Multi-Speech and CSL Software

Issue F
February 2004
SOFTWARE INSTRUCTION MANUAL
Multi-Speech and CSL Software
Kay Elemetrics Corp.
2 Bridgewater Lane
Lincoln Park, NJ 07035-1488 USA
Toll-Free Telephone: 1-800-289-5297 (In USA and Canada only)
Tel: (973) 628-6200
Fax: (973) 628-6363
E-mail: service@kayelemetrics.com
Web: www.kayelemetrics.com
i
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1
Speech Products Compatibility Chart............................................................................................... 2
Using Multi-Speech with Multimedia Sound Cards ......................................................................... 3
Ease of Use ....................................................................................................................................... 4
About this Manual ............................................................................................................................ 5
Chapter 2 – Getting Started.................................................................................................................. 7
Keep Manuals Handy ....................................................................................................................... 7
Preparation for Loading the Program ............................................................................................... 7
Security Key .............................................................................................................................. 8
Entering the Program........................................................................................................................ 9
Main Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 10
Using a Mouse and Pull-Down Menus ........................................................................................... 11
Using the Tutorial........................................................................................................................... 11
Using the Toolbar ........................................................................................................................... 13
Using Predefined Keys ................................................................................................................... 14
Recording a Signal.......................................................................................................................... 15
Changing Recording Parameters ............................................................................................. 17
Selecting Data................................................................................................................................. 18
Listening to a Signal ....................................................................................................................... 18
Analyzing the Signal ...................................................................................................................... 19
Summary of Defined Keys ............................................................................................................. 20
Summary......................................................................................................................................... 20
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help........................................................................................................... 21
Chapter 4 – Menus............................................................................................................................... 27
File Menu........................................................................................................................................ 27
Edit Menu ....................................................................................................................................... 29
View Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 32
Speak Menu .................................................................................................................................... 34
Analysis Menu................................................................................................................................ 35
Tags Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 39
IPA Menu ....................................................................................................................................... 40
Macros Menu.................................................................................................................................. 41
Log Menu ....................................................................................................................................... 42
Options Menu ................................................................................................................................. 43
Window Menu ................................................................................................................................ 45
Help Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 47
Table of Contents
ii
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros........................................................................................ 49
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 49
List of Delivered Macros with Description ............................................................................. 50
Creating a Macro Flowchart ........................................................................................................... 51
Creating Configuration Files for Macros ........................................................................................ 53
Creating a Macro ............................................................................................................................ 54
Displaying or Hiding the Macro Dialog Box........................................................................... 56
Removing a Command from the Macro .................................................................................. 56
Saving the Macro Without Exiting Macro Learn Mode .......................................................... 56
Exiting Macro Mode................................................................................................................ 57
Running a Macro ............................................................................................................................ 58
Using Configuration Files............................................................................................................... 59
Saving Configuration Files ...................................................................................................... 59
Activating Configuration Files ................................................................................................ 60
Work Area Layout .......................................................................................................................... 61
Saving a Group of Windows.................................................................................................... 61
Restoring a Group of Windows ............................................................................................... 62
Rearranging the Windows in the Work Area........................................................................... 62
Macro Example............................................................................................................................... 63
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs ........................................................... 67
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 67
Table 1 - Comparing Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs ...................................................... 68
Chapter 7 – Using Multi-Speech and CSL Options .......................................................................... 73
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 73
List of Programs ............................................................................................................................. 73
Core Programs ......................................................................................................................... 73
Software Options ..................................................................................................................... 73
Launching Optional Programs ........................................................................................................ 74
Program Design .............................................................................................................................. 74
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software ...................................................... 75
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 75
Speech Products Compatibility Chart............................................................................................. 75
Multi-Speech Components ...................................................................................................... 76
CSL Components..................................................................................................................... 76
Information about Sound Card Installation for Multi-Speech ........................................................ 77
Installing the Security Key ...................................................................................................... 77
Software Installation....................................................................................................................... 78
Uninstalling Earlier Versions of Multi-Speech........................................................................ 79
Installing or Updating Multi-Speech or CSL Software ........................................................... 80
Troubleshooting.............................................................................................................................. 81
Table of Contents
iii
Appendix B – Sound Cards................................................................................................................. 83
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 83
Table of Sound Card Cautions........................................................................................................ 84
Feature .................................................................................................................................... 86
How to Check the Input Signal-to-Noise Ratio of a Generic Sound Card System ......................... 88
Cross Reference: Waveform Value-to-Noise Level and SNR................................................. 90
Conclusion...................................................................................................................................... 91
Appendix C – IPA Characters ............................................................................................................ 93
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 93
Computer Coding of the IPA.......................................................................................................... 94
Reference................................................................................................................................. 95
Consonant/Vowel Symbols ............................................................................................................ 96
IPA Description .................................................................................................................... 98
Segmental Diacritics....................................................................................................................... 99
Appendix D –
Addendums........................................................................................................ 105
Appendix E - Warning Symbols ....................................................................................................... 107
Appendix F – Reproduction and Warranty Information............................................................... 109
Reproduction Policy ..................................................................................................................... 109
Warranty Card .............................................................................................................................. 111
Table of Contents
iv
Table of Contents
1
Chapter 1 – Introduction
This manual covers software operation for CSL (Models 4100, 4150, 4300B, 4400, and 4500) and
Multi-Speech (Model 3700). CSL is a hardware and software system for the acquisition, acoustic
analysis, display, and playback of speech signals. Multi-Speech is a software-only product with similar
software function to CSL. Multi-Speech and CSL software are nearly identical in form and function;
therefore, the software operations can be succinctly covered in this one manual. A separate manual
covers CSL hardware including installation, reference, service, parts, maintenance, and
troubleshooting. Additionally, each optional application (e.g., Real-Time Pitch, MDVP, etc.) has its
own manual and/or on-line help.
CSL and Multi-Speech are suitable for any acoustic signals characterized by changing spectra over
time. CSL and Multi-Speech are Windows-based programs.
See chart on following page for Windows version compatibility. Multi-Speech requires a
Windows-compatible sound card (purchased separately) for input and output. Operations include
speech acquisition, storing speech to disk memory, graphical and numerical display of speech
parameters, audio output, signal editing, and a variety of analysis functions.
As stated above, a common manual can be used for both Multi-Speech and CSL software.
Commonality of operations is advantageous because many installations have a mixture of CSL and
Multi-Speech systems. Operations are made easy by the similarity in operations. However, there are
some differences. These operational differences involve the interface to the hardware. Both programs
use the same menus and have almost all of the same optional programs and databases. Because MultiSpeech relies on generic sound cards for its operations, the quality of the input and output signal is
dependent on the quality of the sound card. Typically, these generic cards offer substantially poorer
performance when compared to professional-level sound input/output systems such as ADATs, DAT
interface, CSL, and Visi-Pitch.
The implications of using different input/output hardware are explored more fully in the
subsequent section and in Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs. This chapter
should be read by all users of Multi-Speech and especially those who will use CSL and Visi-Pitch in
conjunction with Multi-Speech. Additionally, the appendices provide further information about using
sound cards.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
2
Multi-Speech can act as a companion program to either CSL or Visi-Pitch. Multi-Speech can also
read and save to the file format (i.e., .NSP and .WAV) used in CSL (DOS), CSL, Visi-Pitch II, II, and
IV, and Sona-Speech I and II. Therefore, signals acquired with the CSL for DOS or Visi-Pitch II, or
later, systems can be analyzed within Multi-Speech. Multi-Speech and CSL can also read and save to
the Windows file format (i.e., .WAV).
Speech Products Compatibility Chart
Operating System: Windows
PC Interface
1
PCI card
2
CSL, Model 4400
USB
CSL, Model 41501
PCI card
CSL, Model 4500
CSL, Model 41001
•
98
ME
2000
XP
PCI card
3,4
•
95
Multi-Speech, Model 3700
Sound card
Visi-Pitch IV, Model 39501
PCI card
1
Visi-Pitch III, Model 3900
PCI card
Sona-Speech I & II, Model
36003,4
Sound card
Nasometer II, Model 6400
Sound card
CSL4300B Win Upgrade
Full-size ISA Slot
1
PCI slot required.
2
Discontinued model, CSL 4400 requires USB Port with Universal Host Controller. CSL 4400 is
not compatible with USB Port with Open Host Controller.
3
Sound card not included with software. Some sound cards require a microphone preamp for
acceptable speech recording.
4
If using laptop, the laptop must have LPT printer port or USB port. If laptop only has USB,
please specify this when ordering.
Typically we recommend computers that are ≥ (Pentium III, 64 MB RAM, 400Mhz., CD-ROM
drive).
See above chart for expansion slot, and port requirements.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
3
Using Multi-Speech with Multimedia Sound Cards
Multi-Speech operates as a stand-alone program using Windows sound cards for input and output.
Although we, at Kay, are excited about the opportunity to bring sophisticated acoustic analysis to an
inexpensive computer with an inexpensive sound card, we are also concerned that many users may not
fully appreciate the performance tradeoffs associated with acquiring and analyzing acoustic signals
with low cost (i.e., non-professional) sound recording systems. While the specifications of many sound
cards can appear to be impressive, the real world application of these inexpensive sound cards yields
very different results from many people’s expectations. We are concerned that users may make critical
measurements of acoustic characteristics without fully understanding the possible system-induced
errors generated by inexpensive sounds cards.
Two quotes from experts in audio for PCs point out these concerns:
“It seems like there is so much noise and interference going on inside a computer that it’s
necessary either to use a digital I/O or have some sort of external breakout box with A/D converters
instead of the ‘traditional sound’ card.” (Ken Lee. New Media, April 14, 1997, pp. 33-44.)
“A cheap 16-bit sound card… should sound exactly the same as the DAT and DA 88 recorders
used in Hollywood. But in reality, you won’t get more than 10-bit performance (about 60dB dynamic
range) from the card. The rest are ‘marketing bits’: They look good described on the package, and
they’re really there on the chip, but you can’t use them. That’s because good analog circuits are too
expensive for a cheap card. Besides, even the best analog components are compromised by all the
electrical noise on a computer motherboard.” (Jay Rose. Digital Video, 1998).
Typically, a sound card plugged into a computer has very poor signal acquisition signal-to-noise
specifications when compared to professional sound acquisition systems like DAT recorders, ADAT
recorders, disc recorders used in music applications, CSL, Visi-Pitch II, Visi-Pitch III, or Visi-Pitch
IV. For example, the typical sound card, despite advertising claims to the contrary, has an input SNR
(signal-to-noise ratio) of about 40-60dB. Therefore, with a 16-bit sampling resolution, about half of the
dynamic range is lost in noise. CSL and Visi-Pitch, by contrast, have SNRs of greater than 80dB. The
limited input specifications of multimedia cards are masked to the users because most users judge
sound quality by listening to sounds. Most of the sounds, which are played in computer programs (e.g.,
sound effects in games, music in Encarta, etc.) were acquired on professional-level input systems
(usually ADATs) or were generated using synthesis algorithms. Therefore, the quality of these sounds
is not indicative of signals acquired and played using the sound card.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
4
For those of you who follow music recording, you will note that music recording is rarely
performed with generic sound cards because of the inherent limitations. Speech professionals,
especially when sound measurements are used to help in the assessment of medical information (e.g.,
voicing measurements for pathological voice), should be mindful of the same limitations.
The reason for the poor input SNR of most sound cards is a result of low-quality microphones,
limited-range preamplifiers, AGC circuitry, poor separation of channels and input/output, unbalanced
inputs, lack of isolation of input signals from noise, and the noise corruption of the analog input signal
as it enters the computer system. These inexpensive cards are primarily designed for the output of
sounds or for medium-quality input. CSL and Visi-Pitch address this input-quality problem by
designing the input and output circuitry in a separate external module with appropriate noise reduction
techniques. Appendix C – Sound Cards will discuss selecting multimedia sound cards, tips on using
them, and appropriate cautions about their use in many applications. Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech
with Other Kay Programs provides a discussion of the similarities and differences between
multimedia sound cards and CSL or Visi-Pitch. This chapter is also instructive about cautions in using
these inexpensive cards.
Ease of Use
Multi-Speech and CSL are designed to make standard operations readily accessed by way of a
mouse and pull-down menus. This enables a new user to obtain results easily and quickly. Functions
may be entered in one of two ways: selections in the pull-down menus, and defined key commands
(e.g., [F12] will acquire speech).
Multi-Speech and CSL have extensive online Help and a tutorial. This help, if printed, represents
over 500 pages of operating and reference information. This help is hypertext-linked to allow you to
jump to a topic without regard to location or hierarchical structure. The tutorial and extensive online
Help are the reason this printed manual is so brief.
Hard copy output is available through plotting, screen dumps, and numerical printouts.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
5
About this Manual
Minor updates to this manual, when implemented, will be described in a text file named
README.TXT and will be located at the root directory of the application. Use any text editor or
Windows Notepad to view the contents of this file.
Brief descriptions of each chapter are presented in the paragraphs that follow.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started provides a brief overview of the product and walks the reader
through some of the program’s capabilities. This chapter should be read after the introduction.
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help provides brief instructions on how to use the extensive online
Help in CSL and Multi-Speech. This online Help not only replaces a full-featured operations manual
but also adds hypertext “links” from topic to topic. An explanation of operations and a complete
description of commands is included along with an introductory tutorial.
Chapter 4 – Menus provides a table listing the menu item, the command (with syntax) issued to
the program, the defined key (if used), and a brief description of what action will be performed by the
command(s).
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros provides a brief description of the how to write and
use macros with CSL and Multi-Speech. Macros are stored lists of operations (i.e., commands), which
allow the user to repeat a series of operations. Macros are invaluable in acoustic analysis systems for
replicating a research protocol or for repeating any series of steps exactly.
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs provides some tips on how MultiSpeech can be used effectively with both CSL and Visi-Pitch.
Chapter 7 – Using Multi-Speech and CSL Options provides brief operating instructions for
accessing the many options for CSL and Multi-Speech.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software deals with installation
procedures and troubleshooting. Other issues covered in this section include the use of the security
key.
Appendix B – Sound Cards provides some information about selecting, and using, an appropriate
multimedia sound card.
Appendix C – IPA Characters provides information about the IPA symbols used in the
programs.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
6
Thank you for purchasing CSL or Multi-Speech. If you haven’t installed these programs, please
read Appendix B – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software and Appendix C – Sound
Cards. Additionally, you should read the separate manual, CSL Hardware Installation, Instruction, and
Maintenance, for more information. If your software has been installed, please proceed to Chapter 2 –
Getting Started.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
7
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
This chapter provides a brief overview of how to operate Multi-Speech and CSL. It will walk you
through a number of steps to familiarize you with some of the program’s capabilities. This chapter is
limited in scope because the program includes a getting started tutorial, which will introduce you to
many of the program’s operations. This tutorial is accessed through Help and it provides you with a
more direct learning experience than does a printed manual.
By following the instructions provided, you will learn the fundamentals of loading the program,
and using a mouse and defined keys, as well as capturing, listening to, and analyzing a signal. This
chapter will also introduce the built-in tutorial and help to complete your introduction process. By
using this chapter and the built-in tutorial, you will, in fact, learn all of the most basic program
operations by actually performing them.
Keep Manuals Handy
You should keep Windows manuals handy when using any Windows application. This manual
does not, and cannot, provide guidance on using Windows. However, by having a Windows manual on
hand, you can obtain the information needed to effectively use this operating system environment.
This manual includes information about using CSL hardware. For Multi-Speech purchases, your
sound card should also have included a manual, which explains the software used for your sound card
controls. Keep this manual handy to make adjustments to your sound card settings.
Preparation for Loading the Program
Before entering the program, be sure that the CSL or Multi-Speech software is installed. (See
Appendix B – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software for instructions.) Additionally, be
sure that the hardware for CSL, or the sound card hardware, has been properly installed. (Hardware
installation is covered in a separate manual.) Then, turn on the monitor, host computer, CSL external
box, preamplifier (if used for Multi-Speech), and external speaker (if used for Multi-Speech).
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
8
Security Key
CSL and Multi-Speech require a security key (a small device, which plugs into the parallel port on
the host computer). Make sure that the security key is firmly plugged into the parallel port on the rear
of the host computer. The programs will not operate without the security key plugged into the parallel
port. You will get a warning from the program if you do not have the security key during program
operations. The warning should appear as follows:
Note that the program can be installed in multiple computers. To use the program in each
computer, simply plug the security key into the host computer in use. If you also have a printer
connected to the host computer, place the security key between the parallel port and the printer. The
security key does not interfere with the operation of the computer and the printer. Note that Windows
NT requires a different software driver for the security key (i.e., one designed specifically for NT).
