model 2462 operators manual

MODEL 2462
StraightLine Directional Drilling System
Manual Number 9020015
Manufacturer of Directional Drilling Equipment
1450 South Spencer Road - Newton, Kansas 67114 - 316-283-5511 - 800-654-3484 - Fax 316-283-2783
rev. 04.10.00
System of plates, stakes, and pins that secures the drill
rack to the ground.
Tool used during pullback for enlarging pilot bore.
Measurement of pressure (metric).
Finely ground clay commonly mixed with water for drilling
Bore Log
Drawing of the proposed bore path in plan view and side
view showing entry, exit, depth, existing hazards, steering
areas including curve radii, and other information.
Bore Path
Planned or actually traveled location of the drill
head/string through the earth.
Loosening a section of drill pipe prior to removing it from
the drill string.
Breakout Wrenches
System of manually held or hydraulically powered friction
wrenches for holding drill pipe from rotating when adding
drill pipe. It is also used for loosening drill pipe joints when
removing drill pipe.
Breakout Wrench
The rear most built-in drill pipe wrench which is
hydraulically rotated and used when removing drill pipe
sections when pulling back.
Traveling unit which pushes and rotates the drill pipe.
Wedges used to block wheels and tires so as to hold
them into position.
Control Panel
Panel containing all gauges, hydraulic valves, switches
and buttons required to operate the
drill rack, and or power unit.
Cutting Teeth
Hardened cutting burrs, usually carbide, on drill heads
and backreamers.
Down-Hole Equipment
Same as tooling.
Drive Chain
Large, heavy chain which drives carriage up and down
drill rack.
Drill Head
Assembly of cutting bit, steering shoe, and transmitter
Drill Pipe
Sections of high-strength steel pipe with threaded tool
joints attached. Drill pipe is sized for length, diameter,
and thread size for each model of Drill Rack.
Drill Rack
The mobile portion of the drilling system capable of
rotating and pushing drill pipe into the soil.
Drilling Solution
The fluid mixture which is pumped out of the drill head to
facilitate boring.
Drill String
Assembly of drill head and all attached drill pipe.
Equal Potential Mat:
Large metal mesh mat on which operators stand during
operation to give grounding protection in case of an
electrical hit.
Filter Sub
Device between the drill head and the drill pipe which
contains a mesh strainer to prevent lumps of material in
the drilling fluid from clogging fluid jets.
To meter or regulate the speed of a function by precisely
controlling the movement of the control lever.
Abbreviation of gallons per minute, a measure of liquid
flow rate.
Ground Rod
Copper/Brass rod which is hand driven into the ground to
give grounding protection in case of electrical hit.
Ground Rod/Mat Cables
Cables which attach drill rack main frame to equal
potential mats and rod.
Replaceable fluid outlets found in both drill heads and
1) The operation of using the locator to determine drill
head position.
2) The identification of existing
underground utilities and hazards done by the utility
service company. 3) The hazards identified are
commonly referred to as “Locates” and the process of
marking the hazards is commonly referred to as “Doing
1) The hand-held receiving portion of the radio detection
equipment. 2) The person using the locator equipment.
StraightLine 905 Operator Manual
Adding a new section of drill pipe to the in-use drill string.
Makeup Wrench
The forward-most built-in drill pipe wrench on the drill rack
used in both adding and removing drill pipe sections.
Mud Mixer
Gasoline engine, or hydraulic, powered recirculation
pump which allows drilling fluid additives to be added and
thoroughly mixed.
pH Scale
Index which indicates acidity of a liquid.
Pilot Bore
Process of guiding the drill string to a specific location,
according to the planned bore path.
Pipe Guide
Tube mounted in front of the breakout wrenches to help
guide the pipe throughout the bore. Includes a
replaceable polyurethane insert to lengthen the life of the
drill pipe.
Chemical added to water or bentonite mixture used as
drilling solution.
Pull Back
Operation of pulling the material being installed into the
finished bore path, usually combined with the
backreaming operation.
Abbreviation of pounds per square inch, a measure of
Thrusting the drill string without rotation to change the
direction of the pilot bore.
The loose material dislodged when boring or
backreaming, usually mixed with drilling solution.
Sometimes known as cuttings or spoils.
Rotating the drill string to give a straight pilot bore.
Rotation Motor
Hydraulic motor located on the carriage which rotates the
drill string.
See Transmitter.
Headed steel pins which are driven into the ground
through holes in anchor plates.
Steering Shoe
Replaceable shoe on the drill head, mounted at an angle
which causes the drill string to veer when being pushed
without being rotated.
Strike Alert
Alarm system which indicates the presence of electrical
current in the drill string.
Replaceable connector through which the drill pipe is
attached to the carriage.
Device at the end of the drill string during
backreaming/pullback operations which prevents
material being installed from twisting.
Force used in moving the carriage and drill string linearly,
measured in pounds.
Thrust Motor
Hydraulic motor located at the back of the main frame
which powers the chain that draws the carriage up or
down the drill rack.
Drill string, boring, backreaming, and pulling equipment.
Force used in rotating the drill string, measured in ft.-lbs.
Marking the path of the drill head as it advances down the
bore path.
Using the tracks to move the drill rack.
Radio transmitting device which is placed inside drill head
necessary for accurate locating.
Fluid hoses and Electrical cables connecting the drill rack
to the trailer or mud skid.
1) The existing electrical, gas, water, etc. service at the
bore site and the company that either owns or operates
them as in: “Utility hit” or “Having the utility company do
the ‘Locates’”. 2) The material which is being pulled into
the backreamed, pilot bored tunnel, as in: “Installing or
pulling the utility”.
Measure of fluid thickness, measured in seconds.
Sometimes expressed as weight.
Water Swivel
Fluid elbow at front of the carriage which connects the
drilling fluid to the drill pipe.
Water Pump
Hydraulically driven high-pressure pump which pumps
the drilling fluid.
Water Tank
Large reservoir which holds the fluids used in drilling.
Flexible device mounted on the front of the main frame,
installed around the drill pipe as it is being pulled back to
help remove mud and debris.
Change in physical properties of bentonite clay when
added to water which allows the particles to remain
suspended in solution.
Sub saver
Part Number 90200015
Chapter 1
The StraightLine 2462 is a powerful tool. Use
and maintain it with respect and caution. Your
safety and the safety of other persons in the
work area are dependent on the proper
operation of this machine. The information in this
manual is intended to assist you in operating this
machine according to established procedures
but does not replace any safety rules and laws
used in your area.
This safety alert symbol
This symbol is used both
on the machine and in this
manual to alert the
operator that the message
following the symbol concerns safety. Carefully
read the message and make sure you
understand the causes of possible injury or
The safety alert symbol will be used with these
hazardous situation, which will result in death or
serious injury unless avoided.
WARNING: Indicates a potentially hazardous
situation, which could result in death or serious
injury unless avoided.
CAUTION: Indicates a potential hazardous
situation, which may result in minor or moderate
injury if not avoided.
Other important information which can help you
do a better job, simplify maintenance, or prevent
an unsafe situation will be emphasized by the
word IMPORTANT: followed by an instruction or
Initial training should be done
hazardous site such as an open
utility easements. Training shall
proper use of safety, protective,
at a nonfield, free of
include the
and locating
Operator Safety
WARNING: Always wear O.S.H.A. approved
head gear (not provided) when operating at or
near drill rack.
Always wear safety glasses (provided) O.S.H.A.
approved safety goggles (not provided) to
prevent eye injury.
Always wear the three-(3) glove protection
system (provided) to guard against electrical
shock. Always wear the electrical protection
boots (provided) to guard against the possibility
of electrical shock caused by the drill pipe
contacting an underground utility.
Operator Qualifications and Training
Read this manual carefully before using the
Boring System. Consult your StraightLine Dealer
or Factory Representative for field instruction
Part Number 9020015
Wear protective clothing and eye protection. If
you are injured by pressurized hydraulic fluid, get
Machine Safety
DANGER: Turning shaft can crush arms or
ROTATING. Do not wear jewelry, rings, watches
or loose clothing when operating drill rack as
these items may catch resulting in possible
serious injury or death.
Always make sure that any guards or safety
plates are intact and installed properly to insure
safe operation.
Do not tie down controls. If releasing a control
lever does not cause the motion being controlled
to stop, shut down power source and get the unit
repaired immediately.
WARNING: Moving parts can cut off hands,
feet, or fingers. DO NOT TOUCH MOVING
WARNING: Pinch points can crush hands or
WARNING: Crushing weight. The boring
machinery, tools and equipment are heavy and if
moved or operated in an unsafe manner can tip
over or fall, killing or crushing you.
IMPORTANT: Maintain control of Drill Rack at all
times during transport. Have enough manpower
or arrange mechanical means (such as a winch)
available to prevent rollover and injury. Be
particularly aware of tipover hazards when
operating on slopes, curbs, uneven or soft ground.
In addition be careful when loading and unloading
drill from truck or trailer. If the truck or trailer is wet
or damp it will be slippery and can cause an
IMPORTANT: Clear all persons and tools from
around the drill pipe before starting power supply
and then keep bystanders at least 10 ft (3 m)
away from turning drill shaft. Do not stand over
trench or drill pipe while boring.
WARNING: Anchor drill rack properly before
rotating drill pipe. Failure to properly stake down
drill rack can result in drill rack tipover, which can
crush and kill the operator.
