Leica Geo Office User Manual v8.4 PDF

Table Of Contents
About LEICA Geo Office (LGO) .................................................................................................................................. 1
View Licences ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
Licence Models ........................................................................................................................................................... 5
Check for Version Updates ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Maintenance ............................................................................................................................................................... 7
LEICA Geo Office Help ............................................................................................................................................... 9
How to display and use the HTML Help viewer ......................................................................................................... 10
How to use the navigation pane ................................................................................................................................ 11
How to use browse sequences ................................................................................................................................. 12
How to find a Help topic ............................................................................................................................................ 13
How to navigate topics .............................................................................................................................................. 14
How to use full-text search ........................................................................................................................................ 15
Advanced searching techniques ............................................................................................................................... 16
How to print Help text ................................................................................................................................................ 17
What's this Help ........................................................................................................................................................ 18
Technical Support ..................................................................................................................................................... 19
Tip of the Day............................................................................................................................................................ 20
GPS Tour I: Real Time .............................................................................................................................................. 21
GPS Tour I: Real Time .......................................................................................................................................... 21
GPS Tour I - Lesson 1: Importing Real Time data ................................................................................................. 22
GPS Tour I - Lesson 2: View and Edit the Real Time data .................................................................................... 24
GPS Tour I - Lesson 3: Exporting coordinates to a Custom ASCII file .................................................................. 29
GPS Tour II: Post-Processing ................................................................................................................................... 31
GPS Tour II: Post-Processing ............................................................................................................................... 31
GPS Tour II - Lesson 1: Importing Raw Data ........................................................................................................ 32
GPS Tour II - Lesson 2: Processing Baselines ...................................................................................................... 34
GPS Tour II - Lesson 3: Importing an ASCII File ................................................................................................... 36
GPS Tour II - Lesson 4: Calculating Transformation Parameters .......................................................................... 37
GPS Tour II - Lesson 5: Exporting coordinates to a user-defined ASCII file.......................................................... 38
GPS Tour III: GIS/ CAD Export ................................................................................................................................. 40
GPS Tour III: GIS/ CAD Export ............................................................................................................................. 40
GPS Tour III - Lesson 1: Creating a Lookup Table ................................................................................................ 41
GPS Tour III - Lesson 2: Exporting the DXF file .................................................................................................... 44
TPS Tour I: Referencing a background image .......................................................................................................... 47
TPS Tour I: Referencing a background image ...................................................................................................... 47
TPS Tour I - Lesson 1: Registering the background image and identifying the common points ............................ 48
TPS Tour I - Lesson 2: Matching common points and referencing the image ....................................................... 52
TPS Tour II: Manually updating setups ..................................................................................................................... 55
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Table Of Contents
TPS Tour II: Manually updating setups.................................................................................................................. 55
TPS Tour II - Lesson 1: Importing and inspecting the TPS data of JOB_1 ............................................................ 56
TPS Tour II - Lesson 2: Importing and inspecting the TPS data of JOB_2 ............................................................ 61
TPS Tour II - Lesson 3: Manually update a "Set Orientation" setup ...................................................................... 65
TPS Tour II - Lesson 4: Importing the TPS data of JOB_3 .................................................................................... 68
TPS Tour II - Lesson 5: Manually update a "Resection" setup .............................................................................. 72
TPS Tour III: Automatically updating setups ............................................................................................................. 76
TPS Tour III: Automatically updating setups .......................................................................................................... 76
TPS Tour III - Lesson 1: Importing the TPS data of JOB_4 ................................................................................... 78
TPS Tour III - Lesson 2: Automatically update "Set Orientation" setups ............................................................... 81
TPS Tour III - Lesson 3: Exchanging coordinate systems ..................................................................................... 87
TPS Tour III - Lesson 4: Correcting target heights ................................................................................................ 90
TPS Tour IV: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse data ...................................................................................... 93
TPS Tour IV: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse data ................................................................................... 93
TPS Tour IV - Lesson 1: Importing Traverse data ................................................................................................. 94
TPS Tour IV - Lesson 2: Importing control points from ASCII ............................................................................... 97
TPS Tour IV - Lesson 3: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse Data................................................................. 98
TPS Tour V: Processing a Traverse........................................................................................................................ 104
TPS Tour V: Processing a Traverse .................................................................................................................... 104
TPS Tour V - Lesson 1: Importing the data and creating the Traverse................................................................ 105
TPS Tour V - Lesson 2: Processing the Traverse ............................................................................................... 108
TPS Tour VI: Post-Processing SmartStation Setups .............................................................................................. 112
TPS Tour VI: Post-Processing SmartStation Setups ........................................................................................... 112
TPS Tour VI - Lesson 1: Importing and post-processing the SmartStation data ................................................. 113
TPS Tour VI - Lesson 2: Updating the Setups ..................................................................................................... 116
Level Tour: Level-Processing.................................................................................................................................. 119
Level Tour: Level-Processing .............................................................................................................................. 119
Level Tour - Lesson 1: Importing Raw Data ........................................................................................................ 120
Level Tour - Lesson 2: Processing Level Data .................................................................................................... 121
Level Tour - Lesson 3: Exporting an ASCII File ................................................................................................... 123
Explorer View .......................................................................................................................................................... 125
How to use the Explorer-View ............................................................................................................................. 125
Tree-View ............................................................................................................................................................ 126
Report-View......................................................................................................................................................... 127
Property-View ...................................................................................................................................................... 130
Drag and Drop (Copy & Paste) ............................................................................................................................ 131
Property-Sheets ...................................................................................................................................................... 132
Property Sheets/Pages........................................................................................................................................ 132
Main and Context Menus ........................................................................................................................................ 133
Main Menu ........................................................................................................................................................... 133
Context-Menu ...................................................................................................................................................... 134
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Table Of Contents
Edit Context-Menu ............................................................................................................................................... 135
List Bar .................................................................................................................................................................... 136
List Bar ................................................................................................................................................................ 136
List Bar: Management ......................................................................................................................................... 137
List Bar: Tools ..................................................................................................................................................... 138
List Bar: Open Documents .................................................................................................................................. 139
Toolbars .................................................................................................................................................................. 140
Toolbars .............................................................................................................................................................. 140
Display a Toolbar ................................................................................................................................................ 141
Create a new Toolbar .......................................................................................................................................... 142
Delete a Toolbar .................................................................................................................................................. 143
Customize a Toolbar ........................................................................................................................................... 144
Window Commands ................................................................................................................................................ 145
Window Commands ............................................................................................................................................ 145
Close Window ..................................................................................................................................................... 146
Arrange Windows ................................................................................................................................................ 147
Printing .................................................................................................................................................................... 148
Print ..................................................................................................................................................................... 148
Print Preview ....................................................................................................................................................... 149
Print Setup........................................................................................................................................................... 150
Project Management ............................................................................................................................................... 151
Project Management ........................................................................................................................................... 151
Notes about Projects ........................................................................................................................................... 152
Create a New Project .......................................................................................................................................... 153
Open a Project .................................................................................................................................................... 154
Delete a Project ................................................................................................................................................... 155
Copy a Project ..................................................................................................................................................... 156
Move a Project .................................................................................................................................................... 157
Register a project ................................................................................................................................................ 158
Unregister a project ............................................................................................................................................. 159
Project Properties ................................................................................................................................................ 160
Project Properties ............................................................................................................................................ 160
Project Properties: General .............................................................................................................................. 161
Project Properties: Coordinates ....................................................................................................................... 162
Project Properties: Dictionary .......................................................................................................................... 163
Project Properties: Background Image ............................................................................................................ 164
Project Properties: Codelist Template.............................................................................................................. 165
Project Properties: CAD Files .......................................................................................................................... 166
Coordinate System Management ............................................................................................................................ 167
Coordinate System Management ........................................................................................................................ 167
Coordinate Systems ............................................................................................................................................ 168
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Table Of Contents
Coordinate Systems......................................................................................................................................... 168
Add a New Coordinate System ........................................................................................................................ 169
Import Coordinate Systems ............................................................................................................................. 170
Delete a Coordinate System ............................................................................................................................ 171
Coordinate System Properties ......................................................................................................................... 172
Coordinate System Properties ..................................................................................................................... 172
Coordinate System Properties: General ....................................................................................................... 173
Transformation .................................................................................................................................................... 175
Transformation ................................................................................................................................................. 175
Classical 2D ..................................................................................................................................................... 176
Classical 3D ..................................................................................................................................................... 177
One Step.......................................................................................................................................................... 178
Two Step .......................................................................................................................................................... 180
Stepwise .......................................................................................................................................................... 182
Interpolation ..................................................................................................................................................... 184
Which approach to use .................................................................................................................................... 185
Add a New Transformation .............................................................................................................................. 186
Delete a Transformation .................................................................................................................................. 187
Transformation Properties ............................................................................................................................... 188
Transformation Properties ............................................................................................................................ 188
Transformation Properties: General ............................................................................................................. 189
Transformation Properties: Pre-transformation ............................................................................................ 190
Ellipsoids ............................................................................................................................................................. 191
Ellipsoids.......................................................................................................................................................... 191
Add a New Ellipsoid ......................................................................................................................................... 192
Delete an Ellipsoid ........................................................................................................................................... 193
Ellipsoid Properties .......................................................................................................................................... 194
Ellipsoid Properties....................................................................................................................................... 194
Ellipsoid Properties: General ........................................................................................................................ 195
Projections........................................................................................................................................................... 196
Projections ....................................................................................................................................................... 196
Add a New Projection ...................................................................................................................................... 198
Delete a Projection........................................................................................................................................... 199
Projection Properties........................................................................................................................................ 200
Mercator ........................................................................................................................................................... 201
Transverse Mercator (TM) ............................................................................................................................... 202
Oblique Mercator ............................................................................................................................................. 203
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) ............................................................................................................. 204
Cassini - Soldner.............................................................................................................................................. 205
Lambert - one Standard Parallel ...................................................................................................................... 206
Lambert - two Standard Parallels ..................................................................................................................... 207
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Polar Stereographic ......................................................................................................................................... 208
Double Stereographic ...................................................................................................................................... 209
Rectified Skewed Orthomorphic ...................................................................................................................... 210
User defined projections .................................................................................................................................. 211
File Format of INPUT.USR and OUTPUT.USR ............................................................................................... 212
Example of a User-written Program ................................................................................................................. 214
State Plane Zones ............................................................................................................................................... 218
State Plane Zones ........................................................................................................................................... 218
State Plane Zone Properties ............................................................................................................................ 219
How to switch between Projections and State Plane Zones ............................................................................ 220
Geoid Models ...................................................................................................................................................... 221
Geoid Models ................................................................................................................................................... 221
Add a New Geoid Model .................................................................................................................................. 222
Delete a Geoid Model ...................................................................................................................................... 223
Geoid Model Properties ................................................................................................................................... 224
Geoid Model Properties ................................................................................................................................ 224
Geoid Model Properties: General ................................................................................................................. 225
Geoid Model Properties: Extents .................................................................................................................. 226
How to write your own Geoid Model ................................................................................................................ 227
Compute Geoid Separations ............................................................................................................................ 229
Create Geoid Model field file ............................................................................................................................ 230
CSCS Models ...................................................................................................................................................... 231
CSCS Models .................................................................................................................................................. 231
Add a new CSCS Model .................................................................................................................................. 233
Delete a CSCS Model ...................................................................................................................................... 234
CSCS Model Properties ................................................................................................................................... 235
CSCS Model Properties ............................................................................................................................... 235
CSCS Model Properties: General................................................................................................................. 236
CSCS Model Properties: Extents ................................................................................................................. 237
Create CSCS Model field file ........................................................................................................................... 238
Antenna Management ............................................................................................................................................. 239
Antenna Management ......................................................................................................................................... 239
Add a New Antenna............................................................................................................................................. 240
Delete an Antenna ............................................................................................................................................... 241
Import Antenna file .............................................................................................................................................. 242
Antenna Properties .............................................................................................................................................. 243
Antenna Properties .......................................................................................................................................... 243
Antenna Properties: General ........................................................................................................................... 244
Antenna Properties: Additional corrections ...................................................................................................... 245
Reference Antenna for phase centre offsets ....................................................................................................... 246
Antenna Height Reading ..................................................................................................................................... 247
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Table Of Contents
Codelist Management ............................................................................................................................................. 248
Codelist Management.......................................................................................................................................... 248
Codelist ............................................................................................................................................................... 250
Codelist Structure ............................................................................................................................................ 250
Codelist View ................................................................................................................................................... 251
Codelist Type ................................................................................................................................................... 252
Codelist Type ............................................................................................................................................... 252
Codelist Type DNA ....................................................................................................................................... 254
Codelist Type GPS 500 ................................................................................................................................ 255
Codelist Type GPS 900 ................................................................................................................................ 256
Codelist Type SmartWorx ............................................................................................................................ 257
Codelist Type TPS 1100 .............................................................................................................................. 258
Codelist Type TPS 300/ 400/ 800, TS02/06/09 ............................................................................................ 259
Codelist Type TPS 700 ................................................................................................................................ 260
Create a new Codelist...................................................................................................................................... 262
Delete a Codelist.............................................................................................................................................. 263
Print a Codelist ................................................................................................................................................ 264
Register a Codelist........................................................................................................................................... 266
Unregister a Codelist ....................................................................................................................................... 267
Codelist Properties........................................................................................................................................... 268
Example - Codelist ........................................................................................................................................... 269
Code Group ......................................................................................................................................................... 270
Code Group ..................................................................................................................................................... 270
Add a New Code Group ................................................................................................................................... 271
Delete a Code Group ....................................................................................................................................... 272
Code Group Properties .................................................................................................................................... 273
Display Code Group......................................................................................................................................... 274
Example - Code Group .................................................................................................................................... 275
Code .................................................................................................................................................................... 276
Code ................................................................................................................................................................ 276
Add a new Code .............................................................................................................................................. 277
Delete a Code .................................................................................................................................................. 278
Code Properties ............................................................................................................................................... 279
Example - Code ............................................................................................................................................... 280
Attribute ............................................................................................................................................................... 281
Attribute ........................................................................................................................................................... 281
Add a new Attribute.......................................................................................................................................... 283
Delete an Attribute ........................................................................................................................................... 284
Attribute Properties .......................................................................................................................................... 285
Example - Attribute .......................................................................................................................................... 286
Value Types - Examples (Coding) ................................................................................................................... 287
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Satellite Availability ................................................................................................................................................. 288
Satellite Availability .............................................................................................................................................. 288
Management ....................................................................................................................................................... 289
Satellite Availability: Management ................................................................................................................... 289
Site Properties ................................................................................................................................................. 291
Import Almanacs .............................................................................................................................................. 292
Create a new Obstruction ................................................................................................................................ 293
Import Obstructions.......................................................................................................................................... 294
Export Obstructions ......................................................................................................................................... 295
Obstruction file format ...................................................................................................................................... 296
Obstruction Properties ..................................................................................................................................... 297
Availability ........................................................................................................................................................... 298
Satellite Availability: Availability ....................................................................................................................... 298
Satellite Availability Report .............................................................................................................................. 300
Precise Ephemeris Management ............................................................................................................................ 303
Precise Ephemeris Management ........................................................................................................................ 303
Precise Ephemeris Import ................................................................................................................................... 304
Script Management ................................................................................................................................................. 305
Script Management ............................................................................................................................................. 305
Script Properties .................................................................................................................................................. 307
Using the Howto Scripts ...................................................................................................................................... 308
LGOScripting Help............................................................................................................................................... 310
LGO Scripting Help Overview .......................................................................................................................... 310
The LGO Scripting Object Model ..................................................................................................................... 312
Report Template Management ............................................................................................................................... 315
Report Template Management ............................................................................................................................ 315
Report Templates ................................................................................................................................................ 316
Create a new Report Template ........................................................................................................................... 318
Delete a Report Template ................................................................................................................................... 319
Report Template Properties ................................................................................................................................ 320
Report Template Properties ............................................................................................................................. 320
Report Template Properties: General .............................................................................................................. 321
Report Template Properties: Contents............................................................................................................. 322
Report Template Properties: Coordinate Types ............................................................................................... 323
Report Template Properties: Format................................................................................................................ 324
Report Template Properties: Header ............................................................................................................... 325
Report Template Properties: Advanced ........................................................................................................... 326
Image Referencing .................................................................................................................................................. 327
Image Referencing .............................................................................................................................................. 327
Register a background image .............................................................................................................................. 328
Reference a background image .......................................................................................................................... 329
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Image Properties ................................................................................................................................................. 331
Projects ................................................................................................................................................................... 333
Google Earth ........................................................................................................................................................... 334
View / Edit ............................................................................................................................................................... 336
View/Edit ............................................................................................................................................................. 336
Panning ............................................................................................................................................................... 338
Rename Tool ....................................................................................................................................................... 339
CAD Entities ........................................................................................................................................................ 341
Viewing CAD files and managing CAD file layers ............................................................................................ 341
Import CAD file entities .................................................................................................................................... 342
CAD Entity Properties ...................................................................................................................................... 344
Points and Observations ..................................................................................................................................... 346
Point (Coordinate) Classes and Subclasses .................................................................................................... 346
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level) ............................................................................................................. 348
New Point (graphical views) ............................................................................................................................. 349
Delete Points/ Triplets (graphical views) .......................................................................................................... 350
Point Properties ............................................................................................................................................... 351
Point Properties (graphical views) ................................................................................................................ 351
Point Properties: Setup ................................................................................................................................ 352
Edit Interval (View/ Edit)................................................................................................................................... 353
Re-assign Intervals .......................................................................................................................................... 354
Link or unlink Images ....................................................................................................................................... 355
Observation Properties .................................................................................................................................... 357
Delete Observations ........................................................................................................................................ 358
Re-assign TPS observations ........................................................................................................................... 359
Observations View ........................................................................................................................................... 360
Graphical Settings............................................................................................................................................ 362
Graphical Settings (View/ Edit) ..................................................................................................................... 362
Graphical Settings: View .............................................................................................................................. 363
Graphical Settings: Accuracy ....................................................................................................................... 365
Graphical Settings: Color ............................................................................................................................. 366
Re-assign TPS Setups..................................................................................................................................... 367
Re-assign Reference Triplets .......................................................................................................................... 368
Re-assign Measured Triplets ........................................................................................................................... 369
Assign/ Remove points to/from a surface ........................................................................................................ 370
Show Direction & Distance .............................................................................................................................. 371
Show GPS Loop Misclosure ............................................................................................................................ 372
Show GPS Loop Misclosure ......................................................................................................................... 372
Show GPS Loop Misclosure: General .......................................................................................................... 373
Show GPS Loop Misclosure: Settings .......................................................................................................... 374
Show GPS Loop Misclosure: Report ............................................................................................................ 375
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Compute Average Combined Factor................................................................................................................ 376
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale .......................................................................................................................................... 377
Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station) ................................................................................................ 379
Update Reference Triplets ............................................................................................................................... 381
Shift Reference Triplet ..................................................................................................................................... 382
Scroll to a selected Point ................................................................................................................................. 383
Select a series of Points / Observations .......................................................................................................... 384
Lines and Areas .................................................................................................................................................. 385
Lines and Areas ............................................................................................................................................... 385
Lines/ Areas View ............................................................................................................................................ 386
New Line/ Area ................................................................................................................................................ 388
Delete: Lines and Areas................................................................................................................................... 389
Line/ Area Properties: General ........................................................................................................................ 390
Line/ Area Properties: Thematical Data ........................................................................................................... 392
Point, Line/Area, Setup Properties: Images ..................................................................................................... 393
Add Points to Line/ Border ............................................................................................................................... 394
Remove Points from Line/ Border .................................................................................................................... 395
Create arc from previous to next point ............................................................................................................. 396
Convert arc to straights .................................................................................................................................... 397
Create spline .................................................................................................................................................... 398
Convert spline to straights ............................................................................................................................... 399
Link or unlink Images ....................................................................................................................................... 400
Graphical Settings: View .................................................................................................................................. 402
GPS Processing ...................................................................................................................................................... 404
GPS Processing .................................................................................................................................................. 404
Report View (GPS-processing) ........................................................................................................................... 405
Graphical View (GPS-processing) ....................................................................................................................... 406
Zooming (GPS-processing) ................................................................................................................................. 407
Re-assign Intervals .............................................................................................................................................. 408
Delete an interval ................................................................................................................................................ 409
Export to RINEX .................................................................................................................................................. 410
Select an observation interval for computation .................................................................................................... 411
Select an observation window ............................................................................................................................. 412
Select a Satellite Window .................................................................................................................................... 414
Processing (GPS) ................................................................................................................................................ 416
Processing Modes (GPS) .................................................................................................................................... 417
Results View (GPS) ............................................................................................................................................. 418
GPS-processing Parameters ............................................................................................................................... 419
GPS-Processing Parameters ........................................................................................................................... 419
GPS-processing Parameters: General............................................................................................................. 420
GPS-processing Parameters: Strategy ............................................................................................................ 422
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GPS-processing Parameters: Extended Output .............................................................................................. 426
Auto. Processing Parameters .......................................................................................................................... 427
Modify GPS-processing Parameters ................................................................................................................ 429
Properties ............................................................................................................................................................ 430
Display Interval Properties (Track) ................................................................................................................... 430
Interval Properties (Point): Annotation ............................................................................................................. 431
Interval Properties (Point): Antenna ................................................................................................................. 432
Interval Properties (Track): Annotation ............................................................................................................ 433
Interval Properties (Track): Antenna ................................................................................................................ 434
Point Properties (GPS-proc) ............................................................................................................................ 435
Graphical Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 436
Graphical Settings (GPS-processing) .............................................................................................................. 436
Graphical Settings: General (GPS-proc) .......................................................................................................... 437
Graphical Settings: Styles and Colors (GPS-proc) .......................................................................................... 438
TPS Processing ...................................................................................................................................................... 439
TPS-Processing .................................................................................................................................................. 439
Calculate geometrical PPM ................................................................................................................................. 442
Calculate atmospherical PPM ............................................................................................................................. 443
Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station) .................................................................................................... 444
Setups ................................................................................................................................................................. 446
Create a Setup Application .............................................................................................................................. 446
Delete a Setup Application............................................................................................................................... 448
Edit a Setup Application ................................................................................................................................... 449
Allow automatic update .................................................................................................................................... 450
Update Setups ................................................................................................................................................. 451
Setup Report .................................................................................................................................................... 452
TPS Processing Guide..................................................................................................................................... 456
Setup Properties .............................................................................................................................................. 457
Setup Properties........................................................................................................................................... 457
Setup Properties: General ............................................................................................................................ 458
Setup Properties: Observations (Resection, Multiple Backsights, Height Transfer) ..................................... 460
Setup Properties: Observations (Set Orientation, Known Backsight) ........................................................... 462
Point, Line/Area, Setup Properties: Images ................................................................................................. 463
Traverses ............................................................................................................................................................ 464
New Traverse .................................................................................................................................................. 464
Delete a Traverse ............................................................................................................................................ 465
Traverse Report ............................................................................................................................................... 466
Traversing techniques...................................................................................................................................... 470
Traverse-processing Parameters ..................................................................................................................... 474
Traverse-processing Parameters ................................................................................................................. 474
Traverse-processing Parameters: Traversing .............................................................................................. 475
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Traverse-processing Parameters: Angle Balance ........................................................................................ 476
Traverse-processing Parameters: Height Balance ....................................................................................... 477
Modify Traverse Processing Parameters ..................................................................................................... 478
Traverse Properties ......................................................................................................................................... 479
Traverse Properties ...................................................................................................................................... 479
Traverse Properties: General ....................................................................................................................... 480
Traverse Properties: Check Points ............................................................................................................... 482
Traverse Properties: Stations ....................................................................................................................... 483
Traverse View .................................................................................................................................................. 484
TPS-Processing: Traverse View................................................................................................................... 484
Zooming (Traverse-processing) ................................................................................................................... 486
Sets of Angles ..................................................................................................................................................... 487
Create a Sets of Angles Application................................................................................................................. 487
Delete a Sets of Angles Application ................................................................................................................. 489
Sets of Angles Report ...................................................................................................................................... 490
Sets of Angles Tolerances ............................................................................................................................... 493
Sets of Angles Properties ................................................................................................................................ 494
Sets of Angles Properties ............................................................................................................................. 494
Sets of Angles Properties: General .............................................................................................................. 495
Sets of Angles Properties: Targets ............................................................................................................... 496
Graphical Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 497
Graphical Settings (TPS-processing) ............................................................................................................... 497
Graphical Settings: View .................................................................................................................................. 498
Graphical Settings: Color ................................................................................................................................. 499
Level Processing ..................................................................................................................................................... 500
Level-Processing ................................................................................................................................................. 500
Level-Processing: Jobs Report View ................................................................................................................... 502
Level-Processing: Lines Report View .................................................................................................................. 503
Join Level Lines ................................................................................................................................................... 505
Processing Level lines ......................................................................................................................................... 506
Booking Sheet ..................................................................................................................................................... 507
