Live Sound Reinforcement Application Guide for PreSonus

®
Live Sound Reinforcement
Application Guide for
­PreSonus StudioLive
­AI-Series
Loudspeakers
™
Table of Contents
1.Overview.................................. 1
2. StudioLive AI-Series
Models..................................... 3
3. System Configuration
Suggestions.............................. 4
3.1. Stereo System.................. 4
3.2. Mono Cluster with
Down-fill........................... 4
3.3. Plan View LCR Systems..... 5
3.4. Vertical Coverage.............. 5
3.5. Auditorium with Balcony
Delays and Front Fill......... 7
3.6. 5.1 Surround and
Corporate Theater............ 8
3.7. Monitor Systems............... 8
3.8. Sub Alignment.................. 9
4. Example Hookup
Diagram............................. 10-11
1. Overview
S
tudio monitors are designed
to accurately reproduce music across a broad spectrum
without signal loss or distortion but
they can’t handle the SPL demands
and other necessities of a live show.
Conventional PA speakers can
deliver plenty of volume but except
for very high-end systems, they
can’t deliver the extremely clear,
accurate sound one expects in a
studio. As a result, a PA speaker that
delivers studio-monitor quality has
remained an unfulfilled fantasy—
until now.
This fantasy has, at last,
become reality, thanks
to a partnership between
PreSonus and Fulcrum
Acoustic’s legendary engineer ­David Gunness (formerly of
EAW and Electro-Voice).
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
Guide
™
Rather than take the usual
brute-force approach to PAspeaker design, the team designed
a coaxial loudspeaker that would
employ Fulcrum’s unique DSPbased ­approach.
The result is PreSonus StudioLive™ AI-series Active Integration
Loudspeakers, the first affordable,
active PA speaker systems that deliver studio-monitor accuracy—exceptionally clear, coherent sound—
while supplying the features and
protection systems required to mix
a live show that sounds great in a
wide variety of venues, with virtually
any musical genre.
These features include wireless
and wired control of all setup, tuning, and monitoring functions, using
an iPad® or laptop.
The StudioLive AI series consists
of three full-range systems and a
subwoofer. All models are self powered and utilize onboard DSP.
StudioLive AI speakers have
been custom tuned using Fulcrum
Acoustics’ Temporal Equalization™
algorithms. The internal phase,
alignment and FIR filters are not
individually user-adjustable; however, each loudspeaker offers different contours that adjust these
parameters to customize your
system for your application. Custom
EQ, delay, and group functions can
be applied on top of these contours
via the User Preset and can be adjusted from within SL Control Room
for iPad, Mac OS X, and Windows.
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StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
™
The Active Integration Difference
StudioLive Active Integration (AI)
loudspeakers combine advanced
DSP and networkability. The onboard
24-bit, 96 kHz
processor
operates at
350 MHz and
features assimilated USB
2.0 and 100
Mb Ethernet
connections.
Because of this, AI loudspeakers
can be directly wirelessly remote
controlled by iOS devices and OS X or
Windows computers when connected
to the same wireless router network.
All AI products currently run a
Linux kernel that allows support for
the included USB wireless module, as
well enabling the included Ethernet
port to connect directly to a standard
local area network (LAN).
The DSP’s speed also allows for an
unprecedented amount of dynamics
and effects processing.
CoActual™ Onboard
Each full-range AI-series loudspeaker is based on an eight-inch
CoActual coaxial speaker for highand mid-frequency reproduction.
The aural sensation of transparent
sound that is typical of coaxial systems is, of course, beneficial in mains
but is also helpful in proximate applications such as stage monitoring,
®
This is a significant element in
sonic transparency, definition, and
intelligibility, yet it is very seldom
discussed, let alone adequately addressed, in professional audio.
Temporal Equalization™
While DSP has long been included
in loudspeakers, it has generally been
handled as an additional feature,
rather than a part of the design of the
loudspeaker itself. Designers and
engineers typically build the best
physical loudspeaker they can and
then use DSP filters to improve performance and to provide the end-user
with some EQ options.
