MARINE CORP TM 10209-10

AIR FORCE TO 32-1-101
ARMY TM 9-243
NAVY M6290-AJ-MAN-1010
MARINE CORP TM 10209-10/1
TECHNICAL MANUAL
USE AND CARE OF HAND TOOLS AND
MEASURING TOOLS
FA8501-05-D-0002
BASIC AND ALL CHANGES HAVE BEEN MERGED
TO MAKE THIS A COMPLETE PUBLICATION
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited (WR-ALC/PA Public Affairs Certification Number 05-02-11).
Other requests for this document shall be referred to 584 CBSS/GBHDE, Robins AFB, GA 31098. Questions concerning technical content shall be
referred to 580 CBSS/GBZVA.
*Supersedes Army TM 9-243 dated 12 Dec 83 including all changes.
Published Under Authority of the Secretaries of the Air Force, Army, Navy, and The Commandant, Marine Corps.
1 DECEMBER 2004
CHANGE 2 - 14 SEPTEMBER 2007
TO 32-1-101
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.
NOTE: The portion of the text affected by the changes is indicated by a vertical line in
the margins of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by miniature
pointing hands. Changes to wiring diagrams are indicated by miniature pointing hands or by shaded areas. A vertical line running the length of a figure in
the outer margin of the page indicates that the figure is being added.
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . 1 December 2004
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 31 August 2006
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . .14 September 2007
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 310, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
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Index 1 - Index 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
*Zero in this column indicates an original page.
A
Change 2
USAF
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
1
2
Page
Chapter
INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 1-1
1.1
PURPOSE ............................................... 1-1
1.2
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL............ 1-1
SAFETY .................................................................... 2-1
SECTION I SAFETY RULES (GENERAL) ............ 2-1
4
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................. 5-1
5.2
TYPES AND USES ................................ 5-1
5.2.1
Spring Divider......................................... 5-1
5.2.2
Wing Divider........................................... 5-1
5.3
USING A DIVIDER TO SCRIBE A
CIRCLE .............................................. 5-2
5.4
CARE OF DIVIDERS ............................ 5-2
SAFETY AND SAFETY
EQUIPMENT ..................................... 2-1
2.2
TOOL HABITS....................................... 2-1
2.2.1
Keep Each Tool in its Proper Storage
Place .................................................... 2-2
6.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................. 6-1
2.2.2
Keep Your Tools in Good Condition ...... 2-2
6.2
TYPES AND USES ................................ 6-1
2.2.3
Keep Your Tool Set Complete................ 2-2
6.2.1
Simple Calipers ....................................... 6-1
2.2.4
Use Each Tool Only on the Job for
Which it was Designed ....................... 2-2
6.2.2
Spring-Joint Calipers............................... 6-1
2.2.5
Keep Your Tools Within Easy Reach
and Where They Cannot Fall on the
Floor or on Machinery ........................ 2-2
6
Never Use Damaged Tools ..................... 2-2
CALIPERS ................................................................ 6-1
6.2.3
Transfer Calipers..................................... 6-2
6.2.4
Hermaphrodite Calipers .......................... 6-2
6.2.5
Slide Calipers .......................................... 6-2
6.2.6
Vernier Calipers ...................................... 6-3
6.2.7
Trammels ................................................ 6-3
SECTION II SAFETY RULES (POWER
TOOLS) ................................................................. 2-3
6.3
READING A VERNIER CALIPER....... 6-3
6.4
READING A METRIC CALIPER ......... 6-4
SECTION III SAFETY EQUIPMENT ..................... 2-3
6.5
CARE OF CALIPERS ............................ 6-4
2.3
SAFETY SHOES .................................... 2-3
2.4
EYE PROTECTION ............................... 2-3
2.5
HELMETS .............................................. 2-4
7
MICROMETERS ...................................................... 7-1
7.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................. 7-1
2.6
GLOVES ................................................. 2-4
7.2
TYPES AND USES ................................ 7-1
2.7
SAFETY BELTS AND SAFETY
STRAPS .............................................. 2-4
7.2.1
Outside Micrometers............................... 7-1
7.2.2
Inside Micrometers ................................. 7-1
2.8
EAR PROTECTION............................... 2-4
READING MEASURING SCALES......................... 3-1
3.1
INTRODUCTION .................................. 3-1
3.2
READING THE SCALE OF A RULE
OR TAPE ............................................ 3-1
3.3
READING A METRIC RULE ............... 3-2
TOOL BOXES........................................................... 4-1
4.1
4.2
5
5.1
2.1
2.2.6
3
Page
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................. 4-1
7.2.3
Depth Micrometers ................................. 7-1
7.3
SELECTING THE PROPER
MICROMETER.................................. 7-1
7.4
READING A STANDARD
MICROMETER.................................. 7-2
7.4.1
To Read a Measurement as Shown
Above:................................................. 7-3
7.5
READING A VERNIER
MICROMETER.................................. 7-3
7.5.1
To Read a Measurement as Shown
Above:................................................. 7-3
7.6
READING A METRIC
MICROMETER.................................. 7-4
TYPES AND USES ................................ 4-1
DIVIDERS................................................................. 5-1
i
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
8
7.6.1
To Read a Measurement as Shown
Above:..................................................7-4
7.6.1
CARE OF MICROMETERS...................7-4
RULES AND STEEL TAPES....................................8-1
8.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ..................................................8-1
8.2
TYPES AND USES.................................8-1
8.2.1
Rules ........................................................8-1
8.2.2
9
Page
Folding Rules ...........................................8-2
Chapter
11 PLUMB BOBS .........................................................11-1
11.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................11-1
11.2
TYPES AND USES...............................11-1
11.2.1
Plumb Bobs............................................11-1
11.2.2
Surveyor’s Polished Brass .....................11-1
11.2.3
Solid Steel ..............................................11-1
11.3
USING A PLUMB BOB .......................11-2
11.4
CARE OF PLUMB BOBS ....................11-5
8.2.3
Steel Tapes ...............................................8-2
8.3
USING RULERS AND TAPES
EXAMPLES ........................................8-3
12.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................12-1
8.4
CARE OF RULES AND TAPES ............8-3
12.2
TYPES AND USES...............................12-1
MISCELLANEOUS MEASURING TOOLS ............9-1
9.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ..................................................9-1
9.2
TYPES AND USES.................................9-1
9.2.1
Adjustable Parallel ...................................9-1
9.2.2
V-Block and Clamp .................................9-1
9.2.3
12 SCRIBERS ...............................................................12-1
12.2.1
Machinist’s Scribers ..............................12-1
12.3
USING A MACHINIST’S SCRIBER ...12-1
12.4
CARE OF SCRIBERS...........................12-2
13 SQUARES ................................................................13-1
13.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................13-1
Angle Plates .............................................9-1
13.2
TYPES AND USES...............................13-1
9.2.4
Magnetic Base Indicator Holder ..............9-2
13.2.1
Carpenter’s Square.................................13-1
9.2.5
Registering Speed Indicators ...................9-2
13.2.2
Try Square..............................................13-2
9.3
USING MISCELLANEOUS
MEASURING TOOLS........................9-2
13.2.3
Combination Square ..............................13-2
13.2.4
Sliding T-Bevel......................................13-3
9.4
CARE OF MISCELLANEOUS
MEASURING TOOLS........................9-2
13.2.5
Bevel Protractor .....................................13-3
13.3
USING A CARPENTER'S SQUARE
TO MARK A SQUARE LINE ..........13-3
10 LEVELS ...................................................................10-1
ii
Page
10.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................10-1
13.4
USING A CARPENTER’S SQUARE
TO LAY OUT STEPS .......................13-3
10.2
TYPES AND USES...............................10-1
13.5
USING A TRY SQUARE .....................13-4
10.2.1
Master Precision Level ..........................10-1
13.6
10.2.2
Machinist’s Level...................................10-1
USING A SLIDING T-BEVEL
SQUARE ...........................................13-4
10.2.3
Iron Bench Level....................................10-1
13.7
USING A COMBINATION
SQUARE ...........................................13-5
10.2.4
Striding Level.........................................10-1
13.7.1
10.2.5
Carpenter’s Level...................................10-2
Using as a Center Head to Find the
Diameter of a Cylinder: .....................13-5
10.2.6
Line Level ..............................................10-2
13.7.2
10.3
USING A LEVEL..................................10-2
Using as a Protractor Head to
Determine an Angle ...........................13-5
10.3.1
Horizontal Surface .................................10-2
13.7.3
10.3.2
Angled Surface.......................................10-2
Using a Combination Square to
Determine Depth................................13-6
10.3.3
Vertical Surface .....................................10-3
13.8
CARE OF SQUARES ...........................13-6
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
Chapter
Page
16.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 14-1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 16-1
16.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 16-1
14.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 14-1
16.2.1
Thickness (Feeler) Gages...................... 16-1
14.2.1
Surface Gage ......................................... 14-1
16.2.2
Center Gage........................................... 16-2
14.2.2
Rule Depth Gage ................................... 14-1
16.2.3
Screw Pitch Gages ................................ 16-2
14.2.3
Micrometer Depth Gage........................ 14-2
16.2.4
Small Hole Gage Set ............................. 16-3
14.2.4
Vernier Depth Gage .............................. 14-2
16.2.5
Telescoping Gages ................................ 16-3
14.2.5
Height Gage .......................................... 14-2
16.2.6
Threaded Cutting Tool Gages ............... 16-3
14.2.6
Surface Plate ......................................... 14-3
16.2.7
Fillet and Radius Gages ........................ 16-3
14.3
USING THE SURFACE, DEPTH,
AND HEIGHT GAGES.................... 14-3
16.2.8
Drill Point Gage .................................... 16-4
16.2.9
Wire Gages............................................ 16-4
14.3.1
Using a Surface Gage............................ 14-3
16.2.10
Drill Gages ............................................ 16-4
14.3.2
Using a Rule Depth Gage...................... 14-3
16.2.11
Marking Gages...................................... 16-4
14.3.3
Using a Micrometer Depth Gage .......... 14-3
16.3
USING A THICKNESS GAGE ........... 16-5
14.3.4
Using a Vernier Depth Gage ................. 14-3
16.4
USING A CENTER GAGE.................. 16-5
14.3.5
Using a Height Gage ............................. 14-3
16.5
USING A SCREW PITCH GAGE ....... 16-5
14.4
CARE OF SURFACE, HEIGHT,
AND DEPTH GAGES...................... 14-4
16.6
USING A SMALL HOLE GAGE ........ 16-5
16.7
USING A TELESCOPING GAGE....... 16-5
15 RING AND SNAP GAGES AND GAGE
BLOCKS .......................................................... 15-1
16.8
USING A THREAD CUTTING
TOOL GAGE.................................... 16-6
USING A FILLET AND RADIUS
GAGE ............................................... 16-6
14 SURFACE, DEPTH, AND HEIGHT GAGES........ 14-1
14.1
15.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 15-1
16.9
15.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 15-1
16.10
USING A DRILL POINT GAGE......... 16-6
15.2.1
Ring Gages ............................................ 15-2
16.11
USING A WIRE GAGE ....................... 16-7
15.2.2
Snap Gages............................................ 15-2
16.12
USING A DRILL GAGE...................... 16-7
15.2.3
Gage Blocks .......................................... 15-3
16.13
USING MARKING GAGES ................ 16-7
15.3
USING A RING GAGE........................ 15-3
16.14
CARE OF GAGES................................ 16-7
15.4
USING AN ADJUSTABLE
SNAP GAGE .................................... 15-4
15.5
GAGING FLAT PARTS ...................... 15-5
17 PLIERS AND TONGS ............................................ 17-1
17.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 17-1
15.6
GAGING CYLINDRICAL PARTS ..... 15-5
17.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 17-1
15.7
HOW TO USE PRECISION
GAGE BLOCKS............................... 15-6
17.2.1
Slip-joint Pliers ..................................... 17-1
15.8
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN
USING GAGE BLOCKS ................. 15-7
17.2.2
Diagonal Cutting Pliers......................... 17-1
17.2.3
Lineman’s Side Cutting Pliers .............. 17-1
CARE OF RING AND
SNAP GAGES .................................. 15-7
17.2.4
Parallel Jaw Pliers ................................. 17-2
17.2.5
Flat-nose Pliers...................................... 17-2
CARE OF GAGE BLOCKS ................. 15-8
17.2.6
Round-nose Pliers ................................. 17-2
17.2.7
Straight-lip Flat-jaw Tongs ................... 17-2
17.2.8
End Cutting Pliers ................................. 17-2
17.2.9
Wire Strippers (Multipurpose) .............. 17-2
15.9
15.10
16 MISCELLANEOUS MEASURING GAGES ......... 16-1
iii
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
Chapter
17.2.10
Crimping Tools ......................................17-2
20.2.3
Hydraulic Jacks......................................20-2
17.2.11
Wire Twister ..........................................17-3
20.3
SAFETY ................................................20-3
17.3
USING SLIP-JOINT PLIERS ...............17-3
20.4
17.4
USING DIAGONAL CUTTING
PLIERS ..............................................17-4
USING A BELL BASE SCREW
JACK .................................................20-4
20.5
USING A RATCHET LEVER JACK ...20-5
20.6
CARE OF JACKS .................................20-6
17.5
USING LINEMAN’S SIDE
CUTTING PLIERS............................17-5
17.6
CARE OF PLIERS AND TONGS ........17-5
21 HAMMERS, MALLETS AND MAULS.................21-1
21.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................21-1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................18-1
21.2
Types and Uses ......................................21-1
21.2.1
Carpenter’s Hammer..............................21-1
18.2
TYPES AND USES...............................18-1
21.2.2
Machinist’s Peen Hammer.....................21-2
18.2.1
Machinist’s Bench Vise .........................18-1
21.2.3
Bumping Body Hammer ........................21-2
18.2.2
Bench and Pipe Vise ..............................18-1
21.2.4
Blacksmith’s or Sledge Hammers..........21-3
18.2.3
Clamp Base Bench Vise.........................18-1
21.2.5
Jeweler’s Hammer .................................21-3
18.2.4
Pipe Vise ................................................18-2
21.2.6
Mason’s Hammer...................................21-3
18.2.5
Machine Table Vise ...............................18-2
21.2.7
Napping Hammer...................................21-4
18.2.6
Pin Vise..................................................18-2
21.2.8
Riveting Hammer...................................21-4
18.2.7
Piston Holding Vise ...............................18-2
21.2.9
Sawmaker’s Hammer.............................21-4
18.2.8
Handsaw Filing Vise..............................18-2
21.2.10
Setting Hammer .....................................21-4
18.3
USING A MACHINIST’S BENCH
VISE...................................................18-3
21.2.11
Soft-Faced Hammer ...............................21-4
21.2.12
Lead or Copper Hammer .......................21-4
18.4
USING A PIPE VISE ............................18-4
21.2.13
Inserted Soft-Faced Hammer .................21-5
18.5
CARE OF VISES...................................18-4
21.2.14
Trimmer’s Hammer ...............................21-6
21.2.15
Welder’s Hammer..................................21-6
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................19-1
21.2.16
Dead Blow Hammers.............................21-6
21.2.17
Mallets ...................................................21-6
19.2
TYPES AND USES...............................19-1
21.2.17.1 Carpenter’s Mallet .................................21-6
19.2.1
C-Clamps ...............................................19-1
21.2.17.2 Rawhide Mallet......................................21-7
19.2.2
Hand Screw Clamps...............................19-1
21.2.17.3 Rubber Mallet ........................................21-7
19.3
USING A C-CLAMP.............................19-1
21.2.17.4 Tinner’s Mallet ......................................21-7
19.4
USING A HAND SCREW CLAMP .....19-2
21.2.18
19.5
CARE OF C-CLAMPS..........................19-2
21.2.18.1 Railroad Track Maul ..............................21-7
19.6
CARE OF HAND SCREW CLAMPS ..19-3
21.2.18.2 Wooden Maul ........................................21-7
18 VISES .......................................................................18-1
18.1
19 CLAMPS ..................................................................19-1
19.1
20 JACKS ......................................................................20-1
iv
Page
20.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................20-1
20.2
TYPES AND USES...............................20-1
20.2.1
Screw Jacks............................................20-1
20.2.2
Ratchet Lever Jacks ...............................20-1
Mauls .....................................................21-7
21.3
SAFETY ................................................21-7
21.3.1
Specific Steps to Take............................21-8
21.4
USING HAMMERS ..............................21-8
21.4.1
Using a Carpenter’s Hammer ................21-9
21.4.2
Using a Mechinist’s Ball Peen
Hammer ...........................................21-11
21.5
CARE OF HAMMERS .......................21-11
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
21.5.1
Care of Inserted Face Hammers.......... 21-12
21.6
REPLACING THE HANDLE ............ 21-12
21.6.1
Removing Old Hammer Handle ......... 21-13
21.6.2
Installation of New Handle ................. 21-13
22 SCREWDRIVERS .................................................. 22-1
Chapter
Page
24 SCREW AND TAP EXTRACTORS ...................... 24-1
24.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 24-1
24.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 24-1
24.2.1
Screw Extractors ................................... 24-1
24.2.2
Tap Extractor......................................... 24-1
22.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 22-1
24.3
USING A SPIRAL TAPERED
SCREW EXTRACTOR.................... 24-2
22.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 22-1
24.4
CARE OF EXTRACTORS................... 24-2
22.2.1
Common Screwdrivers.......................... 22-1
22.2.2
Cross-Tip Screwdrivers......................... 22-2
22.2.3
Cross-Point Screwdrivers...................... 22-2
22.2.4
Clutch Head Screwdrivers .................... 22-2
22.2.5
Offset Screwdrivers............................... 22-2
22.2.6
Ratchet Screwdrivers ............................ 22-3
22.2.7
Screwdriver Bits.................................... 22-3
22.2.8
Jeweler’s Screwdriver ........................... 22-3
22.2.9
Flexible Screwdrivers ........................... 22-3
22.2.10
Radio and Pocket Screwdrivers ............ 22-3
22.2.11
Screw Starter or Gimlet......................... 22-4
22.3
SAFETY................................................ 22-4
22.4
USING SCREWDRIVERS................... 22-4
22.4.1
Preparing the Work Surface .................. 22-4
22.4.2
Using a Screwdriver.............................. 22-4
22.4.3
Using an Offset Screwdriver................. 22-5
22.4.4
Using an Offset Ratchet
Screwdriver ....................................... 22-5
22.4.5
Using a Spiral Ratchet Screwdriver ...... 22-5
22.4.6
Using a Jeweler’s Screwdriver.............. 22-6
22.5
CARE OF SCREWDRIVERS .............. 22-6
23 MANUAL DRILLS................................................. 23-1
25 WRENCHES ........................................................... 25-1
25.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 25-1
25.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 25-1
25.2.1
Open-End Wrenches ............................. 25-1
25.2.2
Box Wrenches ....................................... 25-2
25.2.3
Combination Wrenches......................... 25-3
25.2.4
Socket Wrenches................................... 25-4
25.2.5
Socket Wrench Handles, Extensions
and Adapters ..................................... 25-4
25.2.6
Special Purpose Socket Wrenches ........ 25-6
25.2.7
Crowfoot Wrench.................................. 25-7
25.2.8
Hex Key Wrench (Shorter Section) ...... 25-7
25.2.9
Plug Wrenches ...................................... 25-7
25.2.10
Adjustable Open-End Wrench .............. 25-7
25.2.11
Clamp Pliers.......................................... 25-8
25.2.12
Monkey and Auto Wrenches................. 25-8
25.2.13
Pipe Wrenches....................................... 25-8
25.2.14
Torque Wrenches .................................. 25-9
25.2.15
Power Torque Wrench .......................... 25-9
25.2.16
Spanner Wrenches............................... 25-10
25.3
SAFETY.............................................. 25-10
23.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 23-1
25.4
HOW TO USE A BOX WRENCH..... 25-11
25.5
USING A SOCKET WRENCH.......... 25-11
23.2
TYPE AND USES ................................ 23-1
25.6
23.2.1
Brace Drill............................................. 23-1
USING AN ADJUSTABLE OPENEND WRENCH .............................. 25-12
23.2.2
Breast Drill ............................................ 23-1
25.7
23.2.3
Hand Drill ............................................. 23-2
USING AN ADJUSTABLE STRAP
PIPE WRENCH .............................. 25-12
23.3
USING A BRACE DRILL ................... 23-2
25.8
USING THE TORQUE WRENCH .... 25-13
23.4
USING AN EXPANSIVE BIT ............. 23-3
25.9
23.5
CARE OF MANUAL DRILLS ............ 23-3
USING THE POWER TORQUE
WRENCH ....................................... 25-13
25.10
USING A SPANNER WRENCH ....... 25-15
v
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
25.11
Page
CARE...................................................25-15
26 CHISELS ..................................................................26-1
Chapter
Page
28.2.2
Mill File .................................................28-1
28.2.3
Pillar File................................................28-1
28.2.4
Round File..............................................28-1
28.2.5
Square File .............................................28-2
28.2.6
Taper File ...............................................28-2
28.2.7
Three-Square File ..................................28-2
28.2.8
Warding File ..........................................28-2
28.2.9
Curved-Tooth File..................................28-2
28.2.10
Swiss Pattern File...................................28-2
28.3
SAFETY ................................................28-3
28.4
USING A FILE ......................................28-3
USING A MACHINIST’S COLD
CHISEL .............................................26-3
28.4.1
Selecting Proper File..............................28-3
28.4.2
Method of Filing ....................................28-3
26.5
USING A RIVET BUSTER CHISEL ...26-4
28.4.3
Draw Filing ............................................28-4
26.6
CARE OF CHISELS..............................26-5
28.5
CARE OF FILES ...................................28-4
28.6
REPLACING THE HANDLE...............28-5
26.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................26-1
26.2
TYPES AND USES...............................26-1
26.2.1
Woodworker’s Chisels...........................26-1
26.2.2
Machinist’s Chisels................................26-1
26.2.3
Track Chisel ...........................................26-2
26.2.4
Rivet Buster Chisel ................................26-2
26.3
USING A WOODWORKER’S
CHISEL .............................................26-2
26.4
27 PUNCHES ................................................................27-1
27.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................27-1
27.2
TYPES AND USES...............................27-1
27.2.1
29.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................29-1
Center Punches.......................................27-1
29.2
TYPES AND USES...............................29-1
27.2.2
Drift Punch.............................................27-1
29.2.1
Bench Grinder........................................29-1
27.2.3
Alignment Punch ...................................27-1
29.2.2
Valve Grinder ........................................29-2
27.2.4
Drive Pin Punch .....................................27-2
29.2.3
Sharpening Stones..................................29-2
27.2.5
Prick Punch ............................................27-2
29.3
USING A BENCH GRINDER ..............29-3
27.2.6
Starting Punch........................................27-2
29.4
USING A SHARPENING STONE .......29-5
27.2.7
Grommet-Inserting Punch......................27-2
29.5
CARE OF BENCH GRINDERS ...........29-5
27.2.8
Catapunch ..............................................27-2
29.6
CARE OF SHARPENING STONES ....29-6
27.2.9
Metal Cutting Punch ..............................27-2
27.2.10
Tinmen’s Hollow Punch ........................27-3
27.2.11
Sheet Metal Punch .................................27-3
27.2.12
Lever Punch ...........................................27-3
27.3
USING A CENTER PUNCH ................27-3
27.4
USING A DRIFT PUNCH ....................27-4
27.5
USING AN ALIGNMENT PUNCH .....27-5
27.6
CARE OF PUNCHES............................27-6
30 SCRAPERS ..............................................................30-1
30.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................30-1
30.2
TYPES AND USES...............................30-1
30.2.1
Carbon Scraper ......................................30-1
30.2.2
Bearing Scraper......................................30-1
30.2.3
Box Scraper............................................30-1
30.2.4
Flat Blade Scraper..................................30-1
30.2.5
Triangular Blade Scraper .......................30-2
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................28-1
30.3
SAFETY ................................................30-2
30.4
USING A BEARING SCRAPER..........30-2
28.2
TYPES AND USES...............................28-1
30.5
CARE OF SCRAPERS..........................30-2
28.2.1
American Pattern File ............................28-1
28 FILES........................................................................28-1
28.1
vi
29 GRINDERS AND SHARPENING STONES ..........29-1
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
31 AWLS ...................................................................... 31-1
Chapter
Page
34.2.6
Putty Knife ............................................ 34-2
31.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 31-1
34.3
SAFETY................................................ 34-2
34.4
USING A PUTTY KNIFE.................... 34-3
31.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 31-1
34.5
CARE OF KNIVES .............................. 34-3
31.2.1
Saddler’s Awl........................................ 31-1
31.2.2
Scratch Awl........................................... 31-1
31.3
USING A SCRATCH AWL ................. 31-1
31.4
CARE OF AWLS.................................. 31-2
32 BOLT AND CABLE CUTTERS ............................ 32-1
35 PIPE CUTTING AND THREADING TOOLS....... 35-1
35.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 35-1
35.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 35-1
35.2.1
Pipe Cutters ........................................... 35-1
32.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 32-1
35.2.2
Pipe Threading Set ................................ 35-1
35.3
USING A PIPE CUTTER..................... 35-1
32.2
TYPE AND USES ................................ 32-1
35.4
USING A PIPE THREADING SET..... 35-3
32.2.1
Center Cut Cutter .................................. 32-1
35.5
32.2.2
Clipper Cut Cutter ................................. 32-1
CARE OF PIPE CUTTERS AND
THREADING SETS ......................... 35-6
32.2.3
Shear Cut, Flat Bar, and Strip Cutter .... 32-2
35.5.1
Pipe Cutters ........................................... 35-6
32.2.4
Side Nut Splitter Cutter......................... 32-2
35.5.2
Threading Sets....................................... 35-6
32.2.5
Angular Cut Cutter................................ 32-2
32.2.6
Shear Cut Cable Cutter ......................... 32-2
32.3
SAFETY................................................ 32-2
32.4
USING CENTER CUT CUTTERS ...... 32-3
32.5
CARE OF BOLT AND CABLE
CUTTERS......................................... 32-3
33 GLASS CUTTERS .................................................. 33-1
36 TUBE CUTTING AND FLARING TOOLS .......... 36-1
36.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 36-1
36.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 36-1
36.2.1
Tube Cutters.......................................... 36-1
36.2.2
Flaring Tool........................................... 36-1
36.3
Using A Flaring Tool ............................ 36-2
33.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 33-1
36.4
CARE OF TUBE CUTTERS AND
FLARING TOOLS ........................... 36-3
33.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 33-1
36.4.1
Tube Cutters.......................................... 36-3
33.2.1
Wheel Type Glass Cutter ...................... 33-1
36.4.2
Flaring Tool........................................... 36-3
33.2.2
Circle Glass Cutter ................................ 33-1
33.3
USING A WHEEL-TYPE GLASS
CUTTER ........................................... 33-1
33.4
37.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 37-1
37.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 37-1
37.2.1
Hand Shears .......................................... 37-1
CARE OF CUTTERS ........................... 33-3
34 KNIVES................................................................... 34-1
34.1
37 SHEARS AND NIPPERS ....................................... 37-1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 34-1
37.2.2
Tinner’s Bench Shears .......................... 37-1
37.2.3
Metal Shearing Machine ....................... 37-1
34.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 34-1
37.2.4
Nippers .................................................. 37-2
34.2.1
Rubber Cutting Knives.......................... 34-1
37.2.5
Cutting Nippers ..................................... 37-2
34.2.2
Saddler’s Knives ................................... 34-1
37.3
SAFETY................................................ 37-2
34.2.3
Shop Knife ............................................ 34-2
37.4
USING CUTTING NIPPERS............... 37-2
34.2.4
Pocket Knife.......................................... 34-2
37.4.1
Wire Cutting.......................................... 37-2
34.2.5
Draw Knife............................................ 34-2
37.4.2
Flush Cutting......................................... 37-3
vii
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Chapter
Page
CARE OF SHEARS AND NIPPERS....37-3
40.4
38 TAPS AND DIES.....................................................38-1
38.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................38-1
38.2
TYPES AND USES...............................38-1
38.2.1
Taps........................................................38-1
38.2.1.1 Taper (Starting) Hand Tap .....................38-1
38.2.1.2 Bottoming Hand Tap..............................38-1
38.2.1.3 Pipe Hand Tap........................................38-1
38.2.1.4 Boiler Hand Taps ...................................38-2
38.2.1.5 Staybolt Taps .........................................38-2
38.2.1.6 Mud Hand Taps (Washout Tap) ............38-2
38.2.2
Dies ........................................................38-2
38.2.2.1 Rethreading Die .....................................38-2
38.2.2.2 Two-Piece Collet Die.............................38-3
38.2.2.3 Round Split Adjustable Die ...................38-3
38.2.2.4 Thread Cutter Set ...................................38-3
38.3
USING A HAND TAP ..........................38-3
38.4
USING A DIE AND DIESTOCK .........38-5
38.5
CARE OF TAPS ....................................38-6
38.6
CARE OF DIES.....................................38-6
40.5
USING AN ELECTRICAL
CONDUIT HAND BENDER............40-3
CARE OF BENDERS ...........................40-3
37.5
Page
39 REAMERS ...............................................................39-1
39.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................39-1
39.2
TYPES AND USES...............................39-1
39.2.1
Solid Straight-Hole Reamer...................39-1
39.2.2
Solid Taper-Pin Reamer.........................39-1
39.2.3
Expansion Reamer .................................39-2
39.2.4
Adjustable-Blade Reamer ......................39-2
39.3
USING A SOLID STRAIGHT-HOLE
REAMER...........................................39-2
39.4
CARE OF REAMERS...........................39-3
40 BENDERS ................................................................40-1
40.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................40-1
40.2
TYPES AND USES...............................40-1
40.2.1
Spring Tube Benders..............................40-1
40.2.2
Electrical Conduit Hand Bender ............40-1
40.3
USING A TUBING BENDER ..............40-2
viii
41 PULLERS.................................................................41-1
41.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................41-1
41.2
TYPES AND USES...............................41-1
41.2.1
Universal Gear Puller.............................41-1
41.2.2
Gear and Bearing Puller.........................41-1
41.2.3
Universal Bearing and Bushing
Puller..................................................41-1
41.2.4
Electrical Unit Bearing Puller................41-1
41.2.5
Battery Terminal and Small Gear
Puller..................................................41-2
41.2.6
Steering Gear Arm Puller ......................41-2
41.2.7
Push and Pull Puller Set.........................41-2
41.2.8
Steering Wheel Puller Set ......................41-2
41.2.9
Wheel Puller Set ....................................41-2
41.2.10
Cylinder Sleeve Puller ...........................41-3
41.2.11
Slide Hammer Puller..............................41-3
41.2.12
Cotter Pin Puller.....................................41-3
41.3
Using a Gear and Bearing Puller ...........41-3
41.4
USING A SLIDE HAMMER
PULLER SET ....................................41-4
41.5
CARE OF PULLERS ............................41-4
42 BARS........................................................................42-1
42.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................42-1
42.2
TYPES AND USES...............................42-1
42.2.1
Wrecking Bar .........................................42-1
42.2.2
Crowbar .................................................42-1
42.2.3
Pinch Bar................................................42-1
42.2.4
Combination Bar....................................42-1
42.3
SAFETY ................................................42-1
42.4
USING THE COMBINATION BAR....42-2
42.5
CARE OF BARS ...................................42-2
43 MATTOCKS ............................................................43-1
43.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................43-1
43.2
TYPES AND USES...............................43-1
43.2.1
Single-Bevel and Double-Bevel ............43-1
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
Chapter
Page
43.3
SAFETY................................................ 43-1
46.2.2
One-Man Crosscut Saw ........................ 46-2
43.4
USING THE MATTOCK ..................... 43-1
46.2.3
Two-Man Crosscut Saw........................ 46-2
43.5
CARE OF MATTOCKS ....................... 43-2
46.2.4
Backsaw ................................................ 46-2
46.2.5
Nested Saws .......................................... 46-3
46.2.5.1
Keyhole Saw ......................................... 46-3
46.2.5.2
Compass Saw ........................................ 46-3
46.2.5.3
Hacksaw ................................................ 46-3
46.3
SAFETY................................................ 46-4
44 GASKET CUTTERS............................................... 44-1
44.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 44-1
44.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 44-1
44.2.1
Circle Gasket Cutter.............................. 44-1
44.2.2
Bit Brace Circle Gasket Cutter.............. 44-1
44.2.3
Hollow Gasket Cutter............................ 44-1
44.2.4
Heavy Duty Bench Mount Gasket
Cutter................................................. 44-2
44.3
USING THE GASKET CUTTER ........ 44-2
44.3.1
Using a Circle Gasket Cutter ................ 44-2
44.3.2
Using a Bit Brace Circle Gasket
Cutter................................................. 44-2
44.3.3
Using a Hollow Gasket Cutter .............. 44-2
44.4
CARE OF GASKET CUTTERS .......... 44-2
45 CHOPPING TOOLS ............................................... 45-1
45.1
45.2
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 45-1
46.4
USING THE CROSSCUT SAW .......... 46-4
46.5
USING THE KEYHOLE SAW............ 46-5
46.6
USING THE HACKSAW .................... 46-6
46.7
CARE OF SAWS.................................. 46-6
47 BRUSH-CUTTING TOOLS ................................... 47-1
47.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 47-1
47.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 47-1
47.2.1
Brush Hook ........................................... 47-1
47.2.2
Machete................................................. 47-1
47.3
SAFETY................................................ 47-2
47.4
USING THE BRUSH HOOK............... 47-2
47.5
CARE OF BRUSH-CUTTING
TOOLS.............................................. 47-2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 45-1
45.2.1
Axes ...................................................... 45-1
45.2.1.1
Single-Bit Ax ........................................ 45-1
45.2.1.2
Double-Bit Ax....................................... 45-1
45.2.1.3
Crash Ax ............................................... 45-1
48.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 48-1
45.2.2
Hatchets................................................. 45-1
48.2.1
Timber Carrier....................................... 48-1
45.2.2.1
Half-Hatchet.......................................... 45-1
48.2.2
Peavy..................................................... 48-1
45.2.3
Adz ........................................................ 45-2
48.3
SAFETY................................................ 48-1
45.2.4
Timber Wedges ..................................... 45-2
48.4
45.3
SAFETY................................................ 45-2
USING TIMBER HANDLING
TOOLS.............................................. 48-1
45.4
USING THE SINGLE-BIT AX ............ 45-3
48.4.1
Using a Timber Carrier ......................... 48-1
45.5
USING THE ADZ ................................ 45-4
48.4.2
Using A Peavy ...................................... 48-2
45.6
USING THE TIMBER WEDGE .......... 45-5
48.5
45.7
CARE OF CHOPPING TOOLS ........... 45-5
CARE OF TIMBER HANDLING
TOOLS.............................................. 48-2
46 SAWS ...................................................................... 46-1
49 CLIMBING TOOLS................................................ 49-1
48 TIMBER HANDLING TOOLS .............................. 48-1
48.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 48-1
46.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 46-1
49.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 49-1
46.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 46-1
49.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 49-1
46.2.1
Handsaw................................................ 46-1
49.2.1
Safety Belt............................................. 49-1
ix
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
Chapter
49.2.2
Safety Strap............................................49-2
52.2.6
Portable Electric Disk Sander ................52-3
49.2.3
Leg Irons ................................................49-2
52.2.7
Bench Grinders and Oilstones ...............52-4
49.3
SAFETY ................................................49-2
52.3
SAFETY ................................................52-5
49.4
USING CLIMBING TOOLS.................49-2
52.4
49.5
CARE OF CLIMBING TOOLS ............49-4
USING THE PORTABLE
ELECTRIC DRILL ...........................52-6
52.5
DRILLS, REAMERS, TAPS, AND
COUNTERSINKS .............................52-7
50 PLANES ...................................................................50-1
50.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................50-1
52.5.1
Introduction............................................52-7
52.5.2
Twist Drills ............................................52-7
50.2
TYPES AND USES...............................50-1
52.5.3
Drill Terminology ..................................52-7
50.2.1
Block Plane ............................................50-1
52.5.4
Drill Sizes ..............................................52-7
50.2.2
Bench Plane ...........................................50-1
52.5.5
Using the Drill .......................................52-8
50.3
SAFETY ................................................50-1
52.5.5.1
Removing Rivets....................................52-8
50.4
USING THE BLOCK PLANE ..............50-2
52.5.5.2
Drilling Safety Practices ........................52-8
50.5
USING THE BENCH PLANE ..............50-2
52.5.6
Countersinks ..........................................52-8
50.6
CARE OF PLANES...............................50-3
52.5.6.1
Using the Countersink ...........................52-9
52.6
USING THE PORTABLE
ELECTRIC HAMMER ...................52-11
52.7
USING THE PORTABLE
ELECTRIC IMPACT WRENCH....52-12
52.8
USING THE PORTABLE
ELECTRIC CIRCULAR SAW .......52-13
52.9
USING THE ELECTRIC CHAIN
SAW ................................................52-15
52.10
CARE OF ELECTRIC POWER
TOOLS ............................................52-17
51 DIGGING TOOLS ...................................................51-1
51.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................51-1
51.2
TYPES AND USES...............................51-1
51.2.1
Long-Handled Shovel ............................51-1
51.2.2
D-Handled Shovel..................................51-1
51.2.3
Spade......................................................51-1
51.2.4
Posthole Auger.......................................51-1
51.2.5
Posthole Digger......................................51-2
51.3
SAFETY ................................................51-2
51.4
USING THE LONG-HANDLED
SHOVEL............................................51-2
51.5
USING THE SPADE.............................51-3
51.6
USING THE POSTHOLE DIGGER .....51-3
51.7
CARE AND CLEANING OF
DIGGING TOOLS ............................51-4
52 ELECTRICAL POWER TOOLS .............................52-1
52.1
x
Page
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ................................................52-1
53 SOLDERING ...........................................................53-1
53.1
INTRODUCTION .................................53-1
53.2
SOLDERING TOOLS ...........................53-1
53.3
BASIC SOLDERING TECHNIQUES ..53-1
53.3.1
Temperatures .........................................53-1
53.3.2
Heating...................................................53-5
53.3.3
Cooling...................................................53-5
53.3.4
Copper Bit Soldering Irons ....................53-5
53.3.5
Flux Residue Removal...........................53-6
53.4
SOLDERING SAFETY PRACTICES ..53-6
52.2
TYPES AND USES...............................52-1
52.2.1
Portable Electric Drill ............................52-2
52.2.2
Portable Electric Hammer......................52-2
54.1
INTRODUCTION .................................54-1
52.2.3
Portable Electric Impact Wrench ...........52-3
54.2
PRE-TREATMENT...............................54-1
52.2.4
Portable Electric Circular Saw...............52-3
54.3
BRUSH PAINTING ..............................54-1
52.2.5
Portable Electric Chain Saw ..................52-3
54.3.1
Care of Paintbrushes ..............................54-1
54 PAINT APPLICATION ...........................................54-1
TO 32-1-101
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
Chapter
Page
54.4
SPRAY PAINTING .............................. 54-1
55.4
USING THE BRICK TROWEL........... 55-3
54.4.1
Aerosol Can Operation.......................... 54-1
55.5
USING THE BLOCK ........................... 55-4
54.4.2
Using Aerosol Paint .............................. 54-2
55.6
USING THE CABLE JAW GRIP
AND TENSION PULLER................ 55-5
55 MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS .................................. 55-1
55.7
CARE OF MISCELLANEOUS
TOOLS.............................................. 55-5
55.1
HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE
THEM ............................................... 55-1
55.2
TYPES AND USES .............................. 55-1
55.2.1
Cement Trowel...................................... 55-1
55.2.2
Brick Trowel ......................................... 55-1
55.2.3
Miner’s Spoon....................................... 55-1
55.2.4
Blocks.................................................... 55-1
A.1
PUBLICATION INDEXES....................A-1
55.2.5
Trip Wire Grapnel ................................. 55-2
A.2
SUPPLY CATALOGS ...........................A-1
55.2.6
Chain Assembly .................................... 55-2
A.3
FORMS ...................................................A-1
55.2.7
Cable Jaw Grip...................................... 55-2
A.4
OTHER PUBLICATIONS .....................A-1
55.2.8
Tension Puller ....................................... 55-2
55.3
SAFETY................................................ 55-2
56 PNEUMATIC RATCHETS .................................... 56-1
56.1
AIR RATCHETS MODEL
NUMBERS FAR70C AND 72B ...... 56-1
APPENDIX A REFERENCES.........................................A-1
INDEX ....................................................................... Index 1
xi/(xii blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
NOTE
Reconditioning of ERRC “XB3” type items. Reconditioning includes virtually any minor, common sense
maintenance action and is discretionary. Common
sense acts of reconditioning are normally within the
capability of any level of maintenance and are not to
be construed as a repair (Ref: AFM 67-1, Vol 1, Part
three, Chapter 5, Paragraph 30b.).
1.1 PURPOSE.
This manual provides information on the use and care of
selected hand tools and measuring tools. It will explain the
types and uses of a large number of tools, a practical application of a selected group of tools, safety requirements, general
care, and limited reconditioning. A user must have, choose,
and use the correct tools in order to do the work quickly,
accurately, and safely. Without the proper tools and knowledge
of how to use them, the user wastes time, reduces efficiency,
and may face injury.
1.2 HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL.
When you need information about a specific tool or operation,
simply refer to the alphabetical index at the end of the manual
and turn to the pages that apply. The introduction to each tools
chapter will furnish information on: How to choose and use
the tools covered, the various types of tools available, and an
example of their use. Instructions on the care of tools and
safety precautions follow.
1-1/(1-2 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 2
SAFETY
SECTION I SAFETY RULES (GENERAL)
2.1 SAFETY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT.
No matter how small the job, safety must be practiced at all
times. A tool may be efficient, essential, time-saving or even
convenient; but it is also dangerous. When using any hand tool
you must use it correctly, following the methods prescribed in
this manual. You must also be alert for any conditions that
might endanger yourself or fellow workers. Take the time necessary to acquaint yourself with the safety guidelines in this
chapter. Remember, you are the most important part of safety
procedures.
11. REPORT any injury immediately to your supervisor.
In addition to the above, there are other good tools habits
which will help you perform your work more efficiently as
well as safely.
2.2 TOOL HABITS.
There will undoubtedly be a safety program to follow for the
shop or area in which you will be working. The following
general safety rules are furnished as a guide.
1. SUPPORT your local safety program and take an active
part in safety meetings.
2. INSPECT tools and equipment for safe conditions
before starting work.
3. KEEP tools in a safe place. Never carry tools in pockets
or leave them lying around. Stepping on a round screwdriver, for instance, could cause a bad fall. Clean up the
work area when the job is completed. Know the location
of all safety equipment and be familiar with its operation.
4. ADVISE your supervisor promptly of any unsafe conditions or practices.
“A place for everything and everything in its place” is just
common sense. You cannot do an efficient, fast repair job if
you have to stop and look around for each tool that you need.
The following rules, if applied, will make your job easier.
5. LEARN the safe way to do your job before you start.
6. THINK safety, and ACT safety at all times.
7. OBEY safety rules and regulations, they are for your
protection.
8. WEAR proper clothing and protective equipment.
9. CONDUCT yourself properly at all times, horseplay is
prohibited.
10. OPERATE only the equipment you are authorized to
use.
2-1
TO 32-1-101
2.2.1 Keep Each Tool in its Proper Storage Place. A
tool is useless if you cannot find it. If you return each tool to
its proper place, you will know where it is when you need it.
2.2.2 Keep Your Tools in Good Condition. Keep
free of rust, nicks, burrs, and breaks.
them
2.2.5 Keep Your Tools Within Easy Reach and Where
They Cannot Fall on the Floor or on Machinery. Avoid
placing tools anywhere above machinery or electrical apparatus. Serious damage will result if the tool falls into the
machinery after the equipment is turned on or running.
2.2.3 Keep Your Tool Set Complete. If you are issued a
tool box, each tool should be placed in it when not in use. If
possible, the box should be locked and stored in a designated
area. Keep an inventory list in the box and check it after each
job. This will help you to keep track of your tools.
2.2.6 Never Use Damaged Tools. A battered screwdriver
may slip and spoil the screw slot or cause painful injury to the
user. A gage strained out of shape will result in inaccurate
measurements.
2.2.4 Use Each Tool Only on the Job for Which it was
Designed. If you use the wrong tool to make an adjustment,
the result will probably be unsatisfactory. For example, if you
use a socket wrench that is too big, you will round off the
corners of the wrench or nut. If this rounded wrench or nut is
not replaced immediately, the safety of your equipment may
be endangered in an emergency.
2-2
Remember, a worker’s efficiency is often a direct result of the
condition of the tools being used. Workers are often judged by
the manner in which they handle and care for their tools. You
should care for hand tools the same way you care for personal
property. Always keep hand tools clean and free from dirt,
grease, and foreign matter. After use, return tools promptly to
their proper places in the tool box. Improve your own efficiency by organizing your tools so that those used most frequently can be reached easily without sorting through the
entire contents of the box. Avoid accumulating unnecessary
items.
TO 32-1-101
SECTION II SAFETY RULES (POWER TOOLS)
Safety is a very important factor in the use of power tools and
cannot be overemphasized. By observing the following safety
guidelines, you can ensure maximum benefits from the tools
you use and reduce to a minimum the chances of serious
injury.
1. Never operate any power equipment unless you are
completely familiar with its controls and features.
2. Inspect all portable power tools before using them. See
that they are clean and in good condition.
3. Make sure there is plenty of light in the work area.
Never work with power tools in dark areas where you
cannot see clearly.
8. Never try to clear a jammed power tool until it is disconnected from the power source.
9. After using a power tool, turn off the power, disconnect
the power source, wait for all movement of the tool to
stop, and then remove all waste and scraps from the
work area. Store the tool in its proper place.
10. Never plug the power cord of a portable electric tool
into a power source before making sure that the source
has the correct voltage and type of current called for on
the nameplate of the tool.
