For example, Sony® PCM – D150 is apparently an
excellent device, with good built-in microphones,
good versatility, good software, easy to handle and
functional. Looking at the technical specifications,
however, you will note that there are no XLR sockets
for external microphones, which means it would be
difficult to record ambient or panoramic sounds.
Recording is the backbone of all sound productions,
be it music, ads, radio programs or documentaries. It
is very important to feel familiar with the tools and the
procedures inherent to audio recording, to be able to
fully exploit the possible forms of sound.
Or M-Audio® Microtrack II is operated by a built-in
lithium battery that is rechargeable only with a charger
or through a USB slot, making it difficult to use for
outdoor recordings when there is no electric plug or
computer available.
In order to do so, the writing skills must be supported
by a good knowledge of recording, editing and audio
mixing techniques (15) : in this handbook, we will only
illustrate the basic notions needed to carry out your
first recordings.
For this manual, we have chosen Tascam® DR-100, a
device with good technical specifications, well adjusted
for outdoor recordings, with reasonable built-in
microphones and an affordable price (16)
In the past fifteen years, technological progress in
the audio field has drastically reduced the costs of
equipment. This way, any author can independently
produce an audio documentary without difficulty.
On the other hand, editors and producers are
requesting self-sufficiency from the authors in order
to cut the costs of technical materials. The author
must thus have the basic competence to buy the right
recorder, microphone and all the necessary equipment
to adequately edit and mix sound.
Recently, both professional and amateur audio
productions have turned from analogical to digital
technology. Nowadays, audio recording equipment is
quite affordable due to the great variety of products on
the market, less expensive raw materials and lower
production costs.
The parallel race of technological progress and price
reductions has reduced the gap between professionals
and amateurs. It is now more difficult to distinguish
between equipment that fulfils the basic needs
of an amateur and equipment that can produce a
professional audio quality.
At times a company famous for its professional
equipment like BlueTech®, may put non-professional
devices on the market, such as a quality microphone to
be used with smart phones.
The DR-100, designed to take professional sound
applications in the field, allows high quality recording
directly in WAV or MP3 format, and possesses a rugged
metal build. It offers a choice between two pairs of
integrated microphones, cardioids and unidirectional,
two XLR microphone inputs with switchable 48V
phantom power, and an input line on a mini-jack stereo
- covering all fields of applications: music recording,
voice, ambiances, and the minutes of meetings or
recordings at concerts.
The recording level is easily adjusted via a double
physical potentiometer (not a menu option). The
recording starts manually, automatically (through level
detection) or thanks to a remote control, it has a 2
seconds pre-recording buffer memory which can differ
slightly (so as to avoid recording the touch sound of the
keys). The DR-100 has a speaker control, which can be
deactivated. You can make different layers, manually
create a new file during recording, cut a saved file in
several parts and place location marks. The camera
also possesses an automatic tuning with switchable
gain and limiter which work analogically, a high
pass filter with three switchable frequencies cuts, a
headphone output connector for wired remote control
and a USB port.
2. pratical indications
With the proliferation of Mp3 players, many
professional audio companies have launched high
quality, small, easy to handle and inexpensive digital
recorders on the market. These products were not
conceived for an exclusively professional market. When
faced with choosing one of these devices, you must be
aware of your own requirements and pay attention to
the technical specifications.
2. pratical indications
The DR-100 is delivered with an SD card with a
capacity of 2GB, a wireless remote control, windshield
and cover. It is powered by either a rechargeable
lithium-ion battery provided or by two LR06 batteries
(AA), easy to find, or by an optional AC adapter. Its
integrated thread enables it to be attached to a tripod
or a microphone stand.
Digital hand stereo recorder for professional use
Robust metallic box
MP3 and WAV player and recorder
Records onto SD / SDHC cards
Formats available for recording:
-WAV, resolution in 16-bit or 24-bit
-MP3, at a flow rate of 32, 64, 96, 128, 192, 256, 320
Kbit / s
Sample Rate 44, 1, 48 or 96 kHz frequency
Four high quality integrated static microphones:
two unidirectional microphones for stereo music
recordings, two Omni-directional microphones for
meeting recordings.