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
9
Entering the Program
To start the program, proceed as follows:
1.
Start your computer.
2.
Select the file folder for the program as selected during program installation (typically, CSL
or Multi-Speech) and using the mouse, double-click on the icon in the application.
3.
Alternatively, you may enter the program under the Start taskbar.
Figure 2.1: This is a screen captured from a Windows XP-based system. This
figure is illustrative of how Multi-Speech may appear on your folder for MultiSpeech. Individual system’s appearances will vary depending on Windows
settings; and names (i.e., Multi-Speech) are selectable during installation. Note
the program “Multi-Speech” in the file folder along with optional programs
and help files. If CSL is installed, the name of the folder and applications are
defaulted to CSL, but may be changed by the user.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
10
Main Menu
When the program is evoked, a screen is loaded with the Main Menu along the top of the screen
and two blank views (Views A & B). Figure 2.2 displays this screen.
Figure 2.2: The opening screen displays a top menu and two blank views. The
color of the screens and borders is determined by the display setup under
Windows and, therefore, varies among users. CSL will look identical except for
the title name in the upper left corner.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
11
Using a Mouse and Pull-Down Menus
The mouse is just one of the tools used to interact with the program. The program will function
with either a two- or three-button mouse that uses a Microsoft-compatible mouse driver. The mouse
controls a left-pointing arrow on the screen that moves as you slide the mouse across the mouse pad or
tabletop.
Figure 2.3: This is the Main Menu and toolbar of the program.
The Main Menu will appear across the top of the work area (see Figure 2.3), with two view
screens displayed directly below it. Pressing the LEFT mouse button on the desired menu choice
highlights that item on the Main Menu and displays the submenu associated with that particular item.
A submenu may also offer additional options. The strategy of these pull-down menus is to work from
the general to the specific.
With a mouse, you can highlight and select your desired menu choices efficiently and without the
need to type. To cancel your pull-down menu selection, move the mouse cursor anywhere outside the
pull-down menu area, and press the LEFT mouse button. In general, the LEFT mouse button is used to
select an item or implement a function.
Using the Tutorial
This tutorial, which takes about 45 minutes, will walk you through many of the features of the
program. This tutorial is worthwhile for all users because it highlights capabilities while demonstrating
some of the new unique features of CSL and Multi-Speech.
To explore the tutorial, proceed as follows:
1.
From the Main Menu, select Help.
2.
Select Open Help (alternatively, you can press [F1]).
3.
The first help screen has a hyperlink to the tutorial. (A hyperlink is a pointer, which allows
you to jump to another subject.) Click on the button on the last sentence titled “If you
installed the tutorial, you may click here to start it.”
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
12
Figure 2.4: This screen shows a link to the tutorial, which follows the Help introduction.
Once the tutorial has been completed, you can continue exploring the program by proceeding
through this chapter.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
13
Using the Toolbar
The toolbar provides a convenient and quick method of performing commonly used functions.
Figure 2.5: The toolbar for the program is below the menu.
Icon
Description
Command to open a new file to load in active window. It will default to directory named
in user configuration or last used directory for retrieval of a file. User would select file
for loading.
Command to save signal in active window to a file at the default or last used directory.
User names file before it is saved.
Command to activate an available window that precedes the currently active window in
alphabetic order in the window list. This command is used to quickly move to windows,
some of which may be hidden by other windows.
Command to activate the window next in alphabetical order in the window list. This
command is used to quickly move to windows, some of which may be hidden by other
windows.
Command to change pen color in active window to next available color. Color does not
change until redisplayed. Use View (e.g., All Data) to implement changed color.
If there are multiple plots on active window, this command brings previous plot forward.
If there are multiple plots on active window, this command deletes the top plot.
Command to clear the specified window display and remove any data associated with it.
If the purged window was previously linked to another window, it is removed from the
link list.
Command to move the data mark to a specified location in the active window.
Command to link cursor movement, data mark movement, data displaying and selection
area operations in the active window with another window containing compatible data.
Command to initiate analog-to-digital conversion of a signal on the input channel, store
the digital results in memory, and display the waveform in the active window.
Command to generate audio output of one or two range(s) of waveform data in the
source window.
Command to display summary information about the data displayed in the specified
window.
Command to provide numerical values for the active window.
Command to provide the statistical results for numerical values in the active window.
Command to evoke the online Help.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
14
Using Predefined Keys
In addition to accessing program functions with the mouse, the software contains a utility allowing
defined keys to be used for frequently repeated functions. This utility provides quick access to many
important functions. Kay has predefined a number of such special function keys based on extensive
experience with the program. You can also define keys for your own application.
The submenu selections associated with a particular menu choice list some of the predefined keys
or key combinations assigned to perform each program operation. Familiarize yourself with these keys
to facilitate your use of this program. Remember that although you can use the mouse and menu
system to access program operations, whenever possible, you should use the predefined keys to operate
the program most efficiently.
To explore the predefined keys, proceed as follows:
1.
Press [F5] to load a stored signal from disk. In the Folders section, use the mouse to select the
Data directory, followed by the demo subdirectory (see Figure 2.6). Then, select the file
speech.nsp. Next, click Open.
Figure 2.6: The figure above shows the window, which is displayed
when Open (Load)... is selected from the File menu. The contents of
the menu may vary depending on individual set up and options
purchased. In this instance, the sub-directory “demo” was selected
from the “Data” directory.
2.
Press [F3] to play back the loaded signal. You have now used the two defined keys (i.e., [F5]
and [F3]) to quickly load and speak a signal. There are other defined keys to quickly capture a
signal and to perform other functions. They are briefly described later in this chapter in the
section titled “Summary of Defined Keys.”
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
15
Recording a Signal
As described briefly in Chapter 1 – Introduction and in some detail in Appendix C – Sound
Cards, you should be aware of the signal capturing characteristics of the sound card in your system
when using Multi-Speech. Whenever possible, it is always advisable to capture signals using a
professional-level system (e.g., DAT recorder with computer pass-through, ADAT [these are
commonplace in music applications], CSL, or Visi-Pitch). If one is not available, and your application
will not suffer from the reduced sound quality of generic sound cards, proceed to capture a signal as
follows (NOTE: This is not a concern with CSL or Visi-Pitch hardware):
1.
Be sure that your microphone is turned on (the switch is often on the side of the microphone
body). Select File on the Main Menu, and then New (Record). Alternatively, you can press
[F12]. Start speaking into the microphone. As you record, a Capturing dialog box will appear
on the screen, and the waveform of the input signal will be displayed in the active view. Press
the spacebar or Enter, or click on Stop Capture to stop the capturing process.
Figure 2.7: The above figure shows View A during waveform capture.
This waveform may not appear on screen depending on a selection under
Options, Capture.
2.
If the input was not captured, or was captured with the incorrect level or setting, you will need
to adjust the acquisition parameters by using the driver program supplied with your
multimedia sound card. If using Multi-Speech, you may not be able, as in CSL or Visi-Pitch,
to adjust input settings during capture. Instead you may need to stop capturing, evoke the
sound card control program, sequentially change the settings, and then reacquire until you
find the correct setting for the sound card for the microphone sensitivity, microphone position,
and subject loudness. This program must be accessed separately and a manual for this
program should have been supplied with the sound card. Figure 2.8 shows the menu for
controlling the Sound Blaster AWE64 multimedia sound card. If your card has AGC, make
sure that AGC is turned off and microphone input is selected. After making the necessary
adjustments, you can purge the view by pressing [F2] and reacquire using [F12].
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
16
Figure 2.8: The figure above shows the sound card control program with the Recording
Control dialog box.
Note to Multi-Speech users: You can access your sound card input controls using any of
the following procedures:
1. Click on the small speaker icon on the left edge of the Start bar.
2. Go to Start, Programs, Accessories, Entertainment, and then Volume control.
3. Type the command SNDVOL32.EXE in the Run dialog box accessed by pressing
Start and then clicking Run. Most computers have this command available.
3.
Once you have stopped capturing, you will note that a waveform will appear on the screen.
The inputted signal is now stored in computer memory (but not yet to disk).
4.
Next, select File and New (Record), (or simply press [F1]), and say the sentence “We were
away a year ago”. If there is data in the active window, a dialog box titled Purge Window A
will appear stating, “All contents will be removed from window. Do you want to continue?” If
there is data in the active window, click on Yes to purge the view contents in order to record
new data.
5.
Again, to stop data capture, press the spacebar, or Enter, or click on the Stop Capture dialog
box.
Figure 2.9: This figure displays how a view screen looks upon completion of data capture.
View A displays a waveform display of the captured signal (not yet saved to disk).
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
17
Changing Recording Parameters
When the recording process is started, the recording parameters (e.g., sampling rate, number of
channels) are determined by the Capture settings. The following steps can alter these settings:
1.
Select Options from the Main Menu, then Capture.… A dialog box for setting capture (i.e.,
record) parameters is presented as in the following figure.
Figure 2.10: The figure above shows the dialog box for
selecting Multi-Speech capture parameters.
Figure 2.11: The figure above is the dialog box for
adjusting the additional (i.e., record) parameters
for CSL.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
18
Selecting Data
The waveform data can be selected at two points. This selected portion can be referenced for
analysis and for playback.
To select a portion of a signal, proceed as follows:
1.
When you stop data capture, a red line appears at the leftmost point of the view screen. This is
the cursor. To move the cursor, use the mouse arrow to select it, and then press and hold down
the LEFT mouse button. You can now drag and drop this cursor in a new location.
2.
If you press Shift and then simultaneously drag the cursor, an area of the waveform will be
highlighted. This is the “selected area.”
3.
By moving the mouse arrow to the edges of this selected area, you can reposition the starting
and stopping points by dragging the edges to different locations. The color of the “grayed”
area is a function of the color combinations selected in your Windows display setup. If the
gray is too dark for your preference, you can select a different Windows color palette and
explore different color combinations.
4.
If you wish to select all of the data, go to Edit on the Main Menu and click on Select All
Data, or press [-] on the numeric keypad.
Figure 2.12: View A has a waveform, a portion of which has been selected (bracketed
in blue markers) for possible reference in analysis or playback.
Listening to a Signal
The available speak operations include speaking part or all of the signals.
1.
To play all of the signal, select Speak on the Main Menu, then All Data <F3>. Alternatively,
you can press [F3]. You will hear all of the stored signal spoken through the multimedia
sound system.
2.
Next, select Speak, then Selected Data. This will speak the portion of data selected (and
highlighted) from the signal in the active view. Alternatively, you can use [F4] to speak only
the selected portion.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
19
Analyzing the Signal
The program includes a variety of analytical tools. All graphical analysis requires a view screen
display. This is covered extensively in the tutorial. To analyze data, proceed as follows:
1.
Acquire or load data into an empty window (e.g., View A).
2.
Select a window for plotting analytical results (e.g., View B).
3.
Select an analysis technique by clicking Analysis on the Main Menu and then select the
desired analysis mode (e.g., Spectrogram).
4.
Select which portion of the signal you would like to analyze (e.g., All Data, Selected Data,
etc.).
5.
If you wish to adjust some of the analysis set parameters (e.g., spectrogram bandwidth), you
can alter all of these set parameters from the menu by selecting Analysis on the Main Menu,
then Spectrogram, and then Adjust Spectrogram Analysis. You will see a dialog box as in
Figure 2.13. You can then alter the set parameters to suit your analysis requirements. Note,
however, that you will need to reanalyze the signal to utilize the new parameters. (Purge the
active window using [F2] and then reanalyze.)
Figure 2.13: This figure shows the dialog box for changing spectrographic analysis
settings. Click on the new selection and click OK to accept these changes for the next
analysis.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
20
NOTE: The algorithm for pitch extraction used in the program is sensitive to the polarity
of the microphone signal and other microphone/sound card characteristics. If the pitch
analysis shows many missing voice marks, this could be the result of inverted polarity in
the microphone. Many additional marks could be the result of noise in the signal, reduced
signal level, or improper voiced period marks parameters. This can be corrected by
inverting the waveform or by setting the Voiced Period Marks... settings to invert the
waveform during analysis. Please read Appendix C – Sound Cards for a discussion of
these issues. Use the online Help to explore making adjustments (e.g., flipping waveform
or Voiced Period Marks) to the program settings.
Summary of Defined Keys
The function keys have been defined to quickly execute the most common functions of the
program as follows:
Key
Function
Comments
F1
Opens Help
F2
F3
Purges Active Window
Speaks All Data in Active
Window
Speaks Selected Data in
Active Window
Opens a File
Evokes the Help program built into all of Kay’s Windows
applications.
Clears the contents of the active view.
Speaks all of the stored data in the active view.
F4
F5
F6
F9
F12
Saves Contents of Active
View to Disk
Information on Active
Window
Records (i.e., Captures) to
Active Window
Speaks the selected (i.e., highlighted) data in the active
view.
Brings up a dialog box so that you can select the directory
and filename to be loaded to the active window.
Brings up a dialog box so that you can save signal contents
in active view to disk.
Brings up a dialog box of information about the contents of
a view.
If active window is clear, capturing begins directly. If the
active window is not clear, a dialog box will appear asking
if you wish to clear the view for data acquisition. The
capturing will continue in a circular buffer (the oldest data
will be erased when the buffer is filled). When you press
the spacebar or Enter, or the Stop Capture dialog box,
capturing will stop and the last block of time is saved.
Summary
You have reviewed a number of features with the online tutorial, and have now performed a
number of operations that are available using the mouse-driven, pull-down menus and a few
predefined keys. The online Help provides a ready reference of operating procedures and commands. It
can be, and should be, used to explore more operating information.
Chapter 2 – Getting Started
21
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
The program is delivered with extensive operational help (“how-to”), reference information (e.g.,
description of commands), and a tutorial. Online Help is available while you operate the application.
Learning to use this online Help capability and the tutorial are critical in getting the most out of the
program.
The following example shows you how to use Help. Proceed as follows:
1.
After the program is loaded, press [F1] to evoke Help. A screen will appear as follows:
Figure 3.1: This figure illustrates a typical online Help screen.
2.
Then click on Help Topics. Select the tab for Contents. Then double-click on Main Program
Help to see the subject headings covered under Help.
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
22
Figure 3.2: This figure illustrates the Help Topics screen.
3.
Then select Getting Started.
Figure 3.3: This figure illustrates the Help Topics
screen after Getting Started was selected.
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
23
4.
Double-click Identifying Parts of the Work Area. A screen appears as shown in Figure 3.4
below:
Figure 3.4: This Help screen, Identifying Parts of the Work Area,
is just one of the topics found in the Help Contents. It is evoked by
double-clicking Identifying Parts of the Work Area on the Contents
screen.
5.
Select Program Startup by clicking on it with the mouse. A screen appears with information
about the user interface (see Figure 3.5).
Figure 3.5: This figure illustrates the Work Area at Startup Help
screen. This screen may look different depending on Windows
setup.
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
24
6.
You can click on any area of the screen, including the menus, to find out about the work area
at startup. When you have finished exploring, select Help Topics, Back, or << to return to
previous help topic.
7.
Select Signal Data by clicking on it with the mouse. A screen appears with information about
the window containing the signal data (see Figure 3.6).
Figure 3.6: The Signal Data Help screen is shown above.
8.
After reading the copy in this window, select an item on the waveform view for additional
information. Position the mouse on the vertical green line and click (see Figure 3.7).
Figure 3.7: By clicking on the vertical green line, or data mark, you
can obtain additional information about this particular feature.
9.
10.
Click the LEFT mouse button after using this information. Then click on Help Topics to go
back to Help contents.
Select How to.... Then, select Append to find out how to append sampled data.
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
25
Figure 3.8: This is the “How To” list in Help. Most commonly
performed functions used with the program are covered in the
“How To...” section of Help.
11.
Select and click Back beneath the Main Menu to return to Help contents.
12.
Click on Help Topics. Double-click on Main Program Help. Then double click on Command
Reference. Double-click a command such as Filter and you will now see a description of the
filter command.
You have now very briefly explored some portions of the online Help available within the
program.
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
26
Chapter 3 – Using Online Help
27
Chapter 4 – Menus
The program’s menus are the most commonly used method to access the commands within the
program. Other methods include using the defined keys or accessing a macro, which would then
execute a stored series of commands. This chapter will provide information about the menus used in
the program. Note, however, that the menus are text files that can be changed to address specific
customer needs. Users may wish to change the menus to customize them for specific needs.
This chapter contains a table listing the command implemented, the defined key (if used), and a
description of every line on the program menus. These programs are command-driven programs. These
commands can be accessed using the menus, defined keys, macros, or directly using the command line
capabilities of the program. The menus are the most commonly used means of accessing the programs
features. There are twelve titles on the Main Menu.