In contrast, StudioLive AI-series
loudspeakers were designed with
Fulcrum Acoustic’s TQ™ Temporal
Equalization algorithms from the
beginning. TQ provides a fully addressable, fairly large Finite Impulse
Response (FIR) filter. This filter allows for the implementation of more
detailed frequency-response adjustments; more important, we can
implement the precise temporal (time
domain) filters that are responsible
for the most remarkable TQ benefits.
Loudspeakers tuned with TQ provide a crisper stereo image, greater
soundstage depth, more separation
between the components of a complex mix, increased resistance to
feedback, more seamless transitions
between distributed loudspeakers,
and a less fatiguing listening experience at very high SPLs.
This will also readjust the phase
and time-alignment to keep it in
phase with the 18sAI subwoofer. As a
result, you can create the best 4-way
system for your application.
The three full-range speakers all
have the same high-frequency dispersion characteristics: 90˚H x 60˚V.
Make sure your design utilizes this
pattern to cover the listeners as much
as possible, while steering away from
reflective surfaces like walls, floors,
ceilings, and windows.
All models have a maximum SPL
greater than 130 dB.
With most 4-way systems, leaving frequency content below 100
Hz in the full-range loudspeaker can
introduce destructive cancellations
with the highest frequencies that are
reproduced by the subwoofer.
StudioLive AI-series loudspeakers
are designed to avoid this problem
when combined with an 18sAI subwoofer. This means that for applications
where a frequency overlap at 100 Hz is
beneficial, you can achieve bigger bass
sound without any extra effort.
For applications that require a more
linear frequency response between
the subwoofer and full-range content,
simply engage the highpass filter on
the full-range AI-series loudspeaker.
®
Please refer to the PreSonus
­ igging Guide for proper installation
R
guidelines for your loudspeakers.
Note: Installation of StudioLive
AI-series loudspeakers should only
be done by a licensed and insured
professional.
2. At a glance: StudioLive AI-series loudspeakers
312AI
315AI
328AI
18sAI
3-Way, Triamplified
Loudspeaker System
3-Way, Triamplified
Loudspeaker System
3-Way, Quad-amplified
Loudspeaker System
Powered Subwoofer,
Ported
Frequency Response (-10 dB)
50 Hz - 23 kHz
46 Hz - 23 kHz
54 Hz - 23 kHz
29 Hz - 141 Hz
Frequency Response (-6 dB)
56 Hz - 22 kHz
52 Hz - 22 kHz
59 Hz - 22 kHz
32 Hz - 110 Hz
Nominal Coverage (-6 dB)
90 x 60
90 x 60
90 x 60
n/a
Maximum Peak SPL
131 dB
131 dB
133 dB
135 dB
Crossover Frequency
LF: (overlapped) 100 Hz
- 1 kHz, HF: 1.8 kHz
LF: (overlapped) 100 Hz
- 1 kHz, HF: 1.8 kHz
1.7 kHz
n/a
StudioLive AI-Series Models
Directivity Index (DI)
10 dB, >500 Hz
10 dB, >420 Hz
10 dB, >460 Hz
n/a
The StudioLive AI-Series offers
three 3-way full-range models (312AI,
315AI, and 328AI) as well as an 18"
subwoofer (18sAI). Each full-range
loudspeaker is phase and timealigned to form a true 4-way system
when paired with an 18sAI subwoofer,
with or without the 100 Hz highpass
filter engaged.
Directivity Factor (Q)
10.0, >500 Hz
10.0, >420 Hz
10.0, >460 Hz
n/a
Configuration
Transducer
LF Transducer
12" ferrite
15" ferrite
2 x 8" ferrite
18" ferrite
MF Transducer
8" CoActual™
8" CoActual™
8" CoActual™
4"
HF Transducer
1.75" compression
driver
1.75" compression
driver
1.75" compression
driver
n/a
3
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front-fills, under-balcony fills, and
FOH live monitoring. Coaxial speakers
offer many benefits in theory; CoActual speakers make benefits a reality.