Two XLR microphone inputs with switchable +48 V a
Phantom Power supply
High performance mic preamps enabling a high
performance (input sensitivity of -58 to +2 dBu)
A/D and D/A range of Audio4proTM AKM, offering a
higher signal/noise ratio of 100 dB
Stereo line input with level adjustment for external
source (3.5 mm mini-jack connector)
Two level adjustment potentiometers for intuitive use
Commutable high pass filter (cut off frequency 40Hz,
80Hz or 120Hz)
Automatic performance control working in analogue
Analogue limiter commutable per physical sector, to
avoid all clipping time
Integrated speaker control (can be disabled by
selecting manually)
Headphone output with level adjustment (mini-jack
3.5 mm connector)
Dedicated stereo line output (on 3.5mm mini-jack
Pre-recording memory buffer (2 seconds) to start
recording before pressing the record button
Delayed recording feature to prevent the DR100 from recording touch sound of keys Automatic recording activation feature (it starts only
when the level of the input signal exceeds a certain
Overdubbing (recording overlay) feature to add
narration, a sung part or instruments to an existing
Location marks
Renaming files (Date / personal text)
A dividing file feature, allowing for example to cut
unwanted noise
Creation of a new file during recording (manually or
when the file reaches a certain size)
Quick Menu to delete or mark ("tag") a file directly
from the home screen
Many reading features:
-Loop between a point and another
-Play by folder or playlist
-ID3-tags of MP3 files (up to version 2.4)
-Adjust playback speed (-50% to +16%)
-Change the tempo without changing the tone (pitch)
of the song
-Change the tone (pitch) without changing the tempo
Thread at the base of the unit enabling to attach it to
a tripod or a microphone stand
USB 2.0 port to transfer files to/from your computer
Two options for stand-alone use:
Lithium-ion battery BP-L2 (provided, high autonomy)
and 2 LR06 batteries (AA), easy to find
Delivered with a wireless remote control RD-DR100,
BP-L2, foam windshield and protective cover
Delivered with an SD card with a capacity of 2GB
-Battery Pack BP-L2
-PR-P520 AC-Adaptor
Microphone inputs
Input impedance
Nominal input level
Maximum input level
On XLR 32 -3 (symmetrical)
Switchable 48-volt phantom power
1,2 kohms
-58 dBu (HIGH GAIN), -36 dBu (MIDI GAIN) - 14 dBu (LOW GAIN)
-42 dBu (GAIN HIGH), -20 dBu (GAIN MID), +2 dBu (GAIN LOW)
Line In
Input impedance
Entry level (nominal / maximum)
Mini-jack 3.5 mm stereo
23 kohms
10 dBV/ +6 dBV
Line Out
Output Level (nominal / maximum)
Stereo mini-jack 3.5 mm
10 dBV/ +6 dBV
Headphone output
Maximum output power
Stereo mini-jack 3.5 mm
2 x 25 mW (32 ohms)
Built-in speaker
Output power 0.4 W
Audio characteristics (line In › line Out)
Frequency response
20Hz-20kHz, +1 / -3 dB (a 44.1 kHz)
20Hz-22kHz, +1 / -3 dB (to 48 kHz)
20Hz-42kHz, +1 / -3 dB (at 96 kHz, line input, XLR mic input)
‹ 0.01
Signal / noise ratio
90 dB
Audio files compatibility
MP3 files
Digital output: 32 to 320 kbit/s, VBR (variable output, read only)
Sampling frequency: 44.1 / 48 kHz
ID3 compatibility up to version 2.4
WAV files
Sampling Frequency 44.1 / 48/96 kHz
Digital resolution 16/24 bit
Recording medium
SD (64 MB to 2 GB) or SDHC (4 GB to 32
File system
FAT partition: FAT 16/32
Computer Requirements
Compatible operating systems
Windows 2000 Professional SP4 or later, Windows XP, Windows Vista
Mac OS X 10.2 or later
Pentium 300 MHz or faster, 128 Mo RAM or more
266 MHz Power PC, iMac, G3, G4 or better, 64 Mo RAM or more
USB Port
USB 2.0 recommended
USB host controller
Intel components set recommended
Supply and other characteristics
Lithium-ion battery (BP-L2, included) or NiMH batteries (HR15/51) or
alkaline (LR60 or PS-P520 AC adapter (optional)
Autonomy (continuous operation,
backlighting disabled, MP3 playback 128
kbits/s, according to conditions of use)
