Pressure Pipe Installation Manual

Pressure Pipe
Installation Manual
TA B L E
02
03
04
06
08
09
13
16
22
23
23
24
25
27
28
30
OF
CONTENTS
Contact Information
General Pipe Information
The Steel Bell and Spigot Joint
Shipping Weights and Dimensions
Laying Length
Pipe Markings
Pipe Dimensions for Lined and Embedded Cylinder Pipe
Joint Deflection
Bevel Adaptors
Field Installation
Health and Safety
Unloading the Pipe
Digging the Trench and Preparing the Bedding
Handling the Pipe
Preparing the Pipe Ends
Quantities of Lubricant & Grout for Joints
31
32
34
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
46
48
50
51
54
55
56
57
Making the Joints
Installing Fittings
Checking the Gaskets
Grade and Line Changes
Protecting the Joints
Backfilling
Installing with a Trench Box
Testing
Restrained Joints
Snap Ring® Restrained Joint
Welded Restrained Joint
Harness Clamp Restrained Joint
Closures
Emergency Closures Pressure
Tapping
Wall Pieces
Pipe Orientation
Field Services
CONTACT INFORMATION
0
l
4
%
DECAST Ltd.
8807 County Road 56
Utopia, ON L0M 1T0
1.800.461.5632
705.734.2892
Engineering Fax: 705.734.2270
Shipping Fax: 705.734.9373
WEB
www.decastltd.com
!
CONTACTS
Rob Micieli
416.605.7374
Mauro DeFranco, P.Eng.
647.500.3789
Frank Mazza, C.E.T.
416.520.2779
John Pozzobon, C.E.T.
905.302.1062
Martin Fischer
705.796.8868
Vice President, Sales
Technical Sales Engineer
Sales
Sales
Sales
Benoit Tanguay, ing, P.Eng. 514.209.3188
(Eastern Canada)
SALES
sales@decastltd.com
ENGINEERING
engineering@decastltd.com
John Siervogel
Field Services
705.623.7263
02
GENERAL PIPE
INFORMATION
DECAST concrete pressure pipe and fittings
are manufactured to ANSI/AWWA C301
standards in sizes from 400 mm to 3600
mm with working pressures to 1720
KPa and higher
For specialized applications DECAST can
also manufacture concrete pressure
pipe to ANSI/AWWA C300 and C302
specifications.
DECAST concrete pressure pipe is
rugged, durable and long-lasting. The
pipe has self-centering steel joint rings and
rubber gaskets that ensure watertightness and joint flexibility.
Concrete pressure pipe can be installed
easily, rapidly and economically because its
steel bell and spigot joint, which is
manufactured to close tolerances,
permits a quickly-made watertight
connection. DECAST provides pipeline
layout drawings that show the
sequence of installation for all pipe and
fittings it manufactures.
This installation manual provides
instructions for laying, joining and
backfilling pipe. It is provided as a guide
only. DECAST assumes no responsibility
or liability by reason of supplying this
manual.
03
THE STEEL BELL
AND SPIGOT JOINT
The bell and spigot joint consists of a steel spigot on which a rubber gasket is placed. During installation, the spigot
end is pushed into the steel bell to form a watertight joint.
Prestressed Lined Cylinder Pipe Ready for Joining
Prestressed Embedded Cylinder Pipe Ready for Joining
04
The following diagrams show the completed joint for a prestressed lined cylinder pipe and a completed joint
for a prestressed embedded cylinder pipe.
Completed Joint for a Prestressed Lined Cylinder Pipe
Completed Joint for a Prestressed Embedded Cylinder Pipe
05
SHIPPING WEIGHTS AND
DIMENSIONS
DECAST supplies lined cylinder pipe (LCP)
and embedded cylinder pipe (ECP) in the
following diameters.
TABLE 1:
SHIPPING WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS OF
LCP AND ECP
LCP
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
Bell
O.D.
(mm)
Barrel
O.D.
(mm)
Approx.