Level-Processing: Booking sheet ..................................................................................................................... 507
Level observation techniques .......................................................................................................................... 511
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level) ............................................................................................................. 515
Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet ................................................................................................. 516
Create/ Delete Control (Level) ......................................................................................................................... 517
Reset Heights .................................................................................................................................................. 518
Activate/ De-activate Points and Observations in the Booking Sheet .............................................................. 519
Modify Point Heights in the Booking Sheet ...................................................................................................... 522
Modify Point Ids in the Booking Sheet ............................................................................................................. 523
Edit Level Standard Deviations ........................................................................................................................ 524
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Level Line View ................................................................................................................................................... 525
Level Processing: Level Line view ................................................................................................................... 525
Zooming (Level-Processing) ............................................................................................................................ 526
Vertical Exaggeration ....................................................................................................................................... 527
Graphical Settings............................................................................................................................................ 528
Graphical Settings (Level-Processing) ......................................................................................................... 528
Graphical Settings: View .............................................................................................................................. 529
Graphical Settings: Color ............................................................................................................................. 530
Level-processing Parameters .............................................................................................................................. 531
Level-processing Parameters .......................................................................................................................... 531
Level-processing Parameters: Level Line ........................................................................................................ 532
Level-processing Parameters: Observations ................................................................................................... 533
Level-processing Parameters: Point Heights ................................................................................................... 534
Level-processing Parameters: Staff Corrections .............................................................................................. 535
Modify Level-processing Parameters ............................................................................................................... 536
Adjustment .............................................................................................................................................................. 537
Adjustment .......................................................................................................................................................... 537
Panning ............................................................................................................................................................... 539
Zoom In ............................................................................................................................................................... 540
Zoom Out ............................................................................................................................................................ 541
Zoom 100% ......................................................................................................................................................... 542
Points and Observations ..................................................................................................................................... 543
New: Point, Setup, Observation (Adjustment) .................................................................................................. 543
New Point (graphical views) ............................................................................................................................. 544
New Setup ....................................................................................................................................................... 545
New Observation ............................................................................................................................................. 546
Point Properties ............................................................................................................................................... 547
Point Properties (graphical views) ................................................................................................................ 547
Point Properties: Setup ................................................................................................................................ 548
Observation Properties .................................................................................................................................... 549
Observation Properties................................................................................................................................. 549
Observation Properties: GPS ....................................................................................................................... 550
Observation Properties: RTK Info................................................................................................................. 551
Observation Properties: TPS ........................................................................................................................ 552
Observation Properties: Azimuth .................................................................................................................. 554
Observation Properties: Level ...................................................................................................................... 555
Observations View ........................................................................................................................................... 556
Activate / De-activate Points, Setups and Observations (graphical views) ...................................................... 558
Delete: Point, Setup, Observation .................................................................................................................... 559
Delete Points/ Triplets (graphical views) .......................................................................................................... 560
Delete Setups .................................................................................................................................................. 561
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Delete Observations ........................................................................................................................................ 562
Pre-analysis ..................................................................................................................................................... 563
Compute Network ............................................................................................................................................ 564
Compute Loops ............................................................................................................................................... 565
Graphical Settings............................................................................................................................................ 567
Graphical Settings (Adjustment) ................................................................................................................... 567
Graphical Settings: View .............................................................................................................................. 568
Graphical Settings: Accuracy ....................................................................................................................... 570
Graphical Settings: Grid ............................................................................................................................... 571
Graphical Settings: Color ............................................................................................................................. 572
Graphical Settings: Font ............................................................................................................................... 573
Using the Design capabilities ........................................................................................................................... 574
Note on adjusting GPS and Terrestrial measurements .................................................................................... 575
Configuration ....................................................................................................................................................... 576
Configuration Adjustment................................................................................................................................. 576
General Adjustment Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 577
General Adjustment Parameters .................................................................................................................. 577
General Parameters: Control ....................................................................................................................... 578
General Parameters: Standard Deviation..................................................................................................... 580
General Parameters: Centring / Height ........................................................................................................ 581
General Parameters: Known Station ............................................................................................................ 582
General Parameters: Test Criteria................................................................................................................ 583
General Parameters: Coordinate System ..................................................................................................... 584
Terrestrial Adjustment Parameters .................................................................................................................. 586
Terrestrial Adjustment Parameters ............................................................................................................... 586
Terrestrial Parameters: Vertical refraction coefficient ................................................................................... 587
Terrestrial Parameters: Azimuth offset ......................................................................................................... 588
Terrestrial Parameters: Scale factor correction ............................................................................................ 589
Data Creation Parameters of Adjustment ........................................................................................................ 590
Data Creation Parameters of Adjustment ..................................................................................................... 590
Data Creation: Observation .......................................................................................................................... 591
Data Creation: Setup .................................................................................................................................... 592
Results ................................................................................................................................................................ 593
Results ............................................................................................................................................................. 593
Adjustment Pre-analysis Report ...................................................................................................................... 594
Adjustment Network Report ............................................................................................................................. 596
Adjustment Loops Report ................................................................................................................................ 604
All about Adjustment............................................................................................................................................ 607
All about Adjustment ........................................................................................................................................ 607
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 608
Relationship between Adjustment, Precision, Reliability and Testing .............................................................. 609
xv
Table Of Contents
Quality Control in Network Planning ................................................................................................................ 610
Least Squares Adjustment ............................................................................................................................... 612
Least Squares Adjustment ........................................................................................................................... 612
Least Squares Adjustment: General remarks ............................................................................................... 613
Mathematical Model ..................................................................................................................................... 614
Stochastic Model .......................................................................................................................................... 616
Free and Constrained Adjustments .............................................................................................................. 618
Formulae ...................................................................................................................................................... 619
Precision and Reliability ................................................................................................................................... 621
Precision and Reliability ............................................................................................................................... 621
Precision and Reliability: General remarks ................................................................................................... 622
Precision ...................................................................................................................................................... 623
Reliability ...................................................................................................................................................... 624
Statistical Testing ............................................................................................................................................. 625
Statistical Testing ......................................................................................................................................... 625
Statistical Testing: General remarks............................................................................................................. 626
F-Test ........................................................................................................................................................... 627
W-Test.......................................................................................................................................................... 628
T-Test ........................................................................................................................................................... 629
Antenna Height-test...................................................................................................................................... 630
Interpreting Test Results .............................................................................................................................. 631
Estimated Errors........................................................................................................................................... 632
Points ...................................................................................................................................................................... 633
Points View.......................................................................................................................................................... 633
Configure the Points View ................................................................................................................................... 634
Add a New Point to the Points View .................................................................................................................... 636
Point Properties ................................................................................................................................................... 637
Point Properties (Points View) ......................................................................................................................... 637
Point Properties: All ......................................................................................................................................... 638
Point Properties: General................................................................................................................................. 640
Point Properties: Stochastics ........................................................................................................................... 642
Point Properties: Thematical Data ................................................................................................................... 643
Point Properties: Reliability .............................................................................................................................. 644
Point Properties: Mean .................................................................................................................................... 645
Point, Line/Area, Setup Properties: Images ..................................................................................................... 646
Point Properties: Hidden Points ....................................................................................................................... 647
Hidden Point (Position) .................................................................................................................................... 648
Hidden Point (Height)....................................................................................................................................... 650
Point Editor .......................................................................................................................................................... 651
Modifying Point Items .......................................................................................................................................... 652
Modifying Point Codes......................................................................................................................................... 653
xvi
Table Of Contents
Modifying Point Classes in the Points View ......................................................................................................... 654
Point (Coordinate) Classes and Subclasses ....................................................................................................... 655
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level) ................................................................................................................ 657
Activate / De-activate Points (Points View).......................................................................................................... 658
Delete Points/ Triplets (Points View) ................................................................................................................... 659
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale .............................................................................................................................................. 660
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale .......................................................................................................................................... 660
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Start ................................................................................................................... 662
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Shift .................................................................................................................... 663
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Rotation.............................................................................................................. 664
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Scale .................................................................................................................. 665
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale: Transformation parameters ............................................................................................. 666
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Common Points ................................................................................................. 667
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation parameters ................................................................................ 668
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Finish Transformation ........................................................................................ 669
Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station) .................................................................................................... 670
Rename Tool ....................................................................................................................................................... 672
Move / Copy Points ............................................................................................................................................. 674
Notes about Drag and Drop (Copy & Paste) Points ............................................................................................ 675
Modifying Reference Coordinates ....................................................................................................................... 676
Surfaces .................................................................................................................................................................. 677
Surfaces .............................................................................................................................................................. 677
Assign/ Remove points to/from a surface ............................................................................................................ 680
Activate/ De-activate points ................................................................................................................................. 681
Include/ Exclude triangles.................................................................................................................................... 682
Breaklines............................................................................................................................................................ 683
Boundaries .......................................................................................................................................................... 685
Surfaces: 2D View ............................................................................................................................................... 688
Surfaces: 3D View ............................................................................................................................................... 690
Surfaces: Points View.......................................................................................................................................... 692
Graphical Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 693
Graphical Settings (Surfaces) .......................................................................................................................... 693
Graphical Settings: View .................................................................................................................................. 694
Graphical Settings: Color ................................................................................................................................. 695
Surface Results ................................................................................................................................................... 696
Surface Report .................................................................................................................................................... 697
Create a Difference Surface ................................................................................................................................ 700
Exporting Surfaces .............................................................................................................................................. 701
Antennas ................................................................................................................................................................. 702
Antennas View .................................................................................................................................................... 702
Antenna Management ......................................................................................................................................... 703
xvii
Table Of Contents
Results .................................................................................................................................................................... 704
Results View (GPS) ............................................................................................................................................. 704
Results View (Level) ............................................................................................................................................ 705
Results Configuration .......................................................................................................................................... 706
Keep a Processing Run ....................................................................................................................................... 707
Delete a Processing Run ..................................................................................................................................... 708
View Configuration .............................................................................................................................................. 709
Configure a Report .............................................................................................................................................. 710
GPS Results ........................................................................................................................................................ 711
GPS-Processing Results: Baseline .................................................................................................................. 711
GPS-Processing Results: Points...................................................................................................................... 713
Selection Criteria.............................................................................................................................................. 714
Default Selection Criteria ................................................................................................................................. 715
GPS-Processing Parameters ........................................................................................................................... 716
GPS-processing Reports ................................................................................................................................. 717
GPS Processing Report: Summary.................................................................................................................. 718
GPS Processing Report: Baselines ................................................................................................................. 724
GPS Processing Report: Kinematic ................................................................................................................. 735
GPS Processing Report: SPP .......................................................................................................................... 746
GPS-Processing Analysis Tool ........................................................................................................................ 754
Store the GPS-Processing Results .................................................................................................................. 756
Level Results ....................................................................................................................................................... 757
Level-Processing Results: Points..................................................................................................................... 757
Level-processing Parameters .......................................................................................................................... 758
Level Processing Report: Summary................................................................................................................. 759
Store the Level-Processing Results ................................................................................................................. 763
Codelists ................................................................................................................................................................. 764
Codelist View....................................................................................................................................................... 764
Codelist Management.......................................................................................................................................... 765
Images .................................................................................................................................................................... 767
Images................................................................................................................................................................. 767
Import Images ..................................................................................................................................................... 770
Link or unlink Images........................................................................................................................................... 771
Import ...................................................................................................................................................................... 773
Raw Data ................................................................................................................................................................ 774
Raw Data Import ................................................................................................................................................. 774
Standard GSI Word Indexes ................................................................................................................................ 776
How to Import GPS Raw Data ............................................................................................................................. 778
How to Import TPS Raw Data ............................................................................................................................. 780
How to Import TDS Raw Data ............................................................................................................................. 782
TDS raw data format ........................................................................................................................................... 783
xviii
Table Of Contents
How to Import Level Raw Data ............................................................................................................................ 784
Merging Reference Coordinates during Import .................................................................................................... 785
Import Settings (TPS/ Level) ............................................................................................................................... 786
Import Settings (TPS/ Level) ............................................................................................................................ 786
Import Settings: Coding ................................................................................................................................... 787
Import Settings: Standard Deviations............................................................................................................... 788
Import Settings: Centring/ Height ..................................................................................................................... 789
GSI Operation Codes....................................................................................................................................... 790
Assign Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 793
View Data (GPS) ................................................................................................................................................. 796
View Data (TPS) .................................................................................................................................................. 797
View Data (Level) ................................................................................................................................................ 798
View Data (Points) ............................................................................................................................................... 799
Fieldbook Report ................................................................................................................................................. 800
ASCII Data .............................................................................................................................................................. 805
ASCII Import ........................................................................................................................................................ 805
Notes about importing Points .............................................................................................................................. 806
SKI ASCII File Import .......................................................................................................................................... 807
Text File Import ................................................................................................................................................... 808
User Defined ASCII File Import Wizard ............................................................................................................... 809
User Defined ASCII File Import Wizard............................................................................................................ 809
Delete Text File Import Templates ................................................................................................................... 811
Save Text File Import Templates as a File....................................................................................................... 812
Import Text File Import-Templates from a File ................................................................................................. 813
SKI ASCII File Format ......................................................................................................................................... 814
Precise Ephemeris .................................................................................................................................................. 815
Precise Ephemeris Import ................................................................................................................................... 815
How to Import Precise Ephemeris ....................................................................................................................... 816
Internet Download ............................................................................................................................................... 817
Precise Ephemeris Management ........................................................................................................................ 818
Export...................................................................................................................................................................... 819
RINEX ..................................................................................................................................................................... 820
RINEX File Export ............................................................................................................................................... 820
ASCII....................................................................................................................................................................... 821
ASCII Export ........................................................................................................................................................ 821
SKI ASCII File Export .......................................................................................................................................... 822
SKI ASCII File Format ......................................................................................................................................... 823
SKI ASCII File Format...................................................................................................................................... 823
SKI ASCII Point Coordinate Format ................................................................................................................. 824
SKI ASCII Baseline Vector format.................................................................................................................... 828
SKI ASCII Export Settings ................................................................................................................................... 829
xix
Table Of Contents
User-defined ASCII File Export ........................................................................................................................... 831
User-defined Export Settings ............................................................................................................................... 832
ASCII Export Settings: Classes ........................................................................................................................... 835
User-defined Export Templates ........................................................................................................................... 836
Add User-defined Export Template .................................................................................................................. 836
Delete User-defined Export Template .............................................................................................................. 837
Save User-defined Export Template to a File .................................................................................................. 838
Load User-defined Export Template from a File .............................................................................................. 839
NGS B- and G-file Export .................................................................................................................................... 840
NGS B- and G-file Export Settings ...................................................................................................................... 842
Custom ASCII File Export.................................................................................................................................... 844
Custom ASCII Export Settings ............................................................................................................................ 845
FBK Files ................................................................................................................................................................ 847
FBK File Export ................................................................................................................................................... 847
FBK File Export Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 848
GIS/CAD ................................................................................................................................................................. 849
GIS / CAD file Export ........................................................................................................................................... 849
GIS / CAD Export Settings .................................................................................................................................. 850
GIS / CAD Export Settings: AutoCAD, MicroStation ............................................................................................ 852
Lookup Table....................................................................................................................................................... 853
Lookup Table ................................................................................................................................................... 853
Add a new Lookup-Table ................................................................................................................................. 854
Modify a Lookup-Table .................................................................................................................................... 855
Modify a Lookup-Table: Code Defaults ............................................................................................................ 856
Delete a Lookup-Table..................................................................................................................................... 857
Load Lookup-Table from a file ......................................................................................................................... 858
Save Lookup-Table as a file ............................................................................................................................ 859
Shape files .............................................................................................................................................................. 860
Shape File Export ................................................................................................................................................ 860
Shape File Export Settings .................................................................................................................................. 861
LandXML files ......................................................................................................................................................... 863
LandXML File Export ........................................................................................................................................... 863
LandXML File Export Settings ............................................................................................................................. 864
Compute Geoid Separations ................................................................................................................................... 865
Compute Hidden Points .......................................................................................................................................... 866
Create Geoid Model field file ................................................................................................................................... 867
Create CSCS Model field file .................................................................................................................................. 868
Mean Coordinates & Differences Report................................................................................................................. 869
Coordinate Comparison Report .............................................................................................................................. 871
Internet Download ................................................................................................................................................... 873
Internet Download ............................................................................................................................................... 873
xx
Table Of Contents
Internet Download: General................................................................................................................................. 874
Internet Download: Site logfile ............................................................................................................................. 876
Internet Download: Add/ Edit custom sites .......................................................................................................... 877
Importing after Internet Download ....................................................................................................................... 878
Filters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 879
Filters................................................................................................................................................................... 879
Filters: General .................................................................................................................................................... 880
Filters: Quality/ Time............................................................................................................................................ 881
Datum / Map ........................................................................................................................................................... 882
Datum/Map .......................................................................................................................................................... 882
Notes about Transformation ................................................................................................................................ 883
Which approach to use ........................................................................................................................................ 884
Selection View ..................................................................................................................................................... 885
Selection View ................................................................................................................................................. 885
Match View .......................................................................................................................................................... 886
Match View ...................................................................................................................................................... 886
Minimum Requirements for Coordinates.......................................................................................................... 887
Match common points ...................................................................................................................................... 889
Activate/ De-activate common points ............................................................................................................... 890
Delete common points ..................................................................................................................................... 891
Select Point Type of common points................................................................................................................ 892
Configuration of transformation type ................................................................................................................ 893
Configuration: General ..................................................................................................................................... 894
Configuration: Outliers ..................................................................................................................................... 896
Configuration: Parameters ............................................................................................................................... 897
Classical 2D ..................................................................................................................................................... 898
Classical 3D ..................................................................................................................................................... 899
One Step.......................................................................................................................................................... 900
Two Step .......................................................................................................................................................... 902
Results View........................................................................................................................................................ 904
Results (Datum/ Map) ...................................................................................................................................... 904
Configuration: Outliers ..................................................................................................................................... 905
Store Transformation Parameters .................................................................................................................... 906
Change Coordinate Type of Residuals ............................................................................................................ 907
Display Absolute Values of Residuals (Datum / Map) ...................................................................................... 908
Chart.................................................................................................................................................................... 909
Chart ................................................................................................................................................................ 909
Print a chart ..................................................................................................................................................... 910
Copy a chart to the clipboard ........................................................................................................................... 911
Save a chart to a file ........................................................................................................................................ 912
Report.................................................................................................................................................................. 913
xxi
Table Of Contents
Report View (Datum/ Map) .............................................................................................................................. 913
COGO Calculations ................................................................................................................................................ 918
Cogo Calculations ............................................................................................................................................... 918
Graphical Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 921
Graphical Settings (Cogo)................................................................................................................................ 921
Graphical Settings: View .................................................................................................................................. 922
Graphical Settings: Color ................................................................................................................................. 923
Cogo Calculations: Intersections ......................................................................................................................... 924
Cogo Calculations: Line Calculations .................................................................................................................. 926
Cogo Calculations: Arc Calculations.................................................................................................................... 928
Cogo Calculations: Traverse ............................................................................................................................... 931
Cogo Calculations: Inverse.................................................................................................................................. 932
Cogo Calculations: Area Division ........................................................................................................................ 933
COGO Report ...................................................................................................................................................... 935
Data Exchange Manager ........................................................................................................................................ 938
Data Exchange Manager ..................................................................................................................................... 938
Object Properties ................................................................................................................................................. 940
New Folder .......................................................................................................................................................... 941
Rename a file or folder ........................................................................................................................................ 942
Delete a file or folder ........................................................................................................................................... 943
Refresh ................................................................................................................................................................ 944
View/ Hide objects ............................................................................................................................................... 945
View the contents of a file.................................................................................................................................... 946
Locations ............................................................................................................................................................. 947
DXM location: My Computer ............................................................................................................................ 947
DXM location: Local Memory (SD-card, CF-card, PC- card, USB stick) .......................................................... 948
DXM locations: Serial ports/ USB .................................................................................................................... 949
Settings ............................................................................................................................................................... 950
DXM Settings ................................................................................................................................................... 950
DXM Settings: General .................................................................................................................................... 951
DXM Settings: COM/USB Settings .................................................................................................................. 953
Upload/ Download ............................................................................................................................................... 954
Uploading objects to the instrument ................................................................................................................. 954
Downloading objects from the instrument ........................................................................................................ 956
Uploading files to the instrument ...................................................................................................................... 957
Downloading files from the instrument ............................................................................................................. 958
Import/Export Backup ...................................................................................................................................... 959
Send To ........................................................................................................................................................... 960
Transfer objects ................................................................................................................................................... 962
Transfer Objects of the Office database .......................................................................................................... 962
Transfer Objects of the Instrument................................................................................................................... 963
xxii
Table Of Contents
Transfer objects: Jobs...................................................................................................................................... 964
Transfer objects: Projects ................................................................................................................................ 965
Transfer objects: Coordinate Systems ............................................................................................................. 966
Transfer objects: Antennas .............................................................................................................................. 967
Transfer objects: Codelists .............................................................................................................................. 968
Transfer objects: Format files .......................................................................................................................... 969
Transfer objects: Geoid model field files .......................................................................................................... 970
Transfer objects: CSCS model field files.......................................................................................................... 971
Transfer objects: Configuration sets ................................................................................................................ 972
Transfer objects: Road jobs (SmartWorx) ........................................................................................................ 973
Transfer objects: DTM jobs (SmartWorx) ......................................................................................................... 974
Software Upload ..................................................................................................................................................... 975
Software Upload .................................................................................................................................................. 975
Internal Memory .................................................................................................................................................. 976
System Memory .................................................................................................................................................. 977
Local memory devices ......................................................................................................................................... 978
Software Installation Wizard ................................................................................................................................ 979
Software Installation Wizard - Select Instrument class and Connection .............................................................. 980
Software Installation Wizard - Select Software Type ........................................................................................... 981
Software Installation - Sensor/ System Firmware ................................................................................................ 983
Software Installation - Current Selection ............................................................................................................. 984
Software Upload: View Applications and System (TPS1000/ 1100, RCS1100) .................................................. 985
Design to Field ........................................................................................................................................................ 986
Design to Field .................................................................................................................................................... 986
Importers ............................................................................................................................................................. 988
Importer Management ......................................................................................................................................... 990
Design to Field: Graphical View .......................................................................................................................... 991
Design to Field: Graphical Settings ..................................................................................................................... 993
Design to Field: Creating an on-board job ........................................................................................................... 994
Connection Editor ................................................................................................................................................ 996
Design to Field: Connection Editor................................................................................................................... 996
Connection Editor: Selecting layers ................................................................................................................. 998
Navigating through cross-sections ................................................................................................................... 999
Connecting vertices ....................................................................................................................................... 1000
Glossary of Road Terms ................................................................................................................................ 1001
Tunnel Profile Editor .......................................................................................................................................... 1004
Design to Field: Tunnel Profile Editor............................................................................................................. 1004
Tunnel Profile Editor: Viewing and creating tunnel profiles ............................................................................ 1006
Tunnel Profile Editor: Viewing and creating layers ......................................................................................... 1008
Tunnel Profile Editor: Viewing and creating profile rotation tables ................................................................. 1009
Customize ............................................................................................................................................................. 1010
xxiii
Table Of Contents
Customize... ...................................................................................................................................................... 1010
Reset a Toolbar ................................................................................................................................................. 1011
Options.................................................................................................................................................................. 1012
Options... ........................................................................................................................................................... 1012
Options: General ............................................................................................................................................... 1013
Options: Units/ Display ...................................................................................................................................... 1014
Options: Default Parameters ............................................................................................................................. 1015
Options: Internet ................................................................................................................................................ 1017
Options: Linework .............................................................................................................................................. 1018
Options: PZ-90 .................................................................................................................................................. 1019
Options: CAD Import ......................................................................................................................................... 1020
Messagebox Management ................................................................................................................................ 1021
xxiv
About this Software
About LEICA Geo Office (LGO)
With LGO you can import, export and manage GPS, TPS and Level data.
The following management components are available:
Project Management
Coordinate System Management
Antenna Management
Codelist Management
Satellite Availability
Precise Ephemeris Management
Script Management
Report Template Management
Image Referencing
You can
view and edit and process
You can
adjust data, calculate
and perform
GPS,
TPS and
Level data.
Surfaces and Volumes, view
Images imported with SmartWorx jobs
COGO calculations.
It offers you tools like:
Datum and Map
Format Manager
Data Exchange Manager
Software Upload
Design to Field
Read about Version number and Build, the Release date and the Maintenance end of your version in the
About... dialog, where you will additionally get information on the copyright and be able to read legal and licensing
notices on LGO.

