27 / RECORDING / For example, Sony® PCM – D150 is apparently an excellent device, with good built-in microphones, good versatility, good software, easy to handle and functional. Looking at the technical specifications, however, you will note that there are no XLR sockets for external microphones, which means it would be difficult to record ambient or panoramic sounds. Recording is the backbone of all sound productions, be it music, ads, radio programs or documentaries. It is very important to feel familiar with the tools and the procedures inherent to audio recording, to be able to fully exploit the possible forms of sound. Or M-Audio® Microtrack II is operated by a built-in lithium battery that is rechargeable only with a charger or through a USB slot, making it difficult to use for outdoor recordings when there is no electric plug or computer available. In order to do so, the writing skills must be supported by a good knowledge of recording, editing and audio mixing techniques (15) : in this handbook, we will only illustrate the basic notions needed to carry out your first recordings. For this manual, we have chosen Tascam® DR-100, a device with good technical specifications, well adjusted for outdoor recordings, with reasonable built-in microphones and an affordable price (16) In the past fifteen years, technological progress in the audio field has drastically reduced the costs of equipment. This way, any author can independently produce an audio documentary without difficulty. On the other hand, editors and producers are requesting self-sufficiency from the authors in order to cut the costs of technical materials. The author must thus have the basic competence to buy the right recorder, microphone and all the necessary equipment to adequately edit and mix sound. / 3.1 CHOOSING A SOUND RECORDER / Recently, both professional and amateur audio productions have turned from analogical to digital technology. Nowadays, audio recording equipment is quite affordable due to the great variety of products on the market, less expensive raw materials and lower production costs. The parallel race of technological progress and price reductions has reduced the gap between professionals and amateurs. It is now more difficult to distinguish between equipment that fulfils the basic needs of an amateur and equipment that can produce a professional audio quality. At times a company famous for its professional equipment like BlueTech®, may put non-professional devices on the market, such as a quality microphone to be used with smart phones. BOX.2 TECHNICAL DR-100 FACT SHEET FROM TASCAM R / DESCRIPTION / The DR-100, designed to take professional sound applications in the field, allows high quality recording directly in WAV or MP3 format, and possesses a rugged metal build. It offers a choice between two pairs of integrated microphones, cardioids and unidirectional, two XLR microphone inputs with switchable 48V phantom power, and an input line on a mini-jack stereo - covering all fields of applications: music recording, voice, ambiances, and the minutes of meetings or recordings at concerts. The recording level is easily adjusted via a double physical potentiometer (not a menu option). The recording starts manually, automatically (through level detection) or thanks to a remote control, it has a 2 seconds pre-recording buffer memory which can differ slightly (so as to avoid recording the touch sound of the keys). The DR-100 has a speaker control, which can be deactivated. You can make different layers, manually create a new file during recording, cut a saved file in several parts and place location marks. The camera also possesses an automatic tuning with switchable gain and limiter which work analogically, a high pass filter with three switchable frequencies cuts, a headphone output connector for wired remote control and a USB port. 2. pratical indications 3. With the proliferation of Mp3 players, many professional audio companies have launched high quality, small, easy to handle and inexpensive digital recorders on the market. These products were not conceived for an exclusively professional market. When faced with choosing one of these devices, you must be aware of your own requirements and pay attention to the technical specifications. 