Figure 4.1: This is the Main Menu. Your menu may appear differently depending on
window settings in the Operating System (i.e., Control Settings…, Display…,
Appearance).
File Menu
The File menu provides access to the commands needed to record a new signal, load a signal from
disk, save a signal from memory to disk, generate a waveform, select configuration files, print, and exit
the program.
Figure 4.2: File Menu.
Chapter 4 – Menus
28
Menu
Commands
Key Explanation of Function
New (Record)
PURGE =; CAPTURE;
SOURCE =
F12
Open (Load)…
PURGE =; LOAD; SOURCE =
F5
Save...
SAVE =
F6
Generate
Waveform...
RESET (to the
User
Configuration)
PURGE =; MKSIG; SOURCE =
SET RESET SESSION;SET
FROM.NOSAVE INI;CLOSE
ALL;WINDOW RESET
WORKAREA
Configuration
Files
Save (Update)
the User
Configuration
File
Save a New
Alternate
Configuration
File
Reset to an
Alternate
Configuration
Reset User
Configuration
to Factory
Settings
Print Screen...
Exit
QUIT
Chapter 4 – Menus
Purges the active window and captures a
new signal. Characteristics of the
recording (e.g., number of channels,
sampling rate, etc.,) are determined by the
Capture options.
Purges the active window and loads new
waveform data from a file. The directory
selected for the loading will be determined
by the directory path selected in the INI
file but Windows updates this
automatically once a file is loaded or
saved to repeat the same directory path.
Saves the waveform data in the active
window to a file in the default directory.
User must name the file.
Purges the active window and generates a
waveform.
Accesses the parameter settings in the user
configuration file. Note that there is only
one user file.
WINDOW SAVEALL
WORKAREA;WINDOW
SAVEALL AT START;SET TO
SESSION
WINDOW SAVEALL
WORKAREA;SET TO
Saves current parameter settings to the
user configuration file.
SET FROM;WINDOW RESET
WORKAREA
Accesses the parameter settings in another
configuration file.
SET FROM INI;SET RESET
DEFAULT; WINDOW RESET
DEFAULT
Deletes session and user configuration
files and resets to factory default.
PRNTSCRN
Accesses dialog box for sending graphic
image of screen to printer.
Exits back to Windows.
Saves current parameter settings to
another configuration file.
29
Edit Menu
This menu provides access to the commands used to edit the waveform and voicing period marks
data. It also provides access to the multi-channel functions.
Figure 4.3: Edit Menu.
Menu
Commands
Key
Select All Data
SELECT 0 *
-
Explanation of Function
Remove Selection
Cursors
Trim Waveform Data
Remove Data Outside
Selection
Remove Data In
Selection
Remove Data Start to
Cursor
Remove Data Cursor
to End
Moves selection edges to start and
end of data in active and linked
windows.
Removes selection marks from the
active window.
TRIM SS SE;SELECT
0 *;MOVE 0
TRIM SS SE X;
SELECT 0 *;MOVE 0;
TRIM 0 = X;SELECT
0 *;MOVE 0
TRIM = * X;
SELECT 0 *
Shift
+Del
Deletes waveform data outside
selected area in active window.
Deletes waveform data inside
selected area in active window.
Deletes waveform data preceding
cursor in active window.
Deletes waveform data following
cursor in active window.
Chapter 4 – Menus
30
Menu
Adjust Signal Offset
All Data
Selected Data
Displayed Data
Copy Source to Active
All Data
Commands
COPY ! 0 *
COPY ! SS SE
Displayed Data
COPY ! < >
Selected Data
Displayed Data
Mix Source Data
All Data
APPEND ! 0
*;SELECT 0 *
APPEND ! SS
SE;SELECT 0 *
APPEND ! < >
SELECT 0 *
MIX ! 0 *
Selected Data
MIX ! SS SE
Displayed Data
MIX ! < >
Modify Source Signal
Duration
All Data
RATESYN ! 0 *
Selected Data
RATESYN ! SS SE
Displayed Data
RATESYN ! < >
Filter Source Data
All Data
FILTER ! 0 *
Selected Data
FILTER ! SS SE
Displayed Data
FILTER ! < >
Chapter 4 – Menus
Explanation of Function
OFFSET = 0 *
OFFSET = SS SE
OFFSET = < >
Selected Data
Append Source to Active
All Data
Key
Copies all waveform data in source
window to empty active window.
Copies selected region of waveform in
source window to empty active
window.
Copies displayed waveform in source
window to empty active window.
Appends all data in source window to
end of waveform in active window.
Appends selected data in source
window to end of waveform in active
window.
Appends data displayed in source
window to end of waveform in active
window.
Performs point-to-point mixing of all
source waveform with active data.
Performs point-to-point mixing of
selected source waveform with active.
Performs point-to-point mixing of
displayed source waveform with active.
Increases or decreases all source
waveform without changing the pitch.
Increases or decreases selected source
waveform without changing the pitch.
Increases or decreases displayed source
waveform without changing the pitch.
Applies currently loaded FIR filter to
all source.
Applies currently loaded FIR filter to
selected area in source.
Applies currently loaded FIR filter to
displayed source.
31
Menu
Commands
Downsample Displayed
Source...
DS ! < >
Scale Displayed Source...
SCALE ! < >
Pre-emph Displayed
Source...
PREEMPH ! < >
Subtract Displayed Source
DIFF ! < >
Flip Displayed Source
FLIP ! < >
Reverse Displayed Source
REVERSE ! < >
Multi-Channel Functions
Split from Next Ch. in
Source
SPLIT !
Join as Next Ch. in
Source
Voiced Period Marks
Go to Previous Impulse
MOVE ={
Go to Next Impulse
MOVE =}
Move Previous Impulse
to Cursor
Move Next Impulse to
Cursor
Add Impulse at Cursor
EDIM R =
Delete Impulse at
Cursor
Delete Impulses in
Selected Data
Copy Signal to Temp File
Paste Signal from Temp
File
Key
If multi-channel, moves next-todisplayed channel from source to empty
active.
Moves 1-channel waveform in active to
next available channel in source.
JOIN !
EDIM L =
EDIM A =
EDIM D =
EDIM D SS SE
SAVE =
C:\Temp.nsp
PURGE =; LOAD
C:\TMP\Temp
.nsp; SOURCE =
Explanation of Function
Downsamples displayed source
waveform to a rate selected from dialog
box.
Adjusts gain of displayed source
waveform by a factor selected from
dialog box.
Pre-emphasizes displayed source
waveform by a factor selected from
dialog box.
Performs point-to-point differencing of
displayed source waveform with active.
Changes the polarity of displayed
source data inverting the waveform.
Reverses the time coordinates of
waveform displayed in source window.
Ctrl+C
Ctrl+V
Moves cursor in active window to the
impulse mark that precedes the cursor.
Moves cursor in active window to the
impulse mark that follows the cursor.
Moves impulse mark preceding cursor
in active right to the cursor location.
Moves impulse mark following cursor
in active left to the cursor location.
Places impulse mark in waveform at
cursor location in active window.
Deletes an impulse mark at the exact
location of the cursor in active window.
Deletes any impulse marks within the
selected area of the active window.
Saves signal data in the active window
to a file.
Purges the active window and loads the
temp file.
Chapter 4 – Menus
32
View Menu
The View menu provides quick access to commands related to how the graphic results are
displayed in a window.
Figure 4.4: View Main Menu.
Menu
Commands
All Data
SHOW 0 *
Selected Data
SHOW SS SE
Between Data Mark and
Cursor
Between Tags Around
Cursor
SHOW = |
Cursor to End
SHOW = *
Start to Cursor
SHOW 0 =
First .1 Sec
SHOW 0 .1
Chapter 4 – Menus
SHOW =[ =]
Key
Explanation of Function
Displays all graphic data associated
with active window.
Displays graphic data in selected
region of active window.
Displays graphic data between green
marking cursor and red data cursor.
Displays waveform from tag
preceding to tag following cursor in
active window.
Displays graphic data from cursor
location to end of data in active
window.
Displays graphic data from start of
data to cursor location in active
window.
Displays first 100 msec of time
domain graphics in active window.
33
Menu
Command
Next .1 Sec
SHOW > >+.1
Key
Last .1 Sec
SHOW *-.1 *
Previous .1 Sec
SHOW <-.1 <
Show Next Waveform
Channel
SIGNAL
CHANNEL NEXT
Put Previous Plot on Top
RECALL
Ctrl+Home
Remove Current (Top) Plot
REMOVE
Ctrl+End
Explanation of Function
Displays next 100 msec of
displayed time domain graphics
in active window.
Displays last 100 msec of time
domain graphics in active
window.
Displays previous 100 msec of
displayed time domain graphics
in active window.
If active window contains
multi-channel waveform,
displays the next channel.
If multiple plots in active,
brings previous plot to front
(except spectrogram).
If multiple analysis plots in
active, deletes the plot that is on
top.
Chapter 4 – Menus
34
Speak Menu
The Speak menu provides access to commands related to speaking or playing the stored signal to
speaker output.
Figure 4.5: Speak Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Key
Explanation of Function
All Data
SPEAK = 0 *
F3
Displayed Data
SPEAK = < >
Selected Data
SPEAK = SS SE
From Start to Cursor
SPEAK = 0 =
All but Selected
(Spliced)
SET SPEAK.SPLICE
TRUE;SPEAK = 0 SS
SE *
SET SPEAK.SPLICE
FALSE;SPEAK = 0
SS SE *
Starts audio output of entire signal
associated with active window.
Starts audio output of signal
associated with displayed area in
active window.
Starts audio output of signal
associated with selected region in
active window.
Starts audio output of signal from
start to cursor in active window.
Starts audio output of all but selected
signal, splicing out selected data.
All but Selected
(Unspliced)
Chapter 4 – Menus
F4
Starts audio output of all but selected
signal, replacing selected by silence.
35
Analysis Menu
The Analysis menu has the various commands for generating a graphical or numerical analysis.
Figure 4.6: Analysis menu after the Spectrogram
submenu is selected. Note that the spectrogram
parameters can be adjusted with “Adjust Spectrogram
Analysis”.
Menu
Command
LPC Frequency Response
LPC Frequency Response
at Cursor
LPC ! =
Adjust LPC Frequency
Response...
LPC Waterfall
SET LPC
All Data
Selected Data
Displayed Data
Adjust LPC Waterfall…
FFT Power Spectrum
FFT Power Spectrum at
Cursor
Adjust FFT Power
Spectrum...
FFT ! =
SET FFT
Key
Explanation of Function
Computes LPC frequency response
of frame of data at the cursor in
source.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
LPC analysis/display parameters.
Generates a series of LPC frequency
responses displayed in a waterfall
array.
Displays results of all data in a
waterfall array.
Displays results of selected data in a
waterfall array.
Displays results of displayed data in
a waterfall array.
Allows changes in analysis, framing,
and display parameters.
Computes FFT-based power
spectrum of frame of data at the
cursor in source.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
FFT analysis/display parameters.
Chapter 4 – Menus
36
Menu
Command
FFT Waterfall
Selected Data
Displayed Data
Adjust FFT Waterfall
LTA ! 0 *
Selected Data
LTA ! SS SE
Displayed Data
LTA ! < >
Adjust LTA Power
Spectrum…
SET LTA
Cepstrum Analysis
Cepstrum of FFT in
Window B
USE C; CEPSTRUM B
FFT of Cepstrum in
Window C
USE B; FFT C 3.0
Adjust Cepstrum
Analysis...
SET CEPSTRUM
Chapter 4 – Menus
Explanation of Function
Generates a series of discrete
power spectra using the FFT
algorithm and displays the results
in a waterfall array.
Displays results of all data in a
waterfall array.
Displays results of selected data
in a waterfall array.
Displays results of all displayed
data in a waterfall array.
Accesses dialog box for
controlling FFT waterfall
analysis/framing/display
parameters.
All Data
LTA Power Spectrum
All Data
Key
Computes FFT-based long-term
average spectrum of all data in
source.
Computes FFT-based long-term
average spectrum of selected data
in source.
Computes FFT-based long-term
average spectrum of displayed
data in source.
Accesses dialog box for
controlling LTA analysis/display
parameters.
Inverse spectrum of log
magnitudes of spectrum in
Window B results put in C.
Smoothed spectrum from first 3
msec of cepstrum in Window C
results put in B.
Accesses dialog box for
controlling cepstrum
analysis/display parameters.
37
Menu
Command
Spectrogram
All Data
SPG ! 0 *
Selected Data
SPG ! SS SE
Displayed Data
SPG ! < >
1st Sec. of Displayed
SPG ! < <+1.
1st 2 Secs. of Displayed
SPG ! < <+2.
Adjust Spectrogram
Analysis
Formant History
All Data
SET SPG
FMT ! 0 *
Selected Data
FMT ! SS SE
Displayed Data
FMT ! < >
1st Sec. of Displayed
FMT ! < <+1.
1st 2 Secs. of Displayed
FMT ! < <+2.
Adjust Formant
History...
Voiced Period Marks
All Data
Selected Data
Displayed Data
Adjust Voiced Period
Analysis
SET FMT
IMPULSE 0 *
IMPULSE SS
SE
IMPULSE < >
SET IMPULSE
Key
Explanation of Function
Computes an FFT-based 3D spectrogram
of all data in source.
Computes FFT-based 3D spectrogram of
data in selected region of source.
Computes an FFT-based 3D spectrogram
of data displayed in source.
Computes FFT-based 3D spectrogram of
first sec of data in source.
Computes FFT-based 3D spectrogram of
first 2 secs of data in source.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
spectrogram analysis/display parameters.
Computes LPC-based formants from
sequential frames of all data in source.
Computes LPC-based formants from
sequential frames of selected data in
source.
Computes LPC-based formants from
sequential frames of displayed data in
source.
LPC-based formants from sequential
frames in first sec of data in source.
LPC-based formants from sequential
frames in first 2 secs of data in source.
Accesses dialog box for controlling LPCbased formant history parameters.
Marks locations separating voiced periods
in all waveform data in active.
Marks locations separating voiced periods
in selected waveform in active.
Marks locations separating voiced periods
in waveform displayed in active.
Accesses dialog box for controlling pitch
period analysis parameters.
Chapter 4 – Menus
38
Menu
Command
Pitch Contour
All Data
PITCH ! 0 *
Selected Data
PITCH ! SS SE
Displayed Data
PITCH ! < >
Adjust Pitch Contour...
SET PITCH
Energy Contour
All Data
Selected Data
ENERGY ! 0 *
Displayed Data
ENERGY ! SS
SE
ENERGY ! < >
Adjust Energy Contour...
SET ENERGY
Compute Result Statistics
Produce Numerical Results
Chapter 4 – Menus
STATS
RESULT
Key
Explanation of Function
Computes fundamental frequency contour
from all data in source.
Computes fundamental frequency contour
from selected data in source.
Computes fundamental frequency contour
from data displayed in source.
Accesses dialog box for controlling F0
analysis/display parameters.
Computes energy contour from all data in
source window.
Computes energy contour from data in
the selected area in source window.
Computes energy contour from data
displayed in source window.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
energy analysis/display parameters.
Gets stats of last analysis results in active.
Displays numerical results of last analysis
in active with print/save options.
39
Tags Menu
Tags are user-defined pointers that can be stored with the waveform file. Tags provide useful
reference points for analysis, editing, and speaking. Additionally, comments can be inserted at each tag
location.
Figure 4.7: Tag Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Insert Tag at Cursor
TAG ADD =
Delete Tag At Cursor
Delete Tags In Selected
Data
Edit Tag at Cursor
TAG DELETE =
TAG DELETE SS
SE
TAG EDIT =
Query Tag at Cursor
TAG QUERY =
Go to Previous Tag
MOVE =[
Go to Next Tag
MOVE =]
Move Previous Tag to
Cursor
Move Next Tag to Cursor
TAG MOVE =[ =
Select Data at Tags Around
Cursor
TAG MOVE =] =
SELECT =[ =]
Key
Explanation of Function
Places tag at cursor in active waveform
displaying field for comment entry.
Deletes tag at cursor in active window.
Deletes any tags in selected area of
waveform data in active.
Displays comment field of any tag at
cursor allowing comment entry or editing.
Displays comment information associated
with any tag at cursor in active.
Moves cursor in active window to a tag
that precedes the cursor.
Moves cursor in active window to a tag
that follows the cursor.
Moves a tag that precedes cursor in active
right to the cursor location.
Moves a tag that follows cursor in active
left to the cursor location.
Selects the data at the tags that precede
and follow cursor in active window.