11. Do not allow power cords to come in contact with sharp
objects, nor should they kink or come in contact with
oil, grease, hot surfaces, or chemicals.
4. Before connecting a power tool to a power source, be
sure the tool switch is in the “OFF” position.
12. Never use a damaged cord. Replace it immediately.
5. Wear safety glasses when soldering or using power
hand tools.
13. Check electrical cables and cords frequently for overheating. Use only approved extension cords, if needed.
6. When operating a power tool, give it your FULL and
UNDIVIDED ATTENTION.
14. See that all cables and cords are positioned carefully so
they do not become tripping hazards.
7. DO NOT DISTRACT OR IN ANY WAY DISTURB
another person while they are operating a power tool.
15. Treat electricity with respect. If water is present in the
area of electrical tool operation, be extremely cautious
and if necessary, disconnect the power tool.
SECTION III SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Safety equipment is for you. It will protect you from injury
and may possibly save your life. Some of the more common
types of safety equipment for your personal protection follow.
2.3 SAFETY SHOES.
Safety shoes protect and prevent injury or loss of toes. Some
safety shoes are designed to limit damage to your toes from
falling objects. A steel plate is placed in the toe area of such
shoes so that your toes are not crushed if an object falls on
them.
Other safety shoes are designed for use where danger from
sparking could cause an explosion. Such danger is minimized
by elimination of all metallic nails and eyelets and the use of
soles which do not cause static electricity.
2.4 EYE PROTECTION.
2-3
TO 32-1-101
Proper eye protection is of the highest importance for all personnel. Eye protection is necessary because of hazards caused
by infrared and ultraviolet radiation, or by flying objects such
as sparks, globules of molten metal, or chipped concrete and
wood, etc. These hazards are always present during welding,
cutting, soldering, chipping, grinding, and a variety of other
operations. It is absolutely necessary for you to use eye protection devices such as helmets, handshields, and goggles during
eye-hazard operations. Appropriate use of goggles will limit
eye hazards. Some goggles have plastic windows which resist
shattering upon impact. Others are designed to limit harmful
infrared and ultraviolet radiation from arcs or flames by the
use of appropriate filter lenses. Remember, eye damage can be
extremely painful. Protect your eyes.
Use gloves whenever you are required to handle rough, scaly,
or splintery objects. Two types are shown above. Special
flameproof gloves are designed for gas and electric welding in
order to limit danger and damage from sparks and other hot,
flying objects. Personnel working with electricity are usually
required to wear insulating rubber gloves.
Be sure to follow all regulations prescribed for the use of
gloves. Gloves must not be worn around rotating machinery
unless sharp or rough material is being handled. If such is the
case, extreme care should be used to prevent the gloves from
being caught in the machinery.
2.7 SAFETY BELTS AND SAFETY STRAPS.
2.5 HELMETS.
Protective helmets (hard hats) come in a variety of shapes.
They may be made of tough polyethylene or polycarbonate,
one of the toughest hat materials yet developed. When falling
objects strike the hats, the shock-absorbing suspension capabilities minimize injuries.
The safety belt and safety strap are a must when working in
high places. The safety belt, strapped around the waist, contains pockets for small tools. It also has two D-rings used to
attach the safety strap. The safety strap is a nylon-reinforced
leather belt that is placed around the item to be climbed. It is
then attached to the two D-rings on the safety belt. Detailed
use of the safety belt and safety strap is described in chapter
49 of this manual.
Regular hard hats must be insulated so that personnel may be
protected from accidental head contacts with electrical circuits
and equipment at comparatively low voltages (less than 2200
volts). Electrical workers requiring head protection necessary
to their duties or to the working environment, must wear insulating safety helmets or all-purpose protective helmets which
must be capable of withstanding 20,000 volt minimum prooftests.
2.8 EAR PROTECTION.
2.6 GLOVES.
Proper hearing protection is a must when working with or
around certain types of power tools. Some tools are capable of
producing dangerously high noise levels which, if ignored, can
result in serious hearing loss or injury. Use the hearing protection regularly.
2-4
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 3
READING MEASURING SCALES
3.1 INTRODUCTION.
The following chapter is designed to provide a basic understanding of how to read scales, dials, and gages. It will not
provide any information on the actual use of the tools. Reference to this chapter will be made throughout the remainder of
the manual.
3.2 READING THE SCALE OF A RULE OR TAPE.
Look at the section between the “2” and the “3” on the edge
marked with an “8” for eighths.
There are eight equally spaced lines. The lengths of these lines
differ and indicate different fractions or parts of an inch.
The longest line is in the center and is equal to 4/8 or 1/2 inch.
The more common type rules and tapes are divided into fractions, inches, and feet. Explained here are the scales on a 12inch steel machinist’s rule. The rule is divided into twelve
inches. The inches are further divided into eighths, sixteenths,
thirty-seconds, and sixty-fourths.
Each half-inch is divided in half by a slightly shorter line
indicating 2/8 or 1/4 on the left and 6/8 or 3/4 on the right.
Each 1/4 inch is divided in half by the shortest line which
indicates 1/8 inch, and will indicate 1/8, 3/8, 5/8 and 7/8.
Now turn the rule and look at the edge with a 16 marked on it.
Look at the rule. There is a small numeral marked on the end
of the rule nearest the 1-inch mark. This numeral indicates the
number of divisions per inch.
When referring to fractions, always use the reduced name.
This is the smallest numerator (top number) and denominator
(bottom number). For example, 3/6 can be reduced to 1/2 by
dividing both the top and bottom by 3. Generally, fractions
may be reduced to their lowest forms by repeated division by
2 or 3.
There are now 16 equal divisions between each inch. Since 2/
16 reduces to 1/8, divide each 1/8 into two equal parts producing 1/16, 3/16, 5/16, 7/16, 9/16, 11/16, 13/16, and 15/16.
Common tapes and rules usually are not graduated smaller
than sixteenths. However, precision measurements require
smaller graduations.
3-1
TO 32-1-101
To read this rule, remember:
1. Thirty-two divisions (32/64) are equal to 1/2 inch.
Look at the back of the machinist’s rule. Find the edge marked
32 and once again look between the numbers “2” and “3.”
2. Sixteen divisions (16/64) are equal to 1/4 inch.
3. Eight divisions (8/64) are equal to 1/8 inch.
4. Four divisions (4/64) are equal to 1/16 inch.
5. Two divisions (2/64) are equal to 1/32 inch.
To read this rule, remember:
1. Sixteen divisions (16/32) are equal to 1/2 inch.
2. Eight divisions (8/32) are equal to 1/4 inch.
3. Four divisions (4/32) are equal to 1/8 inch.
4. Two divisions (2/32) are equal to 1/16 inch.
To read 2-3/4 inches on this scale, first find the two inch mark.
Next, determine the number of 64ths in 3/4.
To determine the number of 64ths in 3/4, remember every
sixteen divisions or 16/64 are equal to 1/4 inch. If 1/4 is equal
to 16/64, then 3/4 is equal to 48/64 as shown:
If 1/4 = 16/64, then 3/4 = 48/64
(16 x 3 = 48)
To read 2-5/8 inches on the scale, first find the two inch mark,
then determine the number of 32nds in 5/8.
To determine the number of 32nds in 5/8, remember four divisions or 4/32 are equal to 1/8 inch. If 1/8 is equal to 4/32, then
5/8 is equal to 20/32 as shown:
If 1/8 = 4/32, then 5/8 = 20/32
(4 x 5 = 20)
1. Locate the number 48 between the 2 and 3 inch marks
on the scale.
2. Write the new fraction 2-48/64.
3.3 READING A METRIC RULE.
The metric system is based upon multiples of ten. For example, there are 10 millimeters in a centimeter and 100 centimeters in a meter.
1. Find the 20/32 reading on the scale as shown above.
The example provided will deal only with millimeters (mm).
2. Write the new fraction 2-20/32 inches.
Finally, look at the edge marked 64. Each inch is now divided
into 64 equal parts.
3-2
TO 32-1-101
The meter will become the starting point and from this, two
additional scales can be developed for measuring. A meter
divided by 100 equals a centimeter (cm), 1/100 or 0.01 meter.
Next divide a centimeter (cm) by 10. This will equal a millimeter (mm), 1/1000 or 0.001 meter.
Now let’s look at a section of the rule between 2 cm and 3 cm.
There are 10 equal divisions which are equal to 1/10 cm or 1
mm.
To measure 26 mm, first locate the longest line designated 2
cm or 20 mm.
Next count 6 additional lines to find 26 mm.
A table for converting from US Common to metric or from
metric to US Common may be found inside the back cover of
this manual.
3-3/(3-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 4
TOOL BOXES
4.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
4.2 TYPES AND USES.
“Types and Uses”, Paragraph 4.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of tool boxes. These pages should help you
select the right tool box to do the job.
Tool boxes are used for storing tools. They are usually made
of steel, but wood and plastics are also used. Portable tool
boxes are used for carrying and storing a variety of hand tools.
Both special and common tools, such as mechanic’s, electrician, and carpentry tools can be found in tool boxes. Chesttype tool boxes generally contain larger tools, such as specialized automotive tools or machinist’s tools, requiring a more
permanent location. Some larger tool boxes are mounted on
wheels so they can be moved easily from place to place. Tool
bags are usually made of canvas. Like the boxes, they are
available in a variety of sizes and serve similar functions.
4-1
TO 32-1-101
Examples of tool boxes are illustrated below.
4-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 5
DIVIDERS
5.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
5.2.1 Spring Divider.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 5.2, provides you with a list of the
types of dividers. These pages should help you select the right
dividers for the job. Using a Divider to Scribe a Circle, Paragraph 5.3, tells you how to use the dividers to scribe a circle of
a desired radius. Care of Divider, Paragraph 5.4, tells you how
to care for the dividers.
A spring divider consists of two sharp points at the end of
straight legs, held apart by a spring and adjusted by means of a
screw and nut. The spring divider is available in sizes from 3
to 10 inches in length.
5.2 TYPES AND USES.
5.2.2 Wing Divider.
Dividers are instruments used for measuring distances
between two points, transferring or comparing measurements
directly from a rule, or for scribing an arc, radius, or circle.
A wing-type divider has a steel bar that separates the legs, a
lock nut for setting a rough measurement, and an adjustment
screw for fine adjustments. The wing-type divider is available
in 6, 8, and 12 inch lengths. Also available is a divider with
one removable leg, so that a pencil may be inserted.
5-1
TO 32-1-101
5.3 USING A DIVIDER TO SCRIBE A CIRCLE.
1. Set the desired radius on the dividers using the appropriate graduations on a rule.
2. Place the point of one of the divider legs on the point to
be used as the center.
3. Lean the dividers in the direction of movement and
scribe the circle by revolving the dividers.
5.4 CARE OF DIVIDERS.
Keep dividers clean and dry. Protect the points against damage. Store dividers where they will not become bent or broken.
5-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 6
CALIPERS
6.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 6.2, provides you with a list of
types of calipers. These pages should help you select the right
calipers for the job. Reading Calipers, Paragraph 6.3, tells you
how to read special calipers for accurate measurements. By
becoming familiar with this procedure, you will learn to make
accurate measurements. Care of Calipers, Paragraph 6.5, tells
you how to keep your calipers in good condition.
measurement. Slide calipers and vernier calipers have their
own scales.
6.2.1 Simple Calipers.
The simple outside calipers are bowlegged. Those used for
inside diameters have straight legs with feet turned outward.
Calipers are adjusted by pulling or pushing the legs to open or
close them.
6.2.2 Spring-Joint Calipers.
6.2 TYPES AND USES.
Calipers are used to measure diameters. Outside calipers measure outside diameters. Inside calipers measure inside diameters. Simple calipers are used along with a scale to find the
The spring-joint calipers have the same type of legs, but are
joined by a strong spring hinge, screw, and adjustment nut.
6-1
TO 32-1-101
6.2.3 Transfer Calipers.
6.2.5 Slide Calipers.
Transfer calipers are used for measuring chamfered grooves or
flanges. A screw attaches a small auxiliary leaf to one of the
legs.
The measurement is made as with ordinary calipers. The leaf
is locked to the leg. The legs may be opened or closed as
needed to clear the obstruction. The legs are then brought back
and locked to the leaf, restoring them to the original setting.
6.2.4 Hermaphrodite Calipers.
The hermaphrodite calipers have one straight leg ending in a
sharp point. On some models this point is removable. This leg
is usually bowlegged. This caliper is used for finding shaft
centers or locating shoulders.
6-2
Slide calipers can be used for measuring outside and inside
dimensions. Graduations are in inches, fractions, or millimeters. As shown above, one side of the caliper is used to measure outside (1) and the other side is used to measure inside
(2) dimensions. Stamped on the frame (3) are the words “IN”.
and “OUT” (4). You use them when taking inside and outside
measurements. The other side of the caliper is used as a
straight measuring rule. If necessary, see Chapter 3 of this
manual for reading scales and rules.
TO 32-1-101
6.2.6 Vernier Calipers.
Vernier calipers work like slide calipers. As shown above,
vernier calipers can make very accurate outside or inside measurements. A vernier caliper is used by loosening the two
locking screws (1) and (2). This allows the movable jaw (3) to
move along the rule until desired position is obtained. The
locking screw (1) is then retightened securing the movable jaw
(3). Any fine adjustments to the vernier scale (4) are then
made using adjustment control (5). Locking screw (2) is then
secured and vernier caliper is ready to read.
6.2.7 Trammels.
The trammel measures distances beyond the range of calipers.
The instrument consists of a rod or beam (1) to which trams
(2) are clamped. The trams (2) carry chucks (3). The trammel
can also be used as a divider by changing the points.
6.3 READING A VERNIER CALIPER.
6-3
TO 32-1-101
To read a vernier caliper you must be able to understand both
the steel rule and vernier scales. The steel rule (1) is graduated
in 0.025 of an inch. Every fourth division (2) (representing a
tenth of an inch) is numbered.
6.4 READING A METRIC CALIPER.
The vernier scale (3) is divided into 25 parts and numbered 0,
5, 10, 15, 20, and 25. These 25 parts are equal to 24 parts on
the steel rule (1). The difference between the width of one of
the 25 spaces on the vernier scale (3) and one of the 24 spaces
on the steel rule (1) is 1/1000 of an inch.
Read the measurement as shown above.
Read the number of whole inches
on the top scale (1) to the left of
the vernier zero index (4) and record..................1.000 inch
Read the number of tenths (5) to
the left of the vernier zero index
(4) and record......................................................0.400 inch
The steel rule (1) is divided into centimeters (cm) (2) and the
longest lines represent 10 millimeters each. Each millimeter is
divided into quarters.
Read the number of twenty-fifths
(6) between the tenths mark (5)
and the zero index (4) and record ....... 3 x .025 = .075 inch
The vernier scale (3) is divided into 25 parts and is numbered
0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25.
Read the highest line on the
vernier scale (3) which lines up
with the lines on the top scale
(7) and record. (Remember
1/25 = 0.001 inch)................................ 11/25 or 0.011 inch
TOTAL
1.486 inches
Most vernier calipers read “OUTSIDE” on one side and
“INSIDE” on the other side. If a scale isn’t marked, and you
want to take an inside measurement, read the scale as you
would for an outside diameter. Then add the measuring point
allowance by referring to manufacturer’s instructions or the
following table.
Read the total number of millimeters
(4) to the left of the vernier zero
index (5) and record..............................................32.00 cm
Read the number of quarters (6)
between the millimeter mark and
the zero index and record ................. .25 mm = (1 quarter)
Read the highest line on the
vernier scale (3) which lines up
with the line on the scale (7)
and record .............................................................. .18 mm
TOTAL
32.43 mm
6.5 CARE OF CALIPERS.
Size of Caliper
6 inch or 150 mm
12 inch or 300 mm
24 inch or 600 mm
36 inch or 600 mm
English Measure
Add 0.250 inch
0.300 inch
0.300 inch
0.500 inch
Metric Measure
Add 8.35 mm
7.62 mm
7.62 mm
12.70 mm
1. Coat metal parts of all calipers with a light coat of oil to
prevent rust.
2. Store calipers in separate containers provided.
3. Keep graduations and markings on all calipers clean and
legible.
4. Do not drop any caliper. Small nicks or scratches can
cause inaccurate measurements.
5. Protect caliper points from damage.
6-4
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 7
MICROMETERS
7.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
7.2.2 Inside Micrometers.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 7.2, provides you with a list of the
types of micrometers. These pages should help you select the
right micrometer for the job. Reading Micrometers, Paragraph
7.4, tells you how to read the different varieties of micrometers. By becoming familiar with the procedures you will learn
to make accurate measurements.
Inside micrometers are used to measure an inside diameter to
an accuracy of 0.001 of an inch. ID micrometers have a range
of 0.500 when used with one-half inch spacers. (For remaining
one-half inch, see page 7-3.)
7.2.3 Depth Micrometers.
7.2 TYPES AND USES.
Micrometers are instruments used to measure distances to the
nearest one-thousandth of an inch. The measurement is usually
expressed or written as a decimal. There are three types of
micrometers which are commonly used: the outside micrometer, the inside micrometer, and the depth micrometer.
7.2.1 Outside Micrometers.
Depth micrometers are used to measure depths to an accuracy
of 0.001 inches.
7.3 SELECTING THE PROPER MICROMETER.
Outside micrometers are used to measure an outside distance
or diameter to an accuracy of 0.001 of an inch.
The types of micrometers commonly used are made so that the
longest movement possible between the spindle and the anvil
is 1 inch. This movement is called the “range.” The frames of
micrometers, however, are available in a wide variety of sizes,
from 1 inch up to as large as 24 inches. The range of a 1 inch
micrometer is from 0 to 1 inch. In other words, it can be used
to work where the part to be measured is 1 inch or less. A 2inch micrometer has a range from 1 inch to 2 inches, and will
measure only work between 1 and 2 inches thick. A 6-inch
micrometer has a range from 5 to 6 inches, and will measure
only work between 5 and 6 inches thick. It is necessary, therefore, that the mechanic first find the approximate size of the
work to the nearest inch, and then select a micrometer that will
fit it. For example, to find the exact diameter of a piece of
7-1
TO 32-1-101
round stock use a rule and find the approximate diameter of
the stock. If it is found to be approximately 3-1/4 inches, a
micrometer with a 3- to 4-inch range would be required to
measure the exact diameter. Similarly, with inside and depth
micrometers, rods of suitable lengths must be fitted into the
tool to get the approximate dimension within an inch, after
which the exact measurement is read by turning the thimble.
The size of a micrometer indicates the size of the largest work
it will measure.
7.4 READING A STANDARD MICROMETER.
Reading a micrometer is only a matter of reading the
micrometer scale or counting the revolutions of the thimble
and adding to this any fraction of a revolution. The micrometer screw has 40 threads per inch. This means that one complete and exact revolution of the micrometer screw (1) moves
the spindle (2) away from or toward the anvil (3) exactly1/40
or 0.025 inch.
7-2
TO 32-1-101
7.5 READING A VERNIER MICROMETER.
Reading the vernier micrometer is the same as reading the
standard micrometer. An additional step must be taken, to add
the vernier reading to the dimensions. This allows for precise
measurements which are accurate to ten-thousandths (0.0001)
of an inch. This scale furnishes the fine readings between the
lines on the thimble rather than making an estimate as you
would on a standard micrometer.
The lines on the barrel (4) conform to the pitch of the
micrometer screw (1), each line indicating 0.025 inch, and
each fourth line being numbered 1, 2, 3, and so forth.
The beveled edge of the thimble is graduated into 25 parts,
each line indicating 0.001 inch, or 0.025 inch covered by one
complete and exact revolution of the thimble. Every fifth line
on the thimble is numbered to read a measurement in thousandths of an inch.
The ten spaces on the vernier (1) are equivalent to 9 spaces on
the thimble (2). Therefore, each unit on the vernier scale is
equal to 0.0009 inch and the difference between the sizes of
the units on each scale is 0.0001 inch.
7.4.1 To Read a Measurement as Shown Above:
Read highest figure visible, on
barrel (5) ......................................................... 2 = 0.200 in.
Number of lines visible between
the No. 2 and thimble edge (6) ....................... 1 = 0.025 in.
The line on the thimble that
coincides with or has passed the
revolution or long line in the
barrel (7) ...................................................... 16 = 0.016 in.
TOTAL
= 0.241 in.
7.5.1 To Read a Measurement as Shown Above:
7-3
TO 32-1-101
Read highest figure visible on
barrel (3) ......................................................... 2 = 0.200 in.
Number of lines visible between
the No. 2 and thimble edge (4) ....................... 3 = 0.075 in.
The line on the thimble that
coincides with or is nearest the
revolution or long line in the barrel (5) ........ 11 = 0.011 in.
The-line on the vernier scale that
coincides with the line on the
thimble (6) ................................................... 2 = 0.0002 in.
TOTAL
= .2862 in.
7.6 READING A METRIC MICROMETER.
The same principle is applied in reading the metric graduated
micrometer, but the following changes in graduations are used:
The pitch of the micrometer screw is 0.05 mm. One revolution
of the spindle advances or withdraws the screw a distance
equal to 0.5 mm.
7.6.1 To Read a Measurement as Shown Above:
Read highest figure visible on
barrel (1) ....................................................... 20 = 20.0 mm
Number of lines visible between
the No. 20 and thimble edge (2) ....................... 2 = 2.0 mm
The line on the thimble that
coincides with or has passed the
revolution or long line in the
barrel (3) .......................................... 36 = 36/100 (.36) mm
NOTE
Remember that 1 revolution is 0.5 mm. It takes 2
revolutions to move 1 mm.
Measurement reading ............................TOTAL 22.36 mm
CARE OF MICROMETERS.
1. Coat metal parts of all micrometers with a light coat of
oil to prevent rust.
The barrel (1) is graduated in millimeters from 0 to 25. It takes
two revolutions of the spindle to move the barrel 1 mm.
The thimble (2) is graduated in 56 divisions with every fifth
line being numbered.
Rotating the thimble from one graduation to the next moves
the spindle 1/50 of 0.5 mm, or 1/100 mm. Two graduations
equal 2/100 mm, and so forth.
7-4
2. Store micrometers in separate containers provided by
manufacturer.
3. Keep graduations and markings on all micrometers
clean and legible.
4. Do not drop any micrometer. Small nicks or scratches
can cause inaccurate measurements.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 8
RULES AND STEEL TAPES
8.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
8.2 TYPES AND USES.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 8.2, provides you with a list of the
types of rules and tapes. These pages should help you select
the right rule or tape for the job. Using Rules and Tapes,
Paragraph 8.3, tells you how to use the various types of measuring instruments. Care of Rules and Tapes, Paragraph 8.4,
tell you how to care for rules and tapes.
The rule or tape is used for measuring where accuracy is not
an extremely critical factor. They can be rigid or flexible,
come in various lengths, and can be made of wood, metal,
cloth, or fiberglass.
8.2.1 Rules.
The rule is the most common of measuring tools. This rule is
usually 6 or 12 inches in length, although other lengths are
available. Steel rules may be flexible or nonflexible, but the
thinner the rule, the easier it is to measure accurately because
the division marks are closer to the work.
A rule usually has four sets of graduations, one on each edge
of each side. The longest lines represent the inch marks. On
one edge each inch is divided into 8 equal spaces so each
space represents 1/8-in. The other edge of this side is divided
in sixteenths. The 1/4-in. and 1/2-in. marks are commonly
made longer than the smaller division marks to facilitate
counting, but the graduations are usually not numbered individually, as they are sufficiently far apart to be counted without difficulty. The opposite side is similarly divided into 32
and 64 spaces per inch, and it is common practice to number
every fourth division for easier reading.
There are many variations of the common rule. Sometimes the
graduations are on one side only, sometimes a set of gradua-
8-1
TO 32-1-101
tions is added across one end for measuring in narrow spaces,
and sometimes only the first inch is divided into 64ths, with
the remaining inches divided into 32nds and 16ths. A metal or
wood folding rule may be used.
8.2.3 Steel Tapes.
8.2.2 Folding Rules.
These folding rules are usually from two to six feet long. The
folding rules cannot be relied on for extremely accurate measurements because a certain amount of play develops at the
joints after continued use.
Steel tapes are made from 6 to about 300 feet in length. The
shorter tapes are made with a curved, but rigid, cross section
flexible enough to be rolled up. Long, flat tapes need support
over their full length to avoid sagging. Lack of support can
cause reading errors. The most common types of steel tapes
have a hook at one end to let one person take all the readings.
8-2
TO 32-1-101
8.3 USING RULERS AND TAPES EXAMPLES.
8.4 CARE OF RULES AND TAPES.
1. Keep rules and tapes clean and dry.
2. Store rules and tapes where they will not become bent
or damaged.
8-3/(8-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 9
MISCELLANEOUS MEASURING TOOLS
9.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 9.2, provides you with a list of the
more common types of miscellaneous measuring tools. These
pages should help you select the right measuring tool for the
job. Using, Paragraph 9.3, tells you how to use several of these
tools for a certain application. Although there are many other
uses for these toots, you should be able to perform most any
task by becoming familiar with the procedures outlined in
these pages. Care of Miscellaneous Measuring Tools, Paragraph 9.4, tells how to care for your measuring tools.
distance is then measured with a micrometer. Adjustable parallels are used as gages for leveling and setup work. Adjustable
parallels are available in various sizes depending on the nature
of work.
9.2.2 V-Block and Clamp.
The V-block and clamp assembly consists of a V-shaped, hardened steel body to support round, square, or rectangular
shaped work. A clamp (or clamps) holds the work firmly in
the body groove. V-blocks and clamps are especially used for
grinding, milling, or drilling purposes. Various styles and
designs of V-blocks and clamps are available depending on
application.
9.2.3 Angle Plates.
9.2 TYPES AND USES.
9.2.1 Adjustable Parallel.
Adjustable parallels consist of two tapered parts fitted
together. The distance between the two outside parallel surfaces varies by moving mating parts together or apart. This
Angle plates are devices consisting of two flat outside working
surfaces jointed at right angles. The outside work surfaces are
precision ground. The standard angle plate is permanently
jointed at a right angle. However, an adjustable type with
varying angle adjustments is also available. Angle plates are
used for clamping or holding work vertically. They are also
used for layout, inspection, or machine set-up. Various sizes
and designs are available depending on the task.
9-1
TO 32-1-101
9.2.4 Magnetic Base Indicator Holder.
Registering speed indicators are designed to count the number
of revolutions of wheels, shafts, etc. Revolutions are counted
by attaching spindle of speed indicator to hub of shaft or
wheel. Indicator spindle will turn in either direction counting
each revolution on a circular dial. Various designs of speed
indicators are available depending on nature of use.
9.3 USING MISCELLANEOUS MEASURING TOOLS.
The magnetic base indicator holder is a one-piece metal
assembly that attaches to the work surface magnetically. A
gage or indicator attaches to the assembly. Base indicator
holders are used for attaching gages to lathes, milling
machines, shapers, or any machine where graduations are difficult to read. Magnetic base indicator holders are available in
many sizes and designs depending on application.
1. Place pipe (1) in V-blocks (2).
2. Secure pipe (1) in position using screw clamps (3).
3. Begin drilling at desired spot on pipe (1).
9.2.5 Registering Speed Indicators.
9.4
CARE
TOOLS.
OF
MISCELLANEOUS
MEASURING
1. Clean all tools thoroughly after using.
2. Apply a light coat of oil to all exposed metal parts to
avoid rusting.
3. To avoid possible damage to sensitive tools, store tools
in proper locations.
9-2
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CHAPTER 10
LEVELS
10.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
10.2.2 Machinist’s Level.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 10.2, provides you with a list of
types of levels. These pages should help you select the right
level for the job. Using a Level, Paragraph 10.3, tells you how
to use levels for their various functions (plumbing, leveling,
etc).
The machinist’s level has an extra large vial. This increases its
accuracy and sensitivity. Some of these levels have grooved
bottoms which fit over pipes and shafts. They are used in
machine shops for leveling work and equipment.
10.2.3 Iron Bench Level.
10.2 TYPES AND USES.
Levels are tools designed to prove whether a plane or surface
is in the true vertical or true horizontal. All levels consist of a
liquid-filled glass tube or tubes supported in a frame.
10.2.1 Master Precision Level.
The iron bench level is made of a special design casting which
insures its lightness, strength, and rigidity. It is used mostly in
the construction industry. It may also be used in a machine
shop.
10.2.4 Striding Level.
The master precision level has a ground and graduated main
vial (1). The top and bottom of the level are milled and ground
to make sure both surfaces are absolutely parallel. This level is
used to determine the true horizontal with the main vial (1).
The true vertical is determined by using the two smaller vials
(2).
The iron bench level is made of a special design casting which
insures its lightness, strength, and rigidity. It is used mostly in
the construction industry. It may also be used in a machine
shop.
10-1
TO 32-1-101
10.2.5 Carpenter’s Level.
the level end for end. Observe the position of the bubble. If the
relative position of the bubble was the same for both readings,
the level is accurate.
10.3.1 Horizontal Surface.
The carpenter’s level has three vials which are mounted horizontally (1), vertically (2), and at a 45 degree angle (3). The
carpenter’s level is used in construction for checking for true
vertical, true horizontal, and 45 degree angles.
Place the level on a flat horizontal surface. Check the horizontal vial (1). The bubble should be between the two etched lines
on the vial. If it is not, the surface is not horizontal.
10.3.2 Angled Surface.
Some levels have a bent tube (4) which allows the bubble to
settle quickly.
10.2.6 Line Level.
The line level is a single vial in a metal case with a hook on
each end for hanging on a cord. It is used to check whether
two points are level, such as two points on a floor or in an
elevation. It must be used with a tightly stretched cord.
10.3 USING A LEVEL.
A level may be checked for accuracy by placing it on a known
level surface and noting the position of the bubble. Reverse
10-2
Place the level on an angled surface. If the angle is 45 degrees,
the bubble will appear between the notched lines on the 45
degree vial (2).
TO 32-1-101
10.3.3 Vertical Surface.
Place the level against a flat vertical surface. Check the vertical vial (3). The bubble should be between the two etched
lines on the vial. If it is not, the surface is not vertical.
10-3/(10-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 11
PLUMB BOBS
11.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 11.2, provides you with a list of
the more common types of plumb bobs. These pages should
help you select the right plumb bob for the job. Using a Plumb
Bob, Paragraph 11.3, tells you how to use a steel plumb bob to
establish the true vertical of a square post. By becoming familiar with this procedure you will build a good background for
using other plumb bobs. Care of Plumb Bobs, Paragraph 11.4,
tells you how to keep your plumb bobs in proper condition.
The surveyor’s brass plumb bob may be either a spool type
(A) or an adjustable cap type (B). Both types have replaceable
steel points for increased accuracy. The adjustable cap allows
the operator to make minor corrections to height and rotation
to make sure the bob hangs straight. The surveyor’s brass
plumb bob comes with a minimum of 7 feet of nylon, silk or
linen cord. It comes in 6, 8, 10, and 16 ounce sizes. The
heavier plumb bobs are better for use in windy areas.
11.2.3 Solid Steel.
11.2 TYPES AND USES.
11.2.1 Plumb Bobs. A plumb bob is a precision instrument
used to establish a true vertical transfer and line-up reference
point, and to take readings or soundings in tanks and voids.
Plumb bobs are used by carpenters, surveyors and maintenance technicians.
11.2.2 Surveyor’s Polished Brass.
The solid steel plumb bob (A) may have a machined integral
head, body, and point. It may have just a removable head (B),
or a removable head and a replaceable point (C). It may be
round or hexagonal in shape and it comes in 3, 8, and 12
ounce sizes. Cord for the solid steel bobs must be obtained
from a separate source. This type plumb bob is used when
extreme accuracy is not required.
11-1
TO 32-1-101
11.3 USING A PLUMB BOB.
NOTE
against cap base. Make sure the knot is not too large or
tied at an angle which would affect the hanging of the
plumb bob.
The practice procedure which follows (for establishing the true vertical of a post) uses a plumb bob with
a removable head.
3. Install cap into plumb bob body (4).
The first step is to attach the cord as follows:
1. Insert a string or cord (1) into the cap (2) of the plumb
bob. Make sure the cord will support the plumb bob.
Pull the cord through the cap.
4. Tighten cap securely in the body and suspend the plumb
bob by the cord only. Make sure the knot will support
the plumb bob.
NOTE
• The following task is not the only use of a plumb
bob.
• Post hole must be dug and an assistant is required
before starting the task.
2. Place cap in the palm of your hand and tie an overhand
knot (3) in the cord. Pull the cord drawing the knot
11-2
TO 32-1-101
5. Place a ruler (5) on the top of the post (6) so that it
extends 2 inches beyond an edge.
6. Hang string and plumb bob so they extend over end of
ruler and the plumb bob is just above the ground surface.
11-3
TO 32-1-101
7. Have the assistant measure distance (7) from post to
string just above the plumb bob. It should read 2 inches.
If it doesn’t, move the base or the top of the post right or
left until you get a 2-inch reading on both rules.
When extreme accuracy is desired, measurement would be
taken to the point of the plumb bob (8). Repeat steps 5, 6, and
7 on side 2.
11-4
TO 32-1-101
11.4 CARE OF PLUMB BOBS.
1. Handle plumb bobs with care. Do not use a plumb bob
as a hammer or lever. Lightly coat plumb bobs with
lubricating oil for short periods of storage. For longterm storage, apply a heavy coat of oil and wrap the
plumb bob in oil-soaked paper.
2. Store plumb bobs in a protective box in a dry place.
Make certain threads of removable caps (1) and points
(2) are lightly coated with lubricant and placed in a
protective box.
11-5/(11-6 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 12
SCRIBERS
12.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 12.2, provides you with a list of
the types of scribers. These pages should help you select the
right scriber for the job. Using a Mechinist’s Scriber, Paragraph 12.3, tells you how to use the scriber to scribe an orientation mark. Care of Scribers, Paragraph 12.4, tells you how to
care for the scribers.
The bent point is used to scribe through holes or other hard to
reach places.
12.3 USING A MACHINIST’S SCRIBER.
NOTE
The following procedure for scribing an alignment
mark on a telescope is not the only use of a scriber.
12.2 TYPES AND USES.
12.2.1 Machinist’s Scribers.
1. Place material to be marked on a firm surface. Place a
steel rule or straight edge (1) on the work beside the line
to be scribed.
The machinist’s scriber is used to mark or score on steel,
glass, aluminum, copper or similar surfaces. There are two
basic types of machinist’s scribers, single point pocket (1), and
bent point-straight point (2).
Tungsten carbide tips have extremely hard points and are used
on hardened steel or glass.
2. Use finger tips of one hand to hold the straight edge
securely. Hold the scriber in your hand as you would a
pencil.
12-1
TO 32-1-101
1. Protect points by reversing them in the handle or placing
a cork or a piece of soft wood over point.
3. Scribe the line by drawing the scriber (2) along the
straight edge at a 45 degree angle and tipped in the
direction it is being moved.
2. Keep the scribers clean and lightly oiled.
12.4 CARE OF SCRIBERS.
3. Stow on a rack or in a box.
4. Do not use scribers for other than intended purposes.
12-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 13
SQUARES
13.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
13.2 TYPES AND USES.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 13.2, provides you with a list of
the types of squares. These pages should help you select the
right square for the job. Using Squares, Paragraph 13.3, tells
you how to use a square to perform its various functions. Care
of Squares, Paragraph 13.8, tells you how to care for squares.
13.2.1 Carpenter’s Square.
The carpenter’s square is made up of two parts: the body or
blade, and the tongue. It has inches divided into eighths,
tenths, twelfths, and sixteenths.
The face side contains the manufacturer’s name and the inches
are divided into eighths and sixteenths as shown. There are
two tables down the center.
The rafter table is used for determining the length and cut of
rafters.
13-1
TO 32-1-101
Face of body
Face of body
Face of tongue
Face of tongue
Back of body
Back of body
Back of tongue
Back of tongue
outside edge
inside edge
outside edge
inside edge
outside edge
inside edge
outside edge
inside edge
inches and sixteenths
inches and eighths
inches and sixteenths
inches and eighths
inches and twelfths
inches and sixteenths
inches and twelfths
inches and tenths
13.2.2 Try Square.
The octagon or eight square scale is used for cutting an octagon from a square piece of material.
The back side contains the hundredths scale and is divided
into tenths, twelfths, and sixteenths as shown. There are two
tables down the center.
The essex board measure is used to compute the number of
board feet in a given piece of lumber.
The try square is made of a steel or wood stock (1) and a blade
(2). The blade is from 2 to 12 inches long and is graduated in
eighths. The try square is used to set or check lines which are
at right angles (90 degrees) to each other.
13.2.3 Combination Square.
The brace measure is used to find the exact lengths of common braces.
The following scales or inch divisions are found on the carpenter’s square:
13-2
TO 32-1-101
The combination square is made up of the following components:
13.2.5 Bevel Protractor.
1. A slotted 12-inch stainless steel rule (1) which is graduated in eighths, sixteenths, thirty-seconds and sixtyfourths of an inch. It can be used as a measuring scale
by itself or with any one of the following components.
2. The center head (2), when attached to the rule, bisects a
90 degree angle. It’s used for determining the center of
cylindrical work.
3. The protractor (3) has a level (4) and a revolving turret
(5) which is graduated in degrees from 0 to 180 or 0 to
90 in either direction. It is used to lay out and measure
angles to within one degree.
4. The square head (6) has a level (7), a scribe (8), and 45
degree (9) and 90 degree sides (10). It is used to lay out
45 and 90 degree angles and to check level. It may also
be used as a height or depth gage.
13.2.4 Sliding T-Bevel.
The sliding T-bevel is made up of a slotted blade (1) and a
solid stock (2). The blade is adjustable so it can be set to
measure any angle. The T-bevel is used for testing bevels and
laying out angles.
The bevel protractor is made up of an adjustable blade (1) and
a graduated dial (2) which contains a vernier scale. The bevel
protractor is used to establish an angle and determine its relationship to other surfaces. The acute angle attachment (3) is
used for measuring acute angles accurately.
13.3 USING A CARPENTER'S SQUARE TO MARK A
SQUARE LINE.
1. To mark a square line, place the blade or tongue (1) of
the square against the side of the material with the
square tilted slightly so the blade or tongue of the square
extends across the work.
2. Mark a line across the work using a pencil or marking
crayon.
13.4 USING A CARPENTER’S SQUARE TO LAY OUT
STEPS.
13-3
TO 32-1-101
1. The preceding example shows proper square position
when marking cut lines for a series of steps 9” x 12.”
13.6 USING A SLIDING T-BEVEL SQUARE.
2. Continue the process until desired number of steps has
been layed out.
13.5 USING A TRY SQUARE.
1. Loosen locking nut (1) and adjust blade (2) to measure a
desired angle using protractor (3). Tighten locking nut
(1).
1. To check a square joint, place the stock (1) against a
horizontal section and the blade (2) against a vertical
section. Light must not be seen around blade edge. If
light is seen, the work is not square.
2. The angle may now be laid out by extending the blade
across the board with the stock (4) held firmly against
the edge.
2. To check the end of a board, place stock on vertical
edge and extend blade over the end. Light must not be
seen around blade edge. If light is seen, the work is not
square.
13-4
TO 32-1-101
3. Mark with a pencil or marking crayon. Make sure the
square does not move while marking.
13.7.2
Angle.
Using as a Protractor Head to Determine an
13.7 USING A COMBINATION SQUARE.
13.7.1 Using as a Center Head to Find the Diameter of
a Cylinder:
1. Slide protractor head (1) on rule (2) and fasten by tightening setscrew (3).
1. Slide center head (1) on rule (2) and fasten by tightening
setscrew (3).
2. Loosen the protractor adjustment screws (4) so the protractor may be pivoted about the rule. Angle being measured is already marked.
2. Put the center head flush against the cylinder.
3. Place the rule on the angle being measured and pivot the
protractor head against the edge. Tighten adjustment
screws.
3. Mark the diameter on the cylinder using a pencil or
marking crayon by drawing a straight line along the
inside edge (4). Make sure the square does not slip
while marking.
4. Remove and read measured angle on protractor scale.
13-5
TO 32-1-101
13.7.3
Depth.
Using a Combination Square to Determine
4. Tighten setscrew (3).
1. Slide square head (1) on rule (2) and fasten by tightening setscrew (3).
2. Loosen setscrew.
5. Remove the combination square and read the depth at
the intersection of the rule and the square head (4).
13.8 CARE OF SQUARES.
3. Set the flat surface of the square head (1) above the hole
and adjust the rule (2) until it hits the bottom.
1. Make sure squares are kept clean.
2. Apply a light coat of oil to all metal surfaces after using.
3. A square with a loose stock is no good. Replace the
square.
13-6
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 14
SURFACE, DEPTH, AND HEIGHT GAGES
14.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 14.2, provides you with a list of
the types of gages. These pages should help you select the
right gage for the job. Using the Surface, Depth, and Height
Gages, Paragraph 14.3, tells you how to use the gages for their
intended purposes. Care of Surface, Height, and Depth Gages,
Paragraph 14.4, tells you how to keep your gages in good
condition.
A surface gage is a measuring tool used to transfer measurements to work by scribing a line, and to indicate the accuracy
or parallelism of surfaces. The surface gage consists of a base
with an adjustable spindle (1) to which may be clamped a
scriber or an indicator (2). Surface gages are made in several
sizes and are classified by the length of the spindle. The smallest spindle is 4 inches long, the average 9 to 12 inches, and the
largest 18 inches. The scriber is fastened to the spindle with a
clamp. The bottom and the front end of the base of the surface
gage have deep V-grooves. The grooves allow the gage to
measure from a cylindrical surface. The base has two gage
pins (3). They are used against the edge of a surface plate or
slot to prevent movement or slippage.
14.2.2 Rule Depth Gage.
14.2 TYPES AND USES.
14.2.1 Surface Gage.
A rule depth gage measures the depth of holes, slots, counterbores, and recesses. Some rule depth gages, such as the one
shown above, can also be used to measure angles. This is done
by using the angle marks (1) located on the sliding head (2).
The rule depth gage is a graduated rule (3) with a sliding head
(2) designed to bridge a hole or slot. The gage holds the rule at
a right angle to the surface when taking measurements. This
type has a measuring range of 0 to 5 inches. The sliding head
has a clamping screw so that it may be clamped in any position. The sliding head is flat and perpendicular to the axis of
the rule. It ranges in size from 2 to 2-5/8 inches wide and from
1/8 to 1/4 inch thick.
14-1
TO 32-1-101
14.2.3 Micrometer Depth Gage.
The vernier depth gage consists of a graduated scale (1) either
6 or 12 inches long. It also has a sliding head (2) similar to the
one on the vernier caliper. (See chapter 6, Using Vernier Caliper).
The sliding head is designed to bridge holes and slots. The
vernier depth gage has the range of the rule depth gage. It does
not have quite the accuracy of a micrometer depth gage. It
cannot enter holes less than 1/4 inch in diameter. However, it
will enter a 1/32-inch slot. The vernier scale is adjustable and
may be adjusted to compensate for wear.
14.2.5 Height Gage.
The micrometer depth gage consists of a flat base (1) that is
attached to the barrel of a micrometer head (2). These gages
have a range from 0 to 9 inches, depending on the length of
extension rod used. The hollow micrometer screw has a 1/2 or
1 inch range. Some are provided with a ratchet stop. The flat
base ranges in size from 2 to 6 inches. Several extension rods
are supplied with this type gage.
NOTE
For additional information on micrometers, see chapter 7 in this manual.
14.2.4 Vernier Depth Gage.
A height gage is used in the layout of jigs and fixtures. On a
bench, it is used to check the location of holes and surfaces. It
accurately measures and marks off vertical distances from a
plane surface.
The vernier height gage is a caliper with a special base (1) to
adapt it for use on a surface plate. Height gages are available
in several sizes. Most common are the 10, 18, and 24-inch
gages in English measure. The most common metric gages are
the 25 and 46-centimeter sizes. Height gages are classified by
the dimension they will measure above the surface plate like
the vernier caliper (see chapter 6, Reading a Vernier Caliper),
height gages are graduated in divisions of 0.025 inch. Its vernier scale is divided into 25 units for reading thousandths of an
inch.
14-2
TO 32-1-101
14.2.6 Surface Plate.
Measuring the distance from a surface to a recessed point.
14.3.3 Using a Micrometer Depth Gage.
A surface plate provides a true, smooth, plane surface. It is
often used as a level base for surface and height gages from
which to make accurate measurements. Surface plates are usually made of close grained cast iron (1), are rectangular in
shape, and come in a variety of sizes.
14.3 USING THE SURFACE, DEPTH, AND HEIGHT
GAGES.
Measuring projection depth with micrometer precision.
14.3.4 Using a Vernier Depth Gage.
Below are examples of how each of the gages mentioned in
this chapter can be used.
14.3.1 Using a Surface Gage.
Measuring hole depth of die from a given surface.
14.3.5 Using a Height Gage.
Setting gage for transfer of 4-inch vertical measurement.
14.3.2 Using a Rule Depth Gage.
Measuring vertical distance from a plane surface.
14-3
TO 32-1-101
14.4 CARE OF SURFACE, HEIGHT, AND DEPTH
GAGES.
1. Coat all metal parts of gages with a light coat of oil to
prevent rust.
3. Keep graduations and markings clean and legible.
4. Do not drop any gage. Small nicks, scratches, and distortions can cause inaccurate measurements.
5. Protect all pointed gage parts from damage.
2. Carefully store gages when not in use. Use separate containers if provided by manufacturer.
14-4
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 15
RING AND SNAP GAGES AND GAGE BLOCKS
15.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 15.2, provides you with a list of
the types of gages. These pages should help you select the
right gage for the job. Using, Paragraph 15.3, tells you how to
use the gages to make a measurement. Care, Paragraph 15.9,
tells you how to care for the gages.
they are called fixed gages. However, some snap gages are
adjustable. Gages are used for a wide range of work, from
rough machining to the finest tool and die making. The accuracy required of the same type of gage will be different,
depending on the use.