28 2. pratical indications The DR-100 is delivered with an SD card with a capacity of 2GB, a wireless remote control, windshield and cover. It is powered by either a rechargeable lithium-ion battery provided or by two LR06 batteries (AA), easy to find, or by an optional AC adapter. Its integrated thread enables it to be attached to a tripod or a microphone stand. / DR - 100 PORTABLE STEREO RECORDER / // MAIN FEATURES // Digital hand stereo recorder for professional use Robust metallic box MP3 and WAV player and recorder Records onto SD / SDHC cards Formats available for recording: -WAV, resolution in 16-bit or 24-bit -MP3, at a flow rate of 32, 64, 96, 128, 192, 256, 320 Kbit / s Sample Rate 44, 1, 48 or 96 kHz frequency Four high quality integrated static microphones: two unidirectional microphones for stereo music recordings, two Omni-directional microphones for meeting recordings. Two XLR microphone inputs with switchable +48 V a Phantom Power supply High performance mic preamps enabling a high performance (input sensitivity of -58 to +2 dBu) A/D and D/A range of Audio4proTM AKM, offering a higher signal/noise ratio of 100 dB Stereo line input with level adjustment for external source (3.5 mm mini-jack connector) Two level adjustment potentiometers for intuitive use Commutable high pass filter (cut off frequency 40Hz, 80Hz or 120Hz) Automatic performance control working in analogue Analogue limiter commutable per physical sector, to avoid all clipping time Integrated speaker control (can be disabled by selecting manually) Headphone output with level adjustment (mini-jack 3.5 mm connector) Dedicated stereo line output (on 3.5mm mini-jack connector) Pre-recording memory buffer (2 seconds) to start recording before pressing the record button Delayed recording feature to prevent the DR100 from recording touch sound of keys Automatic recording activation feature (it starts only when the level of the input signal exceeds a certain threshold) Overdubbing (recording overlay) feature to add narration, a sung part or instruments to an existing recording Location marks Renaming files (Date / personal text) A dividing file feature, allowing for example to cut unwanted noise Creation of a new file during recording (manually or when the file reaches a certain size) Quick Menu to delete or mark ("tag") a file directly from the home screen Many reading features: -Loop between a point and another -Play by folder or playlist -ID3-tags of MP3 files (up to version 2.4) -Adjust playback speed (-50% to +16%) -Change the tempo without changing the tone (pitch) of the song -Change the tone (pitch) without changing the tempo Thread at the base of the unit enabling to attach it to a tripod or a microphone stand USB 2.0 port to transfer files to/from your computer Two options for stand-alone use: Lithium-ion battery BP-L2 (provided, high autonomy) and 2 LR06 batteries (AA), easy to find Delivered with a wireless remote control RD-DR100, BP-L2, foam windshield and protective cover Delivered with an SD card with a capacity of 2GB Optional: -Battery Pack BP-L2 -PR-P520 AC-Adaptor 29 Microphone inputs Input impedance Nominal input level Maximum input level On XLR 32 -3 (symmetrical) Switchable 48-volt phantom power 1,2 kohms -58 dBu (HIGH GAIN), -36 dBu (MIDI GAIN) - 14 dBu (LOW GAIN) -42 dBu (GAIN HIGH), -20 dBu (GAIN MID), +2 dBu (GAIN LOW) Line In Input impedance Entry level (nominal / maximum) Mini-jack 3.5 mm stereo 23 kohms 10 dBV/ +6 dBV Line Out Output Level (nominal / maximum) Stereo mini-jack 3.5 mm 10 dBV/ +6 dBV Headphone output Maximum output power Stereo mini-jack 3.5 mm 2 x 25 mW (32 ohms) Built-in speaker Output power 0.4 W Audio characteristics (line In › line Out) Frequency response 20Hz-20kHz, +1 / -3 dB (a 44.1 kHz) 20Hz-22kHz, +1 / -3 dB (to 48 kHz) 20Hz-42kHz, +1 / -3 dB (at 96 kHz, line input, XLR mic input) Distortion ‹ 0.01 Signal / noise ratio 90 dB Audio files compatibility MP3 files Digital output: 32 to 320 kbit/s, VBR (variable output, read only) Sampling frequency: 44.1 / 48 kHz ID3 compatibility up to version 2.4 WAV files Sampling Frequency 44.1 / 48/96 kHz Digital resolution 16/24 bit Recording medium SD (64 MB to 2 GB) or SDHC (4 GB to 32 File system FAT partition: FAT 16/32 Computer Requirements Compatible operating systems Windows 2000 Professional SP4 or later, Windows XP, Windows Vista Mac OS X 10.2 or later Windows Pentium 300 MHz or faster, 128 Mo RAM or more Macintosh 266 MHz Power PC, iMac, G3, G4 or better, 64 Mo RAM or more USB Port USB 2.0 recommended USB host controller Intel components set recommended Supply and other characteristics Supply Lithium-ion battery (BP-L2, included) or NiMH batteries (HR15/51) or alkaline (LR60 or PS-P520 AC adapter (optional) Autonomy (continuous operation, backlighting disabled, MP3 playback 128 kbits/s, according to conditions of use) Lithium-ion battery: approximately 5 hours (recording or playback) NiMH batteries: approximately 4 hours (recording or playback) Alkaline: approximately 2 hours (recording or playback) Operating