Nilar manual low voltage battery management system NIL16

Manual
Low voltage battery
management system
1
Terms and conditions
Note that all values and functions in this document are for a default
battery setup. Values and functionality are subject to change in
integration projects. For custom installations, please see the
modification document or contact your supplier.
V1.4
2
Table of contents
1
Terms and conditions ...................................................................... 2
3
Electrical interfaces ......................................................................... 4
3.1
4
5
LEDs ......................................................................................... 6
Connecting the system .................................................................... 7
4.1
First power on .......................................................................... 7
4.2
Single battery ........................................................................... 8
4.3
Multipack ................................................................................. 9
System information ....................................................................... 11
5.1
Charging ................................................................................. 11
5.1.1
5.2
Discharging ............................................................................ 12
5.2.1
5.3
6
2
Maintenance charging ................................................... 12
Fuses .............................................................................. 12
Charging with load connected ............................................... 13
Mounting instructions ................................................................... 14
6.1
System dimensions ................................................................ 14
6.2
Mounting requirements ........................................................ 14
6.3
Environmental requirements ................................................ 15
7
Maintenance and storage.............................................................. 16
8
Modbus Interface specification ..................................................... 19
9
8.1
Communication parameters .................................................. 19
8.2
Modbus Holding Register Address Map ................................ 20
8.3
Fault codes............................................................................. 22
8.4
Charge inhibit status codes ................................................... 24
Troubleshooting ............................................................................ 26
3
3
Electrical interfaces
Figure 1: Electrical interfaces
Off/On switch
The switch is used to turn the electronics on and off. The poles are
disconnected from the battery power when this switch is off, making
the battery safe to handle. Note that the charge control cable has to be
disconnected when restarting the battery pack.
Discharge terminals
The discharge terminals are threaded aluminum connectors for M8x14
stainless steel screws together with 8,4x16x1,6 stainless steel washer.
Required mounting torque is 15Nm.
Charge power connector
4
This 2 pole connector is used to connect the charger. Please see
chapter 4 for more information about connecting the battery. Note that
a 30A fuse is needed on this cable in multipack configuration.
Interpack connectors
The interpack connectors are used when connecting multiple battery
packs to one charger. It consists of one output and one input
connector. Please see chapter 4 for more information about connecting
the battery.
Charge control
The charge control connector is used to control the charger. The
charging process will not start without this cable connected. Please see
chapter 4 for more information about connecting the battery packs.
RS485
This connector is the Modbus interface which can be used to monitor
the battery. For more information, see chapter 9.
Digital input and Digital output
The digital input can be used to put the electronics in sleep mode. See
chapter 7 for more information.
Nilar Services
Nilar service connector, used for software updates.
RS232 and CAN
These interfaces can be customized to customer applications.
5
3.1 LEDs
The status LEDs are used to show current battery status. The LEDs are
placed on top of the battery, see Figure 1. Table 1 explains what all LED
combinations indicate.
Flashing green light
Solid green light
Flashing green and solid yellow
Solid green and solid yellow
Flashing yellow
Flashing red
Flashing red, green and yellow
No LED
No LED on Slave
Normal
Fully charged
Charging
Maintenance charging
Low voltage, requires charging
Error
Battery fault, contact support
Shut off or power saving mode
Slave not connected to master
Table 1: LED description
6
4
Connecting the system
Figure 2: Multipack with charger
4.1 First power on
Before installation, verify that all battery packs are turned off, see
chapter 3. The battery poles are disconnected when the battery is off,
which enables safe installation. It’s possible to verify the installation by
measuring the resistance between the battery poles before power on.
The battery is delivered with around 75% charge and need to be
charged before use. Power on each battery pack with the off/on switch
(see chapter 3) and fully charge the batteries. Verify that every pack
shows a solid green light after the first charge.
7
4.2 Single battery
Two cables connect the battery and the charger, the power cable and
the control cable. The power cable is connected to the charge power
connector and the control cable is connected to the charge control
connector on the battery. Connect the load on the discharge terminals.
See chapter 3 for an overview of the connectors.
It’s also possible to charge the battery through the discharge terminals.
Figure 3: Schematic connection of single pack
8
4.3 Multipack
In the multipack configuration there’s one battery pack that’s master
and 1 to 7 slave packs. See the label on each pack to identify them,
label placement can be seen in Figure 5. Figure 4 gives an overview of
how to connect the batteries. The signal goes from battery to battery
via the interpack connector. The slave packs can be connected in any
order, although it’s recommended to connect them in order for easier
maintenance. The charge control cable must connect the master pack
with the charger. See chapter 3 to locate the connectors.
Figure 4: Schematic connection of multipack
9
When connecting the charge power to the battery bank, it’s
recommended to replace the connector with cable shoes and connect it
as shown in Figure 4.