The following classes of gages and their limits of accuracy are
standard for all makes:
Class X - Precision lapped to close tolerances for many types
of masters and the highest quality working and inspection gages.
Class Y - Good lapped finish to slightly increased tolerances
for inspection and working gages.
15.2 TYPES AND USES.
Ring and snap gages and precision gage blocks are used as
standards to determine whether or not one or more dimensions
of a manufactured post are within specified limits. Their measurements are included in the construction of each gage, and
Class Z - Commercial finish (ground and polished, but not
fully lapped) for a large percentage of working gages in
which tolerances are fairly wide, and where production
quantities are not so large.
Class ZZ - (Ring gages only). Ground only to meet the
demand for an inexpensive gage, where quantities are
small and tolerances liberal.
15-1
TO 32-1-101
made with a flange (4). This design reduces the weight, making the larger sizes easier to handle.
The table below lists the tolerances for ring gages in each
class:
ABOVE
TO
AND
INCL
X
Y
Z
RING
GAGES
ZZ
0.029
0.825
1.510
2.510
4.510
6.510
9.010
0.825
1.510
2.510
4.510
6.510
9.010
12.010
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.00010
0.00013
0.00016
0.00020
0.00007
0.00009
0.00012
0.00015
0.00019
0.00024
0.00030
0.00010
0.00012
0.00016
0.00020
0.00025
0.00032
0.00040
0.00020
0.00024
0.00032
0.00040
0.00050
0.00064
0.00080
X
Y
Z
ZZ
Ring gages are used more often in the inspection of finished
parts than parts in process. The reason for this is that the
finished parts are usually readily accessible; whereas, parts in
a machine that are supported at both ends would have to be
removed to be checked.
15.2.2 Snap Gages.
Precision lapped
Lapped
Ground or polished (grinding marks may be in evidence)
Ground only
15.2.1 Ring Gages.
The plain snap gage is made in two general types, the nonadjustable and adjustable.
The nonadjustable type is a solid construction, having two
gaging members, GO (1) and NO GO (2) as shown above. The
part to be inspected is first tried on the GO side and then the
gage is reversed and the part tried on the NO GO side. Some
solid snap gages (3) have combined gaging members in the
same set of jaws as shown above, known as a progressive snap
gage. The outer member (4) gages the GO dimension and the
inner member (5) the NO GO dimension.
The plain ring gage is an external gage of circular form. For
sizes between 0.059 and 0.510 inch, ring gages are made with
a hardened bushing pressed into a soft body. The thickness of
the gage will range from 3/16 to 1-5/16 inches. On ring gages,
the GO gage (1) is larger than the NO GO gage (2). The GO
and NO GO ring gages are separate units. They can be distinguished from each other by an annular groove (3) cut in the
knurled outer surface of the NO GO gage. Ring gages made
for diameters of 0.510 to 1.510 inches are the same as those
shown above, except there is no bushing; they are made all in
one piece. Ring gages, sized from 1.510 to 5.510 inches are
15-2
TO 32-1-101
Three standard designs of the adjustable type are available,
consisting of a light, rigid frame with adjustable gaging pins,
buttons, or anvils. These pins or buttons may be securely
locked in place after adjustment, and locking screws are tightened to hold the gaging dimensions.
One type of adjustable snap gage is made in sizes that range
from 1/2 to 12 inches (1). It is equipped with four gaging pins
and is suitable for checking the dimension between surfaces.
Another type is made in sizes that range from 1/2 to 11-1/4
inches (2). It is equipped with four gaging buttons and is suitable for checking flat or cylindrical work.
1. Line the stud (1) up with the hole (2) and press in gently. If the stud will not go in, the shank is too large. If it
will go in, the stud is not oversize.
The third type is made in sizes from 1/2 to 11-5/8 inches (3). It
is equipped with two gaging buttons and a single block anvil,
and is especially suitable for checking the diameters of shafts,
pins, studs, and hubs.
15.2.3 Gage Blocks.
2. With the stud in the hole, check the piece for taper and
out-of-roundness by sensing any wobble.
Gage blocks are available in sets of from 5 to as many as 85
blocks of different dimensions. Precision gage blocks are
made from a special alloy steel. They are hardened, ground,
and then stabilized over a period of time to reduce subsequent
waxing. They are rectangular in shape with measuring surfaces on opposite sides. The measuring surfaces are lapped
and polished to an optically flat surface and the distance
between them is the measuring dimension. This dimension
may range from 0.010 inch up to 20 inches.
15.3 USING A RING GAGE.
3. After checking the part in the GO gage, check it in the
NO GO gage. The stud must not enter this gage to
establish it as being between the desired limits.
NOTE
The GO ring gage controls the maximum dimension
of a part and NO GO plug gages control the minimum dimension of a hole. Therefore, GO gages control the tightness of fit of mating parts and NO GO
gages control the looseness of fit of mating parts.
To check the shank diameter of a pivot stud.
15-3
TO 32-1-101
15.4 USING AN ADJUSTABLE SNAP GAGE.
Before an adjustable snap gage can be used to check parts, the
GO and NO GO buttons, pins, or anvils must be set to the
proper dimensions.
1. The snap (1) gage must first be clamped in a holder.
NOTE
Adjust the “GO” dimension first as shown in the illustration, or if desired, reverse the procedure and
adjust the “NO GO” dimension first.
2. Loosen the locking screw (2) and turn the adjusting
screws (3) until the dimensions (4) is set.
NOTE
The desired dimension may be taken from a master
disk, a precision gage block, or a master plug.
15-4
3. Turn the other adjusting screw (3) until the “NO GO”
dimension (5) is set.
4. After adjusting for proper dimensions with the master
precision piece (6) in place, tighten the locking screws
(2).
5. Recheck to make sure the dimensions have not changed
before using the gage.
TO 32-1-101
15.5 GAGING FLAT PARTS.
1. Position gage so that the pins or buttons (1) are square
with the flat surfaces on the part (2).
2. Using a slight hand pressure, push the gage (3) over the
part.
4. If the part is undersize, it will be possible to push it past
the NO GO pins.
15.6 GAGING CYLINDRICAL PARTS.
1. Locate the gage on the part with the solid anvil (1) on
top. Rock the gage (2) as indicated by the shaded segment above, where the GO dimension is checked.
2. If the shaft is not oversized, the first button (3) will pass
over it easily.
3. If the part is within limits, the NO GO pins will stop the
part.
15-5
TO 32-1-101
NOTE
When building gage blocks (wringing them together)
to obtain a desired dimension, care should be exercised to avoid damaging them.
3. Move the gage to the position shown above. If the NO
GO button (4) stops the gage, the shaft is within limits.
1. Bring the blocks together flat and move them slightly
back and forth. This minimizes scratching, as it will
detect any foreign particles between the surfaces.
4. If the gage can be rocked further to the position, as
shown, the part diameter is too small, since it has passed
the NO GO button.
15.7 HOW TO USE PRECISION GAGE BLOCKS.
Before using gage blocks, remove the coat of rust-preventive
compound with a chamois or a piece of cleansing tissue or by
cleaning with an approved solvent. Gage blocks and any measuring tool used with them must be free of grease, oil, dirt, and
other foreign matter to avoid a lapping action whenever the
block is moved, and to ensure accurate measurement. When
using gage blocks, take particular care when measuring hardened work to avoid scratching the measuring surfaces.
Do not leave blocks wrung together for long periods
of time since surfaces in contact will tend to corrode.
15-6
2. Shift the blocks. If the blocks are clean, they will begin
to take hold.
3. Slide the two blocks together, using a slight pressure
and a rotary motion.
4. Shift gage blocks so that their sides are in line. Any
combination of gage blocks may be stacked together in
this manner. The combination will be as solid as a single block.
TO 32-1-101
NOTE
• The adhesive force that binds two gage blocks together is a combination of molecular attraction and
the suction cup action due to the film of oil or
moisture on the surfaces wrung together.
• Separate gage blocks by sliding them apart, using
the same movement as when wringing them together.
15.8 FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN USING GAGE
BLOCKS.
Ordinary changes in temperature have a sizable effect on measurements made with precision gage blocks. The standard
measuring temperature is 68°F, which is just a little lower than
the average temperature in most shops. Since the room temperature affects the work as well as the block, the expansion in
the work will be matched in most cases by a similar expansion
in the block. The coefficient of linear expansion of several
metals and blocks is listed below:
Material
Steel
Iron
Phosphor bronze
Aluminum
Copper
Gage blocks
Millionths of an inch
5.5 to 7.2 per degree F
5.5 to 6.7
9.3
12.8
9.4
6.36 to 7.0
Handle blocks only when they must be moved and hold them
between the tips of your fingers so that the area of contact is
small. Hold them for short periods of time only.
Theoretically, the measuring pressure should increase proportionally with the area of contact. For practical purposes, it is
better to use a standard measuring pressure. The most commonly used pressure is 1/2 to 2 pounds.
Gage blocks are used in the layout and in checking the accuracy of tools, dies, and fixtures. They are also used in machine
setups and in checking parts in process of manufacture and
finished parts.
Gage blocks are commonly used in setting adjustable instruments and indicating gages and verifying inspection gages.
Gage blocks are used to verify the accuracy and wear of ring
and snap gages and many other special-purpose gages. The
classification of blocks depends largely on the accuracy
required. Typical classification is shown on the following
page.
Class
Work
Error range
millionths of
an inch
I
Verifying gages, setting
instruments, and tool
inspection.
5 to 20
II
Layout of jigs, fixtures and
dies, setting instruments,
and tool inspection.
20 to 40
III
Setup of grinding, milling
and drill machines, and
parts inspection.
40 to 100
15.9 CARE OF RING AND SNAP GAGES.
NOTE
Avoid conducting body heat into the block by careless handling. Body heat may raise the temperature of
the block, causing a serious error in a measurement,
particularly if a long stack of blocks is being handled.
When using gage blocks consider the source of error resulting
from temperature. Metals other than iron and steel (such as
aluminum) have a much different coefficient of linear expansion which will result in a difference between the room temperature measurement and the standard measuring temperature
measurement. Careless handling of gage blocks may produce
an error of several millionths of an inch and this error
increases proportionally with the dimension of the block.
The temperature of the work may be either lower or higher
than the room temperature as a result of a machining operation
and this difference may be sufficient to cause a sizable error.
1. Always make certain that the surfaces of the parts gaged
and the gage itself are kept free from abrasives, dirt,
grit, chips, and all foreign matter.
2. Always consider the abrasive action of the part on the
gage. Cast iron, steel, and cast aluminum are more abrasive than brass, bronze, and nonmetals such as plastics.
Use particular care when gaging cast iron, steel, and cast
aluminum.
15-7
TO 32-1-101
3. When gages are stored, arrange them neatly in a drawer
or case so that they do not contact other tools or each
other.
2. Never touch the measuring surfaces of blocks any more
than necessary. The moisture from your hands contains
an acid which, if not removed, will eventually stain the
blocks.
4. Always hold the gages in your hands when checking.
Never clamp them in a vise.
5. At frequent intervals, check all gages for accuracy and
wear with gage blocks or master gages.
15.10 CARE OF GAGE BLOCKS.
3. Before using blocks, ensure there is no grease, oil, dirt,
or any foreign substances on block.
1. Observe particular care when using gage blocks to measure hardened work. The danger of scratching is
increased when the work is as hard as the block, or
harder.
15-8
4. Every time a set of blocks is used, all the blocks which
have been cleaned for use must be covered with a film
of acid-free oil, such as boiled petrolatum, before they
are put away. Wipe them with an oiled chamois as you
return the blocks to their places in the case.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 16
MISCELLANEOUS MEASURING GAGES
16.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
16.2 TYPES AND USES.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 16.2, provides you with a list of
miscellaneous measuring gages. These pages should help you
select the right gage for the job. Using, Paragraph 16.3, tells
you how to use the miscellaneous measuring gages to perform
the measuring operation. Care of Gages, Paragraph 16.14, procedures tell you how to care for the gages.
16.2.1 Thickness (Feeler) Gages.
Thickness (feeler) gages are made in many shapes and sizes;
usually 2 to 26 blades are grouped into one tool and graduated
in thousandths of an inch.
Most thickness blades are straight, while others are bent at the
end at 45 degree and 90 degree angles. Some thickness gages
are grouped so that there are several short and several long
blades together. Thickness gages are also available in single
blades and in strip form for specific measurements. For convenience, many groups of thickness gages are equipped with a
locking screw in the case that locks the blade to be used in the
extended position.
16-1
TO 32-1-101
These gages are fixed in leaf form, which permits the checking
and measuring of small openings such as contact points, narrow slots, and so forth. They are widely used to check the
flatness of parts in straightening and grinding operations and
in squaring objects with a try square.
16.2.3 Screw Pitch Gages.
16.2.2 Center Gage.
The center gage is graduated in 14ths, 20ths, 24ths, and 32nds
of an inch. The back of the center gage has a table giving the
double depth of thread in thousandths of an inch for each
pitch. This information is useful in determining the size of tap
drills. Sixty-degree angles in the shape of the gage are used for
checking Unified and American threads as well as for older
American National or U.S. Standard threads and for checking
thread cutting tools.
Screw pitch gages are made for checking the pitch of U.S.
Standard, Metric, National Form, V-form, and Whitworth cut
threads. These gages are grouped in a case or handle, as are
the thickness gages. The number of threads per inch is
stamped on each blade. Some types are equipped with blade
locks. The triangular-shaped gage has 51 blades covering a
wide range of pitches, including 11-1/2 and 27 threads-perinch for V-form threads.
Screw pitch gages are used to determine the pitch of an
unknown thread. The pitch of a screw thread is the distance
between the center of one tooth to the center of the next tooth.
16-2
TO 32-1-101
16.2.4 Small Hole Gage Set.
holes. Compress the plungers and lock them by turning handle
screw.
16.2.6 Threaded Cutting Tool Gages.
Small hole gages are adjustable, having a rounded measuring
member. A knurled screw in the end of the handle is turned to
expand the ball-shaped end in small holes and recesses. A
micrometer caliper is used to measure the ball end. Maximum
measuring capacity is 1/2 inch. This set of 4 or more gages is
used to check dimensions of small holes, slots, grooves, and so
forth from approximately 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter.
16.2.5 Telescoping Gages.
Thread cutting tool gages are hardened steel plates with cutouts around the perimeter. Each cutout is marked with a number that represents the number of threads per inch.
These gages provide a standard for thread cutting tools. They
have an enclosed angle of 29 degrees and include a 29 degree
setting tool. One gage furnishes the correct form for square
threads and the other for Acme standard threads.
16.2.7 Fillet and Radius Gages.
Telescoping gages are used to gage larger holes and to measure inside distances. These gages are equipped with a plunger
(1) that can be locked in the measuring position by a knurled
screw (2) in the end of the handle (3). Maximum measuring
capacity is 6 inches. Measurements must be calipered on the
gage by a micrometer, as in the case of the small hole gages.
They are also used when measurements cannot be taken with a
standard micrometer. Telescoping gages are particularly adaptable for roughly bored work and odd sizes and shapes of
The blades of fillet and radius gages are made of hard-rolled
steel. The double-ended blades of the gage have a lock which
holds the blades in position. The inside and outside radii are
on one blade on gage (A). The other gage (B) has separate
blades for inside and outside measurements. Each blade of
each gage is marked in 64ths. Each gage has 16 blades.
16-3
TO 32-1-101
16.2.8 Drill Point Gage.
The drill point gage consists of a 6-inch hook rule with a 59
degree sliding head that slides up and down the rule. The
sliding head can be locked at any position on the rule and is
graduated in 1/32 inch. This gage is used to check the accuracy of drill cutting edges after grinding. It is also equipped
with a 6-inch hook rule. This tool can be used as a drill point
gage, hook rule, plain rule, and a slide caliper for taking outside measurements.
16.2.9 Wire Gages.
16.2.10 Drill Gages.
The twist drill and drill rod gage has a series of holes with size
and decimal equivalents stamped adjacent to each hole. One
gage measures drill sizes Nos. 1 to 60; the other gage measures drill sizes 1/16 to 1/2 inch in 1/64 inch intervals. Drill
gages determine the size of a drill and indicate the correct size
of drill to use for given tap size. Drill number and decimal size
are also shown in this type gage. Letter size drill gages are
also available. Each drill hole is identified by a letter instead
of a number, decimal, or fraction.
16.2.11 Marking Gages.
A wire gage is circular in shape with cutouts in the outside
edge. Each cutout gages a different size wire, from 0 to 36 of
the English Standard Wire Gage. A separate gage is used for
American standard wire and another for U.S. Standard sheet
and plate iron, and steel.
Similar gages are also used to check the size of hot and cold
rolled steel, sheet and plate iron, and music wire.
Marking gages are made of wood or steel. They consist of a
graduated beam about 8 inches long on which a head slides.
The head can be fastened at any point on the beam with a
thumbscrew. The thumbscrew presses a brass shoe tightly
against the beam and locks it firmly in position. A steel pin or
spur (1) marks the wood and projects from the beam about 1/
16 inch.
A marking gage is used to mark off guidelines parallel to an
edge, end, or surface of a piece of wood. It has a sharp spur or
pin which does the marking. A marking gage must be adjusted
by setting the head the desired distance from the spur.
16-4
TO 32-1-101
16.3 USING A THICKNESS GAGE.
1. Place a blade of a gage (1) over the threads (2), and
check to see whether it meshes; if not, successively
check each blade of the gage against the thread until it
meshes.
2. The pitch can be read off the correct blade. The blades
are made pointed so that they can be inserted in small
nuts to check inside threads as well as outside threads.
Thickness (feeler) gages are used in one of two ways: as a
means for determining a measure or a means for adjusting to a
definite limit. A thickness gage is used to check piston ring
gap clearance in a cylinder bore.
16.6 USING A SMALL HOLE GAGE.
The small hole gages perform the same function as telescoping
gages, except that they are used in smaller work.
A long blade thickness gage is used to determine the fit
between large mating surfaces. By combining blades it is possible to obtain a wide variation of thickness.
16.4 USING A CENTER GAGE.
The center gage is used to set thread cutting tools. Four scales
on the gage are used for determining the number of threads per
inch. The gage is also used to check cut threads and the scales
are used to measure threads per inch.
1. Fit the ball-shaped point (1) into the hole or slot (2).
2. Expand the ball-shaped end by turning the screw (3) at
the end of the handle.
3. Use micrometer to gage the measurement.
16.7 USING A TELESCOPING GAGE.
16.5 USING A SCREW PITCH GAGE.
1. Loosen the knurled nut (1) at the end of the handle (2).
If the pitch of a thread is not known, it can be determined by
comparing it with the standards on the various screw pitch
gages.
2. Slightly tilt telescoping gage (3) 5 to 10 degrees and
lower into object to be measured.
16-5
TO 32-1-101
3. Tighten knurled nut (1).
16.9 USING A FILLET AND RADIUS GAGE.
4. Remove gage by pulling across center line as indicated
by arrow.
NOTE
Take measurement only once. Repeated attempts will
produce an inaccurate reading.
5. Measure gage setting with an outside micrometer. (To
use an outside micrometer, refer to chapter 7 in this
manual.)
1. A double-ended radius gage blade (1) is used to check
the inside corner or fillet (2) of a machined part. Each
blade can be locked in position by tightening the clamp.
16.8 USING A THREAD CUTTING TOOL GAGE.
1. Place the proper gage (1) over the tool (2). The tool
must mesh properly with no light showing between the
tool and the gage.
2. Use a 29 degree angle as a guide when grinding cutting
tool.
3. After tool fits the angle, the point should be ground off
to fit the proper place on the gage for the particular
number of threads per inch to be cut.
16-6
2. These gages can be used in any position and at any
angle for both inside and outside radii.
16.10 USING A DRILL POINT GAGE.
The method for sharpening the cutting edges of a drill is to do
one lip at a time. Each lip must have the same length and have
the same angle in relation to the axis of the drill. Set the
sliding head securely on the rule at the mark equal to the
length of the drill. Place the drill vertically against the rule so
that the drill lip contacts the 59 degree angle of the sliding
head. Hold up to light; correct angle is obtained when no light
is seen between gage and drill.
TO 32-1-101
16.11 USING A WIRE GAGE.
spur touches the work. Push the gage along the edge to mark
the work, keeping the head firmly against the work.
Determine the size of both sheet stock and wire by using a
correct sheet and plate or wire gage.
16.12 USING A DRILL GAGE.
The drill gage is used to determine the size of a drill. The drill
size, number and decimal size or letter size are stamped on the
gage beside each hole. A chart on the gage indicates the correct size of drill to use for a given tap size.
16.13 USING MARKING GAGES.
16.14 CARE OF GAGES.
1. Exercise care when using thickness gages to measure
clearance of knives and cutters on machines. Do not
lower knife on thickness blade and then try to remove
the gage. The blade may be shaved off if it is too tight.
Never use gages for cleaning slots or holes. When
blades are damaged or worn they should be replaced.
Blades in a case are removed by loosening the clamp
and sliding out the damaged blade. Insert new blade and
tighten clamp.
2. Always coat metal parts of all gages with a light film of
oil when not in use to prevent rust. Store gages in separate containers. Do not pile gages on each other. Always
return blades of leaf-type gages to case after use. Keep
graduations and markings on all gages clean and legible.
Do not drop any gage. Small scratches or nicks will
result in inaccurate measurements.
Press the head (1) firmly against the edge of the work (2) to be
marked. With a wrist motion, tip the gage forward until the
16-7/(16-8 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 17
PLIERS AND TONGS
17.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
The slip-joint combination pliers have serrated (grooved)
jaws, with a rod-gripping section, a cutting edge, and a pivot.
The serrated jaws and rod-gripping section are used to hold
objects. The cutting edge permits the cutting of soft wire and
nails. However, cutting hard materials or large gage wire will
spring the jaws, making the pliers useless. The pivot is used to
adjust the jaw opening to handle large or small objects.
17.2.2 Diagonal Cutting Pliers.
Wear eye protection when using pliers that cut or
trim. Keep fingers away from jaws and cutting edges
to prevent personal injury.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 17.2, provides you with a list of
some types of pliers and tongs. These pages should help you
select the right pair to do the job. Using, Paragraph 17.3, tells
you how to use the pliers or tongs to perform the desired
function. Care of Pliers and Tongs, Paragraph 17.6, tells you
how to care for the items.
The diagonal cutting pliers have a fixed pivot. The jaws are
offset by about 15 degrees and are shaped to give enough
knuckle clearance while making flush cuts. The diagonal cutting pliers are used for cutting small, light materials such as
wire, cotter pins, and similar materials. These pliers are not to
be used to hold or grip objects.
17.2.3 Lineman’s Side Cutting Pliers.
17.2 TYPES AND USES.
17.2.1 Slip-joint Pliers.
The lineman’s side cutting pliers have serrated jaws, a rodgripping section, side cutters, wire cropper, a fixed pivot, and
parallel handles. The flat serrated jaws are used to bend sheet
metal and twist electrical wire. The rod-gripping section is
used to hold rods and bend small rods. The side cutters are
located just above the pivot point, where maximum pressure
may be applied. They are ground at an angle permitting sharp
flush cuts on electrical wire. A pair of croppers is located
above the pivot. They are used to shear larger wire. Lineman’s
pliers used around electrical circuits have insulated sleeves
over the handles to reduce the possibility of electrical shock.
17-1
TO 32-1-101
17.2.4 Parallel Jaw Pliers.
The straight-lip flat-jaw tongs have two straight jaws, a fixed
pivot point, and long, straight handles. These tongs are used to
hold bearings and bearing inserts while setting them in place.
17.2.8 End Cutting Pliers.
The parallel jaw pliers are constructed so that the jaws remain
parallel to each other throughout the entire distance of travel.
It has two jaws, a pivot pin, curved handles, and tension
springs. The tension springs are contained within the curved
handles and will open the jaws when the handles are released.
These pliers are used to grip objects which have flat surfaces.
17.2.5 Flat-nose Pliers.
The end cutting pliers are used to crop wire flush to the working surface. They are designed to keep hands and fingers
safely away from the wire ends.
17.2.9 Wire Strippers (Multipurpose).
The flat-nose pliers have flat serrated jaws, a fixed pivot, and
curved handles which may have insulated sleeves. These pliers
are used to bend light sheet metal and wire.
Wire strippers are used to strip insulation from electrical cord.
When closed around wire, only the insulation is cut. The wire
core remains undamaged.
17.2.6 Round-nose Pliers.
17.2.10 Crimping Tools. There are approximately twenty
different types of crimping tools now in use at field locations,
each one designed to install a specific type and size of connector. These tools are used to install electrical taper pins, butt
connectors, ring tongue terminals, ferrules, etc. The various
crimping tools differ in some respects due to different manufactures; however, they are all marked to indicate manufacturers part number and wire size limitations.
The round-nose pliers are used to make loops in soft wire. It
has smooth, round jaws, a fixed pivot, and curved handles,
which may have insulated sleeves.
Several of the crimping tools are adjustable to accommodate
different insulation thicknesses. This adjustment is accomplished by positioning two pins (adjustment pins available part
No. 3144921) located near the pivot point of the tool.
17.2.7 Straight-lip Flat-jaw Tongs.
Each of the two pins can be placed in any one of three different locations labeled 1, 2, and 3.
When making adjustment, make sure that both insulation
adjustment pins are in the same numbered positions. Position
number 3 is for wire having a large insulation diameter, position number 2 is for wire having a medium insulation diameter, and position number 1 is for wire having a small insulation
diameter.
17-2
TO 32-1-101
Crimping tools are often color coded. This color will be
located either on the handle or on the crimping jaws of the
tool. The color indicates the size of wire to be connected.
Often the connector is also color coded to match the tool. The
color codes normally used are as follows:
Wire Sizes
Color
26-22
Yellow
22-16
Red
16-14
Blue
12-10
Yellow
8
Red
6
Blue
4
Yellow
2
Red
10
Blue
20
Yellow
30
Red
40
Blue
The locator (stop plate) on some crimpers is used to position
the different types of connectors (e.g., ring tongue on buttconnectors) and is to be used to position the connectors in all
cases.
The majority of crimping tools use a ratchet control that prevents the opening of the jaws once the crimp is begun. This is
to insure that the correct amount of pressure is applied to the
connector.
Forged alloy steel pliers are best for twisting safety wires on
crucial aircraft, automotive and similar equipment. Has a
right-hand twist and a standard nose shape and a riveted lap
joint with side cutter. Jaws lock in the closed position and
have scored or serrated gripping surfaces. A spiraling mechanism welded to one handle produces a close, uniform twist
when rod is pulled and pliers rotate.
17.3 USING SLIP-JOINT PLIERS.
NOTE
The following procedure for bending the ends of a
cotter pin after installation is not the only use of slipjoint pliers.
1. With cotter pin installed, push rounded head of pin (1)
with thumb of one hand. Grasp the long section of
extending cotter pin (2) with pliers, and bend it back flat
against the metal surface or nut.
Maintenance should consist of lightly lubricating all pins and
pivot points as necessary. Use IBM No. 9 oil, part No.
3034653.
Table 16 in the Appendix illustrates the crimping tools available and lists all pertinent data pertaining to their usage.
17.2.11 Wire Twister.
2. Grasp the other section of the extending cotter pin (3)
and bend it back flat against the metal surface or nut.
17-3
TO 32-1-101
17.4 USING DIAGONAL CUTTING PLIERS.
3. Adjust pliers (4) to obtain a wide jaw opening.
Too much pressure could break the cotter pin or
spring the plier jaws.
Wear eye protection. Keep fingers away from jaws
and cutting edges.
Diagonal cutting pliers are to be used only for cutting.
NOTE
The following procedure for the removal of a cotter
pin is not the only use of diagonal cutting pliers.
1. Position cutters so the rounded end (1) of the cotter pin
is between the cutting jaws.
2. Close the cutting jaws by applying pressure to the handles (2). This will shear off the end of the cotter pin (3).
4. Place plier jaws (5) around both bent ends of the cotter
pin and apply pressure on the handles, bending cotter
pin ends flush.
17-4
TO 32-1-101
17.5 USING LINEMAN’S SIDE CUTTING PLIERS.
Wear eye protection when cutting or trimming. Keep
fingers away from jaws and cutting edges.
NOTE
2. Grasp the ends of the wires (2) firmly on the serrated
jaws (3) and twist the pliers (4).
The following procedure for twisting wires is not the
only use of lineman’s side cutting pliers.
3. Continue twisting pliers until wire has been twisted to
desired length.
1. Using one hand, hold wires to be twisted (1) just above
the point where the twist is to begin.
4. Open plier jaws and place the ends of the twisted wires
between the cutting edges (5). Trim the ends of the wire.
17.6 CARE OF PLIERS AND TONGS.
1. Remove dirt and grease with a clean rag and apply a
light coat of oil after each use.
2. Store pliers in a tool box or hang on racks when not in
use.
3. Do not remove insulation on handles or oil handles
which are insulated.
4. Do not use pliers for prying or for removing nuts or
bolts. Replace all pliers which have broken jaws, handles, or cutting edges.
17-5/(17-6 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 18
VISES
18.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
18.2.2 Bench and Pipe Vise.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 18.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of vises. These pages should help you select
the right vise to do the job. Using, Paragraph 18.3, tells you
how to use the vise to perform the desired function. Care of
Vises, Paragraph 18.5, tells you how to care for the items.
18.2 TYPES AND USES.
18.2.1 Machinist’s Bench Vise.
The bench and pipe vise is a dual purpose vise. It has rough
jaws and a swivel base similar to the machinist’s bench vise.
However, it also has built-in pipe jaws. Bench and pipe vises
are usually bolted to a work bench or table. They are used for
holding or clamping heavy objects, holding pipe for cutting
and threading, and for forming and shaping metal.
18.2.3 Clamp Base Bench Vise.
The machinist’s bench vise has rough jaws which prevent the
work from slipping. It has a swivel base, allowing the user to
position the vise in a better working position. Machinist’s
bench vises are usually bolted to a work bench or table. They
are used for holding or clamping large, heavy objects.
The clamp base bench vise is a lightweight, portable machinist’s vise. It is attached to a table or bench with the mounting
clamp. It has rough jaws for holding material and may have a
swivel base. Clamp base bench vises are used to hold light
materials or in areas where a heavier vise is not available.
18-1
TO 32-1-101
18.2.4 Pipe Vise.
18.2.6 Pin Vise.
The pin vise is a special purpose vise which has a knurled
metal handle and a chuck. It is designed to hold material from
0 to 0.187 inches in diameter. The pin vise is used to hold
files, taps, and small drills during machining operations.
18.2.7 Piston Holding Vise.
The pipe vise is a special purpose vise designed to hold round
stock. It has hinged jaws which allow the user to position the
work and then lock it in place. Some pipe vises have a section
of chain instead of jaws for holding the pipe. Pipe vises are
usually bench mounted. They are used to hold pipe from 1/8
inch to 8 inches in diameter while cutting or threading.
18.2.5 Machine Table Vise.
The piston holding vise is a special purpose vise which can
hold engine pistons up to and including 5-1/2 inches in diameter. This vise may be bolted to a bench or table.
18.2.8 Handsaw Filing Vise.
The machine table vise is a special purpose vise which may be
bolted to a drill press, lathe, or table. It is available in two
sizes, one having a 3-1/2-inch jaw width and a 3-inch jaw
opening, and the other having a 6-inch jaw width and a 6-inch
jaw opening. Machine table vises are used to hold small pieces
of wood or metal for machining or drilling operations.
The handsaw filing vise is a special purpose vise used for
holding handsaws while they are being sharpened. It has jaws
18-2
TO 32-1-101
between 9-1/2 and 11 inches wide, and an attachment for holding a file at a constant angle.
18.3 USING A MACHINIST’S BENCH VISE.
• A work surface, mounted with a machinist’s bench
vise, pipe vise, utility vise or a similar table vise
shall be sufficiently stable or anchored to the floor
to prevent the work surface from toppling during
use of the vise.
Make sure the vise is bolted securely to a bench or
table and the swivel base is locked.
1. Open jaws (1) of vise wide enough to allow you to
insert the object you want to clamp.
• Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect
soft material when clamping.
• Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to
hold large work in a small vise.
2. Insert object (2) to be clamped between vise jaws and
tighten handle (3).
3. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should
not be so tight that they mar the finish. A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished
surfaces.
NOTE
When holding hard material in vise jaws tightened by
hand, give the vise handle a sharp rap for final tightening.
18-3
TO 32-1-101
18.4 USING A PIPE VISE.
Pipe ends are extremely sharp, handle with care.
NOTE
The following procedure provides the steps required
to fasten a piece of pipe in a hinged jaw pipe vise.
• Do not apply too much pressure to copper or aluminum pipe.
1. Open the pipe-holding jaws (1) by turning the threaded
T-handle (2).
• A work surface, mounted with a machinist’s bench
vise, pipe vise, utility vise or a similar table vise
shall be sufficiently stable or anchored to the floor
to prevent the work surface from toppling during
use of the vise.
5. Tighten the pipe holding jaws by turning the threaded Thandle.
18.5 CARE OF VISES.
1. Clean with a rag after each use, and apply a light coat of
oil.
2. Never strike a vise with a heavy object or try to hold
large work in a small vise.
2. Lift locking device (3) and open pipe vise.
3. Keep jaws in good condition.
3. Insert section of pipe (4) in vise and close pipe vise, by
pushing locking device against lip on the side of the
lower holding jaw (5).
4. Never oil the swivel base or swivel joint, as this
decreases its holding power.
4. Insert locking bolt through aligned holes of upper and
lower lip jaws.
18-4
5. When not using a vise, bring the jaws lightly together
and leave the handle in a vertical position. This will
protect the jaws.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 19
CLAMPS
19.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
19.2.2 Hand Screw Clamps.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 19.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of clamps. These pages should help you
select the right clamp to do the job. Using, Paragraph 19.3,
tells you how to use the clamps to perform the desired function. Care, Paragraph 19.5, procedures tell you how to care for
the items.
The hand screw clamp is made up of two hardwood or high
impact plastic jaws (1) and two hand-operated screws (2)
which hold the clamp together. The hand screw clamp is used
for holding wood while gluing. They are available in a variety
of sizes.
19.3 USING A C-CLAMP.
19.2 TYPES AND USES.
19.2.1 C-Clamps.
C-clamps are used to hold work which cannot be held in a
vise, or which has to be held for extended periods of time.
They are available in a variety of sizes.
1. Select a clamp which has an opening about 1-1/2 to 2
inches wider than the material to be clamped. Glass and
highly polished surfaces must be protected. Use brass
shims or wooden blocks. Open clamp as wide as it will
go.
19-1
TO 32-1-101
1. Open the clamp jaws (1) and place the work between
the jaws. Keep jaws parallel. Use rawhide or soft leather
to protect highly polished surface.
2. Align work and protective blocks if required. Place
clamp (1) in position, and tighten operating screw (2)
until contact is made with material being clamped.
2. Tighten operating screws (2) making sure the clamp
jaws remain parallel. Be sure jaws fit firmly on work.
Properly clamped work will form a square.
3. Check alignment of material being clamped. Check that
the clamp is applying even pressure over entire surface.
Do not use wrenches or bars to tighten clamps.
4. Tighten clamp against surface.
19.4 USING A HAND SCREW CLAMP.
Make sure vise jaws remain parallel to edges of work.
19.5 CARE OF C-CLAMPS.
Use only on wood.
Examine material to be clamped and select a clamp which will
span across the work.
19-2
1. Clean threads and swivel with a rag, and lubricate with a
light coat of oil.
2. Store on a rack, on pins, or in a tool box. For long
storage periods, apply a rust-preventive compound.
TO 32-1-101
19.6 CARE OF HAND SCREW CLAMPS.
1. Lubricate screws with a few drops of light oil. Apply
light coat of linseed oil to wood surfaces.
2. Store clamps on racks, pins, or carefully place them in
your tool box. Wipe clamps off with a rag before storing.
19-3/(19-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 20
JACKS
20.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 20.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of jacks. These pages should help you select
the right jack to do the job. Using, Paragraph 20.4, tells you
how to use the jack to perform the desired function. Care of
Jacks, Paragraph 20.6, tells you how to care for the items.
The vertical bell base screw jack is operated by hand using a
steel bar handle which is inserted in the holes of the top housing or head.
The vertical screw jack with collapsible handle is operated by
hand using the collapsible handle which is inserted in a socket.
20.2 TYPES AND USES.
Jacks are used to raise or lower work and heavy loads short
distances. Some jacks are used for pushing and pulling operations. Others are used for spreading and clamping operations.
20.2.1 Screw Jacks. Vertical screw jacks come in several
capacities and different lowered and raised heights. The screw
moves up or down, depending on the direction the handle is
turned. These jacks are used for many different purposes.
They can be used to lift vehicles. They can also be used to
raise heavy crates, small buildings, or other items too heavy to
be raised by prying with wrecking bars.
Another type of screw jack is called an outrigger jack. It is
equipped with end fittings which permit pulling parts together
or pushing them apart.
20.2.2 Ratchet Lever Jacks.
A vertical ratchet lever jack has a rack bar that is raised or
lowered through a ratchet lever. Some are equipped with a
20-1
TO 32-1-101
double socket, one for lowering, one for raising. Others have
one socket and have an automatic lowering feature.
An outrigger ratchet jack is ratchet operated and has an extra
reverse ratchet handle and a base plate.
20.2.3 Hydraulic Jacks.
A push-pull hydraulic jack consists of a pump (1) and ram (2)
connected by a hydraulic or oil hose (3). These jacks are rated
at 3, 7, 20, 30, and 100-ton capacities and have many different
applications.
A hydraulic jack operates through pressure applied to one side
of a hydraulic cylinder which moves the jack head. These
jacks are automatically lowered by releasing the pressure. Vertical hydraulic jacks come in a variety of types, in capacities
from 3 to 100 tons, having different extended heights.
The push-pull hydraulic jacks are furnished with an assortment of attachments that enable you to perform countless
pushing, pulling, lifting, pressing, bending, spreading, and
clamping operations. The pump is hand operated. Simply turn
the control valve (4) on the side of the pump clockwise, stroke
the hand lever (5) up and down and the ram will extend. The
flexible hydraulic or oil hose allows you to operate the ram
from a safe distance in any desired position.
The ram retracts automatically by turning the control valve
counter clockwise. The attachments can be threaded to the end
of the plunger, to the ram body, or into the ram base.
20-2
TO 32-1-101
Illustrated below are some standard combinations of the pushpull hydraulic jack attachments for various operations.
2. Jack pulling combinations
3. Jack spreading combinations
1. Jack pushing combinations
4. Jack clamping combinations
20.3 SAFETY.
1. Keep fingers away from all moving parts.
Place blocking or other supports under the vehicle when
it is raised to the desired height to prevent it from dropping if the jack fails.
3. Make certain that hydraulic jacks are filled with oil and
that there are no visible oil leaks before using.
Never get under a load that is only supported by a
jack. Any jack is subject to failure and personal injury could result.
2. When jacking up vehicles, make certain no one is under
the vehicle to be raised. Set the hand brake firmly and
block the front wheels if a rear wheel is being changed.
Block the rear wheels if a front wheel is being changed.
4. Any new or repaired jack should be carefully inspected
by the operator prior to use.
5. Overloading can be hazardous to the jack, the operating
personnel, and the load in event of jack failure.
6. Be aware of the capabilities of the jack, especially its
load capacity.
20-3
TO 32-1-101
20.4 USING A BELL BASE SCREW JACK.
3. The jack will raise the load (3) with every degree turned
on the handle.
1. Insert the handle or bar (1) in the hole in the top housing
or head (2).
4. Block the load to withdraw the jack.
2. Turn or push the handle to the right to raise the jack, to
the left to lower the jack.
5. Screw the jack all the way down in the lower housing
and withdraw the handle or bar for storage upon completion of the job.
20-4
TO 32-1-101
20.5 USING A RATCHET LEVER JACK.
1. The operator should familiarize himself with the jack,
its capabilities and its operations. The reversing lever
(1) is located below the lifting mechanism cover (2) on
the left side of jack when viewed from the lifting lever.
When preparing to lift a load, the head (3) can be pulled
up by hand to meet the load.
2. To raise a load, pull reversing lever up and toward the
operator and operate the lever (4). The jack will raise
the load one notch for each lever downstroke. The rack
(5) cannot be ratcheted out of the base, as it is designed
to stop when raised to its top limit.
3. To lower a load, push reversing lever to straight-down
position and operate the lever. The jack will lower the
load one notch for each upstroke of the lever.
4. When the head of the five-ton jack is not supporting a
load, the rack can be allowed to fall free by pressing the
reversing lever all the way to the rear and slightly lifting
up on the lifting lever. The rack will not fall free if even
a slight load is still on the head.
20-5
TO 32-1-101
20.6 CARE OF JACKS.
1. Coat all surfaces with a thin film of light oil when not in
use.
2. For long periods of storage, the jacks should be covered
with a rust-preventive compound and stored in a dry
place.
3. Periodically check hydraulic fluid lever in push-pull
hydraulic jacks. Stand the pump on end before taking
20-6
out the fill plug, then fill with oil. Make sure the ram is
in the retracted position when checking level of oil and
when filling.
4. Ratchet lever jacks should be well greased. A thin coat
applied with hand or brush is sufficient for all movable
parts except the bushings. The bushings should be filled
with grease in the small hole provided for greasing purposes. Keep rack sides and front greased, but do not
grease the rack teeth.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 21
HAMMERS, MALLETS AND MAULS
21.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Parts of a hammer are as follows:
Types and Uses, Paragraph 21.2, provide you with a list of the
more common types of hammers. These pages should help
you select the right hammer for the job. Care and Safety, Paragraph 21.3, tells you how to keep your tools in proper condition and how to use them safely. Using Hammers, Paragraph
21.4, tells you how to perform a specific task using the carpenter’s, machinist’s and soft-faced hammers.
21.2 TYPES AND USES.
21.2.1 Carpenter’s Hammer.
Eye protection will be worn when using all types of
metal face hammers, soft face hammers and rubber
mallets when there is a danger of flying objects.
There are many more uses for these hammers, however. By
becoming familiar with the uses outlined, you will build a
good background for using any hammer.
The “Repair” pages tell you how to replace a wooden handle.
The carpenter’s hammer is used for driving and pulling nails
and tapping wood chisels.
There are two types of claws.
21-1
TO 32-1-101
Do not etch on fiberglass handles as this process may
weaken the handle. Etch info on the hammer head.
• Never use a claw hammer on a steel punch or on
hardened steel-cut or masonry nails. The face is
too soft and could chip.
A ball peen hammer is used for forming soft metal, peening
rivet heads, and striking metal in out-of-the-way places.
• Be sure to check for a loose head or a cracked
handle before use.
There are two types of striking faces.
A cross peen hammer is used as a chisel for removing rivet
heads and for stretching or bending metal.
NOTE
When using a flat-faced hammer to drive a nail, the
nail head must be square with the face of the hammer
at time of impact. The bell-faced hammer offers a
uniform face to the nail head even though the hammer face is slightly tipped at time of impact.
Hammers come in 7, 13, 16 and 20 ounce sizes. Your selection
should be based upon the following: flat face for rough work,
or bell face for finishing work where you don’t want dents in
the finish.
The straight claw is generally used for ripping and framing.
The curved claw is preferred for general use.
21.2.2 Machinist’s Peen Hammer. All machinist’s peen
hammers have a flat striking face on one end of the head for
striking punches and chisels. The other end of the head can be
one of the following:
A straight peen hammer is used like the cross peen but differs
from the cross peen since its peening edge is turned ninety
degrees. This keeps the handle parallel to the struck surface.
21.2.3 Bumping Body Hammer.
A bumping body hammer is used to straighten and form metal.
21-2
TO 32-1-101
21.2.4 Blacksmith’s or Sledge Hammers.
Blacksmith’s or sledge hammers are used for striking punches
and chisels, for breaking stones and concrete, and for setting
timbers. These hammers, although similar to the machinist’s
hammers, give the user the advantage of a heavier head and a
longer handle.
The straight peen is similar to the cross peen except that its
peening edge is turned ninety degrees. This keeps the handle
parallel to the struck surface.
21.2.5 Jeweler’s Hammer.
A double face sledge hammer has similar faces on both sides
of the head.
The jeweler’s hammer has a lightweight head weighing
between 1-3/4 and 2 ounces. It is used to drive pins and shafts
from precision instruments.
21.2.6 Mason’s Hammer.
The club hammer is a heavy double-faced demolition hammer.
It is primarily used to break up masonry.
The mason’s hammer has a flat striking face on one end of the
head and a tapered chisel on the other end. It is used for
setting and cutting bricks and flat stones.
Cross peen hammers have a broad flat face on one side of the
head and a peening chisel edge on the other side.
21-3
TO 32-1-101
21.2.7 Napping Hammer.
The napping hammer has a high carbon steel head with two
tapered faces and weighs about 3 pounds. It is used for chipping stone surfaces or for forming stones during road construction or similar stone work.
21.2.10 Setting Hammer.
The setting hammer has a square flat face on one end of the
head and a sloping beveled edge on the other end. It is used in
sheet metal work for leveling and bending edges and for setting double seams.
21.2.8 Riveting Hammer.
21.2.11 Soft-Faced Hammer.
The riveting hammer has a round face on one end of the head.
It is used for peening rivet heads. The other end has a tapered
chisel which is used for upsetting rivets.
21.2.9 Sawmaker’s Hammer.
Soft-faced hammers are capable of delivering heavy blows to
machined, highly polished or soft surfaces without damaging
the surface.
21.2.12 Lead or Copper Hammer.
The sawmaker’s hammer has a tapered blunt face on one end
of the head and a tapered chisel face on the other end. It is
used for setting the teeth on saws when a setting tool is
unavailable.