Chapter 4 – Menus
40
IPA Menu
The IPA menu provides access to the IPA related commands which allow the display, insertion,
and editing of IPA transcription symbols.
Figure 4.8: IPA Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Display IPA Symbol Table
Remove IPA Symbol Table
Go to Previous IPA Symbol
ATTACH IPA
DETACH IPA
MOVE =(
Go to Next IPA Symbol
MOVE =)
Delete IPA Symbol at
Cursor
Delete IPA Symbol in
Selected Data
Move Previous IPA Symbol
to Cursor
Move Next IPA Symbol to
Cursor
Load IPA Symbols to
Keyboard
IPA DELETE =
DEFINE FROM
IPA.KEY
Shift
+F1
Restore Keyboard to Normal
DEFINE FROM
INI
Shift
+F2
Chapter 4 – Menus
Key
IPA DELETE SS
SE
IPA MOVE =( =
IPA MOVE =) =
Explanation of Function
Displays IPA symbol table.
Removes IPA symbol table.
Moves cursor in active window to the
IPA symbol that precedes the cursor.
Moves cursor in active window to the
IPA symbol that follows the cursor.
Deletes an IPA symbol at the exact
location of the cursor in active window.
Deletes any IPA symbols in selected
area of waveform data in active.
Moves an IPA symbol that precedes
cursor in active right to cursor location.
Moves an IPA symbol that follows
cursor in active left to cursor location.
Configures keyboard for typing IPA
symbols into window containing
waveform.
Removes the IPA keyboard
configuration.
41
Macros Menu
The Macro menu provides access to the macro capability of the program. Macros are sequences of
commands stored as a text file.
Figure 4.9: Macros Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Record
MACRO LEARN;
MACRO DISPLAY
Display Commands
MACRO DISPLAY
Delete Last Command
MACRO UNDO
Save...
MACRO SAVE
Stop
MACRO EXIT
Run...
MACRO RUN
Configuration
Save Current Configuration for Macro...
Reset to Saved Macro
Configuration...
Return to User
Settings at End of
Macro
WINDOW SAVEALL
WORKAREA; SET TO
SET FROM; WINDOW
RESET WORKAREA
SET FROM.NOSAVE
INI
Key
Explanation of Function
Enters learn mode to record
commands to Macro Commands
dialog box.
Displays dialog box of commands if
option chosen previously to hide it.
Removes the last command issued for
storage in the macro when in learn
mode.
When in macro learn mode, saves
macro without exiting, requesting
filename.
Exits from macro learn mode with
option to save an unsaved file.
Accesses macro directory for selecting
and executing a macro file.
Saves current parameter and window
settings to a named configuration file.
Accesses parameter and window settings from a named configuration file.
Resets the configuration to the user
configuration.
Chapter 4 – Menus
42
Log Menu
The Log menu provides access to the logging capability of the program. Logs are text files of
information extracted from cursors within the program. The program allows the user to structure log
files and selectively write cursor values to these log files. These files can then be exported to other
programs (e.g., Excel) for further analysis.
Figure 4.10: Log Main Menu
Menu
Command
Open...
LOG OPEN
Display Current Entry
LOG ENTRY
Display All Entries
LOG DISPLAY
Enter Current Values
LOG ADD
Clear Last Values
LOG UNDO
Save Current Entry
LOG SAVE
Close
LOG CLOSE
Chapter 4 – Menus
Key
Explanation of Function
Loads log file or opens new log
including opening and labeling log
fields.
Displays current log entry values with
option to save to log file.
Displays existing log data with
facilities to scroll through records.
Adds values at cursors of all linked
windows to current log entry field.
Deletes the last values entered into the
current log field.
Writes the current entry to the logbook
without closing the log.
Terminates log operations.
43
Options Menu
The Options menu provides access to the many different adjustments within the program for
analysis, editing, capture, and speaking functions.
Figure 4.11: Shows the Options Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Capture...
SET CAPTURE
Waveform...
SET SIGNAL
Speak...
SET SPEAK
IPA Transcription...
SET IPA
Analysis
LPC Frequency
Response...
FFT Power Spectrum...
SET FFT
LTA Power Spectrum...
SET LTA
Cepstrum Analysis...
SET CEPSTRUM
Spectrogram...
SET SPG
Formant History...
SET FMT
SET LPC
Key
Explanation of Function
Accesses dialog box for selecting
capture parameters.
Accesses dialog box for selecting
waveform data attributes to display.
Accesses dialog box for selecting
audio output control options.
Accesses dialog box for selecting IPA
transcription options.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
LPC analysis/display parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
FFT analysis/display parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
LTA analysis/display parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
cepstrum analysis/display parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
spectrogram analysis/display
parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
LPC-based formant history
parameters.
Chapter 4 – Menus
44
Menu
Command
Analysis (continued)
Voiced Period Marks...
SET IMPULSE
Compute Signal Offset
Voicing Analysis...
IMPULSE
CALIBRATE
SET VX
Pitch Contour...
SET PITCH
Energy Contour...
SET ENERGY
Editing
Signal Offset...
SET OFFSET
Copy...
SET COPY
Append...
SET APPEND
Mix...
SET MIX
Filter...
SET FILTER
Source Data Duration...
SET RATESYN
Window Attributes...
Chapter 4 – Menus
SET WINDOW
Key
Explanation of Function
Accesses dialog box for controlling
pitch period analysis parameters.
Calculates the DC offset produced by
the hardware.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
voicing threshold parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
F0 analysis/display parameters.
Accesses dialog box for controlling
energy analysis/display parameters.
Accesses dialog box for adjusting
signal offset (i.e., from zero).
Accesses dialog box for selecting
waveform-copying options.
Accesses dialog box for selecting
waveform-appending options.
Accesses dialog box for selecting
addition or averaging of amplitude
values.
Accesses dialog box for loading,
creating, saving, and evaluating FIR
filter.
Accesses dialog box for selecting
signal duration options.
Accesses dialog box for selecting
window configuration options.
45
Window Menu
The Window menu provides access to the Windows of the program. Windows are the work area
for graphic results of analysis and display. Linking functions and toolbar selections are also included in
the Window menu.
Figure 4.12: Shows the Window Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Open New Window
WINDOW
Creates new window over active
window with attributes of active.
WINDOW
WAVEFORM
WINDOW
SPECTROGRAM
Creates and activates new window
designed for displaying waveforms.
Creates and activates new window
designed for displaying
spectrograms.
Creates and activates new window
designed for displaying contours or
waveform.
Creates and activates new window
designed for displaying discrete
FFTs and LPCs.
Open Preset Windows
For Waveforms etc.
For Spectrograms etc.
For Analysis Contours
etc.
WINDOW
CONTOUR
For Frequency Response
etc.
WINDOW
RESPONSE
Key
Explanation of Function
Chapter 4 – Menus
46
Menu
Command
Close Active Window
CLOSE =
Close All Windows
CLOSE ALL
Purge Active Window
PURGE = YES
Activate Next Window
NEXT
Activate Previous Window
PREV
Link Windows...
Link to Source Window
LINK !
Unlink Active Window
UNLINK
Show Current Links
LINK
Select Active Window as
Source
SOURCE =
Information on Active
Window...
Show Toolbar
Hide Toolbar
INFO
Cascade
Tile Horizontally
Tile Vertically
Chapter 4 – Menus
SET TOOLBAR ON
SET TOOLBAR
OFF
WINDOW
CASCADE
WINDOW TILE
HORIZONTAL
WINDOW TILE
VERTICAL
Key
F2
F9
Explanation of Function
Purges the active window and
removes it from the work area.
Purges all windows and removes
them from the work area.
Clears the active window and
removes any associated data.
Activates next window in
alphabetical order. Windows are
labeled A to Z.
Activates previous window in
alphabetical order. Windows are
labeled A to Z.
Links cursor movement selection
and display in active window to
source.
Unlinks active window from any
other windows it was previously
linked to.
Displays list of any windows linked
to the active window.
Makes active window the signal
source for subsequent analysis or
editing.
Displays summary information about
the most recent data placed in active.
Displays the toolbar.
Hides the toolbar.
Arranges all available windows in
cascading order with active on top.
Arranges all available windows into
horizontal tiles with active in top
left.
Arranges all available windows into
vertical tiles with active in top left.
47
Help Menu
The Help menu provides access to the Help functions of the program.
Figure 4.13: Shows the Help Main Menu.
Menu
Command
Key
Explanation of Function
Open Help
About ...
HELP
VERSION
F1
Opens Help document.
Displays information about the
program.
Chapter 4 – Menus
48
Chapter 4 – Menus
49
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
Introduction
A macro (or command file) is a text file that contains a list of commands that are sequentially
executed when the selected macro is run. Macros provide an easy way to repeat a series of commands
that would otherwise have to be implemented one at a time. If any process you are performing requires
repetitive steps, consider using a macro to speed up the process. Also, macros ensure that the exact
same sequence of commands is used each time and are; therefore, useful for research protocols,
teaching exercises for students, and clinical protocols.
You may create a command file while executing commands by setting the program to “learn”
mode. All subsequent commands and command parameters that are executed (with the exception of
macro commands) will be recorded to a macro file.
This application is delivered with many demonstration macros, which may have utility as written.
More importantly, the demonstration macros not only illustrate the features of the program, but the
usefulness of macros as well. Experiment with these macros to learn more about the program and how
macros can be used.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
50
List of Delivered Macros with Description
Macro Directory
and Name
Description
AH
ALS
LTA of model versus subject sustained “ah”.
SPG with FMT of model versus subject target word (e.g., hail,
sew, sigh, wax).
LTA of model versus subject sustained “ah”. Shows energy above
6 kHz in “breathy” voicing.
Cepstral analysis of model versus subject sustained “ah”.
Demonstration of multiple analyses in single window, and the
RECALL and REMOVE features, SPG, Pitch, Energy, FFT, and
LPC.
Demonstration of typical speech analysis (pitch energy, SPG
[wide and narrowband], formant, FFT, and LPC analyses).
LPC of subject vowel.
Demonstration of selecting and marking features.
Demonstration of multi-channel signal analysis, signal with nasal
mic., nasalance output, and Lx signal combined.
Demonstration of palate window, IPA transcription, tagged
signals, and linked views.
Overlaid pitch and energy analysis of subject utterance.
Demonstration of filtering using simulated phone line filter.
Pitch and energy analysis of stimulus file versus subject attempt.
400 Hz sine wave sampled at various rates for purpose of sound
card testing.
Vocal utterance sampled at various rates to illustrate sound card
capabilities and advantages of higher sampling rates.
Narrowband SPG analysis of model versus subject utterance.
Wideband SPG analysis of model versus subject utterance.
Pitch, energy, LTA, and voicing parameters calculated for subject
sustained “ah”.
BREATHY
CEPSTRUM
DEMO
FMT
LPC
MARK
MULTI
PALJOE
PCH_ENG
PHONE
PITCH
PITCHTST
SAMPLING
SPGNAROW
SPGWIDE
VOICING
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
51
Creating a Macro Flowchart
Creating a macro is generally a three-step operation:
1.
Determine the commands necessary to implement what you want to do.
2.
Configure the workspace, adjust the desired settings, and save these settings to a configuration
file (i.e., an INI file).
3.
Author a macro by first calling the desired INI file and then execute the desired commands.
Save this macro to a file for later recall.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
52
There are a number of detailed operations within these three general steps. These operations are
described in the following flowchart:
Outline what you want the macro to do.
Set the workspace (e.g., windows) and set all parameters (e.g.,
spectrogram bandwidth). You may wish to use a previously defined
configuration file and then modify it.
Store workspace and set parameters to a configuration file; an .INI file
(e.g., TEST.INI). Save this configuration by selecting Macros,
Configuration, Save Current Configuration for Macro....
Start recording the macro. Click Macros on the Main Menu and then
Record or use a text editor (e.g., Notepad.exe) to store a set of
commands.
First commands to store are commands to recall desired INI while
specifying that you do not wish to save these changes by adding SET
FROM before the INI file (e.g., SET FROM filename .INI) and set
window work area by using the commands WINDOW RESET
WORKAREA. To accomplish above, select Macros, Configuration,
Reset To Saved Macro Configuration.
Add operational commands to acquire, load, analyze, and speak signals.
These can be recorded in Macros on the Main Menu and then Record or
use a text editor.
If you wish to change a set parameter from the setting in the INI during
a macro, remember to reset to prior condition after using new set
parameter.
End macro by adding line to set to previous working environment
before macro was evoked by typing two lines at end of macro SET
FROM.NOSAVE INI or select Macros, Configuration, Return To User
Settings at End of Macro.
Use text editor (e.g., Notepad) to alter and enhance macro and INI.
Save without exiting and rerun macro while editor is resident. [Alt-tab]
back and forth between macro, .INI, and Multi-Speech until macro
performs as desired. Always save from editor before running macro.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
53
Creating Configuration Files for Macros
It is desirable to define the work area layout and set the program parameters in a specific manner.
When macro execution is completed, you usually want to restore the previous settings for normal
program operation. The program allows you to create program configuration files, and to select which
configuration file to use. These configuration files can be used by many difference macros. To create a
configuration file, proceed as follows.
1.
Open and arrange windows in the work area in the layout you desire, and set the program
parameters (e.g., capture rate, spectrogram bandwidth). User Tip: You may wish to call a
configuration file used by a factory-delivered macro to get close to the configuration you
desire. If so, you can experiment with the different macros to find windows and other settings
suitable for your tasks. Then retrieve this configuration file.
2.
When the program is configured to your liking, save the window layout and parameter
settings to an INI file. On the Main Menu select Macros, Configuration, and then Save
Current Configuration for Macro... from the displayed submenu.
3.
A standard File Saving dialog box is displayed in which you may enter a name (and
optionally the drive and directory location) for the file. It is recommended that an INI file
extension be added to the filename to identify it as a configuration file. Click OK to complete
the file save operation.
4.
Proceed to the next section to develop your macro. Note the name of the configuration file
saved in step 3 because you will need to retrieve it during the macro creation.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
54
Creating a Macro
Creating a macro is straightforward. First, set up the settings the way you want and save
configuration (see the previous section). Then proceed to create your macro as follows:
1.
Evoke the learn function by selecting Macros from the Main Menu, then Record. A dialog
box appears. The figure below shows a dialog box after selecting the desired commands.
Figure 5.1: This is an unsaved dialog box that displays the
commands that are selected. In the example above, the user was
in the learn mode and selected Macros, Configuration, Reset to
Saved Macro Configuration…. Then user clicked View A,
captured a signal (using [F12]), clicked View B and selected a
spectrogram of all data from Analysis on the Main Menu,
Spectrogram, then All Data. To conclude, the user selected
Macros on the Main Menu, Configuration, then Return to User
Settings at End of Macro.
2.
When you create a macro, include a command at the beginning to set the parameters
appropriately for the task by activating a saved configuration file (i.e., SET FROM
NAME.INI). You can select this INI from the command line or from the dialog box from
Macros on the Main Menu, Configuration, then Reset to Saved Macro Configuration….
3.
Reconfigure the work area by using the command line (i.e., WINDOW RESET
WORKAREA). This will be done automatically for you if you selected Reset to Saved
Macro Configuration… from the menu.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
55
4.
Add the commands you want to implement. Include a command at the end of the macro to
restore the settings that existed before macro execution began by activating the previous
configuration file (i.e., SET FROM.NOSAVE INI). Select Macros on the Main Menu,
Configuration, then Return to User Settings at End of Macro.
Therefore, all macros will share a structure as follows with filename .INI representing the
name of the INI file called for in the macro and “Insert command 1-3 here” representing the
list of commands included in the macro:
SET FROM filename.INI
WINDOW RESET WORKAREA
Insert command 1 here
Insert command 2 here
Insert command 3 here
Etc.
SET FROM.NOSAVE INI
5.
Macro files may also be created externally to the program. Use any standard text editor to
create or edit a macro file containing a series of commands, which the program will recognize
and perform. If you use a word processor to write or edit a macro, remember to store it as a
.TXT file (e.g., not a .doc). This file of commands is then named and saved.
NOTE: The program always writes any configuration changes to the current
configuration file (i.e., current INI). Therefore, to change a set parameter during a
macro (e.g., spectrogram bandwidth to display both wide and narrowband
spectrograms) after the macro’s INI file has been loaded, it is critical to reset the
changed parameter to the initial setting once you have used the new set parameter.
For example, if the INI file specified a 50-point bandwidth size for a spectrogram
bandwidth, but, in the macro, you wish to also display a 512-point bandwidth size
spectrogram in a view, proceed as follows:
1. After a 50-point spectrogram bandwidth is used first in macro (defined from
INI), change bandwidth (i.e., SET SPG.BANDWIDTH 512).