Weight
(Kg/m)
Core
Length
(m)
6.096
400
572
508
230
450
629
565
270
6.096
500
686
622
300
6.096
600
800
737
380
6.096
750
972
908
560
6.096
900
1143
1080
710
6.096
1050
1302
1251
970
6.096
1200
1473
1422
1230
6.096
1350
1667
1594
1460
6.096
1500
1838
1765
1640
6.096
06
ECP
1050
-
1295
1120
1200
-
1473
1340
6.096
6.096
1350
-
1626
1490
6.096
1500
-
1803
1680
6.096
1650
-
1981
2240
6.096
1800
-
2159
2650
6.096
1950
-
2337
3070
6.096
2100
-
2518
3560
6.096
2250
-
2670
3780
6.096
2400
-
2822
4020
6.096
2550
-
2975
4320
6.096
2700
-
3140
4690
6.096
2850
-
3311
5140
6.096
3000
-
3483
6030
4.877
3150
-
3686
6260
4.877
3300
-
3826
6780
4.877
3550
-
3997
7370
4.877
3600
-
4169
7970
4.877
07
LAYING LENGTH
The nominal lay length of a
standard length pipe is 6.106 m or
4.887 m. The nominal lay length is
based on a 10 mm joint gap. Actual
lay length can vary as shown in the
following table:
TABLE 2:
LCP
ECP
LAYING LENGTH
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
Min. Laying
Length
(m)
Average
Laying Length
(m)
Max. Laying
Length
(m)
400 through to 1200
1350
6.096
6.096
6.106
6.106
6.140
6.137
1500
6.096
6.106
6.140
1050 & 1200
6.096
6.106
6.140
1350
6.096
6.106
6.144
1500
6.096
6.106
6.147
1650
6.096
6.106
6.150
1800
6.096
6.106
6.128
1950
6.096
6.106
6.156
2100
6.096
6.106
6.128
2250 & 2400
6.096
6.106
6.163
2550 through to 2850
6.096
6.106
6.159
3000 through to 3600
4.877
4.887
4.940
08
PIPE MARKINGS
The bell end inner concrete lining of the
pipe surface is stenciled with:
· DECAST
· Date of manufacturing
· Mark No.
·Cylinder gauge, if other than 16 Gauge
·Job No.
·Serial No.
·CSA / NSF 61
·AWWA Designation
·Inspector's stamp
Concrete pressure pipe is an engineered
product. Prior to repositioning any pipe or
fitting contact the Engineering Department at
DECAST
09
PIPE MARKINGS
L 48 - 12 A - 14G
TABLE 3:
• Cylinder gauge (if other than 16 Ga)
• Restrained joint (A) Snap Ring Bell, (W)
welded joint
• Class of pipe (CL 12)
• Pipe size, see Table 3
• Lined (L), Embedded (E)
Pipe Size
(in)
PIPE MARKING
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
Pipe Size
(in)
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
16
400
78
1950
18
450
84
2100
20
500
90
2250
24
600
96
2400
30
750
102
2550
36
900
108
2700
42
1050
114
2850
48
1200
120
3000
54
1350
126
3150
60
1500
132
3300
66
1650
138
3450
72
1800
144
3600
10
A pipe that differs from a standard pipe is
marked with a coloured stripe.
· A YELLOW STRIPE indicates that the pipe has a
restrained bell end.
· A PINK STRIPE indicates that the pipe has a
threaded or flanged outlet and is painted at
the outlet.
· A BLUE STRIPE indicates that the pipe has a
bevelled spigot.
Pipe Markings
11
PIPE MARKINGS
Pipe with cylinder thickness greater than 16 Gauge are
specially marked by adding a paint patch on the spigot
end. The colour code system is according to the
following chart:
TABLE 4:
U.S Gauge
Number
SPIGOT COLOUR CODE
Steel Sheet Thickness
Marking
Colour
(mm)
(in)
16
1.52
0.0598
None
14
1.90
0.0747
Orange
12
2.66
0.1046
Blue
10
3.42
0.1345
Green
8
4.18
0.1644
Yellow
6
4.94
0.1943
Purple
N/A
6.35
0.2500
Pink
N/A
7.37
0.2900
Blue/ Orange
Blue/ Pink
N/A
7.62
0.3000
N/A
7.94
0.3125
Blue/ Red
N/A
12.7
0.5000
Blue/ Green
N/A
15.88
0.6250
Red/ Green
12
PIPE DIMENSIONS FOR LINED AND
EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE
Lined Cylinder Pipe
Embedded Cylinder Pipe
13
PIPE DIMENSIONS FOR LINED AND
EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE
TABLE 5:
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
LINED CYLINDER PIPE DIMENSIONS
Pipe
I.D.
(mm)
Core
Thickness
(mm)
Std. Joint
Depth
(mm)
Joint
Diameter
(mm)
Bell
O.D.
(mm)
Barrel
O.D.