temperature 0–40 °C Consumption 1.7 W (MP3 playback), 5.5 W (maximum) External dimensions (L X H X D) 80 mm x 153 mm x 35 mm (excluding protrusions) Weight 0.29 kg (without batteries) Optional Accessories Replacement Battery BP-L2 PS-P520 AC adapter 2. pratical indications Audio inputs and outputs 30 2. pratical indications / 3.2 CHOOSING MICROPHONES / Many portable digital recorders, especially those with a shoulder strap, have no built-in microphone. Most handheld ones have built-in low quality microphones that do not meet the requirements for a professional sound product that is to be radio transmitted. So you often have to buy and use an extra microphone. It is not easy to choose from the vast variety of microphones on the market. We must bear in mind both the technical characteristics that fulfil our requirements and the quality of sound we want to obtain. We will try to point out the basic materials needed by an audio documentarist, and the type of microphone to be used in different situations. When recording a narrative voice, an annotation or a musical instrument, you will need a MONO microphone, with a single capsule that records on a single channel. When recording voice, it is best to use a microphone with a wide diaphragm condenser. The condenser microphone captures sound according to an electrostatic principle. The diaphragm is the membrane that will “capture” the sound. Usually, a narrower diaphragm consents a more precise sound recording. When recording a voice, however, a wide diaphragm microphone is preferable; a wide membrane captures broader and less precise oscillations, amplifying the overtones created by the emission of a voice, making it more full-bodied. When choosing a microphone, one must also pay attention to the “polar response”, that is the orientation of the capsule in respect to the sound source. In our case, the capsule must be oriented directly on the source, producing a “cardioid” polar response. When recording in non-professional studios, like a room or an office without acoustic treatment, it is best not to use the omni-directional or the bi-directional types of polar response in order to avoid phase cancellation (17). The condenser microphones, especially those with a wide diaphragm, are very delicate and sensitive. While recording, it is appropriate to install the microphone on a stand with a shock mount, a fastener that keeps your microphone isolated from stand vibrations. You will also need to position a pop filter to protect the capsule against the accumulation of saliva. For outdoors recordings, you will need a different microphone: one that is less delicate and more precise in capturing sound, possibly STEREO, with two directional recording devices in order to capture sound from two directions. You will probably be recording in precarious situations, so you must be ready for sudden shifts. This is when most phase cancellation errors occur. You must use a stereo microphone whose diaphragms are placed in the so-called XY position, with the criss-crossed orientation of the left and right capsules. One of the major problems in outdoor recordings is the wind that hits the diaphragm creating an intense low pitched sound that covers the ones you want to record. Normally, microphones are equipped with a light windproof protection that often is not enough. You must then get a better sort of “furry” windproof protection that redirects the wind away from the capsule. A hand-held microphone could be uncomfortable, and in long interviews can be quite painful for the arm. To avoid these problems during long interviews, you could use a small tabletop stand. Or for outdoor recordings, you can use a “boom” pole, a support that stands on two rods, together with a shock mount. Another recurring problem in outdoor recordings is the background noise that can cover a voice or another sound. You then would need to use a directional “shotgun” microphone. This type of microphone has a hyper cardioid polar response, a highly directional device with an extremely restricted field of recording, that can successfully eliminate background noise, or, when in a crowd, isolate the rest of the voices and concentrate on the one the microphone is directed on. / 3.3 RECORDING STANDARDS / When you enter the menu of a recording device, you have access to the recording settings: sampling frequency and quantization of waveforms. In analogical recording, the sound and the recording are parallel by nature, whereas in digital recording, the recording of the waveform is periodical. These periodical recordings are called “samples” and are transformed into binary terms in order to be interpreted, stored