2. Use new setting (e.g., SPG A 0 *).
3. Then restore setting of INI (i.e., SET SPG.BANDWIDTH 50).
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
56
Displaying or Hiding the Macro Dialog Box
1.
If you entered macro “learn” mode by selecting Macros on the Main Menu, then Record, the
macro dialog box is automatically displayed. If you entered macro mode from the command
line, or if you have hidden the macro dialog box, you may view a macro dialog box by typing
MACRO DISPLAY on the command line or by selecting Macros from the Main Menu, then
Display Commands. This box displays the macro commands as they appear in the command
file. Also, several buttons, which execute certain macro commands, appear inside the box. If
the macro has been named, the filename appears at the top of the dialog box.
2.
To remove the box from the work area, click on HIDE inside the macro dialog box or type
MACRO HIDE on the command line.
Removing a Command from the Macro
1.
If the last command was incorrectly specified, you may delete it from the command file by
typing MACRO UNDO on the command line or by selecting Macros from the Main Menu,
then Delete Last Command.
2.
Alternatively, if the macro dialog box is displayed in the work area (see above), you may
select any line in the Macro Commands box that you want to delete and click UNDO. Then
click within the application work area and continue recording your macro.
NOTE: Commands may be entered by using the command line, the menu line, the
toolbar, or predefined keys. Commands executed using a window dialog box are
recorded, but the selection made within the dialog box is not recorded. Therefore, if
you use a dialog box to make selections, you will need to text edit the macro later to
add specific information.
Saving the Macro Without Exiting Macro Learn Mode
1.
In order to save a macro without exiting learn mode, do one of the following:
a.
Type MACRO SAVE on the command line.
b.
From the Macro menu, select Save.
c.
If the macro dialog box is displayed (see above), click SAVE.
2.
The program will display a Save Macro File dialog box. Select the directory location for the
macro file and enter a filename. Then click SAVE or press Enter to save the macro.
3.
The program will automatically add a .MAC extension to the file when it is saved.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
57
Exiting Macro Mode
1.
If you started the macro by re-configuring the work area and setting the program parameters,
you must add a command at the end of the macro to restore the program configuration that
existed prior to macro execution. To add this command to the macro, select Macros from the
Main Menu, Configuration, then Return to User Settings at End of Macro from the
displayed submenu. Note that this command activates the previous configuration file only. If
you want to restore the work area to the previous layout, type WINDOW RESET
WORKAREA on the command line after activating the configuration file.
2.
To exit macro “learn” mode, do one of the following:
3.
a.
Type MACRO EXIT on the command line.
b.
From the Macros Main Menu, select Stop.
c.
If the macro dialog box is displayed (see above), click EXIT.
If the command file has been modified and the changes have not been saved, you will be
asked if you wish to save the changes before exiting. Select YES to save the changes and exit
macro mode. Select NO to exit macro mode without saving changes to the macro file. Select
CANCEL to cancel the operation and return to macro learn mode.
USER TIP: If you are editing a previously written macro to add finishing touches
(e.g., message commands to clarify actions needed by user of macro), an effective
technique is to open the macro using a text editor (e.g., Notepad). Keep the program
loaded, [ALT-TAB] to Notepad to edit the macro, save it, [ALT-TAB] back to the
program, and run the macro again. You can keep flipping between Notepad and the
program until you are pleased with the macro. Note that you will need to save the
altered macro from Notepad before the program will run the altered version,
because the program only reads from the file stored on disk, not the active file in
Notepad.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
58
Running a Macro
1.
Once you have created and saved a command file, you may run it from within the program.
Note that, as a rule, the first command in a macro is to reconfigure the work area so that
windows are displayed and program parameters are set appropriately. Existing windows, and
all data in them, are deleted before the new windows are displayed. Before you run a macro,
you must save to a file any existing data that you want to retrieve at a later time.
2.
To run your macro, do one of the following:
a.
From the Macros Main Menu, select Run....
b.
Type MACRO RUN on the command line.
3.
A Load Macro File dialog box appears in which you may select the macro file you wish to
run. If the desired macro file is not listed, scroll through the directories until you find the file.
If the file extension is not .MAC, change the extension in the Files of Type box.
4.
Click OPEN to run the selected file, or CANCEL to cancel the operation.
5.
Optionally, to run a macro you may enter MACRO RUN filename on the command line,
where filename is the name of the macro file. Filename must include the file extension and
may include the full directory path. This causes the named macro to be run automatically,
without scrolling though the Load Macro File dialog box.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
59
Using Configuration Files
A default program initialization file is included with the program delivery. This factory default file
is never altered by the program. When you run the program, a temporary “session” file is created to
store all work area layout and parameter setting changes. You have the option of saving these changes
to a user configuration file or to another configuration file.
Each time a command is executed, the program searches for any required parameter settings first
in the active configuration file (which is usually the temporary “session” file). If the settings are not
found in this file, the program then looks in the user configuration file, if it exists, or finally in the
default configuration file.
Saving Configuration Files
NOTE: All parameter-setting changes you make are saved in the currently active
initialization file, reported in a box on the status line. If the user configuration file
xxxUSER.INI is the active file, changes are saved in a temporary “session” file until
specifically written to the user file. Thus, you can discard the changes when the session
ends, so that each session starts from the same configuration.
1.
When the work area layout or command parameter settings are changed, these changes are
stored in the active configuration file, which is usually the temporary “session” file.
2.
You have the option of saving changes stored in the “session” file to a user configuration file.
Select File on the Main Menu, Configuration Files, then Save (Update) the User
Configuration File, or select the Save Configuration option when you exit the program. The
current window layout and parameter settings are copied from the “session” file into the user
configuration file.
3.
You may create a number of configuration files, each designed to configure the program for a
specific task. These configuration files can be used, for example, to define the work area
layout and program variables for use in a macro.
4.
To save the changes in the “session” file to another configuration file, select File on the Main
Menu, Configuration Files, then Save a New Alternate Configuration File. A standard file
saving box is displayed, allowing entry of the drive, directory location, and name for the
configuration file. It is recommended that an .INI file extension be included with the filename,
to identify the file type. Click SAVE to complete the file save operation. The current window
layout and parameter settings are copied from the “session” file into the named configuration
file.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
60
Activating Configuration Files
WARNING: When you reset the program, existing windows are deleted and all data are lost.
Before executing any of these commands, you should save to disk storage any data that you
want to retrieve at a later time.
1.
At any time, you can reset the program to the default (factory-delivered) configuration by
selecting File on the Main Menu, Configuration Files, then Reset User Configuration to
Factory Settings. This will delete the user configuration file, if it exists, and erase the
contents of the “session” file before redrawing the work area with the default layout. The
cleared “session” file is still the active configuration file and will hold any changes from this
point forward.
2.
You can reset the program to the work area layout and parameter settings defined in the user
configuration file, if it exists. Select File on the Main Menu, then RESET (to the User
Configuration). The “session” file is overwritten by the last saved work area and parameter
settings from the user configuration file. The “session” file is still the active configuration file.
3.
If you have created other configuration files, you can reset the program to any saved
configuration by selecting File on the Main Menu, Configuration Files, then Reset to an
Alternate Configuration. The named configuration file becomes the active file, and the
configuration file box on the status line is updated to display the name of this file. Any
subsequent changes to the work area layout or parameter settings are automatically written to
this configuration file.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
61
Work Area Layout
You can save the template of a window in the active initialization file. Subsequently, you can
create a new window based on the defined window template. Similarly, you can save a grouping of
windows, so that you can redraw the work area to contain a defined group of windows. Commands
also exist for cascading and tiling the existing windows in the work area.
Saving a Group of Windows
1.
You may create a number of windows in the work area. The attributes for this group of
windows can be saved to a unique group name. Later, you may reset the work area to display
this defined group of windows.
2.
On the command line, type WINDOW SAVEALL group_name, where group_name is a text
string that will uniquely identify the group of windows. This group name will be stored in a
GROUP.group_name section of the session file, along with information providing the size,
position within the work area, and window settings for every window currently existing in the
work area.
This defined group will only be accessible while the current session file is valid. To save the
window grouping for later sessions, the configuration must be saved to either the User
Configuration or preferably another named file (e.g., SET TO NAME.INI).
3.
When you save program parameters to a configuration file using the menu commands, the
current work area layout is automatically saved to a group named GROUP.WORKAREA.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
62
Restoring a Group of Windows
1.
After the settings for all windows in the work area are saved to a unique group name, you may
restore the work area to redisplay the saved window setup. Note that when you reset the work
area with a saved group of windows, the existing windows are deleted and all existing data are
lost before the new windows are opened.
2.
To restore the work area to any previously saved setup defined in the current configuration
file, type WINDOW RESET group_name on the command line, where group_name is a
unique name for a group of windows you have defined previously using the
WINDOW SAVEALL command (see above). If group_name is not entered, the work area is
redrawn with the window setup that existed at program startup.
3.
When you set the program parameters from a configuration file using the menu commands,
the work area is redrawn from the window group [GROUP.WORKAREA] defined in that file.
Rearranging the Windows in the Work Area
1.
You may rearrange the windows in the work area so that they are cascaded or tiled. This does
not affect any data in the windows. Minimized windows remain minimized.
2.
To overlap (cascade) the windows with the active window in front and the title bar for each
window visible, do one of the following:
3.
4.
a.
From the Window Main Menu, select Cascade.
b.
Type WINDOW CASCADE on the command line.
To redraw the windows with similar sizes so they are all fully displayed in the work area, do
one of the following:
a.
To rearrange the windows into horizontal tiles, select Window on the Main Menu, then
Tile Horizontally, or type WINDOW TILE HORIZONTAL on the command line.
b.
To arrange the windows into vertical tiles, select Window on the Main Menu, then Tile
Vertically, or type WINDOW TILE VERTICAL on the command line.
At any time, you may reset the work area to the window layout at program startup by typing
WINDOW RESET AT START on the command line. Note that when you use this command,
all data in the windows are deleted before the windows are redrawn.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
63
Macro Example
Below is a sample print of a macro delivered with the program. Note that any line beginning with
an asterisk (i.e., *), blank lines, or characters before commands are ignored by the program during
execution. They are added to a macro so that the macro can be more easily understood when
subsequently reviewed.
*
* FMT.MAC - Pitch, energy and SPG w/ FMT of sample file.
* Updated 9 Jan 04
*
SET FROM FMT.INI
*This set command loads the selected .INI file which stores all
*of the setup information for the commands used in this *macro.
CLOSE ALL
*This command closes all of the opened windows so that new Windows can
*be created.
WINDOW RESET WORKAREA
* Creates the Windows, sets the source window and assigns the window to display the
* waveform data.
USE A
*This command makes Window A the active window and ready to receive graphic
* displays.
LOAD SPEECH.NSP
* Load the sampled data file.
SPEAK A 0 *
SPEAK A 0 *
SELECT 0.7 1.6
* Speak the file twice, then select the region from 0.7 to 1.6 seconds.
SPEAK A SS SE
SPEAK A SS SE
MOVE .95
* Speak the selected region twice, zoom in on the selected region,
* then move the cursor to a location for future analysis.
USE B
* Activate view screen B
PITCH A 0 *
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
64
* Do a pitch analysis of all the data.
USE C
* Activate view screen C
ENERGY A <>
* Do an ENERGY analysis of all the data.
USE D
* Activate view screen D
SPG A SS SE
* Perform a wide band spectral analysis of the selected region.
USE E
* Activate view screen E
SET SPG.LENGTH 512
*Adjust the spectrogram bandwidth to narrowband analysis
SPG A SS SE
* Perform a narrow band spectral analysis of the selected region.
SET SPG.LENGTH 75
*Adjust the spectrogram bandwidth to wideband analysis
USE F
* Activate view screen F
FFT A =
* Do an FFT analysis of the source signal at the cursor location
SET WINDOW.PEN BRICK
* Change the pen color
LPC A =
* Do an LPC analysis at the same location
SET WINDOW.PEN GREEN
* Activate view screen D
USE D
FMT A SS SE
* Perform formant history calculation of selected region.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
65
SPEAK A SS SE
SPEAK A SS SE
* Speak the selected source twice.
USE A
LINK B
LINK C
LINK D
LINK E
SHOW 0 *
SELECT 0 *
SPEAK A 0 *
SPEAK A 0 *
* Link all time-domain windows and show all data in A,
* select all the data, then speak all the data twice.
MESSAGE Use the mouse to move the data cursor across the waveform and notice the relative
cursor movement in the other windows.
SET FROM.NOSAVE.INI
* This command restores the INI setting to the settings before the macro was run.
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
66
Chapter 5 – Writing and Running Macros
67
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other
Kay Programs
Introduction
Multi-Speech is designed to be compatible with signals stored using Kay’s CSL, Visi-Pitch II, III,
and IV, or Sona-Speech. However, it is useful to understand the differences as well as the similarities
between the programs/systems.
Multi-Speech is a relatively inexpensive acoustic analysis tool for Windows. CSL includes both
software and hardware. Both Multi-Speech and CSL bring the rich command set of the core CSL
program to a Windows environment. If you have CSL, Visi-Pitch or Sona-Speech, you can use these
systems for capturing and analyzing signals. If you save a signal using CSL, Visi-Pitch, or SonaSpeech, Multi-Speech can load that same signal for analysis.
CSL and Visi-Pitch use a file format with the default extension .NSP for signal storage. This file
format is an extension of .WAV format. Kay improved the file format to accommodate additional
signal information such as IPA transcription, time location tags, impulse marks, multiple channels,
palatogram information, and signal comments. Multi-Speech, Sona-Speech and Sona-Speech II, VisiPitch III and Visi-Pitch IV, and CSL can read and write to and from .WAV and .NSP. Therefore, it can
act as a file conversion program to convert any Windows sound file (usually .WAV) to .NSP or vice
versa.
The following table is especially helpful for owners of CSL for DOS and Visi-Pitch II (DOS)
when using Multi-Speech or CSL.
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
68
Table 1 - Comparing Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
Feature
Discussion of Similarity and Differences
Operating
Environment
Multi-Speech, Sona-Speech and Sona-Speech II, Visi-Pitch III and VisiPitch IV, and CSL are Windows programs. Visi-Pitch II and CSL for DOS
are DOS-based. Visi-Pitch II and CSL for DOS can operate in a computer
with Windows capability.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV
include complete turnkey data acquisition hardware and software. MultiSpeech, Sona-Speech, and Sona-Speech II are delivered as software
programs, which depend on a multimedia sound card, microphone, and
speaker (purchased separately) for operation.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV
use professional-level components and an external module to achieve input
signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) above 86dB and 81dB, respectively. MultiSpeech and Sona-Speech use generic sound cards with input SNR of about
40-70dB depending on the sound card design, the location of the card in the
computer, the noise level of the computer, the microphone, and other
considerations. If your application (e.g., research, voice quality
measurement) depends on professional-level input characteristics, you
cannot reliably use generic multimedia sound cards unless you have done a
rigorous evaluation of the performance of the sound card in your system.
Note that the noise in computers, which can degenerate the input signal on
sound cards, can occur unpredictably. For example, the hard disk could
generate noise when using virtual memory. This could generate noise spikes
depending on the location of the sound card and internal design.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV
include a high-quality dynamic microphone, and CSL program packages
for voice analysis (both Windows and DOS versions) use a professional
condenser-type microphone as cited in the National Center for Voice and
Speech Recommendations for Voice Analysis. Most sound cards include
inexpensive, limited-frequency-response, dynamic microphones. MultiSpeech and Sona-Speech users should consider upgrading to a better
microphone if acquiring signals using the sound card.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV
have a wide variety of sampling rates. CSL, Model 4500, hardware, for
example, has a wide variety of different sampling rates from 8000 to
200kHz hertz. Standard multimedia cards have three standard input rates
(11025 Hz, 22050 Hz, and 44100 Hz) with programmable rates, which
differ from manufacturer to manufacturer. If signals are acquired within the
Multi-Speech program using the standard multimedia sound cards, you
may be limited to using one of these three rates. Multi-Speech can,
however, accurately analyze any signal acquired with CSL, Visi-Pitch III,
or Visi-Pitch IV regardless of the sampling rate.
Hardware
Input Quality
Microphone
Input Sampling
Rates
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
69
Feature
Discussion of Similarity and Differences
Input Anti-Aliasing
Filters
To accurately acquire signals (i.e., converting from an analog signal to a
digital representation), without aliasing, to the frequency range of interest,
an anti-aliasing filter is required. These filters should adjust to the sampling
rates and have greater than 100dB/octave roll-off. Visi-Pitch III or IV and
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions) have input anti-aliasing filters that
fulfill these requirements. CSL (both Windows and DOS versions) and
Visi-Pitch III or IV filters automatically adjust to the set sampling rate.