(mm)
Core
Length
(m)
6.096
400
406
25
114
470
572
508
450
457
29
114
527
629
565
6.096
500
508
32
114
584
686
622
6.096
600
610
38
114
699
800
737
6.096
750
762
48
114
870
972
908
6.096
900
914
57
114
1041
1143
1080
6.096
1050
1067
67
114
1200
1302
1251
6.096
1200
1219
76
114
1372
1473
1422
6.096
1350
1372
86
121
1565
1667
1594
6.096
1500
1524
95
124
1738
1838
1765
6.096
14
TABLE 6:
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE DIMENSIONS
Pipe
I.D.
(mm)
Core
Thickness
(mm)
Std. Joint
Depth
(mm)
Joint
Diameter
(mm)
Barrel
O.D.
(mm)
Core
Length
(m)
1050
1067
89
114
1143
1295
6.096
1200
1219
102
114
1302
1473
6.096
1350
1372
102
130
1467
1626
6.096
1500
1524
114
133
1622
1803
6.096
1650
1676
127
137
1781
1981
6.096
1800
1829
140
114
1944
2159
6.096
1950
1981
152
143
2095
2337
6.096
2100
2134
165
114
2255
2518
6.096
2250
2286
165
149
2410
2670
6.096
2400
2438
165
149
2569
2822
6.096
2550
2591
165
152
2715
2975
6.096
2700
2743
171
152
2873
3140
6.096
2850
2896
181
152
3064
3311
6.096
3000
3048
190
152
3216
3483
4.877
3150
3200
200
152
3369
3686
4.877
3300
3353
210
152
3521
3826
4.877
3450
3505
219
152
3673
3997
4.877
3600
3658
229
152
3826
4169
4.877
15
JOINT DEFLECTION
After the joint is in place, the pipe can be
deflected within the tolerable limits that are
shown in the Tables 7, 8, 9 and 10.
Deflection of Standard Pipe
16
TABLE 7:
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
JOINT DEFLECTION OF LINED CYLINDER PIPE
Max. Joint
Opening
(mm)
Average
Laid
Length
(m)
Max.
Deflection
Angle
Max. Offset
for Std.
Length
(mm)
Min. Curve
Radius for
Std. Length
(m)
Joint
Depth
Joint
Diameter
(mm)
(mm)
400
44
6.106
5 ° - 24 '
574
64
114
470
450
44
6.106
4 ° - 49 '
512
72
114
527
500
44
6.106
4 ° - 21 '
462
80
114
584
600
44
6.106
3 ° - 38 '
387
95
114
699
750
44
6.106
2 ° - 55 '
311
119
114
870
900
44
6.106
2 ° - 26 '
259
142
114
1041
1050
44
6.106
2°-7'
225
164
114
1200
1200
44
6.106
1 ° - 51 '
197
188
114
1372
1350
41
6.106
1 ° - 30 '
160
231
121
1565
1500
44
6.106
1 ° - 27 '
155
238
124
1738
17
JOINT DEFLECTION
TABLE 8:
JOINT DEFLECTION OF LINED CYLINDER PIPE WITH MECHANICAL RESTRAINED JOINTS
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
Max. Joint
Opening
(mm)
(mm)
Average
Laid
Length
(m)
Max.
Deflection
Angle
Max. Offset
for Std.
Length
(mm)
Min. Curve
Radius for
Length
(m)
Joint
Depth
Joint
Diameter
(mm)
(mm)
400
13
6.106
1 ° - 32 '
164
225
114
470
450
13
6.106
1 ° - 22 '
146
253
114
527
500
13
6.106
1 ° - 14 '
132
280
114
584
600
13
6.106
1°-2'
110
335
114
699
750
13
6.106
0 ° - 50 '
88
417
114
870
900
13
6.106
0 ° - 41 '
74
499
114
1041
1050
13
6.106
0 ° - 36 '
64
576
114
1200
1200
13
6.106
0 ° - 31 '
56
658
114
1372
1350
13
6.106
0 ° - 27 '
49
751
121
1565
1500
13
6.106
0 ° - 25 '
44
833
124
1738
18
TABLE 9:
JOINT DEFLECTION OF EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
Max. Joint
Opening
(mm)
(mm)
Average
Laid
Length
(m)
Max.