Lithium-ion battery: approximately 5 hours (recording or playback)
NiMH batteries: approximately 4 hours (recording or playback)
Alkaline: approximately 2 hours (recording or playback)
Operating temperature
0–40 °C
1.7 W (MP3 playback), 5.5 W (maximum)
External dimensions (L X H X D)
80 mm x 153 mm x 35 mm (excluding protrusions)
0.29 kg (without batteries)
Optional Accessories
Replacement Battery BP-L2
PS-P520 AC adapter
2. pratical indications
Audio inputs and outputs
2. pratical indications
Many portable digital recorders, especially those with
a shoulder strap, have no built-in microphone. Most
handheld ones have built-in low quality microphones
that do not meet the requirements for a professional
sound product that is to be radio transmitted. So you
often have to buy and use an extra microphone.
It is not easy to choose from the vast variety of
microphones on the market. We must bear in mind
both the technical characteristics that fulfil our
requirements and the quality of sound we want to
obtain. We will try to point out the basic materials
needed by an audio documentarist, and the type of
microphone to be used in different situations.
When recording a narrative voice, an annotation
or a musical instrument, you will need a MONO
microphone, with a single capsule that records on a
single channel.
When recording voice, it is best to use a microphone
with a wide diaphragm condenser. The condenser
microphone captures sound according to an
electrostatic principle. The diaphragm is the
membrane that will “capture” the sound. Usually,
a narrower diaphragm consents a more precise
sound recording. When recording a voice, however,
a wide diaphragm microphone is preferable; a
wide membrane captures broader and less precise
oscillations, amplifying the overtones created by the
emission of a voice, making it more full-bodied.
When choosing a microphone, one must also
pay attention to the “polar response”, that is the
orientation of the capsule in respect to the sound
source. In our case, the capsule must be oriented
directly on the source, producing a “cardioid”
polar response.
When recording in non-professional studios, like a
room or an office without acoustic treatment, it is best
not to use the omni-directional or the bi-directional
types of polar response in order to avoid phase
cancellation (17).
The condenser microphones, especially those with a
wide diaphragm, are very delicate and sensitive. While
recording, it is appropriate to install the microphone
on a stand with a shock mount, a fastener that keeps
your microphone isolated from stand vibrations. You
will also need to position a pop filter to protect the
capsule against the accumulation of saliva.
For outdoors recordings, you will need a different
microphone: one that is less delicate and more
precise in capturing sound, possibly STEREO, with two
directional recording devices in order to capture sound
from two directions. You will probably be recording
in precarious situations, so you must be ready for
sudden shifts. This is when most phase cancellation
errors occur. You must use a stereo microphone whose
diaphragms are placed in the so-called XY position,
with the criss-crossed orientation of the left
and right capsules.
One of the major problems in outdoor recordings is
the wind that hits the diaphragm creating an intense
low pitched sound that covers the ones you want to
record. Normally, microphones are equipped
with a light windproof protection that often is not
enough. You must then get a better sort of “furry”
windproof protection that redirects the wind away
from the capsule.
A hand-held microphone could be uncomfortable, and
in long interviews can be quite painful for the arm. To
avoid these problems during long interviews, you could
use a small tabletop stand. Or for outdoor recordings,
you can use a “boom” pole, a support that stands on
two rods, together with a shock mount.