WARNING: Fire or explosion possible. Fuel
and fumes can catch fire or explode and cause
serious burns or death.
IMPORTANT: During pullback operations,
material being installed may rotate if swivel
malfunctions. Keep all persons away from
material being installed.
WARNING: Electrical shock possible. Do
not operate the equipment when lightning is
possible. Serious injury or death may result.
DANGER POISON! Hydraulic oil under
pressure can penetrate the skin and burn or cause
blood poisoning. Use a piece of cardboard to check
for leaks, NOT YOUR HAND! Before disconnecting
any lines, relieve system pressure.
pressuring up system, be sure all connections are
tight and lines, pipes and hoses are NOT damaged.
Oil escaping from a very small hole can be almost
CAUTION: Slips and falls possible. Do not
step in any spilled material (drilling fluid,
hydraulic oil, etc.). Falling on slippery surfaces
may cause serious personal injury.
CAUTION: Read and understand the Safety
and Operation Manual for the Stake Driver.
You must use proper safety equipment when
operating the Driver. The Stake Driver vibration
Part Number 9020015
is rated at 20m/sec with a noise rating level of
106 dB (A).
Gas meters
Water meters
Adequate lighting must be
provided when operation of this unit occurs
beyond daylight hours.
Junction boxes
Manhole covers
Evidence of previous excavation such as
“settled” spots
Use utility locating devices throughout your bore
area. Remember they are not perfect, even with
an experienced operator. Before crossing an
underground utility, carefully hand dig to expose
Jobsite Safety
Place jobsite pedestrian and traffic warning
barriers in accordance with Federal, State, and
Local Regulations.
If jobsite workers are
exposed to traffic hazards, wear high-visibility
safety vests and other protective clothing
required by Federal, State and Local
Hold a briefing for all authorized worksite
personnel prior to beginning operations. The
briefing should include:
WARNING: Call your one-call Hotline!
Know and comply with regulations covering
One-Call service or utility notification before
beginning any boring operation including drill
rack stake-down.
Notify any utilities not
represented by the “One-Call Hotline” in your
DANGER: Always use the equal potential
mats provided with your unit when setting up a
jobsite, in preparation of a boring operation.
Grid mats are subject to wear. Inspect them
each time they are used and replace them as
Who is in charge
Location and type of buried obstructions,
Job site security, warning signs, barriers,
identify authorized personnel
Safety considerations associated with
operation of the drilling unit, personal
protective equipment, clothing, emergency
procedures, and emergency telephone
Operating Safety
Use 2-way radio contact between the drill rack
operator and the locator to coordinate the
boring operation. Have pre-arranged backup
hand signals in case the radios fail or cannot be
DANGER: Overhead lines. Contacting
overhead lines while handling drill pipe may
cause death. Know the location of overhead
lines and use extreme caution if any are near!
DANGER: Buried underground hazards:
Electrical power
Cables, fluid, and gas carrying pipes
WARNING: Do not trust locating instruments
when crossing or boring close to hazardous
services. Always expose hazardous utilities by
careful hand-digging.
Fiber optic cables
Do not trust locating done previously.
Do not hesitate to contact utilities to shut down
services for the duration of the job if there is doubt
to location of underground hazards.
Electrical hits can cause electrocution, pipe hits
can cause fire, explosion, asphyxiation or toxic
gas or liquid release, and fiber optic cables carry
laser-light signals which can cause eye damage.
Be alert to any change from normal during a
boring job.
Jobsite Inspection and Briefing
!LOOK for leaks, loose connectors, loosening
anchors, changes to drilling fluids, problems with
tools or drill pipe, or other equipment.
Take the time to thoroughly check the entire
site yourself
for indications
underground hazards. Be alert for “warning
signs” such as:
Notices of buried utilities
Absence of overhead lines near facilities that
logically use utilities
!LISTEN for unexpected engine lugging, bearing
noises, high pressure squeals and any
unexpected or unusual rattles, knocks, screeches,
or any change to the normal operating noises.
Part Number 9020015
!SMELL for unusual odors such as hot oil,
burning insulation, natural gas, etc.
If the operator is on the mat or otherwise in
contact with the drill rack, he should retract the
downhole tool and drill pipe away from the line.
Pull back the carriage to the top of the rack to
attempt to disengage from the electrical contact.
!FEEL for changes in the resistance to thrust or
rotation during boring or any changes to how the
equipment is operating.
WARNING: Do not try to disconnect a drill
pipe or joint until electrical power is shut down.
Do not rely on electrical circuit breakers as
power can be rerouted and circuit breakers can
be reset.
!STOP and correct anything you see, hear,
smell, or feel that is potentially unsafe.
Emergency Procedures for Hits
Contact the utility company immediately so they
can shut off power and arrange repairs.
DANGER: Electrocution Possible.
Unprotected bystanders could be electrocuted if
in contact with any part of the boring equipment,
including the mudskid, if a “hot” line is hit.
Gas or Liquid Line Hits
DANGER: Explosion Possible. If a gas or
volatile liquid line hit occurs, immediately
shut down any power sources such as
generators, hydraulic power packs, or
vehicles and leave the area. If the power
sources cannot readily be shut down, leave
the area immediately!
Contact the utility company immediately and
warn people in the area. Do not return to the
area until given permission by the utility
Do not let anyone touch the unit while boring.
All persons who come in contact with the boring
equipment should always wear protective
clothing, such as Class 2 electrical gloves and
boots while boring.
Fiber Optic Cable Hits
CAUTION: Do not look into the severed ends
of the cable! Laser light will cause permanent eye
damage or blindness. If you do not know what
kind of cable you have cut, do not look into the
ends in case it is a fiber optic cable.
BE ALERT! Hitting a “hot” line may be indicated by
arcing at the front of the drill rack; a warning on a
strike alert device, nearby power outage; smoke,
explosion, arcing, etc. on or around nearby
electrical transformers and equipment; or nothing at
all. Most electrical strikes are not immediately
noticeable but are still potentially lethal.
Safety Summary
Be Aware
Electrical Hits
Safety is important. Safety precautions and safe
operation habits must be the principal
consideration before you begin work and
continue throughout the job. You should be
aware of all hazards overhead, on the surface,
and underground before unloading the drill rack
from the trailer.
If an electrical hit occurs, do not panic.
If you are on the machine, stay on the machine.
If you are standing on the ground, stay where
you are and don’t touch any equipment.
Stepping off a well-grounded equal potential mat
may cause electrocution. If you are off the
equipment, remain still and stay off the
Warn everybody in the area that an electrical
strike has occurred and to stay away from the
mudskid, drill rack, or any other equipment in the
Be Prepared
Take the necessary precautions to protect
personnel and bystanders in case of an
inadvertent utility hit before anything is driven
into the ground. This includes wearing of
personal protective equipment, proper jobsite
security, and proper training of all jobsite
The most important safety consideration is a
well trained crew. Using the proper equipment,
the proper tools, in the proper manner on a
well planned and well prepared boring job is
the best safety policy.
Equipment Information
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
Chapter 2
Equipment Information
indicator lamp for the hydraulic oil filter will light
Heat - Rotate the key counter clockwise and this
connects the cold start preheat (glow plug) circuit.
When the temperature is below 40° pre-heat until
the indicator light goes out.
Start - Rotate the key two positions past off and
this engages the starter. Do not crank the engine
for longer than 20 seconds at a time.
The Engine control panel located to the left
of the operator’s seat contains the controls
and warning indicators for the John Deere
power unit. See the engine instruction book
for complete safety and operation details of
the engine.
1. Ignition Switch: This switch has four
positions to control the operation of the
2. Preheat Indicator: Shows that the preheat
circuit is functioning properly.
3. Safety Over Ride Switch: Press and hold
during starting to over ride safety shutdown.
4. Hydraulic Filter Indicator: Lights when
hydraulic charge filters need to be replaced.
5. Tachometer: Displays engine RPM.
Off - In this position the unit is off, the fuel control
solenoid is in the "Kill" position, the electrical
system is disconnected and the key may be
On - Rotate the key one position clockwise. The
on position connects electrical system, the
6. Oil Pressure Gauge: Displays engine oil
7. Temperature Gauge: Displays engine coolant
8. Volt Meter: Displays battery voltage.
Equipment Information
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
Operator Control Panel
1. Makeup Wrench Switch: This switch controls the
makeup (front) wrench. It locks in the clamp position
for easy operation of the breakout function.
2. Breakout Wrench Switch: (rear wrench)
Push and hold to clamp the breakout wrench
onto the drill pipe.
3. Breakout Cylinder Switch: Push and hold to
extend the breakout cylinder.
4. Drill Joystick: Pull back to move carriage to
back (pullback) and push forward to move
carriage to front (thrust). Move to the right to
rotate the carriage clockwise (forward rotation)
and move the joystick to the left to turn the
carriage shaft counter clockwise (reverse
5. Emergency Shut Down Switch: Twist and
pull out to run. Push in to stop.
6. Throttle Switch: Switch rocks one direction
for low idle and the other for high idle.
7. Drilling Fluid Switch: The drill fluid switch
has three settings, Off, On, and Quickfill. The on
position is used during thrust and pullback. The
Quickfill is primarily used to quickly fill a pipe that
is being added to the drillstring.