Open the dialog via the Help main menu.
For detailed information on the software version and your operating system press the corresponding buttons:
Leica Geo Office Online Help
1
Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
System Info...
Information on your operating system is displayed.
Information of this kind helps clarifying problems you might encounter with running the software on your operating
system.
Version Info...
Detailed information on the DLLs used by LGO is given.
Information of this kind helps clarifying problems with affected or lost DLLs, or wrongly set pathes.
Note:
2

Parts of LGO make use of the 7-Zip program which is licensed under the GNU GPL (www.7-zip.org).

Parts of LGO make use of the FreeImage library which is licensed under the FreeImage Public License
(freeimage.sourceforge.net).
Leica Geo Office Online Help
About this Software
View Licences
LGO and FlexOffice are protected software and several options are available individually to be included in your
licence:
 GNSS-processing
 TPS-Processing
 Level-processing
 Adjustment
 Datum and Map
 Surfaces and Volumes
 Cogo Calculations
 RINEX Import
 LandXML Import/Export
 GIS / CAD Export
The View Licences dialog enables you to display the products and options which are currently activated for your
entitlement. You may view node locked licences activated on your PC as well as floating licences activated on a
local licence server.

Open the Help main menu and select View Licences... to invoke the View Licences dialog.
General:
Entitlement Id:
Shows the unique, product-specific licence key that must be entered when installing the software. The Id
consists of the licence number, the initial order number of the software and a verification number. The
Entitlement Id stays the same even if additionally purchased options are added later or your software
maintenance as part of a Customer Care Package (CCP) is updated.
Licensed products and options:
Lists the products (the basic LGO Licence and the Maintenance) and options included in your licence.
You are informed on the License Model, which can be either node locked or floating, on the License Type,
which can be perpetual or expiring, and if expiring on the Expiration Date.
Borrowing:
Floating licences, i.e. licences activated on a local licence server and shared across a local network, may
be borrowed to be used on a computer disconnected from the LAN. A licence can only be borrowed when
the basic LGO Licence is available and with all features included. You cannot borrow single features
(i.e. options). A date until when the licence shall be borrowed has to be specified. By default a period of 14
days is set. After that the licence is automatically returned.
Borrowed licences can also be manually returned by selecting Return borrowed licences. The licence
including all options will be returned to the Licence server specified under Settings.
Licence updates:
If your are working with a node locked installation of LGO you may select Check for Licence updates to
see whether additionally purchased software options or an update for your software maintenance are
available to be activated for your Entitlement Id.
If you are working as a client with a floating licence of LGO you may select Check for Licence updates to
see whether additionally purchased software options or an update for your software maintenance are
available but you will have to activate the updates on your local licence server.
Settings:
Licence Server configuration:
If you have purchased a floating licence which has been activated on your local licence server and installed
LGO as a client on your PC then the name of the licence server, which you have had to specify during the
client installation and activation already, is shown under Host, e.g. @myserver.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
3
Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
If the server changes you have to specify the new server here.
Proxy Server configuration:
If you have purchased a network licence and if you access to the licence server via the Internet using a
Proxy server then you will see the configuration details here. Again the details for the proxy server have to
be specified during the client installation and activation already. If these details change, e.g. with a new
server, then you must specify the new configuration here.
You need not fill in any information if a licence server in a Local Area Network (LAN) is used.
Note:


4
If you want to return your licence for re-hosting make sure that all borrowed products and options have
been returned to the local licence server before.
For detailed information on the installation and activation of Licences, please, refer to the Leica
Geosystems Software Licensing.pdf which is available on your installation DVD.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
About this Software
Licence Models
For LGO you have the choice between two different Licence Models matching different user requirements:

Node locked

Floating
Node locked licences are tied to a single PC whereas Floating licences can be shared between multiple users
working on different PCs within the same network.
Node locked licences:
A Node locked licence is tied to a single PC and is, therefore, the ideal choice for working remotely or for single
dedicated users within a network. It cannot be shared by multiple users within the same network and is usually not
transferred from one PC to another (“Rehosting”).
To manage node locked licences on a PC open the View Licences dialog from within LGO.
Floating licences:
Floating licences can be shared across multiple client workstations within the same local network and are,
therefore, the ideal choice if the software shall be “floated”over a local network, transferring from one client
workstation to the next as required.
Floating licences are managed by a local licence server running in the local network. This local licence server
manages the licence pool and controls that the number of simultaneously used licences does not exceed the total
number of purchased licences. If no more licences are available, the user is notified and has to wait until another
user finishes using a licence.
The local licence server can be installed on either a normal PC or a dedicated server, but it cannot be installed on
a "virtual" computer or server system. Usually the licence is not transferred from one local licence server to another
(“Rehosting”).
If it is required to use the software remotely on a PC or notebook without connection to the network and the local
licence server it is possible to “borrow” licences from the local licence server and to “return” them after usage
(“Borrowing”).
To manage floating licences on the local licence server make use of a separate Licence Management Tool, the
CLM Administrator Server.
To manage your licences while you are working on a local client open the View Licences dialog from within LGO.
Note:

For detailed information on the different Licence models and on how to manage licences on a PC, a
server or a client, please, refer to the Leica Geosystems Software Licensing.pdf which is available on
your installation DVD
Leica Geo Office Online Help
5
Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
Check for Version Updates
When you start up LGO a check will be made whether a newer version is available for download. You may also
invoke this check manually by selecting Check for updates... from the Help main menu.
In the so-called Update notification you are informed on:

the available update itself (Update Information):
the build number of the LGO version that is currently installed on your computer is given together with the
build number of the newly available version.

the required Maintenance:
the date is indicated until which your Maintenance has to be valid for you to be entitled get free access to
the new version. Additionally, the date when your current maintenance expires is given together with a
link to the Leica Geosystems Sales and Support Network via which you might order an update for your
maintenance.
To download the new version:
6

Press the Download button and you will be redirected to the Leica myWorld website from which you may
download the new version in your language.

Press OK to close the Update notification without downloading the new version.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
About this Software
Maintenance
LEICA offers Maintenance for your purchased product. Contact your Leica dealer or representative on how to
order Maintenance for LEICA Geo Office or FlexOffice. Maintenance is part of your Customer Care package and of
your Entitlement to activate and use LGO or FlexOffice. Maintenance is valid for a pre-defined period of time.
Valid maintenance will give you free access to new versions released before the Expiration Date.
Your maintenance can be updated from within the View Licences dialog. In this dialog select Check for License
Updates.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
7
Getting Help
LEICA Geo Office Help
The Online Help for Leica Geo Office (LGO) provides information about using the features of the software as well
as step-by-step tutorials to guide you through the programs' basic functionality. The Help System is a very
comprehensive reference and includes all the detailed information about the whole software package.
How to display and use the HTML Help viewer
How to use the navigation pane
How to use browse sequences
How to use full-text search
How to navigate topics
How to print Help text
What’s this Help
The help system is designed to open in the HTML Help viewer — Microsoft's help window for viewing compiled
HTML Help. If you do not have the HTML Help viewer components installed on your system, you can view it with
Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser (use version 4.x or later for complete functionality).
About the online tutorials:
To help you get started with the basics of working with LGO, the online help includes "Getting Started" tutorials.
You can open them by selecting GPS or TPS or Level Tutorial from the Table of Contents. These tutorials are
designed for viewing in the HTML Help viewer (or Internet Explorer 4.x or later), but may also be printed.
Related Topics:
Technical Support
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
How to display and use the HTML Help viewer
To display the online help in the HTML help viewer go to the Help main-menu and select Contents and Index.
How to use the HTML Help viewer:
The HTML Help viewer is a tri-pane window presenting you with a navigation pane to the left and a pane for
displaying help contents and selecting browse sequences on the right. The Contents tab is synchronized with the
topic pane, so that users never lose their place.
Left-hand tabs
Depending on how you prefer to work you can open or close the left-hand tabs in the navigation pane.
When you hide the navigation pane, the right-hand topic pane is maximized so you can see as much topic
content as the size of the HTML Help viewer allows.

To close the left-hand tabs from view click Hide

To open the left-hand tabs click Show
.
Navigation:
Just like within an Internet browser, the HTML Help viewer offers you Back and Forward buttons for
returning to a previously viewed topic:
To learn more about how to navigate with the help of the left-hand navigation pane tabs see:
How to use the navigation pane
Options menu:
The Options button opens a menu with selections for showing/ hiding the navigation pane, going back and
forward to previously viewed topics, stopping a topic or Web page from loading and refreshing the
information displayed in the topic pane. You may also access Internet options from this menu, print topics
or turn search highlighting on or off.
Leica-Geosystems Web site:
Since the HTML Help viewer uses components of the Internet Explorer browser, it can take you directly to
Web sites on the Internet.

10
Click
to visit the Leica-Geosystems homepage.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
Getting Help
How to use the navigation pane
The Online Help includes the following left-hand tabs in the navigation pane:
Contents:
The Contents tab displays a table of contents. Books
and pages
represent the categories of
information in the online help system. When you double-click a closed book, it opens
to display its
content (sub-books and pages). When you double-click an open book, it closes. When you click pages, you
select topics to view in the right-hand pane of the HTML Help viewer.
Index:
The Index tab displays a multi-level list of keywords and keyword phrases. The keywords are associated
with their corresponding topics. In contrast to the pre-structured table of contents, the keywords are
intended to direct you to specific topics according to your way of working. To open a topic in the right-hand
pane associated with a keyword, select the keyword and then either click Display or double-click the
keyword. If the keyword is used with more than one topic, a Topics Found dialog opens so that you can
select a specific topic to view.
Search:
The Search tab enables you to search for words in the help system and locate topics containing those
words. Full-text searching looks through every word in the Online Help to find matches. When the search is
completed, a list of topics is displayed so you can select a specific topic to view.
Since the Help system contains an advanced search functionality, there are also options to search previous
results, find similar words and/ or search only topic titles. Phrases to be searched for may be combined by
logical operators.
Favorites:
The Favorites tab enables you to store a list of your favorite or most frequently used help topics. Whenever
you open the Online Help system, you can quickly go to the topics you view most often by selecting them
from this tab. To add topics as favorites simply click Add when an interesting topic is displayed in the righthand pane. You can update the list at any time by removing topics you no longer want to mark as favorites.
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How to use browse sequences
The Online Help system includes a special way of navigating with browse sequences. They are intended to guide
you through a pre-defined series of topics.
The HTML Help viewer includes browse sequence buttons for topic navigation.

To go to the next topic, click Next .

To go to the previous topic, click Previous .
The HTML Help viewer also includes a drop-down list of browse sequences and a browse sequence bar with small
icons that represent the topics used with each browse sequence. You can also use this list or browse sequence
bar to navigate topics.
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Leica Geo Office Online Help
Getting Help
How to find a Help topic

Click the Contents tab to browse through topics by category.

or click the Index tab to see an alphabetically ordered list of index entries: either type the word you're
looking for or scroll through the list.

or click the Search tab to search for words and/ or phrases that may be contained in a Help topic.
Combine several phrases by logical operators for a more advanced search.
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
How to navigate topics
Topics in the Online Help include a variety of navigation components including:
Drop-down hotspots:
Some topics include drop-down hotspots. A drop-down hotspot is clickable text that displays more
information in a drop-down list. These drop-downs provide a quick way for you to get information about
doing tasks without having to do a lot of scrolling. You only need to click the hotspots you want to read. To
close the text, click the hotspot again.

Drop-down hotspot sample (click to view drop-down text)
This is how text is displayed when you click a drop-down hotspot. Click the drop-down hotspot again to
close the drop-down text.
Links to popup windows:
With some links, the destination topic opens in a popup window right on top of the topic pane. It appears
like having two windows in one, only the focus is on the information in the popup window. When you finish
reading the information in the popup window, you can close it from view or navigate to any of its links.

Link to popup window sample (click inside the popup window to close it)
Browse sequences:
The HTML Help viewer includes special navigation for using browse sequences. They are intended to guide
you through a series of topics. The viewer includes a browse sequence bar and browse sequences
navigation buttons for browsing topics.
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Leica Geo Office Online Help
Getting Help
How to use full-text search
1.
2.
To find information with advanced full-text search click the Search tab and type the word or phrase you
want to find.

To search only topic titles select Search titles only.

To find words similar to your search term select Match similar words.

To narrow your search select Search previous results.

To highlight all instances of search terms that are found in topic files click Options and select
Search Highlight On.
Click
to add boolean operators to your search. The AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR operators enable you
to precisely define your search by creating a relationship between search terms. If no operator is specified,
AND is used.
3.
Click List Topics, select the topic you want, and then click Display or double-click the topic.
4.
To sort the topic list, click the Title, Location, or Rank column heading.
Note:

Searches are not case-sensitive, so you can type your search in uppercase or lowercase
characters.

You may search for any combination of letters (a-z) and numbers (0-9).

Punctuation marks such as the period, colon, semicolon, comma, and hyphen are ignored during
a search.

Group the elements of your search using double quotes or parentheses to set apart each
element. You cannot search for quotation marks.

For example: If you are searching for a file name with an extension, you should group the entire
string in double quotes: "filename.ext". Otherwise, the period will break the file name into two
separate terms. The default operation between terms is AND, so you will create the logical
equivalent to "filename AND ext."
See also:
Advanced searching techniques
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
Advanced searching techniques
The following techniques help you to narrow your searches for more precise results.
Wildcard expressions:
You can search for words or phrases using wildcard expressions. Wildcard expressions allow you to search
for one or more characters using a question mark or asterisk.
Boolean operators:
The AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR operators enable you to precisely define your search by creating a
relationship between search terms. If no operator is specified, AND is used.
Nested expressions:
Nested expressions allow you to create complex searches for information. For example, "projects AND
((GPS OR Level) NEAR import)" finds topics containing the word "projects" along with the words "GPS" and
"import" close together, or containing "projects" along with the words "Level" and "import" close together.
The basic rules for searching help topics using nested expressions are as follows:
16

You can use parentheses to nest expressions within a query. The expressions in parentheses
are evaluated before the rest of the query.

If a query does not contain a nested expression, it is evaluated from left to right.

You cannot nest expressions more than five levels deep.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
Getting Help
How to print Help text
You can print topics and information right from the HTML Help viewer. The available print options are determined
by the version of Internet Explorer installed on your system.
To print a single topic:
1.
Click Print.
2.
Select Print the selected topic and click OK.
To print all topics in a selected book:
1.
Click Print.
2.
Select Print the selected heading and all subtopics and click OK.
Tip/ Note:
 If a topic includes drop-down hotspots, click the hotspots to display the information before you print.

Only from the Contents tab you may select to print entire books.

If you open a topic via the Index, the Search functionality or as one of your Favorites, only single topics
may be printed at once. You may decide on Print all linked documents, Print table of links and
Print to file.
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
What's this Help
As you work in the office software and create your own projects, you can obtain information about windows or
dialogs by using the context-sensitive help available in the application. You can access this help in several ways,
including:
in the upper-right corner to indicate that they provide Help. Click the
Dialogs: Dialogs display a question mark
question mark and a topic opens in the HTML Help viewer that explains how to use the fields and controls in the
dialog. You can also press F1 at dialogs to get help.
Windows: From any window, press F1 to get more information about using it.
Alternatively:
 Select What’s This? from the Help menu or use Shift-F1.
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Leica Geo Office Online Help
Getting Help
Technical Support
Technical information is available through several online services. All registered Leica Geosystems customers
have access to this information. You can obtain product support in several ways:
World Wide Web
The Leica Geosystems Web Site www.leica-geosystems.com provides unlimited access to a variety of company
services and product information.
Email, Fax
Contact the Leica Geosystems Dealer/Distributor in the country where you bought your product.
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
Tip of the Day
On each Start-up of LGO or Flex Office you may be presented with useful tips on special functionality.
The so-called ‘Tip of the day’ may also be invoked while the software is running:

Select Help from the main menu and then choose Tip of the day...
With clicking the ‘Next Tip’-button you may have a look at all the tips contained in this functionality.
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Leica Geo Office Online Help
GPS Tutorial
GPS Tour I: Real Time
GPS Tour I: Real Time
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn to work with real time GPS data. With real time data
the processing and applying of a coordinate system has already been done in the field. The tutorial takes you from
importing the raw data via checking the field results to exporting the final local Grid coordinates.
The exercise comprises the following scenario:
A number of real time points has been measured with System 1200. The reference station was set up on point 315.
A codelist has been used in the field. Point, Line and Area codes have been assigned to the survey elements.
The local coordinate system that has been used in the field is defined by:

a UTM Zone 32 North projection

the Bessel ellipsoid

a Classical 3D transformation
Start this Quick Tour with GPS Tour I - Lesson 1: Importing Real Time data.
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
GPS Tour I - Lesson 1: Importing Real Time data
In this lesson you will learn how to import GPS raw data and simultaneously create a new project.

Start up LGO and select Import Raw data
from the Tools List Bar.
either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the Real Time sample data under Look in. By default the sample
data will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\Lgo\Sample data\Import\GPS
Real Time\.