and made available by a computer. The sampling frequency or sampling rate is the measurement of the number of samples captured in one second. Quantization is the assignment of a binary number to the amplitude of a wave within a sample, in other words the conversion from analogical to digital. We will now illustrate the different standards in use and the setting adjustments. When the Compact Disc (CD) hit the market as an audio storage device, the standard for a digital audio file was established at 44.1 kHz for sampling rate, and 16 bit for quantization. These two parameters are still a valid reference for recording. But since the CD came out, technology has made enormous progress and many different portable devices offer the possibility of recording high quality sound. 31 4. / EDITING AND MIXING / You must however remember that once you decide to record sound according to certain standards, it is highly recommended to keep the same parameters throughout the recordings. And later when you start a session with editing and mixing software, you must use the same parameters as you have in the recordings. / 3.4 THE HEADPHONES / One of the easiest mistakes to make is to think that what you hear with your ears is what enters the microphone. That’s not how it is. A simple piece of paper leafed through during an interview creates a movement of the air that hits the membrane and creates a distortion that our bare ear does not perceive. We must always remember to monitor the course of our recordings with the help of headphones, preferably wide enough to cover the whole ear and isolate it from outside noise. The headphones are essential devices during the editing and mixing phase, especially if we are working in non-professional environments, because they enable us to listen to the recordings regardless of the acoustic qualities of the room we’re in. Editing is the assembly phase of everything that has been collected and recorded, and mixing is the process that enables us to balance all the edited material. Both steps are carried out on a multi-tracking software (18) that processes different parallel audio tracks. / 4.1 EDITING / Editing is done in modules. One interview at a time, one music track at a time, one voice recording at a time. The interviews and other documents are selected and abridged, always keeping our goal in mind. Sometimes we must clean out hesitations from the interviews – the mumbles and stutters – that can hinder listening. In visual communication, these hesitations are compensated by a facial expression or a gesture, elements that are missing in sound communication. These hesitations can be due to the search for the right word, or a distraction. But other times they stem from embarrassment or difficulty. At times, it might be worth it to leave them in. / 4.2 MIXING / Once all the pieces of the puzzle are ready, the delicate phase of mixing begins. Through this operation, our sound file will become smooth and uniform. The first thing to do is to import into our session a CD whose sound quality we would like to replicate. Once it is imported, the volume must be reduced by 2 db, which is the volume acquired by an audio file through mastering. This file will be our point of reference for the whole mixing operation. There are no fixed rules for a mixing operation: basically, you learn by experience. Equalization and compressor plug-ins can be used to adjust and clean sound files. 2. pratical indications The DR-100 that we chose as reference for this handbook offers the possibility to record at 24 bit quantization and 96 kHz sampling rate. When possible, it is best make the highest possible quality recording. Even though the resulting audio file will end up being reduced to a standard format, it is preferable to work with sound that contains more precise information at the source. 32 2. pratical indications If we want to use ambient sound as background, we just have to turn down the volume by 10 dB, or 16 dB for music. But we must be the first listeners of our products and judge the quality for ourselves. The best reference is our own ear. Mixing can improve or clean a sound, but it can’t do miracles. It is important to be meticulous and precise in the recording phase so that the material we import into our editing sessions can be as clean as possible. When editing and mixing, it is preferable to rely on friends or colleagues as listeners. After spending many hours working on sound, we can easily lose our instinctive perception of quality or of rhythm in an audio file. Having someone else listen to it before consigning the final product offers precious feedback and enables us to add finishing touches where needed. 