8. Drill Fluid Pressure Dial: Rotate the dial
clockwise with the drill fluid switch in the on
position to raise drill fluid pressure.
9. Thrust Gauge: Indicates hydraulic pressure in
the circuit, which is pressurized when in Thrust
mode. Indicated pressure should never exceed
5,000 PSI (345 Bar).
10. Rotation Gauge: Indicates hydraulic
pressure in the circuit, which is pressurized when
in the Rotation mode. Indicated pressure should
never exceed 5000 PSI (345 Bar).
11. Drilling Fluid Gauge: Indicates pressure of
the drilling fluid in the drill string and drilling fluid
umbilical hose. Indicated pressure should never
exceed 1500 PSI (103Bar).
12. Auxiliary Pressure Gauge: Indicates
hydraulic pressure in the auxiliary circuit.
Indicated pressure should never exceed 3000
PSI (207Bar).
13. Pipe Loader Control Handle: Move toward
drill rack to extend pipe loader, move away from
drill rack to retract. Pull toward operator to move
loader down, push away from operator to raise.
14. Pipe Loader Clamp Switch: Rock forward
to close clamp, rock back to open clamp.
15. Leveling foot control handle: Push away
from operator to lower rear foot and raise the
unit, pull toward operator to raise the rear foot
and lower the unit.
16. . Auxiliary Hydraulic Circuit Lever: Pull to
turn on power, push to turn off power to the
auxiliary hydraulic circuit.
Do not operate
without something plugged into the auxiliary
17. Work Lights Switch: Always use work lights
when working in low light conditions.
18. Drill/Tram Switch: This switch must be in
the drill position for the thrust and rotation
operations to function. To tram the machine
this switch must be in the tram position.
19. Autodrill Controls: See Pullback
Operations for instructions on how to use these
Strike Alert
The strike alert is designed with special
electronic filters to sense 60 hertz AC electrical
power. It uses a red light and siren to alert the
operator of current flowing through the grounding
cable. The strike alert consists of a control panel
mounted on the back of the drill control arm rest,
a combination strobe light and 100DB alarm,
grounding cables, a six foot long ground rod, and
an equal potential mat. The Strike Alert operates
with 12VDC electrical power provided by the
drilling unit.
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
direction the unit will move with each direction of
the joystick. Note the area between the dotted
lines. At a point, when tramming in reverse, if
this line is crossed, the controls will cause the
unit to veer sharply in the opposite direction.
2. Tilt Switch: Push switch toward lower to lower the
angle of the drill frame. Push switch toward raise to
raise the angle of the drill frame.
Verify that the panel switch is in the “armed”
position and the green light is illuminated
before driving anchor stakes or drilling. If an
electrical utility hit is experienced, the red
light and siren will activate and must be reset
by switching the front panel switch to the
“off” position then back to the “armed”
The current
sensitivity selector
3. Tram Dead Man Switch: This switch must be
held to activate tramming functions.
Fluid Level/Condition Indicators
Hydraulic Fluid: Hydraulic oil level is
shown by a sight glass on the side of
the hydraulic oil reservoir located at
the rear of the unit. The proper level
is the mid point between high and
low when the oil is cold.
• The .02A position is the most sensitive
selection. This position begins sensing at .017A
• The .2A position represents a reduction in
current sensitivity which begins sensing at .17A
• The .50 position is the least sensitive position
and begins sensing a .47A (470mA)
IMPORTANT: The panel switch must be
returned to the “OFF” position prior to switching
between the sensitivity levels to avoid possible
false triggering.
H yd ra u lic O ilLe ve l
Sig h t G a u g e
Rear Control
1. Joystick: Move the joystick forward to drive
forward and back to drive in reverse. Move the joy
stick to the right to move right and left to move left.
CAUTION The joystick
controls are very sensitive.
Take it slow when you are
learning the feel of the motions
of the machine. The drawing on
the right shows the approximate
Engine Oil: Engine oil level is shown by a
dipstick located on the side of the engine behind
the engine enclosure door. Check daily.
Engine Fuel: Diesel fuel tank level is shown by a
gauge located in fuel tank behind the operator
En g in e O ilD ip stic k
Hydraulic Oil Filter Condition: The hydraulic
return filter on the oil reservoir is equipped with a
filter condition gauge. If this gauge reads in the
red when the engine is running at high speed
and the oil temperature is above 70°F (21°C),
the filter should be changed.
Rotation gauge indicator: After machine serial
Number 2462037 the rotation gearbox is flushed
continuously with oil from the hydraulic reservoir.
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
The sight gauge is located on top of the rotation
gearbox and should be checked daily. If gauge
reads in the red and the oil temperature is 70 F
the filter should be changed. The filter is located
underneath the rack.
Umbilical Connections
1. Auxiliary Circuit: The auxiliary circuit, located at
the rear of the machine, provides hydraulic power for
after market accessories.
2 3
1. Hydraulic Oil Cooler: This unit is equipped with
two electrically powered and controlled oil cooler
fans. This is an automatic system, the thermostat is
set to turn on the cooling system when the oil
temperature reaches 120°F (49°C).
2. Override Switch: This switch will override the
automatic thermostat on the oil cooler. Toggle this
switch up to manually turn on the cooler fan(s).
Toggle this switch down for automatic operation.
2. Drilling Fluid: The drilling fluid supply hose is
connected to the drill rack with a valve-less quick
coupler. It is not equipped with a check valve to
simplify drainage and cleaning.
3. Mud Skid Electrical Control: The electrical
control umbilical is connected with a multi-pin plug at
the rear of the unit. This electrical cable controls the
on/off and the amount of volume of the drilling fluid
circuit. The cable is normally stored on the mud skid.
Grounding Cable: The ground cable makes a
connection from the ground rod to a lug on the mud
skid. The cable is normally stored on the mud skid.
3. Hour meter: This indicates the run time on the
4. Relay: This relay controls the power to the cooler
fan motors.
5. 40 Amp Circuit Breaker: This Breaker protects the
power circuit to the cooling fan motor(s).
Engine Coolant
The coolant should be a 50/50 mixture of water
and anti-freeze. There is an access panel in the
top of the engine enclosure to reach the radiator
fill neck. Even in summer, the freeze protection
should always be at least –35°.
The unit is equipped with a 12v 950 cold cranking
amp battery.
Engine Compartment
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
Chapter 3
Planning the Bore
Successful bores begin well before the first pipe
goes in the ground. Find and review any existing
information already available about the job and
jobsite. The basics include length, depth, and
obstacles for the planned bore.
Soil type and condition
Water supply
Sources of locator interference (power lines,
railroad tracks, etc.)
!Job Plan: Check for information on existing or
planned structures, and their elevations. Check
for any proposed work that may be taking place.
If possible, review their plans or documentation
of the jobsite. Contact local authorities about
safety procedures and regulations.
Plan the Bore Path
!Pullback Material: Verify the material you will
be pulling back, its bend radius, weight and
!One-Call Services: Call area One-Call or
similar services and have existing lines located
and marked. Call any utilities in your area that do
not subscribe to One-Call.
!Traffic Control: Contact local authorities about
safety procedures and regulations, when working
near a road or other traffic area.
!Emergency Services: Find the telephone
numbers for local emergency and medical
facilities at hand. Develop an emergency action
plan including telephone locations and backup.
Site Inspection
Inspect jobsite before transporting equipment.
Check for the following:
Identify Hazards
Warning: Jobsite hazards could cause death
or serious injury. Use only the correct equipment
and safe work methods. Always use and
maintain proper safety equipment.
♦ Signs of Utilities (See “Safety” section)
Observe and comply with any jobsite notices
Survey the job site for changes in elevation
Identify obstacles such as buildings, roads,
streams, railroad tracks, and the like.
The bore path must be planned before boring
begins, from entry to exit. The bore path can be
marked on the ground with spray paint or flags,
or written on paper for operator reference.
The lay out of the bore path must consider depth
of the bore, recommended steering limits, entry
grade, and set-back distance. The entry and exit
points can be marked once the desired depth
and set back distances are determined.
Depth: Generally, the conditions found on the
jobsite will determine the depth of the bore. To
reduce depth, reduce entry angle. To increase
depth, increase entry angle and set-back. Also
consider the selection of the transmitter.
Steering limits: The 2462 has a minimum bend
radius of 130 feet. This translates to no more
that a 7% change in grade in one length of drill
pipe on a vertical steer, or 130 feet of forward
distance (not 130 feet of pipe) to make a 90
degree turn.
Important: “Over-steering” or bending the pipe
more sharply than recommended limits will
damage and shorten the life of the pipe. This
damage is not always visible. Repeated abuse of
the steering limits will result in bent or broken
pipe that may make recovery of the drill head,
transmitter, backreamer or utility difficult or
Entry Angle: This is the angle of the boring unit
as compared to the angle of ground. A shallow
entry angle allows you to reach horizontal sooner
and with less bending. Increasing entry angle
makes bore path longer and deeper.
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
Set-back Distance: This is the distance from
entry to where the pipe will run horizontal. If setback distance is too short, the steering limits will
be exceeded and the drill pipe can be damaged.
inquiring about underground experience in the
area, to inspection of local open-cut excavations,
to hand digging, and ultimately to core sample
drilling with geologic evaluation.
Traffic: Vehicle and pedestrian traffic must be a
safe distance from boring equipment. Allow at
least 10’ (3m) buffer zone around equipment.