Select the job Sample RT 1200 and click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog create a new project to import the raw data into:

In the General tab right-click on Projects in the tree-view and select New.
While the Assign dialog stays open in the background you'll enter the New Project dialog.
In the New Project dialog:

Under Location browse to where you want the Project to be stored. By default projects are stored in
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Projects\.

Enter the Project Name, e.g. RT Sample. A directory of the same name will be added to the path
automatically. The project's files will be stored into this directory.

Click OK. The new project will be created and the New Project dialog will be closed. You are returned to
the Assign dialog.
In the Assign dialog the new project is selected automatically.
Click the Settings tab and select:

22
To Import the coordinate system & components that have been used in the field to LGO's
Coordinate System Management.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
GPS Tutorial

Click the
To automatically attach the coordinate system to the selected project.
Fieldbook button to create a Fieldbook Report.
Click the General tab to return to the General page of the Assign dialog:

Click Assign and then Close. The raw data will be assigned to the new project and the Project window
opens automatically.
Continue with GPS Tour I - Lesson 2: View and Edit the Real Time data.
For more information see also:
How to Import GPS Raw Data
Create a new Project
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
GPS Tour I - Lesson 2: View and Edit the Real Time data
In this lesson you will learn how to explore the Real Time data in the View/ Edit component of LGO. You can
check the quality of your coordinates as well as the thematical code information before you proceed with exporting
the data.

Click the View/ Edit tab to open the View/ Edit project window.
The view opens in local grid and is zoomed to full extents including the reference station.

Use the

By default the GPS baseline vectors (the red lines) are switched on. To change this setting:

Right-click in the background and select Graphical Settings ....
toolbar button to zoom into the detail points.
In the View tab:

Under General select Grid.

Under Data deselect GPS Observations.
Now you have a clearer view on how the survey was performed.
The sample Real Time data contains two different point classes (measured as well as averaged ; since in the
Real Time mode the points are processed in the field already you will not find any of the lower point classes, like
e.g. Navigated). Point codes as well as Line and Area codes have been assigned to the survey elements.
Let us first have a look at the quality of the averaged Point 001:

Right-click on Point 001 and select Properties.

Click the Mean tab to view the two solutions for Point 001 and their differences to the weighted average.

Click OK or Cancel to exit the property sheet.
The mean coordinates of averaged points in the project are summarized and can also be viewed in the Mean
Coordinates & Differences Report.

From the Tools main menu select Mean Coordinates & Differences to open the report.
Now, let us check the thematical code information of two different Area objects.

24
From the Select point combo box select Point 184, center the view to this point via the
Scroll to
selected point toolbar button and zoom in using the "+"-key on the keyboard till you see the following
extents:
Leica Geo Office Online Help
GPS Tutorial

To view the properties of the circled Area, right-click onto one of its borders and select Properties... from
the context menu.
The Line/ Area Properties dialog opens.
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help

In the General tab view the Border and Shading styles of the Area, its Code, Length of Perimeter and
the Area Enclosed.
To be able to modify the border or shading styles of this area you can either set the Code to [none] in the
General tab: the Border and Shading Style combo boxes become editable. Or you can modify the
definition of the code in the project specific codelist.

In the Thematical Data tab view the Code details as defined in the project specific codelist.

Leave the dialog with OK or Cancel.
Now, let us change the appearance of one of the black squares:

Right-click on the border of one of the black squares and select Properties... from the context menu.
In contrast to the flower bed this area has been measured without a code in the field. Therefore, you can
directly edit the Line/ Area properties.

26
In the General tab of the Line/ Area Properties dialog see that the Code for this area is [none]. Change
the Border Color and the Shading Color and select a different Shading Style.
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GPS Tutorial
The result looks like this:
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
Continue with GPS Tour I - Lesson 3: Exporting coordinates to a Custom ASCII file.
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Leica Geo Office Online Help
GPS Tutorial
GPS Tour I - Lesson 3: Exporting coordinates to a Custom ASCII file
In this lesson you will learn how to export coordinates to a customized ASCII file. The Custom ASCII File export is
using a pre-defined format template file (*.frt) to export the data. Format template files can be created using the
Leica Geosystems Format Manager program.
To complete this exercise a sample format template file (sample.frt) is installed automatically on your computer
with LGO. If you wish to create your own format template file, please, refer to the Online Tutorial of the Format
Manager Online Help.

While the project is still open select Export ASCII Data
Toolbar or from the Tools List Bar.
from the Export main menu or from the
In the Export ASCII data dialog:

Under Save as type select Custom ASCII file (*.cst)

Enter a File name, e.g. RT Sample1 without extension.

Click on the Settings button to change the settings and select the format template file.
In the General page of the Custom ASCII Export Settings dialog:

Change the Coordinate Class to Main. The coordinate triplets of the highest class will be exported.

Use the browser
to select the file Sample.frt. By default the file will be installed in C:\Documents and
Settings\All Users\Documents\Lgo\Sample data\Format files\.
In the Coordinate System page of the Custom ASCII Export Settings dialog:

Make sure the coordinate system Sample RT 1200 is selected.

Click OK to close the Settings property page. Back in the Export ASCII data dialog click Save to write
the ASCII file to the hard disk.
Open the ASCII file in a text editor to watch the results.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed this Quick Tour through LGO.
Note:

Quick Tour III explains how to export the project to a DXF format.
To learn more about the other pre-defined Export formats refer to:
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
ASCII Export
GIS / CAD Export
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GPS Tutorial
GPS Tour II: Post-Processing
GPS Tour II: Post-Processing
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn to post-process GPS data. The tutorial takes you from
importing the raw data to exporting the final local Grid coordinates.
To complete this exercise the two options GPS-Processing and Datum and Map have to be included in your
licence.
The excercise comprises the following scenario:
A rapid static network has been measured. It consists of the points 309, 311, 315, 401 and 402. The local
coordinates of the points 315, 402 and 309 are known. The data shall be processed and the local coordinates of
the points 311 and 401 shall be derived.
Start this Quick Tour with GPS Tour II - Lesson 1: Importing Raw Data.
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
GPS Tour II - Lesson 1: Importing Raw Data
In this lesson you will learn how to import GPS raw data and simultaneously create a new project.

Start up LGO and select Import Raw data
from the Tools List Bar.
either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data will be
installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample data\Import\GPS Static\.

Check Include subfolders. All System1200 raw data contained in the two sub-directories Data_1 and
Data_2 will be imported in one run.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog create a new project to import the raw data into:

In the General tab right-click on Projects in the tree-view and select New... from the context menu.
While the Assign dialog stays open in the background you'll enter the New Project dialog.
In the New Project dialog:

Under Location browse to where you want the Project to be stored. By default projects are stored in
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Projects\.

Enter the Project Name, e.g. PP Sample. A directory of the same name will be added to the path
automatically. The project's files will be stored into this directory.

Click OK. The new project will be created and the New Project dialog will be closed. You are returned to
the Assign dialog.
In the Assign dialog the new project is selected automatically.

32
Click Assign and then Close. The raw data will be assigned to the new project and the Project window
opens automatically.
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GPS Tutorial
Continue with GPS Tour II - Lesson 2: Processing Baselines.
For more information see also:
How to Import GPS Raw Data
Create a new Project
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
GPS Tour II - Lesson 2: Processing Baselines
In this lesson you will learn how to process and store baselines.
In the Project window you may switch between different Views to display the project's content.
In View/ Edit
you see the graphical representation of each point. Directly after import of the Raw data their
highest class is Navigated .
Now, switch to the GPS-Processing view and select the baselines to be processed.
Please, note that LGO offers two processing modes: Manual and Automatic. In this exercise let us proceed with
processing the network manually step by step.
Click the GPS-Proc
tab at the bottom of the project window. The GPS-Processing view graphically displays a
list of all observation intervals.

Click on

Click on the horizontal bar of point 402 to select it as the Reference.

Click on

Click on the horizontal bars of the first instant of point 315, 401 and 309 to select these observation
intervals as Rover.

Click on
Select Mode: Reference from the toolbar. The cursor indicates Reference.
Select Mode: Rover from the toolbar. The cursor indicates Rover.
Process from the toolbar.
Illustration:
When the processing run is complete the display automatically switches to the Results
view allowing you to
examine and store the processed baselines. The rover points of all baselines for which ambiguities have been
resolved are automatically selected.

Store from the toolbar or right-click into the view and select
To store the selected baselines press
Store from the context menu. You can graphically view the stored baselines in the View/Edit tab.
To complete the network you have to complete three more processing runs:

Return to the GPS-Processing view, right-click in the background and select Deselect All from the
context menu. To select, process and store the remaining baselines proceed like you did in the first run:
for the second processing run select 309 as Reference and 311 and 315 as Rover, for the third run select
315 as Reference and 311 and 401 as Rover, for the fourth run select 401 as Reference and 309 as
Rover.
To process the network in the automatic mode proceed as follows:
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Leica Geo Office Online Help
GPS Tutorial

Directly after import select Processing Mode Automatic from the GPS-Proc main menu. The cursor
indicates 'automatic'. Select all baselines and process. For details see: Processing Modes (GPS)
You can now view the entire network by clicking back to the View/Edit tab. The Point Classes have now changed
to Reference or Averaged . For points where more than one measurement exists a weighted average is
automatically computed. To inspect how the solutions fit right-click on such a point, select Properties and click the
Mean tab in the Point Properties dialog.
To check your results, you can also calculate GPS Loop Misclosures.
You have now finished the GPS Processing. Continue with GPS Tour II - Lesson 3: Importing an ASCII File.
For more information see also:
View/Edit
Point (Coordinate) Classes and Subclasses
GPS Processing View
Select an observation interval for computation
Processing GPS data
Results View
Store the GPS-Processing Results
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
GPS Tour II - Lesson 3: Importing an ASCII File
In this lesson you will learn how to import the local control points from a user defined ASCII file into a Project.

Select Import ASCII data
List Bar.
either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools
The Import ASCII Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select Text files under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample ASCII data under Look in. By default the sample data
will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample data\Import\GPS Static\.

Select the file Local.txt.

Under Coordinate System select Local and under Height Mode select Orthometric.

Click the Import button.
The Import Wizard allows you to define the file format. In this exercise the file to be imported is a simple ASCII file
with local coordinates of three points separated by spaces.

In Step 1/4 select Free format and Next to continue.

In Step 2/4 select Space as the column separator and Next to continue.

In Step 3/4 make sure the Coordinate Type is set to Grid. Then right-click on the first column and select
Point Id. In the same way assign Coordinates Easting, Coordinates Northing and Orth. Height to the
following columns. Press Next.

In Step 4/4 you can save the import mask as a template for the next time you import an ASCII file. Press
Finish to proceed to the Assign dialog.
In the Assign dialog create a new project to import the ASCII data into:

In the General tab right-click on Projects in the tree-view and select New.

Enter the Project Name (e.g. PP Sample Local) and click OK to confirm.

Click Assign and then Close. The project opens automatically and displays the local coordinates for the
points 315, 309 and 402.
The local control points are now stored in the project. You can close the project and continue with GPS Tour II Lesson 4: Calculating Transformation Parameters.
For more information see also:
Text File Import
User Defined ASCII File Import Wizard
Create a new Project
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GPS Tutorial
GPS Tour II - Lesson 4: Calculating Transformation Parameters
In this lesson you will learn how to use the Datum/Map tool to calculate the transformation parameters. A simple
Onestep transformation shall be computed to transform the WGS84 coordinates of the Project PP Sample to the
local coordinates as given in the Project PP Sample Local.

Start up the Datum/Map tool

In the upper part of the Selection view select the Project PP Sample.

In the lower part of the Selection view select the Project PP Sample local.

Click on the Match tab to continue.

In the Match view right-click in the background and select Configuration. Under Transformation type
select Onestep. Set the Height mode to Orthometric and confirm with OK.

Right-click in the background and select Auto Match to automatically match the common points
according to identical Point IDs. Three points will automatically be matched for the calculation.

Click the Results tab to view the residuals of the transformation. You may additionally display a Chart or a
Report by clicking on the appropriate tabs.

To store the transformation parameters right-click in the background of the Results view and select Store
from the context menu. In the following dialog enter a name for the new transformation parameter set.
Additionally, check the two boxes in the dialog to automatically create a new coordinate system using the
new transformation and to automatically attach this coordinate system to the project PP Sample.
either from the Tools main menu or from the Tools List Bar.
In your project PP Sample you can now display coordinates in either WGS84 or Local coordinates. Open the
project again (or switch to the project window if it is still open), click on the Points
WGS84
Geodetic
and Local
Grid
tab and switch between
using the Coordinate Format toolbar buttons.
Continue with GPS Tour II - Lesson 5: Exporting coordinates to a user defined ASCII file.
For more information see also:
Datum/Map
Selection View
Match View
Results (Datum/ Map)
Store Transformation Parameters
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Leica Geo Office 8.3 Online Help
GPS Tour II - Lesson 5: Exporting coordinates to a user-defined ASCII file
In this lesson you will learn how to export coordinates to a user defined ASCII file.

While the project is still open select Export ASCII data
the Toolbar or from the Tools List Bar.
either from the Export main menu or from
The Save File As dialog opens. In this dialog:

Under Save as type select Text file (*.txt).

Enter a file name.

Click on the Settings button to change the export settings.
The User-defined Export Settings dialog opens.
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
In the General page change the Coord Type to Local and Grid. Set the Height mode to Orthometric.

Change the Coord Class to Main. The coordinates of the highest point class will be exported.

Click on the Point tab to select the items to be exported in the order you want. Double-click on Point Id,
then Easting, then Northing, then Orth. height.
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
Click on OK to close the Settings property page and finally Export to write the file. You can now examine
the ASCII file that you just created with a text editor.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed this Quick Tour through LGO.
For more information see also:
User defined ASCII File Export
User-defined Export Settings
To learn more about the other pre-defined Export formats refer to:
ASCII Export
GIS / CAD Export
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GPS Tour III: GIS/ CAD Export
GPS Tour III: GIS/ CAD Export
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn how to export data from LGO to a GIS or CAD System
using the DXF format.
To complete this exercise the option GIS/ CAD Export has to be included in your licence.
The GIS/CAD Export requires a DXF-header file. A DXF-header file can be created in your CAD package and
contains all block and attribute definitions, layer definitions, line styles, drawing extents and other settings needed
by your GIS/CAD program in order to convert the DXF file into a drawing file. The DXF header file should be based
on your GIS/CAD template file such that it contains all definitions that you work with. For information on how to
create a DXF-header file please refer to the documentation of your GIS/CAD software package.
To complete this exercise a DXF-header sample file is already copied to your harddisk with the installation of LGO.
Before you start with this Quick Tour make sure that you have already imported the Real Time sample data into
LGO as explained in GPS Tour I - Real Time. Since for GIS/ CAD Export the point coordinates in your project must
be convertible to local grid coordinates, a coordinate system must be attached to the project.
Start this Quick Tour with GPS Tour III - Lesson 1: Creating a Lookup Table.
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GPS Tour III - Lesson 1: Creating a Lookup Table
In this lesson you will learn how to create a Lookup Table.
In the Lookup table you define how to convert the surveyed data to the corresponding symbols in the CAD
package. The thematical codes used in the field have to be matched with the blocks defined in the DXF-header file.
A block can contain the graphical symbol and attributes which define the point. Lines and Areas used in the field
must also be matched with a line style, color and width as defined in the DXF-header file. Every thematical code,
for points, lines and areas, used on the field system can be matched with the required symbol in your GIS/ CAD
package.

Open the Project RT Sample and click the

Display the local grid coordinates via the Coordinate Format toolbar:

Select Export GIS/CAD data
Tools List Bar.
Points tab to display the Points View.
either from the Export main menu or from the Toolbar or from the
The Export GIS/CAD data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Under Save as type select AutoCAD Files (*.dxf; *.dwg).

In the Lookup Table box right-click and select New to create a new Lookup Table. Once a Lookup Table
is created it is available for future use.
The Codelist-Lookup-Table Settings dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab enter a Lookup Table Name, e.g. Sample DXF.

In the AutoCAD Settings page select the DXF-header file for use in the GIS/ CAD Export. Use the
browser
to select the file Sample_Header.dxf. By default the sample template will be installed in
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample data\Export GISCAD.

Click OK to confirm the settings of the new Lookup Table.
Back in the Export File dialog you see that the Lookup button is active now.

To continue click the Lookup button.
The Codelist-Lookup-Table Definition dialog opens:

In the left hand pane the codelist used in the field is represented in an expandable tree-view.

The right hand pane is divided in two parts.
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In the upper part the two Coding types to be matched, i.e. Leica Coding and AutoCAD Coding are
positioned right next to each other. The Leica Code to be matched is selected from the left hand tree-view
and cannot be edited. The corresponding AutoCAD block, line or area, as defined in the DXF-header file
is selected in the right-hand side.
It is possible to match Leica Line and Area codes with AutoCAD line styles, widths and colors.
It is possible to match Leica point codes with AutoCAD blocks. In the lower part of the dialog Leica Code
and AutoCad Block Attributes can be matched.
Please, note that if the Leica Coding and the AutoCAD Coding use identical names, then Code Groups, Codes
and Attributes are automatically matched, like it is the case in this example. To learn how to manually match
Leica Code Groups and Codes to AutoCAD Layers and Blocks look at the working example below. If attributes do
not use identical names, they have to be matched manually in the lower part of the dialog, too.
Working Example (Points):
To manually create the Lookup Table for the Point Codes you would have to proceed as follows. Have a look at the
Working Example first:
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
In the tree-view on the left expand all Code Groups.

In the expanded tree-view select the Code TREE from the Code Group Vegetation. See that in the Leica
Coding field on the right the corresponding coding information is displayed for read-only.

In the AutoCAD Coding field match the Leica Code Group and Code with the AutoCAD Layer and
Block: select Vegetation and TREE from the combo boxes.
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Now, you have managed to successfully match the Leica Code TREE with the AutoCAD Block TREE.

In the same way you can continue to match the remaining Leica Point Codes with the corresponding
AutoCAD blocks.
Working Example (Lines):
To continue creating the Lookup Table for the Line Codes have a look at the Working Example and proceed as
follows:

In the expanded tree-view select the Code FENC from the Code Group Boundary. See that in the Leica
Coding field on the right the corresponding coding information is displayed for read-only.

To match Leica Line and Area codes with the corresponding AutoCAD line and area styles select the
AutoCAD line style, width and color.

Continue to match the remaining Leica Line and Area Codes with the corresponding AutoCAD blocks.
When all Codes are matched click OK to confirm.
Now, you have successfully defined the Lookup Table Sample DXF. To learn how to finally export the DXF file
continue with GPS Tour III - Lesson 2: Exporting the DXF file.
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GPS Tour III - Lesson 2: Exporting the DXF file
In this lesson you will learn how to create a GIS/ CAD file in DXF-format based on the Lookup Table that you have
defined in the previous lesson.
Back in the Export File dialog proceed as follows:

Click the Settings button.
The Export Settings dialog opens.
In the General tab of this dialog:

Change the Coord Class to Main to always export the coordinate triplets of the highest class.

Make sure Coord Type is set to Local and Grid and the Height mode is set to Orthometric.
In the Coordinate System tab:

Make sure the Coordinate System Sample RT 1200 is selected.
In the AutoCAD tab:

Make sure that the Format is set to DXF. DXF is the ASCII format which is supported by most GIS/ CAD
packages.

Leave the Export Settings dialog with OK.
Back in the Export file dialog:

Under Save in browse to the directory where you want the AutoCAD file to be stored.

Enter a File name, e.g. Sample. The extension *.DXF will be added automatically.

Finally, click Save to export the file.
A GIS/ CAD file in DXF format will be created.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed this Quick Tour through LGO.
You can now import the file into your GIS/ CAD package. In AutoCAD it should then look as follows:
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TPS Tutorial
TPS Tour I: Referencing a background image
TPS Tour I: Referencing a background image
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn how to reference a background image within the Map
Referencing component of LGO.
You will learn how to first register a given image, how to identify and match the common points and how to finally
reference the image to the local coordinates.
The referenced image will be used as a background image in the following Quick Tours. You will see how it can be
very useful to be able to identify given and newly measured points in a background image. The TPS data you will
work on in the following Quick Tours is mostly only preliminary data which still has to be oriented before it fits. You
will see that once all data has been updated the measured points fit into the background image perfectly.
Start this Quick Tour with: TPS Tour I - Lesson 1: Registering the background image and identifying the common
points.
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TPS Tour I - Lesson 1: Registering the background image and identifying the
common points
The objectives of this lesson are:

To register the given sample image Leica Areal-map.

To identify the common points within the image
Now, start with opening the Map Referencing component in LGO and registering the sample background image.

Select

Right-click either into the tree-view or into the report view and select Register... from the background
menu.
Image Referencing either from the Tools main menu or from the Management List Bar.
The Register image dialog opens. In this dialog:

Under Look in browse to the directory where the sample image is stored. By default the sample image for
this lesson will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Image\*.*.

Select Leica Areal-map.jpg to be registered.

Click the Register button to register the image in the Map Referencing component.
Back in the Image Referencing component:

Click on the image in the tree-view to open it in the right-hand side view.
To be able to easily identify the common points see the following representation of the background image in which
the location of the common points is marked with red circles.
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Now, you have to zoom in to the area of each of these red circles to better identify the precise location and
determine the image coordinates of the common points.

Right-click into the image and select Zoom In from the context menu.

Zoom in to the area of the first common point M1 until you see roughly the following extents:

Locate M1 in the image as shown above: Double-click onto the indicated point to position M1. A little
cross
indicates the location of a common point.
See that the point has been added with its image coordinates to the report view underneath the image
as Point 1.
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
Zoom back to full extents (Zoom 100%) to locate the second common point M2.

Right-click into the image and select Zoom In from the context menu.

Zoom in to the area of the second common point M2 until you see roughly the following extents:

Locate M2 in the image as shown above: Double-click onto the indicated point to position M2.
See that the point has been added with its image coordinates to the report view underneath the image
as Point 2.

Now zoom in to the area of the third common point M3 until you see roughly the following extents:

Locate M3 in the image as shown above: Double-click onto the indicated point to position M3.
See that the point has been added with its image coordinates to the report view underneath the image
as Point 3.