To get the maximum performance when connecting multiple battery
packs in parallel, it’s important to have minimum variance between
them. A small change, for example different cable lengths, can give
uneven charging or discharging of the battery packs. It’s therefore
advised to use cables of the same length and type to all battery packs.
In Figure 4 there’s three different power cable sets: The cables
connecting the load to the bank, cables connecting the battery poles to
each other and lastly the cables connecting the charger to the battery
bank. All cables in each set shall be of equal length.
10
5
System information
See label on the battery for nominal voltage, capacity and maximum
discharge rate.
Figure 5: Label placement
As the battery is not voltage regulated, the maximum and minimum
voltages are only approximations.
Maximum voltage is 133% of nominal. For maximum open voltage from
charger, see charger datasheet.
Minimum voltage is around 90% of nominal.
5.1 Charging
Charging of the battery is done with a constant current of 0.3C, a full
charge cycle from empty to full takes around 3 hours and 20 minutes. If
the charger is still connected after this, it will enter maintenance
charge. Charging is indicated by a solid light from the yellow LED. The
green LED will go from blinking to solid light when the battery is full.
11
Charging can only start if the internal temperature of the battery is
between –20°C and +40°C. The charge process will be automatically
stopped if the temperature goes above 58°C.
In some cases, the charging process might be stopped because of high
internal pressure. The pressure lowers itself during rest and charging
can then be restarted.
5.1.1 Maintenance charging
Pulse maintenance charging that keeps the battery in healthy condition
and always above 90% state of charge.
5.2 Discharging
See the label on the battery for maximum discharge rate. To prevent
harmful over discharge, the battery management system will
automatically disconnect the battery from the load when the battery is
empty. A blinking yellow LED indicates that the battery is empty and
needs to be recharged.
5.2.1 Fuses
Do not exceed the maximum discharge rate stated on the battery label.
There’s an electronic fuse that disconnects the battery string if more
than 6C is drawn for more than 1ms. The fuse will reset when the
battery is restarted.
Each battery string is also equipped with a backup mechanical fuse in
case the electronic fuse fails. The mechanical fuse requires service at a
Nilar approved service location to be replaced. Other components
might be damaged and need to be inspected by a trained operator.
12
5.3 Charging with load connected
The battery system can be charged with the load still connected. The
charger shall be dimensioned to provide current to both the battery
packs and the load simultaneously. Failing to provide enough current to
charge the battery will result in an error in the battery management
system and the battery will be disconnected.
13
6
Mounting instructions
6.1 System dimensions
System type
LV 24V 30Ah
LV 24V 40Ah
LV 24V 50Ah
LV 24V 60Ah
LV 48V 20Ah
LV 48V 30Ah
XX dimension
213,8
262,7
311,6
360,5
261
358
Table 2: System height
6.2 Mounting requirements
An air gap of minimum 16mm is needed around the battery.
When laying the battery down it’s important to place the battery so
that the internal gas chamber is in the top half of the battery. The gas
chamber can be identified by the gray safety valve on the bottom of the
battery, seen in Figure 6.
14
Figure 6: Safety valve
6.3 Environmental requirements
Forced ventilation might be needed in high current applications. Make
sure to install the battery in a dry place as it has limited moisture
protection built in.





Storage temperature:
Transport temperature:
Discharge temperature:
Charge start temperature:
Charge max temperature:
-25°C to +40°C
-25°C to +50°C
-20°C to +50°C
-20°C to +40°C
+58°C
15
7
Maintenance and storage
During storage it’s recommended to keep the charger connected so
that the BMS can maintain the battery.
If the battery pack needs to be stored without charger, make sure to
switch each pack off with the off/on switch (see chapter 3). This
prevents the small current to the electronics from draining the battery.
Another option is to use the sleep functionality to reduce the current
drawn by the battery management system.
16
8
Accessories
8.1 Display
The display gives the user real time information about the battery. The
following rows are shown in the standard configuration:




State if charge (battery capacity left in %)
Current
Voltage
Status message
The display is connected to the RS485 interface and cannot be
combined with the Modbus interface described in chapter 9.
The status message is a multi-purpose row for charging information and
potential error codes. See chapter 9.3 and 9.4 for error codes.
Figure 7: Display
17
8.2 Mounting options
Two different mounts are available from Nilar; side and top mounting.
Both are made from durable PA plastic and can be screwed to a
surface. Please contact your Nilar supplier for more information.
Figure 8: Side mounted
Figure 9: Top mounted
18
9
Modbus Interface specification
The Modbus interface can be used to receive data such as battery
capacity, current, voltage and error codes. It’s a read only interface that
can be used by any customer system. The Modbus interface cannot be
combined with the display accessory in chapter 8.1.