Select the Tooling
Slope: Fluid system should be parked on a level
site. Consider how slope will affect boring unit
set-up, bending pipe and fluid flow out of hole.
Evaluate The Soil Conditions
Soil conditions include (but are not limited to)
stickiness, presence of rocks, and underground
water formations. These conditions can be
determined by several methods. These methods
escalate in complexity ranging from simply
The selection of tooling depends on the soil
conditions at the job site and the material to be
Select The Drilling Fluid
The selection and mixture of drilling fluid also
depends on the soil at the job site and the
material to be installed.
Use the checklist on the following page as a
guide to plan your bore.
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
Planning the Bore Checklist
Brief the Crew
" Survey the job site, locate and mark
all underground utilities
" Brief the crew on all known hazards
" Expose all proposed crossings
" Plan the pilot bore, confirm that a
bore log is at hand, and mark the
proposed bore path
" Assign adequate manpower where
" Confirm emergency procedures, and
access to emergency phones and
" Location of all safety barriers and the
appropriate precautions to secure
the jobsite and equipment.
" Confirm that the crew has and wears
appropriate safety gear.
" Receiver/locator with charged
" Transmitter and spare batteries
" Two way radios and spare batteries
" Wrenches and shear bolts
" Anchoring
" Allen bolts and wrenches
" Bits, filters, jets
" Adapters, pipe, transmitter head
" Marking flags, paint
" Water and additional hoses
Spare Fuses
pulling devices
Wash wand and hose
Duct tape
Spray lubricant
Thread lubricant and brush
Notepad and pencil
Hydraulic fluid
Engine oil
Lube points
Thrust chain
Filters (air, oil, hydraulic)
Fluid pump
Mud mixer
Hoses and valves
Fluid solenoid
Water tanks
Equal potential mats and cables in
good condition
StraightLine 2462 Operator Manual
Chapter 4
Setup at the Job Site
Upon arrival at the job site, park the trailer on a
level area that is close enough to where the drill
rack will be anchored to allow the umbilicals to
be easily connected. Use wheel chocks and the
tongue jack to prevent the trailer from
unexpectedly moving before starting to unload
the drill rack. When the trailer has been securely
parked, then the safety barriers, traffic cones,
hazard lights, etc. around the trailer should be
erected and activated to prevent non-authorized
personnel from coming in contact with the
Setup the Strike Alert
WARNING: The Strike Alert system
indicates only that the drill has come into contact
with electrical power, you must wear the proper
protective clothing for recommended protection.
When the drill rack is in position, unroll the equal
potential mat and position it with the ground
cable socket towards the front and close to the
center of the anchor site. Position the mat on the
side of the unit that will provide the most
protection for the crew while drill pipe is in the
ground. Normal positioning will be on the right
hand side. If there is ever a need for manual
loading of the drill pipe, place it on the left side.
Unload The Drill Rack
WARNING: Crushing Weight, if moved or
operated in an unsafe manner, this equipment
can crush operators or bystanders.
Refer to the equipment information (Chapter 2)
to identify and operate the controls of the unit.
Carefully tram the drill rack off the trailer and to
the bore entry location. Maintain control of the
drill rack at all times. If the trailer is damp or wet
the drill will have the possibility of sliding out of
Place here for one operator
Place here w hen loading from
this side.
Equal Potential M at Placem ent
Position The Drill Rack
If the drill rack position is on uneven terrain, such
as an embankment, the setback between the
drill rack and the entry point should be adjusted
to compensate for the change in the geometry. If
set up on an incline is unavoidable, do not
exceed a maximum incline of 30º to maintain
proper engine lubrication. If necessary, start the
engine and position the drill rack for the desired
drill pipe entry angle with the level foot and the
tilt control. When finished, always shut the
engine off.
DANGER: Electric Shock. Put on electrical
insulating boots and gloves, then anchor the mat
in position using the mat stakes provided,
making sure that the mat and stakes are flush
with the ground to prevent a tripping hazard.
Drive the ground stake into the ground until no
more than 1 foot is left exposed. If the ground is
extremely dry, pour water down and around the
ground rod to help with a proper ground. The
earth ground should be tested with a device such
as a Megger to determine the resistance to
Make the cable connections to the equal
potential mat, Strike Alert, the drill rack, and the
Part Number 9020015
ground rod. Now connect the ground umbilical
between the mud skid and the drill rack.
Arrange the path of the umbilical so as to avoid
having to walk on or over the umbilical which can
cause premature wear and damage.
Check the Strike Alert system before driving the
anchors or using the power anchor system.
Place the front panel switch in the “test” position
and verify the operation of the red light and siren.
If the red light and siren do not operate in the
“test” position, verify that the key switch is turned
on. Also check that the battery is charged and
properly connected.
After the unit has operated with the switch in the
“test” position, put the switch in the “armed”
position and verify the green light is illuminated.
Anchor The Drill Rack
WARNING: Be sure to properly anchor the
drill rack, both in the front and in the rear of the
machine before rotating drill pipe. If the rear of
the machine needs to be anchored additional
anchor stakes are required along with a anchor
driver and anchor puller. Failure to properly
anchor the drill rack to the ground can result in
damaged tooling and excessive drill pipe wear
and even drill rack tip over, which can crush you
when the drill string is rotated. If the operator
has not already done so all proper safety
equipment should be worn while operating any
anchor system.
IMPORTANT: Failure to securely anchor drill rack
allows premature drill pipe and drill pipe guide wear.
Premature drill pipe wear is usually discovered by drill
pipe breakage under load, underground. Proper use
of anchors could prevent future use of shovels
(digging up drill head) or checkbook (buying new drill
head, sonde, etc.) by keeping drill pipe centered in
drill pipe guide. STAKE IT FIRMLY DOWN TO
Power Anchor Operation
The power anchors are operated by the controls
located on the operator station. The handles
control the thrust and rotation for each power
anchor. The power anchor is equipped with
augers that have flighting for soil or smooth
stakes equipped with carbide bits for anchoring
in asphalt, concrete or rock. Attach the
appropriate stake to the power anchor motor
using the pins and couplers provided with the
machine on the side desired to anchor.
Pilot Bore
DANGER: To protect the operator and
personnel around the anchor system the pins
and couplers that attach the anchors to the
thrust motors must be installed correctly. The
power anchor should never be operated while
someone is near to the rotating parts of the
With maximum thrust slowly rotate the anchor
into the socket provided in the anchor plate. The
operator should not use the power anchor to dig
a hole but, use the power anchor to insert the
stake into the ground. If the stake is inserted
correctly the surface of the ground should
remain relatively undisturbed. The operator can
place three stakes on either side of the anchor
plate with the power anchor. After one stake
has been placed disconnect the pin between the
thrust motor and the top of the auger, raise the
thrust motor to the top of the mast then lift the
latch at the base to allow the power anchor to
swivel to the next position. Confirm the power
anchor is positioned correctly by engaging the
latch into the notch provided. Repeat the
procedure above for as many stakes as the
operator would like to put in.
If you have not already done so, put on the
electrical insulating boots and gloves. Start the
engine and activate the driver circuit by moving
the anchor/puller control valve lever at the front
control panel. Place the hammer en1d of the
driver on a stake with the stake aligned through
a hole in the anchor plate, squeeze the trigger to
start the driver, (adequate down pressure is very
important). Continue driving until the stake collar
is against the anchor plate. Repeat for each
stake to be driven.
IMPORTANT: “Do not” operate the driver
without holding it against a work surface, this
puts an excessive strain on the driver’s foot and
other internal components.
Prepare the Drilling Fluid
StraightLine’s mud systems mix as well as pump
high pressure drilling fluid to the drilling unit. They are
equipped with a venturi system to introduce bentonite
to the mixture.
Part Number 9020015
IMPORTANT: Read the engine Operators Manual
for complete instructions on starting and running the
momentary operation of the drilling fluid switch. Don’t
start to bore until the following items are also
Mixing Bentonite
Start the engine and, after proper warm up, set to
high throttle. With water in the main tank, set the
Selector Valve handle to mix and the drilling fluid
switch off. Pour bentonite into the hopper and slowly
open the ball valve. Follow all the supplier’s
instructions for best results.
See the mud system operator’s manual for
complete and detailed instructions.
IMPORTANT: Do not allow too much material at
once or the venturi will clog.
Mixing Polymers
With water in the main tank, set the Selector Valve
handle to mix and the drilling fluid switch off. Start the
engine and set to high throttle. Add the correct
amount of polymers directly into the main tank, do
not use the venturi system.
Connect the Mud Skid Umbilicals.
The operator at the drill rack should confirm that the
mud skid umbilical connections are correct by
Brief the crew on all known hazards
Survey the job site, locate and mark all
underground utilities
Service the drill rack and mud skid including
the fuel and oil levels
Service any trailer mounted equipment
Set the drilling fluid speed control valve lever
on the mud skid and measure the flow rate
Confirm that the whole crew is wearing all
appropriate safety gear
Expose all proposed crossings
Confirm that the crew is trained in
emergency procedures, and has access to
emergency phone numbers
Secure and anchor the drill rack
Connect the ground mats to a tested ground
Erect all safety barriers and take the
appropriate precautions to secure the job
site and equipment.