Deflection
Angle
Max. Offset
for Std
Length
(mm)
Min. Curve
Radius for
Std. Length
(m)
Joint
Depth
Joint
Diameter
(mm)
(mm)
1050
44
6.106
2 ° - 13 '
236
156
114
1143
1200
44
6.106
1 ° - 57 '
208
178
114
1302
1350
48
6.106
1 ° - 51 '
197
187
130
1467
1500
51
6.106
1 ° - 47 '
190
194
133
1622
1650
54
6.106
1 ° - 44 '
184
201
137
1781
1800
31
6.106
0 ° - 56 '
99
373
114
1944
1950
60
6.106
1 ° - 38 '
175
211
143
2095
2100
31
6.106
0 ° - 48 '
85
432
114
2255
2250
67
6.106
1 ° - 35 '
168
220
149
2410
2400
67
6.106
1 ° - 29 '
158
234
149
2569
2550
63
6.106
1 ° - 20 '
142
260
152
2715
2700
63
6.106
1 ° - 15 '
134
275
152
2873
2850
63
6.106
1 ° - 11 '
126
294
152
3064
3000
63
4.887
1°-7'
96
247
152
3216
3150
63
4.887
1°-4'
91
258
152
3369
3300
63
4.887
1°-1'
87
270
152
3521
3450
63
4.887
0 ° - 59 '
84
282
152
3673
3600
63
4.887
0 ° - 57 '
80
293
152
3826
19
JOINT DEFLECTION
TABLE 10:
JOINT DEFLECTION OF EMBEDDED CYLINDER PIPE WITH MECHANICAL RESTRAINED JOINTS
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
Max. Joint
Opening
Max.
Deflection
Angle
(mm)
Average
Laid
Length
(m)
(mm)
Max. Offset
for Std.
Length
(mm)
Min. Curve
Radius for
Std. Length
(m)
Joint
Depth
Joint
Diameter
(mm)
(mm)
1050
13
6.106
0 ° - 38 '
67
548
114
1143
1200
13
1350
13
6.106
0 ° - 33 '
59
624
114
1302
6.106
0 ° - 29 '
52
704
130
1500
13
6.106
1469
0 ° - 26 '
47
778
133
1622
1650
13
6.106
0 ° - 24 '
43
854
137
1781
1800
13
6.106
0 ° - 22 '
39
932
114
1944
1950
13
6.106
0 ° - 20 '
36
1005
143
2095
2100
13
6.106
0 ° - 19 '
34
1082
114
2255
20
2250
13
6.106
0 ° - 18 '
32
1156
149
2410
2400
13
6.106
0 ° - 16 '
30
1232
149
2569
2550
13
6.106
0 ° - 16 '
28
1303
152
2715
2700
13
6.106
0 ° - 15 '
26
1379
152
2873
2850
13
6.106
0 ° - 14 '
25
1470
152
3064
3000
13
4.887
0 ° - 13 '
19
1235
152
3216
3150
13
4.887
0 ° - 12 '
18
1293
152
3369
3300
13
4.887
0 ° - 12 '
17
1352
152
3251
3450
13
4.887
0 ° - 11 '
16
1410
152
3673
3600
13
4.887
0 ° - 11 '
16
1469
152
3826
21
BEVEL ADAPTORS
Bevel adaptors may be used to make minor
grade or line changes that are beyond the
normal joint deflection.
Bevel Adaptor
22
FIELD INSTALLATION &
HEALTH AND SAFETY
FIELD INSTALLATION
The most common way to lay prestressed
concrete pipe is with a backhoe, although
other methods can be used depending on the
conditions and the size of the pipe
being installed.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
All installation procedures and operations
must be performed in accordance with local
Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA)
regulations and codes.
23
UNLOADING THE PIPE
All DECAST pipe is inspected at our
facilities before shipping. However, the
pipe should always be checked for any
damage that may have occurred during
transit. Note any damage on the packing
slip before accepting the pipe.
Before unloading the pipe, the truck and
the trailer must be parked on a level, stable
surface with brakes applied and, if
necessary, wheels blocked. When
unloading multi-tiered shipments, the cross
timbers must be secured to the trailer side
rail on the side that is being unloaded to
prevent the timbers from kicking up-wards
and dropping the rear pipe off the back
side of the trailer.
When pipes are unloaded using a forklift,
forks must be cushioned using rubber or
wood to prevent damaging the pipe.
Pipe may also be unloaded using a
backhoe or crane fitted with a cable or
sling, with safe lifting capacity, that has
been centered on the pipe at the
balancing point. The cable or sling must
be short enough to control the
movement of the pipe. Multiple slings
may be needed if the pipe or fittings
are large. Chains are not recommended.
Gaskets should be stored in a cool place
away from heat, sunlight, gasoline
or other materials that can damage
rubber. Joint lubricants should be stored
according to the manufacturer's
instructions. If freezing conditions are
expected, the pipe must be set on
wooden skids off the ground.