21-4
Lead or copper hammers are usually used for aligning steel
surfaces. Copper hammers range in head weight from 8
ounces up to 3 pounds. Working surfaces of lead and copper
hammers may be filed to restore even faces. Molds are available for repouring lead hammers.
TO 32-1-101
21.2.13 Inserted Soft-Faced Hammer.
Inserted soft-faced hammers provide the user with a dual purpose hammer. Any two faces may be assembled on a single
handle holder. The following tables will assist you in selecting
the proper face hardness for the task you are attempting:
Hardness
Soft
Medium
Tough
Medium Hard
Hard
Extra Hard
Symbol
Color
S
M
T
N
H
XH
Brown
Red
Green
Cream
Black
Yellow
Faces and handle holders are available in 1 inch, 1-1/2 inch, 2
inch, 2-1/2 inch and 3 inch diameters.
USE THIS CONVERSION CHART FOR FACE SELECTION
Type
Soft
Soft Rubber
S
Wood
S
Rubber
Medium
Tough
M
Hard
Extra Hard
N
M
Hard Wood
T
Lead
T
Plastic
T
Rawhide
Medium Hard
T
H
H
XH
Micarta
H
XH
Fibre
H
XH
Copper
M
N
N
XH
21-5
TO 32-1-101
21.2.14 Trimmer’s Hammer.
21.2.16 Dead Blow Hammers.
The trimmer’s hammer has a round flat face on one end of the
head and has a tapered chisel face on the other end. A claw is
attached on the end of the handle and is used for pulling tacks.
It is used for installing tacks and brads.
21.2.15 Welder’s Hammer.
The dead blow hammer is a shot-filled, rubber encased, singlepiece hammer. It features a wrap-around grip and a flanged
butt. Four basic types of dead blow hammers are currently in
use. They are: the standard head, slimline head, sledge, and
ball peen. Some advantages of the dead blow hammers are
greater striking power, and the elimination of broken heads
and splintered handles.
The welder’s hammer has one or two tapered chisel faces.
Those having only one tapered face have a replaceable brush
attached. The hammer face is used for chipping welds, while
the brush is used for cleaning welds and brushing away the
slag chipped from the weld.
21-6
21.2.17 Mallets.
21.2.17.1 Carpenter’s Mallet.
TO 32-1-101
The carpenter’s mallet has a cylindrical wooden head often
bound with thin metal bands for support. It is used for driving
dowels, small stakes, wooden handled chisels and for forming
and shaping sheet metal.
21.2.18 Mauls.
21.2.18.1 Railroad Track Maul.
21.2.17.2 Rawhide Mallet.
The rawhide mallet has a cylindrical head which is made by
tightly wrapping and staking a sheet of leather. It is used for
forming and shaping sheet metal.
The railroad track maul has a flat faced tapered head which
weighs about 10 pounds. They are used for driving railroad
track spikes.
21.2.18.2 Wooden Maul.
21.2.17.3 Rubber Mallet.
The rubber mallet has a cylindrical rubber head. It is used for
forming sheet metal, driving dowels, and small stakes.
The wooden maul has a cylindrical head which is about 8
inches in diameter and about 10 inches long. It is used to drive
wooden pickets, posts and stakes.
21.2.17.4 Tinner’s Mallet.
21.3 SAFETY.
Never, never use an unsafe hammer. Before using,
check for loose head or a cracked handle. Do not use
handle as a pry bar, or to knock sharp edges together.
The tinner’s mallet has a cylindrical wooden head which is
from 1-1/4 to 3-1/2 inches in diameter and from 3 to 6 inches
in length. It is used to form and shape sheet metal.
1. Inspect the faces of steel hammers for wear, dents, or
chips. They can be dangerous if chips fly off.
2. Replace the hammer if these conditions are found.
21-7
TO 32-1-101
21.3.1 Specific Steps to Take.
1. Make sure handle (1) is tight in head (2). Do not tape a
cracked handle.
REPLACE IT.
2. Make sure wedges (3) are in handle (1), keeping head
(2) tight on handle.
USE ONLY CORRECT WEDGES.
3. Make sure striking face (4) and bail peen (5) are free of
oil.
3. Inspect copper, lead, plastic, or rawhide mallets for
“mushrooming.”
21.4 USING HAMMERS.
4. File edges of copper, lead or plastic mallets down to the
original shape.
5. Trim a rawhide mallet with a knife.
21-8
The proper way to hold any hammer is near the end of the
handle. The handle is shaped for gripping without slipping
from your grasp at this position, and gives the best control and
impact with least effort. Strike nail or tool squarely and on
center to prevent the hammer from glancing off.
TO 32-1-101
1. Lay two pieces of wood parallel to each other. Place a
third piece on top and align so that the edges are even.
The wrist and arm motion depends on the power of the impact
required. Small nails require light blows almost entirely from
a wrist motion. Heavy blows, needed to drive a large nail or
other similar task, come from the wrist, forearm and shoulder.
21.4.1 Using a Carpenter’s Hammer.
2. Support a common nail (1) between thumb and first
finger about halfway up the nail.
Wear eye protection and watch the fingers.
NOTE
• Never use a claw hammer on a steel punch or on
hardened steel-cut or masonry nails. The face is
too soft and could chip.
A piece of paper or a comb (2) can be used to hold
small nails.
• Be sure to check for a loose head or a cracked
handle before use.
The following set-up is established to provide practice driving
nails successfully.
21-9
TO 32-1-101
3. Tap nail head (3) with hammer face (4) until the nail
will remain standing by itself.
3. For longer nails, place a block of wood (4) under the
head for better leverage.
4. Remove fingers and drive nail flush. Make sure the
hand supporting the work is not in direct line with the
hammer blows.
NOTE
The following procedure is only one of many uses of
a soft-faced hammer.
1. Make sure faces (1) are tight in holder (2).
2. Unwrap bearing (3) and center over shaft (4).
1. The claw end (1) of the hammer is for pulling nails or
prying boards. Slip the claw under the nail head (2) as
far as it will go, to prevent bending the head up.
2. Pull the handle (3) to a vertical position to withdraw the
nail.
21-10
TO 32-1-101
3. While supporting bearing with left hand, use soft-faced
hammer to tap in a circular motion until edge of bearing
is flush with shaft (4).
21.4.2 Using a Mechinist’s Ball Peen Hammer.
3. Catch the pin in your right hand before it falls out of the
shaft
NOTE
After the pin is about halfway out of the shaft, you
should not hold the punch.
NOTE
21.5 CARE OF HAMMERS.
The following procedure is one of many uses of the
machinist’s hammer.
1. To remove a spring pin from a shaft, select a drift punch
about the same diameter as the pin and a machinist's
hammer having a face larger than the punch head.
2. Hold punch (1) in your left hand centered over pin (2),
tap punch lightly with hammer (3). This should move
the pin.
NOTE
It may be necessary to apply penetrating oil to the pin
before it will move.
1. Check for cracks in handle (1). Replace handle if
cracked. Check for loose head (2). Replace missing or
makeshift wedges to be sure head is tight. If not tight,
replace handle.
2. Periodically rub a small amount of linseed oil into the
wood handles (1) to prevent the wood from drying out
and shrinking.
3. Replace hammer if it has a worn or chipped face (3) or
claw (4).
21-11
TO 32-1-101
4. Lightly lubricate metal parts when storing the hammer
for a lengthy period.
5. Wipe oil and grease from rubber mallets to prevent
damage to rubber.
NOTE
Use a pair of pliers or a rag on broken faces to prevent scraping your hands.
21.5.1 Care of Inserted Face Hammers.
2. Wipe out face seat on holder with a clean rag. Install
new face by turning in a clockwise direction.
3. If holder is broken or cracked, remove both faces by
turning in a counterclockwise direction.
1. Broken or chipped faces may be removed by turning in
a counterclockwise direction.
4. Obtain a new holder and install faces by turning in a
clockwise direction.
21.6 REPLACING THE HANDLE.
The above items are the basic materials required to replace the handle on a typical carpenter’s hammer.
21-12
TO 32-1-101
21.6.1 Removing Old Hammer Handle.
21.6.2 Installation of New Handle.
1. If the handle is split or broken, remove it from the head.
2. If the handle is too tight to pull loose from the head,
proceed as follows: Place hammer in vise.
Saw off handle (1) close to head (2).
Drive the remaining handle out through the large end of
the head (3) using drift pin. Save the wedges.
Wear eye protection and watch the fingers.
1. Obtain new handle and wedges.
2. Insert handle (1) in head (2).
21-13
TO 32-1-101
5. Place hammer (7) in vise (8). Using handsaw (9),
remove projecting end of wedge (10).
3. Seat handle in head with a rubber mallet (3).
6. Remove excess portion of wedge using wood rasp (11).
4. Drive wooden wedge (4) in handle face (5) with hammer (6).
7. Select metal wedge (12) and drive into wooden wedge
with hammer (6).
21-14
TO 32-1-101
8. Remove excess portion of wedge using a bench grinder
(13). Check handle. If it’s tight, the task is complete.
If handle is loose, repeat procedure.
21-15/(21-16 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 22
SCREWDRIVERS
22.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 22.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of screwdrivers. These pages should help
you select the right screwdriver to do the job. Using, Paragraph 22.4, tells you how to use the screwdriver to perform the
desired function. Care of Screwdrivers, Paragraph 22.5, tells
you how to care for the items.
22.2 TYPES AND USES.
Some common screwdrivers have a screw-holding feature.
These are used for working in close quarters, overhead, and
hard to reach places. The two most common types are the clip
(1) and sliding collar (2). After the screw has been firmly
started, switch to a conventional screwdriver to complete the
job.
NOTE
Do not use sliding-cover, split-type screwdrivers for
final tightening of screws.
Screwdrivers are available in many different shapes, sizes, and
materials. Screwdrivers are used for driving or removing
screws or bolts with slotted, recessed, or special heads.
22.2.1 Common Screwdrivers.
Close quarter or stubby common screwdrivers are used for
working in close quarters where conventional screwdrivers
will not fit.
Common cabinet screwdrivers have a thin, round blade and
are used to reach and drive or remove screws in deep, counterbored holes.
The common screwdriver has a round steel blade with a wood
or plastic handle, usually fluted for a good grip. Integral blade
screwdrivers are used for heavy-duty work.
22-1
TO 32-1-101
Other common heavy-duty screwdrivers have square blades so
a wrench can be used to turn them.
22.2.4 Clutch Head Screwdrivers.
22.2.2 Cross-Tip Screwdrivers.
Clutch head screwdrivers are used to drive clutchbit screws.
These screws have recessed heads and are commonly called
butterfly or figure-eight screws. There are two styles of clutch
heads, old style and new style.
The tip of a cross-tip screwdriver is shaped like a cross so that
it fits into cross-tip screws. Cross-tip screws have two slots
which cross at the center. These screwdrivers are made with
four different sized tips. Cross-tip screwdrivers also have different length blades ranging from 1 inch to 8 inches.
22.2.5 Offset Screwdrivers.
22.2.3 Cross-Point Screwdrivers.
Cross-point screwdrivers are similar to the cross-tip. The
cross-point slots meet at an exact right at angle at their intersection. These screwdrivers are issued in 3 to 8-inch sizes.
22-2
Offset screwdrivers are used to drive or remove screws that
cannot be lined up straight with common screwdrivers, or are
located in tight corners. Some offset screwdrivers are made
with two blades, one of a different size at each end. Others are
ratchet-type offset, which are reversible for working in tight
spots and allow the screw to be driven without having to
remove the tip from the Screw head. A double-tip offset
screwdriver has four blades.
TO 32-1-101
22.2.6 Ratchet Screwdrivers.
22.2.8 Jeweler’s Screwdriver.
Jeweler’s screwdrivers are made for driving and removing
small size screws. They usually have knurled handles (1), and
a swivel end finger rest plate (2). The tips (3) range from
0.025 inch to 0.1406 inch wide. Some jeweler's screwdrivers
have removable blades.
22.2.9 Flexible Screwdrivers.
Ratchet screwdrivers are used to drive or remove small screws
rapidly. The spiral ratchet screwdriver automatically drives or
removes screws. It can be adjusted to turn left, right, or locked
to act as a common screwdriver. Some spiral ratchets have a
spring in the handle which automatically returns the handle for
the next stroke. Another style of ratchet screwdriver has a
knurled collar for rotating the blade with your fingers. The
spiral type has separate blades (1) that are inserted in the
chuck (2). The common ratchet screwdriver has one integral
blade (3).
22.2.7 Screwdriver Bits.
A flexible screwdriver has a spring steel blade which bends,
allowing the user to get around flanges, shoulders, and other
parts to drive and remove screws.
22.2.10 Radio and Pocket Screwdrivers.
A screwdriver bit is a screwdriver blade with a square, hex, or
notched shank so that it can be used with other tools:
•
•
•
Breast drill
Ratchet bit brace
Socket wrench handle
A radio screwdriver (1) has a round blade that is 1-1/2 inches
long. Its use is restricted to very small screws generally used
in the construction of radio chassis. The pocket screwdriver
(2) is also small, with a square blade that is 1-3/4 inches long.
Both have pocket clips.
22-3
TO 32-1-101
22.2.11 Screw Starter or Gimlet.
22.4.1 Preparing the Work Surface.
A screw starter or gimlet has a threaded tip. It is used to make
a pilot hole in wood for wood screws.
22.3 SAFETY.
• Handle the screwdriver carefully. A greasy handle
could cause an accident.
• Do not carry a screwdriver in your pocket unless it
has a pocket clip.
• Do not use a screwdriver for prying, punching,
chiseling, scoring, or scraping.
• Do not use a screwdriver near a live wire, to check
a storage battery, or to determine if an electrical
circuit is live.
• Do not hold the work in one hand while using the
screwdriver with the other. If the screwdriver slips
out of the slot, you will be most likely to put a
gash in your hand.
1. Before attempting to drive a screw into wood, you first
make a pilot hole (1) using a screw starter (gimlet) (2),
an awl, a nail, or a drill.
2. Before attempting to drive a screw into sheet metal you
should make a pilot hole using a drill. However, lightweight sheet metal can be pierced with a nail or punch.
22.4.2 Using a Screwdriver.
22.4 USING SCREWDRIVERS.
NOTE
The proper way to select and use a screwdriver is to
always match the size of the screwdriver to the job
and always match the type of screwdriver to the head
of the screw.
1. Insert the screw (1) in the pilot hole. Insert the screwdriver tip (2) in the screw slot of the screw as shown.
2. Keep the screwdriver in line with the screw as shown.
You may want to use your other hand to keep the blade
steady.
22-4
TO 32-1-101
3. Turn clockwise to screw in, counterclockwise to
unscrew.
4. Do not use a pliers to turn the screwdriver when driving
or removing screws that are hard to turn. For hard-toturn screws, use a square blade screwdriver designed for
heavy-duty work and a wrench which properly fits the
blade.
22.4.3 Using an Offset Screwdriver.
3. Insert the tip (2) in the screw slot of the screw head. Pull
the lever to the right or left, for installation or removal
of the screw. This allows the screw to be driven without
having to remove the tip from the screw head.
22.4.5 Using a Spiral Ratchet Screwdriver.
NOTE
These screwdrivers come in several styles. Some
have the different size bits stored in the handle.
1. Select the correct size tip for the screw head being used.
1. Select the correct style and tip size for the screw being
used.
2. Install tip (1) in screwdriver by pulling back on metal
shell (2). When tip is seated, release the shell to lock it
into place.
2. Insert the tip (1) in the screw slot.
3. In tight places you may have to alternate tips (1 and 2)
to complete turning the screw.
22.4.4 Using an Offset Ratchet Screwdriver.
1. Select the correct size tip for the screw head.
3. Set selector lever (3) as shown.
2. Set the action selection lever (1) in the stock of the
screwdriver for installation of a screw as shown.
Reverse the lever for removal of a screw.
22-5
TO 32-1-101
too large for the screwdriver tip, the tip will be damaged.
2. Insert the tip of the screwdriver in the screw slot (2).
Turn the screwdriver, between the thumb and middle
finger, clockwise to screw in, counterclockwise to
unscrew.
22.5 CARE OF SCREWDRIVERS.
4. Insert the tip in the screw slot. Hold the screwdriver
blade as shown. Move handle (4) back and forth to
install or remove a screw.
22.4.6 Using a Jeweler’s Screwdriver.
1. When a screwdriver becomes nicked, or the edges
become rounded, or when other damage occurs so that it
does not fit a screw slot, it can be reground or filed. The
sides must be parallel to keep the tool from lifting from
the screw slot and the tip must be square, at right angles
to the sides and to the blade.
2. Do not expose a screwdriver to excessive heat, as it may
reduce the hardness of the blade.
3. Replace a screwdriver that has a worn or damaged handle or rounded tip.
4. After use, wipe screwdriver clean and place in rack or
tool box. For long-term storage, apply rust-preventive
compound to all metal surfaces and store in a dry place.
5. Screwdrivers used in the shop are best stored in a rack.
This way the proper selection of the right screwdriver
can be quickly made and fewer injuries will result.
1. Hold screwdriver as shown, with forefinger on rotating
head (1).
Be sure the screwdriver fits the screw. If the screw is
22-6
6. A poor fitting screwdriver will damage the screw head,
slip off the screw, and cause personal injury. Use a
screwdriver that has parallel sides and exactly fits the
screw slot.
7. Never pound on a screwdriver with a hammer. Do not
use a screwdriver as a chisel.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 23
MANUAL DRILLS
23.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
23.2 TYPE AND USES.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 23.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of drills. These pages should help you select
the right drill to do the job. Using, Paragraph 23.3, tells you
how to use the drill to perform the desired function. Care of
Manual Drills, Paragraph 23.5, tells you how to care for the
items.
23.2.1 Brace Drill.
The brace drill is made up of the following parts: head (1),
crank (2), crank handle (3), ratchet mechanism (4), and chuck
(5). The brace is used to drill holes in wood and with a screwdriver bit, remove and install screws.
23.2.2 Breast Drill.
The breast drill is made up of the following parts: breast plate
(1), drive handle (2), speed shifter (3), side handle (4), speed
gears (5), pinion gears (6), and chuck (7). The adjustable
breast plate provides a base for the user to lean against while
using the drill. The speed shifter provides a means of selecting
high speed or low speed. This allows the operator to start a
23-1
TO 32-1-101
hole at slow speed, 1:1 ratio, preventing marring of the surface, then shifting to high speed, 3-1/2:1 ratio, to finish drilling the hole. To change from low speed to high speed, move
the drive handle and speed gears from the bottom hole to the
top hole. High speed position is illustrated. Some drills have a
slot instead of two holes.
The side handle provides a way to steady the drill and insure
that the bit is boring a straight hole. The speed gears determine
the speed at which the drill rotates. They are connected
through linkage to the pinion gears. The pinion gears turn the
chuck and drill. The breast drill is used to drill holes in wood,
plastic, concrete, and small gage sheet metal.
1. Mark (1) with a pencil where hole is to be drilled.
23.2.3 Hand Drill.
2. Open chuck (2) and insert bit (3) between jaws (4).
Tighten chuck (2), securing bit (3).
The hand drill is made up of the following parts: handle (1),
drive handle (2), side handle (3), pinion (4), gear wheel (5)
and chuck (6). The handle provides a storage area for drill bits.
The side handle may be used to steady the drill when drilling
in soft wood. The pinion turns the chuck and drill. Through
mechanical linkage, the gear wheel transfers the driving force
from the drive handle to the chuck. Hand drills are used to
drill holes in wood and sheet metal.
23.3 USING A BRACE DRILL.
NOTE
The following procedure is for a bit of a fixed size
from 1/4 inch up to a 1 inch maximum.
3. Center bit over pencil mark. Push down on head (5) and
turn crank (6) until bit goes through the board.
23-2
TO 32-1-101
NOTE
Ratchet mechanism (7) may have to be set.
1. Loosen retaining screw (1). Slide adjustable blade (2) to
the desired width using built-in scale (3) or a 6-inch
machinist’s rule.
4. Reverse the ratchet mechanism (7), then turn crank and
pull up on head to remove bit.
5. Open chuck and remove bit. Close chuck.
2. Tighten retaining screw (1) and refer to Drill, Paragraph
23.3, steps 1 through 5.
23.4 USING AN EXPANSIVE BIT.
23.5 CARE OF MANUAL DRILLS.
NOTE
Expansive bits are available in two sizes, one from 5/
8 inch to 1-3/4 inches and the other from 7/8 to 3
inches.
Apply a light coat of oil to all metal surfaces. With a rag, clean
gear teeth of dirt, wood and metal shavings and apply a light
coat of oil. Hang manual drills on a rack or store in a safe, dry
place.
23-3/(23-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 24
SCREW AND TAP EXTRACTORS
24.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 24.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of extractors. These pages should help you
select the right extractor to do the job. Using a Spiral Tapered
Screw Extractor, Paragraph 24.3, tells you how to use the
extractor to perform the desired function. Care of Extractors,
Paragraph 24.4, tells you how to care for the items.
The straight-flute type requires the following tools to drill a
pilot hole in the screw: a twist drill (1), a drill guide (2), and a
turn nut (3).
24.2 TYPES AND USES.
24.2.1 Screw Extractors. Screw extractors are used to
remove broken screws without damaging the threads or surrounding material. There are two basic types of screw extractors, the straight-flute type and spiral-tapered type.
The spiral-tapered type requires a twist drill for drilling a pilot
hole.
24.2.2 Tap Extractor.
24-1
TO 32-1-101
The tap extractor is usually of the flute type and requires the
use of a wrench to turn the tap. It is used for removing taps
with no external area.
24.3 USING A SPIRAL TAPERED SCREW EXTRACTOR.
2. Insert extractor (3) in the drilled hole.
Wear proper eye protection.
NOTE
The following task is not the only use of a screw
extractor.
3. Remove the broken screw by turning the extractor counterclockwise. The extractor may be turned using a tap
wrench or open end wrench (4).
1. Drill a hole in the broken screw (1). Use a drill size
guide (2) if available. If one is not available, drill the
hole slightly smaller than the diameter of the extractor.
(When drilling larger screws it may be necessary to drill
a small pilot hole first, then a larger hole).
24.4 CARE OF EXTRACTORS.
1. Keep extractors clean and lightly oiled.
2. Store in case provided or wrap individually to protect
the extracting edges.
24-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 25
WRENCHES
25.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 25.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of wrenches. These pages should help you
select the right wrench to do the job. Using, Paragraph 25.4,
tells you how to use the wrench to perform the desired function. Care, Paragraph 25.11, tells you how to care for the
items.
25.2 TYPES AND USES.
All open-end wrenches have open jaws on one or both ends of
the wrench. Most jaw openings are offset from the shank portion of the wrench by 15 degrees. The wrench length is determined by the size of the jaw opening. Some of the more
common types of open-end wrenches and their uses are listed
below.
The engineers single open-end wrench has a long smooth
shank providing the user with a better gripping surface. It is
used to reach behind or below blind surfaces.
A wrench is a tool specially designed to tighten or loosen nuts,
bolts, studs, and pipes. Wrenches are forged from steel alloy to
prevent breakage. There are many different types of wrenches.
Each type has its own use. By using the proper wrench for the
task to be done, you will not break the wrench, damage the
equipment, or cause personal injury. The following section is
intended to give you information on the different wrench
types.
25.2.1 Open-End Wrenches.
The engineer’s double open-end wrench has different size
openings on each end. This type of an arrangement permits a
smaller number of wrenches to complete a set. The engineer’s
double open-end wrench is also used to reach behind or below
blind surfaces.
25-1
TO 32-1-101
Ignition wrenches have the same size jaw opening on both
ends. However, one end of this wrench is offset 15 degrees
and the other end is offset 60 degrees. Ignition wrenches are
smaller in size, as they are used to remove components of
automotive ignition systems.
25.2.2 Box Wrenches.
The construction wrench combines the open-end jaw with
along tapered shank providing a wrench/alignment punch
combination. The construction wrench is used in the building
trades and on heavy objects which require alignment before
fastening.
A box wrench surrounds the nut, bolt head, or stud on all
sides. It is available with both 6-point and 12-point openings.
The 12-point opening is more common, as it may be used on
both square and hexagonal bolt heads. Box wrench openings
are offset from the shank by 15 degrees. A box wrench should
be used whenever possible, as it provides the best protection to
both the user and the equipment. The major disadvantage of
the box wrench is that there must be enough clearance above
and around the bolt head to place the wrench over the bolt
head.
The S-Shape wrench has a 22-1/2 degree offset. It is used to
reach around obstructing objects.
The length of the box wrench depends upon the size of the
opening. Some of the more common types of box wrenches
and their uses are shown below and on page 25-4.
The most common box wrench is the double offset box
wrench. It comes with a different size opening at each end.
The double offset wrench is used to remove normal nuts and
bolts.
25-2
TO 32-1-101
The structural-tapered handle wrench combines a box wrench
opening with a tapered shank to produce a box wrench/alignment pin combination. It is usually used on heavy structural
construction (bridge girders, building beams, etc.).
The half-moon wrench has different size openings at each end
and has a curved shank. The half-moon wrench is used when it
is necessary to reach around objects in tight spaces.
Ratchet-box wrenches are either reversible or nonreversible.
The ratchet-box wrench does not have to be lifted up and
repositioned each time the shank has reached its maximum
travel between two obstructions. The ratchet-box wrench provides an easy means of removing and/or installing nuts or
bolts which are not under strain. These wrenches should not be
used to torque down or to free nuts or bolts.
25.2.3 Combination Wrenches.
The split-box wrench is a 12-point wrench with 2 points cut
away. The split-box wrench is used on pipe unions or couplings where you want the protection of a box wrench, but
need to slide the wrench around a pipe.
The combination wrench combines the best features of the
open-end and box wrench into a single wrench. The size opening on the wrench is the same on both ends, but one end has a
box head and the other end has an open-end head. The length
of the wrench varies with the size of the head. The most common opening is offset from the shank by 15 degrees. They are
used to remove common-size nuts and bolts.
25-3
TO 32-1-101
25.2.4 Socket Wrenches.
A universal joint socket and spark plug socket are examples of
specially designed sockets. The universal joint socket is used
When it is necessary to reach around an object. The spark plug
socket has a rubber insert. This insert protects the ceramic
insulator when removing and/or installing the spark plug.
The socket wrench consists of a round metal sleeve with a
square opening in one end for insertion of a handle, and a 6point or 12-point wrench opening in the other. They are available in both common (short) and deep (long) lengths. The
length of the socket does not determine its size. Socket
wrenches usually come in sets. The square or drive end may
vary in size from 1/4 to 1 inch. In socket sets, the drive end
determines the size; for example, a 1/4-inch drive set may
contain nine sockets ranging in size from 3/16 inch through
1/2 inch. In 3/8-inch drive, the smallest socket would be 3/8
inch. This overlap in size allows better control by the user and
prevents breakage of either the socket or the equipment from
using the wrong size handle.
All sockets must be used with some type of handle. Sockets
are used to remove and/or install common-size nuts or bolts.
25.2.5 Socket Wrench Handles, Extensions and Adapters.
Ratchet handles may have either a straight-head or a flexhead. Both types have a selection lever on the top of the head
to determine the direction of drive. The flex-head is used to go
around objects. Both types are used with socket wrenches for
rapid removal of nuts or bolts.
25-4
TO 32-1-101
The sliding T-Bar handle has a single head which may be
adjusted along a bar handle. It has two spring-loaded balls,
one for keeping the bar in the head and the other for keeping
the socket on the head. The sliding T-Bar is used for increased
leverage or for working around other objects.
The spin-type screwdriver grip handle has a plastic or wood
handle. It is used to remove and/or install small nuts and bolts.
Extensions are either rigid or flexible. They range from 2 to 17
inches in length. Extensions may be used with any socket
handle combination to gain clearance above nut or bolt.
The speed handle has a brace-type shaft with a revolving grip
on the top. It is used for rapid removal and/or installation of
nuts or bolts, which are out in the open and have little or no
torque.
The ratcheting adapter converts a non-ratcheting handle into a
ratchet drive. It is used for quick removal of nuts or bolts.
The socket wrench adapter is used to change the drive size
between the socket and the handle. It usually increases or
decreases the fractional size by one (1/4 inch to 3/8 inch). The
socket wrench adapter is used to increase or decrease the drive
end of a particular handle allowing it to be used with two
different socket sets.
A hinged handle has a hinged adapter on one end which may
be rotated in 90 degree steps. The hinged handle is used when
additional leverage or torque is needed to loosen nuts or bolts.
25-5
TO 32-1-101
25.2.6 Special Purpose Socket Wrenches.
The T-handle socket wrench has a fixed T-handle above a
fixed socket wrench. The T-handle socket wrench has many
uses. One of the more common uses is for shutting off or
turning on water or gas lines. The T-handle permits the operator to apply the turning force required to operate the valve.
The screwdriver-type socket wrench has a socket fixed on the
bottom of a screwdriver handle. They are used to remove and/
or install small nuts and bolts.
The four-way socket wrench has four nonremovable sockets
attached to four arms. Each of the sockets is a different size.
The four-way socket wrench is usually used to remove or
install the wheel stud nuts of a vehicle. The handle construction provides extra leverage when loosening and tightening the
stud nuts.
The 90-degree offset handle socket wrench has a fixed socket
at the end of a bent handle. It is used for removing and/or
installing a nut or bolt which may not be reached with a box or
combination wrench.
Stud removers may be either the cam-operated type or the
wedge type. They are used to remove studs from their seats for
replacement. A single stud remover can be adjusted to remove
different size studs.
The cam-operated type uses a concentric cam to get a grip on
the stud. The cam is tightened on the stud through mechanical
linkage between the drive shank and the cam.
Wedge-type stud removers are made of a socket housing and
two metal wedges. The socket is placed over the stud to be
removed and the wedges are driven into the socket to hold the
25-6
TO 32-1-101
stud. The socket housing is now turned with a handle to
remove the stud.
25.2.7 Crowfoot Wrench.
Bar-type plug wrenches may be either square or hexagonal
and are about two inches long. A combination wrench or
socket must be used to turn the plug.
The crowfoot wrench is an open-end wrench head which is
turned with a socket handle. It is used to remove and/or install
nuts or bolts. It is also used where an obstruction would prevent the use of a regular socket.
25.2.8 Hex Key Wrench (Shorter Section).
The multiple plug wrench combines several plug ends on a
common handle.
Socket-type plug wrenches are usually combined in sets with
an assortment of handles. The set will contain several sizes.
25.2.10 Adjustable Open-End Wrench.
The hex key wrench is an L-shaped, six-sided wrench. Both
ends of the “L” are the same size so you can turn the wrench
either to gain access to the screw head or to obtain a leverage
advantage. The hex key wrench is used to remove and/or
install hex head screws.
25.2.9 Plug Wrenches. There are three basic types of plug
wrenches, the bar-type, the multiple plug wrench, and the
socket-type. Plug wrenches are used to remove and/or install
drain plugs.
25-7
TO 32-1-101
The adjustable open-end wrench has one fixed jaw and a movable or adjustable jaw. The adjustable jaw is set against the
face of the nut by turning a knurled worm gear. Care must be
exercised when using an adjustable wrench. Always use the
fixed jaw for applying pressure to tighten or loosen nuts or
bolts. Adjustable wrenches are used to remove and/or install
nuts, bolts, and studs when the correct size wrench or socket is
not available.
25.2.12 Monkey and Auto Wrenches.
25.2.11 Clamp Pliers.
The clamp pliers are generally used more as a wrench than as
a pair of pliers. It has a fixed jaw and handle which contains
an adjustment screw for the movable jaw. The other handle is
in two sections, one section to apply pressure and to look the
pliers, and the other section, when pulled, to release the grip.
Clamp pliers are used to hold or clamp nuts and bolts which
have been rounded off by using the wrong size wrench.
The monkey and auto wrenches are similar and have one fixed
jaw and an adjustable jaw which moves along the handle by
turning a knurled worm gear. Monkey and auto wrenches are
used to install or remove odd size nuts and bolts. An adjustable wrench must be used with care. Always apply pressure
against the fixed jaw.
25.2.13 Pipe Wrenches. There are three basic types of
pipe wrenches, the stillson wrench, the strap wrench, and the
chain wrench. They are all used to connect or break pipe joints
or to turn cylindrical parts.
25-8
TO 32-1-101
A dial torque wrench has a head which contains the drive
element and a dial for reading the exact amount of torque.
The stillson pipe wrench has a fixed jaw which is on the end
of the handle and an adjustable jaw at the top of the wrench.
Adjustment is made by turning a knurled adjusting screw
which moves the jaw. Always pull the pipe fitting towards the
fixed jaw. The serrated (grooved) jaws of the stillson wrench
will mar soft pipe.
Strap pipe wrenches have a leather or canvas strap which is
attached to the handle. The strap is looped around the pipe and
back through the handle to grip the pipe. The strap pipe
wrench will not scratch the surface of the pipe.
A scale torque wrench has a rod which runs parallel to the
handle and the drive element. This rod moves across the scale
to the right or left as torque is applied.
25.2.15 Power Torque Wrench.
Chain pipe wrenches have a section of bicycle-type chain permanently attached to the handle. The upper section of the head
has teeth which mate with the links of the chain. The chain is
wrapped around the pipe and pulled over the head section of
the wrench to grip the pipe. Chain pipe wrenches will scratch
the surface of the pipe.
25.2.14 Torque Wrenches. Torque wrenches are designed
to measure the specific degree of tightness of nuts or bolts.
Torque wrenches are considered precision instruments and
therefore must be calibrated at regular intervals. Torque
wrenches are used for final tightening of nuts or bolts.
Using a powerful gear train, the power torque wrench is completely mechanical in operation. The power torque wrench is
operated by a hand crank, but power tools such as the electric
drill can be used to speed operations. The torque is calibrated
25-9
TO 32-1-101
in foot pounds, which is shown by a dial indicator on the top
face of the power torque wrench. This type of torque wrench
is used for tightening nuts and bolts requiring 200 or more foot
pounds of torque.
NOTE
A special feature of this type of torque wrench is that
it is possible to loosen as well as tighten nuts and
bolts.
25.2.16 Spanner Wrenches. Two basic types of spanner
wrenches are the hook-type and the pin-type. Hook-type spanner wrenches are either fixed or adjustable and are normally
used to tighten fire hoses or similar couplings which have a
protruding lip. Pin-type spanner wrenches have pins protruding from the handle which fit into holes in the coupling or
plate to be tightened or loosened. Spanner wrenches are special purpose wrenches and are to be used only for their
intended purpose.
There are two basic pin-type wrenches. The fixed-pin face has
been designed to fit a particular pattern and is nonadjustable.
The fixed-pin face is used to remove protective cover plates.
The adjustable pin face has two arms joined at a common
point. The other end of the arms contain pins which may be
engaged in the holes of a cover plate for removal.
25.3 SAFETY.
1. Wrenches should fit the nuts or bolts they are to loosen
or tighten.
2. Never turn adjustable wrenches so that the pulling force
is applied to the adjustable jaw.
3. Do not attempt to extend the handle in any way to
increase the leverage on a wrench. Increased leverage
may damage the wrench or the work.
4. Apply penetrating oil to rusted nuts and/or bolts that
resist turning. Allow time for oil to penetrate before
attempting to turn.
Three kinds of hook-type wrenches include the hose coupling
pin, for tightening and loosening hose couplings, the fixed
hook, for tightening or loosening couplings with protruding
rims or edges, and the adjustable hook-type.
The adjustable hook-type is similar to the fixed hook-type.
However, it may be adjusted around objects and fastened
before use.
5. Do not strike wrenches with hammers to tighten or
loosen nuts or bolts.
6. Do not exert a hard pull on a pipe wrench until it has
gripped the work firmly.
7. Remember to pull on the wrench, when possible, in
order to protect your knuckles in case the wrench slips.
8. Return all wrenches to their proper places upon completion of each job. This eliminates the possibility of leaving them where they can injure someone.
25-10
TO 32-1-101
9. Always keep the wrench in good condition, clean and
free from oil or grease. Otherwise it may slip, resulting
in possible serious injury to you or damage to the work.
25.5 USING A SOCKET WRENCH.
25.4 HOW TO USE A BOX WRENCH.
1. Select the size of wrench that fits the nut or bolt.
1. Select the size of socket (1) that fits the nut or bolt to be
turned and push it onto the handle (2) which is best
suited to the job.
2. Place the wrench (1) on the nut or bolt (2). Swing the
wrench clockwise to tighten and counterclockwise to
loosen for a right hand threaded nut or bolt. Reverse the
above for a left hand threaded nut or bolt.
2. If there is room to swing, use the ratchet handle. (The
handle may be made to ratchet in one direction for tightening work and in the other direction for loosening
work.)
3. Swing the handle back and forth to turn the nut in the
desired direction. (The socket need not be raised from
the nut at the end of each swing.)
3. If there is insufficient room to swing the wrench in a full
circle, lift it completely off the nut when it comes to the
limit of the swing, and place it in a new position, permitting another swing. A swing through of a 15 degree
arc is usually sufficient to continuously loosen or
tighten a nut or bolt.
4. After the nut is tight, give it a final tightening.
4. When a tight nut is to be loosened or a nut is to be set
up, the nut hinged handle (3) can be swung at right
angles to the socket to provide the most leverage. At the
point where the nut turns easily, the handle can be
swung to a vertical position and twisted rapidly between
the fingers in the same manner as a screwdriver.
25-11
TO 32-1-101
25.6 USING AN ADJUSTABLE OPEN-END WRENCH.
25.7 USING AN ADJUSTABLE STRAP PIPE WRENCH.
1. Place the wrench (1) on the nut (2) so that the force used
to turn it is applied to the stationary jaw side of the
wrench.
2. Tighten the knurled adjusting nut (3) until the wrench
fits the nut as tightly as possible.
If the wrench does not fit tightly, it will slip and
round the corner of the nut.
1. Loop the strap (1) around the pipe (2) in the opposite
direction to that in which the pipe is to be rotated.
3. Swing the wrench clockwise to tighten the nut.
4. After the nut is tight, set it up (final tightening).
2. Slip the end of the strap through the shackle (3) and
draw it up tightly.
3. Pull the handle (4) to turn the pipe in the desired direction until the desired tightness is obtained.
NOTE
The jaw (5) at the end of the shackle will seat against
the strap and, as the handle is pulled, the strap will
tighten and turn the pipe.
25-12
TO 32-1-101
25.8 USING THE TORQUE WRENCH.
1. Select proper size socket wrench (1) and attach to torque
wrench square drive (2).
2. Place socket wrench on work and pull the torque wrench
handle in the desired direction to tighten the work.
3. Do not use torque instrument to break fasteners loose.
25.9 USING THE POWER TORQUE WRENCH.
NOTE
The following procedure is not the only application
for the power torque wrench. However, use of this
tool is basically the same regardless of model or application.
4. Do not exceed rated torque as over torqueing can cause
wrench or part failure.
NOTE
The tightening torque will be indicated on the dial or
scale (3), depending on the type of the torque wrench
used.
5. Remove the wrench when the torque on the dial or scale
is reached.
1. To tighten a nut, set the knurled ratchet indexer (1)
(located on the front of the wrench) in the same direction the handle will be turned.
2. Install applicable socket (2) onto the nut to be tightened.
3. Install square drive bar (3) into the socket.
Change 1
25-13
TO 32-1-101
5. Install power wrench (6) onto square drive bar and reaction torque adapter. Rotate power wrench until the reaction torque adapter engages a fixed point.
Different reaction adapters are required for various
operations. Be careful to use the correct reaction
torque adapter. Failure to do so will render torque
wrench useless and can damage the equipment.
4. Install reaction torque adapter (4) over drive bar and
socket as shown.
Do not use impact wrench of any kind to operate this
wrench.
6. Install the crank handle (7) into the square input (8) and
turn in the same direction as the output must turn.
NOTE
When installing power torque wrench, make sure the
two locking pins (5) underneath the wrench are firmly engaged to the reaction torque adapter.
25-14
7. Continue to turn crank until torque indicator (9) shows
the desired torque reading.
TO 32-1-101
25.10 USING A SPANNER WRENCH.
1. Insert the pins or lugs into the pin holes of the part.
2. Keep the pin face of the wrench flush against the surface and turn the wrench.
8. After obtaining the desired torque, turn the crank in the
opposite direction until the torque indicator returns to
zero (green band). This will remove the holding pressure on the wrench.
9. Remove the wrench, adapter, and socket.
10. To loosen a nut, repeat steps 1 through 6.
NOTE
3. Exert enough force against the wrench so that the pins
do not pop out of the holes.
4. Make certain that the pins fit the holes and the force is
applied with the handle perpendicular to the work.
5. Remove the wrench when desired tightness is obtained.
25.11 CARE.
1. Clean all wrenches after each use.
Normally, torque will build up in the wrench until
break-away torque is reached. As the torque load is
released, the indicator will reverse direction.
2. Wrenches that come in sets should be returned to their
cases after use.
11. Continue to turn crank until indicator returns to “O.”
3. Apply a thin film of oil to the metal parts of all
wrenches before storing them.
12. Remove the wrench, adapter, drive bar and socket.
4. For long-term storage, the wrenches should be covered
with a rust-preventive compound and carefully stored in
a dry place.
25-15/(25-16 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 26
CHISELS
26.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 26.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of chisels. These pages should help you
select the right chisel to do the job. Using, Paragraph 26.3,
tells you how to use the chisel to perform the desired function.
Care of Chisels, Paragraph 26.6, tells you how to care for the
items.
wood. However, the driving force required is hand pressure
only.
26.2.2 Machinist’s Chisels.
Machinist’s chisels are designed to cut and shape cold metal
and are usually struck with a hammer. The flat or cold chisel is
composed of hardened steel and has a tapered cutting edge on
one end and a flat base on the other end.
26.2 TYPES AND USES.
26.2.1 Woodworker’s Chisels.
There are two types of woodworker's chisels. The socket type
has a blade and socket handle forged of high carbon steel in a
single casting. The wooden handle is inserted into the socket.
This type of chisel is used to cut and pare off wood. Generally
socket-type chisels are used for heavier cutting when a hammer or mallet may be required for additional driving force.
The tang-type chisel is forged in a single casting. The handle
is drilled and inserted over the tang and reinforced with a
metal band. The tang-type chisels are also used to cut and pare
The diamond point chisel has a solid point on one end and a
flat base on the other end. It is used for drawing and cutting
holes in flat stocks and to cut V-grooves.
The cape chisel has a small solid point on one end and a flat
base on the other end. It is used for cutting keyways or slots in
metal, and square corners.
The roundnose chisel has a ground edge on one end and a flat
base on the other end and an octagon-shaped stock. It is used
to align drilled holes, cut channels, cut oil grooves and similar
work.
26-1
TO 32-1-101
26.2.3 Track Chisel.
NOTE
The following procedure is designed for using a
woodworker’s chisel.
The track chisel has a beveled point on one edge and a flat
face on the other end. The cutting edge is 1-3/8 inches wide;
the overall length is 10-1/2 inches and it weighs 5-1/2 pounds.
The track chisel is used with a 22-inch sledge hammer to
remove track bolts, boiler rivet heads and cut rail when a saw
or cutting torch is not available.
26.2.4 Rivet Buster Chisel.
1. With rule and pencil, mark area (1) to be cut with the
chisel.
The rivet buster chisel has a single ground flat cutting edge on
one end and a flat face on the other end. The cutting edge is
about 3/4 inch wide and the overall length is about 9 inches. It
is used for cutting off chassis rivets and in other difficult
places which cannot be reached by other chisels.
26.3 USING A WOODWORKER’S CHISEL.
Wear eye protection. Keep both hands back of the
cutting edge at all times.
26-2
2. Examine the grain of the wood, and place securely in a
vise (2) so you are cutting with the grain. The wood
should not be able to move in any direction.
3. Rough cuts are made with bevel side down (3), while
smooth finishing cuts (4) are made with bevel side up.
TO 32-1-101
6. Remove the last 1/8 inch using chisel and mallet to
complete the job.
Never cut toward yourself with a chisel.
26.4 USING A MACHINIST’S COLD CHISEL.
Use short, rapid mallet blows to control depth and
length of cut.
Wear eye protection.
NOTE
The following procedure is designed for using a machinist’s cold chisel. However, cutting round stock is
not the only use for this type of chisel.
4. Start your cut about 1/8 inch from the guide line (1).
Using a chisel and mallet, make your cut toward the
center (the waste area) to protect the edge.
5. Make small thin cuts. This prevents breaking or splitting
of the work. Check your guide marks often to prevent
overcutting.
1. With a rule and marking pencil measure desired length
and mark.
2. Place mark on a hard steel surface (1) (anvil, closed vise
jaws, etc.).
26-3
TO 32-1-101
26.5 USING A RIVET BUSTER CHISEL.
Wear eye protection.
NOTE
The following procedures are designed for using a
rivet buster chisel.
3. Place cutting edge (2) of chisel on the mark with chisel
straight up and down.
4. Lightly strike the chisel with a hammer (3) and check
chisel mark to be sure you are cutting on the desired
mark.
1. Place cutting edge (1) of the chisel firmly against the
rivet shaft (2) between the head and the metal.
5. Continue striking chisel with the hammer until cut is
through the round stock. A larger diameter stock is cut
the same way except it is turned over after the cut is
about half way through the rod.
2. Grip the chisel firmly and strike chisel head (3) with a
machinist’s or sledge hammer (4).
26-4
TO 32-1-101
26.6 CARE OF CHISELS.
1. Protect the cutting edges by installing protective covers.
2. Store in racks or where they may not be chipped or
broken.
3. Continue striking chisel head until rivet head has been
cut off.
3. Lubricate with a light coat of oil before storing.
4. Regrind broken or chipped edges before using.
26-5/(26-6 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 27
PUNCHES
27.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 27.2, provides you with a list of,
some of the types of punches. These pages should help you
select the right punch to do the job. Using, Paragraph 27.3,
tells you how to use the punch to perform the desired function.