Install fresh batteries in the transmitter, and
confirm that a fully charged battery pack is in
the locator receiver
Calibrate the locator receiver
locator’s operator’s manual
Test the radio communications between the
locator and the operator
The proposed bore path is marked, and bore
log at hand.
Check the tooling, is there an adequate
amount of drill pipe, thread lube, and
supplies to mix drilling fluid.
Pilot Bore
Mix the drilling fluid thoroughly using suitable
water and test the drilling fluid for viscosity,
sand content, filter cake, or other factors as
Part Number 9020015
Chapter 5
Starting the Pilot Bore
Thread Lube
Apply thread lubricant to the tool joint using the
brush provided. The lubricant should fully coat all
threads on both halves of the tool joint and
should also coat the shoulder of the makeup
pipe joint.
Important: For optimum operation and to
prolong the life of the drill pipe, always use
thread lube on every pipe change beginning with
the very first section installed.
guide to expose the male threads in front of the
drill rack so that the drill head assembly may be
Assemble the Drill Head
Assemble the drill head with the appropriate filter
for the drilling fluid selected, Sonde, bit, and fluid
jets. Use thread compound on all bolts.
If the drill pipe is new or has not been used in
three or more days, apply a generous coating to
the shoulder and threads of both the male and
female ends. Otherwise, apply a generous
coating to the shoulder and male threads before
the tool joint is screwed together.
Tighten Joints At The Saver Sub.
Open both wrenches. Using the pipe loader,
move the first piece of pipe onto the pipe catcher
with the front (male) near the wrenches and the
rear (female) end positioned directly in front of
the saver-sub.
Pip e G u id e
M a ke U p W re nc h
Apply thread lube to the male end of the drill
pipe. Attach the drill head assembly by screwing
it on the drill pipe and tighten with hand
DANGER: Turning shaft can crush arms or
legs. Do not touch drill pipe while rotating. Do not
wear jewelry, rings, watches, or loose clothing
when operating drill rack as these items may
catch resulting in serious injury or death.
Bre a ko ut W re n c h
Slowly thrust forward until the front (male) end of
the pipe is in the jaws of the makeup wrench.
Tighten the section of drill pipe onto the saver
sub by locking the makeup wrench. Using
forward rotation, turn the pipe until it is tightened
to full drill rotation torque.
Set the makeup wrench back to neutral. The drill
pipe should be advanced (thrust forward)
through the makeup wrench and the drill pipe
Pilot Bore
Check the Jets
Toggle the drilling fluid pump control switch to
the quick fill position and run fluid through the
umbilical, swivel, drill pipe, filter, and jets.
Part Number 9020015
Observe the pattern of fluid spray from the jets to
make sure that the system is operating properly.
Important: If there is any foreign material
clogging the fluid jets, remove and clean the filter
as well as the jets before re-testing. Checking
the condition of the filter can be done more
easily at this point than at any other time during
the job. If any restrictions or other problems
occur, solve them before continuing the bore.
When you’re ready to proceed and fluid comes
out of the jets release the switch. It should relax
to the on position. Set the desired drilling fluid
pressure with the drill fluid dial. Apply forward
rotation and hold.
Important: Whenever you are advancing the
drill head, you must have fluid (under pressure)
flowing through the drill head to insure the jets
do not become clogged.
Important: The pressure will register on the
drilling solution gauge even if the drill head jets
have become clogged. There is an easy way to
check for clogged jets. Turn the drilling fluid
pump control switch on and watch the drilling
fluid pressure gauge until it registers pressure.
Turn the switch off and monitor the pressure
reading on the gauge. If the pressure falls off
quickly, the jets are not clogged. If the pressure
takes some time to drop off, the jets are clogged.
Dig A Pilot Hole
Dig a starting hole to give the drill a flat surface
into which the bore may begin with out
Pilot Bore
Being perfectly aligned when beginning the bore
is absolutely necessary for fast easy drill pipe
addition during the boring operation and easy
pipe removal during the pullback operation. An
off-center entry hole causes unnecessary
pressure on the tool joints, reducing the useful
life of both the drill pipe and the tool joints. The
increased side pressure caused by an off center
requirements for boring, steering, and pullback
which reduces the capacity of the entire drilling
Advance (thrust forward) the drill head slowly by
feathering the joystick to control movement and
rotating (forward) until the drill head is all the
way to the front end of the drill rack with the back
(female) tool joint of the drill pipe in the makeup
DANGER: Do not touch the drill pipe while it
is rotating. Do not wear jewelry, rings, watches,
or loose clothing when operating drill rack as
these items may catch, resulting in serious injury
or death.
WARNING: Do not wire, wedge, tape, or tie
down controls in any way. Maintain personal
control of the boring equipment at all times.
DANGER: Electrical Shock. Know the
location of all electrical lines and stay at least 10
feet (3m) away from all “hot” electrical lines,
including overhead lines. Contacting electrical
lines with drill pipe, whether drilling underground
or handling pipe above ground, will cause
serious injury or death.
Part Number 9020015
Chapter 6
Completing the Pilot Bore
Adding Drill Pipe
To begin adding drill pipe, turn the drilling fluid
pump off and lock the female tool joint in the
make-up wrench.
Apply reverse rotation to break the sub saver
joint lose. Continue reverse rotation until the
saver sub is completely disengaged from the drill
pipe. The 2462 is equipped with a floating
carriage system that allows enough idle, linear
movement to thread and unthread drill pipe.
Apply thread lube to the saver sub and again,
using the pipe loader, move a new section of drill
pipe in position between the exposed tool joint in
the makeup wrench and the saver sub onto the
pipe catcher. Apply ample thread lube to the
male end of the drill pipe.
Slowly rotate the saver sub into the new drill pipe
providing a lose fit. Remove the pipe loader and
advance the carriage until the male tool joint of
the new section of pipe threads into the female
joint of the exposed pipe. Slowly rotate (forward)
to shoulder up the tool joint threads to full
rotation torque.
Set the makeup wrench cylinder to the neutral
position. Be very careful not to thrust with either
of the wrenches locked onto the tool joints.
Thrusting in either direction with the wrench jaws
locked onto the pipe can cause damage to both
the pipe joints and the wrenches.
Important: Take special notice of the sequence
in which functions and switches are turned on
and off. Following them will reduce the possibility
of injury or damage to the equipment. Rock the
drilling fluid pump switch to the quick fill position.
When the drilling fluid gauge registers pressure,
relax the switch to on and rotate (forward) and
thrust (forward) to bore, or thrust (forward) only
to push or steer as required until the female tool
joint reaches the inside of the makeup wrench.
Important: Do not rotate drill string in reverse,
any time the drill string or pipe is in the ground.
Pilot Bore
This can cause the drill pipe to loosen and come
apart underground.
Check the fluid usage after the drill head has
been advanced approximately 30 feet and adjust
as required.
Guiding the Bore
Guiding the drill head through the planned bore
path is accomplished by connecting straight runs
of rotation with curved runs of steering. This
process relies on the use of locating equipment
and experienced operators.
Steering or “pushing” involves rotating the drill
head to orient the steering shoe, and pushing the
drill head without rotating to cause the head to
veer in a controlled direction.
In order to bore (rotate) or steer (push) with
accuracy, the direction and pitch and roll of the
drill head must be known before thrust force is
applied. Modern tracking and locating equipment
provide that information and give precise
position and depth information. Refer to the
operator’s manual supplied with the tracking or
locating equipment to learn how to most
accurately guide the drill head.
When advancing the drill head without steering,
the locator tells the operator to “rotate” and
reports the distance to advance.
The operator turns the drilling fluid switch on,
and waits until the pressure registers on the
drilling fluid pressure gauge. Then engage,
rotate (forward) and slowly advance thrust
(forward) until a new drill pipe must be added or
the distance requested by the locator has been
Advancing the drill head at the correct speed is
critical when boring or steering. Monitor the
thrust and rotation hydraulic pressure gauges,
pressure readings will correspond to the amount
of resistance in the respective functions.
Learning to “read” the information these gauges
Part Number 9020015
furnish will help determine how fast you may
safely advance the drill string.
At this point, the operator stops thrust first, then
allows a few revolutions of rotation to release
torque windup in the drill string, and then turns
the drilling fluid switch off.
The first steer is usually performed to change the
grade from the point of entry to the first level run.
When the drill head is at the point of the bore
path where the steering arc levels off and the
desired depth is reached, the operator first stops
the thrust. The drill head is then rotated a few
revolutions to release windup and the drilling
fluid switch is turned off.
The locator marks the position of the drill head
and reads the orientation of the steering shoe.
The drill head orientation and steering directions
are given in terms of “clock” position with the
clock face viewed from the operator position.
The drill head will steer in the direction of its
clock position with 12 o’clock being straight up, 3
o’clock being a level right turn, etc. Therefore to
change from a downward entry bore path to level
bore path, the drill head needs to steer to the 12
o’clock direction.
To go up: Thrust only
Side View
The locator marks the new position, notes the
depth (and pitch if available) and determines the
need for any additional steering requirements. If
pitch information is not provided on the locator
device, a short straight bore with precise depth
reading will indicate whether or not the drill head
is level.
The locator should mark the progress of the bore
on the surface at least every 5-6 feet if possible,
more often, if necessary. Keep track of the
actual bore path in the bore log by recording the
depths at each location point.