Unloading pipe using a
forklift
24
DIGGING THE TRENCH AND
PREPARING THE BEDDING
The typical trench geometry should allow
for sufficient clearance to properly install
the pipe. Pipe designs are affected by the
trench geometry, and hence the trench
geometry should not be changed from the
contract specifications without consulting
the supervising engineer and DECAST.
Digging a trench for a length of pipe
25
DIGGING THE TRENCH AND
PREPARING THE BEDDING
A space along the width of the pipe
approximately 200 mm deep and 400 mm
long should be made at the place where the
pipe will be joined. This space allows
room for the installation of the diaper
around the joint. To allow removal of the
cable after the pipe has been laid, a space
can also be made at the point where the
sling is located.
After digging the trench, the contractor
must follow the specifications that are
appropriate for the type of bedding. For
any change to the specifications, the
supervising engineers should be consulted.
COVER MATERIAL:
NATIVE MATERIAL (TYP.)
Typical Trench Bedding
26
HANDLING THE PIPE
Slip the steel cable sling under the pipe. Hook
one end of the sling on the hook of the bucket.
When you find the balancing point on the
length of pipe, mark the balancing points on the
other lengths of pipe.
To achieve the best possible control over the
joining, slowly move the backhoe to the end of
the trench, as closely as is safe.
Backhoe with steel sling moving pipe
27
PREPARING THE PIPE ENDS
For proper installation of the gasket prior
to joining the pipe the following steps
should be adhered to:
1 Clean the spigot groove and the inside
of the bell. Apply lubricant on the
spigot groove and the inside of the bell.
See Table 11 for recommended amounts.
2 Apply lubricant to the rubber gasket with
a clean cloth. Caution: Use only the
lubricant supplied by DECAST Petroleum
based lubricants should not be used
because they will damage the rubber
gasket.
3 Place the lubricated gasket in the
gasket groove of the entire spigot ring.
When the gasket is in place, insert a
smooth rod or a screwdriver between the
gasket and spigot
ring and run the screwdriver/
rod around the entire circumference
of the spigot ring to ensure that the
gasket is stretched evenly around
the spigot. This usually takes 2 to 3
rotations to accomplish.
4 Coat the gasket with lubricant.
5 Do not pre-install gaskets in pipe
strung
out
ahead
of
the
installation crew because the joint
lube under the gasket can dry from
the heat of the sun or be diluted by
rain water. In both of these
situations, the gasket’s ability to
slide within the groove during
installation will be inhibited.
28
Clean spigot groove and inside of bell
Applying lubricant to the spigot
groove
Applying lubricant to the inside of the
bell
Applying lubricant to the gasket with a
clean cloth
Using a screwdriver to ensure that the
gasket is stretched evenly around the
spigot
Coating the gasket with lubricant
29
QUANTITIES OF LUBRICANT
& GROUT FOR JOINTS
Quantities of lubricant shown
are based on applying 1.5 mm
thick layer of lubricant to the
gasket, spigot groove and the
inside of bell.
TABLE 11: APPR OXIMATE QUANTITIES OF JOINT
LUBR ICANT & GR OUT FOR EXTER NAL STANDAR D JOINTS
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
The amount of grout shown
are based on grouting the outside
joint opening of a standard joint.
Approx. No.
of Joints per
10 Kg Pail of
Lubricant
Approx.
Amount
of Grout per
Joint
(cu. meter)
(mm)
Approx. No.
of Joints per
10 Kg Pail of
Lubricant
Approx.
Amount
of Grout per
Joint
(cu. meter)
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
400
34
0.0142
1950
5
0.0765
450
31
0.0159
2100
4
0.0823
500
28
0.0176
2250
3
0.0880
600
23
0.0211
2400
3
0.0938
750
18
0.0263
2550
3
0.0991
900
15
0.0315
2700
3
0.1049
1050
11
0.0363
2850
2
0.1119
1200
9
0.0414
3000
2
0.1174
1350
8
0.0473
3150
2
0.1230
1500
7
0.0525
3300
2
0.1286
1650
6
0.0650
3450
2
0.1341
1800
6
0.0709
3600
1
0.1397
30
MAKING THE JOINTS
Carefully maneuver the pipe to align the spigot
end toward the existing bell end so that the
spigot will enter the bell end squarely. If the pipe
is properly aligned, the pipe will slide in
smoothly. If any dirt touches the lubricated
spigot ring of the pipe already in position, the
spigot ring must be cleaned and lubricated
again.