Care of Punches, Paragraph 27.6, tells you how to care for the
items.
The hand-held type has a narrow, cone-shaped point terminating in a sharp, conical tip. Hand-held types range from 1/8 to
5/8 inches in diameter and from 3 to 6 inches long. The handheld punch must be struck with a hammer.
The automatic type has an adjustable regulator for determining
the impact of the punch and also has interchangeable points.
The automatic punch contains a tension spring for marking
without the use of a hammer.
27.2 TYPES AND USES.
There are two basic types of punches; solid (1) which are the
most common, and hollow (2) which are usually designed for
punching holes in leather, paper, and other similar materials.
Solid punches are used to mark metal, drive pins, align holes
and to do other similar jobs.
27.2.2 Drift Punch.
The drift punch has a narrow, tapered flat point. The points
range in size from 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter with an overall
length from 7 to 9 inches. Drift punches may be used to
remove shafts, pins, rivets (after heads have been removed),
and to align small parts.
27.2.3 Alignment Punch.
27.2.1 Center Punches. There are two types of center
punches, both used for starting drill holes.
The alignment punch has a narrow, tapered flat point. The
points range in size from 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter with an
overall length of 12 to 15 inches. Alignment punches are used
to line up mating parts for assembly. Make sure the punch is
large enough for the job. A punch that is too small may bend
or break.
27-1
TO 32-1-101
27.2.4 Drive Pin Punch.
27.2.7 Grommet-Inserting Punch.
The drive pin punch has a flat tip which may be tapered.
Points may range in size from 0.03 to 1/2 inch and are from 3
to 6 inches long. Standard drive pin punches usually come in
sets of nine. Drive pin punches are used to remove straight or
tapered pins. Make sure the right size punch is used for the pin
being removed.
27.2.5 Prick Punch.
The prick punch has a long, conical-shaped point and ranges
from 4 to 5 inches in length overall. It is used to mark soft
metal.
27.2.6 Starting Punch.
The grommet-inserting punch consists of two parts. The solid
punch part has a tapered point and a flat shoulder. The round
die part has flat ends with a bored hole in one end to receive
the point of the punch. Grommet-inserting punches are used to
form the flange on grommets which are installed along the
edges of flags, sails, mail bags, and similar items.
27.2.8 Catapunch.
The starting punch has a strong tapered point capable of resisting applied force. It is used to start the removal of a pin from
an assembly.
The catapunch consists of a pointed head mounted on a coiled
spring shaft. It is used to mark centers on metal or wood
without the use of a hammer.
27.2.9 Metal Cutting Punch.
The metal cutting punch has an open, sharpened edge on one
end and a solid shaft on the other end. The center portion of
the punch is bowed for catching the metal scrap. The metal
cutting punch ranges in size from 1/4 inch to 1 inch. Metal
cutting punches are used to punch holes in thin sheet metal
and require the use of a mallet or machinist’s hammer.
27-2
TO 32-1-101
27.2.10 Tinmen’s Hollow Punch.
Wear eye protection.
NOTE
The tinmen’s hollow punch has a solid metal shank terminating in a sharpened, hollowed end. It is used to punch holes
through thin sheet metal.
The procedure which follows is only one of many
uses of a hand-held center punch.
27.2.11 Sheet Metal Punch.
The sheet metal punch is a heavy-duty steel punch approximately seven inches in length. It tapers to a fine point and
must be struck to produce the hole. It is used to punch holes
through sheet metal to take fastenings.
1. Mark the material to be punched with an “X” (1).
27.2.12 Lever Punch.
The lever punch incorporates an interchangeable punch and a
matching die or “anvil.” The die backs up the material, prevents distortion, and leaves a clean hole. This type of punch is
used to punch small round holes near the edges of metal or
leather material.
27.3 USING A CENTER PUNCH.
2. Hold the punch (2) over the mark. Tilt it so that you can
align the tip with the center of the “X.”
27-3
TO 32-1-101
Wear eye protection.
NOTE
The removal of a pin from a shaft is only one of
many uses for a drift punch.
1. Select a punch which is slightly smaller than the pin
which is to be removed. Care must be taken when
selecting a punch for removing a split pin. If the punch
is too small, it may become lodged in the pin.
3. Position the punch upright and strike the blunt end (3)
of the punch with a hammer (4).
4. Remove the punch and check your mark (5). If it is not
in the center of the “X” or not deep enough, you will
have to repeat the procedure.
27.4 USING A DRIFT PUNCH.
27-4
2. Hold punch (1) centered over pin (2). Tap punch lightly
with hammer (3). This should move the pin. It may be
necessary to apply penetrating oil to the pin before it
will move.
TO 32-1-101
1. Select a punch having a smaller diameter than the smallest hole (1) to be aligned.
3. Catch the pin before it falls out of the shaft. When the
pin is about half way out of the shaft, you can let go of
the punch.
27.5 USING AN ALIGNMENT PUNCH.
2. Insert tip of punch (2) through hole in part A using only
hand pressure, and move punch and part A until you can
get the tip of the punch into part B.
Wear eye protection. Do not strike the punch with a
hammer.
NOTE
The following procedure is for using an alignment
punch. This tool, unlike others, has only one basic
use.
3. Hold the assembled parts while you remove the punch.
Proper use of an alignment punch prevents damaging
threaded parts.
4. Place screw in aligned holes and tighten.
27-5
TO 32-1-101
27.6 CARE OF PUNCHES.
3. Store punches in racks, tool rolls, or in your tool box so
that the edges will not be damaged.
1. Clean punches with a clean rag after each use.
2. Apply a light coat of oil before storing.
27-6
4. Replace punches that have mushroomed ends if they
cannot be reconditioned, (See NOTE, page 1-1).
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 28
FILES
28.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
28.2.1 American Pattern File.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 28.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of files. These pages should help you select
the right file to do the job. Using a File, Paragraph 28.4, tells
you how to use the file to perform the desired function. Care
of Files, Paragraph 28.5, tells you how to care for the items.
28.2 TYPES AND USES.
Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small
amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material. Files are
made in various lengths, shapes, and cuts. Every file has five
parts: the point (1), edge (2), face or cutting teeth(3), heel or
shoulder (4) and tang (5). The tang is used to attach the handle
on American pattern files. The tang is shaped into a handle
and is usually knurled on Swiss pattern files.
American pattern files are generally used for fast removal of
material and where a precision finish is not required. Grades
of coarseness are bastard-cut for heavier work (1), second-cut
(2) and smooth-cut (3) for finishing work, and dead smoothcut (4) for an extra fine finish. American pattern files come
with single-cut (5), double-cut (6), or curved-cut teeth (7).
Single-cut files are used with light pressure for smooth surfaces or to put a keen edge on cutting surfaces. Double-cut
files are used under heavier pressure and where a rougher
finish is permissible. Curved-tooth files are cut in a contour
across the face and are used to smooth surfaces on aluminum,
bronze, lead, babbitt, zinc, and plastics.
28.2.2 Mill File.
Mill files are tapered to the point in width and thickness for
about one-third of their lengths. They are single-cut with one
uncut edge. They are used to sharpen mill or circular saws,
and for draw-filing or finishing metals.
28.2.3 Pillar File.
Pillar files are similar to hand files in general shape, but are
much narrower. They are double-cut with one uncut edge.
Pillar files are used to file in slots and keyways.
28.2.4 Round File.
28-1
TO 32-1-101
Round files taper slightly toward the point.
Bastard-cut files 6 inches and longer are double-cut. The second-cut files, 12 inches and longer, are double-cut. All others
are single-cut. Round files are used for filing circular openings
or concave surfaces.
28.2.9 Curved-Tooth File. Curved-tooth files, also known
as mill-toothed files, are generally used on aluminum and
sheet steel and on flat or curved surfaces. They are also used
for smooth, rapid work on bronze, lead, babbitt, zinc, and
plastic.
28.2.5 Square File.
Square files taper slightly toward the point on all four sides
and are double-cut. They are used for filing rectangular slots
and keyways.
28.2.6 Taper File.
Taper files, or triangular files, are tapered toward the point on
all three sides. They are used for filing saws having 60 degree
angle teeth. Taper files come in regular, slim, extra slim, and
double extra slim and usually are single-cut.
Flat, flexible, curved-tooth files do not have tangs and are
made for easy mounting on a file holder. The file holder is
adjustable for concave or convex surfaces. Flat, flexible,
curved-tooth files come in fine-cut and standard-cut teeth.
28.2.7 Three-Square File.
Flat, rigid, curved-tooth files are self-cleaning and used-for
filing flat surfaces on cast iron, lead, babbitt, aluminum, zinc,
and plastic. They come in smooth-cut and standard-cut teeth.
Three-square files are tapered toward the point on all three
sides and are double-cut. They are used for filing internal
angles, and for cleaning out square corners.
Half-round, rigid, curved-tooth files are flat on one side and
convex on the other. They are used for filing concave surfaces
and bearings. They come with standard-cut teeth.
28.2.8 Warding File.
28.2.10 Swiss Pattern File.
Warding files are tapered to a point for narrow space filing.
They have double-cut faces and singlecut edges. Warding files
are used for lock repair or for filing ward notches in keys.
28-2
Swiss pattern files are made to more exact measurements than
American pattern files. They are primarily finishing tools used
on all sorts of delicate and intricate parts. Swiss pattern files
come in a variety of styles, shapes, sizes, and double and
single cuts to insure precision smoothness.
TO 32-1-101
3. When working on cast iron, start with a bastard-cut file
and finish with a second-cut file.
4. When filing soft metal, start with a second-cut file and
finish with a smooth-cut file.
5. When filing hard Steel, start with a smooth-cut file and
finish with a deed-smooth file.
6. When filing brass or bronze, start with a bastard-cut file
and finish with a second or smooth-cut file.
7. When filing aluminum, lead, or babbitt metal, use a
standard-cut curved-tooth file.
8. For small work, use a short file. For medium-sized
work, use an 8-inch file. For large work, use a file that is
most convenient.
28.4.2 Method of Filing.
These files are usually supplied in sets. The most common set
consists of twelve assorted files in a set which are marking
(half-round) (1), square (2), slitting (3), knife (4), joint (round
edge) (5), crossing (oval) (6), barrette (7), flat (8), equaling
(9), half-round (10), three-square (triangular) (11), and round
(12).
Swiss parrern files are made in seven cuts. Nos. 00, 0, 1, 2, 3,
4, and 6. They are most often used for fitting parts of delicate
mechanisms, and for tool and die work.
28.3 SAFETY.
1. If a file is designed to be used with a handle, do not
attempt to use it without the handle. Holding the sharp
tang in your hand while filing can cause serious injury.
2. Do not use a file for prying. The tang end is soft and it
bends easily. The body of the file is hard and very brittle. A light bending force will cause it to snap.
1. Clamp the work (1) securely in a vise so that the area to
be filed is horizontal and is parallel to and projecting
slightly above the vise jaws (2).
2. Hold the file handle in one hand, thumb on top, and
hold the end of the file with the fingers of the other
hand.
3. Do not hammer on a file. This is very dangerous
because the file may shatter.
28.4 USING A FILE.
28.4.1 Selecting Proper File.
1. For heavy, rough cutting, use a large, coarse, double-cut
file.
2. For finishing cuts, use a second of smooth-cut, singlecut file.
3. When filing hard metals, apply pressure on the forward
stroke only. Unless the file is lifted from the work on the
28-3
TO 32-1-101
return stroke, it will become dull much sooner than it
should.
4. When filing soft metals, using pressure on the return
stroke helps keep the cuts in the file clean.
5. Use a rocking motion when filing round surfaces.
6. When using a new file, applying too much pressure will
cause the teeth to break off. Do not force the file. File
slowly, lightly, and steadily. Too much speed and too
much pressure causes the file to rock, rounding off the
corners of the work.
28.4.3 Draw Filing.
1. Draw filing is used to produce a very smooth and true
surface. Hold the file at right angles to the direction of
the strokes, keeping your hands close together to prevent bending and breaking the file.
2. Pressure should not be great and can remain the same on
the back stroke as on the draw stroke. The speed of
filing is not important.
3. For extra smooth surfaces, wrap a piece of emery cloth
around the file and stroke in the same manner.
28.5 CARE OF FILES.
1. A new file should be broken in by using it first on brass,
bronze, or smooth iron.
2. Never use a new file to remove the fins or scales on cast
iron.
3. Do not use a new file on a narrow surface such as sheet
metal, because the narrow edge of the metal is likely to
break off the sharp points on the file teeth.
4. After using a new file, the teeth will clog up with metal
filings.
5. Using a clogged file will scratch the work. This condition is called pinning.
6. One way to help prevent pinning is by rubbing chalk
between the teeth before filing.
7. The best method to keep the file clean is to use a file
scorer and file cleaner brush.
28-4
8. When cleaning a file with a file scorer (1), use a pulling
motion, holding the file scorer blade parallel to the rows
of teeth (2).
9. Finish cleaning by brushing the file parallel to the rows
of teeth, with the file cleaner brush.
10. Do not throw files into a drawer or toolbox where they
can rub against each other or against other tools. Store
them in separate holders such as clips, straps, or in holes
cut in a block of wood.
11. Clean files often.
TO 32-1-101
1. To remove a handle, hold the file with one hand. Pull
the file from the handle while striking the ferrule end of
the handle against the edge of a bench.
12. Never use a file without a securely attached handle (3),
unless it is of the Swiss pattern type.
13. Do not use files for any other use except filing.
14. Do not oil files. This will cause the file to slide across
the work, preventing fast cutting.
15. Never strike the file against a vise or other object to
remove filings. Use the file cleaner brush.
Never hammer a file into its handle.
2. To install a new handle, insert tang end of file into handle socket exerting pressure with your hands.
16. Never store files with lubricants or rust-preventive compounds on them. Wrap each file in a waterproofed barrier wrapping paper and place the files in racks or boxes
so that the faces or edges of the files will not touch each
other.
28.6 REPLACING THE HANDLE.
3. Tap the handle on the bench top until the file is seated.
28-5/(28-6 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 29
GRINDERS AND SHARPENING STONES
29.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 29.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of grinders and sharpening stones. These
pages should help you select the right sharpening instrument
to do the job. Using, Paragraph 29.3, tells you how to use the
sharpening instrument to perform the desired function. Care,
Paragraph 29.5, tells you how to care for the items.
ening stones may be either natural or artificial. Natural stones
are of a finer grain than the artificial stones.
29.2.1 Bench Grinder.
Bench grinders are used for reshaping and sharpening chisels,
drills, hatchets, and other similar small hand tools.
29.2 TYPES AND USES.
Grinders are mechanical devices which allow you to reshape,
form, and sharpen metal cutting tools or other tools. A grinder
consists of an abrasive wheel mounted on a rotatable shaft.
The abrasive wheels are available in varying degrees of
coarseness, depending upon type of metal to be ground. Sharp-
The bench grinder consists of a clamp (1), a rest (2), an abrasive wheel (3) a handcrank (4), and an encased gearing assembly (5). The clamp is used for fastening the grinder to a
working surface. The rest supports tools which are being
ground. It is adjustable and may be moved from side to side.
The abrasive wheel may be changed depending upon the type
of metal being ground.
29-1
TO 32-1-101
29.2.2 Valve Grinder.
The valve grinder is a hand-operated special grinder. It is used
for grinding the valve seating surfaces on combustion engines.
It grinds with cutting blades on a rotating shaft instead of an
abrasive wheel. It consists of an encased gear housing (1), a
handcrank (2), interchangeable shafts (3), cutting blades (4),
and a suction cup (5). The suction cup is used in place of a
blade to grind non-slotted valves to fit seating surfaces.
29.2.3 Sharpening Stones. Sharpening stones usually have
one coarse face and one fine face. This could combine the
coarse artificial stone with the fine natural stone. The coarse
edge is used to remove nicks and to reshape the tool being
sharpened. The fine edge is used to complete the sharpening
process and put a keen edge on the tool. Sharpening stones are
available in various shapes and sizes, as shown.
29-2
TO 32-1-101
29.3 USING A BENCH GRINDER.
• Wear eye protection and watch the finger.
• Hold tools being shaped firmly so they will not
cause injury.
3. Position grinder where it will be used and tighten the
mounting clamp (1) to hold securely on the bench.
Never use a cracked wheel. Before using a wheel, tap
it lightly with a mallet. A ringing sound indicates that
the wheel is satisfactory; a dull sound indicates that
the wheel may be cracked.
4. Loosen the wing nut (2) on the rest (3). Adjust the rest
(3). Tighten the wing nut (2).
5. Support the tool to be ground on the rest (3).
NOTE
1. Before using, inspect the grinder and abrasive wheel,
checking for cracks or breaks on exposed surfaces.
Since user must use both hands to hold tool to the
wheel, another person is required to turn the handcrank in a counterclockwise direction.
2. Unscrew the mounting clamp (1) to allow the grinder to
be positioned on the bench.
29-3
TO 32-1-101
6. Rotate the handcrank and move the tool forward until it
makes contact with the wheel.
8. Stop grinding occasionally to check for the desired
edge.
7. Move the tool back and forth across the abrasive wheel
face to be sure of an evenly ground surface.
9. When the desired edge is obtained, you are finished.
Remove grinder from bench by loosening the clamp (1).
Store grinder in its designated storage area.
29-4
TO 32-1-101
29.4 USING A SHARPENING STONE.
NOTE
Unless stone is already oil-impregnated, apply a light
coat of oil before and during use.
4. After several strokes, reverse the blade and stroke the
other side in a similar manner. Use light, even pressure.
Keep your fingers clear of the hinge area of a pocket
knife.
5. Repeat stroking action until the desired edge is obtained.
6. The wire edge left on blade by using a stone may be
removed by stroking both sides on a soft wood block,
canvas, or leather.
29.5 CARE OF BENCH GRINDERS.
1. Hold the handle (1) of the blade to be sharpened in one
hand and extend the blade (2) across the stone.
2. Press down on the blade with the fingers of the other
hand.
3. With a circular motion, stroke the blade with the sharp
edge trailing.
29-5
TO 32-1-101
1. Wipe oil and grease from all outside surfaces before and
after each use.
1. Prevent glazing of stone by applying light oil while
using.
2. Tighten all housing screws before and after each use.
2. Wipe excess oil and grit from stone with a clean rag
after each use.
3. Before using, check to be sure that the abrasive wheel is
not cracked or broken.
3. Clean stone with dry cleaning solvent when it becomes
glazed or gummed up.
29.6 CARE OF SHARPENING STONES.
4. Store in a clean dry place and/or wrap in clean cloth.
29-6
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 30
SCRAPERS
30.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 30.2, provides you with a list of
time of the types of scrapers. These pages should help you
select the right scraper to do the job. Using, Paragraph 30.4,
tells you how to use the scraper to perform the desired function. Care of Scrappers, Paragraph 30.5, tells you how to care
for the items.
A carbon scraper is used to clean carbon from cylinder heads,
pistons, and other metal surfaces. It is flexible and has an
overall length of approximately 9 inches. The carbon scraper
consists of ten round spring steel blades, and their flexibility is
controlled by a sliding ferrule.
30.2.2 Bearing Scraper.
Bearing scrapers are used to scrape babbitt metal bearings.
Bearing scrapers come with 1-1/2, 2, and 4-inch cutting edges.
30.2.3 Box Scraper.
30.2 TYPES AND USES.
Scrapers are made in different shapes for various types of
work. Some scrapers are used for trueing metal, wood, and
plastic surfaces which have been machined or filed. Other
scrapers are made to remove paint, stencil markings, and other
coatings from various surfaces.
30.2.1 Carbon Scraper.
Box scrapers are most generally used to scrape stencil markings from wood surfaces. They are also used as wood floor
scrapers. The box scraper has a 2-inch blade and a 9-inch
handle hinged at the blade. The bottom of the scraper and the
edge of the cutter are convex so that corners do not scratch up
the work. The blade can be adjusted by loosening the thumbscrew and extending or withdrawing the blade in its holder.
30.2.4 Flat Blade Scraper.
Flat blade scrapers are used for removing high spots from flat
surfaces only.
30-1
TO 32-1-101
30.2.5 Triangular Blade Scraper.
3. Use the hand at the end of the handle to twist the tool.
Use very light pressure and remove a small amount of
metal with the twisting stroke. If too much pressure is
applied, the scraper will chatter and leave a rough,
uneven surface.
Triangular blade scrapers are used for removing high spots
from flat or curved surfaces. They are available with either a 4
or 6-inch blade.
30.3 SAFETY.
1. Keep work, scraper, and hands free from grease and oil
when using a scraper.
2. Keep scrapers sharp at all times, (except the carbon
scrapers), since a dull scraper is more apt to slip and
cause injury.
3. Use the scrapers only for their intended purposes.
NOTE
Carbon scraper blades are fairly dull to prevent scoring of a piston and/or cylinder wall.
30.4 USING A BEARING SCRAPER.
4. Start at one top side of bearing cap. Work down, and
then up to the top of the other side. Do not scrape
lengthwise.
5. Repeat procedure until the required amount of material
has been removed to fit the bearing onto the shaft.
30.5 CARE OF SCRAPERS.
1. Keep scrapers sharp (except carbon scrapers) by sharpening or grinding.
NOTE
Carbon scraper blades are fairly dull to prevent scoring of a piston and/or cylinder wall.
2. When a scraper is not in use, coat the blade with a film
of light oil.
3. Hang or store scrapers separately to protect the cutting
edge. Do not throw scrapers in with other tools. This
will damage the cutting edges.
1. Place the bearing to be scraped on a bench or other
suitable working surface.
2. Use both hands on the bearing scraper. One hand should
be at the end of the handle while the other hand steadies
the tool.
30-2
4. For long-term storage, coat all metal parts with rustpreventive compound and store in a dry place.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 31
AWLS
31.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
31.3 USING A SCRATCH AWL.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 31.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of awls. These pages should help you select
the right awl to do the job. Using a Scratch Awl, Paragraph
31.3, tells you how to use the awl to perform the desired
function. Care of Awls, Paragraph 31.4, tells you how to care
for the items.
1. Place material to be scribed on a flat surface. Place a
ruler or straight edge on guide marks. You will already
have measured and marked where you want to scribe.
31.2 TYPES AND USES.
31.2.1 Saddler’s Awl.
Awls are very sharp and must be used with extreme
caution.
2. Remove the protective cover (1).
The saddler’s sewing and stitching awl has a round wooden
handle and interchangeable blades. The awl is used to punch
holes in leather and as an aid during sewing. Cover points
when not in use.
31.2.2 Scratch Awl.
The scratch awl has a fixed tapered blade and a wooden handle. It is used to scribe marks or as a center punch on soft
wood and plastics. Cover points when not in use.
3. Hold straight edge firmly. Hold the awl like a pencil and
scribe a line along the straight edge.
31-1
TO 32-1-101
4. Replace protective cover (1).
31.4 CARE OF AWLS.
1. Keep points covered when not in use and stow awls in
racks or in tool boxes.
2. Lightly oil metal parts before storing.
31-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 32
BOLT AND CABLE CUTTERS
32.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
32.2.1 Center Cut Cutter.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 32.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of cutters. These pages should help, you
select the right cutter to do the job. Using Center Cut Cutters,
Paragraph 32.4, tells you how to use the cutter to perform the
desired function. Care of Bolt and Cable Cutters, Paragraph
32.5, tells you how to care for the item.
32.2 TYPE AND USES.
Bolt cutters are considered security items. Always secure these tools when not in use.
The center cut cutter is used for all general-purpose cutting.
The cutting jaws are firmly fixed in line with the handles. The
cutting edges are in the center of the jaw between equal levels.
The longer the handle, the greater the cutting capacity. The
cutting capacities range from 3/16 inch to 1/2 inch for medium
steel, and from 5/16 inch to 11/16 inch for soft steel. The
handles range from 14-inch to 42-inch lengths.
32.2.2 Clipper Cut Cutter.
Bolt and cable cutters come with a variety of cutting edges
which are designed for specific applications. They are shaped
like giant shears with short blades and long handles. The handles are hinged at one end. The cutters are at the end of extensions, which are jointed in such a way that the inside joint is
forced outwards when the handles are closed. This forces the
cutting edges together with great force. Bolt cutters are made
in lengths from 18 to 36 inches. The larger ones will cut mild
steel bolts and rods up to 1/2-inch diameter.
The cutting edges of the clipper cut cutter are in line with the
handles and beveled almost entirely from one side. These cutters allow very close cutting of projecting ends. The cutting
capacities range from 1/4 inch to 9/16 inch for medium steel,
32-1
TO 32-1-101
and from 5/16 inch to 11/16 inch for soft steel. The handles
range from 14-inch to 42-inch lengths.
32.2.5 Angular Cut Cutter.
32.2.3 Shear Cut, Flat Bar, and Strip Cutter.
Angular cut cutters have the cutting edges offset 30 degrees
from the handles. This is so the user can keep the work in
sight. It is used for close cutting of soft or medium-hard metals. Cutting capacities range from 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch for
medium steel. The handles range from 14 inches to 36 inches
in length.
Shear cut, flat bar, and strip cutters are used to cut flat-soft,
medium-hard bar, and strip stock. The cutting edges of the
jaws pass each other in the manner of scissors, making a complete shear cut.
32.2.6 Shear Cut Cable Cutter.
The cutting capacities range from 7/8 x 5/32 inch to 1-1/2 x 9/
32 inch for soft and medium steel, and from 3/4 x 1/8 to 1-7/
16 x 1/4 inch for hard steel. The handles range from 14-inch to
36-inch lengths.
32.2.4 Side Nut Splitter Cutter.
Shear cut cable cutters have curved interposing cutters. They
are used to cut lead and rubber-covered cable, and communication cable. Cutting capacities for lead and rubber-covered
cable is 1-3/8 inches for the 25-1/2-inch handle, and 2-1/4
inches for the 37-inch handle. The communication cable cutting capacity for the 25-1/2-inch handle is 500,000 circular
mils, and 750,000 circular mils for the 37-inch handle.
32.3 SAFETY.
1. Wear safety glasses when cutting.
2. When using bolt cutters, make sure your fingers are
clear of the jaws and hinges.
The side nut splitter cutter has the edge of the cutting jaws in
line with the handles. When adjusted properly, the cutting
edges will remain separated after the nut is split. This tool is
used to split nuts off bolts, with the tool “head on” to the bolt,
without damaging the bolt. Cutting capacity is rated for a 3/8inch bolt nut and is adjustable to 5/16-inch and 1/4-inch
capacity. The handle is 24 inches long.
32-2
3. Take care that the bolt head or piece of rod cut off does
not fly and injure you or someone else. When the cutters
are brought together rapidly, sometimes a bolt-head or
piece of rod being cut off will fly some distance. The
harder the material, the more it will fly.
TO 32-1-101
4. If it is necessary to cut electrical cable or wire which is
already installed, be sure that the power is disconnected
before using the cable cutter on it.
3. Position the work as far back as possible into the jaws,
to prevent damage to the jaws as well as to reduce the
pressure required for cutting.
5. Bolt cutters are fairly heavy, so make sure that they are
stored in a safe place where they will not fail and injure
someone.
32.4 USING CENTER CUT CUTTERS.
Use extreme care when using cutter to avoid catching
any part of the body or clothes between handles as
pressure is applied to them.
• When using bolt cutters, make sure your fingers
are clear of the jaws and hinges.
• Wear eye protection.
Never attempt to cut spring wire or other tempered
metal with bolt cutters. This will cause the jaws to be
sprung or nicked.
4. Stand at a right angle to the work being cut and apply
steady pressure to the handles until the work has been
cut off. Do not pry or twist with the handles while cutting.
32.5 CARE OF BOLT AND CABLE CUTTERS.
1. Replace worn cutters when necessary.
2. Keep moving parts well oiled.
3. Keep the adjusting screws just tight enough to ensure
that the cutting edges meet along their entire length
when the jaws are closed.
4. Keep cutter jaws at right angles to the piece being cut.
Do not twist or pry with the tool while cutting.
1. Clamp or steady the work if unattached before cutting,
to prevent the cutters from slipping.
2. Dry hands and handles of cutter before using to prevent
slipping.
5. Do not sharpen edges too sharp. Leave edge approximately 1/64-inch wide for longer jaw life.
6. Before storing, wipe dirt and grease from the cutter and
coat the metal parts lightly with oil to prevent rust.
7. Store the cutter in a special compartment of the tool box
or on a shelf where it cannot fall.
32-3/(32-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 33
GLASS CUTTERS
33.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 33.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of cutters. These pages should help you
select the right cutter to do the job. Using a Wheel-Type Glass
Cutter, Paragraph 33.3, tells you how to use the cutter to perform the desired function. Care of Cutters, Paragraph 33.4,
tells you how to care for the items.
The circle glass cutter has an adjustable arm (1), a cutting
head (2), and a suction cup clamp assembly (3). The cutting
head scores a mark on the sheet of glass. The suction cup
assembly provides an anchor. The circle glass cutter is used to
cut circles in glass. The adjustable arm can be moved in the
suction cup assembly to allow circles from 2 to 24 inches in
diameter.
33.3 USING A WHEEL-TYPE GLASS CUTTER.
Use care when handling glass. Wear gloves to protect
your hands.
33.2 TYPES AND USES.
33.2.1 Wheel Type Glass Cutter.
The wheel glass cutter consists of a steel cutting wheel (1),
notching teeth (2), and a holder (3). It is used for making
straight cuts on glass.
33.2.2 Circle Glass Cutter.
1. Place padding (newspapers, a piece of carpet, or blanket) on a flat, level surface.
2. Make sure the glass is clean. Apply alcohol (1) along
the line to be cut. This prevents the cutting wheel from
becoming gummed up while in use.
33-1
TO 32-1-101
5. Hold down on the straight edge with one hand while
holding the cutter (5) in an upright position in the other
hand. Your forefinger should extend along the holder
with your fingertip near the wheel.
3. Place a straight edge (2) along line to be cut. A wooden
yardstick should be used when available, since wood
will not slip easily on glass. The cutter will cut 1/16
inch from your mark, so adjust your guide before cutting.
6. Start your cut at the far end of the pane of glass drawing
the cutter toward you. It is important that you maintain
proper pressure throughout the cut. Correct pressure is
indicated by a scratching sound. Too much pressure or a
dull wheel will produce a crunching sound. Make a continuous mark from one edge to the other edge.
NOTE
Draw the cutter over the line only one time. If it is
necessary to recut a groove, do not use a new cutter.
4. Apply a drop of light machine oil (3) to the cutting
blade (4).
7. A proper cut is indicated by a slight crack in the surface.
It is best seen from the side opposite the mark.
33-2
TO 32-1-101
9. Hold down on the section resting on the working surface. Grasp the section extending over the edge with
your other hand. Apply a light downward pressure to
part the glass.
8. To part the glass, slide the pane of glass so the scored
groove (6) is about 1/8 inch beyond the table edge.
10. Remaining chips may be removed by applying a downward twisting motion using the notches of the cutter.
33.4 CARE OF CUTTERS.
1. Make sure cutting blades remain sharp. Sharpen dull
blades with a file or oil stone.
2. When not in use, apply a light film of oil on the cutting
edges.
3. Store cutters in such a way as to prevent the blades
accidentally making contact with personnel of other
metal.
4. For long periods of storage, coat entire cutter with rustpreventive compound and store in a dry place.
33-3/(33-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 34
KNIVES
34.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 34.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of knives. These pages should help you
select the right knife to do the job. Using a Putty Knife, Paragraph 34.4, tells you how to use the knife to perform the
desired function. Care of Knives, Paragraph 34.5, tells you
how to care for the items.
34.2 TYPES AND USES.
Most knives have cutting edges and are used to cut, pare,
notch, and trim wood, leather, rubber, and other materials.
However, putty knives are used to apply and spread putty
when installing glass.
Rubber cutting knives come in a variety of styles and shapes.
Some taper to a blunt round point. Some have a short, wide
blade. Others have a long, wide hollow ground blade. The
handle is usually oval in shape.
34.2.2 Saddler’s Knives.
34.2.1 Rubber Cutting Knives.
Saddler’s knives are used on leather and come in different
shapes. One has a broad point on a 1-1/8-inch by 5-inch blade.
One has a 5/8-inch by 3-7/8-inch square point blade. Another
has a 5-inch rounded-end blade. Shoe knives are similar to
saddler’s knives, but usually they have a 3/4-inch by 3-1/4inch blade.
34-1
TO 32-1-101
34.2.3 Shop Knife.
34.2.5 Draw Knife.
The shop knife is used to cut wallboard, paper, cardboard,
linoleum, canvas, and upholstery materials. Most shop knives
have an aluminum handle and have storage space for five
interchangeable blades in the 5-inch handle.
A draw knife is a flat-edged tool used especially on round
timber to rough-shape wood. It is used to smooth wood after
chopping with a hatchet or axe. It consists of a single bevel
blade and two round wooden handles, one at each end and at
right angles to the blade. The handles may be adjustable or
rigid.
34.2.4 Pocket Knife.
34.2.6 Putty Knife.
A putty knife is used for applying putty to window sashes in
setting panes of glass. The blade has a wide square point and
is available in different lengths and widths.
34.3 SAFETY.
Pocket knives are used for light cutting, sharpening pencils,
cutting string, and whittling. They are not suitable for heavy
work. There are many styles and shapes. Some are multipurpose and have an assortment of blades which are used for
forcing holes, driving screws, and opening cans, as well as
cutting. The blades are hinged and contained within the case
when not in use and are spring loaded to keep them firmly in
place when open or closed.
1. Do not use knives which are larger than can be handled
safely to cut work.
2. Use knives only for the purpose for which they were
designed.
3. Do not carry open knives in your pocket.
4. Do not leave knives in such a position that they will
cause injury to others.
5. Carefully put knives in a sheath or container after use to
protect the sharp cutting edges from contacting other
hard objects.
6. Always cut away from the body, except when using the
draw knife.
34-2
TO 32-1-101
34.4 USING A PUTTY KNIFE.
1. Before applying new putty, make sure that the frame (1)
is clean and all the old putty has been removed.
2. Roll new putty (2) into a rope and press it into the frame
with your fingers.
NOTE
Occasionally dip the putty knife in water to aid in
shaping the putty.
3. With the putty knife (3), shape the putty (2) into an
angle sloping from the glass down to the edge of the
frame.
4. Miter the putty (2) at the corners as shown.
34.5 CARE OF KNIVES.
1. Carefully put knives away after use.
2. Protect the sharp cutting edges from contact with other
hard objects.
3. Use knives only for the purpose for which they are
intended.
4. Before storing, wipe all metal parts with an oily rag.
5. For long-term storage, apply a thin film of rust-preventive compound on all metal parts and store in a dry
place.
34-3/(34-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 35
PIPE CUTTING AND THREADING TOOLS
35.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
35.2.2 Pipe Threading Set.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 35.2, provides you with a description of the pipe cutter and threading set. These pages should
help you select the right cutting die to do the job. Using,
Paragraph 35.3, tells you how to use the pipe cutter and
threading set to perform the desired function. Care of Pipe
Cutters and Threading Sets, Paragraph 35.5, tells you how to
care for the items.
The pipe threading set contains an assortment of cutting dies
(1), a handle or wrench (2), a collar (3) and locking screws (4).
The cutting dies may range from 1/8-inch to 2 inches in diameter. The threading set is used to cut American Standard Pipe
threads on steel, brass, copper, wrought iron, and lead pipe.
35.3 USING A PIPE CUTTER.
Pipe often comes with a protective cap (1). Leave the
cap on. It keeps you from getting cut on the sharp
pipe ends.
35.2 TYPES AND USES.
35.2.1 Pipe Cutters.
There are two sizes of pipe cutters. One size can cut from 1/8
to 2 inches, while the other can cut from 2 to 4 inches. The
pipe cutter has a cutting blade (1) and two pressure rollers (2)
which are adjusted and tightened by turning the handle (3).
Pipe cutters are used to cut steel, brass, copper, wrought iron,
and lead pipe.
1. Measure from end of pipe and make a mark where you
want to cut.
35-1
TO 32-1-101
4. Tighten the handle (4) until cutting blade makes contact
with pipe.
5. Then turn the handle (4) 1/4 of a turn more clockwise.
6. Now turn the whole cutter one turn around the pipe
(counterclockwise).
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until the pipe is cut through.
NOTE
2. Fasten pipe securely in a pipe vise (2). Be sure mark is
clear so that it can be cut. Pipe must be supported on
both ends to keep it from bending.
Be sure the cutter is at a right angle to the pipe as
shown to keep the wheel on track.
8. Remove the shoulder (the rough edge left by cutting)
from the outside of the pipe with a file (5).
9. Remove the burr from the inside of the pipe with a pipe
reamer (6). (See Chapter 39 for care and use of pipe
reamers.)
3. Open the jaws of the pipe cutter enough to allow the
pipe cutter to be placed around the pipe. Adjust so that
the cutting blade (3) is on the line.
35-2
TO 32-1-101
2. Measure outside pipe diameter to determine the proper
die.
10. Place protective cap (1) on cut pipe end and remove
from vise.
NOTE
If the part of the pipe you cut off is going to be used,
put in vise and repeat steps 8 and 9. If you are going
to store the pipe, put the protective cover back on.
35.4 USING A PIPE THREADING SET.
3. Inspect the die for nicks, and be sure that it is sharp.
Assemble die on ratchet die stock as shown in steps 4, 5, and
6.
4. Insert collar (2).
5. Insert cutting die (3) over top of collar (2).
Pipe ends are extremely sharp. Use care when handling.
1. Clamp pipe securely in pipe vise (1) with end to be
threaded extending beyond the edge of the vise jaws as
shown.
6. Secure in place with locking screws (4).
7. Set ratchet to turn in a counterclockwise direction by
pulling out ratchet control knob (5) and turning it 180
degrees. The ratchet permits cutting threads on pipes
where it is not possible to turn the handle 360 degrees. It
is set for clockwise or counterclockwise rotation by
pulling out and turning the ratchet control knob (5) from
one detent to the other.
35-3
TO 32-1-101
10. Start die with short strokes of the ratchet handle (8). Be
sure the die is going on the pipe squarely.
8. Apply cutting oil (6) to die and to end of pipe (7) to
prevent overheating of dies and damaging of threaded
surface.
11. After a full turn of the die, apply another coat of cutting
oil.
12. After two more turns on the die, back off one turn and
apply a coat of cutting oil.
9. Slide cutting die over end of pipe to be threaded and
apply light pressure with the heel of your hand.
NOTE
If metal shavings become clogged in the die, remove
the die and clean it with a piece of cloth.
13. Keep repeating step 11 until desired thread length is
obtained.
35-4
TO 32-1-101
16. Disassemble the die from the ratchet handle as shown,
by removing locking screws (9). Remove die and collar
from ratchet head.
14. Reverse ratchet by pulling ratchet control knob (5) from
detent and turning it 180 degrees. Then back up the
cutting die.
15. Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from die and ratchet
handle.
17. Wipe excess oil and shavings from threaded end of pipe
(7).
18. Place cap, if available, over threads and remove the pipe
from the vise.
35-5
TO 32-1-101
35.5 CARE OF PIPE CUTTERS AND THREADING
SETS.
35.5.2 Threading Sets.
35.5.1 Pipe Cutters.
1. Wipe off excess cutting oil and clean metal shavings
from the cutting die edges and collar.
1. Clean and lightly oil the cutter wheel (1), roller guide
(2), and adjusting screw (3).
2. Store on a rack or in a box which protects the cutting
wheel.
35-6
2. Store in a case or box which will protect the cutting
dies.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 36
TUBE CUTTING AND FLARING TOOLS
36.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 36.2, provides you with a description of the tube cutting and flaring tool. These pages should
help you select the right flaring combination to do the job.
Using a Flaring Tool, Paragraph 36.3, tells you how to use the
tube cutting and flaring tools to perform the desired function.
Care of Tube Cutters and Flaring Tools, Paragraph 36.4, tells
you how to care for the items.
Tube cutters have a cutting blade (1), guide rollers (2), and an
adjusting screw (3). Some cutters have a reaming blade
attached to the frame of the cutter. Tube cutters can cut from 1/
8 inch through 2-5/8 inches tubing. They can cut copper, aluminum, or brass tubing.
36.2.2 Flaring Tool.
Flaring tools are of two basic types, single and double. They
are used to put flares in soft tubing. The single flaring tool
consists of a split die block, a locking clamp with compressor
screw and a cone which forms a 45 degree flare on the end of
the tube. The screw has a T-handle. The die block is constructed to be used on the following outside diameter tubing:
1/8, 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, 3/8, 7/16, 1/2, 5/8, and 3/4 inch.
36.2 TYPES AND USES.
36.2.1 Tube Cutters.
The double flaring tool consists of a split die block, a locking
clamp with compressor screw, adapters for turning tube edge,
and a cone which forms a 45 degree flare on the end of the
tube. The screw has a T-handle.
36-1
TO 32-1-101
36.3 USING A FLARING TOOL.
3. Hold tubing so there is about 1/8 inch extending above
die block clamp, and tighten die block clamp screws.
NOTE
Do not over-tighten cutter as tubing may kink and
flatten.
1. Loosen die block clamp screws (1), and open die block
clamp (2).
4. Slide yoke (4) over die block clamp, and align the tip
(5) over the end of tubing.
2. Insert tubing to be flared (3) into die block clamp.
36-2
TO 32-1-101
5. Tighten feed screw (6), forcing the tip (5) into the tubing and forcing the tubing into the chamber of the die
block clamp.
36.4
CARE OF TUBE CUTTERS AND FLARING
TOOLS.
36.4.1 Tube Cutters.
6. When desired flare is reached, unscrew feed screw, and
remove yoke from die block clamp.
Keep cutting wheel clean and lightly oiled. If a reaming device
is mounted on the body of the cutter, keep it retracted when
not in use.
Store tube cutters on a rack or in a box.
36.4.2 Flaring Tool.
7. Unscrew die block clamp screws (1) and open die block
clamp (2), releasing tubing (3).
8. Inspect flange (7) in tubing for cracks or breaks.
9. If a crack or break is detected, the tubing will have to be
cut and reflanged.
Keep surfaces clean and lightly oiled. Close single flaring
tools and tighten cone into block for storing. Keep double
flaring tools in the case when not in use.
36-3/(36-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 37
SHEARS AND NIPPERS
37.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 37.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of shears and nippers. These pages should
help you select the right tool to do the job. Using Cutting
Nippers, Paragraph 37.4, tells you how to use the shears and
nippers to perform the desired function. Care of Shears and
Nippers, Paragraph 37.5, tells you ‘how to care for the items.
Shears with curved blades such as the hawk bill and the
curved blade hand shears are made especially for cutting short
straight lines or curves. They are also used for cutting out
small intricate designs in locations where it is necessary to
keep the handles and handle-operating hand away from the
metal stock.
37.2.2 Tinner’s Bench Shears.
37.2 TYPES AND USES.
Shears are used for cutting sheet metal and steel of various
thicknesses and shapes. Shears come in a variety of styles and
sizes.
The tinner’s bench shear is larger than a hand shear and is
used for cutting heavy sheet metal. The lower handle has a
hook which can be placed in a hole in the bench so that the
operator will have a free hand to guide the work. The bench
shear makes a 6-inch cut and is approximately 36 inches long.
37.2.3 Metal Shearing Machine.
37.2.1 Hand Shears. Hand shears are made with straight or
curved cutting blades. Shears are made for right-handed operators so the cutline is always in full view for accurate cutting.
The metal shearing machine is foot-operated and is used to cut
original sheets into smaller, usable size stock. The shear blade
is 36 inches long and will cut all sheet metal up to and including 1/16 inch of mild steel or 1/8 inch of iron.
Straight-bladed shears are used to cut straight lines or to cut
curves in locations that are easily reached.
37-1
TO 32-1-101
37.2.4 Nippers.
Nippers are used to cut protruding metal flush with a surface.
They are also used to cut wire, bolts, nails, and light metal
bars to specified dimensions. Nippers come in a variety of
styles and sizes.
37.4 USING CUTTING NIPPERS.
Wear eye protection and watch the fingers.
37.4.1 Wire Cutting.
37.2.5 Cutting Nippers.
Cutting nippers are available with integral or detachable cutters. They are used to cut wire, light metal bars, bolts, nails,
and to cut protruding metal flush with a surface. Some nippers
have adjusting screw stops in the handle and adjustable jaws.
Others have detachable jaws with compound leverage and
come with three extra pairs of jaws. Cutting nippers range in
size from 5-1/2 to 15 inches long and up to 1-3/4 inches in jaw
widths.
1. Place the wire (1) on the table. Measure the section to
be cut off. Mark it with pencil, chalk, soapstone or other
suitable marking piece (2).
37.3 SAFETY.
1. Keep fingers, hands, and other parts of the body clear of
the cutting edges of bench shears, the shearing machine,
hand shears, and nippers.
2. Do not carry shears or nippers in your pocket.
3. Always steady the work that is to be cut.
4. After use, be sure to hang the tools or store them in their
proper place.
37-2
2. Take the nippers (3) in the right hand and place the
cutting edge on the mark.
TO 32-1-101
NOTE
Left-handed people will reverse this procedure.
3. Squeeze the handles together slowly, exerting enough
pressure to cut the wire.
4. Repeat procedure for as many pieces of wire as need to
be cut.
37.5 CARE OF SHEARS AND NIPPERS.
1. Keep tools clean at all times. Lubricate the pivot screw
or bolt with a drop of light oil.
2. Remove rust with a fine aluminum-oxide abrasive cloth.
3. Apply a thin film of oil on tools to prevent rust, and
hang tools on hooks or place them on a shelf when not
in use.
37.4.2 Flush Cutting.
4. Do not throw cutting tools together in a box where the
cutting edges may be damaged.
5. Do not use the shearing machine table as a storage place
for other tools and work.
6. Do not attempt to cut material heavier than the tools or
machines are designed to handle.