9.1 Communication parameters
Baudrate
Databits
Parity
Stopbits
Protocol
19200
8
None
1
Modbus RTU
19
20
9.2 Modbus Holding Register Address Map
Read only - function code 3
Address
0000
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
Register Name
SOC
I_TOT_SYS
VOUT
FAULT_CODE
CHARGE_INHIBIT
UNDERVOLTAGE
CHARGER_
CURRENT_SP
DATATYPE
UINT16
INT16
UINT16
UINT16
UINT16
UINT16
Registers
1
1
1
1
1
1
Unit
% x 10
A x 10
V x 10
UINT16
1
A x 10
bool
Range
0-1000
-x-x
0-x
See 9.3
See 9.4
0,1
0-x
Description
Battery system state of charge
Total system current
System terminal voltage
System fault code (with highest priority)
Charge inhibit status code (with highest priority)
0: Battery voltage ok. 1: Battery under voltage
Charger set point for current
21
22
9.3 Fault codes
Lowest fault code number has highest priority. In case of several faults, the fault code register will contain the fault
code with highest priority
Fault
code
0
Fault name
Fault type
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
IDIFF
SWITCH_SHORT
CHARGER_HIGH_CURRENT
CHARGER_LOW_CURRENT
CHARGER_NO_CURRENT
CHG_IERR
OVERCURRENT
V_MIN
V_MAX
I_MIN
I_MAX
T_MIN
T_MAX
P_MIN
P_MAX
Battery fault
Battery fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
Fault description
No fault
Battery string current difference too high.
Internal battery fault.
Power switch failure
Charger current too high
Charger current too low
No charger current
String current error during charge
Battery string overcurrent
Battery string voltage too low
Battery string voltage too high
Battery string current too low
Battery string current too high
Battery string temperature too low
Battery string temperature too high
Battery pressure too low
Battery pressure too high
160
170
180
190
200
210
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
23
NDV_MAX
DVDT_MAX
DTDT_MAX
DPDT_MAX
VDIFF_MAX
IDIFF_MAX
V_MIN
V_MAX
I_MIN
I_MAX
T_MIN
T_MAX
P_MIN
P_MAX
NDV_MAX
DVDT_MAX
DTDT_MAX
DPDT_MAX
VDIFF_MAX
IDIFF_MAX
STATE_TIME_MAX
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
System fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Charging fault
Battery string delta voltage too high
Battery sting voltage rate of change too high
Battery sting temperature rate of change too high
Battery pressure rate of change too high
Battery string voltage difference too high
Battery string current difference too high
Battery string voltage too low
Battery string voltage too high
Battery string current too low
Battery string current too high
Battery string temperature too low
Battery string temperature too high
Battery pressure too low
Battery pressure too high
Battery string delta voltage too high
Battery sting voltage rate of change too high
Battery sting temperature rate of change too high
Battery pressure rate of change too high
Battery string voltage difference too high
Battery string current difference too high
Charging state timeout
24
9.4 Charge inhibit status codes
Lowest charge inhibit number has highest priority. In case of several active charge inhibit codes, the charge inhibit
code register will contain the code with highest priority
Code Name
0
Description
Charging is allowed. No fault.
Charging is inhibited because of
10 CHARGE_START_INHIBIT_LOW_TEMP
too low battery temperature
Charging is inhibited because of
20 CHARGE_START_INHIBIT_HIGH_TEMP
too high battery temperature
Charging is inhibited because of
30 CHARGE_START_INHIBIT_HIGH_PRESSURE too high battery pressure
Charging is inhibited because of
40 CHARGESTART_INHIBIT_HIGH_SOC
too high battery state of charge
10 Troubleshooting
Please check all possible errors from top to bottom when fault
searching. Note that the charge control cable has to be disconnected
when performing a restart.
Issue
Red LED
flashing
Possible error
Battery over
temperature
Battery over pressure
Not charging
No voltage on
discharge
terminals
26
Internal error in
battery
Battery not connected
correctly to charger.
Action
Make sure the ambient
temperature is OK
Let the battery cool down
for 1 hour and then restart
it
Make sure the ambient
temperature is OK
Let the battery rest for 1
hour and then restart it
Contact Nilar support
Connect charge control
cable and charge power
cable.
Charger not connected Connect charger to power
to a working power
source.
source.
Too high temperature Ensure ample ventilation,
or pressure in battery
let battery cool down for 1
hour.
Internal error in
Contact Nilar support.
battery
Too high temperature Ensure good ventilation, let
or pressure in battery
battery cool down for 1
hour.
Battery is in fault
Follow steps for Red LED
mode
flashing
No LED when
on
Slave pack is not
connected to master
Pack is over
discharged
All LEDs blinking System error
Connect the slave pack to
master with interpack
connection
Contact Nilar support
Contact Nilar support
27