The following diagram shows three methods of making the
joints.
Pipe Joining Options
Pipe Joining
31
INSTALLING FITTINGS
Fitting joints slide together in the same way as
joints for straight pipe. As with straight pipe,
hydraulic pullers and come-alongs can be used
to join the fittings.
The long and short sides of the elbow are
stenciled on the face of the spigot. Additionally,
fittings are given a top mark at the spigot or bell
end as required.
Long, Short and Top Mark
32
Come-alongs or hydraulic pullers can be used to
pull the joint home while the backhoe supports
the elbow from above.
Elbow moved into position on the pipe
33
CHECKING THE GASKETS
A ‘feeler gauge’ is used to test the joints for
correct gasket placement.
23 mm
INTERNAL
FEELER GAUGE
LCP PIPE
EXTERNAL
FEELER GAUGE
Use the external feeler gauge to check the
gasket from the outside.
68 mm
1 Insert the feeler into the joint.
2 If you cannot feel the gasket anywhere
along the full circumference, the joint is
ACCEPTABLE.
External and Internal Feeler Gauge
THE GASKET CANNOT BE FELT
AROUND THE FULL CIRCUMFERENCE
OF JOINT, THEREFORE, THE JOINT IS
ACCEPTABLE
THE GASKET IS FELT ANYWHERE, REMAKE
JOINT WITH NEW LUBRICATED GASKET
FEELER GAUGE
FEELER GAUGE
3 If you feel the gasket anywhere along the
circumference, remake the j oint using a
new lubricated gasket.
RUBBER GASKET
RUBBER GASKET
Acceptable LCP Joint
Unacceptable LCP Joint
34
ECP PIPE
Inspect the gaskets using the internal feeler
Insert spacers
gauge from the inside.
(12mm) between the bell and spigot ends to
allow entry of the feeler gauge.
THE FEELER GAUGE FITS IN BETWEEN THE SPIGOT
AND BELL, AND THE GASKET CAN BE FELT AROUND
THE FULL CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE PIPE.
THEREFORE, THE JOINT IS ACCEPTABLE
1 Insert the feeler into the joint.
2 If the feeler gauge does not fit between the
bell and the spigot, the joint is ACCEPTABLE.
3 Occasionally, the joint rings may permit the
feeler gauge to be inserted over the spigot lip
for a certain distance along the
circumference. At these locations, you must
be able to feel the gasket. If you do, the joint is
ACCEPTABLE.
RUBBER GASKET
FEELER GAUGE
Acceptable ECP Joint
THE FEELER GAUGE FITS IN BETWEEN THE
SPIGOT AND BELL, BUT CANNOT FEEL THE
GASKET. THEREFORE, REMAKE JOINT WITH NEW
LUBRICATED GASKET
4 If you do not feel the gasket where the
feeler gauge was inserted, the gasket has
been rolled or is cut. Remake the joint
using a new gasket.
RUBBER GASKET
FEELER GAUGE
Unacceptable ECP Joint
35
GRADE AND LINE CHANGES
If joint deflections are required, they should
be made after the pipes have been
joined. Restrained
joints
must
be
deflected as described in the restrained
joint section of this manual. Pipe positions
can be checked with a laser or transit.
A level is used to check the elevation of the bell end of
the pipe.
36
PROTECTING THE JOINTS
To protect the joints, a mortar collar is poured
around the full circumference of the joint.
1 Place the diaper around the full circumference
of the j oint so that it straddles the joint.
Tighten the wires or the straps.
2 Mix 3 parts sand to 1 part cement with
enough water to make a free-flowing grout.
Ensure that the same cement that was used in
the pipe coating is used in the grout.
See table 11 for approximate amount of
grout per standard joint.
3 Pour the grout into the diaper on one side
until the mortar appears on the other side.
Continue pouring the grout on the other
side until the diaper is full. Trowel the gap at
the top of the diaper with a stiffer mix.
Pouring the grout in the diaper
4 Mortar the inside of the j oint. Use a ratio of 3:1 (sand to
cement) and enough water to make a mix that can be
easily trowelled. Point the inner joint recess and strike off
the surface smooth with the inside of the pipe.
37
BACKFILLING
Follow the contract specifications for
backfilling. In general, after the pipe has been
laid to the line and grade, material is tamped in
uniform layers not more than 200 mm in
thickness up to the spring line of the pipe.
From the spring line of the pipe to about 300
mm above the top of the pipe, selected
material is spread uniformly and compacted.