7. Do not use shears or nippers as hammers or pry bars, as
they are easily damaged.
8. Dull shears can usually be sharpened on an oilstone or
with a file.
1. Place the cutting edge (1) of the nippers over the nail,
wire, rivet, or bolt (2) that is to be cut flush with the
surface.
2. Squeeze the handles (3) together slowly, exerting
enough pressure to cut the materials.
3. File cut edge smooth to prevent injury.
Do not grind shears if sharpening is all that is necessary. Most shears become useless after two or three
grindings.
9. Grind the shears and nippers only if the cutting edges
become nicked, damaged, or distorted from improper
sharpening or prolonged use.
10. For long-term storage, coat tools with a rust-preventive
compound and store in a dry place where the cutting
edges will not come in contact with other metal objects.
37-3/(37-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 38
TAPS AND DIES
38.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 38.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of taps and dies. These pages should help
you select the right taps and dies to do the job. Using, Paragraph 38.3, tells you how to use taps and dies to perform the
desired functions. Care, Paragraph 38.5, tells you how to care
for the item.
Taps are made of hardened steel and have the following parts:
a square end (1), a round shank (2), a body (threaded) section
(3) and a chamfer (4). The square end is used to turn the tap
with either a straight or T-handled tap wrench. The shank is a
smooth, rounded section which is immediately behind the
threaded section. The body (threaded) section contains four
flutes which have threads cut into their upper edges. They
have a hollow section near the center to permit metal shavings
to fall away from the cutting edges. The chamfer is the nonthreaded end of the tap. It allows the tap to be positioned
squarely in the metal to be threaded without engaging the
threads of the tap.
38.2.1.1 Taper (Starting) Hand Tap.
The taper (starting) hand tap has a chamfer (non-threaded)
length equal to eight to ten threads. The taper hand tap is used
to start tapping operations.
38.2.1.2 Bottoming Hand Tap.
38.2 TYPES AND USES.
Taps and dies are used to cut threads in metal, plastics or hard
rubber. The taps are used for cutting internal threads, and the
dies are used to cut external threads.
The bottoming hand tap has a chamfer length equal to one to
one and one-half threads. This tap is used for threading the
bottom of a blind hole only after the taper and plug taps have
been used.
This tap is also used when tapping hard materials.
38.2.1 Taps.
38.2.1.3 Pipe Hand Tap.
38-1
TO 32-1-101
The pipe tap has a tapered diameter which increases at a rate
of 3/4 inch per foot. All the threads on the pipe tap are
designed to cut pipe. The pipe tap is used for cutting pipe
fittings and in other places where extremely tight fits are
required.
38.2.1.6 Mud Hand Taps (Washout Tap).
38.2.1.4 Boiler Hand Taps. There are two types of boiler
taps, straight and tapered.
Straight boiler taps range in size from 1/2 inch to 1-1/2 inches
in diameter and have a chamfer for starting the tap.
The mud or washout tap has six flutes, tapers 1-1/4 inch per
foot, and has 12 threads per inch. It is used for cutting American National or V-form threads in mud plug drain holes.
38.2.2 Dies.
38.2.2.1 Rethreading Die.
Tapered boiler taps have tapered diameters which increase at a
rate of 3/4 inch per foot.
38.2.1.5 Staybolt Taps.
Staybolt taps are used in boiler, locomotive, and railroad shops
for tapping holes in the outer and inner plates or shells of
boilers. The staybolt tap has two separate threaded areas. The
first is for cutting threads and the second is for guiding the tap
into another piece of metal for threading by the cutting
threads. The spindle-type staybolt has an adjustable spindle
which changes the distance between the cutting threads and
the guide threads.
38-2
Rethreading dies are used to restore bruised (rounded) or rusty
threads on screws and bolts. The rethreading die is hexagonal
in shape and may be turned with a socket, box, open-end, or
any other wrench that will fit. They are available in American
Coarse and Fine Threads. Rethreading dies are available in a
variety of sizes and are usually assembled in sets with a case.
TO 32-1-101
38.2.2.2 Two-Piece Collet Die.
The two-piece collet die consists of the two die sections, the
collet cap, and collet guide. The die sections are placed inside
the cap and held in place by the guide. Adjustment of the die
is done by turning setscrews on either end of the internal slot.
They are used to cut American Standard Coarse and Fine
Threads and are available in assorted sizes.
38.2.2.4 Thread Cutter Set.
The thread cutter set is made up of a combination of taps, dies,
diestocks, tap wrenches, guides, and screwdrivers and
wrenches for making adjustments. Thread cutter sets are used
for cutting internal and external threads.
38.3 USING A HAND TAP.
38.2.2.3 Round Split Adjustable Die.
Wear eye protection.
NOTE
The following procedures may also be followed when
using a taper tap or a bottoming hand tap.
The round split adjustable die (1), or button die, may be
adjusted through the screws on the holder. Adjustment on the
open type is done by turning the three screws on the holder.
One expands the die while the other two compress the die.
Adjustment of the screw type (2) is done by turning a finepitch screw that either forces the die jaws apart or allows them
to spring together. The round split adjustable dies are used to
cut American Standard Coarse and Fine Threads. A die holder
or handle is needed for proper operation of round split adjustable dies.
1. Clamp a steel plate (1) securely in a vise (2). Drill and
ream a hole of desired size.
38-3
TO 32-1-101
2. Select tap (3) and secure in tap wrench (4).
5. Remove tap wrench and, using a square (6), check tap
for squareness. Check at least two different positions on
the tap.
3. Apply cutting oil to the tap and the hole.
6. Replace the tap wrench and continue tapping operation.
It is not necessary to apply pressure, as the threads will
be pulled through at all times.
4. Place point of the tap in hole (5) and rotate clockwise
for right-hand threads or rotate lefthanded tap counterclockwise for left-hand threads.
7. Remove tap by turning in the opposite direction. Wipe
excess oil and metal shavings from metal plate. Check
newly-cut threads with screw pitch gage before inserting
screw or stud.
38-4
TO 32-1-101
38.4 USING A DIE AND DIESTOCK.
NOTE
Work to be threaded must be clean and free of burrs.
1. Secure the work (1) firmly in a vise (2).
3. Apply cutting oil (7) to the die and to the work.
4. Position the diestock (4) over the work (1).
5. Tighten thumbscrews (6) securing diestock to work.
6. Rotate the diestock (4) clockwise, slowly but firmly,
until the die takes hold.
After assembling die to diestock, make sure setscrew
is tight. Die could fall out of diestock causing damage
to die.
2. Assemble die (3) and diestock (4). Tighten setscrew (5).
Loosen the two thumbscrews (6) to adjust diestock (4).
7. Use square (8) to check squareness after several threads
have been cut.
38-5
TO 32-1-101
8. Turn the diestock (4) one turn forward and one-quarter
turn backward. Repeat this procedure until desired
thread length has been cut.
11. Disassemble die (3) and diestock (4) by loosening setscrew (5). Wipe clean with a rag.
38.5 CARE OF TAPS.
1. Do not attempt to sharpen taps.
2. Keep cutting edges lightly oiled.
3. Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from tap and tapwrench.
4. Store them in a case or wrap individually in cloths to
protect cutting surfaces.
9. Carefully back the diestock (4) off the threads by turning in a counterclockwise direction.
38.6 CARE OF DIES.
1. Do not attempt to sharpen dies.
2. Keep cutting surfaces clean and lightly lubricated.
10. Clean threads (9) with a clean rag and check with a
screw pitch gage (10) before using.
38-6
3. Store in a case or wrap individually in cloths where they
will not come in contact with other tools.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 39
REAMERS
39.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 39.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of reamers. These pages should help you
select the right reamer to do the job. Using, Paragraph 39.3,
tells you how to use the reamer to perform the desired function. Care of Reamers, Paragraph 39.4, tells you how to care
for the items.
39.2 TYPES AND USES.
Wear eye protection when using reamers.
Reamers are used to enlarge and true a hole. They are also
used to remove burrs from the inside diameters of pipes and
drilled holes. The reamer consists of three parts, the body (1),
the shank (2), and the blades (3). The shank has a square tang
to allow the reamer to be held with a wrench for turning.
39.2.1 Solid Straight-Hole Reamer.
A solid straight-hole reamer is made of one solid piece of
high-speed steel having a straight shank and straight (1) or
spiral flutes (2). The cutting edges, or lands, between the flutes
are usually evenly spaced. Some have irregularly spaced lands
to prevent the tool from chattering. They come in sizes from 1/
16 inch to include 3-inch diameters. Reamers are also available in sets containing 25 reamers in 1/64-inch increments
from 1/8 inch to 1/2 inch. The sets may be mixed to include
straight and taper pin reamers. Each reamer size is stamped on
the shank of the tool. Solid straight-hole reamers are used for
most work since they are the most accurate and the most rugged of the straight-hole reamers.
39.2.2 Solid Taper-Pin Reamer.
39-1
TO 32-1-101
Solid taper-pin reamers are used to finish tapered holes for the
insertion of tapered pins or other tapered parts. They are made
with a standard taper of 1/4 inch per foot. Solid taper-pin
reamers come with straight (1) or spiral flutes (2). Sizes range
from 5/0 to 14, with the diameter at the large end ranging from
0.0984 to 1.5412 inches. They also come in sets of 10, sizes 3/
0 to 7, and a set of 11, sizes 0 to 10. They are also included in
mixed sets of straight and taper-pin reamers.
able in sets. They are used to enlarge drilled holes to an exact
true size using a series of small cuts rather than one deep cut.
39.2.3 Expansion Reamer.
Expansion reamers are adjustable, and their sizes may be
changed by 1/8 inch for a 1-inch reamer and 5/16 inch for a 2inch reamer. The expansion reamer is made of carbon steel
and has longitudinal cuts in some of its flutes. It is hollowed
out and threaded to receive a tapered screw plug. The diameter
of the reamer is changed by screwing in or backing out the
screw plug. The standard sizes range from 1/4 inch to 1 inch,
by 32nds. A 1/4-inch expansion reamer will enlarge the hole
to a 9/32-inch hole, etc. It is used for general purposes and is
considered the most practical reamer.
Pipe reamers are made of carbon steel. They are tapered with
straight or spiral flutes. They come in three sizes, 1/8-inch to
1-inch pipe capacity, 1/4-inch to 1-1/4-inch pipe capacity, and
1/4-inch to 2-inch pipe capacity. Most pipe reamers are
designed to receive a T-handle (1). Others (2) have a tapered
square shank for use with a brace, or a round shank for use
with a hand drill. They are used to remove burrs from the
inside diameters of pipe and drilled holes.
39.3 USING A SOLID STRAIGHT-HOLE REAMER.
1. Secure the work in a vise so that the hole to be reamed
is perpendicular to the top of the vise jaws.
39.2.4 Adjustable-Blade Reamer.
The blades of an adjustable reamer are separate from the body
and are fitted into grooves in the threaded shank of the tool.
Adjusting nuts located below and above the blades control the
diameter of the reamer. The reamers come with straight (1) or
spiral flutes (2), with or without a floating pilot on solid mandrels, and in several sizes. Adjustable reamers are also avail-
39-2
2. Using a tap wrench (1), tighten the handle to the square
end of the reamer shank (2).
TO 32-1-101
Do not turn the wrench counterclockwise at any time.
To do so will cause the reamer to become dull.
39.4 CARE OF REAMERS.
1. Keep reamers absolutely clean to do accurate work.
2. Do not use the reamer to remove more than 0.002 to
0.003 inches of metal. If the hole is too small, enlarge it
with a drill before reaming it.
3. Position the reamer (3) at the top of the hole. Turn the
wrench clockwise very slowly until the reamer is centered in the hole. Straight-hole reamers (4) have a slight
taper at the end so they will fit into the hole easily.
4. Turn the wrench clockwise with a steady, firm pressure
until the reamer has been turned in the hole. When
reaming steel, use cutting oil or machine oil to lubricate
the tool. When reaming soft iron, do not lubricate the
tool. Turning the wrench too fast or too slowly will
cause the reamer to chatter, producing an unevenly
reamed hole.
5. Remove the reamer from the hole by turning the wrench
clockwise and raising the reamer at the same time.
3. If the proper pressure is applied in use and the reamer
chatters, replace it to insure accurate work.
4. If the reamer edges are only slightly dulled, honing the
edges on an oilstone may restore the sharpness On an
adjustable reamer, the blades may be replaced.
5. To prevent chipping or dulling the reamer when you are
reaming a hole, turn the reamer in the cutting direction
only.
6. To prevent damage to reamers for long and short term
storage, ensure reamers are cleaned of all debris and
individually separated where they will not come in contact with each other, or other tools. If at all possible,
store the reamers in their original shipping containers.
39-3/(39-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 40
BENDERS
40.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 40.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of benders. These pages should help you
select the right bender to do the job. Using, Paragraph 40.3,
tells you how to use the bender to perform the desired function. Care of Benders, Paragraph 40.5, tells you how to care of
the items.
Internal benders are used for bending straight sections of tubing which have both ends flared. They are available in 3/8, 1/
2, and 5/8-inch outside diameters.
The hand tube bender consists of the following components: a
handle (1), a radius block (mandrel) (2), a clip (3), and a slide
bar (4). The radius block is graduated from 0 to 180 degrees,
and the slide bar has a scribe mark which indicates the degree
of bend. These benders are available in 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, 3/8,
and 1/2-inch sizes. The hand tube bender is used to bend copper, brass, or aluminum tubing to specific angles.
40.2.2 Electrical Conduit Hand Bender.
40.2 TYPES AND USES.
40.2.1 Spring Tube Benders.
There are two types of spring tube benders, external and internal. The spring tube bender permits the bending of small
diameter tubing by hand without collapsing the tubing.
External benders are used to bend straight sections of tubing
which have at least one end which has not been flared. They
are available in 1/4, 5/16, 3/8, 7/16, 1/2, and 5/8-inch diameters.
The electrical conduit hand bender has precise grooves to
insure a smooth bend. It has a concave base (1), a foot rest (2),
and a retaining hook (3) to keep conduit from slipping as it is
being bent. The bender has a threaded opening for attaching a
threaded piece of pipe to be used as a handle. Electrical conduit hand benders are available in 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, and
2 inches in diameter. They are used to bend thin wall and rigid
conduit to allow for flat installation on inside building walls.
40-1
TO 32-1-101
40.3 USING A TUBING BENDER.
4. Apply downward pressure on the slide bar.
1. Raise slide bar (1) and insert tubing (2) to be bent.
2. Raise locking clip (3) and lock tubing in place.
5. Stop bending the tubing when the zero mark on the slide
bar matches the desired angle (6) on the block.
3. Lower slide bar. The zero mark (4) on the slide bar
should match up with the zero mark on the block (5).
6. Raise the slide bar (1), lift up the locking clip (3), and
remove the bent tube (2).
40-2
TO 32-1-101
40.4
USING AN ELECTRICAL CONDUIT HAND
BENDER.
4. Place one foot on the foot rest (5) and push down with
your foot while pulling back on the handle. Apply
steady pressure throughout the entire bending process.
1. Install handle (1) on bender (2). A section of threaded
pipe may be used as a handle.
5. When desired bend has been obtained, release the pressure on the conduit by returning the handle to an upright
position and slide the conduit out of the bender.
40.5 CARE OF BENDERS.
2. Tip the bender forward and slide the section of conduit
(3) to be bent through the retaining hook (4).
1. Clean all grease and oil from gripping surfaces with a
rag.
3. Place mark where bend is to start opposite the arrow on
the front end of the bender.
2. Apply a light coat of oil to non-gripping surfaces.
3. Store in a safe, dry place.
Do not jerk the handle, as this will create internal
cracks and ridges inside the conduit which will cut
the wires.
40-3/(40-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 41
PULLERS
41.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
41.2.2 Gear and Bearing Puller.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 41.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of pullers. These pages should help you
select the right puller to do the job. Using, Paragraph 41.3,
tells you how to use the puller to perform the desired function.
Care of Pullers, Paragraph 41.5, tells you how to care for the
items.
The gear and bearing puller is used to pull gears, bearings,
pinions, sheaves, pulleys, and wheels. It is a screw-type puller
with two jaws. The grip tightens as pull is increased. The gear
and bearing puller has a maximum spread of 5-1/2 inches.
41.2.3 Universal Bearing and Bushing Puller.
41.2 TYPES AND USES.
41.2.1 Universal Gear Puller.
The universal bearing and bushing puller has interchangeable
jaws. It provides a pulling capacity of up to 1-1/4 inches. The
larger jaws are used for removing bronze or oilite bushings
without crumbling them. The smaller jaws are used to pull
clutch pilot bearings.
41.2.4 Electrical Unit Bearing Puller.
The universal gear puller is usually of yoke and screw construction with two jaws. The jaws have a capacity from 0 to 14
inches in diameter. The universal gear puller is used for pulling gears, pulleys, and wheels.
41-1
TO 32-1-101
The electrical unit bearing puller is used to pull bearings from
shafts of electrical units. It is supplied with plates to fit a
variety of unit constructions and to fit behind the particular
shaft bearings to be pulled.
41.2.5 Battery Terminal and Small Gear Puller.
The push and pull puller set is used in conjunction with a
variety of attachments and adapters. The push and pull puller
consists of a 13-1/2-inch steel bar which is slotted to receive
two 9-1/2-inch legs. A pressure screw in the center of the bar
is 13 inches long. It has a diameter of one inch, and it is
threaded. This puller is universal and versatile. With the use of
the bearing pulling attachment, bearing cup pulling attachment, sheave puller attachment, threaded adapters, step plate
adapters, additional legs, and many other special adapters, this
puller is capable of removing or replacing bearings, gears,
pinion, pulleys, wheels, and bushings. The push and pull
puller set has many other uses.
41.2.8 Steering Wheel Puller Set.
The battery terminal and small gear puller is a screw-type
puller for use in close quarters. In addition to pulling battery
terminals, it is used to pull small gears and bearings.
41.2.6 Steering Gear Arm Puller.
The steering gear arm puller is used for pulling steering gear
arms. It also can be used for a wide variety of other pulling
jobs. The clamp locks the puller on the arm, leaving both
hands free for pulling.
The steering wheel puller consists of all the units necessary for
removal of steering wheels from early models of cars and
trucks up to the present models.
41.2.9 Wheel Puller Set.
41.2.7 Push and Pull Puller Set.
The universal wheel puller set consists of a body and drive
assembly that receives three long jaws, three short jaws, or a
special grooved hub set. The interchangeable jaws pivot and
41-2
TO 32-1-101
swing to any desired bolt circle. Tapered, right and left hand
threaded stud nuts complete the set all of which are carried in
a metal case. The wheel puller set is capable of pulling any
demountable wheel hub for any passenger car, and most lightweight trucks.
jaws can be inserted through a 1/2-inch opening. The capacity
of the medium jaws is 6-1/4 inches. The slide hammer puller
is also equipped with a locking feature which holds the jaws
open or locks them on the work.
41.2.12 Cotter Pin Puller.
41.2.10 Cylinder Sleeve Puller.
A cotter pin puller is an S-shaped tool used to install or to
remove cotter pins. One end is used to insert through the cotter
pins for extracting. The other end is used for spreading the
cotter pin. The shank is beveled square for easy handling and
for a firm grip. This type is seven inches long.
41.3 USING A GEAR AND BEARING PULLER.
The universal cylinder sleeve is used to pull cylinder sleeves
from engine blocks. It is adjustable to provide clearance
regardless of the position of the cylinder studs and to simplify
centering the tool over the bore. This puller is used in conjunction with four adapter plates supplied with the puller. The
combination is capable of pulling cylinder sleeves 4-1/4,
4-1/2, 4-3/4, and 5-3/4 inches in diameter.
41.2.11 Slide Hammer Puller.
When pulling a sheave or bearing from a shaft with
an internally threaded hole, ensure that the tip does
not enter threaded portion of shaft. This can be done
by using proper adapter.
1. Check all gripping edges end threads of a puller for
damage before using it.
2. Place the puller (1) firmly in position and secure it.
3. Use the proper size wrench for turning the pressure
screw or nut (2) to avoid rounding the corners of the nut
or of the screw head.
Turn the pressure screw or nut slowly to prevent injury as the gear bearing is released.
The slide hammer puller set is a universal-type puller
equipped with a two and three-way yoke, three medium jaws
for outside pulls and two jaws for inside pulling. The small
4. Turn the pressure screw or nut slowly in a clockwise
direction until the gear bearing is removed.
41-3
TO 32-1-101
3. Slide the handle in a series of slides until the gear is
loose or comes off.
41.5 CARE OF PULLERS.
1. Keep pullers clean at all times.
41.4 USING A SLIDE HAMMER PULLER SET.
1. Check to make sure that you have all parts before starting the process. Make sure the threads are clean and will
move freely.
2. Lock the jaws (1) on the gear with the locking feature
and slide the hammer handle (2) up the shaft in the
direction of the pull.
2. Do not grease or oil the gripping edges. This will cause
the tool to slip.
3. Clean all the tools after use and store so the threads will
not become damaged.
4. Make certain that attachments and adapters are stored
with the basic puller and that they do not become separated.
5. Oil pullers after use and wipe clean before using again.
Do not slide the handle too rapidly, the gear may fly
off and cause injury.
41-4
6. When storing for long periods, apply a coat of rustpreventive compound on the tools and store them in a
dry place.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 42
BARS
42.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 42.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of bars. These pages should help you select
the right bar to do the job. Using the Combination Bar, Paragraph 42.4, tells you how to use the bar to perform the desired
function. Care of Bars, Paragraph 42.5, tells you how to care
for the item.
The crowbar is used for heavy prying and for moving heavy
timbers and other large objects short distances. It can also be
used for loosening rock formations, as a lever for moving
rails, and for breaking up hard earth when digging. In moving
heavy objects or prying, it should be used in a position where
the weight of the user’s body is exerted downward on the long
section of the lever. When possible use a block or other object
as a fulcrum behind the bar, near the spot where the bar’s point
is wedged under the object to be moved.
42.2.3 Pinch Bar.
42.2 TYPES AND USES.
Bars are steel tools used to lift and move heavy objects and to
pry where leverage is needed. They can also be used to
remove nails and spikes, and to loosen hard soil for digging.
The most commonly used types of bars are the wrecking bar,
crowbar, pinch bar, and combination pry bar. These bars range
from 12 inches to 72 inches in length, depending upon their
design and the purpose for which they are used.
42.2.1 Wrecking Bar.
The pinch bar is used for light ripping and prying jobs.
42.2.4 Combination Bar.
The combination pry bar is an all-purpose combination pry
and scrape bar for rugged heavy-duty service. It is used to pry,
pull, cut, scrape, lift, and pound nails. The slim tapered blades
are easily inserted for prying and lifting. It also has beveled
nail slots.
42.3 SAFETY.
The wrecking bar is used to pull large nails or spikes, to open
heavy crates, and to do wrecking work.
42.2.2 Crowbar.
1. Wrecking bars are exceptionally heavy, and care must
be taken to keep them from falling and striking someone.
2. When using bars for prying, make sure the bar does not
slip and cause personal injury.
3. Do not use bars for extra heavy work, since they will
bend and may cause injury.
42-1
TO 32-1-101
42.4 USING THE COMBINATION BAR.
Use care in using the combination bar to avoid slippage and personal injury.
1. Insert the long tapered blade (1) between boards (2) to
be removed or ripped. Then exert leverage on the short
hooked blade (3) of the bar to pry the boards loose.
3. To remove nails, use the short hooked blade (3) nail slot
to remove a nail that is almost completely driven home.
Pull the nail approximately half-way out. Then switch to
the long tapered blade (1) nail slot to completely remove
the nail.
42.5 CARE OF BARS.
2. Insert the short hooked blade (3) between the boards if
greater leverage is required.
When grinding, take care to cool the end being
ground by dipping it in water frequently, so tempering is not lost.
1. Bars require little maintenance. They should be thoroughly cleaned after use when they accumulate dirt and
grease.
2. They should be covered with light oil before storing in a
dry place.
3. The ends of the bars should be kept in shape by filing or
grinding to their original shape, because a dull chisel
end or claw end makes using the bar more difficult.
42-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 43
MATTOCKS
43.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 43.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of mattocks. These pages should help you
select the right mattock to do the job. Using the Mattock,
Paragraph 43.4, tells you how to use the mattock to perform
the desired function. Care of Mattocks, Paragraph 43.5, tells
you how to care for the item.
43.3 SAFETY.
1. When using a mattock, it is important to have a firm
footing and correct posture to prevent the mattock from
glancing and striking the feet or legs if the mark is
missed.
2. Do not swing a mattock until you are sure that no one
will be endangered by the swing, a possible. loose head,
or glancing of the tool.
43.4 USING THE MATTOCK.
43.2 TYPES AND USES.
43.2.1 Single-Bevel and Double-Bevel. The mattock is
designed for digging and cutting operations. The mattock can
have a single or double-beveled head. However, the singlebeveled mattock can be combined with other digging tools to
perform a variety of functions. For example, the “pick-mattock” is a combination of the single-beveled mattock and pick.
Wear eye protection.
1. Distribute body weight equally on both feet. The knees
should be set but not tense. The feet should be spread
apart at a comfortable distance. The body should be
relaxed and free to swing and bend from the hips.
43-1
TO 32-1-101
43.5 CARE OF MATTOCKS.
2. When practicing using the mattock, swing with either
the right or the left band leading. When your position
becomes tiring, reverse your hands on the handle of the
mattock.
3. With the right hand leading, the left foot should be
brought slightly toward the work. To start the swing,
hold the handle at the end with the left hand and near
the center with the right hand. Raise the mattock over
the right shoulder. Swing the mattock down toward the
work, allowing the right hand to slide back along the
handle toward the left hand so that at the finish of the
swing, the hands are close together.
4. With the left hand in the center of the handle, the mattock is swung in the same manner, except that the positions are reversed.
5. Light swings are accomplished with wrist motion only,
allowing the head of the mattock to do the work.
6. Use the wrists, forearms, and shoulders for heavy
swings.
Slight prying may be done with the mattock. However, this must be done cautiously to prevent breaking
the wood handle.
43-2
1. Clean the mattock thoroughly after use and before short
or long-term storage.
2. Store the mattock so that the head will not be struck
against metal or other hard surfaces. The mattock should
be placed on its head against a wall or hung on a rack
for storage. Coat the head with oil.
3. For long-term storage, coat the head with a rust-preventive compound and store in a dry place in a rack or box
with the cutting edges protected.
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal
injury, properly dispose of all cleaning rags in noncombustible containers.
4. The raw wood handles of mattocks should be rubbed
thoroughly (preferably prior to use) with a cloth soaked
in boiled linseed oil. This will prevent drying, checking,
and moisture penetration.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 44
GASKET CUTTERS
44.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 44.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of gasket cutters. These pages should help
you select the right cutter to do the job. Using the Gasket
Cutter, Paragraph 44.3, tells you how to use the gasket cutter
to perform the desired function. Care of Gasket Cutters, Paragraph 44.4, tells you how to care for the item.
44.2 TYPES AND USES.
44.2.1 Circle Gasket Cutter.
pered tool steel knives. It requires a knurled thumb screw
adjustment to change diameters.
44.2.2 Bit Brace Circle Gasket Cutter.
The bit brace circle gasket cutter adjusts from 1 to 5-1/2
inches in diameter. It cuts metal, plastic, wood, hardwood and
other materials. It has a tapered square shank to fit a bit brace.
It comes with a 3/16-inch tool steel bit, 1/4-inch pilot drill, and
a hex wrench for easy adjustment.
44.2.3 Hollow Gasket Cutter.
The compass-style circle gasket cutter cuts gaskets from 4inch diameters through 20-inch diameters. It cuts leather,
paper, plastic, rubber, sheet lead, or thin wood. It has an aluminum frame with a graduated scale, steel pivot pin, and tem-
The hollow gasket cutter is also known as a hollow punch. It is
extremely serviceable for cutting soft materials. It comes in a
set with a mandrel. The sizes are 1/4, 5/16, 3/8, 7/16, 1/2, 9/
16, and 5/8 inch. The set will withstand unlimited use if a
hardwood block is used under the gasket material when cutting gaskets. They are not designed for cutting metal or cutting
against a hard surface. Other individual hollow gasket cutters
are also available.
44-1
TO 32-1-101
44.2.4 Heavy Duty Bench Mount Gasket Cutter.
44.3.2 Using a Bit Brace Circle Gasket Cutter.
The bench mount gasket cutter is used for heavy duty jobs
requiring gaskets cut from the heaviest of materials.
Cutting smaller circular gasket with a bit brace.
44.3 USING THE GASKET CUTTER.
44.3.3 Using a Hollow Gasket Cutter.
Below are examples of how several of the gasket cutters in
this chapter can be used.
44.3.1 Using a Circle Gasket Cutter.
Cutting circular gasket compass-style.
Cutting small holes in gasket with a hollow punch.
44.4 CARE OF GASKET CUTTERS.
1. After using a gasket cutter, wipe it clean and apply a
thin film of oil to prevent rusting.
2. Carefully place the gasket cutter on a shelf, rack or other
suitable place to avoid damaging its cutting edges.
3. For long-term storage, coat the gasket cutter with rustpreventive compound. Protect the cutting edges and
store carefully in a dry place.
44-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 45
CHOPPING TOOLS
45.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
45.2.1.2 Double-Bit Ax.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 45.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of chopping tools. These pages should help
you select the right chopping tool to do the job. Using, Paragraph 45.4, tells you how to use chopping tools to perform the
desired function. Care of Chopping Tools, Paragraph 45.7,
tells you how to care for the item.
The double-bit ax is used for the chopping down and the lopping and topping of trees. The double-bit ax has a wedge-type
head with two cutting edges.
45.2.1.3 Crash Ax.
45.2 TYPES AND USES.
45.2.1 Axes. Axes are cutting tools used for the cutting
down of trees and for the chopping and splitting of wood.
They may be either single or double-edged. Single-bit, doublebit, and crash axes are the most common types. Sizes of axes
vary depending upon their design and purpose.
45.2.1.1 Single-Bit Ax.
The crash ax, or fireman’s ax, is used by emergency personnel
to gain quick access to a given area. This ax has a steel head
with a cutting blade or bit at one end, and a spike-like extension at the other.
45.2.2 Hatchets.
45.2.2.1 Half-Hatchet.
The single-bit ax is used to cut down or prune trees. It can also
be used to cut or trim logs and heavy brush, or to split and cut
wood. This type ax has a steel head attached by wedges to a
long, slightly curved handle. The head has a flat face at one
end. At the other end is the cutting edge or “bit.”
45-1
TO 32-1-101
The half-hatchet, commonly called a hatchet, has a steel head
fastened by wedges to a short wooden handle. The head
always has a straight front edge and a round rear shoulder. The
other end of the head may vary in shape depending on the
design and use.
45.2.4 Timber Wedges.
45.2.3 Adz.
The timber wedge is used with a sledge, primarily to split logs
and timber. When sawing timber or thick lumber, it may also
be used to spread the cut so the saw will not bind. The timber
wedge is a steel tool resembling a slender single-bit ax head.
One end is slightly fan-shaped and sharpened to a dull edge.
The other end is flat where a sledge can strike when driving
the wedge into a log.
The adz is a chopping tool used for chopping and smoothing
lumber or logs where a great deal of wood or bark is to be
removed. The adz is a form of ax where the edge of the blade
is at a right angle to the handle. It has a curved steel head
attached to a curved handle.
45.3 SAFETY.
1. Never use any tool that is defective.
2. Always wear eye protection when working where flying
particles may injure the eyes.
3. Do not use dull or defective tools.
4. Before swinging a tool, be sure no one is close enough
to be injured.
5. Do not use a tool not designed for the job. It can be
dangerous.
6. Before using an ax, clean the work area of material that
might deflect the ax blade.
7. Keep arms, legs, and feet out of path of ax.
45-2
TO 32-1-101
45.4 USING THE SINGLE-BIT AX.
Always wear suitable eye protection.
3. To start the swing, bring the ax back over the right
shoulder, bending the elbow as the right hand slides up
the handle toward the ax head.
1. First clear the work area of material that might deflect
the ax blade. The user’s body weight should be evenly
distributed, with knees set, but not tense. The feet
should be spread at a comfortable distance to retain balance, while the body should be relaxed and free to
swing and bend at the waist.
2. To use the ax, grasp the ax handle with both hands close
together near the end of the handle, with the right or
leading hand closer to the ax head. The left foot should
be closer to the work.
4. On the downswing, let the right hand slide down the
handle, toward the left hand.
NOTE
Reverse the position of the hands, feet and shoulder if
left-handed.
5. At the end of the downswing, the right hand will be
beside the left hand at the end of the handle.
45-3
TO 32-1-101
45.5 USING THE ADZ.
2. Block the timber to be worked on so it cannot slip, slide,
or roll.
3. Straddle the timber and grip the adz handle with both
hands. The right hand should be held approximately 12
to 15 inches above the left hand.
Always use suitable eye protection.
1. To use the adz, first clear the work area of branches and
debris.
4. Use short, choppy down strokes while keeping the
hands in approximately the same position on the handle.
The right hand does not slide toward the left hand as in
swinging the ax, because the right hand must be in a
position to keep control of the adz head at all times.
Sliding the right hand to the end of the handle would
allow the adz blade face to be deflected toward the user.
NOTE
As wood chips accumulate on the work surface, clear
them away to prevent their causing a deflection of the
adz blade. Reverse the position of the hands if lefthanded.
45-4
TO 32-1-101
45.6 USING THE TIMBER WEDGE.
Before using always wear suitable eye protection.
4. Give the wedge a few blows, then start a second wedge
on the line farther along the log and drive it with a few
sledge blows.
1. To use the timber wedge, first block the log to be split,
or steady it so it cannot roll.
2. With the left hand, hold the wedge’s narrow edge (1) on
the log where a split is desired.
5. Alternate driving the wedges into the log until log splits.
For longer logs, more than two wedges should be used.
NOTE
Reverse the position of the hands if left-handed.
Do not use a timber wedge that has nicks or burrs,
since the rough sections can scratch the hands or can
cause chips to break off when struck by sledge.
3. Hold the sledge handle in the right hand, close to its
head, and start driving the wedge (2) into the log with a
pounding action.
45.7 CARE OF CHOPPING TOOLS.
1. Clean all chopping tools after use.
2. Store tools to protect heads and cutting edges.
3. For prolonged storage, keep tools free of rust by wiping
with oil.
45-5
TO 32-1-101
4. In very cold weather, never use a chopping tool before
the blade is warm. A cold blade is brittle and will break
easily.
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal
injury, properly dispose of all cleaning rags in noncombustible containers.
45-6
5. Promptly replace wooden handles on all chopping tools
when needed. When changing handles, apply a light
coating of linseed oil.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 46
SAWS
46.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
46.2.1 Handsaw.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 46.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of saws. These pages should help you select
the right saw to do the job. Using, Paragraph 46.4, tells you
how to use the saw to perform the desired function. Care of
Saws, Paragraph 46.7, tells you how to care for the item.
46.2 TYPES AND USES.
Saws are tools with thin, flat steel blades that have a row of
spaced notches or “teeth” along the edge. The blade is fastened to a handle. Saws are available in various sizes and
designs depending on their use and the material to be cut. The
most common types of saws are handsaw, (crosscut and ripsaw), backsaw, one-man crosscut saw, two-man crosscut saw,
nested saw (keyhole and compass) and hacksaw.
The handsaw consists of a thin flat blade with teeth and a
wooden or plastic handle, called the heel, fastened to the end
of the blade by screws. There are two categories of handsaws:
the ripsaw (1) and the crosscut (2). The ripsaw is designed to
cut with the grain of wood, and the crosscut saw is designed to
cut against the grain. The handsaw is used in carpentry, roughout work, and for “finish” hand sawing. Sizes of handsaws
vary depending on design and nature of the task.
46-1
TO 32-1-101
46.2.2 One-Man Crosscut Saw.
The two-man crosscut saw is 5 to 6-1/2 feet long with a handle
at each end. As with the one-man crosscut saw, it also has a
high-grade steel blade with the “cutter” and “raker” teeth
arrangement. It is used when two men are required for extra
heavy cutting jobs.
46.2.4 Backsaw.
The one-man crosscut saw is about 36 inches long and has a
handle at one end. This type of saw is characterized by a highgrade steel blade with two types of teeth known as “cutters (1)
and “rakers” (2). The cutters do the cutting, and the rakers
chisel out and remove chips from the cut. It is used for heavy
work such as cutting down trees and sawing heavy timbers.
46.2.3 Two-Man Crosscut Saw.
46-2
The backsaw has a straight blade and parallel top and bottom,
with a heavy strip of steel or brass wrapped along the back to
provide rigidity. The handle is of similar shape to other hand
saws except it is usually mounted higher. Backsaws are used
for general bench work such as cutting joints and smaller sections of lumber to length. Sizes vary depending on design and
nature of work.
TO 32-1-101
46.2.5 Nested Saws.
46.2.5.2 Compass Saw.
The compass saw is slightly larger than the keyhole saw. The
teeth are so arranged that the blade can easily be turned for
cutting curves or holes. As with the keyhole saw, the compass
saw will vary in size depending on the design and purpose.
Nested saws consist of a wooden handle to which several different blades can be attached, making up different types of
saws such as the keyhole or compass saw. A slotted end at the
heel of each blade slips into the pistol-grip type handle where
a wingnut fastens it in place. Nested saws are used to cut along
curved lines, to start cuts for larger saws, or to make starting
saw cuts from drilled holes or small openings. The size of
these saws will vary depending on design and nature of use.
46.2.5.3 Hacksaw.
46.2.5.1 Keyhole Saw.
The keyhole saw is the smallest type of nested saw. Its blade
has a very narrow point small enough to enter a 1/4-inch hole.
It is used for close-quarter work, such as cutting, shaping, or
enlarging holes in a board.
The hacksaw is designed to cut almost any size or shape of
metal object. The hacksaw uses two types of blades, hard and
flexible. The type of blade used depends on the nature of the
task. The blade is held to the saw frame by pins that fit into
small holes at each end of the blade. Blade tension is adjusted
by a screw and wingnut assembly at either the nose or the
handle end of the frame. The hacksaw comes in various
designs, depending on the purpose.
46-3
TO 32-1-101
46.3 SAFETY.
1. Before using, inspect the tool. Do not use any damaged
or broken saw.
2. Store all tools in their proper places when not being
used.
3. Wear proper eye protection when using any saw.
4. Do not throw or drop any tools. If a saw is dropped,
inspect immediately before reusing.
5. Using clamps or vises, steady or secure any loose material to be cut.
6. Do not allow pointed or edged tools to lie around where
they may injure someone.
7. Be careful not to allow the fingers or other parts of body
to get in the line of cut.
8. Do not use a tool for any purpose other than that for
which it was designed.
1. In using the crosscut saw, place the work on a level just
below the knees. Place one sawhorse, bench or other
support (1) fairly close to line of cut (2).
46.4 USING THE CROSSCUT SAW.
Wear eye protection.
2. To start the cut, place thumb (3) against the side of the
saw blade, being careful to hold it well above teeth.
3. Start the cut by drawing back a few inches of teeth at
the heel of the saw a few times.
46-4
TO 32-1-101
46.5 USING THE KEYHOLE SAW.
Wear proper eye protection to avoid flying wood
chips or debris.
4. At approximately a 45 degree angle, saw only on the
downward stroke applying pressure evenly.
1. To make an inside-out cut, first drill a hole (1) large
enough to admit the point of the saw.
5. Keep the saw blade at a right angle to the work surface
by checking the saw position occasionally with a try
square (4).
6. When nearing end of cut, hold the waste side of the
wood to prevent board breaking off unevenly.
2. Insert the saw blade (2) and start to cut slowly, with a
minimum of pressure.
46-5
TO 32-1-101
3. Be careful not to twist the blade too sharply, as the
narrow blade will easily bend.
3. To make an accurate cut, use a file (5) to make a notch
for guiding the first strokes of the saw.
46.6 USING THE HACKSAW.
Wear protective eyewear to avoid flying metal chips.
4. Steady the saw by holding the handle with the right
hand and the frame with the left.
5. Hold the blade parallel to the work surface and cut on
the push stroke, being careful not to bear down too hard.
Draw the blade back using no pressure each time.
6. Saw at a rate not to exceed 40 to 50 strokes per minute.
1. Insert the correct blade (1) in the hacksaw frame (2) and
adjust wing nut (3) for proper tension.
46.7 CARE OF SAWS.
1. Store blades in a dry place and apply a fight coat of oil
when not in use. This will keep the blades from rusting.
2. Never use a woodcutting saw to cut through nails or
other metal.
3. Between cuts, place saw flat on a work bench or in a
spot where teeth cannot be damaged,
4. Avoid placing heavy tools or objects on saw blades as
this can result in distortion of the blade.
5. Do not force the saw if it binds. Use a wedge to spread
the cut.
6. Replace damaged saw handles with new ones immediately when needed.
2. Secure the material (4) to be cut in a vise or other holding device to avoid vibration which may snap the blade.
7. To keep saw teeth in too condition, touch up the teeth
with a file occasionally.
8. Always protect saw blade teeth from coming in contact
with metal or other material that may damage them.
46-6
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 47
BRUSH-CUTTING TOOLS
47.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
47.2.1 Brush Hook.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 47.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of brush-cutting tools. These pages should
help you select the right brush-cutting tool to do the job. Using
the Brush Hook, Paragraph 47.4, tells you how to use the
brush-cutting tools to perform the desired function. Care of
Brush-Cutting Tools, Paragraph 47.5, tells you how to care for
the item.
47.2 TYPES AND USES.
When it is not practical to use an ax or other conventional
cutting tool, a brush-cutting tool can be used. Brush-cutting
tools are used for cutting underbrush, shrubs, tree branches,
vines, and tall grass. Two of the most common brush-cutting
tools are the brush hook and the machete. Brush-cutting tools
are available in various sizes and designs depending on the
nature of use.
The brush hook is a hook-shaped steel blade set onto a heavyduty metal or wooden handle. The inside edge of the hooked
blade is sharpened like the cutting edge of an ax blade. The
brush hook is used for cutting underbrush, shrubs, or branches.
Tool size and design vary according to the task.
47.2.2 Machete.
The machete normally in military use is an 18-inch knife,
widest and heaviest at the point of the blade. The blade is
attached to a handle shaped to fit the hand. The handle is
designed with a slight projection to prevent the machete from
47-1
TO 32-1-101
slipping from the hand while being used. The machete is used
to cut tall grass, vines, and small brush.
1. To use the brush hook on a tree branch, lift the curve of
the hook above the branch and make short, chopping
strokes downward against the surface of the branch.
47.3 SAFETY.
1. Always make sure no one is close enough to be injured
before swinging the tool.
2. Take care not to allow branches or brush in line of
swing to deflect the stroke and cause injury.
3. Do not use a dull or defective tool.
4. Store tools properly when not in use.
47.4 USING THE BRUSH HOOK.
2. To cut small brush or bushes, swing the brush hook
horizontally. The hooked portion will keep the brush
from bouncing away from the cutting edge.
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
47.5 CARE OF BRUSH-CUTTING TOOLS.
1. Repair all nicks and dulled cutting edges immediately.
2. For prolonged storage, coat metal parts with light oil.
3. Replace defective handle immediately.
47-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 48
TIMBER HANDLING TOOLS
48.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 48.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of timber handling tools. These pages
should help you select the right timber handling tool to do the
job. Using Timber Handling Tools, Paragraph 48.4, tells you
how to use timber handling tools to perform the desired function. Care of Timber Handing Tools, Paragraph 48.5, tells you
how to care for the item.
The peavy has a sturdy pole-type wooden handle, about 5 feet
in length, that fits into a cylindrical tapered steel socket. The
socket has a sharp spiked point. Hinged to the side of the
socket is a curved hook that ends in a sharp point. The peavy
is used for rolling, turning, and carrying logs and timbers.
48.3 SAFETY.
1. Be sure that all hooks are securely embedded in the log
to be carried.
2. Be sure that all personnel at the end of the timber carrier
or peavy handles lift and lower the log in unison.
3. Do not toss tools from one location to another, as damage or injury may result.
48.4 USING TIMBER HANDLING TOOLS.
48.2 TYPES AND USES.
Timber handling tools are used for lifting or moving heavy
objects such as logs or timbers. The timber carrier and the
peavy are the most common examples of timber handling
tools.
Below are examples of how the timber handling tools in this
chapter can be used.
48.4.1 Using a Timber Carrier.
48.2.1 Timber Carrier.
The timber carrier consists of a pair of large chisel-bill hooks
with sharp, pointed ends. These hooks are hung by pivots in
the center of a large wooden handle, four feet in length. The
timber carrier is used to lift logs and timbers from one lever to
another as well as carry them.
48.2.2 Peavy.
Lifting and moving heavy log with timber carriers.
48-1
TO 32-1-101
48.4.2 Using A Peavy.
48.5 CARE OF TIMBER HANDLING TOOLS.
1. Keep the points on both tools sharp by filing when
points are even slightly dulled.
2. Oil the rustable metal portions of these tools on occasion to maintain their good condition.
3. Inspect the pivots on the timber carrier to insure they are
tight.
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal
injury, properly dispose of all cleaning rags in noncombustible containers.
Lifting and moving heavy log with peavies.
4. Coat the handles occasionally with linseed oil to prevent
drying out.
5. Replace defective or damaged handles immediately.
48-2
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 49
CLIMBING TOOLS
49.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
49.2 TYPES AND USES.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 49.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of climbing tools. These pages should help
you select the right climbing tool to do the job. Using Climbing Tools, Paragraph 49.4, tells you how to use climbing tools
to perform the desired function. Care of Climbing Tools, Paragraph 49.5, tells you how to care for the item.
Climbing tools consist of safety belts (1), safety straps (2), and
leg irons with spurs (3). Climbing tools are used for scaling
poles and trees, erecting power lines, and for support when
clearing and topping trees.