5. / TIPS AND TRICKS / Here are some suggestions to avoid making mistakes while the work is in progress: 1. Before recording, make sure all the devices are plugged in or charged. 2. Always bring extra batteries for the equipment. Assurez-vous d'avoir assez d'espace de mémoire à disposition. 3. Make sure to have sufficient memory space. 4. Always carry extra memory cards. 5. When recording outdoors, make sure you have windproof protection and use headphones. 6. Always listen to recordings through headphones, don’t trust your bare ears. 7. When using a MONO microphone for outdoor recordings, remember to record ambient sounds in STEREO on the spot. 8. When recording in motion, always try to keep one hand free, with which you can move objects that block you way, or open doors, etc… If you are using a hand held recorder with a microphone, try putting the recorder in a shoulder bag. 9. Before starting an interview, make sure the device is recording and not in stand-by. 10.Before you start an interview sitting at a table, ask the interviewee to be careful not to hit the table with his/ her hands. 11. When you finish a day’s work, feed your recordings into the computer right away, listen to them and name them in reference to the contents: if you spend months recording, you won’t end up with a mass of audio files that you have no idea what they contain. 33 13. Avoid referring to visual images that cannot be heard. 14. Remember that the standard for audio files is 16 bit 44.1 KHz. 6. / BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LINKOGRAPHY / / 6.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY / 1. Berger, P. L. and T. Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Anchor Books, Garden City, NY, 1966 2. L.Wittgenstein, On Certainty, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1969-1975 (available on http://budni.by.ru/oncertainty.html) 3. John Biewen, Reality Radio – Telling True Stories in Sound, Carolina University, 2010 (available on http://www.amazon.com/RealityRadio-Telling Stories-Documentary/dp/0807871028/ ref=sr_11?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1284366002& sr=1-1#reader_0807871028) 4. M. Kramer, W.Call, Telling True Stories: A Non-fiction Writers' Guide from the Nieman Foundation at Harvard University, Harvard University, 2007 (available on http://www.amazon.com/Telling-TrueStories-Nonfiction-Foundation/dp/0452287553/ ref=pd_bxgy_b_text_c#reader_0452287553) 5. J. Kern, Sound Reporting: The NPR Guide to Audio Journalism and Production, NPR, 2009. / 6.2 LINKOGRAPHY / Transom.org is a website published by Atlantic Public Media: it is a tool for all radio documentarists, radio authors or simply fans. Inside, you can find radio documentaries, reviews and links, hardware and software tools, tips and tricks for recording and editing audio documentaries. www.transom.org Swedish National Radio (Documentary Department). In its website you can watch some “Radio-Video”, mp4 files in Swedish with English translation on video. http://sverigesradio.se/sida/default. aspx?programid=3297 2. pratical indications 12. At the beginning of an interview, always remember to have the interviewee give his/her name, surname and profession/function. 34 2. pratical indications StoryCorps is a sound-project by author David Isay that collects stories of American people, trying to give a portrait of the United States. (http://www.storycorps. org). You can see also SoundPortraits.org, a previous project by David Isay where you can find his best radiodocumentaries http://www.soundportraits.org/ 7. / FOOTNOTES / The Kitchen Sisters are Davia Nelson and Nikki Silva, two independent radio producers that focus their work on gender issues and memories http://www.kitchensisters.org Radio Diaires is a website led by Joe Richman, that works with people to document their own lives for public radio: teenagers, seniors, prison inmates and others whose voices are rarely heard http://www.radiodiaries.org This American Life is the most important radiodocumentary based program broadcasted in the US. It counts 1.7 million radio listeners and half a million web-downloads each week. It is produced by Chicago Public Media http://www.thisamericanlife.org Audio doc is the Italian association of independent audio-documentary authors. Their website also has a page in English. Audiodoc works in partnership with AIDOS in the project “Abandoning FGM/C on FM!” The audio-documentaries produced as part of this project are available through the links below on the Audiodoc website: – Burkina Faso 2008 http://.audiodoc.it/archivio_scheda.php?id_ scheda=128 – Kenya 2010 