The remainder of the trench is filled with any
readily available backfill appropriate for the
traffic conditions.
Bulldozer backfilling the pipe
38
INSTALLING WITH
A TRENCH BOX
Soil conditions and ensuring safety often
requires that pipe is installed within a trench
box.
After you pull the box ahead in the trench, it is
important to check the pipe to make sure that
the pipe joints have not pulled apart.
Installing with a trench box
39
TESTING
All testing must be done in accordance with
contract specifications and procedures.
DECAST can provide test bulkheads to
accommodate field test pressures on isolated
sections of the pipeline. Air testing is not
recommended.
Test Bulkhead
40
RESTRAINED JOINTS
When a pipeline changes size, direction or
is bulkheaded, the internal line pressure
creates a thrust condition along the
pipeline. At these locations, restrained
joints are installed to counteract the
thrust. Snap Ring® joints, welded joints
and Harness Clamp are the typical
restrained joints that DECAST uses.
Harness Clamp restrained joints are
normally used at the long term bulkhead
locations.
41
SNAP RING ®†
RESTRAINED JOINT
This patented joint assembly provides
restraint for pipe diameters 400 mm
through 1800 mm and is provided by
DECAST. The Snap Ring® joint assembly is
used for applications requiring restraint
due to unbalanced forces (such as bends,
tees, etc.), therefore eliminating the
need for thrust blocks.
The joint design eliminates the problem
of point bearing and at the same time
permits deflection, for slight directional
changes during installation. Following
assembly of the joint, the voids around the
joint are filled with a protective cement/
sand grout. This grout helps to distribute
the thrust load uniformly around the joint
perimeter.
† Registered trade name of Price Brothers Corporation
Snap Ring® Joint
42
At the same time, the grout will
compress under load to permit slight
settlement of the pipeline. The result is a
superior restrained joint with a short
installation
time
that
effectively
eliminates
the
chance
of
an
installation error.
The Snap Ring® method is a fast and easy
way to make a better mechanical
restrained joint. The joint is completely selfcontained, ready to engage, and completed
by tightening a 9 mm bolt. It only
requires one man just a few minutes to
complete the joint using a speed wrench.
Snap Ring® Joint Assembly
43
SNAP RING ®† RESTRAINED
JOINT
DEFLECTING A SNAP RING® JOINT
ASSEMBLY
If a deflection of the Snap Ring® is necessary,
the insert ring must be tightened in two stages.
Stage one: The joint is assembled squarely and
the insert is tightened only enough to prevent
the pipe from pulling apart during deflection.
Single Bolt Snap Ring Joint
44
Stage two: Once the pipe has been deflected the
required amount, the insert can be tightened to
the extent of the bolt travel. Hand tightening is
all that is required, do not force the bolt.
Snap Ring® Joint
45
WELDED
RESTRAINED JOINT
Welded joints are another method used to
transmit thrust as well as provide joint restraint.
However, they are generally less economical than
a mechanically restrained joint due to field welding
costs. The rigidity of a welded joint coupled with
extreme soil settlement will cause adjacent pipe
lengths to transform into one long rigid beam,
subjected to bending and shear stresses. To this
end, welded type joints are used in special
applications to resist thrust and to increase the laylength of a standard pipe.
If welded joints are used, DECAST recommends
either an internal welded joint or an external
welded joint. Internal welded joints are utilized for
pipelines 1200 mm and larger in diameter, where
welding inside the pipeline is feasible.
This method requires a water-tight weld due to
the absence of the gasket.
Internal Field Weld
46
For pipelines 1050 mm and smaller
in diameter, an external welded joint
is recommended. This method requires a
field-weld bar (rolled to joint diameter),
which is wedged tightly against the
assembled joint rings. The procedure is
completed by a partial or full weld of
the
joint
assembly
circumference,
avoiding unnecessary heat which may
damage the rubber gasket.
External Field Weld
47
HARNESS CLAMP
RESTRAINED JOINT
The Harness Clamp Restrained Joint is normally
used at locations where there is the potential for
future connection. It is also used where the
application dictates a higher pressure, for
example at a bulkhead.
Harness Clamp Joint
48
DEFLECTING A HARNESS
CLAMP JOINT
When deflecting a Harness Joint the two “C”
clamps must be assembled and tightened in
two steps:
Step one: Assemble joint tightening the two
bolts only enough to prevent the pipe from
pulling apart during deflection.
Step two: Once the pipe is deflected to the
appropriate angle tighten the bolts and grout
as usual.