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Now zoom in to the area of the fourth common point M4 until you see roughly the following extents:
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
Locate M4 in the image as shown above: Double-click onto the indicated point to position M4.
See that the point has been added with its image coordinates to the report view underneath the image
as Point 4.
Now, you have identified all common points with their image coordinates in the sample background image Leica
Areal-map. You have to proceed now with importing the local grid coordinates of the common points into LGO.
Continue with TPS Tour I - Lesson 2: Matching common points and referencing the image.
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TPS Tour I - Lesson 2: Matching common points and referencing the image
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the local grid coordinates of the common points from a GPS RTK job into an LGO project.

To "copy & paste" the local grid coordinates of the common points into the Image Referencing
component.

To reference the background image.
The local grid coordinates have been measured in a GPS RTK job called MAP. The data shall be imported into a
separate LGO project called MAP.

Select
Bar.
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools List
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
lesson will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Map\*.*.

Select the job MAP to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the Settings tab ensure that the Import coord system & components flag is ticked.

In the General tab right-click on Projects in the tree-view and select New... from the context menu to
create a new project to import the job data into.
While the Assign dialog stays open in the background you'll enter the New Project dialog.
In the General page of the New project dialog:
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
Under Location browse to where you want the Project to be stored. By default projects are stored in
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Projects\.

Enter the Project Name, e.g. MAP. A directory of the same name will be added to the path automatically.
The project files will be stored into this directory.

Click OK. The new project will be created and the dialog will be closed. You are returned to the Assign
dialog.
In the Assign dialog the new project is selected automatically.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the new project and the Project window
opens automatically.
The objective is to copy and paste the local grid coordinates of each common point into the Image Referencing
component. To achieve this switch to the

Points view and proceed as follows:
Switch the coordinate representation from WGS84 to Local Grid via the Coordinate Format toolbar
.

Multi-select points M1, M2, M3 and M4.

Click onto the
Copy button in the Standard Toolbar. The local grid coordinate triplets for all four
points will be copied to the clipboard.

Go to the
Image Referencing component again and paste
M2, M3 and M4 into the report view.
the local grid coordinate triplets of M1,
When you have successfully copied the local grid coordinates of all four common points into the Image
Referencing component proceed with matching the image coordinates of each point with its local grid coordinates.

Rename the image points from 1, 2, 3 and 4 to M1, M2, M3 and M4. Now image points and local grid
points have the same Points Ids so that you may Auto match all common points in one go.

In the report view of the Image Referencing component right-click and select Auto match points from
the context menu.
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Alternatively, select a pair of common points (e.g. point 1 and M1) and then select Match point from the
context menu to match a single pair of points.
The points will be matched and the image may be referenced:

Right-click again into the report view of the Image referencing component and select Reference image
from the context menu. A little "R" (
) in the top right corner indicates that the image is referenced.
Congratulations! - You have successfully referenced a background image within LGO.
The image is referenced now to the local grid (utm32) that will also be used in the following Quick Tours and is
ready for use with the TPS Sample project that will be used in the following Quick Tours for importing and updating
the TPS sample data.
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TPS Tour II: Manually updating setups
TPS Tour II: Manually updating setups
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn how to update different setup types.
To complete this excercise the TPS-Processing option has to be included in your licence.
Three individual TPS survey jobs (two Smart Station setups and one Resection) are to be imported into the same
project TPS Sample. Some updates need to be made to the data before it finally fits together.
A background image of the area where the measurements have taken place has been attached to the project. This
gives you the chance to immediately see how the measurements should be located after the setups have been
updated: A street (indicated by Lines) must be "rotated" into place, just as the measured corners of buildings.
In all three jobs a so-called checkpoint (Check-1) has been measured. When in the end the measurements of the
averaged point fit together, all updates have been performed correctly.
Job JOB_1 - Contains a Smart Station setup with a Set Orientation to the initially unknown backsight point BS01. This backsight point has been measured in job JOB_2. The coordinates of the setup point ST_01 are known.
They have been determined using a nearby GPS 1200 reference station. In the field the coordinate system utm32
was used to derive local grid coordinates. During Import the same coordinate system will be attached to the
project in LGO. But the TPS observations made from this setup all have a wrong orientation because of the initially
unknown backsight coordinates. The Azimuth was set to 0.0 gon and the backsight point BS-01 got preliminary
local grid coordinates. As a result the street which was measured in the field (P001...P029) and the building points
(B-001...B003) seem to be located in the "wrong" place. After the setup will have been updated the points will be
shifted and you will see that the street and building corners fit to the background image.
Job JOB_2 – Setup on Known Point with Known Backsight orientation to a point of known coordinates (control
point 1000). Again a Smart Station has been setup on point ST_02. The coordinates of ST_02 have been
determined by the GPS reference System 1200. Again the coordinate system utm32 was used to derive local grid
coordinates. Since the backsight point is known in this job this setup is complete and correctly oriented. The
coordinates of the backsight point BS-01 from JOB_1 are determined from this setup and will be used in LGO to
update the first setup.
Job JOB_3 – Resection setup using two points (R-01 and R-02) measured from JOB_1. When the resection was
measured in the field the coordinates of R-01 and R-02 were still preliminary. This fact has to be accounted for in
LGO once the first setup has been updated with the help of the data coming from JOB_2.
The data sets will be used in the following way:
1.
Importing the job JOB_1. The setup and orientation of the job JOB_1 (and therefore the measured points
from JOB_1) will be updated by the data from job JOB_2.
2.
Importing the job JOB_2 and updating the first setup by the help of the now known backsight point of
JOB_1.
3.
Then job JOB_3 will be imported. The resection is initially wrong since it used “not yet updated”
coordinates from JOB_1. We will update this resection within LGO.
Start this Quick Tour with: TPS Tour II - Lesson 1: Importing the TPS data of JOB_1.
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TPS Tour II - Lesson 1: Importing and inspecting the TPS data of JOB_1
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the first set of TPS data collected in a job called JOB_1.

To create a new project during the import procedure and attach the background image Leica Areal-map
to it.

To inspect the View/Edit view and the TPS-Proc view for what has been imported so far: to see the need
for updating the first setup.
Now, start with importing the System 1200 TPS survey job JOB_1 into the project TPS Sample.

Select
Bar.
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools List
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Job_1\*.*.

Select JOB_1 to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

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In the Settings tab ensure that the Import 'use flag' status for averaged points and the Import coord
system & components flags are ticked.
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
In the General tab right-click on Projects in the tree-view and select New... from the context menu to
create a new project to import the job data into.
While the Assign dialog stays open in the background you'll enter the New Project dialog.
In the General page of the New project dialog:
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
Under Location browse to where you want the Project to be stored. By default projects are stored in
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Projects\.

Enter the Project Name, e.g. TPS Sample. A directory of the same name will be added to the path
automatically. The project files will be stored into this directory.

Go to the Background Image page and select the image Leica Areal-map from the combo box.
The image has been referenced in the previous TPS Tour.

Click OK. The new project will be created and the background image will be attached to it. The New
Project dialog will be closed. You are returned to the Assign dialog.
In the Assign dialog the new project is selected automatically.

In the
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Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the new project and the Project window
opens automatically.
View/Edit tab you will see the following after Import:
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To inspect the TPS data proceed as follows:
1.
Blend the image to better distinguish the observations from the background image:
Right-click into the image and select Blend image from the background menu.
2.
Change the Line Properties of the street representation such that the lines become thicker and stick out
better from the arrows of the TPS observations: Right-click onto the lines belonging to the street and
select Properties... from the context menu. In the Line Properties dialog change the Line Width to 1 1/2
pt.
Now you can clearly see the street that has been measured in the field. It has been measured from the Smart
Station setup ST_01. The GPS Reference System1200 was set up on a roof. ST_01 has thus known coordinates.
But, it seems that the street is placed incorrectly. It should be rotated to the left. The reason for this "incorrectness"
is that the set of TPS observations measured from ST_01 has only a preliminary orientation.

Go to the
TPS-Proc view and invoke the Setup Properties for ST_01.
In the General page you can see that all TPS observations measured from this setup are measured with
the Set Orientation method. In this case the known Azimuth has preliminarily been set to 0.0 gon in the
field, because the coordinates of the backsight point BS-01 were still unknown. They have been derived
in a second job JOB_2.
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In LGO the Azimuth has to be recalculated to receive the correct orientation. For that the correct
coordinates of the backsight BS-01 have to be known. They will be imported from JOB_2 in the next lesson.
Once the Azimuth value to BS-01 is recalculated the road and all other points measured from ST_01 will be rotated
into the "right" place. Among these other points are three building points B-001...B-003, two points (R-01 and R-02)
which will be used for a resection calculation in Lesson 4 and the checkpoint CHECK-1. At the end of this Quick
Tour CHECK-1 will have been imported three times. The objective is to receive mean coordinates for CHECK-1
which fit together.
Continue with TPS Tour II - Lesson 2: Importing the TPS data of JOB_2.
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TPS Tour II - Lesson 2: Importing and inspecting the TPS data of JOB_2
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the second set of TPS data collected in a job called JOB_2.

To make sure that the correct coordinates are used for the backsight point BS-01.
Now, continue with importing the System 1200 TPS survey job JOB_2 into the same project TPS Sample.

Again select
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the
Tools List Bar.
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Job_2\*.*.

Select JOB_2 to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
During the Import procedure you will get the 'Averaging limit exceeded' message for two points. Back in the View/
Edit tab you can immediately identify these points as the backsight point BS-01 measured from ST_01 and the
checkpoint CHECK-1.
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See the Point Properties for both points.

62
First go to the Point Properties: Mean page for CHECK-1. You will see that the Position difference
between the measurements from ST_01 and from ST_02 is more than 60m. This is because the
measurement from ST_01 still has the "wrong" orientation.
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
Now, go to the Point Properties: Mean page for BS-01. Just as with CHECK-1 the measurement from
ST_01 still has a preliminary orientation. Thus, it should be de-activated so that the measurement from
ST_02 is taken.
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Right-click onto the Averaging Status (State) for the measurement form ST_01, select Modify... from the
context menu and then Never. The measurement from ST_01 to BS-01 will not be used any more and you
can be sure that for the Update procedure that we will go through in the next lesson the "right" coordinates
of BS-01 are taken.
Now, continue with TPS Tour II - Lesson 3: Manually update a Set Orientation setup.
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TPS Tour II - Lesson 3: Manually update a "Set Orientation" setup
The objectives of this lesson are:

To recalculate the orientation for the first setup ST_01.

To update the "Set Orientation" setup ST_01 and all related measurements.

To check the average for the checkpoint CHECK-1.
After having successfully imported the first two jobs and after having modified the average for BS-01 you should
see the following in
View/ Edit.
In comparison with the background image you can see that the building corners B-004 and B-005
measured from ST_02 are in the correct places already.
BS-01 is in the correct place, too. But all the other observations measured from ST_01 still have to be
updated.
The Station coordinates of ST_02 have been derived from the GPS 1200 reference and are therefore correct. The
backsight point 1000 has come from a control job and therefore this setup is complete and correctly oriented.
The point which was used as the backsight point from the first setup (BS-01) is measured from ST_02. Therefore,
the orientation of the first setup can be updated now:
TPS-Proc tab access the Setup Properties dialog for ST_01.
1.
In the
2.
Go to the Observations page and ensure that the Backsight Point ID radio button is checked. The point
BS-01 should be chosen as the backsight point.
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Note:
In the Easting/ Northing/ Height list boxes the current local grid coordinates of BS-01 are shown. These
coordinates will be used to update the first setup. But what are the current coordinates of the BS-01?
Remember, that before updating the setup the measurement from ST_01 to BS-01 just has a preliminary
orientation. The measurement from ST_02 to BS-01 delivered correct coordinates. Thus, the
measurement from ST_01 has been de-activated in the previous lesson so that the measurement from
ST_02 is taken for the Update procedure.
3.
Press Recalculate to recalculate the Orientation.
4.
Press OK to update the setup (ST_01) and all related measured points.
Now, leave the TPS-Proc view and go back to the View/Edit view. You'll immediately notice the effects of the
update:
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
The representation of the street has been rotated according to the newly computed orientation. It now
perfectly fits to the street in the background image.

The averaging limit is no longer exceeded for BS-01 and CHECK-1. See the Point Properties: Mean page
for CHECK-1. Both instances of CHECK-1 are used to calculate the average and the result does not
exceed the limit.
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Congratulations! - You have successfully updated the first setup!
Continue with TPS Tour II - Lesson 4: Importing the TPS data of JOB_3.
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TPS Tour II - Lesson 4: Importing the TPS data of JOB_3
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the third set of TPS data collected in a job called JOB_3.

To inspect the averages of three points for which the averaging limit is exceeded after import.

To confirm that the correct coordinates are used for the resection target points R-01 and R-02.
A third job JOB_3 has been measured in the field which shall now be imported into the same LGO project TPS
Sample. The job has been measured in the same area and the data should fit to the data coming from the first two
jobs in the end.

Again select
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the
Tools List Bar.
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Job_3\*.*.

Select JOB_3 to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
During the Import procedure you will get the 'Averaging limit exceeded' message for three points. Back in the View/
Edit tab you can immediately identify these points as the resection target points R-01 and R-02 measured from
ST_03 and the checkpoint CHECK-1.
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See the Point Properties for all three points.

First go to the Point Properties: Mean page for CHECK-1. After the first setup ST_01 has been updated in
LGO the first two measurements (from ST_01 and from ST_02) fit together. But the measurement coming
from ST_03 exceeds the averaging limit. Again the Position difference is more than 60m.
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The reason for this is that the resection target points R-01 and R-02 that were used for the setup
computation in the field still had the "wrong" coordinates coming from the preliminarily oriented ST_01. As
a consequence the resection setup ST_03 is also "wrong" with respect to position and orientation and all
points that were measured from ST_03 -among them CHECK-1- also received "wrong" coordinates.
From all three setups CHECK-1 was measured as a Survey Observation with the averaging flag (State) of
Automatic. The aim is that after updating ST_03 none of the three measurements of CHECK-1 exceeds the
averaging limit any more.
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Now, go to the Point Properties: Mean pages for R-01 and R-02. R-01 and R-02 served as the two known
resection target points in the field. The coordinates of these "known" points came from the setup ST_01
which had not yet been updated in the field. R-01 and R-02 still had "wrong" coordinates at the time when
they were used for the resection. Thus the resection setup is also "wrong", i.e. wrongly oriented when it is
imported into LGO.
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In the field all measurements fitted together, but after ST-01 has already been updated in LGO (in the
previous lesson) the coordinates of R-01 and R-02 coming from JOB_3 differ significantly from the already
updated coordinates. After having successfully updated ST_03, too, the averaging limit will no longer be
exceeded for R-01 and R-02 and all points triplets will correctly fit together again.
Now, please note that the coordinates coming from JOB_3 have the averaging flag of Never. This is due to
the fact that points that have been used in the field as Resection target points always receive the
averaging flag of Never. As a consequence the measurements from ST_03 to R-01 and R-02 will not be
used. For both the already "correctly" oriented (updated) measured triplets coming from ST-01 as Survey
Observations will be used and you can be sure that for the Update procedure that we will go through in
the next lesson the "right" coordinates of R-01 and R-02 are taken. Survey observations typically get the
averaging flag of Automatic.
Now, continue with TPS Tour II - Lesson 5: Manually update a Resection setup.
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TPS Tour II - Lesson 5: Manually update a "Resection" setup
The objectives of this lesson are:

To recalculate the coordinates and the orientation for the third setup ST_03.

To update the "Resection" setup ST_03 and all related measurements.

To check the average for the checkpoint CHECK-1.
After having successfully imported the job JOB_3 you should see the following in
View/ Edit.
The coordinates of the resection target points R-01 and R-02 are "known".
In the field they were taken from the Fixpoint Job JOB_1. Internally both points were copied as Control points into
JOB_3 and were then used for the resection as Setup Observations. When importing JOB_3 into LGO these
Control triplets are taken as the current coordinates since the Control triplets have the highest point class for R-01
and R-02.
But we do not want these Control triplets to be further used in LGO since they correspond to the coordinates
measured from the not yet updated Smart Station setup ST_01 in the field. We want the updated coordinates
coming from ST_01 to be taken.
Thus, the Control triplets have to be deleted to make the Measured triplets become the current coordinates. The
Measured triplets for R-01 and R-02 correspond to the coordinates coming from the already updated setup ST_01.
We have already seen in the Point Properties: Mean pages for R-01 and R-02 that the preliminary coordinates
coming from ST_03 will certainly not be used (they have the averaging flag of Never). After deleting the Control
triplets the resection target points will appear at the "correct" position in View/ Edit.
What is still left to be done after that is to re-calculate the orientation of ST_03 with respect to the updated
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coordinates of R-01 and R-02. After the setup has been updated all related points will be updated, too. The third
measurement of checkpoint CHECK-1 should then fit together with the first two instances.
1.
Delete the Control triplets for R-01 and R-02. For each of the two points right-click on the point and select
Delete - Triplets - Control from the context menu.
2.
TPS-Proc tab. Invoke the Setup Properties for ST_03
Update the resection. To do so access the
and go to the Observations page. The coordinates displayed for the resection target points R-01 and R-02
are now correct.
3.
Press Recalculate to re-compute the orientation
4.
Press OK to update the setup ST_03 and all related measured points.
Access the
View/ Edit tab again and see that everything fits now.
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
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First go to the Point Properties: Mean page for CHECK-1. See that all three measurements fit into the
averaging limit now. This is our main proof that all the data has been updated correctly.
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
The averaging limit exceeded for R-01 and R02 has also disappeared. After updating the setup the
measurements from ST_03 fit together with the measurements from the already updated ST_01.

Further note that in comparison with the background image the Station ST_03 has moved down from the
roof to a reasonable point in the field.

The street points P030...P034 are in line now with the already existing street points.

The points B006...B008 complete the buildings of which the other corners have already been measured in
JOB_1 and JOB_2.
Congratulations! - You have successfully completed Quick Tour II.
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TPS Tour III: Automatically updating setups
TPS Tour III: Automatically updating setups
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you follow three objectives:
1.
How to automatically update several "Set Orientation" setups in one go.
2.
How to exchange a preliminary coordinate system used on a Smart Station with the final coordinate
system.
3.
How to correct the target height for several target points.
To complete this excercise the TPS-Processing option has to be included in your licence.
One TPS Survey job (containing three Smart Station setups) and one GPS survey job are to be imported into the
project TPS Sample. The jobs have been measured in the same area as the jobs in Quick Tour II, but with a
different coordinate system. In this Quick Tour first a preliminary coordinate system is used which has to be
exchanged in the end with the utm32 coordinate system that has been used in Quick Tour II. You will see then
how the survey points "move" into the area of the attached background image and how the representation of the
measured parking lot and trees fit to the image after a successful update procedure.
In this Quick Tour imagine the following scenario:
Job JOB_4 - A parking lot and some trees have been measured from three different Smart Station Setups. Since a
Smart Station was used on all three setup points (ST_04, ST_05 and ST_06) the coordinates of these points are
known. Again the station System1200 on the roof served as the GPS reference. A preliminary coordinate system
(called CAR_PARK_OS) was used to derive local grid coordinates. But the point which was intended to be used as
the Known Backsight was, unfortunately, blocked by a truck. Thus, the survey crew had to orientate the TPS
instrument to a preliminary backsight point (called C_B_1). The orientation to C_B_1 was preliminarily set to 0.0
gon which implied that the backsight point did not have "known" coordinates then.
Job JOB_5 - The survey of the parking lot was completed with GPS and the TPS backsight point C_B_1 received
known coordinates from GPS. The same preliminary coordinate system (CAR_PARK_OS) is used to convert the
WGS84 coordinates coming from GPS to local grid.
In LGO it is easy now to put the puzzle together. With an automated update procedure all three TPS setups will
receive the correct orientation in one go. The elements will be rotated thus that the representation of the parking lot
fits together with the attached background image.
The data sets will be used in the following way:
1.
Importing the job JOB_4. The setups that have been measured in JOB_4 and the orientation of all related
measured points will be automatically updated by the data from JOB_5.
2.
Importing the job JOB_5 and automatically update the setups from JOB_4 by the help of the now known
backsight point C_B_1.
3.
Exchanging the preliminary coordinate system with the final utm32 coordinate system.
4.
Correcting the target height for the backsight observation (the Setup Observation) measured from ST_05.
By mistake a wrong target height was entered on this setup in the field.
Correcting the target height for all Survey Observations measured from ST_04.
Start this Quick Tour with: TPS Tour III - Lesson 1: Importing the TPS data of JOB_4.
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TPS Tour III - Lesson 1: Importing the TPS data of JOB_4
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the fourth set of TPS data collected in a job called JOB_4.

To reflect upon the use of coordinate systems within an LGO project.
A fourth job JOB_4 has been measured in the field which shall now be imported into the same LGO project TPS
Sample. The job has been measured in the same area and the data should fit to the data coming from the first
three jobs in the end.

Again select
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the
Tools List Bar.
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Job_4\*.*.

Select JOB_4 to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
Don't be upset now! - Directly after import you may be surprised. The background image seems to have
disappeared and two clusters of points are visible in the
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View/Edit component. So, what has happened?
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Remember, that in JOB_4 a preliminary coordinate system was used to derive local grid coordinates on the Smart
Station in the field. This coordinate system differs significantly from the utm32 coordinate system that has been
used with the first three jobs.
When importing JOB_4 into the same project TPS Sample the coordinate system that has been attached to the
project before (the utm32 coordinate system) is replaced with the preliminary coordinate system used in JOB_4.
As a result all the points which are stored in the WGS 84 coordinate system (among them the GPS reference
Station System1200) are converted to the preliminary coordinate system now. This means that in View/ Edit the
GPS reference System1200 "moves" to the second cluster of points coming from JOB_4.

Now, first zoom in to the "upper" cluster of points coming from the first three jobs. See that the
background image is still there. But the GPS reference System1200 has "disappeared" from the roof.

Now, zoom in to the "lower" cluster of points coming from JOB_4. Here you will find the GPS reference
System1200 again, fitting to the data from JOB_4. We will keep the view zoomed into the second cluster
of points during the following lessons.
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Continue with TPS Tour III - Lesson 2: Automatically update Set Orientation setups.
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TPS Tour III - Lesson 2: Automatically update "Set Orientation" setups
The objectives of this lesson are:

To prepare and check the settings for an automatic update.