http://www.audiodoc.it/archivio_scheda.php?id scheda=153 as well as the audio newspaper “Diary – A Voyage to FMG/C Issue in Kenya”, www.audiodoc.it/archivio_scheda.php?id_scheda=151 STREAM – Sharing technologies and resources for engaged and active media, is a network of African associations of women working in the media and NGOs (non governmental organizations) promoting the abandonment of FGM/C, coordinated by AIDOS, that manages the www.stopfgmc.org web portal addressed to media practitioners: a database of media coverage, laws, research and documentation, video and audio material that offers an entry point into the topic of female genital mutilation/cutting www.stopfgmc.org 1. Translation from Brecht on Theatre, translated and edited by Jon Willett, New York, Hill and Wang, 1964. ["Der Rundfunk als Kommunication apparat" Blatter in the Hessischen Landestheaters, Darmstadt, No.16, July 1932] 2. Deontology refers to "all the rules and obligations that govern a professional category" (translation by Zingarelli N., Lo Zingarelli 2005 - Vocabolario della lingua italiana, Zanichelli 2004). A deontological crisis occurs when professional ambitions no longer coincide with the duties of the profession. 3. Walter Benjamin’s book The Work of Art in the Era of its Technical Reproducibility is recommended as a reference to study the relationship between the industrial revolution and technical reproduction. At the very beginning of the preface, Benjamin cites the "diagnosis" of Karl Marx’s capitalist model of production. Benjamin thought he had to contextually analyse the economic model and the production policy and the ability to reproduce works of art. Indeed, the text ends with a reference to "fascism" and "communism", two totalitarian regimes from industrial models that have prospered thanks to the control of the media. 4. From the Larousse dictionary online 5. Music is described here as a language. According to Schonberg, musicology has evolved very much over the twentieth century. For centuries, music was regarded as a science dealing with the knowledge of God, or its presence in nature. It has developed its own formal language, like any science that belongs to monistic realism (see next paragraph). Over the centuries, as Galilean sciences evolved, the absolute divinity of musical knowledge was questioned, replacing it by interference between the formal language (musical notation) and ordinary language (adagio, andante, etc.). Thanks to Schonberg’s studies on noise and interference, and the experiment on quasi-notes and the relationship between music and text, the field of music has moved from science to language (e.g., Luigi Nono, 35 6. It is important to clarify that the difference between music and ambient sounds is not at the level of the means, but of the intention. For example, the fire siren used by Brian Wilson from the Beach Boys Smile disk is regarded as music because it only serves to listening. On the contrary, some musical themes such as military marches must be regarded as voluntary ambient sounds because they only exist to keep the pace. 7. The writing system is graphical and non-vocal. 8. Larousse dictionary online. The epistemological reflection is inherent in science and contains no guidelines regarding communication in general or . But it can prove to be extremely useful for the subject of the desk based research: "reality" is what the scientist and the documentary have in common: they are called, although in different ways and for different reasons, to pursue a path of knowledge of reality. 9. Source: GP Turchi, C. Della Torre, Psicologia della salute - dal modello bio-psycho-social al modello dialogico, Armando, 2007, p. 30-39. (Psychology of health - from the bio-psycho-social model to the dialogical model.) This book discusses epistemological thoughts on the degrees of realism with some sections directly related to psychology. It seems natural to ask where the link between a branch of science of communication such as an audio documentary and a subject "of health" such as psychology is. In our search for the bases upon which to define the audio documentary and its usefulness as a social tool, we find "answers" reading thoughts from deontological professionals in the fields of psychology and sociology: sociologists such as Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, Erving Goffman, the psychotherapists such as Miguel Benasayag and psychology professors such as Gian Piero Turchi. bidI was struck by a sentence in the book by Miguel Benasayag “Sad Passions”: "the clinician must assume his responsibilities towards the patient and his family and find together a direction to take in order to change the present situation: direction in its primary sense of direction, movement towards..."This is what the documentary maker needs to know in order to act like a social worker. He must accept responsibility for the information he is gathering and must collaborate with other subjects concerned with the same policy area in order to find a direction that can generate change. In other words, what professionals of various disciplines have in common is the deontological demand and the sense that it is essential to discover ways and effective methods to generate daily change (positive). 