Multiway loudspeaker designs generally suffer from
the changing relationship between
the listener and
the speaker elements. A coaxial
Asymmetrical
loudspeaker’s
dispersion pattern from two
response behavior separate sources.
is symmetric in
both the horizontal and the vertical
axes. This means
that whatever response is observed
at a given angle
with respect to the
axis is the same at
Symmetrical
that angle in the
pattern from a single
opposite direction. dispersion
point source.
In other words, the
loudspeaker’s behavior is "mirrored"
about its axis.
Another benefit of the CoActual
speaker design is that the crossover
transition is undetectable (inaudible
and immeasurable), not just on axis,
but also at other angles. CoActual
speakers accomplish this by using
time correction to effectively make
the acoustic centers of both the mid
and HF driver the same—that is, by
delaying the woofer back to the same
plane as the compression driver.
This signal alignment allows AIseries loudspeakers to produce
transient signals with the least
possible change in the shape of
the waveform. The sounds we wish
to reinforce in a sound system are
dominated by transient information.
Consonant sounds in speech, percussive sounds, and the attack and
decay portions of all musical instrument sounds are transients.
These transients consist of complex combinations of many frequencies, and the phase relationships of
the individual harmonics are a critical
part of the characteristic "sound" of
an instrument or voice. Only an optimally aligned loudspeaker can reproduce them accurately.
™
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
™
312AI
315AI
328AI
18sAI
3. System Configuration Suggestions
®
3.2 Mono Cluster with Down Fill
Amplifier
Type
Class D
Class D
Class D
Class D 2,000W (total power
without protection
algorithms & limiter
enabled)
2,000W (total power without protection algorithms &
limiter enabled)
1,000W (total power without protection algorithms &
limiter enabled)
2,000W (total power
without protection algoTotal Power Output rithms & limiter enabled)
LF Power
2 x 500W bridged
2 x 500W bridged
2 x 500W
2 x 500W bridged
MF Power
500W
500W
500W
n/a
HF Power
500W
500W
500W
n/a
<0.05% (20 Hz - 20
kHz)
<0.05% (20 Hz - 20 kHz)
<0.05% (20 Hz - 20 kHz)
119 dB (A-weighted)
119 dB (A-weighted)
119 dB (A-weighted)
119 dB (A-weighted)
20 Hz - 20 kHz
20 Hz - 20 kHz
20 Hz - 20 kHz
20 Hz - 20 kHz
Free air convection
Free air convection
Free air convection
Free air convection
Rated THD <0.05% (20 Hz - 20 kHz)
Dynamic Range
Bandwidth
Cooling
System configuration suggestions
The following pages will demonstrate some system configurations for
common rooms. The size and shape
of your room and the application for
which it will be used greatly determines how many speakers you will
need and how they should be placed.
In every situation you should keep in
mind two important design factors:
your loudspeaker’s coverage pattern
and half-space loading.
Each full-range StudioLive AI loudspeaker offers offer the same 90˚horizontal x 60˚ vertical coverage pattern.
Be sure to pay close attention to these
angles when using your speakers. Rotating the cabinet changes the horizontal and vertical coverage.
When configured for stereo use,
make sure the cabinets are not
placed too wide for the room or too
far back into the corners. Too wide
of a placement will direct too much
energy onto the walls and can potentially add destructive interference
to the room. Adjust the left and right
speakers, as well as the toe-in angle,
to produce the best stereo image. If a
room is very narrow, a mono cluster
might be a better choice.
Wherever you place your loudspeakers, you should be aware of
half-space loading. Half-space loading occurs when a speaker comes
in close contact with, or touches, a
hard surface, like a floor or wall. As
its name indicates, this type of summation happens when the circular
radiation of the speaker is blocked by
a hard surface and is forced to radiate
in a crescent shape. Depending on
the proximity and position, there may
be a boost in low-frequency energy.