To import the fifth set of data collected in a job called JOB_5. This time the data comes from GPS
measurements.

To reflect upon the use of coordinate systems within an LGO project.

To automatically update the orientations of the "Set Orientation" setups and all related measurements in
JOB_4.
After having successfully imported the job JOB_4 and zoomed the view into the "lower" cluster of points you
should see the following in
View/ Edit.
Note: If you prefer to change the color and shading of the black areas, please, refer to the GPS Tour I Lesson 2: View and Edit the Real Time data. For further information, please, also see the chapter Lines
and Areas.
The areas in this Quick Tour have been measured without a code in the field. Therefore, you can directly
edit the Line/ Area properties. But you have to edit them for each of the black areas separately.
What has been measured in the field is the following parking lot area:
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The parking lot has been measured from two different setups (from ST_04 and ST_05). Additionally some trees
have been measured from ST_06.
What we have to achieve now is "rotating" the three setups such that they fit together as in the given aerial
photograph.
To prepare the automatic update of the setups of JOB_4:
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TPS-Proc tab. The setups ST_04, ST_05 and ST_06 shall be updated and newly oriented.
1.
Access the
2.
Open the Setup Properties dialog for ST_04 and go to the Observations page.
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3.
Ensure that the Azimuth radio button is checked. See that the Azimuth value is 0.0 gon, which is what it
was set to in the field.
4.
Check the Allow automatic update flag. This is needed when you want to use the automatic update
functionality.
Note: This flag could also have been set in the field. If this flag is set in the field it comes in to LGO
automatically during Import. It need not be set manually then for each setup.
5.
Leave the dialog with OK.
6.
Now repeat steps 2. to 5. for ST_05 and ST_06.
Note: You can change the Allow automatic update flag for all three setups simultaneously using the
context menu of the Setups report view.
After that select the GPS job JOB_5 to be imported into the same project TPS Sample. JOB_5 completes the
measurements in the parking lot area. The data of all five jobs should fit together in the end.

Again select
List Bar.
Import Rawdata either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Job_5\*.*.

Select JOB_5 to be imported.

Click the Import button.
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The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
During the Import procedure you will get the 'Averaging limit exceeded' message for one point. Back in the View/
Edit tab you can immediately identify this point as the backsight point C_B_1 which was measured from all three
Smart Station Setups (ST_04, ST_05 and ST_06) and additionally with GPS.
Note that the GPS measurements are displayed in the same area as the TPS measurements coming from
JOB_4. This is because the WGS84 coordinates are converted with the coordinate system
CAR_PARK_OS that was used with JOB_4 and is now attached to the project.
See the Point Properties for C_B_1.

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In the Point Properties: Mean page you will see that all three coordinate triplets coming from the TPS
backsight observations to this point have got the averaging flag (State) of Never. This is absolutely
correct because the "Set Orientation" method by which these coordinates have been determined just
delivered preliminary coordinates which differ by several meters from each other.
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In contrast, the GPS coordinates are "final". With the help of the preliminary coordinate system they are
converted to local grid. In the Mean page you can see that the GPS triplet is the only active one which will
be further used as the current coordinates for C_B_1. This implies that the GPS coordinates will be the
ones used for the automatic update procedure.
Remember: Setups are not automatically updated on import even if they have the Allow automatic update flag
set in their properties! This means that ST_04, ST_05 and ST_06 will not be updated automatically on importing
JOB_5.
After having successfully imported JOB_5:

Choose Update Setups from the TPS-Proc main menu or from the TPS-Proc background menu.
All TPS setups are inspected now for the Allow automatic update flag. If the Allow automatic
update flag is set, then the backsight is updated with the current coordinates of the backsight point.
All three setups (ST_04, ST_05 and ST_06) are now automatically updated. Additionally, all points measured from
these setups are also updated.
For visualization of the update access the
View/ Edit tab again and see that the orientations of all three setups
have been updated. The measurements now fit together and the parking lot area now seems to correspond to the
area in the aerial photograph.
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So what remains to be achieved now is "shifting" the data into the area of the first three jobs. Continue with TPS
Tour III - Lesson 3: Exchanging coordinate systems.
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TPS Tour III - Lesson 3: Exchanging coordinate systems
The objectives of this lesson are:

To understand the effects of using different coordinate systems with LGO projects.

To understand the differences between TPS and GPS data.

To exchange the coordinate system for a subset of TPS data.

To inspect and understand the effects.
After having successfully updated all setups coming from JOB_4 the data of the parking lot area fits together, i.e.
all TPS data fits together and all TPS measurements fit to the GPS measurements, but altogether the data coming
from JOB_4 and JOB_5 is still located in a totally different area than the data coming from the first three jobs,
although all five jobs have been measured in the same area and the data should be located in the same area!
Remember: Still the just preliminary coordinate system CAR_PARK_OS is attached to the project TPS Sample.
The TPS data is stored as local grid coordinates in this preliminary coordinate system. The GPS coordinates are
converted from WGS84 to local grid by this preliminary coordinate system. The TPS data coming from the first
three jobs is stored as local grid coordinates in the utm32 coordinate system, though.
Thus, what we have to achieve is that all TPS data is stored in the same coordinate system.
Now, you might think that the problem can be solved by attaching the utm32 coordinate system again to the project.
But remember that in contrast to the GPS measurements the TPS measurements are not stored as WGS84
coordinates. Attaching the utm32 coordinate system instead of the CAR_PARK_OS coordinate system to the
project would successfully "move up" the GPS measurements from JOB_5 to the cluster of points coming from the
first three jobs, because the WGS84 coordinates of the GPS measurements are then converted to UTM
coordinates instead of preliminary local grid coordinates. But the TPS measurements cannot be converted. They
are stored as local grid and would stay where they are!
Thus, we have to make use of the Exchange coordinate system functionality offered by LGO. With this functionality
you may exchange the coordinate system for a subset of points that are stored as local grid coordinates.
1.
Go to the
Points view and select ST_04, ST_05 and ST_06.
Alternatively, stay in
around them.
View/ Edit and select all points in the lower cluster by drawing a rectangle
2.
From the context menu or the view's main menu select Exchange coordinate system....
3.
In the Start page of the Exchange Coordinate System wizard the three TPS setups are listed together
with all related points that have been measured from these setups.
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4.
Click Next.
5.
In the Coordinate System selection page of the wizard see that the preliminary coordinate system
CAR_PARK_OS is already selected as the "old" coordinate system.
6.
Select the utm32 coordinate system as the "new" coordinate system.
7.
Make sure that the checkbox
. Attach new coordinate system to project is ticked.
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By this you achieve that the utm32 coordinate system that has been used with the data coming from the
first three jobs is attached to the project TPS Sample again. The GPS data coming from JOB_5 will be
converted to this "new" coordinate system.
8.
Click Next to finish the wizard. All selected points are listed again with their new UTM coordinates.
9.
Click Finish to effectively exchange the coordinate system.
Now return to
View/ Edit to see what you have achieved.
The parking lot area has been "moved up" into the area of the background image. You can see immediately that
the data fits. Obviously, all updates on the data of JOB_4 have been performed correctly.
The GPS measurements coming from JOB_5 have been converted to the utm32 coordinate system. In comparison
to the background image you can see the areas that these measurements enclose.
Continue with TPS Tour III - Lesson 4: Correcting target heights.
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TPS Tour III - Lesson 4: Correcting target heights
The objectives of this lesson are:

To correct the target height for the setup observation (the backsight) on ST_05.

To correct the target heights for all survey observations on ST_04.
You are certainly surprised that after all measurements should now fit there remains one limit exceeded indicator in
View/ Edit on C_B_1.
Have a look into the Point Properties: Mean page for C_B_1:

See that for the position of C_B_1 there is no limit exceeded, but for its height. Obviously, on ST_05 a
wrong target height was entered on the instrument when measuring the backsight to C_B_1.
Another mistake has cropped in on ST_04. It is not as obvious as the mistake on ST_05. All survey observations
made from ST_04 got wrong heights when a wrong target height was entered on the instrument in the field. In
position all observation are o.k..
We will see that LGO offers a neat solution to correct all survey observations in one go!
Now, start with correcting the backsight observation on ST_05:

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Go to the
tree view.
TPS-Proc view and open the
Setup Observations node for the
Setup ST_05 in the
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
Right-click on the Setup Observation C_B_1 in the tree view and select Properties... from the context
menu.

In the Observations dialog go to the Target Hgt. edit field and change the target height from 1.85m to
1.75m.

Leave the dialog with OK. The target height for the TPS observation to C_B_1 will be changed. The target
coordinates will be changed accordingly. Confirm the Warning message with Yes.

Return to
View/ Edit and see that the averaging limit exceeded indicator on C_B_1 has disappeared.
Continue with correcting the target height for all survey observations made on ST_04:
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
Right-click in the background of the
View/ Edit graphical view and select View Observations... from
the background context menu or from the View/ Edit main menu.

In the Observations View go to the From tree view and select the setup ST_04. On the right-hand side
select the TPS report view to be displayed.
You will get an overview then on all Setup and Survey observations that have been made on ST_04. The
Setup observation (i.e. the backsight to C_B_1) is o.k. on ST_04. But all Survey observations got the
wrong target height.

In the TPS report view select all Survey observations. Right-click into the selection and select Edit Target
Height... from the context menu.

In the Edit Target Height dialog change the target height from 1.85m to 2.15m.

Leave the dialog with OK. The target heights for all selected survey observations will be changed at once.
The target coordinates will be changed accordingly. Confirm the Warning message with Yes.
Congratulations! - You have successfully completed Quick Tour III.
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TPS Tour IV: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse data
TPS Tour IV: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse data
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn how to shift, rotate and scale a set of points so that it
fits to the other sets of points in the project TPS Sample.
The set of points that shall be transformed (shifted, rotated and scaled) is a traverse. The coordinates of the start
point of the traverse come from a Smart Station setup. The setup method used on the Start point has been Set
Orientation, with the azimuth being set to 0.0gon. The same backsight point has also been measured with GPS
System 1200.
The end point of the traverse is a known control point. Thus, both points (the first backsight determining the
orientation of the traverse and the end point) have "correct" coordinates as well as preliminary coordinates coming
from the still "wrongly" oriented traverse.
The objective of this exercise is to transform the traverse such that it fits to the final known coordinates. The aim
will be achieved via the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale functionality in LGO.
Note: The same data can also be processed by defining a Traverse and calculating the traverse using the 2D
Helmert Adjustment Method after Control triplets have been added for the known points. This would typically be
the preferred procedure, however, in this Quick Tour we will still use the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale functionality.
Start this Quick Tour with importing the traverse data as SmartWorx raw data: TPS Tour IV - Lesson 1: Importing
Traverse data.
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TPS Tour IV - Lesson 1: Importing Traverse data
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import another TPS survey job (JOB_6) containing the traverse data into the LGO project TPS Sample.

To reflect upon the existing coordinate triplets for the first backsight point of the traverse C_B_1: which
triplets exist and which are the current coordinates of C_B_1?
A sixth job JOB_6 has been measured in the field which shall now be imported into the same LGO project TPS
Sample. The job has been measured in the same area and the data should fit to the data coming from the first five
jobs in the end.

Select
Bar.
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools List
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data will be
installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample data\Import\TPS\Job_6\*.*.

Select the job JOB_6 to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
During the Import procedure you will get the 'Averaging limit exceeded' message for one point. Back in the
View/ Edit tab you can immediately identify this point as the first backsight point of the traverse C_B_1 measured
from ST_04, ST_05, ST_06, from the GPS reference System 1200 and from the first setup in the traverse ST_07.
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Remember that the measurements from ST_04...ST_06 have already been updated in the previous Quick Tour
and fit to the GPS measurement of C_B_1. The averaging flag of the measurements from ST_04...ST_06 is still
Never, which is perfectly fine.
See the Point Properties: Mean page for C_B_1 again:
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
The averaging flag of the TPS backsight observation coming from ST_07 is also Never, which is
absolutely correct because the "Set Orientation" method by which these coordinates have been
determined just delivered preliminary coordinates. The measurement has been marked as the outlier (
causing the 'limit exceeded' message.
)
In contrast, the GPS coordinates are "final". In the Mean page you can see that the GPS triplet is still the
only active one which will be further used as the current coordinates for C_B_1.
Please, keep in mind that this implies that the GPS coordinates will be the coordinates which the first TPS
backsight of the traverse shall be transformed to in the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale procedure.
Note: In View/ Edit it seems that the observation from ST_07 to C_B_1 is already correctly oriented. But
this is only due to the fact that the view displays C_B_1 in the location of the current coordinates and not
in the location of the only preliminarily oriented observation coming from ST_07!
Continue with TPS Tour IV - Lesson 2: Importing control points from ASCII.
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TPS Tour IV - Lesson 2: Importing control points from ASCII
The objective of this lesson is:

To import the "correct" coordinates of the foresight to the known point 5000 from an ASCII file.
Note: This ASCII file also includes control points which will be needed in TPS Tour V: Processing a
Traverse.
Now, continue with importing the "correct" coordinates for point 5000 (5000 CTRL). Just like the first backsight to
C_B_1, the foresight to the point 5000 is just preliminarily oriented. It has inherited the "wrong" orientation from the
first backsight to C_B_1.
The known coordinates of 5000 CTRL are stored in an ASCII file and will be imported into LGO via the Import
ASCII functionality for text files.

Select
Import ASCII data either from the Import main menu or from the Tools List Bar.
The Import ASCII data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select Text files under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data will be
installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample data\Import\TPS\*.*.

Select the file fixpoints.txt to be imported.

Make sure that Template: None, Coordinate system: Local and Height mode: Orthometric is selected.

Click the Import button.
You will be guided through the ASCII Import wizard, which allows you to define the file format. In this exercise the
file to be imported is a simple ASCII file containing the local grid coordinates of only one point separated by tabs.

In Step 1/4 select Free format and Next to continue.

In Step 2/4 select Tab as the column separator and Next to continue.

In Step 3/4 make sure the Coordinate Type is set to Grid. Then right-click on the first column and select
Point Id. In the same way assign Coordinates Easting, Coordinates Northing and Orth. Height to the
following columns. Press Next.

In Step 4/4 you can save the import mask as a template for the next time you import an ASCII file. Press
Finish to proceed to the Assign dialog.

Assign the data to the same project TPS Sample and leave the dialog with Close. The data will be
assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are returned to the Project window automatically.
The local control point 5000 CTRL is now stored in the project. It corresponds to the point 5000, although it is
located in a completely different place in
View/ Edit. Point 5000 still has preliminary coordinates and shall be
transformed to the known coordinates of point 5000 CTRL.
Continue with TPS Tour IV - Lesson 3: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse Data.
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TPS Tour IV - Lesson 3: Shifting, Rotating and Scaling Traverse Data
The objective of this lesson is:

To transform (Shift, Rotate and Scale) the traverse such that it fits to the given GPS coordinates of C_B_1
and to the known coordinates of 5000 CTRL.
After having successfully imported JOB_6 and the known coordinates of point 5000 (5000 CTRL) into LGO you
should see the following in
View/ Edit.
Imagine the following scenario:
The survey crew that measured the traverse did not know the coordinates of C_B_1 in the field. The coordinates of
C_B_1 have been measured in a GPS job (JOB_5) by a different crew. Thus, they measured the first backsight to
the yet unkown point C_B_1 with a preliminary orientation of 0.0gon using the Set Orientation method on the first
setup (ST_07). As a consequence the whole traverse is "wrongly" oriented.
The setup point ST_07 got its coordinates from a Smart Station setup. Thus, the coordinates of ST_07 are known
and final.
In LGO it has to be achieved now that the traverse be "rotated" (transformed) according to the "right" orientation.
On the last setup in the traverse an observation has been made to point 5000. Like with all observations in the
traverse the orientation to point 5000 is just preliminary and the foresight to point 5000 delivered just preliminary
coordinates. The known coordinates of point 5000 (5000 CTRL) have been imported from an ASCII file.
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The traverse shall be transformed now via the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard in LGO. With the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale
functionality you may transform a set of Grid coordinates into new coordinates using a Classical 2D Helmert
transformation for the position and a shift for the height component.
C_B_1 and point 5000/ 5000 CTRL serve as the common points for the 2D Helmert transformation. By matching
the preliminary grid coordinates of C_B_1 coming from ST_07 with the GPS coordinates of C_B_1 and the
preliminary grid coordinates of 5000 with 5000 CTRL the transformation parameters will be determined and finally
used to transform, i.e. correctly orientate, the entire traverse in one go.
Points view and select ST_07...ST_12 from the list of points.
1.
Go to the
2.
Right-click into the selection and select Shift/ Rotate/ Scale... from the context menu.
Alternatively, select Shift/ Rotate/ Scale... from the Points main menu.
3.
In the Start page of the wizard all point triplets that will be moved are listed.
Remember the selection mechanisms:
- If you have selected a Reference point triplet, then all connected measured point triplets will
automatically be included in the list. Thus, you will automatically find all measured triplets coming from
ST_07...ST_12 in the list, including the measurements to point 5000.
According to the selection mechanisms you can be sure that all points belonging to the traverse (and
none not belonging to the traverse!) will be transformed when you select the setups ST_07...ST_12 for
the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale procedure!
4.
Select Calculate using Common Points and click Next to proceed to the Common Points page.
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5.
In the Common Points page match the Measured triplets of the common points: C_B_1 with C_B_1 (GPS
point triplet) and 5000 (Averaged) with 5000 CTRL.
Select the points to be transformed from the top left hand-side view and the control points from the top
right hand-side view. Note that the left hand-side view offers only those local grid points for selection
which have also been indicated to you in the Start page plus the Averaged triplets, whereas the right
hand-side view offers all point triplets which are either stored as local grid or can be converted to local
grid in the selected project. Thus it contains apart from the traverse points also the GPS point C_B_1 and
the control point 5000 CTRL.
To ensure you pick the GPS point triplet for point C_B_1 switch on the column for the point subclass in
the right-hand view: Click on the column heading and select View and then Point Subclass from the
context menu. The Measured point triplet with subclass Phase can then be identified as the GPS derived
coordinates.
Note: You need not select a different project for your control points since they are contained in the same
project as the points to be transformed.
In the bottom report view the matched points are listed together with the residuals of the transformation.
Note: With only two common points the residuals of the position transformation are zero. You can
nevertheless check the transformation by having a look at the scale factor in the next wizard page (in the
Transformation Parameters page). It has to be very close to 1.0 since the transformation is basically just
a rotation!
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6.
Click Next to proceed to the Transformation parameters page.
7.
In the Transformation parameters page you are given an overview on the calculated transformation
parameters.
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Note that the transformation can be stored as any other 2D Helmert transformation if required.
8.
Click Next to proceed to the Finish Transformation page.
9.
In the Finish Transformation page all points to be moved are listed, i.e. all traverse points. All existing
triplets are listed together with the transformed coordinates. On pressing Finish the existing local grid
coordinates will be replaced with the transformed coordinates.
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10. Press Finish to apply the transformation to the traverse points.
Since all raw observations remain unchanged, the orientation of all TPS setups included in the selection will be
updated after finishing the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard.
In the
View/ Edit tab the transformation is visualized: See how the traverse and the connected survey
observations now fit together with the background image.
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Congratulations! - You have successfully completed Quick Tour IV.
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TPS Tour V: Processing a Traverse
TPS Tour V: Processing a Traverse
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn how to create a Traverse from a series of TPS 1200
Setups and how to recalculate the Traverse.
To complete this excercise the TPS-Processing option has to be included in your licence.
A job called Traverse will be imported into the project TPS Sample. The job consists of a series of TPS 1200
setups of which the first one is a 'Set Azimuth' setup and the rest are 'Known Backsight' setups. The measured
field data does not contain the information that a traverse has been measured. Just single Setups are recognized
in LGO.
Thus the tasks which have to be achieved in this Quick Tour are:

To first create the traverse in LGO and

To re-calculate the traverse and to store the results so that all station coordinates and all orientations are
updated.

To update additional setups which have been measured on sideshots of the traverse.
The traverse has been measured in the same area as the data used in the preceding Quick Tours. In comparison
with the attached background image you will see that the traverse fits after it has been re-calculated.
Start this Quick Tour with: TPS Tour V - Lesson 1: Importing the data and creating the Traverse.
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TPS Tour V - Lesson 1: Importing the data and creating the Traverse
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the data collected in a job called Traverse.

To create the traverse in LGO from the setups contained in the job Traverse.

To inspect the View/Edit view and the TPS-Proc view for what has been achieved so far.
Now, start with importing the System 1200 TPS survey job Traverse into the project TPS Sample.

Select
Bar.
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools List
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorxraw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\Traverse\*.*.