Finishing the Pilot Bore
The pilot bore can be guided to a pit but is
usually accomplished by steering the drillhead
up to the surface at the planned exit point. Make
sure that the upward curve of the bore path at
the exit does not exceed the bend radius of the
drill pipe or the material to be installed. The last
steering curve is the first pullback curve, so all
installed material will bend around this curve. It is
good practice to maintain as straight a bore path
as possible.
Bevel side dow n
The locator using the locating device will analyze
the stopped and the desired clock position of the
drill head. He then must determine the desired
drill head position and communicate this to the
operator. The operator notes the orientation of
the exposed drill pipe or saver sub and rotates
the appropriate number of “hours” in order to put
the steering shoe in the correct position for the
The locator confirms the new orientation of the
drill head and tells the operator the distance to
push at that clock position.
Pilot Bore
The operator turns the drilling fluid switch on,
insures that there is pressure on the drilling fluid
gauge, then engages thrust (forward) feathering
the valve to control speed. The operator pushes
the drill pipe ahead for the distance requested,
then stops the thrust, and turns the drilling fluid
switch off.
When the locator can verify that the drill head is
on an upward path and is about to emerge,
secure the area around the exit point. When the
drill has emerged the operator should toggle the
drilling fluid pump to OFF and advance the drill
string until the drill head and filter sub are clear
of the ground. Shut down the power unit and
remove the key from the ignition switch before
starting the preparation for pullback operations.
Thoroughly clean and flush the drill head.
Inspect for damage and wear to the cutting bit
and the steering shoe. Open the transmitter
housing cover and remove the transmitter.
Clean off the transmitter, remove batteries, and
return the transmitter and locator receiver to the
transport/storage case. Return the drill head to
its storage place on the trailer.
Part Number 9020015
Chapter 7
Pullback Operations
Pullback operations involve two individual tasks
that are usually done together:
operations. The material being installed may
rotate unexpectedly if swivel malfunctions.
Back-reaming: The process of enlarging the
pilot bore.
Assemble The Tooling
Pullback: The process of pulling the utility into
the tunnel with a swivel.
Drilling fluid management and tooling selection
are very important to successful pullbacks. The
demand on horsepower can be greatly reduced,
and the quality of the tunnel can be greatly
improved through proper management and
Apply a liberal amount of thread lube to the
threads of all the tooling. Make sure the threads
are fully seated and tightened. Check to see that
the jets are properly sized and functioning. The
swivel should be properly lubricated and in good
operating condition.
With all systems shut off, assemble the tooling to
the drill pipe and attach the material being
installed with the appropriate puller, adapters,
swivel, and/or attaching hardware.
Pullback Safety
The pilot bore may have guided the drill string in
near proximity to an unmarked hazard that went
undetected. Back-reaming enlarges the pilot
bore, and may now bring the drill string in
contact with that hazard. This contact has all the
same consequences of a utility hit on the pilot
bore. Observe all of the safety rules for the pull
back as the pilot bore.
DANGER: Electrocution Possible. If arching
occurs at the front of machine, this indicates a
“HOT” line has been hit. Anyone could be
electrocuted from contact with any part of the
boring equipment, including the mud skid.
DANGER: Turning shaft can crush arms or
legs. Do not touch drill pipe while rotating. Do not
wear jewelry, rings, watches, or loose clothing
when operation drill rack as these items may
catch resulting in serious injury or death.
WARNING Keep all persons away from
Start the Pullback
Position a crew member at the exit hole to
communicate the status of the drilling fluid flow
to the operator at the drill rack, and also to
monitor the utility being installed.
Communication of the fluid situation to the
operator will help regulate the speed of the
pullback to prevent “outrunning” the drilling fluid
or allowing the returns to pack off and “stick” the
installed material.
Part Number 9020015
Start the engine of the drill rack and mud skid.
Turn the drilling fluid switch on momentarily to
check the jets.
proper flow rate is another “it depends”
calculations. The locator who is at the exit hole
(material entry point) should carefully monitor the
exit hole for fluid, which should be present but
not in excess.
Auto Drill
Thrust as required to position the next tool
joint between the wrenches and disconnect
the saver-sub from the drill pipe following
the procedure used in adding drill pipe.
Thrust (forward) to position the saver-sub
through the breakout wrench and using the
procedure used in adding drill pipe, connect the
saver-sub to drill pipe.
The autodrill function of the 2462 is used to aid
in consistent hole formation and in optimizing the
available power of the drill.
WARNING It is important to remember that
the controls for thrust and rotation should be set
to neutral before turning the autodrill on for the
first time on each bore to prevent unexpected
operation when the switch is turned on.
Thrust (reverse) slowly to retract the drill string
until the backreaming tool contacts the earth at
the exit hole.
Important: Do Not rotate drill string in reverse
(counter-clockwise) while drilling, backreaming,
or anytime the drill string is in the ground. This
may allow the drill pipe sections to loosen and
come apart underground.
A u to D rill
C o ntro ls
O n /O ff
Th rust
Rotate (forward) at full speed, turn the drilling
fluid switch on and thrust (reverse) retracting the
drill string, feathering the thrust valve as required
to maintain a steady pull without overloading the
drill rack, tooling, or material being installed. The
auto drill feature makes this a fairly simple task.
(See Auto Drill)
Monitor the thrust and rotation hydraulic
pressure gauges, pressure readings will
correspond to the amount of resistance in the
respective functions. Learning to “read” the
information these gauges furnish will help
determine how fast you may safely pullback.
NOTE: Drilling fluid management during pullback
is critical to prevent excess drag and related
problems. The amount of fluid being pumped
around the backreamer and material being
pulled back is controlled by the setting of the
fluid pump speed control and the speed of the
pullback. The proper speed of pullback and the
Ro ta tio n
With the thrust and rotation knobs set to
neutral, toggle the auto drill switch to on. Now,
turn the rotary control knob to the desired speed,
then increase the pullback until the desired load
on the spindle or the desired pullback rate is
achieved. After the desired rates have been set,
resetting the controller should not be necessary
until ground conditions change. The on/off switch
should then be used to engage and disengage
the autodrill function. Remembering to monitor
the rotational speed and being sure not to
pullback faster than the mud pump can fill the
hole being cut are the key factors to proper hole
Part Number 9020015
Removing Drill Pipe
Continue until the next drill pipe tool joint is
positioned between the breakout wrench and the
makeup wrench. Stop thrust, and rotation, turn
the drilling fluid switch off.
Important: Some utility material is “elastic” and
may pull the drill pipe back towards the tunnel
when the saver sub is disconnected. If you
experience this:
Thrust (forward), and apply thread lube to the
saver-sub as it moves into position through the
breakout wrench to align with the next tool joint.
Important: Always apply thread lube to the saversub on every joint for optimum operation and to
prolong the life of the drill pipe.
Retract the makeup wrench, and then slowly
rotate (forward) connecting the saver-sub to the
drill string. Continue to rotate (forward) and
tighten the joint to full system torque.
1. Slow the speed of the pullback to allow the
material to stay normalized
Set the Makeup Wrench to its neutral position.
2. Increase fluid flow to better lubricate or “float:”
the material being pulled
Turn the drilling fluid switch on, when pressure
registers, rotate (forward) and thrust (reverse) to
carefully continue the pullback.
3. Pull the pipe joint a bit past the wrenches,
then push it back into the correct position to
relieve the tension before breaking the drill pipe
Repeat as necessary until the backreamer is
about to emerge from the entry hole.
4.Use the make-up wrench to help hold string.
With the make-up wrench clamped, clamp the
breakout wrench and extend breakout cylinder to
break the drill pipe loose from the drill string.
Important: Rotate (reverse) slowly as the tool
joint loosens between the sections of drill pipe to
prevent “backdrive” of the rotation motor. This
action will prolong the life of the rotation drive
components. Set the breakout wrench to its
neutral position. Slowly rotate (reverse) to
release the threads in the tool joint. Stop
movement when the threads clear but the tool
joint remains in the jaws of the breakout wrench.
Close the breakout wrench, rotate (reverse) to
break the joint between the drill pipe and the
saver sub. Set the breakout wrench cylinder to
its neutral position
Grasp the drill pipe with the pipe loader and
continue to rotate (reverse) until the drill pipe is
completely disconnected from the saver-sub,
then place the drill pipe in the storage rack.
Retract the carriage to the rear of the drill rack
then forward to release the tension on the pulling
Shut down the drill rack and remove the key
from the ignition switch.
Disconnect the now installed material from the
swivel by removing the pulling connectors from
the material and the swivel clevis.
Remove the swivel from the drill string, clean,
and repack with water resistant grease.
Remove the backreamer and the filter sub from
the drill pipe.
Cleaning the dirt and mud off the equipment will
make the next setup easier. If clean water is
available on site, it is a good idea to wash things
off as they are loaded. If not, clean off when
Part Number 9020015
Restart the drill rack and position the front tool
joint of the last section of drill pipe in the
breakout wrench.
Pullback operations are usually best done as a
non-stop operation from start to finish. Before
starting, complete this checklist to prevent
stoppages in your work during pullback.
Close the breakout wrench and rotate (reverse)
to break the saver-sub loose from the last
remaining drill pipe and continue until the joint is
almost apart. Set the breakout wrench to its
neutral position, grasp the drill pipe with the pipe
loader and when it releases, place in the drill
pipe storage rack.