Another recurring problem in outdoor recordings is
the background noise that can cover a voice or another
sound. You then would need to use a directional
“shotgun” microphone. This type of microphone has
a hyper cardioid polar response, a highly directional
device with an extremely restricted field of recording,
that can successfully eliminate background noise,
or, when in a crowd, isolate the rest of the voices and
concentrate on the one the microphone is directed on.
When you enter the menu of a recording device, you
have access to the recording settings: sampling
frequency and quantization of waveforms. In analogical
recording, the sound and the recording are parallel by
nature, whereas in digital recording, the recording of
the waveform is periodical. These periodical recordings
are called “samples” and are transformed into binary
terms in order to be interpreted, stored and made
available by a computer.
The sampling frequency or sampling rate is the
measurement of the number of samples captured in
one second. Quantization is the assignment of a binary
number to the amplitude of a wave within a sample, in
other words the conversion from analogical to digital.
We will now illustrate the different standards in use
and the setting adjustments.
When the Compact Disc (CD) hit the market as an
audio storage device, the standard for a digital audio
file was established at 44.1 kHz for sampling rate, and
16 bit for quantization. These two parameters are still
a valid reference for recording.
But since the CD came out, technology has
made enormous progress and many different
portable devices offer the possibility of recording high
quality sound.
You must however remember that once you decide
to record sound according to certain standards, it is
highly recommended to keep the same parameters
throughout the recordings. And later when you start a
session with editing and mixing software, you must use
the same parameters as you have in the recordings.
One of the easiest mistakes to make is to think that
what you hear with your ears is what enters the
microphone. That’s not how it is. A simple piece of
paper leafed through during an interview creates
a movement of the air that hits the membrane
and creates a distortion that our bare ear does not
We must always remember to monitor the course
of our recordings with the help of headphones,
preferably wide enough to cover the whole ear and
isolate it from outside noise. The headphones are
essential devices during the editing and mixing phase,
especially if we are working in non-professional
environments, because they enable us to listen to the
recordings regardless of the acoustic qualities of the
room we’re in.
Editing is the assembly phase of everything that has
been collected and recorded, and mixing is the process
that enables us to balance all the edited material.
Both steps are carried out on a multi-tracking software
(18) that processes different parallel audio tracks.
/ 4.1 EDITING /
Editing is done in modules. One interview at a time,
one music track at a time, one voice recording at a
time. The interviews and other documents are selected
and abridged, always keeping our goal in mind.
Sometimes we must clean out hesitations from the
interviews – the mumbles and stutters – that can
hinder listening. In visual communication, these
hesitations are compensated by a facial expression
or a gesture, elements that are missing in sound
These hesitations can be due to the search for the
right word, or a distraction. But other times they stem
from embarrassment or difficulty. At times, it might be
worth it to leave them in.
/ 4.2 MIXING /
Once all the pieces of the puzzle are ready, the delicate
phase of mixing begins. Through this operation, our
sound file will become smooth and uniform.
The first thing to do is to import into our session a CD
whose sound quality we would like to replicate. Once
it is imported, the volume must be reduced by 2 db,
which is the volume acquired by an audio file through
mastering. This file will be our point of reference for
the whole mixing operation.
There are no fixed rules for a mixing operation:
basically, you learn by experience. Equalization and
compressor plug-ins can be used to adjust and clean
sound files.
2. pratical indications
The DR-100 that we chose as reference for this
handbook offers the possibility to record at 24 bit
quantization and 96 kHz sampling rate. When possible,
it is best make the highest possible quality recording.
Even though the resulting audio file will end up being
reduced to a standard format, it is preferable to work
with sound that contains more precise information at
the source.
2. pratical indications
If we want to use ambient sound as background, we
just have to turn down the volume by 10 dB, or 16 dB
for music. But we must be the first listeners of our
products and judge the quality for ourselves. The best
reference is our own ear.