Select the job Traverse to be imported.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
Note:

The Control points (i.e. the first backsight point in the traverse (1004), the last setup point in the traverse
(1015), the last foresight in the traverse (1016) and the checkpoint 1012) needed for re-calculating the
traverse in the next lesson have already been imported in TPS Tour IV - Lesson 2: Importing control
points from ASCII.
If you zoom into the data details in
View/ Edit directly after Import you will see that the traverse does not yet
fit. It seems that street details and a building (P548...P551) that have been measured as sideshots have to be
rotated to the left to fit to the background image.
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In the
TPS-Proc view click onto the
Setups node and you will see that the reason for this is that the first
setup in the traverse 1003 has been measured as a Set Orientation Setup with the Azimuth being preliminarily set
to 0.0gon. The following setups (1005, 1006, 1007, 1009, 1011, 1015) have been measured as 'Known Backsight'
Setups with the effect that the whole traverse is geometrically correct and fits in itself but not into its surroundings
because the initial orientation is still 'wrong'.
The traverse has to be re-calculated in LGO to finally fit. To be able to do so it has to be created first.
To create a new traverse in LGO:

In the
TPS-Proc tree-view right-click onto the
the context menu.
Traverses node and select New Traverse... from
In the New Traverse dialog:
1.
Enter a Traverse Id, e.g. Traverse.
2.
From the right-hand report view select the first setup in the traverse. i.e. point 1003. Press the
button to add the setup to the traverse which will subsequently be build up in the left-hand view.
The right-hand view changes: from now on only those setup points which have a Setup Observation
back to the previous traverse point will be offered to you for selection. Point 1005 is the only point which
has a Setup Observation back to point 1003. Thus it must be the next setup in the traverse. It is
automatically selected.
3.
Press the
button to add setup 1005 to the traverse.
4.
Press the
button two more times to first add setup 1006 and then setup 1007 to the traverse.
After point 1007 has been selected two setup points (1008 and 1009) are recognized. 1008 was actually
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a sideshot which turned into a setup when the instrument was set up on 1008 to measure further
sideshots.
The next setup in the traverse is point 1009.
5.
button to add setup 1009 to the traverse.
Select point 1009 in the right-hand view and press the
On 1009 again two setup points (1010 and 1011) are recognized but only one of them is the next setup in
the traverse.
6.
Select point 1011 in the right-hand view and press the
7.
Press the
button to add setup 1011 to the traverse.
button to add the setup 1015 to the traverse.
Only one observation (to the Control point 1016) has been made on 1015 to finish the traverse. Thus
1016 is selected automatically as the final foresight point.
8.
Press OK to create the traverse. It will be added to the
Traverses node in the TPS-Proc tree-view.
Now, open the
Traverses node and click on the newly created
Traverse. On the right-hand side of the
TPS-proc view the Traverse View opens with a booking sheet in the upper part and a graphical representation of
the traverse in the lower part.
In the graphical view you can clearly see the first and the last setup points in the traverse (1003 and 1015) as well
as the first backsight and the last foresight point (1004 and 1016). All four points have Control triplets which are
needed for re-calculating the traverse.
Continue with TPS Tour V - Lesson 2: Processing the Traverse.
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TPS Tour V - Lesson 2: Processing the Traverse
The objectives of this lesson are:

To re-calculate the traverse.

To inspect the result and understand the need for updating two References and two Setups.

To update the References 1008 and 1010.

To change the Allow automatic update flag for 1008 and 1010.

To update the Setups 1008 and 1010.
After having successfully created the traverse it has to be re-calculated so that the setups contained in the traverse
get their final coordinates and orientations.
To re-calculate the traverse:

In the
TPS-Proc tree-view right-click onto the
context menu.
Traverse folder and select Properties... from the
In the Traverse Properties dialog:
1.
In the General page press the Recalculate button. For all setups in the traverse the final orientation and
final coordinates are calculated.
The angular misclosure and the coordinate misclosures are listed to indicate how well the traverse fits to
the Control coordinates.
2.
Go to the Stations page.
Here the newly computed Reference coordinates for all setups included in the traverse are listed together
with their final orientations.
3.
Go to the Check Points page.
Here the newly computed Measured coordinates of the check point 1012 are listed together with the
resulting differences to the given Control coordinates. The smaller these differences are the better the
traverse fits.
4.
Leave the dialog with OK to accept the computation results.
5.
The TPS Processing Guide dialog opens. This dialog allows to automatically update the setups on two
stations (1008 and 1010) for which new coordinates become available. While it is normally recommended
(and a lot easier) to accept this update, we will perform the necessary updates manually. Therefore press
Cancel.
Note:

The Traverse-processing Parameters may be changed before re-calculating the traverse. For this
exercise the Default values are taken.
After having successfully re-calculated the traverse open the Traverse View to inspect the results. In the graphical
view you can immediately see the effects of the re-computation.
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Now, inspect the effects of the re-calculation in
View/ Edit.
You will see that the measured street details perfectly fit to the background image now. When the traverse was recalculated all sideshots that have been taken on the setups 1003 and 1006 were updated, too. In the end not only
the traverse points fit but also all sideshots.
On two of these sideshots (on 1008 and 1010) setups have been measured independently of the traverse. These
setups served for measuring the building points P548...P551. If you have a closer look you will see that the building
points still do not fit.
The reason is that setups which have been measured on sideshot points of the traverse are not automatically
updated when the traverse is re-calculated. Such Reference triplets have to be updated manually:
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1.
Select Point 1008 and Point 1010 and select Update Reference triplets... from the background context
menu.
2.
In the Update Reference triplets dialog the Measured triplets have to be selected. The Measured triplets
have been re-calculated with the traverse as sideshots and their coordinates are correct.
Since no other triplets exist for point 1008 and 1010 the Measured triplets will be selected automatically.
On pressing OK the existing Reference coordinates will be replaced with the Measured coordinates, i.e.
the new Reference coordinates will be the same as the Measured coordinates.
3.
Leave the dialog with OK.
Now we have updated the Reference coordinates of the Setups 1008 and 1010 but not so far their orientation. Just
like the coordinates of these setups have not been updated with recalculating the traverse their orientations haven't
been updated either. To achieve this we have to update the Setups:
TPS-Proc view and open the Setups report view by clicking onto the
Setups node in
1.
Return to the
the tree-view.
2.
Have a closer look at the Allow autom. update column and see that for the Setups 1008 and 1010 this
flag is set to 'No'.
3.
Change the 'Allow automatic update' flag to 'Yes'. Select both setups in the TPS-Proc report view and
right-click into the selection. From the context menu select Allow automatic update.
See how the flag changes to 'Yes'.
4.
Now, make use of the Update Setups functionality. From the TPS-Proc main menu select Update Setups.
The orientation on 1008 and on 1010 will be re-calculated. When you return to View/Edit you will see that the
building points have 'moved into place' now. The exceeded averaging limits on 1007 and 1009 have also
disappeared. Finally everything fits!
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Remember: Updating the Reference triplets and re-calculating the setups could have been done automatically by
using the TPS Processing Guide when storing the Traverse results.
Congratulations! - You have successfully completed Quick Tour V.
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TPS Tour VI: Post-Processing SmartStation Setups
TPS Tour VI: Post-Processing SmartStation Setups
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn how to post-process data measured on SmartStation
setups and how to perform the necessary updates.
To complete this excercise the GPS-Processing and the TPS-Processing options have to be included in your
licence.
Two jobs have been collected: One GPS Reference job called tutorial-ref and one SmartStation job called
S.Stat_RawData. The GPS job contains the raw data logged on the GPS reference. The SmartStation job contains
two setups measured with a SmartStation. Both setups use each other mutually as backsight points. GPS raw data
has been logged on the SmartStation setups as well.

Both jobs shall be imported in to LGO and the raw data shall be post-processed in the first lesson to
receive the accurate Setup coordinates.

In a second lesson the SmartStation setups have to be updated so that the Reference coordinates are
corrected as well as the preliminary orientation.
The points have been measured in the same area as the data used in the preceding Quick Tours. In comparison
with the attached background image you will see that the measurements fit after the necessary updates have been
made.
Start this Quick Tour with: TPS Tour VI - Lesson 1: Importing and post-processing the SmartStation data.
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TPS Tour VI - Lesson 1: Importing and post-processing the SmartStation data
The objectives of this lesson are:

To import the TPS data collected with a SmartStation in the job S.Stat_RawData and the raw data
collected on the GPS reference station in the job tutorial-ref.

To post-process the SmartStation setups in LGO.
Now, start with importing the System 1200 GPS Reference job tutorial-ref and the System 1200 TPS job
S.Stat_RawData into the project TPS Sample.

Select
Bar.
Import Raw data either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or from the Tools List
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select SmartWorx raw data under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data for this
tutorial will be installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
data\Import\TPS\SmartStation\*.*.

Check Include subfolders. Both System 1200 jobs contained in the selected folder will be imported in
one run.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog:

In the General tab make sure that the project TPS Sample is selected for import.

Click Assign and then Close. The job data will be assigned to the project TPS Sample and you are
returned to the Project window automatically.
If you zoom into the data details in
View/ Edit directly after Import you will see that the setups do not yet fit.
Only Navigated coordinates were available when the SmartStation instrument was set up, and therefore the
coordinates of the points 2000 and 3000 are not the final ones. Also the orientations of the setups are not correct
since accurate coordinates were not available for the backsight observations.
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In a first step we have to derive the correct station coordinates for the Setup points.
GPS-Proc view and select the baselines to be processed. The GPS-Processing view graphically
Switch to the
displays all observation intervals.

If you have gone through TPS Tour III there will already be lots of observation intervals from JOB_5. To
get a better overview you might right-click on the interval of Point System1200 and select Zoom to
Interval from the context menu.

Click on

Click on the horizontal bar of point System 1200 to select it as the Reference.

Click on

Click on the horizontal bars of the points 2000 and 3000 to select these observation intervals as Rover.

Click on
Select Mode: Reference from the toolbar. The cursor indicates Reference.
Select Mode: Rover from the toolbar. The cursor indicates Rover.
Process from the toolbar.
Illustration:
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view allowing you to
When the processing run is complete the display automatically switches to the Results
examine and store the processed baselines. The rover points of all baselines for which ambiguities have been
resolved are automatically selected.

To store the selected baselines press
Store from the toolbar or right-click into the view and select
Store from the context menu. The newly calculated coordinates for points 2000 and 3000 will be added
as Measured point triplets.

The TPS Processing Guide dialog opens. This dialog allows to automatically update the SmartStation
setups with the newly calculated coordinates and to re-calculate the orientations for these setups. While it
is normally recommended (and a lot easier) to accept this update, we will perform the necessary updates
manually in Lesson 2. Therefore press Cancel.
Continue with TPS Tour VI - Lesson 2: Updating the Setups.
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TPS Tour VI - Lesson 2: Updating the Setups
The objectives of this lesson are:

To update the SmartStation Reference coordinates with the Measured coordinates computed in Lesson
1.

To update the orientations for the SmartStation Setups using the new Reference coordinates for the
backsights.
After having successfully processed and stored the GPS Baselines from the GPS Reference to the SmartStation
points new Measured point triplets have been added for points 2000 and 3000. This operation did not automatically
modify the Reference triplets of the Setup points. They have to be updated manually:
1.
In
View/ Edit select point 2000 and Point 3000. Select Update Reference triplets... from the
background context menu.
2.
In the Update Reference triplets dialog the Measured triplets are already selected for each of the points.
The Measured triplet is the result of the GPS-Processing.
On pressing OK the existing Reference coordinates will be replaced with the Measured coordinates, i.e.
the new Reference coordinates will be the same as the Measured coordinates.
3.
Leave the dialog with OK.
Now we have, like in TPS Tour V, updated the Reference coordinates of the Setups 2000 and 3000 but not so far
their orientation. This is the reason why for point 4000, which was measured from both setups, the averaging limit
is still exceeded. To get it right we have to update the orientations of the Setups:
TPS-Proc view and open the Setups report view by clicking onto the
Setups node in
1.
Return to the
the tree-view.
2.
Change the 'Allow automatic update' flag to 'Yes' for setups 2000 and 3000. Select both setups in the
TPS-Proc report view and right-click into the selection. From the context menu select Allow automatic
update. See how the flag changes to 'Yes'.
3.
Now, make use of the Update Setups functionality. From the TPS-Proc main menu select Update Setups.
The orientation on 2000 and on 3000 will be re-calculated. When you return to View/Edit you will see that the
averaging limit is no longer exceeded for point 4000 and that finally everything fits.
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Remember: Updating the Reference triplets and re-calculating the setups could have been done automatically by
using the TPS Processing Guide when storing the GPS baseline results.
Congratulations! - You have successfully completed Quick Tour VI.
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Level Tutorial
Level Tour: Level-Processing
Level Tour: Level-Processing
This Quick Tour is a step-by-step tutorial in which you learn to process Leica digital level data. The tutorial takes
you from importing the raw data to exporting the final coordinates.
To complete this excercise the Level-Processing option has to be included in your licence.
Start this Quick Tour with Level Tour - Lesson 1: Importing Raw Data.
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Level Tour - Lesson 1: Importing Raw Data
In this lesson you will learn how to import Leica digital level data and simultaneously create a new project.

Start up LGO and select Import Raw data
from the Tools List Bar.
either from the Import main menu or from the Toolbar or
The Import Raw Data dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select GSI (Observations) under Files of type.

Browse to the directory that contains the sample data under Look in. By default the sample data will be
installed in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\Lgo\Sample data\Import\Level\GSI\.

Check Include subfolders. All level observations contained in the two sub-directories bffb_loop and
bf_samples will be imported in one run.

Click the Import button.
The Assign dialog opens. In this dialog create a new project to import the raw data into:

In the General tab right-click on Projects in the tree-view and select New.
While the Assign dialog stays open in the background you'll enter the New Project dialog.
In the New Project dialog:

Under Location browse to where you want the Project to be stored, e.g. in C:\Documents and Settings\All
Users\Documents\LGO\Projects\.

Enter the Project Name. A directory of the same name will be added to the path automatically. The
project's files will be stored into this directory.

Click OK. The new project will be created and the New Project dialog will be closed. You are returned to
the Assign dialog.
In the Assign dialog the new project is selected automatically.

Click Assign and then Close. The raw data will be assigned to the new project and the Project window
opens automatically.
Continue with Level Tour - Lesson 2: Processing Level Data.
For more information see also:
How to Import Level Raw Data
Create a new Project
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Level Tutorial
Level Tour - Lesson 2: Processing Level Data
In this lesson you will learn how to process and store level data.
In the Project window you may switch between different Tabs to display the project's content.
Click the Level-Proc tab. In the Level-Proc tabbed view you can view and select the level lines to be processed.

Click on
Jobs in the Tree View. This shows the details of each job imported into the project

Click on
bffb_loop in the Tree View. This displays the details of each level line within the Job.

Click on
001.
Line001 in the Tree View. This displays the booking sheet for the level line bffb_Loop / Line
You can choose different level processing parameters. Open the Processing Parameters dialog either from the
toolbar
, the main menu (Level-Proc / Processing Parameters) or by accessing the context menu in the LevelProc tab report view.

For the level line bffb_loop / Line 001 select the following parameters:

Adjustment Method: By Distance, Misclosure: a = 0.002 m and b = 0.005 m, Height Error per Station
= 0.0005 m, Distance Balance = 10.0 m

Click on
Process from the toolbar.
After the processing run is completed the display will automatically switch to the Results
view allowing you to
examine and store the processed points. The points of the level line are automatically selected.

To store the selected points press
from the context menu.
Store from the toolbar or right-click into the view and select Store
You have two more level lines left to process. These lines start at points with a known height and finish at different
points with known heights.

Return to the Level-Proc tab, open the Processing Parameters dialog by pressing the toolbar button

Change the Level Processing Parameters to Adjustment Method: By Station.

View the bf_Samples / Line 001 booking sheet by selecting its icon in the Level-Proc Tree View.
.
To define these lines as starting and ending at known points they must have the Point Class Control. The Start
Point (100) is automatically set to Point Class: Control. You must set the final point to control and define its height:

Highlight the final Point (105).

Select Create Control

Double-click on the height of Point 105 and modify it to 100.0400 meters
from the toolbar.
You must also set the final point of bf_Samples / Line 002 to Control and define its height:

Open the bf_Samples / Line 002 booking sheet.

Highlight the final point (1004).
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
Select Create Control

Double-click on the height of Point 1004 and modify it to 10.0000 meters.
from the toolbar.
You must now process these lines. It is possible to process these lines together:

In the Level-Proc Tree View select the bf_Samples job (
lines are displayed in the Report View.

Select both of the level lines in the Report view by clicking on each line while holding down the 'Shift'
button

Select
bf_samples). The details of the two level
Process from the toolbar.
Again the display will automatically switch to the Results view allowing you to examine and store the processed
points. The points of the level lines are automatically selected.

To store the selected points press Store from the toolbar or right-click into the view and select Store from
the context menu.
You can view all the calculated points by clicking on the Points tab. For points where more than one measurement
exists an average is automatically computed. To inspect the computed points right-click on a point and select
Properties.
You have now finished the processing of the level data. Continue with Level Tour - Lesson 3: Exporting an ASCII
File.
For more information see also:
Level-Processing View
Level-Processing: Booking sheet
Processing Level lines
Create Control
Point Classes and Subclasses
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Level Tutorial
Level Tour - Lesson 3: Exporting an ASCII File
In this lesson you will learn how to export coordinates to a user defined ASCII file.

While the project is still open select Export ASCII data
Toolbar or from the Tools List Bar.
either from the Export main menu or from the
The Save File As dialog opens. In this dialog:

Select Text File under Save as type.

Enter a file name.

Click on the Settings button the change the export settings.
The User defined Export Settings dialog opens.

In the General tab select Coordinate Type Local and Grid and Height mode Orthometric (only
necessary in the combined installation of LGO).

Change the Coord. Class to Main. The coordinates of the highest point class will be exported.

In the Point tab select Point Id and Orth. height to be exported.

Click on OK to close the Settings property page and finally Export to write the file. You can now examine
the ASCII file that you just created with a text editor.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed this Quick Tour through LGO.
For more information see also:
User-defined ASCII File Export
User-defined Export Settings
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User Interface
Explorer View
How to use the Explorer-View
To provide you with an optimum and consistent working environment, the Explorer-View is used as the working
TM
area. In terms of appearance and functionality this view is very similar to the Explorer of Microsoft Windows :
Normally you will find a Tree-View pane on the left hand side and a Report-View or Property-View pane on the
right hand side of the Explorer View window.
Related topics:
Tree-View
Report-View
Property-View
Property-Sheet/Page
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Tree-View
The Tree-View pane provides you with an overview of the items you are currently working with, in an
and pages .
expandable/collapsible hierarchy of folders
Opening and Closing folders
When an Explorer-View is first opened the folders display, but each individual folder is closed (collapsed). If the
folder contains items, a plus box appears at the left side of the folder icon. When you open a folder, you expand
the hierarchy so you can see the contents within it.
Open (expand) a folder:

From the folder you want to open, click the plus box
When a folder is opened, a minus box
displayed.
.
appears at the left side of the folder icon. Each item in the folder is
Close (collapse) a folder:

From the folder you want to close, click the minus box
When you close a folder, you collapse the hierarchy so you do not see the contents within it.
View the data:

Tips:

Click on a page
right pane.
or a folder
to list the data of that item in the Report View or Property View on the
If you right-click on any item in a folder, a Context-Menu will appear with the available options for working
with that item. For example, if you right-click on the folder called Projects in the Project Management
component, a menu list appears which, for example allows you to create a new project by using the
command New....

Use the up / down arrow keys to toggle through the Tree-View folders.

Use the right / left arrow keys to open (expand) / close (collapse) a folder.
Related topics:
Report-View
Property-View
Property Sheet/Page
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User Interface
Report-View
The Report-View pane lists the data sets by rows and columns. Each data set is displayed in a separate row. The
column heading describes the different data items. The Report-View is used to display the contents of a Tree-View
folder.
Sort the list

Click on the desired column heading to sort the list by this item (type) in ascending order. If you click
again on the same heading the data is sorted in descending order. A triangle pointing upwards indicates
that the list is sorted according to that column in ascending order. A triangle pointing downwards indicates
descending order.

Alternatively, right-click on a particular column heading and select Ascending or Descending from the
context-menu.

Select Original Order from the context-menu to remove all sorting criteria and restore the original sorting.

Select By multiple columns from the context-menu to determine a hierarchy for the sorting criteria you
specify. In the Sort by multiple columns dialog specify up to three columns by which the data shall be
sorted in ascending or decending order. According to the specified ranking of the columns the data will be
sorted:
first, by the column specified first - if one or more items in this column are identical the data will be
sorted by the second column, etc., e.g.
The ranking of the columns is indicated by dots above the sorting triangles.
Move a column

Click on a column heading and move the column to the left or the right while you keep the left mouse
button pressed.
Hide a column

Right-click on the particular column and select Hide.
Note: The first column is always visible and can not be hidden.
View a column
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
Right-click on a column heading, click on View and select an individual item from the list or select View
all to unhide all the hidden columns.
Configure the columns

Right-click on the column heading and select Columns... In the Columns dialog configure
- which columns you want to see (via the check-boxes or via the Show/ Hide buttons).
- the column order (via the Move up/ Move down buttons).
- the column width (in pixels).
Click Reset to restore the original settings.
Change the column width

Move the cursor to the right side of the column heading until the separator
boundary of the column heading until the column is the width you want.

Right-click on a column heading, select Auto arrange. The width of each column is arranged
automatically according to the widest item (header or data item).

Type Ctrl-+ to arrange the width of all columns automatically according to the widest data item. This
command ignores the width of the column header.

Double click on the separator
arranges the width of that column automatically according to the widest
data item. This command ignores the width of the column header.
appears. Drag the
Edit individual items of a data set

Select an individual item and click it again (slow double-click) or right-click and select Modify. Change the
value and press Enter.
Note: Only items that are editable can be changed.
Delete a data set

Right-click on a data set and select Delete. Select Yes to confirm or No to close without deleting.
Note: If you select a series of data sets all of them can be deleted at once.
Save the view as a text file

Right-click anywhere in the Report-View and select Save As. The Save As dialog box appears, which
allows you to save this whole view or just the selected lines as a text file for further use in a spreadsheet
or text editor program.
Find a data set

Right-click anywhere in the Report-View and select Find.... The Find dialog box appears, which allows
you to find and select particular data sets in a huge list of data.
Select checked items

Right-click on a data set and select Select checked items. All checked
selected.
lines in the report-view will be
Print the view

In the main menu select File and Print... The Print dialog box appears. Click OK to confirm.
Note: This command will print the whole content of the Report View or Property View.

Alternatively in the main menu select File and Print Preview. The Print Preview window lets you view the
print sheet(s) on the screen before you print it.
Tips:
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User Interface

If the list does not fit into the window use the Scroll bar along the right side or bottom of a window. Drag
the shaded bars or use the arrows to scroll to another part of the list.

If you right-click on any item in the list a Context-Menu will appear with the available options for working
with that item.

Right-click on an item and select Properties to open a Property Sheet/Page, which also allows you to edit
the items.

To activate/ deactivate all items you may first use Ctrl-A to select all items and afterwards click on any
checkbox to enable/ disable all.
Related topics:
Tree-View
Property-View
Property Sheet/Page
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Property-View
The Property-View pane lists the data sets by property and value.
The following sample shows a Property-View like it is used to view and/or edit the Project Properties.
Edit a data item

Double-click on the particular item or right-click and select Modify. Change the value and press Enter.
Note: Only items that are editable can be changed.
Tip:

If you click anywhere in the Property-View with the right mouse button, a Context-Menu appears listing all
available commands. (E.g. New, Open or Delete).

