
SYNC
On
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module is
synchronized with the hub timing.
Normal indication. No action required.
Off
NM-1VSAT-GILAT network module is not If the RX LOCK LED is also off, then see the
synchronized with the hub timing.
corrective actions for RX LOCK.
If the RX LOCK LED is on while the SYNC
LED is off, then the following apply:
•
The VSAT parameters are configured
incorrectly. See the “Configuring the Initial
VSAT Parameters for the
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module”
section on page 12.
•
There is a hub failure, or the hub is
configured incorrectly. Contact your
satellite service provider.
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Information About the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Table 1
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module LED Descriptions (continued)
Figure
Ref.
LED
State
Meaning
Possible Causes and Corrective Actions
4
On
IP connectivity to the hub is fully
established.
Normal indication. No action required.
Off
IP connectivity to the hub was
unsuccessful.
If the SYNC LED is also off, then see the
corrective actions for SYNC.
ON
LINE
If the SYNC LED is on while the ON LINE LED
is off, then the following apply:
5
TX
There is a problem somewhere in the return
path from the network module to the hub.
Check the cabling between the RF-OUT
connector and the SSPA.6
•
The SSPA may not be working. Contact
your satellite service provider.
•
The dish antenna is misaligned. Contact
your satellite service provider.
•
There is a hub failure, or the hub is
configured incorrectly. Contact your
satellite service provider.
Flickering
Inbound7 transmission is in progress.
Normal indication. No action required.
Off
No inbound transmission is in progress.
If you are concerned about the TX LED being
off, then try to ping the hub or another
destination on the other side of the satellite link.
If the TX LED does not flicker during the ping,
then the network module is not attempting to
send data to the hub.
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•
•
Wait until the VSAT software completes the
boot process.
•
Verify that your Cisco IOS software
configuration is correct.
•
The VSAT software has failed. Contact
your satellite service provider.
Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
How to Configure the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
Table 1
NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module LED Descriptions (continued)
Figure
Ref.
LED
State
Meaning
6
On
The router Cisco IOS software recognizes Normal indication. No action required.
the network module.
Off
The router Cisco IOS software does not
recognize the network module.
EN
Possible Causes and Corrective Actions
Verify that the network module is properly
installed in the router chassis. See the
“Installing Cisco Network Modules in Cisco
Access Routers” chapter of the Cisco Network
Modules Hardware Installation Guide.
1. VSAT = very small aperture terminal
2. DVB = Digital Video Broadcasting
3. The receive direction at the remote VSAT is called the outbound direction from the hub. See the “Outbound and Inbound Directions in a Satellite
Communications Network” section on page 8.
4. LNB = low noise block converter
5. RF = radio frequency
6. SSPA = solid state block converter and power amplifier
7. The transmit direction at the remote VSAT is called the inbound direction to the hub. See the “Outbound and Inbound Directions in a Satellite
Communications Network” section on page 8.
How to Configure the Cisco IP VSAT Satellite WAN
Network Module (NM-1VSAT-GILAT)
This section contains the following procedures:
•
Configuring the Initial VSAT Parameters for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module, page 12
(required)
•
Configuring IP Addresses for the Router Satellite Interface and the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network
Module, page 19 (required)
•
Verifying Satellite Network Connectivity for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module, page 25
(optional)
•
Troubleshooting Satellite Network Connectivity for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module,
page 28 (optional)
•
Enabling or Disabling VSAT Route Update Messages to the Hub from the NM-1VSAT-GILAT
Network Module, page 33 (optional)
•
Configuring Hub Dial Backup for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module Satellite Link, page 35
(optional)
•
Verifying Hub Dial Backup for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module Satellite Link, page 38
(optional)
•
Configuring Router Dial Backup for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module Satellite Link,
page 43 (optional)
•
Verifying Router Dial Backup for the NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module Satellite Link, page 47
(optional)
•
Configuring NM-1VSAT-GILAT Network Module Satellite Backup for a Terrestrial Link, page 51
(optional)
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