Mixing can improve or clean a sound, but it can’t do
miracles. It is important to be meticulous and precise
in the recording phase so that the material we import
into our editing sessions can be as clean as possible.
When editing and mixing, it is preferable to rely on
friends or colleagues as listeners. After spending
many hours working on sound, we can easily lose
our instinctive perception of quality or of rhythm in
an audio file. Having someone else listen to it before
consigning the final product offers precious feedback
and enables us to add finishing touches where needed.
Here are some suggestions to avoid making mistakes
while the work is in progress:
1. Before recording, make sure all the devices are
plugged in or charged.
2. Always bring extra batteries for the equipment.
Assurez-vous d'avoir assez d'espace de mémoire
à disposition.
3. Make sure to have sufficient memory space.
4. Always carry extra memory cards.
5. When recording outdoors, make sure you have
windproof protection and use headphones.
6. Always listen to recordings through headphones,
don’t trust your bare ears.
7. When using a MONO microphone for outdoor
recordings, remember to record ambient sounds in
STEREO on the spot.
8. When recording in motion, always try to keep one
hand free, with which you can move objects that
block you way, or open doors, etc… If you are using
a hand held recorder with a microphone, try putting
the recorder in a shoulder bag.
9. Before starting an interview, make sure the device
is recording and not in stand-by.
10.Before you start an interview sitting at a table, ask
the interviewee to be careful not to hit the table
with his/ her hands.
11. When you finish a day’s work, feed your recordings
into the computer right away, listen to them and
name them in reference to the contents: if you
spend months recording, you won’t end up with a
mass of audio files that you have no idea what they
13. Avoid referring to visual images that cannot be
14. Remember that the standard for audio files is 16
bit 44.1 KHz.
1. Berger, P. L. and T. Luckmann, The Social
Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of
Knowledge, Anchor Books, Garden City, NY, 1966
2. L.Wittgenstein, On Certainty, Basil Blackwell,
Oxford, 1969-1975
(available on http://budni.by.ru/oncertainty.html)
3. John Biewen, Reality Radio – Telling True Stories
in Sound, Carolina University, 2010
(available on http://www.amazon.com/RealityRadio-Telling Stories-Documentary/dp/0807871028/
4. M. Kramer, W.Call, Telling True Stories: A Non-fiction
Writers' Guide from the Nieman Foundation at Harvard
University, Harvard University, 2007
(available on http://www.amazon.com/Telling-TrueStories-Nonfiction-Foundation/dp/0452287553/
5. J. Kern, Sound Reporting: The NPR Guide to
Audio Journalism and Production, NPR, 2009.
Transom.org is a website published by Atlantic Public
Media: it is a tool for all radio documentarists, radio
authors or simply fans. Inside, you can find radio
documentaries, reviews and links, hardware and
software tools, tips and tricks for recording and editing
audio documentaries.
Swedish National Radio (Documentary Department).
In its website you can watch some “Radio-Video”, mp4
files in Swedish with English translation on video.
2. pratical indications
12. At the beginning of an interview, always remember
to have the interviewee give his/her name, surname
and profession/function.
2. pratical indications
StoryCorps is a sound-project by author David Isay
that collects stories of American people, trying to give
a portrait of the United States. (http://www.storycorps.
org). You can see also SoundPortraits.org, a previous
project by David Isay where you can find his best radiodocumentaries
The Kitchen Sisters are Davia Nelson and Nikki Silva,
two independent radio producers that focus their work
on gender issues and memories
Radio Diaires is a website led by Joe Richman, that
works with people to document their own lives for
public radio: teenagers, seniors, prison inmates and
others whose voices are rarely heard
This American Life is the most important radiodocumentary based program broadcasted in the US.