Testing your speaker placement and
doing critical listening tests will help
determine the best final location for
your loudspeaker system.
If your speakers are sitting on
the floor, you can expect a certain
amount of half-space loading. If
you are using your speakers as floor
wedges, you might want to experiment with using the highpass filter to
compensate for increased low energy.
In some cases, this might improve
intelligibility. Using the Floor Monitor
DSP contour will also help you get
the best use out of your StudioLive AI
loudspeakers in this position.
This graphic actually shows two
speakers. The upper speaker is for
throwing to the back of the room and
the lower speaker is covering the
space in the front of the room closest
to the stage.
Stereo System
3.3 LCR System
An LCR system is a stereo system
with center speakers added. This
configuration allows panning and
adds depth to the acoustic image.
This type of system will provide
more control than a basic stereo
system and is ideal in situations
where music and speech intelligibility are equally important.
3.1 Stereo System
A stereo system allows panning and
adds depth to the acoustic image.
This is good for speech reinforcement and greatly enhances live or
prerecorded music. Locate speakers
to give the best horizontal coverage.
Ensure that the listeners are well covered by the pattern.
Mono Cluster with Down Fill
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Center or mono systems can provide
a simple, economical solution for venues not too heavily vested in music, and
where speech intelligibility is the priority. As with a stereo system, make sure
the coverage pattern of the speaker has
its energy focused on the audience.
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
3.5 Auditorium with Balcony Delays and Front Fill
3.4 Vertical Coverage
Whichever speaker is chosen for a
specific project, the vertical coverage
is just as important as the horizontal
coverage. If you are using a groundstack approach with pole mount,
make sure your coverage matches the
listening plane. Suspension of speakers will provide even further control.
Source
LCR System
Each StudioLive AI-series fullrange loudspeaker features dualposition pole mounts. Using the 10˚
downward tilt mount will focus the
loudspeaker’s energy onto the audience and avoid destructive reflections. This is ideal for situations where
the loudspeaker is mounted atop a
tripod stand and placed on a stage, or
where the pole-mounted loudspeaker
is on the floor and the coverage area
is relatively shallow (conference, coffee house, etc.).
More complex speaker placements
could result in different audio arrival
times in the various zones and must
be time aligned. Using multiple sets
of speakers in a live performance can
make a huge difference in the quality
of the sound.
Flat floor with stage
•• Delay all speakers to main system
•• Front fills to main system
•• Subwoofers to mains
•• Downfill speakers (upper and
under balcony) to mains
•• Entire system to source on stage
MAINS
SL315AI
Source
ZONE 2
SL328AI
Elevated floor
ZONE 1
SL328AI
ZONE 3
SL312AI
MAINS
SL315AI
Source
10˚ pole
socket
position
ZONE 2
SL328AI
ZONE 1
SL328AI
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throughout the entire venue by extending the reach of the FOH system.
The onboard DSP on the StudioLive
AI-series loudspeakers allows you to
achieve this experience without any
additional equipment or wiring.
Measure
the distance and divide by
ZONE 3
SL312AI
1,100
(speed of sound in fps) to get a
starting point for the amount of delay
to apply. Fine tune the system with
critical listening of program material
or a live source.
Source
Flat floor
Jun
2013
10˚ pole
socket
position
Rather than relying on a pair of
front-of-house speakers to fill the
entire room, you can create listening zones throughout the room so
that your front-of-house system only
needs to be loud enough to cover
the front of the room. This allows you
to lower the level, give the front-row
listeners’ ears a break, and get better
fidelity from your speakers.
Delay systems allow you to provide the same listening experience
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
3.6 5.1 Surround and Corporate Theater
3.8 Subwoofer Alignment
Front - L
Front - R
0˚
30˚
30˚
110˚
110˚
Surround - L
StudioLive AI PA-series full-range
speakers make superb stage monitors. Each "reclines" at a 50˚ angle
when laid on their sides.