10. Source: GP Turchi, C. Della Torre, Psicologia della salute - dal modello bio-psycho-social al modello dialogico, Armando 200 pag.38. (Psychology of health - from the bio-psycho-social model to the dialogic model). 11. Ibid. pages 77-82. In this chapter, there is an explicit description of the contemporary psychologist’s demand: "Cultural exchanges" more frequent and evident at a national and international level (e.g. immigration, flexibility and mobility of workers, etc.) create the requirement of having at our disposal models that allow us to operate in the presence of "narrators’ voices" extremely diversified in a same context of intervention. "The contemporary documentary maker feels the same requirement when he is gathering information on a “reality “made of new and intangible elements”. Each definition of reality as" effective data “becomes obsolete at the very moment it is formulated. By focusing on knowledge of the process, it is possible to keep pace of the changes. 12. Quotes to date deal with reflections on linguistic distinctions between disciplines according to their degree of realism. To address this issue, we suggest reading Turchi GP, C. Della Torre, Psicologia della salute - dal modello biopsycho-social al modello dialogico, Armando 2007 pag.30-34 (Health Psychology -. From the bio-psycho-social model to the dialogic model). This reflection does not directly affect the field of audio-documentaries because they are outside the scientific sphere, and especially far away from the sciences that operate at a level of monistic realism (which are intended to individualise a subject of research and establish a measurement system to review it). The only suitable language for a documentary is ordinary language. In the case of surveys, one should simply specify that any attempt to define "the truth of the facts" is baseless since there is no system of measurement in ordinary language. Investigations are constructed "as if one could measure reality" and documents are used as the measuring system. We can use, for instance, court judgments to measure responsibility, but the definition of a verdict is based on the "deliberation parties" involved. Besides, you need a "trial" to obtain a verdict. 13. For instance let’s take the example of “series” broadcast on American radio since 1927: this genre dedicated to housewives started off with advertisements for soap and house-wares. Already, in this historic case, the target group for the radio broadcast depended entirely on the advertising target, hence its original name (Soap Opera). 14. If we present our thinking as the absolute truth, we are working on a "demonstrative" level of reality, which, as we saw in the first part of this 2. pratical indications studied music as "a global language”). The formal language, ordinary language, technique and listening live alongside. The objective of the music is not knowledge but communication. 36 2. pratical indications manual, is not effective in the context of social interventions. 15. We suggest you study the technical and registration processes. We suggest one of the most comprehensive books written in English on the subject: Huber, David M., Runstein, Robert E., Modern Recording Techniques, Butterworth Heinemann, 1995. 16. The instruction booklet Tascam DR-100 is in a BOX in this manual, p. 27. 17. Phase cancellation is an audio phenomenon whereby if two sound waves strike the same width capsule at different times; it may cause the modification or the cancellation of the sound. 18. Over the years, some software has become commonplace in the world of editing, such as Cool Edit, and especially Logic Pro Tools. These are quite expensive professional instruments. To use Pro Tools, for example, one must purchase computer equipment without which the software does not work. For the purpose of this manual, we would choose two audio editing Audacity software pieces, a free software that can be downloaded from internet and Reaper which is sold for an affordable price (around US$ 60) and provides an upgradeable 30-days trial version.