Pullback Checklist
! Attach the backreamer(s) and pulling swivel to
Fuel and oil levels
Drilling fluid and supplies
Utility supplies and conditions
Apply a liberal amount of “Taper-Lube” grease to
the threads of all the tooling
Check the pullback swivel and lube with waterproof “Jet-Lube”
Install the drill pipe wiper over the drill pipe at the
front of the drill pipe guide
the drill string. Make sure the threads are fully
seated and tightened
Use the appropriate pullers, adapters and
attaching hardware to connect the material to the
Test the radio communication between the
observer and the operator.
Part Number 9020015
Chapter 8
Power Anchor
Using the controls at the operator station slowly
unscrew the power anchor stakes out of the
ground. Do not pull the stakes with the thrust
motors. Use rotation and thrust together to
gently remove stakes out of the soil. Failure to
this procedure will cause premature failure of the
lead screws, which will render the power anchor
Remove the Stakes
Inspect the stake puller hose ends for damage
or dirt. Clean and repair as needed. The engine
must not be running. Connect the stake puller to
the quick disconnect couplings provided at the
rear of the unit.
where it can be removed by hand, retract the
puller. Remove the horseshoe clip and repeat
this process on all the remaining anchor stakes.
Wash Down
Wash down the tooling
and the unit.
With the engine off,
disconnect the umbilical connections from the
drill rack and carefully recoil the hoses and
electrical cable to prevent tangles.
Disconnect the grounding cables, recoil the
ground mat and ground rod, and store.
Return the drill rack to the trailer.
Caution: Secure the hydraulic couplers by
rotating the lock ring of the female coupler half to
the lock position. Failure to secure the couplers
could restrict circuit fluid flow causing erratic
performance or unexpectedly disconnect under
Retract the puller and slide the foot over the top
of the stake. Place the horseshoe shaped clip
into the annular groove at the top of the stake to
lock the puller onto the stake.
Position the puller foot so it will push against the
anchor plate. A crew member holds the puller in
position, as another actuates the puller by
operating the anchor/puller lever on the operator
control panel. If the stake gets cocked at an
angle, it may be necessary to stop and reposition
the puller so that the stake will more easily pull
through the anchor plate.
WARNING: Crushing power, if moved or
operated in an unsafe manner this equipment
can crush operators or bystanders.
Extensions are provided to fully retract the stake
if necessary. When the stake is loosened to
WARNING: Crushing Weight, if moved or
operated in an unsafe manner, this equipment
can crush operators or bystanders.
Roll up the ground mats and unscrew the ground
rod from the earth, clean off the dirt and return to
the trailer.
Fill in all potholes and excavations, erect any
required barricades, and remove any barricades
or other site safety equipment, which is no
longer, required.
Remove the chocks holding the trailer wheels
and you are now ready for the next setup.
Drilling Fluid
If the unit is not going to be used again the same
day, the drilling fluid must be off-loaded and the
entire fluid system flushed with clean water or
antifreeze in freezing conditions.
IMPORTANT: Drilling Solution is a nonhazardous material but should be disposed of in
a responsible manner. Obey all local regulations
regarding disposal of drilling fluids.
See mud system operator’s manual for complete
Straightline 2462 Operator Manual
Chapter 9
The 2462 is equipped with a 4 cylinder, John
Deere engine model number 4020. Refer to the
Maintenance Manual for complete maintenance
instructions and procedures.
Oil: Check the engine oil level daily. For the first
50hrs use only oil that meets API classification
CE. The engine manufacturer recommends after
the first 50 hrs the oil should be changed.
Change the engine oil every 200 hours. If nonhiway diesel is used the interval should be every
100hrs. The oil must meet API classifications of
CF-4 or CG-4. Refer to the engine manual to
determine the proper viscosity for your local
Oil Filter: Change the engine oil filter at every oil
Air Cleaner: Inspect the air cleaner every 250
hours and replace every 500 hours. Check all
connections for mechanical tightness. In case of
leakage, replace necessary parts or gaskets if
adjustment does not correct the fault. Inspect for
mud caking or signs of excessive wear or
Fuel Filters: This unit is equipped with 2 fuel
filters. The Pre-filter is located to the rear of the
engine and should be replaced every 500 hours.
The main Fuel Filter is located at the fuel pump
and should be replaced every 1000 hours.
Fuel Tank: Check fuel level daily, the capacity of
the tank is 15 Gallons (55 Liters). Fuel used in
the unit should have a sulfur content of less than
Throttle Solenoid: Engine rpm's are Low Idle
1400 rpm's, High Idle 3200 rpm's.
Caution: Do not exceed the maximum
operating engine speed.
Hydraulic Fluid: Check hydraulic fluid level
daily. The level should be slightly above half full
when the oil is cold to allow for normal
expansion. Replace the hydraulic oil annually.
The factory fill oil is Mobil VG 32
Hydraulic Reservoir: The reservoir has an 21
gallon (80 Liter) capacity.
Hydraulic Filters: Replace the return filter in the
2462 after the first 50 hours of operation. The
rotation gearbox flushing filter should be
changed after the first 50hrs of operation. If the
machine is equipped with this option, check the
filter condition indicators weekly and replace the
filter elements as required and at least once
each calendar year. To check the Indicators, run
the engine at high Idle with the oil at operating
temperature (70 or above). A light in the control
panel alerts you when the charge filters need to
be replaced. The engine will not start if the
charge filters are in bypass mode
Thrust Chains: The thrust chains will begin to
stretch and loosen up after they start to wear in.
Visually inspect chain tightness during pull-back
to monitor chain tension. An extremely loose
chain may get bunched up at the sprocket during
a tough pull-back breaking the chain or
damaging the thrust motor, sprockets, and
bearings. Make sure both thrust chains are
always adjusted equally. (See thrust chain
adjustment procedure).
Thrust Assembly: The Thrust Motor is coupled
to a planetary gearbox that couples to the Thrust
Chain Drive Sprocket. (See Planetary Gearbox
Track Drive Motors: The Track Drive Motors
also use a gearbox to couple to the Track Drive
*Jet Lube is a water resistant grease. It can be used in all locations to simplify application.
Straightline 2462 Operator Manual
Track Idler: The Track Idler is coupled directly
to the Track Adjustment, there is no
maintenance to this item.
Track Adjustment: The Tracks will begin to
stretch and loosen up after they wear in. Visually
inspect the Tracks for tightness. Loose Tracks
may make popping noises, slip or stick, and
possibly slip off the Drive sprocket. Remove the
access cover on the side of the track frame .
The grease zerk that is located inside the frame
is used to tension the tracks only, and any type
of grease can be used. Refer to drawing below
for correct tension
Rotation Motor/Spindle: The rotation motor
couples to the spindle shaft with a planetary gear
box. (See Planetary Gearbox Maintenance)
Planetary Gearbox Maintenance
All of the gearboxes except the rotation gearbox
use regular 80-90 weight gear lube. All rotation
gearboxes without flushing kits use a synthetic
gear lube such as Texaco Pinnacle EP 680. The
level of all the gearboxes should be checked
weekly and should be changed after the first 50
hours of operation. Thereafter, it should be
changed every 500 hours or at least once every
six months, which ever comes first.
To change lube in the thrust and rotation
gearboxes, the drill rack needs to be in a level
position. Remove the lowest plug in each
gearbox to drain. On the track drives you will
need to rotate the tracks until one of the two
plugs is at the bottom, near the ground. When
the old oil has completely drained, replace the
plug and remove one plug on top of, and one
near the half way fill point of the gearbox. Fill
until the gear lube pours out of the half way port.
On the track drive gearboxes the tacks will need
to be rotated so that one of the holes is at the
top of the gearbox. Be sure to dispose of old oils
in a responsible manner.
Some models will have the rotation gearbox
flushed with hydraulic oil. The only thing that
needs to done is checking the gauge indicator
located on the top of the gearbox. This filter
should be changed after the first 50 hrs of
operation and then check indicator weekly and
replace the filter as needed or once each year.
Saver-Sub: The purpose of the saver-sub (or
sub saver) is to allow a replaceable tool joint for
protecting drill pipe and the carriage spindle.
Always use plenty of thread lube on the threads
every time you load another piece of drill pipe.
Constantly monitor the threads on the saver sub
for wear. When the sharp edges of the threads
begin to show rounding or, if the shoulders of the
joint will not come together, completely
bottoming out, it is time to replace the saver sub.
Failure to maintain the saver sub will result in
costly damage to the drill pipe. Never run the drill
pipe directly to the carriage spindle shaft. Always
carry an extra saver-sub to allow servicing when
needed. One cause of premature saver sub
failure is not anchoring the drill firmly to the
ground. The power anchor system should be run
down all of the way and kept tight during the
boring process. New operators tend to engage
the threads without using the float feature on the
carriage. After some operational experience the
operator should be able to gently engage the
saver sub with the threads of the drill pipe and
that will increase thread life of both saver sub
and drill pipe. Always use a high quality thread
and apply it generously to each joint as the bore
is being done.
Try to replace the saver sub at the end of a
day to allow ample curing time for the Loctite.
See Maintenance Procedures to replace the
saver sub.
Carriage Roller Bearings: Maintain the carriage
lubrication intervals as outlined above. Monitor
the bearings for flat spots and check for freeplay in the carriage daily. Failure to replace worn
bearings may result in accelerated wear to the
drill pipe and saver sub.