With generic, low-cost sound cards, the user should be aware of the
characteristics of the anti-aliasing filters, the sampling rates at which they
are used, and the capability (or lack thereof) to automatically track the set
sampling rate. This can be especially problematic when high-frequency
signals are present above the sampling rate of interest. For example,
computer monitors often generate high-frequency signals (about 15000 Hz)
at the flyback frequency which could inadvertently alias an improperly
filtered signal sampled at 11025 Hz. Tape recorders may also have signals
above the listener’s hearing range which will “mix” with the signal of
interest if not filtered during the A/D conversion. Users should test their
input system before applying to serious work.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV
support a wide range of output rates. Many sound cards do not. If you play
a signal acquired on CSL, Visi-Pitch III, or Visi-Pitch IV on a multimedia
sound card, that sound card may not support that rate and the output will be
distorted. This is especially true with rates higher than 44100 Hz and lower
than 11025 Hz rates. Multi-Speech and Sona-Speech users should not infer
from this distorted output that the stored signal is distorted.
To eliminate sampling “noise,” a digital-to-analog conversion of signals
should use an adjustable filter appropriate to the output sampling rate. In
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III or Visi-Pitch IV,
these are automatically accomplished using an upsampling technique. In
generic sound cards, these specifications for output filtering may not be
delineated in the sound card’s documentation. You may be able to achieve
the desired output sampling, but not necessarily the correct output antialiasing. Users of generic sound cards should not assume that a noisy or
distorted output means that the stored signal is corrupt. It could simply be
an output problem.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, or Visi-Pitch IV
allow the input sensitivity to be adjusted during input so that overloading is
avoided and the dynamic range of the input is used effectively. In generic
sound cards, depending on the sound card control driver, you may need to
repeatedly acquire, check levels of signals, stop acquiring, evoke soundcard controller program, adjust, go back to Multi-Speech, and reacquire in
order to set the input level correctly. This inherent operating awkwardness
typically results in more overloaded signals or poor use of the dynamic
range (i.e., underloading).
Output Sampling
Rates
Output AntiAliasing Filters
Adjusting Input
Sensitivity
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
70
Feature
Discussion of Similarity and Differences
Adjusting Output
Volume
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, or Visi-Pitch IV allow
the output volume to be adjusted during output to set the correct level. The
software settings for most sound cards require you to stop playing to make
adjustments. If you are using an external speaker, you should be able to adjust
the output volume of the speaker without interrupting output. Those who use
headphones with Multi-Speech may wish to consider headphones with volume
adjustments.
Overloads in digital systems can be disastrous for data analysis. When
overloads are detected, color changes and a flat top appearance of the
waveform occur at overloaded sections of the waveform. Before analysis, you
may want to look closely at the waveform for overloaded segments.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV have
calibrated input settings (i.e., the software knows the voltage of the input at a
set input sensitivity). This is a required capability for voice range profiles (i.e.,
phonetograms).
Real-time analysis is the ability to simultaneously acquire a signal and
graphically analyze and display it as you say it. The Windows operating
system, because of graphic, and other operating system overhead, is not as
efficient at real-time operations as DOS is. Therefore, there may be slight
graphics delays in Windows.
Multi-Speech includes the nearly complete command set of the core CSL
program, the leading speech analysis system in the world, with many added
features (extensive help), the ability to overlay many analyses, and other
capabilities.
CSL (both Windows and DOS versions), Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV
hardware have the ability to set the input to either DC or AC coupling. AC
coupling is used for microphone signals, but DC coupling is used for
electroglottography, air flow, and other low-frequency content signals. Generic
sound cards do not typically include DC coupling and cannot, therefore, be
used to analyze low-frequency information reliably.
Multi-Speech, Visi-Pitch III, Visi-Pitch IV, and CSL can read and write to
.NSP and .WAV file formats. CSL for DOS and Visi-Pitch II can read only
.NSP file formats although other file formats can be imported.
CSL has limited online Help restricted to command and syntax information.
Multi-Speech and CSL have extensive online Help. In fact, the online Help, if
printed, would require more than 500 pages.
CSL for DOS has some printed tutorials but no on-screen tutorial. MultiSpeech and CSL have a “getting started” tutorial which effectively introduces
many operations.
Flagging of
Overloaded Input
Calibrated Input
Real-Time Analysis
Software Features
DC Coupling
File Formats
Online Help
Tutorial
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
71
Feature
Discussion of Similarity and Differences
Manuals
Because of the availability of extensive online Help and the tutorial, this MultiSpeech and CSL manual is limited in scope. Visi-Pitch IV/Sona-Speech II
include comprehensive printed manuals.
Although Visi-Pitch III, Visi-Pitch IV, and Sona-Speech have macro
capability, it is somewhat hidden from the user to make the application
simpler. CSL for DOS has extensive macro capabilities. Multi-Speech and
CSL also have extensive macro capabilities although they are structured
differently from CSL for DOS. Multi-Speech and CSL have one big advantage
with macros; due to the Windows multi-task environment, an editor can be run
alongside Multi-Speech or CSL without exiting the program. Therefore, the
macro can be kept in an editor for editing while Multi-Speech or CSL runs the
macro. This capability is great for quick and easy final edits of the macro.
With CSL, Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV, Kay supports the complete
hardware/software system. With Multi-Speech, Kay cannot support the service
or operation of the third party sound card. Software support for Multi-Speech is
the same as for CSL, Visi-Pitch III, or Visi-Pitch IV.
Visi-Pitch III and Visi-Pitch IV are therapy and biofeedback tools designed for
the speech clinic. CSL is a superset of Visi-Pitch III or Visi-Pitch IV and
includes all of its capabilities and a vast array of hardware and software
features for all speech professionals. Multi-Speech is a software program
designed to bring the software features of the core CSL program into an
inexpensive Windows based host computer. It is especially useful when a VisiPitch III, Visi-Pitch IV, or CSL is available for signal acquisition but multiple
users want to analyze the data (e.g., teaching environment). Multi-Speech,
because of its low cost, is also ideal as a stand-alone product reliant on
Windows sound cards for input in applications (e.g., phonetic science
education) where input signal quality may be compromised. Sona-Speech is
focused on clinical therapy applications. Multi-Speech is focused on
communication sciences and acoustic phonetic applications.
Multi-Speech, CSL, Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV allow some user
customization of keys, menus, and new macros. Multi-Speech is also
structurally designed around a core program in which operational programs
(called DLLs) are loaded. A DLL for spectrogram analysis, for example, is
loaded to perform spectrograms. With this structure, it is inherently easier to
add additional features. If you are interested in adding capability, contact Kay
for more information.
Macros
Support
Application Focus
User Alteration
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
72
Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs
73
Chapter 7 – Using Multi-Speech and CSL Options
Introduction
This manual covers Multi-Speech and CSL “core” programs for acoustic analysis. However, Kay
Elemetrics offers many other optional programs for Multi-Speech and CSL.
List of Programs
Core Programs
Multi-Speech
CSL (Models 4300B, 4100, 4150, 4400 and 4500)
Software Options
Analysis Synthesis Laboratory (ASL)
Applied Speech Science for Dysarthrias
Auditory Feedback Tools
Disordered Voice Database and Program
Games
Motor Speech Profile
Multi-Dimensional Voice Program
Palatometer Database
Phonetic & Perception Simulation Programs
Phonetic Database
Real-Time EGG Analysis
Real-Time Pitch
Real-Time Spectrogram
Respiration, Phonation and Prosody Simulation
Signal Enhancement Program
Sona-Match
Speech Articulation: Animation of Muscle Vectors
Video Phonetics Program and Database
Voice Range Profile
Chapter 7 – Using Multi-Speech and CSL Options
74
Launching Optional Programs
All of the optional programs are launched directly from the operating system by selecting that
program from the taskbar or from an icon on the application folder. For most programs there is
extensive online Help that allows you to operate the program.
Program Design
The optional programs for Multi-Speech and CSL all use the same core program. In fact, within
any of the programs, a user can access all of the commands of the other programs. For example, within
MDVP, a user could do a real-time pitch analysis. However, because of the many options, the design
of the program sets up different menus and user environments for the different operating environments.
For example, in MDVP, there is no menu selection for doing Real-Time Pitch. All of the commands
are not combined into one menu because the program would have been too complicated to operate.
Therefore, each optional program was designed around a custom menu, defined keys, and startup view
appropriate for that application. However, users can, if they wish, use the command line to access the
command from most programs.
Chapter 7 – Using Multi-Speech and CSL Options
75
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and
CSL Software
Introduction
This appendix will provide information about the system requirements for Multi-Speech and CSL
software. It also provides a step-by-step guide to installing the software and generic sound card
hardware. Installation of the CSL hardware is in a separate manual. If problems occur during
installation, users are encouraged to review the troubleshooting section and contact Kay’s technical
service department for further assistance.
Speech Products Compatibility Chart
Operating System: Windows
PC Interface
1
CSL, Model 4500
PCI card
CSL, Model 44002
USB
1
CSL, Model 4150
95
98
ME
2000
XP
PCI card
CSL, Model 41001
PCI card
3,4
Multi-Speech, Model 3700
Sound card
Visi-Pitch IV, Model 39501
PCI card
Visi-Pitch III, Model 39001
PCI card
Sona-Speech I & II, Model
36003,4
Sound card
Nasometer II, Model 6400
Sound card
CSL4300B Win Upgrade
Full-size ISA Slot
1
PCI slot required.
2
Discontinued model, CSL 4400 requires USB Port with Universal Host Controller. CSL 4400 is
not compatible with USB Port with Open Host Controller.
3
Sound card not included with software. Some sound cards require a microphone preamp for
acceptable speech recording.
4
•
•
If using laptop, the laptop must have LPT printer port or USB port. If laptop only has USB,
please specify this when ordering.
Typically we recommend computers that are ≥ (Pentium III, 64 MB RAM, 400Mhz., CD-ROM
drive).
See above chart for expansion slot, and port requirements.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
76
Multi-Speech Components
Unpack and inspect Multi-Speech. The following parts should be included:
1.
Instruction manual.
2.
Software (Multi-Speech is loaded from a single CD-ROM. If other formats are required,
contact the factory or a Kay representative). If options are purchased, they may be on separate
CD-ROMs or on a single CD-ROM.
3.
Software security key.
If for any reason parts are damaged or missing, immediately contact the factory or a Kay
representative.
CSL Components
See CSL Hardware Installation, Instruction, and Maintenance manual, Chapter 2 – Installation of
CSL, Models 4500 and 4150, section titled “System Components for CSL, Model 4500 or Model
4150”.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
77
Information about Sound Card Installation for Multi-Speech
Multi-Speech is a software system dependent on a Windows sound card with a Windows driver (a
driver is a special program which interfaces a hardware peripheral, like a sound card, to the operating
system) appropriate for the operating system (e.g., Windows 98 or Windows NT). Consult the supplier
of your sound card for installation information regarding the sound card. Use the software included
with your sound card to test the card and learn how to operate it. If your sound card does not work with
the software provided by the supplier, contact the sound card supplier for service and support.
NOTE: Please read Appendix C – Sound Cards because there are many technical issues
you should be aware of when you use third party sound cards with Multi-Speech.
Installing the Security Key
A security key is provided to operate the Multi-Speech and CSL program and its options (e.g.,
MDVP, Sona-Match). A security key is used rather than a license limitation on the number of
computers to which the system can be installed. This has both advantages and disadvantages. The
advantage of the security key approach is that the user can install a single purchased Multi-Speech on
many computers (e.g., at home, office, and lab). The small lightweight key can be easily moved to
each computer for use. The disadvantages of the security key are that the user must remember to move
it to the “active” computer system and that the key can be misplaced.
Installing the key is straightforward:
1.
Simply plug the key onto the parallel port of the computer.
2.
If a printer, or other peripheral, is already attached to this port, simply disconnect it, plug the
security key into the port, and then reconnect the peripheral to the other side of the security
key (i.e., the security key is in series with the printer connection). The security key does not,
in any way, change the operation of the peripheral.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
78
Software Installation
This section will provide information about installing the Multi-Speech and CSL software.
The Multi-Speech and CSL application software is distributed on a single CD-ROM. However, the
driver program (this is a program which interfaces the application software to the hardware) for CSL
hardware may be on a separate CD-ROM.
NOTE: If it is necessary to use diskettes to install Multi-Speech or CSL, please contact Kay’s
technical service dept., at 1 (800) 289-5297, Ext. 160, in USA and Canada only, or FAX: (973)
628-6363 (international), or a local representative.
The Multi-Speech and CSL installation CD-ROMs contain large library files and extensive files
for the online Help and tutorial. All the files that make up the Multi-Speech and CSL environment are
archived in a compressed format in this library file. The other files on the disk are programs and text
files necessary for the de-archiving of the programs and the installation of them onto the hard drive. Do
not alter these files as this may result in an incomplete or failed installation.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
79
Uninstalling Earlier Versions of Multi-Speech
If your system has an earlier version of the 32-bit version of Multi-Speech, this should be
uninstalled before the new version of Multi-Speech is installed. See if you have this version installed,
click Start, then click Program, and look for a group Multi-Speech Signal Analysis Workstation. If you
have a group with this name, you should uninstall this version of Multi-Speech. Note that any data,
macros, logs, or filters you had created will not be erased and that these files will remain at the same
directory location. (NOTE: If you have options with Multi-Speech, these should be installed first, then
install Multi-Speech software.)
To uninstall this older version of Multi-Speech, proceed as follows:
1.
Click Start, and select Settings, then Control Panel, and then Add/Remove Programs.
Figure B.1: This is the Add/Remove program
dialog box with the Install/Uninstall page and
Multi-Speech highlighted.
2.
On the Install/Uninstall page (tab), select Multi-Speech Signal Analysis Workstation from the
list. Then click Add/Remove.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
80
Installing or Updating Multi-Speech or CSL Software
To install Multi-Speech or CSL software, proceed as follows:
1.
Check the previous section about the need to uninstall earlier versions of Multi-Speech. Then,
insert the CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive.
2.
From the Start Menu select File, then Run. Change to the desired drive by typing: D
(assuming D is assigned to your CD-ROM drive); press Enter. (In Windows 95/98, select
Start from the Taskbar, and then select Run. Type in D: setup.)
3.
Type SETUP.EXE and press Enter.
4.
The install program will ask several questions to customize the installation and will prompt
for diskette changes. Follow the onscreen directions until the installation is complete. The
installation will add a Windows program group and must add a section to the WIN.INI file,
and possibly upgrade certain Windows drivers.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
81
Troubleshooting
This section provides some tips and strategies for some of the problems you might encounter
while operating the program. Note that troubleshooting related to CSL hardware is covered in the CSL
hardware manual.
Problem
Cause
Solution
When I select Record in Multi-Speech, no sound is recorded.
For Multi-Speech, a sound card is not installed; the driver is either
not installed or is not appropriate for the card; the microphone is not
connected; the sound card is set to line input; or the microphone
level is set to zero in the card control software.
Use the recording software to record a sample of your speech. If this
does not work, consult the supplier of your sound card.
Problem
Cause
Solution
When I select Record in CSL, no sound is recorded.
Some input or hardware setting is not correct.
Make sure that external unit is on, USB is connected, microphone is
plugged in and turned on, and input is set to microphone.
Problem
A screen prompt appears onscreen asking for a key, or stating
Command Unknown.
The security key is not installed on your system.
Plug security key into parallel port.
Cause
Solution
Problem
Cause
Solution
Problem
Cause
Solution
When I play some files, they sound distorted or set to the wrong
sampling rate.
Your sound card does not support the sampling rate of the stored
signal.
Try to use sampling rates supported by your card. Use the
SAMPLING and PITCHTST macros to experiment with which
sampling rates are supported.
Pitch extraction works poorly. Many voice impulses are missed.
The microphone polarity could be incorrect. There could be a lot of
noise in the system. The sound card could have its AGC on.
For polarity, change the impulse mark setting under Options, then
Analysis, then Voiced Period Marks...; then click the box for Invert
the Analysis. To Adjust Signal Offset, see online Help. For noise,
read Appendix C – Sound Cards for guidance about getting the most
out of your sound card. Turn AGC OFF if it is set to ON. Check
your sound card software to turn off.
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
82
Appendix A – Installation of Multi-Speech and CSL Software
83
Appendix B – Sound Cards
Introduction
Multi-Speech is a software product dependent on a host computer and sound card (purchased
separately) for many operations (i.e., input and output). Most of Kay’s other products are delivered
with the necessary peripheral hardware (e.g., CSL, Visi-Pitch III, Visi-Pitch IV, and Nasometer, etc.).