At right is a typical stage monitor
layout for a 5-piece band. For musicians who don’t require as much lowfrequency energy in their floor wedge
(vocalist, keyboard), a 312AI is used.
For musicians that need a little more
bass, the 328AI is used.
The drum monitor in this example
is a full-range 4-way system (315AI
stacked atop 18sAI). This can be configured with or without the highpass
filter engaged on the 315A, depending on how much 100 Hz overlap the
drummer prefers.
For smaller stages, a 315AI atop
a low tripod or in the horizontal floor
wedge position will be more than adequate to function as a drum monitor.
The 18sAI subwoofer has been
designed and customized for use with
the full-range AI-series loudspeakers. It features three delay presets
to guarantee that your 4-way system
stays in alignment:
0M. Select this setting when the
full-range system is directly over the
subwoofer (i.e., mounted atop using
the SP1BK sub pole accessory). No
delay is added to the subwoofer amplifier output.
1M. Select this setting when the
subwoofer is about one meter from
the full-range loudspeaker—a typi-
Center
5.1 systems can provide dramatic
audio presentations, however for best
results the 5.1 standard must be adhered to. Shown above are the correct
angles for the 5.1 standard. As with other systems, adjust the horizontal coverage to accommodate the audience.
3.7 Monitor Systems
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
Surround - R
adoring audience
SL328AI
Lead
Guitar
Mix 1
SL328AI
forcement of low frequencies when
the same frequencies are reproduced
by two sound sources that are set
some distance apart.
Low frequencies in the crossover
region between full-range and subwoofer have wavelengths that are
several feet long (the wavelength of a
150 Hz wave is about 7.5 ft!), which
means that reinforcement and cancellation will occur as the waves interact in the room.
2M
1M
adoring audience
SL312AI
SL328AI
Bass
Mix 3
Lead Vocal
Mix 2
SL312AI
SL315AI
atop
SL18sAI
0M
cal distance when the loudspeaker is
on an adjacent tripod stand. A delay
of about 2.9 ms is introduced to the
signal that is output through the subwoofer amplifier.
2M. Select this setting when the
subwoofer is about two meters from
the full-range loudspeaker—typical when the full-range system is on
the stage and the subwoofer is on
the floor. A delay of about 5.9 ms is
introduced to the signal that is output
through the subwoofer amplifier.
The Alignment delay setting compensates for the cancellation or rein-
Keyboards
Mix 5
Drums
Mix 4
SL312AI
Alignment Delay
The Alignment delay provides
compensation for this effect when the
loudspeaker is about the same distance
away from, or in front of, the subwoofer,
as specified in the setting. As room
acoustics will influence effectiveness,
we recommend listening tests using the
different Alignment settings in conjunction with alternate Polarity settings to
determine the best results.
If you are aligning for a custom installation or the subs must be located some
distance from the main speakers, you
will need to do some calculation.
Find the spot back in the room
where coverage from the main speakers and the subwoofers overlap. Measure the distance from the overlap
area to each speaker location. Subtract the smaller distance from the
larger. Divide that number by 1,100
and apply that delay value to the
speaker that is closest. Keep in mind
that the overlap area may be behind
front-of-house.