Wrench Jaws: Wrench jaws have a varying life
expectancy. Depending on the manner of
operation and the amount of drilling time they
encounter. When the jaws fail to grip they need
to be replaced. When new jaws fail to grip the
wrench bodies will probably need to be replaced.
(It is recommended to carry extra jaws and
shear bolts.) Additional shear bolts are supplied
with drill.
It is a good idea to remove the wrench cylinder
covers about once a week and clean the area
around the cylinders. This area gets filled with
mud and thread lube that can hurt the
performance of the wrenches. Again, when
doing any kind of maintenance make sure that
the engine is off and the key is out of the ignition.
Straightline 2462 Operator Manual
Hydraulic System Operation:
The 2462 has a hydrostatic hydraulic system.
The primary components of the system consist
of 2 hydrostatic pumps and one closed center
auxiliary pump, rear control box, front control
panel, and the various cylinders and motors to
make the unit function. The pumps are mounted
directly to the rear of the diesel engine. They are
variable displacement pumps (the type that only
produce flow when it is needed).
The front pump (nearest the engine) supplies a 0
to 38 GPM flow, to the left track when in tram
mode and to the rotation circuit when in drill
mode. The center pump also supplies a 0 to 38
GPM flow to the right track when in tram mode
and to the thrust circuit when in drill mode. The
rear pump supplies 0 to 13 GPM to the auxiliary
circuit. (Stake driver, leveling foot, wrenches,
pipe loader, etc.)
Spindle Bearing (1)
1 shot each
Carriage Roller Bearings (8)
1 shot each
Water Swivel Bearings (2)
1 shot each
Thrust Chain Sprocket Bearings (1)
1 shot each
Power Anchor lead screws
Liberal coating
Power Anchor thrust bearings(top)
1 shot each
Power Anchor pivots(bottom)
1 shot each
Pipe handler clamp (4)
1 shot each
Grease: #121203 is a Straightline part number any grease that meets the following criteria can be used
where this part number is listed. The grease should not be less than 3% molybdenum disulfide in content.
Some examples are: Mobilgrease CMP, Penzoil adhezolith EP, Castrol industrial #860/460-2, Exxon
rotenex extra duty moly, Shell oil retenex cmx
Grease: #236-7125-02 is a Straightline part number any grease that meets the following criteria can be
used where this part number is listed. The grease should meet ASTM D1264 spec. Some examples are:
Mystic JT-6, Jet Lube Alco EP 73 plus.
Straightline 2462 Operator Manual
2462 Lubrication and Service
Engine checks
Check engine oil
Check coolant level
Check air intake systems
Flush coolant system
Pressure test coolant system
Check and adjust valve clearance
Check injection pump timing
Check fuel injection nozzles
Check belt tension and wear
Service battery
Check engine mounting hardware
Check air cleaner restriction indicator
Visual walkaround
Engine break in oil change
Engine oil change/ off hiway diesel every
Engine oil change/ hiway diesel every
Change engine oil filter every
Change air filter every
Change pre-filter fuel
Change main fuel filter
Check level in sight glass
Change hydraulic oil
Change return hydraulic filter first time
Change return hydraulic filter thereafter
Charge filters first time
Charge filters thereafter
Rotation gearbox filter first time
Rotation gearbox filter thereafter
Planetary Gearboxes
Check tram gearboxes
Check thrust gearbox
Change tram gearboxes first time
Change tram gearboxes thereafter
Change thrust gearbox first time
Change thrust gearbox thereafter
Power anchor lead screws (2)
Power anchor thrust bearings (2)
Power anchor pivots (2)
Spindle housing (2)
Carriage roller bearings (8)
Water swivel (2)
Thrust bearing ( 1)
Equipment Information
40 hrs
Straightline 2462 Operator Manual
Chapter 10
Maintenance Procedures
Thrust Chain Adjustment
1. Walk up to the left side of the machine and
observe the bolts where the thrust chains attach
to the carriage. Both of the rear attaching bolt
heads should be flush against the carriage float
mechanism and should not be used for adjusting
the thrust chain. The front adjusting bolts should
be adjusted evenly and should have adjustment
left on them. If this is correct then proceed to
step two.
2.With no drill pipe attached to the carriage,
have an operator start the unit and with the
engine at low idle, move the carriage against the
front carriage stops on the drill rack. Then with
the engine at low idle, engage the auto drill and
adjust the thrust control knob clockwise to read
3000 psi. on the thrust pressure gauge. against
the drill rack stops.
Warning: Do not reach into the drill rack to
check adjustment,
3. While the auto drill is engaged at 3000 psi
thrust pressure, observe the thrust chains where
the bracket for the rear foot pivot attaches to
bottom of the drill rack.
4. If the thrust chains are adjusted properly,
there should be approximately two inches
between the top and bottom chain on the same
side at the location described in step three. This
observation can be made from the left side of
the drill rack without reaching into the drill rack.
Warning: Do not reach into drill rack to
check adjustment, serous injury could result.
5.If the chains are adjusted differently than
described above, release the pressure from the
carriage, shut off the engine and remove the
key. Loosen the jam nuts at the front of the
carriage and then tighten or loosen the adjusting
nuts to obtain the desired spacing. Both chains
should be adjusted evenly.
6. After correctly adjusting the chains reinstall
the jam nuts to insure the bolts stay that way.
Thrust Chain Installation:
Equipment Information
If the old chain is still in place:
1. Loosen the tension on the chain anchors on
the front of the carriage.
2. Disconnect the old chain and remove.
Connect the new chain to both ends of the
2. Adjust as described in the procedure above.
Thrust change lubrication:
When the owner receives delivery of the drill a
silicone spray can be applied to the chains to
keep them from rusting. Any lubrication can be
applied to chains if the owner desires.
Straightline does not recommend any particular
type of lubricant.
Saver Sub Replacement:
The saver-sub should be changed before it
becomes worn to the point that the tool joint will
no longer shoulder up. If the saver sub continues
to be used past this wear point, the drill pipe
joints can become rounded and mushroomed
making replacement of all tool joints or drill pipe
Saver Sub Replacement Procedure:
Loctite adhesive is required in saver sub
installation. Plan on allowing enough time for the
adhesive to completely cure. It is best to replace
a worn saver sub at the end of the day to allow
for overnight curing.
The proper Loctite retaining compound is 680
green. Using the proper primer needed for a
complete cure can accelerate the time.
Loctite 680 Green
Full Cure Without Primer = 8 hours
Full Cure With Primer “T” = 3 hours
1. Install a drill pipe, attach it to the saver-sub
and run it through the pipe guide during this
operation to prevent bending stress on carriage
2. The best method to break the adhesive seal is
to heat the saver sub to approximately 300
degrees. At this temperature, the adhesive
begins to liquefy and produce a very distinct
Straightline 2462 Operator Manual
Note: When applying heat to the saver sub,
take care not to over heat it. This could
transfer too much heat to the carriage
spindle shaft and damage the lip seal at the
carriage, as well as the spindle shaft threads.
3. Lock the saver sub into the break out wrench
and reverse rotate to loosen.
4. After allowing the carriage shaft to cool, install
the new saver sub using the recommended
Loctite and primer (mating surfaces must be
perfectly clean).
5. Use the break out wrench to lock the new
saver sub onto the carriage shaft.
Wrench Service
The makeup and breakout wrenches for the
2462 use replaceable jaws to safely and
securely grip the drill pipe tool joints when adding
or removing drill pipe sections from the drill
string. The jaws must be replaced when they
wear to the point that the tool joint can no longer
be securely held against rotation.
pressure before releasing wrench and continuing
to bore.
5.Clean all foreign material off the threads before
using the pipe. Excess sand or dirt will cause
excessive wear on the joints.
6.If a tool joint does become damaged do not
use it while boring. The damaged threads will
continue to ruin all of the other threads it comes
in contact with.
Power Anchor Service:
The power anchor should be lubricated
before each use. If the power anchor lead screw
becomes very contaminated with foreign
material the lead screw should be washed down
very thoroughly with high pressure water. After
washing down it should be dried off with
compressed air immediately. The proper grease
should be applied to the screw and then run the
power anchor up and down the lead screw
before using the anchor system to anchor the
Pipe Guide Service
The 2462 uses a polyethylene pipe guide insert
to lengthen the life of your drill pipe. It can easily
be replaced by driving out the old and inserting a
new one in its place. Replace the worn insert
before it has any chance to
scar the drill pipe.
Drill pipe care & preventative maintenance
Straightline drill pipe has been machined and
checked with every possible inspection. However
in order for the drill pipe to have maximum life a
few procedures must be followed.
1.Inspect both joint members thoroughly before
using. Watch for signs of jammed or misaligned
threads. All joints need to be thoroughly
lubricated before using the first time. Very
thorough lubrication should continue each time
the drill pipe is connected together, including the
2.Use only a high quality drill pipe thread
lubricant. The amount of lubricant is not as
important as how it is applied. Use a stiff brush
to apply the thread lubricant evenly to all threads
on the joint. Placing a small amount on the joint
just before makeup is not adequate.
3. Stab the joints carefully – Use the float feature
of the carriage in order to gently mate up the tool
joints. Avoid running the carriage down with full
force or unscrew the tool joint against pressure.
4. Make up the joint to the recommended torque.
Tighten the tool joint to complete bypass
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