Therefore, the quality of the operation of the Multi-Speech is dependent on a third-party sound card,
which is out of Kay’s control. To compound this problem, most of the sound cards available have
significant operational and performance shortcomings when compared to professional-level hardware
such as DAT recorders, Visi-Pitch III or IV, and CSL. These similarities and differences are also
discussed in Chapter 6 – Using Multi-Speech with Other Kay Programs. Often the specifications
for these cards are not described in the manufacturer’s documentation typically provided, or the
specifications are idealized and rarely met when installed in typical computer environments. There are
many sound card manufacturers and quick turnover of models. Our challenge, given the above
difficulties, is to provide some guidance about using, evaluating, and selecting these cards. As stated
previously, Kay recommends that, whenever possible, a professional-level input system (e.g., DAT
recorder pass-through to computer, CSL, Visi-Pitch III, or Visi-Pitch IV) be used for input to ensure
good quality recordings.
Appendix B – Sound Cards
84
Table of Sound Card Cautions
Feature
Caution
Hardware
Delivered
Overall Input
Quality
Your sound system may or may not include a microphone, speaker(s), or
headphones. Check to see what is delivered and the quality of the components.
Generic sound cards have input SNR of about 40-60dB depending on the sound
card design, the location of the card in the computer, the noise level of the
computer, the microphone, and other considerations. As a frame of reference, note
that CSL, Model 4500, and Visi-Pitch IV, Model 3950, use professional-level
components and an external module to achieve input signal-to-noise ratios (SNR)
above 91dB. The difficulty in selecting a generic sound card is that few
manufacturers specify the input SNR, and when specified it is idealized. In reality,
the specifications vary depending on the installation in each computer. Even top
grade generic sound cards (e.g., Creative Lab’s top-of-the-line consumer card) are
considered better quality input systems but still have significantly more noise than
professional components designed for measurement (e.g., Kay products) or studio
music applications.
Most sound cards include inexpensive, limited-frequency-response dynamic
microphones. Multi-Speech users should consider upgrading to a better
microphone if acquiring signals using the sound card. Note that a professional
condenser-type microphone is specified by the National Center for Voice and
Speech Recommendations for Voice Analysis. Microphones also vary in their
output levels and not all microphones are matched to the preamplifiers included
with the board. You may need to experiment with various microphones or external
preamplifiers (see below) to find a suitable combination for your sound board.
Few sound card manufacturers specify gain and SNR of their preamplifier. You
may wish to consider purchasing a separate external preamplifier, which is then
connected to the line-level input of the sound card, to improve the noise
performance. The preamplifier on your card may have insufficient gain or, if
available, the high-gain setting may introduce too much noise. Symptomatic of a
low-gain preamplifier is a subject having to speak loudly into the microphone to
reach full amplitude levels even when the gain for the sound card’s input
sensitivity is on its highest setting. Also, note that the sound card exhibits the
highest DC offset and noise when the input levels are set to their highest setting.
The time-domain pitch extraction algorithm used in Multi-Speech is sensitive to
the polarity of the input signal. While the human ear cannot detect inverted
polarity, incorrect polarity can affect the pitch extraction process. (Polarity is the
relationship between the compression and rarefaction of air, characteristic of
acoustic vibration and the up/down orientation of the waveform.) A compression
(e.g., initial waveform response to “pa”) should be a positive excursion of the
waveform. In the pitch extraction process, there is a “software switch” to adjust
the polarity of your system. If this switch is in the incorrect position, many voice
impulses will be missing. Various microphones are not consistent in their polarity.
Check microphone polarity and invert the analysis for impulses, if needed.
Microphone
Preamplifier
Polarity
Appendix B – Sound Cards
85
Feature
Caution
Input Antialiasing Filters
To accurately acquire signals (i.e., converting from an analog signal to a digital
representation), without aliasing higher frequency components to the frequency
range of interest, an anti-aliasing filter is required. These filters should adjust to
the sampling rates and have greater than 100dB/octave roll-off. With generic,
low-cost sound cards, the user should be aware of the characteristics of the antialiasing filters, at which sampling rates they are used, and the capability (or lack
thereof) to automatically track the set sampling rate. This can be especially
problematic when high-frequency signals are present above the sampling rate of
interest. For example, computer monitors often generate high-frequency signals
(about 15000 Hz) at the flyback frequency that could inadvertently alias an
improperly filtered signal sampled at 44100 Hz. Tape recorders may also have
signals above the listener’s hearing range that will “mix” with the signal of
interest during A/D conversion if not filtered. Again, because sound card
manufacturers do not provide these specifications, users should test their input
system before applying to serious work. If CSL or Visi-Pitch is used for input,
you will not need to test because Visi-Pitch and CSL have input anti-aliasing
filtering to fit the requirement noted above. CSL, Visi-Pitch III, and Visi-Pitch
IV filters automatically adjust to the set sampling rate.
Noise is any unwanted signal mixed with the signal of interest. The section
following this table provides some guidance on noise measurement in your
system. Generic sound cards use a 16-bit A/D converter but often the bottom 7
to 8 bits of the input range are corrupted by noise. Therefore, the theoretical
resolution of the system of 96dB is limited to about 40-60dB. Pick the best card,
and evaluate it carefully before using. If your applications (e.g., clinical
measurements or research) demand better input specifications, use a
professional-level system for input. These systems include CSL and Visi-Pitch
from Kay, and DAT pass-through systems available from Kay and other
companies (e.g., Turtle Beach). Noise can also be aggravated by turning the
AGC on. During capture, turn AGC OFF when possible.
An alternating signal such as received from a vibrating microphone diaphragm
should produce voltages that vary around zero. The resultant digitization will
produce a signal with values varying around 0. If you plotted the waveform, the
center line should be 0. Electronic circuits can, unfortunately, drift so that the
signals do not vary around zero. This DC drift varies with temperature. A
listener cannot hear this DC drift. Measurements, however, can be affected by
this drift. Professional-level components are attentive to DC drifts and will
autocalibrate to eliminate drift. You may wish to use the test in this appendix
(next section) to measure the DC drift of your system at various levels of system
warm-up.
Noise
DC Drift
Appendix B – Sound Cards
86
Feature
Caution
Ouput
Sampling Rate
CSL and Visi-Pitch support a wide range of I/O rates. Many sound cards do not. If
you play back a signal, which was acquired on CSL or Visi-Pitch, on a multimedia
sound card, that card may not support the acquisition rate and the output will be
distorted. This is especially true with the rates higher than 44100 Hz and lower than
11025 Hz rates. Multi-Speech users should not infer from this distorted output that
the stored signal is distorted. The Multi-Speech macros for playing out signals at
different sampling rates (i.e., SAMPLING.MAC) can be used to evaluate the
flexibility of the sound card. We have found that the higher-end Creative Labs
cards do the best job of supporting various output rates between 11025 Hz and
44100 Hz. No card will support all of the sampling rates used by CSL and VisiPitch.
To eliminate sampling “noise”, a digital-to-analog conversion of signals should use
an adjustable filter appropriate to the I/O sampling rate. In generic sound cards,
these specifications for output filtering may not be delineated in the sound card’s
documentation. You may be able to achieve the desired output sampling, but not
necessarily the correct output anti-aliasing. Users of generic sound cards should not
assume that a noisy or distorted output means that the stored signal is corrupted. It
could simply be an output problem.
With generic sound cards, you will need to repeatedly acquire, check levels of
signals, stop acquiring, evoke sound card controller program, adjust, go back to
Multi-Speech, and reacquire in order to set the input level correctly. The
awkwardness of this operation typically yields signals with more overloads or an
underutilization of the dynamic range (i.e., underloading). CSL, Visi-Pitch II, VisiPitch III, and Visi-Pitch IV allow the input sensitivity to be adjusted during input so
that overloading is avoided and the dynamic range of the input is used effectively.
In a trade-off suitable for most applications, but unsuitable for measurement
applications, many sound cards allow the input amplifier to be overloaded without
warning flags before the A/D is overloaded. This is done to avoid the more aurally
unpleasing overloading of the A/D. However, users can be overloading and
distorting measurements of the system on the input amplifier without warning
because the A/D is still not fully utilized. As a result, the amplitude and spectral
accuracy of the signal is compromised. CSL and Visi-Pitch preserve linearity and
accuracy and match the input amplifier, A/D and warning flags to avoid overloads.
The software setting for most sound cards requires you to stop playing to make
adjustments. If you are using an external speaker, you should be able to adjust the
output volume of the speaker without interrupting output. Multi-Speech users, who
use headphones, may wish to explore getting headphones with volume adjustments.
Output Antialiasing Filters
Adjusting
Input
Sensitivity
Linearity
Adjusting
Output
Volume
Appendix B – Sound Cards
87
Feature
Caution
Flagging of
Overloaded
Input
Overloads (i.e., clipping) in digital systems can be disastrous for data analysis.
Generic sound card software does not have the ability to identify overloaded sample
points during acquisition or even after the signal is acquired. The sound card
hardware does not have the ability to detect overloads at the A/D converter. MultiSpeech software does flag suspected overload points after the signal is acquired by
showing a color change in the waveform display. It does this by analyzing the
signal characteristics. If you use these generic sound cards for input, users should
be careful to avoid overloading. Before analysis, you may want to note the
waveform display to see if the trace changes color. When overloads are detected,
color changes and a flat top appearance of the waveform occur at overloaded
sections of the waveform. Before analysis, you may want to look closely at the
waveform for overloaded segments.
Generic sound cards do not have a calibrated input. Users cannot know the absolute
level of a signal. Therefore, all measurements are relative to other portions of the
signal. Even relative measurements are not possible if the AGC is ON. AGC should
always be set to OFF for any measurement task.
AC coupling is used for microphone signals, but DC coupling is used for
electroglottography, air flow, and other low-frequency content signals. Generic
sound cards do not typically include DC coupling and cannot, therefore, be used to
analyze low-frequency information reliably. If you need to analyze these types of
signals, use CSL, because this system includes the ability to set the input to either
DC or AC coupling.
Consult your sound card manual for support information. Kay will support MultiSpeech software, but Kay cannot support the service or operation of the third-party
sound card.
Calibrated
Input
DC Coupling
Support
Appendix B – Sound Cards
88
How to Check the Input Signal-to-Noise Ratio of a Generic Sound
Card System
As stated previously, few sound board manufacturers specify their input SNR. For those that do
specify it, our studies have shown that these specifications are idealized and are rarely met in the
typical user’s computer system. The specifications depend on the installation and the computer.
Therefore, it is useful to determine the SNR of the sound card in your system. Multi-Speech and CSL
include analytical tools that may be helpful in assessing the quality of your system’s input circuits. For
example, by initiating capturing with no signal attached, the resultant captured signal may represent
some of the background “noise” of the system. An understanding of how unwanted noise can be mixed
with the signal of interest will improve your ability to interpret the analysis of a signal compromised
by noise. Noise is generally taken to mean random fluctuations, added to or modulated with, a wanted
signal. Here, however, noise means any unwanted signal, periodic or not, existing with a desired
signal.
When you use a multimedia card, you may unwittingly report analysis results (e.g., energy levels,
jitter, harmonic/noise ratios), which have been significantly altered by noise, added during signal
acquisition. You may be adding noise without realizing it. This problem is the reason why the National
Center for Voice and Speech recommends that the system you use to make voicing measurements
should have an input SNR of over 86dB and that it should include robust anti-aliasing filters to filter
out unwanted frequency components.
Any method of acquiring and storing signals can affect the signal quality. Noise can be introduced
during signal acquisition in a number of ways. System components (e.g., microphone, cabling,
preamplifier, amplifier, anti-aliasing filters, and A/D) could be of poor quality. The CSL and Visi-Pitch
(II, III and IV) models use professional-level system components and careful design that minimize
system-generated noise. However, if you acquire with other products, you should evaluate their
performance. Additionally, noise sources (e.g., fan noise, electromagnetic signals from monitors or
fluorescent light fixtures, power supply hum) may inadvertently be acquired along with the signal
when using the best equipment. Poor room acoustics can also add noise.
When analog signals are converted to digital signals (and vice versa) on a sound card inside a
computer, the input and output circuitry can be affected by computer noise. To avoid this, most
products for professional sound applications (Kay’s CSL, Visi-Pitch III or IV, DAT recorders,
ADATs, disk recorders, etc.) use an external module, isolated from the noisy computer, to perform the
analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion. Inherent in plug-in cards is their susceptibility to
computer-generated noise. It is not a design flaw of the sound card.
Appendix B – Sound Cards
89
A digital storage system (e.g., computer acquisition, DAT recorder) converts the incoming
continuous analog signal to a discrete digital signal. Converting an analog signal to a digital
representation is performed by an analog-to-digital converter (A/D converter). Most systems today use
a 16-bit A/D converter that produces a 16-bit binary number to represent the range of incoming values.
A binary number with 16 places has a range of 216 or 65536 possible values. This range of values
equals 96dB of possible signal level variation (20 log10 65536). This is the maximum achievable range,
also called the dynamic range, with a 16-bit linear converter. The full 96dB range, however, is seldom
achieved because the associated electronics can rarely take advantage of the full dynamic range
available. For example, most sound cards, which plug into a computer can lose half of the dynamic
range to system noise and large DC offsets. DC offset is characterized by signals not varying around 0.
An AC-coupled microphone signal needs to be centered about 0 for full peak-to-peak performance.
One simple way to perform a partial check of a recording system, without the need for test
equipment, is to acquire a signal exactly as you would during your work, except with the microphone
turned OFF. (Admittedly, this is only a partial check of the system because unbalance microphones can
pick up noise, which may not be detected in this test.) Then, using Multi-Speech, analyze the acquired
signal for noise by pressing [F9] and checking the Level value in the Signal Information dialog box or
by scrolling the cursor along the waveform to note the cursor values. The waveform display cursor
reads the waveform values as a linear value (with values ranging from 0 to ± 32768). Use the table that
follows to correlate the linear waveform value of the cursor with the noise level and SNR ratio. If you
repeat the above test with the microphone on (but quiet), you can separately measure the noise added
by microphone pickup of acoustic and electromagnetic signals. For example, if the values range -200
or +200, under either condition, the eight or nine least significant bits (about 50dB) are corrupted by
noise. The true dynamic range of the 16-bit A/D has been reduced from 96dB to about 46dB. As
another example, if no microphone is attached and the values are 150 ± 32 (i.e., values range from 118
to 182), there would be almost 45dB of DC offset and 36dB of random noise. Please note that this is
not a foolproof test because the noise in the computer may be intermittent. For example, the hard drive
(which could turn on if virtual memory is used) could produce a noise spike only occasionally and may
not be detected in the above test.
For voice measurements, a useful dynamic range of above 85dB is recommended by the National
Center for Speech and Voice. This means that the noise should fall within the range of -2 to +2 using
the tests described above.
Appendix B – Sound Cards
90
Cross Reference: Waveform Value-to-Noise Level and SNR
Linear Waveform
Values for Noise
±1
±2
±4
±8
± 16
± 32
± 64
± 128
± 256
± 512
± 1024
± 2048
± 4096
± 8192
± 16384
± 32768
Appendix B – Sound Cards
Affected Bit
16th (least significant)
15th
14th
13th
12th
11th
10th
9th
8th
7th
6th
5th
4th
3rd
2nd
1st (most significant )
Noise Level
6dB
12dB
18dB
24dB
30dB
36dB
42dB
48dB
54dB
60dB
66dB
72dB
78dB
84dB
90dB
96dB
SNR Ratio
90dB
84dB
78dB
72dB
66dB
60dB
54dB
48dB
42dB
36dB
30dB
24dB
18dB
12dB
6dB
none
91
Conclusion
Kay recommends that a professional system (e.g., CSL, Visi-Pitch III or IV, ADAT, or DAT with
computer pass-through) be used whenever possible for reliable, high-quality input. In all cases, it
would be useful to use the measurement techniques recommended above to evaluate your system’s
performance before use. If a professional system is not available, use a USB-based microphone (e.g.,
Telex), a USB-based external box (Roland), or a sound card from a company with a reputation for
good quality input and with known specifications for acoustic input. These include the best cards from
Creative Labs.
You may wish to consider connecting an external preamplifier, a better quality microphone, and
an upgraded sound system to improve your system’s performance. The use of an external preamplifier
helps protect the low-level microphone signal from corruption from computer noise. The external
preamplifier boosts the signal level to higher levels that are, therefore, less susceptible to noise. Note
that this is a help, not a cure.
Even if you can find a sound card and an operating environment with acceptable sound quality,
you will need to be cautious about overloading, because there will be no direct feedback of overload
conditions, particularly if the overloading is at the pre-amplifier.