SL315AI
Overlap
Area
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StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
4. Example Hookup Diagram: Small to Medium Church
StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
™
™
®
®
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StudioLive AI-Series PA Applications Guide
StudioLive
AI-Series PA
Applications
Guide
™
SL315AI
F
ile Resources
To obtain these documents, please go to
www.presonus.com/products/Studiolive-315AI/
downloads:
AI Series Users’ Manual:
PreSonus_StudioLive_Manual_EN.pdf
Data Sheet:
PreSonus_StudioLive_315AI.pdf
2D CAD drawing:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_PA.dxf
A&E Specs:
PreSonus_StudioLive_315AI_AE.doc
Applications brochure:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_Applications.pdf
Compliance statement:
PreSonus_StudioLive_315AI_Compliance.pdf
R
elated SL315AI Products
SL312AI
F
ile Resources
To obtain these documents, please go to
www.presonus.com/products/Studiolive-312AI/
downloads:
AI Series Users’ Manual:
PreSonus_StudioLive_Manual_EN.pdf
Data Sheet:
PreSonus_StudioLive_312AI.pdf
2D CAD drawing:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_PA.dxf
A&E Specs:
PreSonus_StudioLive_312AI_AE.doc
Applications brochure:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_Applications.pdf
Compliance statement:
PreSonus_StudioLive_312AI_Compliance.pdf
R
SL328AI
WF-150 Wi-Fi wireless LAN adapter
M10AI-Kit M-10 mounting kit
SLS312AI-Cover dustcover
SP1BK mounting pole
355-NRG-COAX-8: 8" coaxial driver
355-NRG-LO-FREQ-12: 12"
low-frequency driver
•• 600-NRG0181: SLS312AI grille
•• 600-NRG0153: Handle assembly
ile Resources
To obtain these documents, please go to
www.presonus.com/products/Studiolive-328AI/
downloads:
AI Series Users’ Manual:
PreSonus_StudioLive_Manual_EN.pdf
Data Sheet:
PreSonus_StudioLive_328AI.pdf
2D CAD drawing:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_PA.dxf
A&E Specs:
PreSonus_StudioLive_328AI_AE.doc
Applications brochure:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_Applications.pdf
Compliance statement:
PreSonus_StudioLive_328AI_Compliance.pdf
R
elated SL312AI Products
••
••
••
••
••
••
F
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
elated SL328AI Products
WF-150 Wi-Fi wireless LAN adapter
M10AI-Kit M-10 mounting kit
SLS328-Cover dustcover
SP1BK mounting pole
355-NRG-COAX-8: 8" coaxial driver
355-NRG-LO-FREQ-8: 8" low-frequency driver
600-NRG0176: SLS328AI grille
600-NRG0153: Handle assembly
600-NRG0205: Sliding foot bracket
••
••
••
••
••
••
WF-150 Wi-Fi wireless LAN adapter
M10AI-Kit M-10 mounting kit
SLS315AI-Cover dustcover
SP1BK mounting pole
355-NRG-COAX-8: 8" coaxial driver
355-NRG-LO-FREQ-15: 15"
low-frequency driver
•• 600-NRG0182: SLS315AI grille
•• 600-NRG0153: Handle assembly
SL18sAI
F
To obtain these documents, please go to
www.presonus.com/products/Studiolive-18sAI/
downloads
AI Series Users’ Manual:
PreSonus_StudioLive_Manual_EN.pdf
Data Sheet:
PreSonus_StudioLive_18sAI.pdf
2D CAD drawing:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_PA.dxf
A&E Specs:
PreSonus_StudioLive_18sAI_AE.doc
Applications brochure:
PreSonus_StudioLive_AI-Series_Applications.pdf
Compliance statement:
PreSonus_StudioLive_18sAI_Compliance.pdf
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ile Resources
••
••
••
••
••
elated SL18s Products
WF-150 Wi-Fi wireless LAN adapter
D18S sub dolly
SLS18sAI-Cover dustcover
SP1BK mounting pole
355-NRG-LO-FREQ-18: 18"
low-frequency driver
•• 600-NRG0183: SLS18sAI grille
•• 600-NRG0153: Handle assembly
©2013 PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
StudioLive, CoActual, and XMAX are trademarks of PreSonus
Audio Electronics, Inc. Temporal EQ is a trademark of Fulcrum
Acoustic. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft.
iPad is a registered trademark of Apple, Inc. All specifications
are subject to change.
®
7257 Florida Blvd.
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
tel 225-216-7887
fax 225-926-8347
support@presonus.com
www.presonus.com