49.2.1 Safety Belt.
The safety belt is an adjustable leather belt that has loops in
which to carry tools. It also has two D-rings (1) attached to
hold the safety strap.
49-1
TO 32-1-101
49.2.2 Safety Strap.
5. Never use a safety belt or safety strap with broken, bent
or badly worn rings or fasteners.
49.4 USING CLIMBING TOOLS.
The safety strap is a leather strap with metal snap hooks on
each end. These hooks attach to the D-rings on the safety belt.
49.2.3 Leg Irons.
1. Secure safety belt (1) around waist and place tools
needed in position on belt.
The leg irons (1) are often called tree and pole climbers. They
consist of flattened metal bars, curved at one end to fit under
the foot arch, and with the straight portion along the inside of
the lower leg. Leather straps (2) secure the irons to the leg and
ankle.
49.3 SAFETY.
1. Always inspect climbing tools thoroughly before using
them.
2. Never climb without using a safety strap.
3. When climbing, insure that the spurs are securely driven
into the wood at each stop.
4. Do not use any belt or strap that is cracked or dried-out.
2. Strap the leg irons (2) to the legs and feet.
49-2
TO 32-1-101
4. Begin the climb by driving one leg iron gaff (6) into the
pole so the gaff has a solid hold.
3. Snap the safety strap (3) to one D-ring (4) on the belt,
pass the strap around the pole to be climbed, and snap
the other end of the safety strap to the other D-ring (5).
5. Place your weight on the embedded gaff and drive the
other gaff into the pole a little higher than the first.
Before placing your weight on the strap, look to see
that the snap and D-ring are properly engaged. Do not
rely on the click of the snap-tongue as an indication
that the fastening is secure.
6. Begin the climb using the procedure outlined in step 5.
7. While climbing, lean your body away from the pole to
prevent the safety strap from slipping.
49-3
TO 32-1-101
8. Keep both hands on the pole until the safety strap needs
moving.
10. When desired height is reached, sink both gaffs into the
pole at the same level.
9. With both gaffs firmly embedded in the pole, slide the
safety strap up the pole.
11. Lean back with the safety strap around the pole slightly
higher than the safety belt. Hold this position while
working.
49.5 CARE OF CLIMBING TOOLS.
1. Keep leather items soft and supple by occasionally
applying neat’s foot oil.
2. Examine all stitching frequently and repair immediately
if needed.
3. Inspect D-rings on the safety belt and snap-hooks of the
safety strap frequently.
4. Keep spurs sharp by filing after use.
5. Store leather parts away from extreme heat.
6. Oil all metal parts before storing.
7. Lay metal leg irons away so spur points will not be
damaged by coming in contact with other tools.
49-4
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 50
PLANES
50.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
50.2.1 Block Plane.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 50.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of planes. These pages should help you
select the right plane to do the job. Using, Paragraph 50.4, tells
you how to use planes to perform the desired function. Care of
Planes, Paragraph 50.6, tells you how to care for the item.
The block plane is the smallest type of plane. It is available in
a variety of patterns and is designed to cut end grain with the
cutting blade set between 12 degrees and 20 degrees.
Although it can usually be used with one hand, a toe knob is
provided when additional pressure is needed.
50.2.2 Bench Plane.
50.2 TYPES AND USES.
Planes are smoothing tools used to true edges or surfaces of
wood. Planes also are used where a finished surface or closefitting joints are required. Planes vary in size and shape, but
each is designed for a specific purpose. The two types of
planes most generally used are the block plane and bench
plane.
One of the most common types of bench planes is the jack
plane. Like all bench planes, the jack plane is designed for
cutting with the grain of the wood. Its cutting blade is set at
approximately 45 degrees and is used for all purpose planing
or to cut lumber to specified lengths.
50.3 SAFETY.
1. Be careful to plane work smoothly to avoid splinters
that may be left to cause injury.
2. Use each plane only for the job it is intended.
3. Keep all cutting tools in good condition.
50-1
TO 32-1-101
4. Do not allow tools to lie around work areas in such a
position that they may cause injury to others.
5. Before using, inspect the tool for damage or other
defects. Repair or replace immediately if required.
50.4 USING THE BLOCK PLANE.
4. Push along the length of the board with a steady, even
stroke.
NOTE
Plane from either end to prevent the grain splitting or
plane a chamfer on the far end first, as shown.
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
1. Secure work with a vise or with clamps to prevent slippage.
2. Ensure that the cutting blade is extremely sharp and set
to produce a fine cut.
5. Raise the plane from the work after each stroke and
return to the starting point.
6. Repeat the process until the task is complete.
50.5 USING THE BENCH PLANE.
3. Place the plane on the edge of board with the plane
pointing across the grain.
Wear eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
1. Secure work with a vise or with clamps to prevent slippage.
2. Make sure the plane is sharp and properly adjusted
before using.
50-2
TO 32-1-101
3. Place the plane on the board with the right hand on the
handle and the left hand on the knob.
NOTE
5. Push with a steady, even stroke along the length of the
board.
6. Raise the plane and return to the starting point after each
stroke.
Reverse the position of the hands if left-handed.
7. Repeat the process until the task is completed.
4. Check to insure the plane is placed on the work so that
the wood grain points in the direction the plane will go.
50.6 CARE OF PLANES.
1. Place the plane on its side to protect cutting edge when
not in use.
2. Keep the cutting edge sharp and free of nicks.
3. Cover all metal parts with light oil to prevent rusting.
4. For storage, withdraw the cutting edge into the mouth of
the plane.
50-3/(50-4 blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 51
DIGGING TOOLS
51.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
51.2.2 D-Handled Shovel.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 51.2, provides you with a list of
some of the types of digging tools. These pages should help
you select the right digging tool to do the job. Using, Paragraph 51.4, tells you how to use digging tools to perform the
desired function. Care and Cleaning of Digging Tools, Paragraph 51.7, tells you how to care for the item.
The D-handled shovel resembles the long-handled shovel
except that. it has a shorter handle with a D-shaped handgrip
at the end. The D-handled shovel is used for fight work or for
digging in cramped, tight places.
51.2.3 Spade.
51.2 TYPES AND USES.
Digging tools are designed for the breaking and digging of
soil. Common types of digging tools are the long-handled and
D-handled shovel, spade, posthole digger, and auger.
51.2.1 Long-Handled Shovel.
The spade, like the shovel, has a steel blade a wooden handle.
The blade may be rounded, pointed or square in shape and the
handle may have the D or T-shaped handgrip. The spade is
used for heavy digging or in confined areas.
51.2.4 Posthole Auger.
The long-handled shovel consists of a curved, shaped steel
blade attached to a long wooden handle. The lower metal edge
of the blade is tapered to help it cut into the ground. The longhandled shovel is used for heavy digging, especially when it is
necessary to throw or move dirt a substantial distance.
51-1
TO 32-1-101
The posthole auger is a long tool made up of a steel shaft that
has two shovel-like blades at one end. The blades have curved
faces which are hinged to permit slight movement with the
concave surfaces of these blades facing each other. The posthole auger is used to bore holes in the ground for posts, poles
and explosive charges.
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
51.2.5 Posthole Digger.
The posthole digger has two concave blades similar to the
posthole auger except that each blade is fastened to a long,
wooden handle. The blades are hinged at the top so that separating the handles will close them and moving the handles
together will open them. Like the auger, the posthole digger is
used to bore holes in the ground for posts, explosive charges
and similar jobs.
1. Hold one hand at the end of the handle, with the other
hand a few inches below it.
2. Press the blade into the ground. Use the foot on top of
the blade for extra force if necessary.
3. With shovel embedded in soil, push the handle downward and pull back slightly to break the dirt loose.
51.3 SAFETY.
1. Do not use a dull or defective tool.
2. Before swinging a tool, always be sure no one is close
enough to be injured.
3. Store tools properly when not in use. Carelessly stored
tools can cause injuries.
4. Use tools correctly so that you and everyone in the
vicinity is protected from injury.
5. Do not use a tool not designed for the job.
51.4 USING THE LONG-HANDLED SHOVEL.
51-2
4. Slide one hand near enough to the shovel blade to raise
the weight of the blade and dirt, holding the handle
down with the other hand.
TO 32-1-101
51.5 USING THE SPADE.
51.6 USING THE POSTHOLE DIGGER.
Wear proper eye protection when working where flying particles may cause eye injury.
1. Drive the posthole digger into the spot where the hole is
to be dug.
2. Hold the handles slightly separated near the top, and
bring the blades down sharply into the soil by force of
the arms.
1. Hold the handle upright gripping with both hands and
push the blade into the ground with foot.
2. With the blade in the ground, push the handle downward
and pull back to break the dirt loose.
3. Slide one hand near enough to the blade to raise the
weight of the blade and the dirt.
51-3
TO 32-1-101
3. Pull the handles apart to grasp the earth out of the hole
and lift digger out of hole.
3. Store all digging tools in their proper places when not in
use.
4. Continue the process until the hole is the required size
and depth.
4. Replace defective handles immediately.
51.7 CARE AND CLEANING OF DIGGING TOOLS.
1. Tools should be cleaned often after each use and metal
parts oiled before storing.
2. Never use a tool other than for the job it was intended.
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal
injury, properly dispose of all cleaning rags in noncombustible containers.
5. Treat wooden handles occasionally with linseed oil to
prevent drying out or splintering.
51-4
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 52
ELECTRICAL POWER TOOLS
52.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 52.2, provides you with a list of
the electrical power tools found in the pioneer tool outfit.
These pages should help you select the right power tool for the
job. Using, Paragraph 52.4, tells you how to best use these
tools. By becoming familiar with these procedures, you will
build a good background for further skill development in the
use of power tools. Care of Electric Power Tools, Paragraph
52.10, tells you how to keep your power tools in proper working condition. Safety, Paragraph 52.3, tells you how to use
your power tools safely and wisely.
52.2 TYPES AND USES.
Portable electric power tools are designed for a wide variety of
uses including construction, tree cutting, bridging, or tree
clearing. Electric power tools increase production and reduce
time and manpower. Although there are many varieties of
electric power tools, only those tools contained in the pioneer
tool outfit will be covered in this chapter. They are the electric
drill (1), hammer (2), impact wrench (3), circular saw (4),
chain saw (5), sander (6), and accessories for these tools. For
additional information on power tools not covered in this
chapter, refer to FM 9-24.
52-1
TO 32-1-101
52.2.1 Portable Electric Drill.
The portable electric drill is basically an electric motor in a
metal housing (1). The housing is fitted with a “chuck” (2)
into which a bit (3) or other attachment can be inserted. The
portable electric drill, although varying in size and design,
usually has either a spade or pistol-grip handle (4). The portable electric drill is basically designed for drilling. However, by
adding various accessories it can be adapted for different jobs.
Sanding, sawing, buffing, and polishing are examples of possible uses.
52.2.2 Portable Electric Hammer.
The portable electric hammer consists of a metal housing (1)
with a spade or pistol-grip handle (2). A strong spring inside
the housing moves a steel piston back and forth in a pounding
motion. The housing muzzle (3) is designed to hold a variety
of bits (4) which give the electric hammer great versatility.
52-2
TO 32-1-101
Examples of possible uses for this tool are beveling, caulking,
pounding, digging, and breaking operations.
52.2.3 Portable Electric Impact Wrench.
blade (3). The trigger switch (4) is built into the handle. Saws
vary in size and design depending on the nature of the task.
There are many applications for this tool. Typical uses would
be cutting studding to length, cutting off end boards, preparing
trim, or ripping boards and planks.
52.2.5 Portable Electric Chain Saw.
The portable electric impact wrench consists of a pistol-grip
handle (1) on a metal housing (2) which contains a motor that
energizes the driving-anvil inside the muzzle of the housing.
Attachments (3) are fastened to the driving-anvil by snapping
them onto the socket retainer (4). The portable electric wrench
with its accompanying equipment is primarily intended for
applying and removing nuts, bolts, and screws. It may also be
used to drill and tap wood, metal, plastics, etc., and to drive
and remove socket head or self-tapping screws.
The electrically driven chain saw is a portable power saw with
the teeth (1) arranged on a flexible steel chain-like belt (2). It
has a pistol-like grip (3) and bar frame (4) above the motor
housing (5) for holding and guiding. Unlike the gasoline-powered chain saw, the electric chain saw is designed for lighter
work such as tree trimming and cutting small logs and timber.
52.2.6 Portable Electric Disk Sander.
52.2.4 Portable Electric Circular Saw.
The portable electric circular saw consists of a sturdy motor in
a metal housing (1), a pistol-grip handle (2), and a circular saw
The portable electric disk sander is an electrically driven tool
with a spindle (1) at the front end for holding circular attachments (2). Various types of attachments can be fastened to the
end of the projecting spindle. The rear end of the sander’s
housing tapers to form a guiding handle (3). To provide addi52-3
TO 32-1-101
tional control, a second handle (4) is attached to the side of the
housing. The portable electric disk sander with its many
attachments can be used for a variety of tasks. Heavy-duty
sanding, grinding, wire brushing, buffing, and planing are
some of the possible applications.
b. Clean the bearing surfaces of wheel, flanges and spindle
so that the clamping pressure will be evenly distributed.
52.2.7 Bench Grinders and Oilstones. The bench grinder
is used to sharpen tools, dress screwdrivers, and to shape and
smooth metal stock. Avoid grinding of non-ferrous metals
(brass, copper, aluminum, etc.) on the grinder supplied; special
grinding wheels are required for this purpose.
d. Make sure that the hole in the wheel bushing is the right
size for the spindle. (neither too small nor too large).
c. Check the speed of the spindle to make sure that it is not
running too fast for the type and size of wheel.
e. Use flanges that are recessed and large enough to clamp
the wheel well toward its circumference.
f.
Tighten the spindle end nuts just enough to keep the
wheel from moving out of position between the flanges.
g. Before turning on power, make sure that the wheel runs
true and will strike no obstruction.
Grinding Wheel “Ring” Test
New grinding wheels should be unpacked promptly upon
receipt and should be given the “ring” test for damage suffered.
The bench grinder available at the sites is equipped with two
different types of grinding wheels. One wheel is coarse and is
used for rough grinding, the other is fine and is used for tool
sharpening and finish grinding. These grinders are also
equipped with safety shields and tool rests. The tool rest
should be adjusted so that the space between the grinding
wheel and the tool rest is approximately 1/16 inch, but never
over 1/8 inch.
Flexstones and oilstones can also be used for removing burrs
and rough edges. A further use of the oilstone is the sharpening of tools. Flexstones are not to be used for this purpose.
Mounting Grinding Wheels on Spindles.
The following procedures should be used when grinding
wheels are to be mounted on the spindle.
Give this test also immediately before mounting either a new
or used wheel on the spindle, especially if the wheel has been
in storage for a considerable time.
Most defects in grinding wheels, including flaws and cracks,
are not visible to the naked eye, but the “ring” test readily
discloses them.
Make the test by suspending the wheel free and clear and
tapping it gently with a light wooden implement, such as a
wooden screw driver handle for light wheels, and a wooden
mallet for heavy wheels.
Sound and undamaged wheels will give forth a clear metallic
tone when tapped. If defective there will be no ring.
Wheels bonded with organic material do not give forth the
same clear metallic sound as do verified and silicate wheels.
Any wheel should be dry and free of sawdust when the “ring”
test is given; otherwise the sound will be deadened.
Grinding Suggestions
Listed below are several suggestions that, if followed, will
eliminate machine abuse and provide maximum protection for
the operator:
a. Inspect the wheel for flaws and make the “ring test.”
52-4
a. Wear safety glasses at all times when working near the
grinder, including the period of adjusting guards and
TO 32-1-101
tool rest. Do not remove the glasses until the job is
completed and the machine shut off.
b. Be sure that the wheel guards, tool rests, and shields are
properly positioned before applying power.
c. Stand to the side of the grinder when turning it on.
Allow the machine to run for one minute before engaging the wheel with the work. The turn-on period is the
mostly likely time for a wheel to break.
d. Keep the tool rest as close to the grinding wheel as
possible (approximately 1/16 inch) when using the
grinder; take small cuts with moderate pressure.
e. Never use a glazed, worn, or uneven wheel; replace it.
f.
Eye protection must always be used when operating
these tools. A grinding wheel that has a glazed surface, and an uneven wheel should never be used.
Never operate the grinder or attempt any repairs without
having a thorough knowledge of the grinder’s operation.
Portable Rotary Polishers and Grinders.
Portable rotary polishers and/or grinders are either electric or
pneumatic powered types of various speed ranges. Wheels
used on these tools vary from coarse grit for metal removal,
fine grit for paint or rust removal, to soft fabric material for
polishing surfaces.
When mounting wheels on spindles, the following procedures
should be used:
a. Inspect grinding wheels for flaws and make the “ring
test” (Ref. Grinding wheel “Ring” test paragraph.).
b. Clean the bearing surfaces of wheel, flanges and spindle
so that clamping pressure will be evenly distributed.
c. Make sure the hole in the wheel bushing is the right size
for the spindle (neither too small not too large).
d. Use flanges that are recessed and large enough to clamp
the wheel well toward its circumference.
e. Tighten spindle end nuts just enough to keep wheel
from moving out of position between the flanges.
• Pencil type die grinders, designed with a rotary or
a twist throttle control and not a spring or air pressure loaded cut off switch, may be used with cutting tools not greater than 1/8” diameter.
• A hand held polisher or grinder must always be
equipped with an operating switch that is either
spring loaded or air pressure loaded to the cut-off
position to cut-off power when the hand grip is
released. Tools without this equipment should be
discarded.
• Grinding wheels used must always be rated at a
speed equal to or greater than the tool it will be
used on.
• These tools should only be used on objects that are
either massive enough or restrained to prevent
grinding or polishing from moving or throwing the
object. This tool shall never be used to grind or
polish an item that is held by hand.
• These tools will never be equipped with a tool rest,
on bench mounted grinders, but must always be
equipped with a guard that will cover not less than
one half the periphery of the wheel being used.
52.3 SAFETY.
Before operating any power tool, refer to Chapter 2, Section II
for safety guidelines to observe when using these tools.
52-5
TO 32-1-101
52.4 USING THE PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILL.
3. Insert the bit and center the shank in the chuck jaws.
Tighten jaws securely by turning the chuck key clockwise.
4. Remove chuck key and store where key will not get lost.
Before using any electrical tool, always make certain
the tool is equipped with proper grounding features.
Failure to have proper grounding can result in serious
shock.
Always wear proper eye protection when working
where flying particles may cause eye injury.
5. Before drilling, make sure that the work is stationary or
firmly secured.
6. Using a punch or awl, make a small prick point (6) in
the spot where the hole will be made. (This will prevent
the drill bit from bouncing or slipping away from the
spot where the hole is to be drilled.)
1. Select the proper bit (1) required for the task.
NOTE
To turn chuck key in either direction a firm grasp of
the chuck is required.
2. Fit the chuck key (2) into the side adjusting hole
between jaws (3) and chuck (4) and turn the key counterclockwise until the chuck opens enough to admit the
bit shank (5).
7. Connect electric drill (7) to power source. Place the drill
bit on the marked spot and depress trigger switch. Begin
drilling, exerting firm but even pressure to keep the bit
cutting.
8. Withdraw the bit frequently from the work to clean
chips from the bit flutes (8) and to allow the bit to cool.
9. Ease up on the drill pressure as the bit approaches the
other side of the work surface.
52-6
TO 32-1-101
10. After hole is completed, carefully withdraw rotating
drill bit to prevent binding or breaking. Release trigger
switch.
52.5 DRILLS, REAMERS, TAPS, AND COUNTERSINKS.
52.5.1 Introduction. The accurate drilling and reaming of
metals and the tapping of holes depends largely upon the
user’s knowledge of the tools required to perform these functions. If these tools are properly used and cared for, a higher
quality of workmanship will be obtained. This chapter contains information relative to the use and care of these tools.
52.5.2 Twist Drills. Twist drills are the most common tools
used in drilling metal and are made in many different sizes and
lengths. These drills are made of carbon steel or high-speed
alloy steel. Carbon steel drills are used for general drilling
while the alloy steel drills are used for drilling hard metals
such as stainless steel.
52.5.3 Drill Terminology. A twist drill (figure 52-1) is composed of three main parts: point, body, and shank. The point of
a drill is the cone-shaped end (normally 31 degrees) which
does the actual cutting. The body is the center section of the
drill between the point and shank. The cut-out portions of the
body are called flutes. These flutes serve a definite function in
that they cause the metal chip to curl tightly within itself occupying a minimum amount of space, and they also allow lubricants to flow easily down to the cutting edge. The shank of the
drill is the end that fits into the drill chuck.
The actual cutting is done by the cutting lips or edges which
are formed by the intersection of the flutes and the coneshaped point. The dead center of the drill is the edge at the
extreme tip of the point. The dead center should always be in
the exact center of the drill axis. When drills are reground, it is
possible to have the dead center point off center resulting in
one cutting lip doing most of the cutting and placing excessive
strain on the drill. The narrow strip at the edge of each blade is
called the margin. This strip, which extends the entire length
of the flutes, is part of a cylinder interrupted by the flutes. The
actual drill diameter is measured from margin to margin.
Figure 52-1. Drill Terminology
52.5.4 Drill Sizes. The twist drills available at the sites are
designated in two different ways:
a. Fractional Sizes - These drills come in sizes from 1/32
inch to 1/2 inch. The difference between one drill size
and the next larger or smaller size is always 1/64 inch.
52-7
TO 32-1-101
b. Numbered Sizes - These drill sizes vary from No. 1
(0.2280 inches) to No. 80 (0.0135 inches). The smallest
numbered size drill stocked at the sites is No. 60
(00.0400 inches).
If the size number, which is etched on the drill shank, has
worn off, the drill size can be obtained by using a micrometer.
Measure the drill from margin to margin on the drill body near
the shank end. This shank diameter is usually a few ten-thousandths of an inch smaller than the point diameter.
52.5.5 Using the Drill. Prior to performing the job the
proper size drill bit and drill motor must be selected. Tables 3
and 4 in the Appendix list the various drill bits available.
There are two drill motors available at the site. One, a highspeed, 1/4 inch capacity drill motor, is used for general drilling
of light metals; the other, 1/2 inch capacity, is used for drilling
large holes. The motor of the 1/2 inch capacity drill is geared
down to prevent overheating of the drill bit.
The object to be drilled should be held in a vise when possible.
Never attempt to hold the work with your hands. The drill may
catch or jam and start the stock spinning. When this occurs the
stock may fly loose and injure personnel in the immediate
area. When drilling thin sheet stock, back up the stock with a
piece of wood to prevent the stock from being bent out of
shape.
When the location of the desired hole is selected, its should be
center punched. This will aid the drill in starting to cut and
will prevent it from wandering. Turn the drill chuck a few
times by hand before turning on the power to insure that the
drill bit is properly installed. Keep the drill cutting at all times
while in contact with the metal.
52.5.5.1 Removing Rivets. To remove a defective rivet or
to disassemble a unit joined by rivets, use the following procedure:
a. Select a twist drill equal in size or smaller than the rivet
shank.
b. Drill into the exact center of the head to a depth equal to
the head thickness.
c. Insert a pin punch in the hole and pry off the rivet head.
d. Drive the rivet shank out of the metal with a pin punch.
52.5.5.2 Drilling Safety Practices. A misused drill can
result in personal injury. When performing a drilling operation, the following safety precautions should be adhered to:
a. Be sure that the drill selected is of the proper size, free
of rust, and that the flutes are clean.
b. Keep the drill bit tight in the chuck.
c. Be sure that the drill motor switch is off when inserting
the line cord into the receptacle.
d. Never use a bent drill.
e. Be certain that the cutting edges and point are not
dulled.
f.
Be sure that the metal stock is properly secured.
g. Always wear safety glasses.
h. Turn off the drill motor before laying it down.
A steady and uniform pressure should be applied at all times
to insure continuous cutting. The drill will become excessively
hot if permitted to turn on the metal without cutting. When the
drill point is about ready to break through the metal, ease up
on the pressure. This point is noted by the difference in pressure and cutting feel. Don’t permit the drill to project through
the hole. When the hole is complete, remove the drill immediately by pulling it back as it continues to turn in a clockwise
direction.
A drilled hole will often have rough edges or burrs on both
surfaces. To remove these, select a drill bit twice the size of
the hole and hand rotate the point against the burrs. When
possible insert the drill bit in a file handle when performing
this job. Be careful not to de-burr the hole too much. The hole
should be a true cylinder and not counter-sunk.
When the hole to be drilled is large, a pilot or guide hole
should be drilled first. This small hole will help guide the
larger drill and will also prevent the larger drill from wandering across the metal.
52-8
52.5.6 Countersinks. Countersinks are used to bevel the end
of drilled holes to fit screw and bolt heads of the countersink
type. The countersink stocked at the sites is equipped with a
micrometer adjustment (adjustable to 0.001-inch) and a stop
pin that prevents the countersink from cutting deeper than the
desired depth. The micrometer adjustment of this tool is calibrated and operates identically to the micrometer caliber
described in paragraph 3.4.5 of TO 32-1-2.
The countersink is designed to hold a variety of sizes of cutting heads, both in 82° and 100° point angles. The reason for
the two different point angles is that, at a site, screws and bolts
are available with two different types of countersunk heads
(figure 52-2). The countersink cutting heads are also designated according to the size of the hole being countersunk,
which is, in effect, the minor diameter of the screw that will be
used. This measurement is the diameter of the countersink
cutter pilot. The purpose of the pilot is to insure that the countersunk hole is concentric with the screw hole.
TO 32-1-101
Figure 52-2. Countersink Angles
The micrometer stop countersink tool and the various cutting
heads are illustrated in TO 32-1-2, figure 5-9.
e. Be sure that the unit is properly secured in the drill
chuck before turning on power.
52.5.6.1 Using the Countersink. The following procedure
is employed when using the countersink: (Figure 52-3).
f.
a. When using the countersinks always wear safety
glasses.
b. Select the desired countersink cutter according to point
angle and pilot size.
Hold the countersink guard in the left hand and the drill
motor in the right hand. Never turn on power without
holding the countersink guard.
g. When possible, countersink a test hole in scrap stock to
insure that the dimensions are correct.
h. Countersink the hole approximately half way, then
remove the tool and check the hole.
c. The countersink unit is then attached to a drill motor.
d. Adjust the micrometer stop to the desired depth. This
will be slightly more than the thickness of the head.
Head thickness measurements for most of the screws
available at the site will be found in the Coded Parts
List.
i.
Countersink the remainder of the hole until the guard
collar rests on the metal.
j.
Examine the finished job to insure that the hole is round
and even and that the screw fits properly.
52-9
TO 32-1-101
Figure 52-3. Countersink Tool
52-10
TO 32-1-101
52.6 USING THE PORTABLE ELECTRIC HAMMER.
1. Select the correct attachment (1) required for the task.
Before using any electrical tool, always make certain
the tool is equipped with proper grounding features.
Failure to have proper grounding can result in serious
shock.
2. Insert attachment into bit retainer (2) and secure in place
with locking collar (3).
Always wear proper eye protection when working
where flying particles can cause eye injury.
The electric hammer produces hazardous noise levels
when in operation. Always wear proper protection to
avoid possible hearing loss.
To prevent unnecessary wear of precision parts and
components, place bit against work surface before
operating switch.
3. Connect hammer (4) to power source and depress handle trigger.
4. Apply only enough pressure to keep the bit in contact
with working surface.
5. Occasionally stop the hammer and clear dust or other
residue from the working surface.
52-11
TO 32-1-101
52.7 USING THE PORTABLE ELECTRIC IMPACT
WRENCH.
4. Start the wrench again making sure the driving anvil is
now rotating in the opposite direction.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 several times to make sure the
wrench is reversing consistently.
Before using any electrical tool, always make certain
the tool is equipped with proper grounding features.
Failure to have proper grounding can result in serious
shock.
6. Disconnect impact wrench from power source.
7. Replace the wrench if it does not perform in the above
manner.
Always wear proper eye protection when working
where flying particles may cause eye injury.
Do not use standard sockets with any impact tool
they can shatter causing serious injury and/or damage
to the equipment.
8. Select the proper attachment (4) and secure it in place
on the driving anvil.
Before start of work make sure impact wrench and its reversible features are functioning properly in the following manner:
1. Connect cord to power source.
2. Depress trigger (1) and note the rotating direction of the
driving anvil (2).
3. Stop the wrench and adjust the ratchet switch (3) to
reverse the direction.
52-12
9. Set the ratchet switch in desired position for anvil rotation required. Reconnect impact wrench to power
source.
TO 32-1-101
The electric circular saw produces high noise levels
when in operation. Always wear proper protection to
avoid possible hearing loss.
Select the proper saw blade for the task and attach as follows:
10. Using both hands, place impact wrench (5) on work
surface (6) and depress trigger.
11. Continue operation until work is completed. Release
trigger to stop wrench.
52.8 USING THE PORTABLE ELECTRIC CIRCULAR
SAW.
Before using any electrical tool, always make certain
the tool is equipped with proper grounding features.
Failure to have proper grounding can result in serious
shock.
1. Make sure power to saw is disconnected.
2. To change saw blades, lock the old blade (1) on the saw
by inserting a punch, screwdriver, nail, etc, in blade hole
(2) provided.
3. Remove the old blade by removing the saw clamp screw
and flange (3), using wrench (4) provided. Turn the
wrench counterclockwise to loosen blade.
Always wear proper eye protection when working
where flying particles may cause eye injury.
52-13
TO 32-1-101
4. Install new saw blade (5) on saw, and make sure teeth
(6) are in the correct cutting direction (upwards toward
saw).
5. Tighten clamp and flange screw by turning wrench
clockwise.
7. Make sure the work (8) to be cut is firmly secured to
prevent slippage or movement.
8. With a marking instrument (9) such as a pencil, pen,
scribe, etc., draw a straight line (10) across the work
surface to act as a guide for the saw blade to follow.
6. Set the saw’s guides (7) to the correct angle and depth of
the cut required.
9. Connect circular saw to power source and place sole
plate (11) on work surface.
The saw blade must be revolving at full speed before
it contacts the work surface.
10. Depress handle trigger (12) to start saw and follow
guideline made in step 8.
11. When cutting, apply firm, steady pressure. Be careful
not to force the saw.
52-14
TO 32-1-101
12. Continue until blade has completed the entire cut.
Release trigger to stop saw.
52.9 USING THE ELECTRIC CHAIN SAW.
Before using any electrical tool, always make certain
the tool is equipped with proper grounding features.
Failure to have proper grounding can result in serious
shock.
1. Make sure power source is disconnected. Before using,
ensure that the chain teeth (1) are in the proper position
(saw should cut in direction of arrow).
2. Check the teeth to make sure they are sharp and undamaged.
Always wear proper eye protection when working
where flying particles may cause eye injury.
3. Ensure that the work (2) is stationary and well secured
to prevent slippage or movement.
The electric chain saw produces high noise levels
when in operation. Always wear proper protection to
avoid possible hearing loss.
4. Connect chain saw to power source.
52-15
TO 32-1-101
Never stand directly behind chain saw.
Always wear proper eye protection when working
where flying particles may cause eye injury.
5. Stand to the left of the saw (3) with your left hand on
the front handle (4) and your right hand on the rear
handle (5).
NOTE
Reverse the position of the stance and hands if lefthanded.
6. With your weight evenly distributed, depress trigger to
start saw.
When cutting, keep the nose of the guide bar from
contacting logs, branches, ground or any other obstruction. This can cause “Kickback” which is a
quick and dangerous upward movement of the guide
bar and saw chain.
The electric sander produces hazardous noise levels
when in operation. Always wear proper protection to
avoid possible hearing loss.
The saw chain should be at maximum speed before
contacting working surface.
7. Cut with the spike bar (6) set firmly against the wood
and apply right pressure.
8. Continue to guide the chain saw through the work until
cut is completed.
Before using any electrical tool, always make certain
the tool is equipped with proper grounding features.
Failure to have proper grounding can result in serious
shock.
52-16
1. Select the proper attachment (1) and secure it to the
spindle (2) by depressing locking button (3) and tightening spindle as shown.
TO 32-1-101
2. Make sure the work surface (4) is secured to prevent
movement.
3. Connect sander to power source. Depress switch (5) on
the sander so that the attachment is turning before placing it on the work surface.
52.10 CARE OF ELECTRIC POWER TOOLS.
In order to achieve and maintain maximum performance, all
electrical power tools must be given proper care. The following is a list of guidelines that will help keep your power tools
in a “ready to use” condition.
1. Keep all power tools, especially the housing intake and
exhaust holes, clear and free of dust and dirt at all times.
Using excessive pressure will slow up the sanding
action, clog the disk, and cause motor to overheat.
4. With one hand on each handle (6) and (7), begin sweeping the sander (8) back and forth across the work surface.
2. Examine power tool cords for exposed loose wires and
for damaged insulation.
3. Wipe power cords frequently to prevent deterioration
from oil or grease.
4. Check cord plugs for loose prongs or cracked casings.
5. During operation, tilt the sander slightly so the entire
disk does not contact the work surface.
5. Never hold or drag electrical tools by the cord at any
time.
6. Brush or clean the sanding dirt from the work surface
frequently.
6. To prevent rusting, apply a light coat of oil to cutting
surfaces of tools.
7. When finished, lift the sander from the work surface
before turning off the switch.
7. Store power tools in properly designated containers
when not is use.
52-17/(52-18 Blank)
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 53
SOLDERING
53.1 INTRODUCTION.
Soldering that will meet Air Force requirements of no more
than 1 error out of each 500,000 soldered connections requires
skilled application and integrity. The success of IBM’s reliability factor may depend on a satisfactory soldered connection. Consider this down-time comparison. The time spent to
find a defective tube, resistor, transformer, or other component
part averages half an hour. Isolating a poor soldered connection can take eight hours or longer.
Solder is one of the oldest and most useful of alloys. Because
of the ease with which it has been used, few people have
bothered to acquire the basic, but necessary, background for
good soldering techniques. Soft solder is a fusible alloy
mainly composed of tin and lead. This alloy makes it possible
to join two or more metals at temperatures well below their
melting point. The solder-to-metal attachment is formed by an
inter-metallic-compound phase which takes place at comparatively low temperatures. The solvent action of hot solder on
copper or steel resembles the action of a few drops of water on
salt. The solder dissolves microscopic particles of the copper
or steel, forming a chemical attachment instead of physical
adhesion. Therefore, heating the soft flexible solder during the
soldering act causes a chemical change to take place which
results in a hard metal alloy. Thus when two or more pieces of
metal are soldered together, a joint is formed which acts like
one continuous piece of metal. (This is not true of a pure
physical connection, such as a bolt or spring, because a layer
of oxides always remains between the surfaces.) In addition,
the solder alloy withstands the stress and strain of the temperature changes without rupture of the joint.
The primary purpose of a soldered joint is to achieve an airtight metallic connection by means of a film of solder alloy,
varying in thickness from 0.002 to 0.004 inch between the
metal parts; i.e., wire and terminal. When such a connection
has been made, it is a waste of time and material to add solder
just to improve its appearance; the electrical conductivity has
been established with the original bond and will be unaffected
by the addition of solder.
53.2 SOLDERING TOOLS.
Soldering tools are illustrated in Figure 53-1. Five different
soldering irons with interchangeable tips, transformers (6.3
VAC), heat shunts, soldering iron holders, soldering aids, and
an electric solder pot comprise the soldering tools stocked at
field locations. The 6.3 VAC soldering irons are to be used
with the available transformer which has four wattage taps:
26, 29, 32, and 35. Always use the lowest wattage necessary
for the work. In most cases 26 watts will be sufficient for
electrical soldering.
The interchangeable copper tips are coated with iron, 0.008
inch thick, to reduce scaling and wear caused by tin-copper
alloying. The tip is pretinned by dipping into pure tin. These
tips should never be filed. To clean the tip and remove oxidation wipe it with a cleaning pad.
The heat shunt is proved for use when working with delicate
precision components such as transistors, diodes, miniature
capacitors, and chokes. The excessive heat of the soldering
iron will damage the component if the heat shunt, which dissipates heat, is not used.
53.3 BASIC SOLDERING TECHNIQUES.
The following general rules, while not all-inclusive, are applicable to the majority of soldering work to be performed.
53.3.1 Temperatures. When soldering with rosin core solder, temperatures in excess of 600°F must be avoided or the
rosin will tend to carbonize and hinder rather than aid the
soldering operation. Efficient soldering is promoted by using a
soldering iron with adequate heat storage capacity. Such a
device will maintain proper operating temperature in use. No
attempt to solder must be made by heating an undersize or
otherwise inadequate soldering iron to excessive temperature.
53-1
TO 32-1-101
Figure 53-1. Soldering Tools and Accessories (Sheet 1 of 4)
53-2
TO 32-1-101
Figure 53-1. Soldering Tools and Accessories (Sheet 2)
53-3
TO 32-1-101
Figure 53-1. Soldering Tools and Accessories (Sheet 3)
53-4
TO 32-1-101
Figure 53-1. Soldering Tools and Accessories (Sheet 4)
53.3.2 Heating. The surfaces of the parts to be joined must
be heated to a temperature above the flow temperature of the
solder (400-600°F for 60/40 flux cored solder). The joint will
reach this temperature in less than 30 seconds. The more massive portion of the joint should be heated first, allowing the
heat to be conducted to the less massive portion. Heat may be
applied by soldering iron, molten alloy bath, or other suitable
means. When using cored wire solder, the end should be kept
open. To be effective, the flux must flow before the solder
melts when touched to the joint. Flux core solder should never
be flowed from the soldering iron to the joint (Figure 53-2).
The application of heat should be carefully controlled during
the soldering operation to prevent damage to other components of an assembly, such as fabric and insulation material.
NOTE
When working on vertical terminals, tin only one surface of the iron to restrict solder flow to that side.
53.3.3 Cooling. Liquids are not to be used to cool a soldered joint. By using proper solder and soldering techniques a
joint will not become so hot that it needs rapid cooling to
prevent the wire insulation from charing. In special cases
involving assemblies with polystyrene or other low melting
point insulation, the insulation may be placed in a cooling
bath. However, in no case should the cooling medium contact
the soldered joint.
53.3.4 Copper Bit Soldering Irons. The heat transmitting
ability of copper-bit-soldering irons is seriously impaired by
the formation of oxides on the bit surface. The formation of
such oxides can be effectively retarded by maintaining a liberal coating of solder on the surface of the bit.
Plated tips resist corrosion and last longer because the plating,
unlike copper, is not affected chemically by solder. These tips
should not be filed or ground on the bench grinder. If cleaning
is required, the point of the iron should be dipped in flux and
retinned.
53-5
TO 32-1-101
Figure 53-2. Using the Soldering Iron
53.3.5 Flux Residue Removal. After the joint has cooled,
the residues from active fluxes can be completely removed or
neutralized using Methylene Choride, part No. 3034905 or
Tecsolv 928, part No. 3034686.
a. Safety glasses or appropriate eye protection must be
worn while soldering.
b. The soldering iron should be placed in the holder when
not being used.
53.4 SOLDERING SAFETY PRACTICES.
The following safety practices shall be observed when soldering:
c. Never try to remove solder from the iron by flicking the
iron. This can put solder in the eyes and on clothes; it
can also put a short in equipment. Use the cleaning pad
provided.
d. Be careful to pick the iron up by the handle. Never point
with the iron or use it as a tool to straighten terminals.
Soldering may result in the emission of hazardous
metallic fumes and vapors from fluxes used. Workers
should position themselves so as to not directly inhale
the fumes or vapors. Local conditions may be evaluated by the Bioenvironmental Engineer. This warning
could prevent possible injury to personnel if they
comply.
53-6
e. Unplug the iron if it is not to be used for a period of
time.
f.
When returning the soldering iron to stock, be sure that
all excess solder is removed. It is a good practice to
loosen the tip of the iron when not in use: this prevents
the tip from corroding tight on the handle.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 54
PAINT APPLICATION
54.1 INTRODUCTION.
The application of paint to metallic sections of the SAGE
Computer does not affect the usability or operation of the
equipment. However, it does protect the equipment from corrosion, aids in keeping the equipment clean, protects newly
stamped information, and creates a pleasant working atmosphere.
To insure that all painting accomplished at the sites meets high
quality workmanship standards, the proper method of paint
application (both brush and spray) will be explained in this
chapter.
54.2 PRE-TREATMENT.
Whenever it is necessary to apply paint to a metallic surface
that was not previously painted, or to painted surfaces which
contain areas of bare metal (chips, mars, etc.), the metal must
be pretreated to prevent corrosion and to insure a good bond
between the finish paint and the metal. The method and type
of metal being painted and its condition. This information is
available in the paint specifications contained in FED 256.
54.3 BRUSH PAINTING.
Under normal conditions, brush painting will only be used
when the area to be painted is very large. Most touch up work
will be done by spray painting. The procedure to use when
brush painting is as follows:
a. Clean the metal to be painted, using approved cleaning
agents. All grease, rust, etc., must be removed. Corroded areas can be shaped using 220 grit or coarser sand
paper.
b. Apply one coat of zinc chromate primer (part No.
3034741). Allow to dry.
c. Apply paste filler (part No. 3034740) where required
and allow it to dry.
d. Sand filled areas if required. (Use a fine grit sandpaper.
Preferably 240 or 600 grit.)
e. Apply one coat of grey primer sealer (part No. 3034742)
and allow it to dry.
f.
Apply the final coat of the desired color. First brush in
one direction, then finish by brushing in a direction 90
degrees from the first application. It is better to apply
two thin coats, 90 degrees from each other, than one
heavy coat.
NOTE
Drying time can be accelerated by using the infrared
lamp, part No. 3034800.
54.3.1 Care of Paintbrushes. A paintbrush is made up of
three parts: handle, ferrule, and bristles. The ferrule is the
metal band holding the bristles in place and to the handle. The
heel of the bristles is the portion of the bristles adjacent to the
ferrule.
To keep a brush in good shape, clean paint or enamel from it
after each use. Work it out turpentine or its equivalent. In
doing this, avoid pressing the brush down edgeways on the
bristles as this will force them out of shape. Work the solvent
well into the heel. To remove paint clinging to the bristles., lay
the brush flat on a board and scrape the bristles carefully with
a blunt knife. Work the solvent in again and scrub out the
loose paint, working from the ferrule toward the tip of the
brush. Rinse again in thinner and rinse out as much as possible. Never use paint remover as it will ruin a brush.
54.4 SPRAY PAINTING.
Spray painting is perhaps the most convenient method of
applying paint to any given surface. There are no brushes to
clean and no paint to mix or stir. Just a shake of the aerosol
can and the pressing of the paint release button accomplishes
the painting task. To better understand how to use a spray
paint, a brief description of its operation is necessary.
54.4.1 Aerosol Can Operation. Spray cans (Figure 54-1)
contain about 50 percent paint; the remainder of the contents
is a liquid gas. This liquid gas is mixed with the paint and is
the propellant that forces the paint from the can.
54-1
TO 32-1-101
Figure 54-1. Aerosol Spray Can
54.4.2 Using Aerosol Paint. Prior to using a spray paint,
always read the manufacturer’s instructions which will usually
provide all the information necessary. To assure even color
and a smooth spray, shake the can to mix the paint. The majority of spray cans contain several steel balls that, when agitated,
mix the paint. A good indication of complete mixing of the
paint is the sound of the steel balls moving freely within the
can. If the paint is not completely mixed, the sound will be
somewhat muffled. When the paint is first removed from
stock, continue to agitate the can for a few minutes after hearing the steel balls to insure a complete mixture of the pigment.
Before spraying the desired surface, spray some paint on a
piece of paper or scrap material. A can that has been standing
for a period of time may give an intermittent spray for a short
period of time before operating smoothly. Hold the spray can
as parallel to the work as possible at a distance of approximately 12 inches. Move the spray across the area to be painted
triggering the spray as it approaches the near end of the area to
be painted and releasing the pushbutton as it passes beyond
the far edge of the work. With the majority of paints it is best
to apply two thin coats rather than one heavy coat. However,
54-2
wrinkle paints must be applied in one coat. This coat must be
heavy enough to cover the area and still not sag or run.
If there is paint in the can but only gas is released when the
spray is triggered, it is possible that the can is being held in
such a position that the paint supply tube is positioned incorrectly. To correct this, attempt to hold the can in a more vertical position or if this is not possible rotate the spray valve a
slight amount. This will rotate the supply tube into the paint.
When the job is complete, clean the spray nozzle before
returning the can to stock. This is accomplished by inverting
the can and depressing the pushbutton until only gas is emitted
from the spray nozzle.
Often the area to be painted is adjacent to a component or
some surface that should not be painted. These areas should be
covered before painting. A method of controlling what is
painted is to use a piece of cardboard with a hole cut into it a
little larger than the area to be painted. Hold the card a few
inches from the surface and spray through the hole in the card.
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 55
MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS
55.1 HOW TO CHOOSE AND USE THEM.
55.2.3 Miner’s Spoon.
Types and Uses, Paragraph 55.2 provides you with a list of
some of the types of miscellaneous tools. These pages should
help you select the right miscellaneous tool to do the job.
Using, Paragraph 55.4, tells you how to use these various tools
to perform the desired function. Care of Miscellaneous Tools,
Paragraph 55.7, tells you how to care for the item.
The miner’s spoon is used to lift material out of narrow deep
holes, in order to clear for further drilling or to permit placing
of explosive charges. The miner’s spoon is a slender metal rod
with the ends forged into small bowl-shaped projections at
right angles to the rod.
55.2.4 Blocks.
55.2 TYPES AND USES.
55.2.1 Cement Trowel.
The cement trowel is a flat rectangular blade fastened by a
metal strap and shank to a wooden handle. It is used in concrete work for leveling, smoothing, or pushing wet cement
into place.