Not all output rates are supported by sound cards. When possible, use standard multi-media rates
(11025, 22050, and 44100 Hz) for acquisition. These output rates are supported by most sound cards.
The Sound Blaster cards seem to do the best job of supporting the most output sampling rates.
All sound cards are likely to have significant operating and performance weaknesses when
compared to professional-level hardware systems (e.g., CSL, DAT recorders, and Visi-Pitch III or IV).
These performance tradeoffs are inherent in their low-cost design and cannot be completely avoided.
Users must, in all cases, proceed cautiously in order to ensure good quality signal acquisition and
output.
Appendix B – Sound Cards
92
Appendix B – Sound Cards
93
Appendix C – IPA Characters
Introduction
The Multi-Speech and CSL programs are capable of displaying characters of the International
Phonetic Alphabet (IPA Symbols) on a transcription screen, as a means of annotating, describing, and
identifying a speech waveform that appears on another display screen. The IPA transcription can also
be printed along with the other screens.
The IPA font for use with Multi-Speech and CSL consists of 193 symbols, including consonant
and vowel symbols, segmental diacritics, suprasegmental symbols, and transcription boundary
markers. The basis for the font is the International Phonetic Alphabet (revised in 1993) as published in
the Journal of the International Phonetic Association, Vol. 23, 1993. Key definitions have been
assigned to 131 keyboard positions as a “default” keyboard for the IPA font. This is the number of
keys available for assignment when using Multi-Speech or CSL in the “Key,” “Shift Key,” and “Alt
Key” modes. Symbols, which have not been given a keyboard definition in the “default” keyboard,
may be reassigned by the user to accommodate local convention, frequency of use of particular
characters, preferred mnemonic placement, or ease of typing. In “Key” mode, 46 keys are available for
assignment, excluding the semicolon (;) key that is already assigned a definition in CSL and MultiSpeech. In “Shift Key” mode, all 47 keys are available for assignment. In “Alt Key” mode, 38 keys are
available for assignment. “Alt Key” positions which have no definitions and which, therefore, may not
be used for the IPA font include the back accent (` ~), comma (, <), period (. >), slash (/ ?), semicolon
(; :), quotation mark (‘ “), left square bracket ([ {), right square bracket (] }), and backslash (\ |) keys.
All current IPA vowel symbols and consonant symbols have been given “Key” or “Shift Key”
definitions, and diacritics have been assigned largely to the “Alt Key” keyboard. This has been done by
using the IPA number of each symbol or diacritic as set out in the Journal of the International
Phonetic Association, Vol. 20 (1), 1990, and assigning it a keyboard code in MS-DOS format.
Modifications to the IPA keyboard for use with Multi-Speech can also be made by referring to each
symbols’s IPA number and replacing the current, preassigned number with the number of the new,
desired symbol using the “Define Key” procedure. IPA symbols and their corresponding numbers and
names, as well as their currently assigned keyboard locations in Multi-Speech are listed in the
accompanying tables.
Appendix C – IPA Characters
94
Symbols not assigned a location in the “default” IPA keyboard include more recently approved
IPA symbols. Among these are {β,H,w,j,i,p,t,c,Ô,k,q,,,’}. Other approved symbols not assigned
keyboard locations are {˜,Í,®}. Quite a few diacritics remain unassigned—tone marks, for instance—
as their use (outside of a core set) will depend largely on local convention and user preference. The set
of keys already defined may be altered or extended to include phonetic values required by the
individual user. The one click symbol which was left out, for example, could be easily reinserted in the
keyboard definitions by assigning its IPA number (178) to the “Shift 1” (!) key if the symbol now
occupying that location is expendable. Alternatively, many keys in the “Ctrl Key” mode may also be
defined as IPA characters if the user wishes to expand the set. In each symbol category, several nonIPA or former IPA characters have been included in the IPA font. In all cases, these are characters
which can be identified with an IPA number and assigned a keyboard location if desired.
See list of IPA symbols, IPA numbers, and keyboard locations.
Computer Coding of the IPA
The declaration of the workgroup on Computer Coding of IPA Symbols and Computer
Representation of Individual Languages recommends that a unique numerical equivalent and
descriptive name be assigned for reference purposes to every symbol or diacritic used in current or
earlier versions of the IPA. The logical phonetic organization of the IPA symbol chart is the basis for
assigning the IPA number, the first digit of which indicates the category of the symbol. The 1nn series
includes consonant symbols from the principal place-by-manner grid of the chart and from the Other
Symbols section. The 2nn list includes former or alternative IPA consonant symbols (beginning with
201), and non-IPA consonant symbols that have been widely used in computer-coded systems (starting
with 299 and working backwards). The 3nn series specifies vowels, most of which appear in the vowel
quadrilateral (beginning with 301), and with former symbols numbered from 399 backwards. The 4nn
series includes segmental diacritics (beginning with 401), with formerly used diacritics that no longer
appear on the chart numbered from 499 backwards. The 5nn series includes suprasegmental symbols,
from that section of the chart (beginning with 501), with previously specified tone marks numbered
from 599 backwards. The 6nn series is reserved for assignment at a future date to symbols representing
voice quality settings or pathological speech; and 7nn-8nn are also reserved for future specification.
The 9nn series specifies control characters and escape sequences, designed to relate characters to each
other in a string (for correct placement of diacritics, for example). The intention of the IPA number
chart is to parallel the IPA symbol chart, making the locations and relationships of items explicit and
unambiguous. For the present purposes of review and evaluation of the numbering scheme, the
presentation of the IPA number chart and corresponding lists is intended to illustrate the relationships
between symbols on the chart (and with those not shown but also numbered), and where overlap
between categories may occur.
Appendix C – IPA Characters
95
Symbols can now be listed with reference to their IPA number, and cross-referenced to symbol
name. These reference lists can follow (1) chart order of appearance of the symbols, (2) quasialphabetical order of the symbol shapes themselves and (3) alphabetical order of the names of the
symbols. The IPA number chart provides a visual map in chart order. The list of consonant/vowel
symbols in chart/number order summarizes this sequence and includes the listing of the 2nn series and
items of the 3nn series that are no longer on the chart. The list of consonant/vowel symbols in
alphabetical order by symbol reproduces the compilation in Pullum and Ladusaw’s Phonetic Symbol
Guide (1986). Some modifications have been made to the names taken from the Guide as they appear
here. It is the sentiment of the Computer Workgroup that in order to have an explicit system for
referring to each character unambiguously, symbols need to be called something that is relatively
nonphonetic in addition to having a number. Diacritics are listed, with illustrations as to usage,
according to chart order. In addition, it is also possible to produce cross-referenced lists to
consonant/vowel symbols and to diacritics according to alphabetical order by symbol name. All of
these listings are proposed to constitute a part of The IPA Handbook.
Reference
Pullum, G.K. and W.A. Ladusaw, Phonetic Symbol Guide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1986.
Appendix C – IPA Characters
96
Consonant/Vowel Symbols
IPA Description
Lower-case P
Lower-case B
Lower-case T
Lower-case D
Right-tail T
Right-tail D
Lower-case C
Barred Dotless J
Lower-case K
Lower-case G
Lower-case Q
Small Capital G
Glottal Stop
Lower-case M
Left-tail M (at right)
Lower-case N
Right-tail N
Left-tail N (at left)
Eng
Small Capital N
Small Capital B
Lower-case R
Small Capital R
Fish-hook R
Right-tail R
Phi
Beta
Lower-case F
Lower-case V
Theta
Eth
Lower-case S
Lower-case Z
Esh
Yogh
Right-tail S (at left)
Right-tail Z
C Cedilla
Appendix C – IPA Characters
Glyph
IPA Number
p
b
t
d
Ê
∂
c
Ô
k
g
q
G
/
m
µ
n
=
≠
N
–
ı
r
R
|
«
F
B
f
v
T
D
s
z
S
Z
ß
Ω
ç
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
Access Code
112
098
116
100
255
234
099
239
107
103
113
071
063
109
077
110
247
248
078
178
245
114
123
082
125
184
066
102
118
084
068
115
122
083
090
167
189
067
97
Consonant/Vowel Symbols (continued)
IPA Description
Curly-tail J
Lower-case X
Gamma
Chi
Inverted Small Capital R
Crossed H
Reversed Glottal Stop
Lower-case H
Hooktop H
Belted L
L-Yogh Digraph
Cursive V
Turned R
Turned R, Right Tail
Lower-case J
Turned M, Right Leg
Lower-case L
Right-tail L
Turned Y
Small Capital L
Hooktop B
Hooktop D
Hooktop Barred Dotless J
Hooktop G
Hooktop Small Capital G
Turned W
Lower-case W
Turned H
Barred Glottal Stop
Small Capital H
Barred Reversed Glottal Stop
Hooktop Heng
Bull’s Eye
Exclamation Point
Turned Long-leg R
Curly-tail C
Curly-tail Z
Lower-case I
Glyph
IPA Number
J
x
V
X
é
©
?
h
H
P
L
√
®
’
j
˜
l

¥
K
∫
Î
˙
ƒ
Ï
∑
w
Á
÷
Ì
¿
k
l
<
q
Ç
Û
i
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
160
162
164
166
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
178
181
182
183
301
Access Code
198
120
196
088
210
240
192
104
250
194
076
086
168
211
106
229
108
241
180
059
186
235
215
169
253
227
119
231
251
075
185
238
135
151
228
254
252
105
Appendix C – IPA Characters
98
Consonant/Vowel Symbols (continued)
IPA Description
Lower-case E
Epsilon
Lower-case A
Cursive A
Open O
Lower-case O
Lower-case U
Lower-case Y
Slashed O
O-E Digraph
Small Capital O-E Digraph
Turned Cursive A
Turned V
Ram’s Horns
Turned M
Barred I
Barred U
Small Capital I
Small Capital Y
Upsilon
Schwa
Barred O
Turned A
Ash digraph
Reversed Epsilon
Undotted I
Closed Reversed Epsilon
Reversed E
Dotless J
Superior m
Superscript Eng
Superscript left-tail N (at left)
Appendix C – IPA Characters
Glyph
IPA Number
e
E
a
A
O
o
u
y
P
{
”
Å
ø
V
¨
È
Ë
I
Y
U
´
∏
å
œ
‰
I
®
°
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
394
396
397




Access Code
101
069
097
065
141
111
117
121
079
191
175
129
195
070
181
246
172
073
089
085
171
080
140
081
206
034
207
130
190
201
212
203
99
Segmental Diacritics
IPA Description
Apostrophe
Under-ring (o-width)
Under ring (i-width)
Over-ring (o-width)
Over ring (i-width)
Subscript Wedge
Superscript H
Subscript Umlaut (o-width)
Subscript Umlaut (i-width)
Subscript Tilde
Subscript Seagull
Subscript Bridge
Inverted Subscript Bridge
Subscript Square
Subscript Plus (o-width)
Subscript Plus (I-width)
Under-bar (o-width)
Under-bar (i-width)
Umlaut
Over-cross
Right Hook
Superscript W
Superscript J
Superscript Gamma
Superscript Reversed Glottal Stop
Superscript Tilde (o-width)
Superscript Tilde (i-width)
Superscript N
Superscript L
Corner
Superimposed Tilde
Raising Sign (o-width)
Raising Sign (i-width)
Lowering sign (o-width)
Lowering sign (i-width)
Syllabicity Mark
Subscript Arch (o-width)
Subscript Arch (i-width)
Top Tie Bar
IPA
Number
’
401
039
402
402
402
402
403
404
405
405
406
407
408
409
410
413
413
414
414
415
416
419
420
421
422
423
424
424
425
426
427
428
429
429
430
430
431
432
432
433
056
165
042
161
164
072
045
208
188
209
053
176
054
043
177
061
173
095
126
213
087
074
236
179
041
226
060
058
124
242
051
163
052
162
096
057
187
131
(
9
(
9
#
¶
ª
ª
&

º
»
4
¿
¿
2
2
·
+
Ô
W
∆
◊
M
ù
ù
Ë
l
â
~
§
§
6
6
'
˜
˜
°
Access Code
Appendix C – IPA Characters
100
Segmental Diacritics (continued)
IPA Description
Comma
Vertical Stroke (Superior)
Vertical Stroke (Inferior)
Length Mark
Half-length Mark
Breve (o-width)
Breve (i-width)
Period
Vertical Line
Double Vertical Line
Bottom Tie Bar
Upward Diagonal Arrow
Downward Diagonal Arrow
Double Acute Accent (o-width)
Double Acute Accent (i-width)
Double Acute Accent (high o-width)
Double Acute Accent (high i-width)
Acute Accent (o-width)
Acute Accent (high o-width)
Acute Accent (i-width)
Acute Accent (high i-width)
Macron (o-width)
Macron (high o-width)
Macron (i-width)
Macron (high i-width)
Grave Accent (o-width)
Grave Accent (high o-width)
Grave Accent (i-width)
Grave Accent (high i-width)
Double Grave Accent (o-width)
Double Grave Accent (high o-width)
Double Grave Accent (i-width)
Appendix C – IPA Characters
IPA
,
"
`
á
â
*
*
.
ñ
Ñ
•
ã
Ã
_
_
_
_
!
!
!
!
¤
¤
~
~
~
~
—
—
—
Number
491
501
502
503
504
505
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
512
512
512
513
513
513
513
514
514
514
514
515
515
515
515
516
516
516
Access Code
044
200
199
249
062
040
225
046
150
132
237
204
205
033
218
136
137
064
219
143
144
035
220
147
148
036
221
152
153
037
222
157
101
Segmental Diacritics (continued)
IPA Description
Double Grave Accent (high
i-width)
Down Arrow
Up Arrow
Extra-high Tone Bar
High Tone Bar
Mid Tone Bar
Low Tone Bar
Extra-low tone Bar
Wedge (o-width)
Wedge (i-width)
Wedge (high o-width)
Wedge (high i-width)
Circumflex (o-width)
Circumflex (i-width)
Circumflex (high o-width)
Circumflex (high i-width)
Left Square Bracket
Right Square Bracket
Right Bar 15
Right Bar 51
Right Bar 35
Right Bar 13
Right Bar 53
Right Bar 31
Backward Slash
Forward Slash
Hyphen Dash
IPA
Number
Access Code
—
516
158
Õ
õ
â
ê
î
ô
û
#
#
#
#
$
$
$
$
[
]
ä
ë
ü
ï
ÿ
ö
\
/
–
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
596
596
596
596
597
597
597
597
901
902
155
139
138
145
149
154
159
038
224
244
243
094
223
233
230
091
093
232
134
216
128
133
217
092
047
214
Appendix C – IPA Characters
102
Appendix C – IPA Characters
103
Appendix C – IPA Characters
104
Appendix C – IPA Characters
105
Appendix D –
Addendums
Authorized Representative:
Priory Analysts Limited, PO Box 4030 Milton Keynes, MK13 0ZG, United Kingdom
Kay Elemetrics Corp.
2 Bridgewater Lane
Lincoln Park, NJ 07035-1488 USA
Toll-Free Telephone: 1-800-289-5297 (In USA and Canada only)
Tel: (973) 628-6200
Fax: (973) 628-6363
E-mail: sales@kayelemetrics.com
Web: www.kayelemetrics.com
Appendix D – CE Addendums
106
Appendix D – CE Addendums
107
Appendix E - Warning Symbols
Instruction manual symbol. The product is
marked with this symbol when it is necessary
for the user to refer to the instruction manual.
Indicates Type B Applied Part
Indicates Type BF Applied Part
Indicates Alternating Current
Indicates Direct Current
Indicates Protective Earth (Ground) Terminal
Indicates Input
Indicates Output
Indicates Variability
Indicates Dangerous Voltage
“Off” (Only for a Part of Equipment)
“On” (Only for a Part of Equipment)
Appendix E – Warning Symbols
108
Appendix E – Warning Symbols
109
Appendix F – Reproduction and Warranty Information
Reproduction Policy
Data contained in this manual is copyrighted by Kay Elemetrics Corp., and is furnished solely for
the purpose of providing instructions for operation and maintenance of the apparatus described herein.
Said data shall not be used by the purchaser or the government for promotional procurement,
development, or manufacturing purposes, nor shall the data be reproduced or disclosed without
permission from Kay Elemetrics Corp. In event of resale of the apparatus to the government, by the
purchaser, the purchaser shall notify the government of the limited right to use said data.
Appendix F – Reproduction and Warranty Information
110
Appendix F – Reproduction and Warranty Information
111
Warranty Card
Appendix F – Reproduction and Warranty Information
112
Appendix F – Reproduction and Warranty Information