It counts 1.7 million radio listeners and half a million
web-downloads each week. It is produced by Chicago
Public Media
Audio doc is the Italian association of independent
audio-documentary authors. Their website also has a
page in English. Audiodoc works in partnership with
AIDOS in the project “Abandoning FGM/C on FM!” The
audio-documentaries produced as part of this project
are available through the links below on the Audiodoc
– Burkina Faso 2008
– Kenya 2010
as well as the audio newspaper “Diary – A Voyage to
FMG/C Issue in Kenya”,
STREAM – Sharing technologies and resources for
engaged and active media, is a network of African
associations of women working in the media and
NGOs (non governmental organizations) promoting the
abandonment of FGM/C, coordinated by AIDOS, that
manages the www.stopfgmc.org web portal addressed
to media practitioners: a database of media coverage,
laws, research and documentation, video and audio
material that offers an entry point into the topic of
female genital mutilation/cutting
1. Translation from Brecht on Theatre, translated
and edited by Jon Willett, New York, Hill and Wang,
1964. ["Der Rundfunk als Kommunication apparat"
Blatter in the Hessischen Landestheaters,
Darmstadt, No.16, July 1932]
2. Deontology refers to "all the rules and obligations
that govern a professional category" (translation by
Zingarelli N., Lo Zingarelli 2005 - Vocabolario della
lingua italiana, Zanichelli 2004). A deontological
crisis occurs when professional ambitions no
longer coincide with the duties of the profession.
3. Walter Benjamin’s book The Work of Art in the Era
of its Technical Reproducibility is recommended as
a reference to study the relationship between the
industrial revolution and technical reproduction.
At the very beginning of the preface, Benjamin
cites the "diagnosis" of Karl Marx’s capitalist
model of production. Benjamin thought he had
to contextually analyse the economic model and
the production policy and the ability to reproduce
works of art. Indeed, the text ends with a reference
to "fascism" and "communism", two totalitarian
regimes from industrial models that have
prospered thanks to the control of the media.
4. From the Larousse dictionary online
5. Music is described here as a language. According
to Schonberg, musicology has evolved very
much over the twentieth century. For centuries,
music was regarded as a science dealing with
the knowledge of God, or its presence in nature.
It has developed its own formal language, like
any science that belongs to monistic realism
(see next paragraph). Over the centuries, as
Galilean sciences evolved, the absolute divinity
of musical knowledge was questioned, replacing
it by interference between the formal language
(musical notation) and ordinary language (adagio,
andante, etc.). Thanks to Schonberg’s studies
on noise and interference, and the experiment
on quasi-notes and the relationship between
music and text, the field of music has moved
from science to language (e.g., Luigi Nono,
6. It is important to clarify that the difference
between music and ambient sounds is not at
the level of the means, but of the intention. For
example, the fire siren used by Brian Wilson from
the Beach Boys Smile disk is regarded as music
because it only serves to listening. On the contrary,
some musical themes such as military marches
must be regarded as voluntary ambient sounds
because they only exist to keep the pace.
7. The writing system is graphical and non-vocal.
8. Larousse dictionary online. The epistemological
reflection is inherent in science and contains no
guidelines regarding communication in general
or . But it can prove to be extremely useful for
the subject of the desk based research: "reality"
is what the scientist and the documentary have
in common: they are called, although in different
ways and for different reasons, to pursue a path of
knowledge of reality.
9. Source: GP Turchi, C. Della Torre, Psicologia della
salute - dal modello bio-psycho-social al modello
dialogico, Armando, 2007, p. 30-39. (Psychology
of health - from the bio-psycho-social model
to the dialogical model.) This book discusses
epistemological thoughts on the degrees of
realism with some sections directly related to
psychology. It seems natural to ask where the link
between a branch of science of communication
such as an audio documentary and a subject "of
health" such as psychology is. In our search for the
bases upon which to define the audio documentary
and its usefulness as a social tool, we find
"answers" reading thoughts from deontological
professionals in the fields of psychology and
sociology: sociologists such as Peter Berger
and Thomas Luckmann, Erving Goffman, the
psychotherapists such as Miguel Benasayag and
psychology professors such as Gian Piero Turchi.
bidI was struck by a sentence in the book by Miguel
Benasayag “Sad Passions”: "the clinician must
assume his responsibilities towards the patient
and his family and find together a direction to take
in order to change the present situation: direction
in its primary sense of direction, movement
towards..."This is what the documentary maker
needs to know in order to act like a social worker.