55.2.2 Brick Trowel.
This type of trowel has a pointed flat blade at one end, and a
steel shank that attaches to a wooden handle at the other. The
brick trowel is used to scoop and spread mortar.
Blocks are used in combination with rope and wire to hoist
and move loads. The block consists of a metal shell which
55-1
TO 32-1-101
supports both ends of a pin. The shell also houses a grooved
pulley that revolves on the pin. Attached at one end of the first
block is a freely revolving hook. Blocks may be classified as
single, double, triple, etc. according to the number of pulleys
housed in the shell of the block. Depending on the various
combinations of blocks available to do the job, the mechanical
advantage can be increased indefinitely.
55.2.7 Cable Jaw Grip.
55.2.5 Trip Wire Grapnel.
The cable jaw grip is used to tighten or stretch wires or cables
for various operations. Examples of application include
removing kinks or bends in cables, tightening cables on loads
or bales, or for cleaning and oiling of cables. Cable grips,
depending on their application, vary in size and design.
The trip wire grapnel is a metal weight resembling three or
four fish hooks, with a common shank ending in an eye. The
hooks spread out in different directions at the other end of the
shank. Attached to the eye portion of the shank is a marlin
cord of varying length. The grapnel is used to trip wires
designed to go off on contact, to find booby traps, or to detonate mines.
55.2.8 Tension Puller.
55.2.6 Chain Assembly.
Like the cable jaw grip, the tension puller is used to tighten or
stretch cables. The tension puller has strong cable (1) attached
to a cable notch gear (2). At the end of the cable is a hook (3).
This hook (3) can be attached to the eyelet of the cable to be
tightened. Tension is then applied to the cable by moving the
tension handle (4) in an up and down motion.
The chain assembly is a heavy duty linked chain with a grab
hook at one end and a ring at the other. The chain assembly is
used for such applications as towing vehicles, slinging loads,
and hauling objects. The chain assembly is available in a wide
variety of lengths and link sizes depending on the nature of the
use.
55.3 SAFETY.
1. Wash brick trowel, thoroughly wash all mix dust from
skin, and remove dusty clothing when finished. Dust
ingredients can burn the skin or cause eye injury.
2. When using the tension puller, be sure the hook (or
hooks) is of correct size to hold the cable snugly.
3. When swinging the trip wire grapnel, hold the rotating
tool at a safe distance from the arm.
55-2
TO 32-1-101
4. Be sure tackle used with blocks is safe and meets lifting
requirements.
4. Hold the edge of the blade over the center of the work
surface.
5. Use each tool only for its designated purpose.
55.4 USING THE BRICK TROWEL.
5. Move the trowel steadily backward, tilting it to slide the
mortar gradually from the blade (3), leaving an even bed
of mortar on the work surface.
1. Hold the trowel with thumb on top of handle (1) for
balance and control.
6. Cut off excess mortar after each application by holding
the trowel blade (3) slightly angled against the work
surface and moving forward.
NOTE
2. Slice off a trowel load of mortar (2).
Excess mortar should be returned to mortar board or
applied to any gaps or uneven areas in the mortar
bed.
3. Slide the trowel under the mortar, seating it firmly on
the blade (3) with a slight jerk of the wrist.
7. To allow enough movement to position bricks, groove
the mortar bed with the point (4) of the trowel.
55-3
TO 32-1-101
8. Using the trowel, coat the brick ends (5) with mortar
before laying them in place.
10. Lay enough bricks to cover the mortar bed and tap into
line using a builder’s level (6).
55.5 USING THE BLOCK.
9. Cut off any excess mortar.
1. Secure one end of the rope or ropes to the load (1) to be
moved.
2. Pass the other end of the rope over the pulley (2) of the
block attached to some type of solid support.
55-4
TO 32-1-101
3. Apply the necessary manpower to the end of the rope to
lift the load.
3. Hold the jaws (2) together over cable (1). Apply pressure with tension puller handle (6).
55.6 USING THE CABLE JAW GRIP AND TENSION
PULLER.
4. Apply pressure until cable (1) is stretched to make the
jaws (2) hold the cable firmly.
5. Continue pressure using handle of tension puller (6)
until desired pressure is reached.
55.7 CARE OF MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS.
1. Clean all tools thoroughly after using.
2. Store tools in approved area to prevent damage.
3. Oil all rustable parts of tools before storing.
1. Place end of cable (1) between jaws (2) of cable jaw
grip (3) (from jaw end of tool).
Linseed oil is a flammable liquid. To avoid personal
injury, properly dispose of all cleaning rags in noncombustible containers.
4. Prevent wooden parts of tools from drying out by applying linseed oil occasionally.
5. Do not use a brick trowel to pry bricks or rocks loose.
2. Fasten eye (4) to tension puller hook (5).
6. Never oil pulley grooves.
7. Inspect tools frequently, especially pins in blocks.
8. Never use a damaged chain assembly. Replace damaged
chain links promptly.
9. Always use the proper size and design of cable jaw
grips for each task. Using the wrong size or style can be
dangerous.
55-5
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-1. Decimal Equivalent Chart
55-6
1/64____
0.0156
33/64____
0.5156
1/32_____________
0.0313
17/32_____________
0.5313
3/64____
0.0469
33/64____
0.5469
1/16________________________
0.0625
9/16________________________
0.5625
5/64____
0.0781
37/64____
0.5781
3/32_____________
0.0938
19/32_____________
0.5938
7/64____
0.1094
39/64____
0.6094
1/8_________________________
0.1250
5/8________________________
0.6250
9/64____
0.1406
41/64____
0.6406
5/32_____________
0.1563
21/32_____________
0.6563
11/64____
0.1719
43/64____
0.6719
3/16________________________
0.1875
11/16________________________
0.6875
13/64____
0.2031
45/64____
0.7031
7/32_____________
0.2188
23/32_____________
0.7188
15/64____
0.2344
47/64____
0.7344
1/4________________________
0.2500
3/4________________________
0.7500
17/64____
0.2656
49/64____
0.7656
9/32_____________
0.2813
25/32_____________
0.7813
19/64____
0.2969
51/64____
0.7969
5/16________________________
0.3125
13/16________________________
0.8125
21/64____
0.3281
53/64____
0.8281
11/32_____________
0.3438
27/32_____________
0.8438
23/64____
0.3594
55/64____
0.8594
3/8________________________
0.3750
7/8________________________
0.8750
25/64____
0.3906
57/64____
0.8906
13/32_____________
0.4063
29/32_____________
0.9063
27/64____
0.4219
59/64____
0.9219
7/16________________________
0.4375
15/16________________________
0.9375
29/64____
0.4531
61/64____
0.9531
15/32_____________
0.4688
31/32_____________
0.9688
31/64____
0.4844
63/64____
0.9844
1/2________________________
0.5000
1________________________
1.0000
Table 55-2. A.S.M.E. Standard Screws and American Wire Gauge
SCREWS
Outside
Diameter (inches)
Number
Threads
Per inch
Gauge#
WIRE
Diameter
Gauge#
Diameter
0.060
80
6/0
0.5800
16
0.0508
1
0.073
72, 64
5/0
0.5164
17
0.0452
2
0.086
64, 56
4/0
0.4600
18
0.0403
3
0.099
56, 48
3/0
0.4096
19
0.0359
4
0.112
48, 40, 36
2/0
0.3648
20
0.0319
5
0.125
44, 40, 36
1/0
0.3249
21
0.0284
6
0.138
40, 36, 32
1
0.2893
22
0.0253
7
0.151
36, 32
2
0.2576
23
0.0225
8
0.164
36, 32, 30
3
0.2294
24
0.0201
9
0.177
32, 30, 24
4
0.2043
25
0.0179
10
0.190
32, 24
5
0.1819
26
0.0159
12
0.216
28, 24
6
0.1620
27
0.0142
1/4
0.250
28, 20
7
0.1443
28
0.0126
5/16
0.313
24, 18
8
0.1285
29
0.0112
3/8
0.375
24, 16
9
0.1144
30
0.0100
7/16
0.438
20, 14
10
0.1019
31
0.0089
1/2
0.500
20, 12
11
0.0907
32
0.0079
12
0.0808
33
0.0071
13
0.0719
34
0.0063
14
0.0640
35
0.0056
15
0.0570
36
0.0050
55-7
TO 32-1-101
0
Drill
No.
Diameter
in inches
IBM Part
Number
Drill
No.
Diameter
in inches
IBM Part
Number
Drill
No.
Diameter
in inches
IBM Part
Number
1
0.2280
3287641
21
0.1590
3287661
41
0.0960
3287681
2
0.2210
3287642
22
0.1570
3287662
42
0.0935
3287682
3
0.2130
3287643
23
0.1540
3287663
43
0.0890
3287683
4
0.2090
3287644
24
0.1520
3287664
44
0.0860
3287684
5
0.2055
3287645
25
0.1495
3287665
45
0.0820
3287685
6
0.2040
3287646
26
0.1470
3287666
46
0.0810
3287686
7
0.2010
3287647
27
0.1440
3287667
47
0.0785
3287687
8
0.1990
3287648
28
0.1405
3287668
48
0.0760
3287688
9
0.1960
3287649
29
0.1360
3287669
49
0.0730
3287689
10
0.1935
3287650
30
0.1285
3287670
50
0.0700
3287690
11
0.1910
3287651
31
0.1200
3287671
51
0.0670
3287691
12
0.1890
3287652
32
0.1160
3287672
52
0.0635
3287692
13
0.1850
3287653
33
0.1130
3287673
53
0.0595
3287693
14
0.1820
3287654
34
0.1110
3287674
54
0.0550
3287694
15
0.1800
3287655
35
0.1100
3287675
55
0.0520
3287695
16
0.1770
3287656
36
0.1065
3287676
56
0.0465
3287696
17
0.1730
3287657
37
0.1040
3287677
57
0.0430
3287697
18
0.1695
3287658
38
0.1015
3287678
58
0.0420
3287698
19
0.1660
3287659
39
0.0995
3287679
59
0.0410
3287699
20
0.1610
3287660
40
0.0980
3287680
60
0.0400
3287700
TO 32-1-101
55-8
Table 55-3. Numbered Twist Drills
Table 55-4. Fractional Twist Drill Sizes
Drill
No.
Diameter
in inches
IBM Part
Number
Drill
No.
Diameter
in inches
IBM Part
Number
Drill
No.
Diameter
in inches
IBM Part
Number
1/32
0.0313
3287610
13/64
0.2031
3287621
3/8
0.3750
3287632
3/64
0.0469
3287611
7/32
0.2187
3287622
25/64
0.3906
3287633
1/16
0.0625
3287612
15/64
0.2344
3287623
13/32
0.4062
3287634
5/64
0.0781
3287613
1/4
0.2500
3287624
27/64
0.4219
3287635
3/32
0.0937
3287614
17/64
0.2656
3287625
7/16
0.4375
3287636
7/64
0.1094
3287615
9/32
0.2812
3287626
29/64
0.4531
3287637
1/8
0.1250
3287616
19/64
0.2969
3287627
15/32
0.4687
3287638
9/64
0.1046
3287617
5/16
0.3125
3287628
31/64
0.4844
3287639
5/32
0.1562
3287618
21/64
0.3281
3287629
1/2
0.5000
3287640
11/64
0.1719
3287619
11/32
0.3437
3287630
3/16
0.1875
3287620
23/64
0.3594
3287631
TO 32-1-101
55-9
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-5. Tap, Tap Drill, and Clearance Drill Sizes
Tap
Size
No. of
Threads
**
Type
Part No.
*Tap
Drill
Clear
Drill
2
56
B
3034715
51
43
3
48
B
3034731
48
38
4
36
B
3034718
45
32
4
40
B
3034730
43
32
5
40
B
3034729
39
30
6
32
B
3034728
36
27
6
40
B
3034719
33
27
8
32
B
3034726
29
18
8
40
B
3034720
28
7/32
10
24
B
3034721
25
9
10
30
B
3034722
22
9
1/4
28
B
3034717
3
17/64
5/16
32
B
3287787
9/32
23/64
1/4
20
B
3287777
7
17/64
3/8
24
B
3287779
21/64
25/64
10
32
B
3034748
21
9
12
24
B
3034712
17
1
14
24
B
3034716
10
17/64
1/4
20
B
3287768
7
17/64
1/4
24
B
3034713
5
17/64
5/16
18
B
3287769
1/4
21/64
5/16
24
B
3287778
17/64
11/32
3/8
16
B
3287770
5/16
25/64
* Approximately 75% Full Thread
** B = Bottoming
55-10
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-6. Screw Extractors
IBM Part
Number
Bolt
Sizes
Drill
Size
3034583
3/16 - 1/4
5/64
3034584
1/4 - 5/16
7/64
3034585
5/16 - 7/16
5/32
3034586
7/16 - 9/16
1/4
3034587
9/16 - 3/4
17/64
Table 55-7. Taper Reamers
Reamer
Size
Diameter (inches)
Large
Small
Part No.
7/0
0.0666
0.0497
3287738
6/0
0.0806
0.0611
3287739
5/0
0.0966
0.0719
3287740
4/0
0.1142
0.0869
3287741
3/0
0.1302
0.1029
3287742
2/0
0.1462
0.1137
3287743
0
0.1638
0.1287
3287744
1
0.1798
0.1447
3287733
2
0.2008
0.1605
3287734
3
0.2294
0.1813
3287735
4
0.2604
0.2071
3287736
5
0.2994
0.2409
3287737
11/16
0.6875
0.5313
3355707
Table 55-8. Extension Taper Reamers
Reamer
Size
Part No.
Reamer
Size
Part No.
5/0
3033392
2
3033394
3/0
3033391
3
3033395
2/0
3033390
4
3033396
0
3033389
5
3033397
1
3033393
55-11
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-9. Open End Wrenches
F. E. Tool Kit
Size
Part No.
3/16 - 7/32
3287801
7/32 - 1/4
3287802
1/4 - 5/16
3287803
5/16 - 11/32
3287805
3/8 - 7/16
3287804
1/2 - 9/16
3033374
Kit Part No. 3134914
Size
Part No.
Size
Part No.
1/4 - 5/16
3135017
3/4 - 7/8
3135026
3135018
7/8 - 15/16
3135027
5/16 - 3/8
3/8 - 7/16
7/16 - 1/2
15/16 - 1
3135028
3135020
1 - 1 1/8
3135029
3135021
1 1/16 - 1 1/8
3135030
9/16 - 5/8
3135022
1 1/16 - 1 1/4
3135031
5/8 - 3/4
3135024
19/32 - 11/16
3135023
25/32 - 13/16
3135025
1/2 - 9/16
55-12
3135019
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-10. Adjustable and Ratchet Wrenches
Adjustable
Ratchet
Size
Part No.
Size
Part No.
8 in. *
3033367
10 in. **
3134925
10 in.
3287798
15 in. **
3134926
* F. E. Tool Kit
** Kit Part No. 3134945
Table 55-11. Box Wrenches
F. E. Tool Kit
Size
Part No.
5/16 - 3/8
3033380
7/16 - 1/2
3287799
9/16 - 5/8
3287800
Kit Part No. 3034860
Size
Part No.
3/8 - 7/16
3034849
7/16 - 1/2
Size
15/16 - 1
Part No.
3034854
3034850
1 - 1 1/8
3034858
3034852
1 1/16 - 1 1/4
3034859
9/16 - 5/8
3034951
19/32 - 11/16
3034855
5/8 - 3/4
3034856
25/32 - 13/16
3034857
3/4 - 7/8
3034853
1/2 - 9/16
Table 55-12. Sockets
Size
Part No.
Size
Part No.
3/16
3287755
3/8
3287759
7/32
3287756
7/16
3033369
1/4
3287757
1/2
3287760
5/16
3287758
9/16
3033370
1/4 inch drive required for these sockets
55-13
TO 32-1-101
Kit Part No. 3134945*
Size
Part No.
Size
Part No.
1/2
3134932
15/16
3134939
9/16
3134933
1
3134940
5/8
3134934
11/16
3134941
11/16
3134935
11/8
3134942
3/4
3134936
13/16
3134943
13/16
3134937
11/4
3134944
7/8
3134938
* 1/2 inch drive required for these sockets
Kit Part No. 3134951*
Size
Part No.
Size
Part No.
1/4
3135001
7/16 ***
3135016
9/32 **
3135013
1/2
3135006
5/16
3135002
9/16
3135007
5/16 ***
3135014
5/8
3135008
11/32
3135003
11/16
3135009
3/8
3135004
3/4
3135010
3/8 ***
3135015
25/32
3135011
7/16
3135005
13/16
3135012
* 3/8 inch drive required for these sockets
** 4 point socket
*** 8 point socket
11/32 - Part No. 3034842, 1/4 inch drive required.
Kit Part No. - 3134945
Table 55-13. Socket Handles and Extensions
F. E. Tool Kit
Type
Part No.
Socket Wrench Handle
3287722
Tee
3287723
Extension (5 inch)
3134929
Extension (10 inch)
3134930
Kit Part No. - 3134951
Type
Kit Part No. - 3134945
Part No.
Flexible Hinge
3134947
Part No.
Sliding Tee
3134948
Sliding Tee
3134927
Extension (3 inch)
3134949
Extension (3-1/2 inch)
3134928
Extension (6 inch)
3134950
Type
55-14
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-14. Hex and Fluted Wrenches
55-15
TO 32-1-101
Table 55-15. Chassis Punches
55-16
Type
Part No.
1/2
Round
3355110
5/8
Round
3034778
11/16
Round
3034779
3/4
Round
3034780
13/16
Round
3355376
7/8
Round
3355223
1
Round
3034781
1 1/16
Round
3034782
1 1/8
Round
3034783
1 5/32
Round
3034784
1 11/64
Round
3034785
1 3/16
Round
3034786
1 1/4
Round
3355109
1 3/8
Round
3034787
1 1/2
Round
3034788
1 5/8
Round
3034789
1 3/4
Round
3034790
1 7/8
Round
3034791
2
Round
3034792
1/2
D
3034794
5/8
D
3034795
2 1/4
Round
3034793
Table 55-16. Lug and Crimping Tools
LUG
Type
Wire
Size
Stud
Size
TOOL
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
Butt
26-22
Amp 321029
3002913
18
Amp 48518
3033463
62
Connector
22-16
Amp 320559
3099830
59
Amp 49556
3033461
63
16-14
Burndy YSE 14H
3004933
20
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
16-14
12-10
Amp 320562
Amp 320570
3097800
3097801
57
58
Amp 49864
Amp 59062
3033464
3033467
65
62
Contact
20-18
Burndy AYH 14H1
3025281
22
Burndy Y 14 MRC
3033470
66
Tip
16-12
Burndy AYH 12-14H1 3025139
21
Burndy Y 14 MRC
3033470
66
Crabloc
10
Burndy AYH 10
3004539
17
Burndy Y 8 MC
3033869
67
Tip
8
Burndy AYH 8C
3004538
16
Burndy Y 8 MC
3033869
67
Ferrule
coax cable
Type 1
3001953
T & B GSC 149
3004072
12
T & B WT201-02-03
T & B GSB 090
3004071
11
3033478
68
coax cable
Type 2
3001955
T & B GSC 156
3002911
6
T & B GSB 101
3002908
4
33033478
68
coax cable
Type 3
3001954
T & B GSC 187
3002912
7
T & B GSB 124
3002909
5
3033459
69
T & B GSC 219
3004157
15
T & B GSC 134
3004156
14
3033868
70
T & B GSC 287
3061094
39
T & B GSB 194
3061093
38
3033458
71
Comments
T& B WT201-02-03
T & B WT 206
T & B WT 208-11
T & B WT 214
TO 32-1-101
55-17
LUG
Type
Wire
Size
Stud
Size
Ferrule (Cont.) coax cable
type 4
3212391
TOOL
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
T & B GSB 312
3004931
19
T & B GSB 205
3004761
18
T & B GSC 327
3212121
61
T & B GSB 261
3004075
13
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
T & B WT 235
3033867
70
3033867
70
T & B WT 235
Parallel
Connector
16-14
Amp 34137
3003820
10
Amp 49900
3033483
62
Plug
22-18
Hubble K-1121-B
3003666
9
Hubble 120Y-91
3033477
72
Ring
22-16
#3 & 4
Amp 31878 loose
Amp 41548 roll
3061071
35
Amp 49556
3033461
63
Tongue
#3&4
Burndy YAE-18-N17
loose SE-18-N17 roll
3061071
35
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
Terminal
#4, 5, 6
Burndy YAE-18-G43
loose SE-18-G43-roll
3002876
2
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
#6
Amp 31879 loose
Amp 41170 roll
3061003
24
Amp 49556
3033461
63
#6
Amp 34110
3061072
36
Amp 49900
3033483
62
#8
Amp 31888 loose
Amp 41102 roll
3061018
27
Amp 49556
3033461
63
#8
Burndy YAE-18-N1
loose SE-18-Nl-roll
3061018
27
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
#10
Amp 31889 loose
Amp 41103 roll
3061001
23
Amp 49556
3033461
63
#10
Burndy YAE-18-N
loose SE-18-N roll
3061001
23
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
Comments
TO 32-1-101
55-18
Table 55-16. Lug and Crimping Tools - Continued
Table 55-16. Lug and Crimping Tools - Continued
LUG
Type
Ring
22-16
Tongue
Terminal
Stud
Size
Wire
Size
16-14
14
12-10
TOOL
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
Amp 31892 loose
Amp 41172 roll
3061921
44
Amp 49556
3033461
63
1/4”
Burndy YAE-18-N2
loose SE-18-N2 roll
3061921
44
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
#6
Amp 31898 loose
Amp 41105 roll
3061005
25
Amp 49557 or
Amp 49864
3033466 or
3033464
62
65
#10
Amp 31900 loose
Amp 41107 roll
3061006
26
Amp 49557 or
Amp 49864
3033466 or
3033464
62
65
#10
Burndy YAE-14-N
loose SE-14N roll
3061006
26
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
1/4”
Amp 31904
3061025
31
Amp 49557 or
Amp 49864
3033466 or
3033464
62
#6
Amp 32440 loose
Amp 41314 roll
3061023
29
Amp 49557 or
Amp 49864
3033466 or
3033464
62
65
#6
Burndy YAE-14-N43
loose SE-14-N43 roll
3061023
29
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
#8
Amp 31899 loose
Amp 41106 roll
3061020
28
Amp 49557 or
Amp 49864
3033466
3033464
62
65
#8
Burndy YAE-14-N1
loose SE-14-N1 roll
3061020
28
Burndy MR8-33S
3033472
64
#6
Amp 32542 loose
Amp 41050 roll
3061899
42
Amp 59062
3033467
62
#8
Amp 32543 loose
Amp 41051 roll
3061948
48
Amp 59062
3033467
62
#10
Amp 32544 loose
Amp 41052 roll
3061900
43
Amp 59062
3033467
62
1/4”
Amp 32545
3061024
30
Amp 59062
3033467
62
TO 32-1-101
55-19
1/4”
Comments
LUG
Type
Terminal
(Cont.)
Wire
Size
Stud
Size
TOOL
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
Manuf.
Part No.
IBM
Part No.
Photo
Ref.
3/8”
Amp 32547
3061089
37
Amp 59062
3033467
62
8
#8-10
Burndy YAV8CRS
3061896
41
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
6
1/4”
Burndy YA-6C-L
3061928
45
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
4
#8-10
Burndy YAV4C-RS3
3061894
40
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
Tongue
4
1/4”
Burndy YAV4C-RS
3061026
32
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
Terminal
4
1/4”
Burndy YA-4C-L
3061929
47
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
2
1/4”
Burndy YA-2C-L2
3061930
46
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
2
5/16”
Burndy YA-2C-L
3061069
33
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
1
5/16”
Burndy YA25-L
3061070
34
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
1/0
3/8”
Burndy YA-25-L4
3061944
49
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
2/0
3/8”
Burndy YA-26-L
3061945
50
Burndy MY29
3033471
73
Ring
Taper
26-22
Amp C-41278
3090156
51
Amp 48698
3033479
62
Pin
22
Amp 42153-1
3208057
60
Amp 47745
3034146
74
22-18
Amp 42031-0
302762
1
Amp 47450
3033468
62
22-18
Amp C-41650
3095837
53
Amp 47043
3033480
62
20-16
Amp 41608
3002877
3
Amp 47194
3033462
62
18-16
Amp 42147-1
3097086
55
Amp 47194
3033462
62
16
Amp C-41656
3095836
52
Amp 47044
3033482
62
16-14
Amp 42090-1
3096435
54
16-14
Amp C-42148-1
3097087
56
Amp 47745
3034146
74
Comments
TO 32-1-101
55-20
Table 55-16. Lug and Crimping Tools - Continued
TO 32-1-101
CHAPTER 56
PNEUMATIC RATCHETS
56.1 AIR RATCHETS MODEL NUMBERS FAR70C
AND 72B.
a. Purpose of Air Ratchets: Designed for a wide variety of
uses including automotive, truck, aircraft and jet engine
repairs. Pneumatic air ratchets increase production and
reduce time and manpower. Although there are a number of pneumatic air ratchets, we will only discuss the
use and care of the Snap-On FAR70C 3/8 inch drive and
FAR72B air ratchets (see Figure 56-1). For additional
information on pneumatic air ratchets, refer to the particular manufacturer’s users manual.
b. The following warning and cautions must be adhered to:
(1) APPLICATION: The FAR70C and the FAR72B air
ratchets are rugged, variable speed, reversible tools
that can speed up and ease the removal and the
installation of most automotive and aviation fasteners. The lower torque (120 inch-pounds) FAR70C
ratchet is designed for lighter duty jobs found on
most assembly line, automotive repair and aviation
repair work. The higher torque (60 foot-pounds)
FAR72B ratchet is ideal where stubborn rusty fasteners are encountered.
(2) AIR COMPRESSOR: The air ratchets should be
operated with clean, moisture free, well lubricated
air at a constant pressure of 90 PSI. The air compressor should have sufficient capacity to deliver 2.0
CFM (FAR70C) for 2.7 CFM (FAR72B) at 90 PSI at
each ratchet outlet while the tool is running. The
receiver tank should have sufficient capacity to provide surge balance for each ratchet.
(3) FILTER: Water, dirt and scale act as abrasives which
could damage the air ratchet. A filter unit should be
installed between the compressor and the air regulator and air lubricator.
Always wear approved eye protection when using air
tools. Due to the high torque output on some air
ratchets and resultant reaction force at the handle of
these units, make sure you have a firm grip on the
handle and never point exhaust outlets at people or
near any flame when lubricating.
• If a socket extension is used, align the head of the
ratchet so that the socket stays squarely on the fastener being turned.
• When tightening fasteners, final tightening must be
done with a nonelectric/non-pneumatic torque
wrench set at the applicable torque setting to prevent over torquing and/or damage to the fasteners.
• Always keep air tools well lubricated to maintain
proper operation.
c. Description and Use:
(4) AIR REGULATOR: Regulated air pressure is necessary for proper operation of the air ratchet. Adjust
pressure regulator to the recommended air pressure
of 90 PSI. Pressure less than this reduces efficiency,
while pressure greater than this increases torque and
speed beyond the rated capacity creating potential
hazards and possible damage to the ratchet.
(5) AIR RATCHET LUBRICATION: The preferred
method of lubricating the air ratchet motor is to use
an air line lubricator. Contact the air ratchet manufacturer for more details. If an air line lubricator is
not used, lubricate the air motor by injecting approximately 6 or 7 drops of Snap-On IM6 air motor oil
into the air inlet of the air ratchet each day before
using. Run the air ratchet for one minute while covering the exhaust ports in the muffler with a rag to
prevent the spraying of an oil mist.
(6) ATTACHING AIR SUPPLY: Before connecting the
air hose to the source of supply, always blow out the
air line to prevent dirt or moisture from getting into
the air ratchet. Since the ratchet handle is made of
aluminum, be careful not to strip the threads in the
air inlet when attaching a hose or coupler to the
ratchet.
56-1
TO 32-1-101
(7) TRIGGER-REGULATOR VALVE: The variable
speed push-button controls the air flow valve which
regulates the power and speed of the ratchet. This
provides for variable low speed control with feathering ability and progressive high speed control for the
high torque requirements. The distance of pushbutton movement directly controls the air flow to the air
motor.
(8) REVERSE MECHANISM: The direction of rotation
is determined by the position of the reverse lever in
the ratchet head. Turning it counterclockwise makes
the ratchet turn clockwise and vice versa.
Figure 56-1. Snap-On Air Ratchets
56-2
TO 32-1-101
APPENDIX A
REFERENCES
A.1 PUBLICATION INDEXES.
A.3 FORMS.
The following indexes should be consulted frequently for latest changes or revisions of references given in this appendix
and for new publications relating to material covered in this
manual.
DA Form 2028 .............. Recommended Changes to Technical Publications and Blank
Forms
A.4 OTHER PUBLICATIONS.
DA Pam 106-1 .............. Index of Army Motion Pictures
and Related Audio-Visual Aids
Military Publications:
DA Pam 310-1......... Consolidated Index of Army
Publications and Blank Forms
DA Pam 750-10....... U.S. Army Equipment Index of
Modification Work Orders
The following explanatory publications contain information
pertinent to this material and associated equipment.
TM 36-750 .................... The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS)
FM 434.......................... Common
Repair
Wood
and
Metal
A.2 SUPPLY CATALOGS.
Class 5110, 20 IL .......... Class 5110 Hand Tools Nonedged, Nonpowered 5120
AR310-5........................ Dictionary of United States
Army Terms (TC 21-5-7)
FM 9-24 ........................ Fundamentals of Machine Tools
SC 9100 IL.................... Fuels, Lubricants,
Waxes
Oils
and
SC 5130, 33, 36,
40, 80 IL .................. Hand Tools, Power Driven,
5130; Drill Bits, Counterbores,
and Countersinks: Hand and
Machine, 5133; Taps, Dies and
Collets: Hand and Machine,
5136; Tools and Hardware
Boxes, 5140; and Sets, Kits, and
Outfits of Handtools
SC 5345, 50 IL.............. Hardware and Abrasives; Disks
and Stones, Abrasive
FM 43-2 ........................ Metal Body Repair and Related
Operations
FM 21-30 ...................... Military Symbols AFM 55-3
AR 310-50..................... Military Terms, Abbreviations,
and Symbols: Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes
FM 43-3 ........................ Shop Mathematics
Safety:
AR 385-40............... Accident Reporting and Records
SC 5200 IL.................... Measuring Tools
SC 3400 IL.................... Metalworking Machinery
SC 3200 IL.................... Woodworking Machinery and
Equipment
A-1/(A-2 blank)
TO 32-1-101
INDEX
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
A
Adjustable Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Adz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-2
Angle Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Auger, Post Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Awls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
Saddler’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
Scratch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Double-Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Half-Hatchet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Single-Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
B
Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Crowbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Pinch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Wrecking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Bearing and Bushing Puller, Universal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Bearing Puller, Electrical Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Benders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-1
Hand Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-1
Electrical Conduit Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-1
Spring Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-1
Bevel Protractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-1
Bolt and Cable Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-1
Angular Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Center Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-1
Clipper Cut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Shear Cut, Flat Bar, and Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Shear Cut Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Side Nut Splitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Brush-Cutting Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-1
Brush Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-1
Machete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-1
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
C
Cable Jaw Grip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Calipers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Hermaphrodite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Simple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Spring-Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Trammels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Vernier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Care of
Awls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-2
Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-2
Bench Grinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-5
Benders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-3
Bolt and Cable Cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-3
Brush-Cutting Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-2
C-Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Calipers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Chisels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-5
Chopping Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-5
Climbing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-4
Digging Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-4
Dividers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Electric Power Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-16
Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4
Gage Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Gasket Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-2
Glass Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-3
Grinders and Sharpening Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-5
Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-11
Hand Screw Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
Inserted Face Hammer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-12
Jacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6
Knives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-3
Manual Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3
Mattocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-2
Micrometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Miscellaneous Measuring Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Index 1
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
C (CONT)
Miscellaneous Measuring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Miscellaneous Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-5
Pipe Cutters and Threading Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-6
Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-3
Pliers and Tongs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
Plumb Bobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Pullers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-4
Punches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-6
Reamers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-3
Ring and Snap Gages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Rules and Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-6
Scrapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-2
Screw and Tap Extractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
Screwdrivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6
Scribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
Sharpening Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-6
Shears and Nippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-3
Snap Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Squares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Surface, Height, and Depth Gages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
Taps and Dies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-6
Timber Handling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-2
Tube Cutters and Flaring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-3
Vises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15
Catapunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Chain Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Chisels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
Machinist’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
Rivet Buster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2
Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2
Woodworker’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
Chopping Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Adz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-2
Crash Ax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Double-Bit Ax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Half-Hatchet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Single-Bit Ax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Timber Wedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-2
Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
C-Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
Hand Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
Index 2
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
C (CONT)
Clamp Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
Climbing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-1
Leg Irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-2
Safety Belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-1
Safety Strap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-2
Combination Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Crowbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Cutter Set, Thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Cutters, Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Cutters, Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
D
Dies, Taps and. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
Rethreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-2
Round-Split Adjustable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Thread Cutter Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Two-Piece, Collet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Digging Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
D-Handled Shovel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Long-Handled Shovel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Posthole Auger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Posthole Digger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-2
Disk Sander, Portable Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Dividers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Wing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Drill, Portable Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-2
Drills, Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Breast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2
E
Electrical Power Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-1
Electric Chain Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Electric Impact Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Portable Electric Circular Saw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Portable Electric Disk Sander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Portable Electric Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-2
Portable Electric Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-2
Extractors, Screw and Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
E (CONT)
Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
Ear Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
F
Factors To Consider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
American Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Curved-Tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Pillar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Round. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Swiss Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Taper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Three-Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Warding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Flaring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
Folding Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
G
Gages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Drill Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Fillet and Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Micrometer Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Rule Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Screw Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Small Hole Gage Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Snap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Telescoping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Thickness (Feeler) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Thread Cutting Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Vernier Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Gage Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Gaging Flat Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
Gasket Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-1
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
G (CONT)
Bit Brace Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-1
Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-1
Heavy Duty Bench Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-2
Hollow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-1
Glass Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
Wheel Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
Gloves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Grapnel, Trip Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Grinders and Sharpening Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-1
Bench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-1
Sharpening Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2
Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2
H
Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
Blacksmith’s or Sledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
Bumping Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2
Carpenter’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
Dead Blow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-6
Electric, Portable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-2
Inserted Soft-Faced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-5
Jeweler’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
Lead or Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Machinist’s Peen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2
Mason’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
Napping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Riveting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Sawmaker’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Soft-Faced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Trimmer’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-6
Welder’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-6
Hacksaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-3
Hatchet, Half . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-1
Helmets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Holder, Magnetic Base Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
How To Use A Box Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-11
How To Use Precision Gage Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
How To Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
I
Indicators, Speed Registering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Index 3
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
I (CONT)
Installation of New Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-14
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
J
Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2
Ratchet Lever. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2
Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
K
Knives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-1
Draw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
Putty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
Rubber Cutting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-1
Saddlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-1
Shop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
L
Leg Irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-2
Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Carpenter’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Iron Bench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Machinist’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Master Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Striding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
M
Machete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-1
Machine, Metal Shearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1
Magnetic Base Indicator Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Mattocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-1
Single-Bevel and Double-Bevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-1
Pick-Mattock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-1
Mallets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Carpenter’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-6
Rawhide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Tinner’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Manual Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Index 4
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
M (CONT)
Breast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
Hand Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2
Mauls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Railroad Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Wooden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Method of Filing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3
Draw Filing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4
Micrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Inside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Outside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Miner’s Spoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-1
Miscellaneous Measuring Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Miscellaneous Measuring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Adjustable Parallel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Angle Plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Magnetic Base Indicator Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Registering Speed Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
V-Block and Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Miscellaneous Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-1
Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Brick Trowel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-1
Cable Jaw Grip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Cement Trowel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-1
Chain Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Miner’s Spoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-1
Tension Puller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-3
Trip Wire Grapnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
N
Nippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
Cutting Nippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
P
Parts of a Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
Peavy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Pinch Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Pipe Cutting and Threading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Pipe Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Pipe Threading Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-1
Bench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-1
Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-1
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
P (CONT)
Plate, Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Pliers and Tongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
Diagonal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
End Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Flat-Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Lineman’s Side Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
Parallel Jaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
Round-Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Slip-Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
Straight-Lip Flat-Jaw Tongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Wire Strippers (Multipurpose) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Wire Twister. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
Pliers, Clamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
Plumb Bobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Solid Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Surveyor’s Polished Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Preparing the Work Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
Protractor, Bevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Power Tools, Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-1
Precision Gage Blocks, How To Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Pullers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Battery Terminal and Small Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-2
Cotter Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-3
Cylinder Sleeve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-3
Electrical Unit Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Gear and Bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Slide Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-3
Steering Gear Arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-2
Universal Bearing and Bushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Universal Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Puller Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-1
Push and Pull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-2
Steering Wheel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-2
Wheel Puller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-2
Punches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1
Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1
Catapunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1
Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-1
Drive Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Grommet-Inserting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3
Metal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
P (CONT)
Prick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Sheet Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3
Starting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
Tinmen’s Hollow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
R
Ratchets, Pneumatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-1
Reading
Measuring Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Metric Caliper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Metric Micrometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Metric Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Rule or Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Standard Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Vernier Caliper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Vernier Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Reamers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-1
Adjustable-Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-2
Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-2
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-2
Solid Straight-Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-1
Solid Taper-Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-2
Registering Speed Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Replacing the Handle, File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5
Replacing the Handle, Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-13
Ring and Snap Gages and Gage Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Gage Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Ring Gages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Snap Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Rules and Steel Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Folding Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Steel Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
S
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Bolt and Cable Cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
Brush-Cutting Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-2
Chopping Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-2
Climbing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-2
Digging Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-2
Index 5
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
S (CONT)
Electrical Power Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-5
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3
Hammers, Mallets, and Mauls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
Jacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3
Knives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
Mattocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-1
Miscellaneous Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-2
Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-1
Saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-4
Scrapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-2
Screwdrivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
Shears and Nippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
Timber Handling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-10
Safety Belt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-1
Safety Belts and Safety Straps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Ear Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Gloves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Helmets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Safety Belts and Safety Straps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Safety Shoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Safety Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Power Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Safety Strap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-2
Saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-1
Backsaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-2
Compass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-3
Electric Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Hacksaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-3
Handsaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-1
Keyhole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-3
Nested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-3
One-Man Crosscut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-2
Portable Electric Circular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Two-Man Crosscut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-2
Scrapers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
Bearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
Index 6
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
S (CONT)
Flat Blade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-2
Triangular Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-2
Screwdrivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
Clutch Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
Common . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
Cross-Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
Cross-Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
Flexible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
Jeweler’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
Radio and Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
Ratchet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
Screwdriver Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
Screw Starter or Gimlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
Screw and Tap Extractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
Scriber, Machinist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Selecting the Proper Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Setting, Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Shears and Nippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1
Cuting Nippers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
Hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1
Metal Shearing Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1
Nippers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
Tinner’s Bench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-1
Shovels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
D-Handled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Long-Handled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Soldering Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-1
Spade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-1
Spring Divider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Bevel Protractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Carpenter’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Sliding T-Bevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Try . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Steel Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Stones, Sharpening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2
Surface, Depth, and Height Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Micrometer Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
S (CONT)
Rule Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Surface Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Vernier Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
T
Taps and Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
Boiler Hand Taps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-2
Bottoming Hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
Mud Hand Taps (Washout Taps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-2
Pipe Hand Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
Rethreading Die . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-2
Round Split Adjustable Die . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Staybolt Taps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-2
Taper (Starting) Hand Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-1
Taps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-2
Thread Cutting Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Two-Piece Collet Die. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Tension Puller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-2
Timber Handling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Peavy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Timber Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Timber Wedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-2
Tool Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Tool, Flaring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
Tool Habits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Trammels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Trowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-1
Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-1
Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-1
Tube Cutting and Flaring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
Flaring Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
Tube Cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-1
U
Using
Adjustable Open-End Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-12
Adjustable Snap Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Adjustable Strap Pipe Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-12
Adz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-4
Alignment Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-5
Bearing Scraper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-2
Bell Base Screw Jack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-4
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
U (CONT)
Bench Grinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-3
Bench Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-2
Bit Brace Circle Gasket Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-2
Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-5
Block Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-2
Box Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-11
Brace Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2
Brick Trowel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-3
Brush Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-2
C-Clamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
Cable Jaw Grip and Tension Puller . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-5
Carpenter’s Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
Carpenter’s Square. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Center Cut Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-3
Center Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Center Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3
Circle Gasket Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-2
Climbing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-2
Combination Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-2
Combination Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Crosscut Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-4
Cutting Nippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-2
Diagonal Cutting Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
Die and Diestock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-5
Divider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Drift Punch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-4
Drill Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Drill Point Gage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Electric Chain Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-14
Electrical Conduit Hand Bender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-3
Expansive Bit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3
Fillet and Radius Gage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Flaring Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-2
Gage Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Gasket Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-2
Gear and Bearing Puller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-3
Hacksaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-6
Hand Screw Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Hand Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-3
Height Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Hollow Gasket Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-2
Impact Wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-11
Index 7
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
U (CONT)
Inserted Face Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8
Jeweler’s Screwdriver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6
Keyhole Saw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-5
Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Lineman’s Side Cutting Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
Long-Handled Shovel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-2
Machinist’s Ball Peen Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-11
Machinist’s Bench Vise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
Machinist’s Cold Chisel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-3
Machinist’s Scriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Marking Gages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Mattock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-1
Micrometer Depth Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Miscellaneous Measuring Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Offset Ratchet Screwdriver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
Offset Screwdriver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
Peavy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-2
Pipe Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-1
Pipe Threading Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-3
Pipe Vise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4
Plumb Bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Portable Electric Circular Saw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-12
Portable Electric Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-5
Portable Electric Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-10
Portable Electric Sander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-15
Posthole Digger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-3
Power Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14
Precision Gage Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Putty Knife. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-3
Ratchet Lever Jack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-5
Ring Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Rivet Buster Chisel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-4
Rules and Tapes Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Rule Depth Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Scratch Awl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
Screwdrivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
Screw Pitch Gage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Sharpening Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-5
Shovel, Long-Handled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-2
Single-Bit Ax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-3
Slide Hammer Puller Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-4
Sliding T-Bevel Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
Slip-Joint Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
Index 8
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
U (CONT)
Small Hole Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Socket Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-12
Solid Straight-Hole Reamer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-2
Spade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-3
Spanner Wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15
Spiral Ratchet Screwdriver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
Spiral Tapered Screw Extractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
Surface Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Telescoping Gage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Thickness (Feeler) Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Thread Cutting Tool Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Timber Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Timber Handling Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-1
Timber Wedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-5
Torque Wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-13
Try Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
Tubing Bender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-2
Vernier Depth Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Wheel Type Glass Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
Wire Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Woodworker’s Chisel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2
V
V-Block and Clamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Vises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Bench and Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Clamp Base Bench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Handsaw Filing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Machine Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Machinist’s Bench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Piston Holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
W
Wing Divider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Wire Strippers (Multipurpose) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Wrecking Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-1
Wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
Adjustable Open-End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
Clamp Pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
TO 32-1-101
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
W (CONT)
Crowfoot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-7
Electric Impact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-3
Hex Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-7
Monkey and Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
Open-End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-7
Paragraph, Figure,
Table Number
Subject
W (CONT)
Power Torque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-10
Special Purpose Socket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-6
Socket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-4
Socket Wrench Handles, Extensions and
Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-4
Spanner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-10
Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-9
Index 9
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0921604
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number (IDN) 340112,
requirements for TM 9-243.
Army authentication for this publication includes the basic dated 1 Dec 2004 through
change 2 dated 14 Sep 07.
The Metric System and Equivalents
LINEAR MEASURE
1 Centimeter = 10 Millimeters = 0.01 Meters = 0.3937 Inches
1 Meter = 100 Centimeters = 1000 Millimeters = 39.37 Inches
1 Kilometer = 1000 Meters = 0.621 Miles
SQUARE MEASURE
1 Sq Centimeter = 100 Sq Millimeters = 0.155 Sq Inches
1 Sq Meter = 10,000 Sq Centimeters = 10.76 Sq Feet
1 Sq Kilometer = 1,000,000 Sq Meters = 0.386 Sq Miles
WEIGHTS
1 Gram = 0.001 Kilograms = 1000 Milligrams = 0.035 Ounces
1 Kilogram = 1000 Grams = 2.2 lb
1 Metric Ton = 1000 Kilograms = 1 Megagram = 1.1 Short Tons
CUBIC MEASURE
1 Cu Centimeter = 1000 Cu Millimeters = 0.06 Cu Inches
1 Cu Meter = 1,000,000 Cu Centimeters = 35.31 Cu Feet
LIQUID MEASURE
1 Milliliter = 0.001 Liters = 0.0338 Fluid Ounces
1 Liter = 1000 Milliliters = 33.82 Fluid Ounces
TEMPERATURE
5/9 (°F - 32) = °C
212° Fahrenheit is equivalent to 100° Celsius
90° Fahrenheit is equivalent to 32.2° Celsius
32° Fahrenheit is equivalent to 0° Celsius
9/5 C° + 32 = F°
Approximate Conversion Factors
TO CHANGE
Inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cubic Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cubic Yards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fluid Ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quarts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gallons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ounces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Tons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pound-Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pounds per Square Inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miles per Gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miles per Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TO
MULTIPLY BY
Centimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.540
Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.305
Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.914
Kilometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.609
Square Centimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.451
Square Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.093
Square Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.836
Square Kilometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.590
Square Hectometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.405
Cubic Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.028
Cubic Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.765
Millimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29.573
Liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.473
Liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.946
Liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.785
Grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28.349
Kilograms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.454
Metric Tons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.907
Newton-Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.356
Kilopascals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.895
Kilometers per Liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.425
Kilometers per Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.609
TO CHANGE
Centimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kilometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Centimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Kilometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square Hectometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cubic Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cubic Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Milliliters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kilograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metric Tons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Newton-Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kilopascals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kilometers per Liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kilometers per Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TO
MULTIPLY BY
Inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.394
Feet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.280
Yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.094
Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.621
Square Inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.155
Square Feet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.764
Square Yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.196
Square Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.386
Acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.471
Cubic Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35.315
Cubic Yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.306
Fluid Ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.034
Pints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.113
Quarts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.057
Gallons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.264
Ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.035
Pounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.205
Short Tons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.102
Pound-Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.736
Pounds per Square Inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.145
Miles per Gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.354
Miles per Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.621
PIN: 026331-000
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