Harness Clamp Joint
49
CLOSURES
Closure sections are used when a new
pipeline is connected to an existing
pipeline, or when a connection is required
after an isolated pressure test. To
manufacture the closure section, DECAST
requires the exact dimensions of the
closure length.
If access to the pipe joints is available, the
closure should be measured as per the
diagram to the right. If the bulkheads
cannot be removed or if complete
excavation is not possible, DECAST
Technical Services can instruct the survey
crews on how to acquire the necessary
dimensions. DECAST will manufacture the
closure to fit the existing opening. The
closure may be installed with a coupling or
a split welding sleeve.
Measuring for a Typical Closure:
Closures can be manufactured for restrained or non
restrained areas of the pipeline.
50
EMERGENCY CLOSURES
Installed Closure
Installed standard weld sleeve closure
DECAST can provide a full range of Emergency Closure
sections available in 6.096 m and 7.315 m lengths. These
sections are designed to replace standard lengths of
pipe in restrained and non-restrained areas. The
plain ends of the closure sections are suitable for a field
welded sleeve or mechanical coupling. For more
information regarding Emergency Closure Sections
please contact our Engineering department.
51
PRESSURE TAPPING
Tapping into concrete pressure pipe is
a routine application.
The procedures
for tapping concrete pressure pipe while
the pipe is under pressure are the
same as for tapping other kinds of pipe.
Weld-on tapping assemblies are not
recommended for tapping concrete pipe
because deformation may occur during
welding to the pressurized steel cylinder.
The tapping saddle configuration should
allow for the saddle to be securely bolted
to the pipe before the prestressing wire or
the reinforcing rod from the tap opening
are removed.
Tapping machine positioned on pipe
52
DECAST can provide a full range of tapping
saddles for concrete pressure pipe and
other piping products. DECAST also
provides a full line of tapping services. In
lined cylinder pipe 900 mm and smaller a
strapless saddle tap may be used for taps
between 19 mm and 38 mm. The saddle
anchors directly to the prestressing wire
after the mortar coating has been carefully
chipped away.
This type of tapping saddle requires
no reinforcing bands or excavation under
the pipe. Encase all exposed steel in a 3:1
mortar mix after the tap has been made.
Installed wire anchor tapping saddle
Use a strap-type saddle for larger taps.
The saddle shown in the photograph below
is for a 200 mm tap in a 750 mm diameter
pipe.
53
PRESSURE TAPPING
The reinforcing bands of the saddle must be
torqued and the space between the saddle
and the barrel of the pipe grouted before any of
the prestressing wires are cut. The space
around the saddle gland can be grouted after
the pressure test is complete but must be
done prior to tapping the pipe. In all cases
tapping concrete pressure pipe should only be
done by qualified, experienced personnel.
After tapping is complete the saddle should be
protected by encasement in a cement rich
concrete or mortar with a minimum cover of 25
mm over all steel surfaces. Denso tape and paste
may also be used where concrete
placement is impractical.
Strap-type saddle used for larger taps
54
WALL PIECES
Wall pieces are generally provided with wall
flanges or thrust collars at the point at which
the wall is to encase the piece. If your project
does not incorporate this feature, internal
bracing should be used to ensure that the
piece remains round during the concrete pour.
Wall pieces may also be provided with water
stops. These are not designed for thrust
restraint. If thrust restraint is required, joint
restraints (mechanical or welded) must be
used. If thrust flanges are incorporated in the
wall piece the longitudinal thrust must be
transmitted from the wall piece to the
chamber or a thrust block.
Wall Piece
55
PIPE ORIENTATION
It is common practice to describe pipe as if it is
being viewed from the spigot end looking
toward the bell end.
Pipe Orientation
56
FIELD SERVICES
DECAST offers the assistance of highly
trained and experienced Field Service
Technicians who can advise your crew on
installation
procedures
and
repair
methods. Please see page 2 of this manual
for contact information.
57
Most extensive product line
in the industry
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE AND FITTINGS
VALVE AND UTILITY CHAMBERS
STEEL PIPE AND FITTINGS
BRIDGE GIRDERS
DE-SPAN®
0
BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE
TUNNEL SEGMENTS
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REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE
MAINTENANCE HOLES & CATCH BASINS
INTEGRATED FRAME & COVER MH SYSTEM (IFC)
HEADWALLS
RAILWAY / SUBWAY TIES
4
DECAST Ltd.
8807 County Road 56
Utopia, ON L0M 1T0
1.800.461.5632
705.734.2892
WEB
www.decastltd.com