He must accept responsibility for the information
he is gathering and must collaborate with other
subjects concerned with the same policy area in
order to find a direction that can generate change.
In other words, what professionals of various
disciplines have in common is the deontological
demand and the sense that it is essential to
discover ways and effective methods to generate
daily change (positive).
10. Source: GP Turchi, C. Della Torre, Psicologia della
salute - dal modello bio-psycho-social al modello
dialogico, Armando 200 pag.38. (Psychology of
health - from the bio-psycho-social model to the
dialogic model).
11. Ibid. pages 77-82. In this chapter, there is
an explicit description of the contemporary
psychologist’s demand: "Cultural exchanges"
more frequent and evident at a national and
international level (e.g. immigration, flexibility and
mobility of workers, etc.) create the requirement
of having at our disposal models that allow
us to operate in the presence of "narrators’
voices" extremely diversified in a same context
of intervention. "The contemporary documentary
maker feels the same requirement when he is
gathering information on a “reality “made of
new and intangible elements”. Each definition of
reality as" effective data “becomes obsolete at
the very moment it is formulated. By focusing on
knowledge of the process, it is possible to keep
pace of the changes.
12. Quotes to date deal with reflections on linguistic
distinctions between disciplines according to
their degree of realism. To address this issue,
we suggest reading Turchi GP, C. Della Torre,
Psicologia della salute - dal modello biopsycho-social al modello dialogico, Armando
2007 pag.30-34 (Health Psychology -. From the
bio-psycho-social model to the dialogic model).
This reflection does not directly affect the field of
audio-documentaries because they are outside
the scientific sphere, and especially far away from
the sciences that operate at a level of monistic
realism (which are intended to individualise a
subject of research and establish a measurement
system to review it). The only suitable language
for a documentary is ordinary language. In the
case of surveys, one should simply specify that
any attempt to define "the truth of the facts" is
baseless since there is no system of measurement
in ordinary language. Investigations are
constructed "as if one could measure reality" and
documents are used as the measuring system. We
can use, for instance, court judgments to measure
responsibility, but the definition of a verdict is
based on the "deliberation parties" involved.
Besides, you need a "trial" to obtain a verdict.
13. For instance let’s take the example of “series”
broadcast on American radio since 1927: this
genre dedicated to housewives started off with
advertisements for soap and house-wares.
Already, in this historic case, the target group
for the radio broadcast depended entirely on the
advertising target, hence its original name (Soap
14. If we present our thinking as the absolute truth,
we are working on a "demonstrative" level of
reality, which, as we saw in the first part of this
2. pratical indications
studied music as "a global language”). The formal
language, ordinary language, technique and
listening live alongside. The objective of the music
is not knowledge but communication.
2. pratical indications
manual, is not effective in the context of social
15. We suggest you study the technical and
registration processes. We suggest one of the
most comprehensive books written in English on
the subject: Huber, David M., Runstein, Robert
E., Modern Recording Techniques, Butterworth Heinemann, 1995.
16. The instruction booklet Tascam DR-100 is in a BOX
in this manual, p. 27.
17. Phase cancellation is an audio phenomenon
whereby if two sound waves strike the same
width capsule at different times; it may cause the
modification or the cancellation of the sound.
18. Over the years, some software has become
commonplace in the world of editing, such as
Cool Edit, and especially Logic Pro Tools. These
are quite expensive professional instruments. To
use Pro Tools, for example, one must purchase
computer equipment without which the software
does not work. For the purpose of this manual, we
would choose two audio editing Audacity software
pieces, a free software that can be downloaded
from internet and Reaper which is sold for an
affordable price (around US$ 60) and provides an
upgradeable 30-days trial version.
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