Right-click anywhere in the Property-View select Properties to open the Property Sheet/Page, which also
allows you to edit the items.

Right-click in an input field and the Edit Context-menu appears, allowing you to access commands such
as Cut, Copy, Paste etc.
Related topics:
Tree-View
Report-View
Property-Sheet/Page
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Drag and Drop (Copy & Paste)
LGO is a fully multitasking software environment allowing you to run different tasks at a time. Thus, several
Projects may be open at a time and information such as Points or Baselines can easily be exchanged between
Projects using Drag & Drop or Copy & Paste. Data may be dragged or copied between Report-Views and
Graphical Views.
You can also Drag and Drop or Copy and Paste data items out of an LGO Report-View to external text editors or
spreadsheet programs.
Drag and Drop

Display both the source and the target window on the screen.
If the source window is the Points view then you may select one or select a series of point(s) and drag it/
them to the target window by keeping the left mouse button pressed and drop it/ them by releasing the left
mouse button.
If the source window is the Adjustment graphical view you may drag and drop single points or
observations. Keep the Shift-key pressed to temporarily switch off the Panning mode. Observations
may only be dragged to another Adjustment view. If you select a series of points and/ or observations use
Copy & Paste instead of Drag & Drop.
Copy & Paste has basically the same effect, but does not require both windows to be open at the same time.
Copy & Paste

If the source window is the Points view then you may select one or select a series of point(s). Select
Copy from the Edit menu or Toolbar (or press Ctrl+C on the keyboard). Activate the target window and
select
Paste from the Edit menu or Toolbar (or press Ctrl+V on the keyboard).
If the source window is the Adjustment graphical view you may Copy & Paste single points or
observations. Observations may only be copied to another Adjustment view. You may also select a series
of points and/ or observations to be copied.
The following rules apply when data items shall be copied by using Drag & Drop or Copy & Paste:
Points
Points may be copied between projects from the Points View to another Points View or a graphical view
(Adjustment or View/Edit). Points may also be copied from a graphical view to another graphical view or to
the Points view of another project.
And points may be copied from the Points view to an external text editor or spreadsheet program.
Observations in graphical views:
Observations may be only be copied from the optional Adjustment component of a project to the
Adjustment component of another project.
Antennas (GPS only)
Antenna definitions may be copied between the Antenna Management and the Antennas View of a project.
All
Any data item(s) may be copied from a Report-View to an external text editor or spreadsheet program. This
may be useful for example as an alternative to Save as.
Related Topics:
Notes about Drag and Drop Points
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Property-Sheets
Property Sheets/Pages
Property-Sheets are used whenever the user is requested to manually enter or edit data. A Property-Sheet can
also be used to view data.
The following sample shows a Property-Sheet like it is used to view and/or edit the Project Properties. In this
example the Property-Sheet consists of four Property-Pages (General / Coordinates / Dictionary / Codelist
Template).
Data that is displayed in an input field with a grey background cannot be edited at the particular time or instant.
Data that is not displayed in an input field is for information purposes only.
Switch between pages

If the Property-Sheet contains more than one page you can switch between the pages by clicking on the
corresponding Tabs on the top left corner of the dialog.
Enter or edit data

Enter your input or make your changes. Close the Property-Sheet by using OK to confirm or Cancel to
discard the changes.
Note: Some Property-Sheets contain an Apply button. Pressing this button applies any changes without
closing the Property-Sheet.
Tip:
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
If you right-click in any input field the Edit Context-Menu appears, allowing you to access commands such
as Cut, Copy, Paste etc.

In some Property Sheets (e.g. New Point), the Apply button allows you to enter a series of data sets
without leaving the Property Sheet.
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User Interface
Main and Context Menus
Main Menu
The main menu provides you with a special feature. When you are in an open project a dynamic menu entry
appears. Depending on which of the tabbed view you have currently entered, the dynamic menu entry is adapted
to present you with view specific menu items.
E.g. when you are in the Points tab you'll find the menu entry Points between the Tools and Export menu entry.
When you go to the View/Edit tab then the dynamic menu changes to the entry View/Edit between the Tools and
Export menu entry.
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Context-Menu
Upon right-click on any element or item a context sensitive menu will appear listing all useful commands available
at the particular instant. If you right-click on an item of the screen the command useful for that particular item will
be listed. If you right-click on the background of the view the most important commands for that View are listed.
Only the commands that are available at the particular time or instant are active. Inactive functions are listed in
Grey color and can not be accessed.
Tip:
134

If you right-click on an input field the Edit Context-Menu appears. This is a special Context-Menu allowing
you to access commands such as Cut, Copy, Paste etc.
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User Interface
Edit Context-Menu
The Edit Context-Menu is a special Context-Menu that appears upon right-click on an input field. The following
commands are available:
Insert
Undo
Redo
Cut
Copy
Paste
Delete
Lists the last entries (max. 10) for the particular input field. Select from the list to make your choice.
Use this function to undo the last change to the input field.
Use this function to redo the last change to the input field.
In the input field, select the text you want to remove from the input field. Use the right mouse button to click
the selected text, and then click Cut.
In the input field, select the text you want to copy to another input field. Use the right mouse button to click
the selected text, and then click Copy.
In the input field, place the cursor where you want to insert the text. Use the right mouse button and then
click Paste to insert the text you have cut or copied.
Use this function to delete the content of the input field. If you previously select part of the input field, only
this part will be deleted.
Select All
Use this function to select the whole content of the particular input field.
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List Bar
List Bar
The List Bar is the navigation tool that lets you easily access the different components and tools of LGO or Flex
Office. The List Bar is a listing of icons on the left side of the screen. It may show up to three groups of icons. On
the List Bar click the buttons as listed below to switch between the different groups:
Tip:
136

Select List Bar from the View menu to switch the List Bar off or on.

Right click on the background of the List Bar and switch between displaying Small Icon or Large Icon.

If not all icons of a List Bar are visible use the
or
buttons to scroll up or down.
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User Interface
List Bar: Management
In the List Bar click on the Management button to list the following shortcut icons. Click on an icon to get more
information about the selected Management component.
Projects: Opens or switches to the Project Management.
Coordinate Systems: Opens or switches to the Coordinate System Management.
Antennas: Opens or switches to the Antennas Management.
Codelists: Opens or switches to the Codelist Management.
Satellite Availability: Opens or switches to Satellite Availability.
Precise Ephemeris: Opens or switches to the Precise Ephemeris Management.
Scripts: Opens or switches to the Script Management.
Report Templates: Opens or switches to the Report Template Management.
Image Referencing: Opens or switches to the Image Referencing.
Note:

If you click on an icon the first time it will start the selected Management component. If you click on an
icon of a component that is already running, it will switch to the component.
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List Bar: Tools
In the List Bar click on the Tools button to list the following shortcut icons. Click on an icon to get more information
about the selected Tool.
Import Raw Data: Click to start the Raw Data Import tool.
Import ASCII Data: Click to start the ASCII Data Import tool.
Export ASCII Data: Click to start the ASCII Data Export tool.
Export FBK file: Click to start the Export FBK file tool.
Export RINEX Data: Click to start the RINEX Export tool.
Export GIS/CAD Data: Click to start the GIS/CAD Export tool.
Note: This tool is only available if the GIS/CAD option is included in your licence.
Export LandXML file: Click to start the LandXML Export tool.
Note: This tool is only available if the Export LandXML option is included in your licence.
Datum and Map:Click to start or switch to the Datum and Map tool.
Note: This tool is only available if the Datum and Map option is included in your licence.
Data Exchange Manager: Click to start or switch to the Data Exchange Manager.
Software Upload: Click to start the Software Upload tool.
Format Manager: Click to start the Format Manager.
Note: For further information see the Online Help of the Format Manager.
Configuration Manager: Click to start the Configuration Manager.
Design to Field: Click to start the Design to Field tool.
Note:

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If you click on an icon the first time it will start the selected tool. If you click on a tool that is already
running, it will switch to it.
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User Interface
List Bar: Open Documents
In the List Bar click on the Open Documents button to list the following shortcut icons.
Click to switch to the selected Project.
Click to switch to the selected Report.
Click to switch to the selected GPS-processing Analysis window.
Click to switch to the selected COGO Calculation window.
Click to switch to the selected Satellite Availability window.
Note:

This List Bar group is only available if you have previously opened at least one project or any other of the
above listed components.
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Toolbars
Toolbars
Toolbars allow you to organise the commands you use most often the way you want to, so you can find and use
them quickly. You can easily customize toolbars - for example, you can add and remove buttons, create your own
custom toolbars, hide or display toolbars, and move toolbars.
By default the Menu bar and the Standard Toolbar are visible.
The Menu bar is a special toolbar at the top of the screen that contains menus such as File, Import and Edit. You
can customize the menu bar the same way you customize any built-in toolbar; for example, you can quickly add
and remove buttons and menus on the Menu bar, but you can't hide the Menu bar.
The Standard Toolbar contains a selection of the most useful tools. The Standard (compact) is a smaller Toolbar
that may be used instead of the Standard Toolbar if your screen resolution is less than 800 by 600 pixels, e.g. for
notebook PC’s.

Move the cursor over a Toolbar button to display short description (Tooltip).

Click on a Toolbar button to access the command the button is associated with.
Select from the index to learn more about toolbars:
Display a Toolbar
Create a new Toolbar
Delete a Toolbar
Customize a Toolbar
Reset a Toolbar
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Display a Toolbar
Enables you to display or hide predefined or user defined toolbars.
1.
From the View menu select Toolbars...
or right-click on an existing Toolbar.
2.
From the list of available Toolbars check
Toolbars you want to hide.
3.
Press Close to confirm.
Note:

the Toolbar(s) you want to display and uncheck
the
The Menu bar is a special Toolbar at the top of the screen that can not be hidden.

Uncheck
Show Tooltips if you do not want do display them.

Uncheck
Cool Look to display each Toolbar button highlighted.
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Create a new Toolbar
Enables you to create new user defined toolbars.
1.
From the Tools menu select Customize...
or right-click on an existing Toolbar.
2.
Click the Toolbars tab and select New
3.
Enter a Toolbar name and press OK to confirm.
A new empty Toolbar will be visible on the screen.
4.
Click the Commands tab.
5.
Select a Category and drag a Button (command) to the new Toolbar.
Note: To delete a Button drag it off the Toolbar.
6.
Repeat step 5 until all the desired buttons are added.
7.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function
Note:


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A Toolbar may be positioned anywhere on the screen be dragging it.
User-defined Toolbars may –in contrast to the pre-defined Toolbars- be deleted. When selecting such a
Toolbar the Reset-button changes into a Delete-button which will remove the newly defined Toolbar from
the list. For further information see the topic Delete a Toolbar.
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User Interface
Delete a Toolbar
Enables you to delete a user-defined toolbar.
1.
From the Tools menu select Customize...
or right-click on an existing Toolbar.
2.
Click the Toolbars tab and select Delete.
Note:

Only new, user-defined Toolbars may be deleted. The predefined Toolbars may only be hidden or Reset.
For more information on how to define your own Toolbars have a look at Create a new Toolbar.
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Customize a Toolbar
Enables you to modify a predefined or user-defined Toolbar.
1.
From the Tools menu select Customize...
or right-click on an existing Toolbar.
2.
Click the Commands tab.
3.
Select a Category to display all available buttons of the category.
4.
Drag and drop a Button (command) to a particular place on the Toolbar.
Note: To delete a Button drag it off the Toolbar.
5.
Repeat step 5 until the Toolbar is modified.
6.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function
Note:

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To restore the original settings of a predefined Toolbar select the Toolbar from the list and press Reset.

User-defined Toolbars may be deleted.

You may also drag buttons (commands) from one Toolbar to another.

To create a separator (vertical line) between two buttons on the Toolbar, drag one of the buttons slightly
to the right or left.
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User Interface
Window Commands
Window Commands
This software offers you a fully multitasking environment allowing you to run different tasks at the same time. E.g.
several Project Windows can be open simultaneously. The Window Commands enable you to arrange the
Windows the way you want.
The Window Commands are available from the Window menu that appears as soon as the first window is open.

All open windows are listed under the Window menu. To set the active
window select from the list.
Select from the list below to learn more about Window Commands:
Close
Close All
Cascade
Tile Horizontally
Tile Vertically
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Close Window
To Close open Window(s):
1.
Click on an open window or select a window from the list in the Window menu.
2.
Select Close or Close All from the Window menu.
Related Topic:
Window Commands
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Arrange Windows
To arrange all open windows:

Note:

Select Cascade, Tile Horizontally, or Tile Vertically from the Window menu.
Make sure all the windows you want to display are open. Closed or minimized windows will not be
automatically arranged using these commands.
Related Topic:
Window Commands
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Printing
Print
With this command you may print the content of the active window.
1.
Select Print from the File menu or click on
2.
Select a printer from the list and check the box if you want to Print to a file.
3.
Define the print range. Select All or enter a range of pages.
4.
Change the Number of copies if required.
5.
Select OK to print or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:
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from the Shortcut Bar.
In the Codelist Management component you can also create an all-in-one graphical report-style printing
showing Code Groups, Codes and Attributes (including Choice Lists) in one printout. For details refer to
Print a Codelist.
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User Interface
Print Preview
The Print Preview lets you view the print sheet(s) of the active window on the screen before you print it.
The following commands are available via the buttons on the top:
Print:
To open the print dialog that lets you printout the page(s).
Next Page:
To display the next page if more than one exists.
Prev Page:
To display the previous page if more than one exists.
Two/One Page:
To display two or only one pages on the screen.
Zoom In:
To enlarge the size of the preview.
Zoom Out:
To reduce the size of the preview.
Close:
Tip:

To close the preview window without printing.
You can enlarge the preview by clicking on the particular area of the sheet.
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Print Setup
The Print Setup can be changed by selecting Page Setup from the File menu.
Choose a printer and select the printing options, the paper size and format.
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Management Components
Project Management
Project Management
The Project Management component enables you to create new Projects, open, copy or move existing Projects
and register (re-assign) old Projects. Additionally it allows you to list Project and Point Properties.
For more information about Projects refer to Notes about Projects.
To start the Project Management
 From the Tools menu select
Note:

Project Management or click on
within the Management List Bar.
If access to a project is denied due to missing user rights or if a project folder cannot be accessed (e.g.
due to lost network connection) or if a project is no longer available at the specified location, then the
project will be greyed in the Report-view. Such projects cannot be opened or deleted or copied or moved.
Unregister is only impossible if permission is denied.
Select from the list below to learn more about Project Management:
Projects
Notes about Projects
Create a new Project
Open a Project
Modify
Delete a Project
Save As
Copy a Project
Move a Project
Register a Project
Unregister a Project
Send To
Project Properties
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Notes about Projects
Data that belongs together and that you intend to process together should be put into the same Project. All
Project information is stored in a database, which physically consists of a series of files with the same name as the
Project. It is therefore possible to store several Projects under one directory. However, it is recommended to store
each Project under a separate directory.
The term “Project” as used in LGO can be defined as a working unit for processing data. All data within any
particular Project can be handled at the same time. Therefore, it is vital to put all data that is needed for data
processing into the same Project. For example, if you are a GPS user and run one reference station for two groups
of roving receivers (which are working at the same time but the data of which is intended to be imported into two
different Projects), then the data of the reference site must be transferred to both Projects, too.
Projects can only be created and handled on a hard disk. It is not possible to do so from a local memory device.
Each Project uses its own database. Whenever data is imported into a Project (or when any other data handling is
done) the Project Management keeps track of all this data handling.
Note:

Never delete (from outside the office software environment) any of the files contained in a Project
directory. Otherwise the consistency of the database will be destroyed and an unrecoverable database
error will result.
The number of Projects the software can handle depends only on the storage capacity of your hard disk. If you
decide to delete some of your older Projects make sure that they are saved as a backup first and then delete them
from within LGO.
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Management Components
Create a New Project
1.
From the File menu select New Project... or click on
2.
Enter a unique Project Name. The Project Name is equivalent to the filenames in which the datasets are
stored. It can be up to 40 characters long, spaces and capitals are allowed.
3.
Under Location change the path if the default is not correct.
from the Toolbar.
Note: A new directory may be directly created either by typing the path or by using the browser
directory C:\ is not allowed.
. Root
4.
Change the limits for Automatic Coordinate Averaging and the Averaging Method as required. The
method Unweighted applies a simple arithmetic mean, whereas the method Weighted takes the
standard deviations of the single solutions into account.
5.
Change the Time Zone as required.
6.
In the Coordinates page select a Coordinate System from the list if already defined or leave it on the
default WGS1984. You may decide on computing modified grid coordinates. Tick the corresponding
checkbox.
7.
Enter the optional Dictionary parameters.
8.
Change the Codelist Template parameters if necessary.
9.
Press OK to confirm and open the Project or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:
 In the Project Management right-click and select New will create a new Project but not open it.

Projects may also be created during the Raw Data Import procedure.
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Open a Project
Opening a Project displays a Project specific Tabbed-View within which all Project components and data are
available.
1.
From the File menu select Open Project... or click on
2.
Select a Project from the list.
3.
Click Open to start the Tabbed-View of the Project or Close to abort the function.
from the Toolbar.
Alternatively:
 In the Project Management double-click (fast) on a project or right-click and select Open from the context
menu.

Note:

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Select Recent Projects from the File menu and choose one of the recently opened Projects from the list.
If access to a project is denied due to missing user rights or if a project folder cannot be accessed (e.g.
due to lost network connection) or if a project is no longer available at the specified location, then the
project will be greyed in the Report-view. Such projects cannot be opened or deleted or copied or moved.
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Management Components
Delete a Project
1.
From the Tools menu, select Project Management or click on
Bar.
2.
Right-click on a Project in the Tree-View or Report-View window.
3.
Select Delete.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

(Projects) from the Management List
If you delete a Project, all its files will be physically deleted from the harddisk.

Never delete (from outside office software environment) any of the files contained in a Project directory.
Otherwise the consistency of the database will be destroyed which results in an unrecoverable data base
error.

If access to a project is denied due to missing user rights or if a project folder cannot be accessed (e.g.
due to lost network connection) or if a project is no longer available at the specified location, then the
project will be greyed in the Report-view. Such projects cannot be opened or deleted or copied or moved.
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Copy a Project
1.
From the Tools menu select Project Management or click on
2.
Right-click on a Project in the Tree-View or Report-View window and select Copy.
3.
In the directory browser enter a new Project name.
4.
Select a directory from the browser or by entering its name under New Location.
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:
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in the Management List Bar.
A new directory may be directly created either by typing the path or by using the browser context menu.
Root directory C:\ is not allowed.

To transfer a Project from one PC to another use the standard Windows Explorer (or any other file
manager) to copy the Project folder. On the other PC use Register a Project to allocate the copied Project
to the Office database.

If access to a project is denied due to missing user rights or if a project folder cannot be accessed (e.g.
due to lost network connection) or if a project is no longer available at the specified location, then the
project will be greyed in the Report-view. Such projects cannot be opened or deleted or copied or moved.
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Management Components
Move a Project
Moves all Project specific files from a location on a drive to another location on the same or another drive.
1.
From the Tools menu select Project Management or click on
2.
Right-click on a Project in the Tree-View or Report View and select Move.
3.
In the directory browser change the Project name if necessary.
4.
Select a directory from the browser or by entering its name under New Location.
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

in the Management List Bar.
If you move a Project, the old Project in the previous directory and all its files will be physically deleted
from the harddisk.

A new directory may be directly created either by typing the path or by using the browser context menu.
Root directory C:\ is not allowed.

If access to a project is denied due to missing user rights or if a project folder cannot be accessed (e.g.
due to lost network connection) or if a project is no longer available at the specified location, then the
project will be greyed in the Report-view. Such projects cannot be opened or deleted or copied or moved.
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Register a project
The Project list is updated constantly. This is done automatically when you work within the Office environment. The
Projects will normally always be registered.
You can, of course, use the Windows Explorer, e.g. to copy a Project folder from one PC to another. If you do so,
this Project will not be registered automatically.
In this case use Register to link Projects that are on the hard disk but not shown in the Project list, to the Office
database.
in the Management List Bar.
1.
From the Tools menu select Project Management or click on
2.
Right-click anywhere in the Tree-View or Report View.
3.
Select Register...
4.
From the browser select the directory containing the Project to register.
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
See also:
Unregister a project
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Management Components
Unregister a project
The Project Management lists all projects that are registered in the Office database. If you wish to remove a project
from the list without deleting it select Unregister from the Context-menu.
To unregister a project:
1.
From the Tools menu select Project Management or click on
in the Management List Bar.
2.
In the Tree View or in the Report View right-click on the project to be unregistered.
3.
Select Unregister
Unregistered Projects can be linked back to the list of projects by registering them again.
Note:


To unregister more than one project at once select a series of projects and right-click onto the selected
block to unregister the projects.
If access to a project is denied due to missing user rights or if a project folder cannot be accessed (e.g.
due to lost network connection) or if a project is no longer available at the specified location, then the
project will be greyed in the Report-view. Unregister is only impossible if permission is denied.
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Project Properties
Project Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the Project Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Project in the Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Coordinates
Dictionary
Background Image
CAD Files
Codelist Template
3.
Make your changes.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at the particular instant.
4.
Note:

Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function
When a project is open and the project window is active you may edit the project properties either
- via Project Management or
- via the File - Project Properties... entry in the main menu.
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
Background images that have been referenced in the Image Referencing component cannot be attached
to an open project. To attach a referenced map via the Project Properties - Background Image dialog
close the project first.

Dictionary information and the Time Zone cannot be changed when the project is open either.
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Management Components
Project Properties: General
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit General Project Properties.
Project Name:
The Project Name is equivalent to the filename in which the datasets are stored. It can be up to 40
characters long, spaces and capitals are allowed.
Location:
Path and directory under which the Project files are stored.
Automatic Coordinate Averaging:
The limit (max. distance between different solutions) in Position and Height for the automatic coordinate
averaging (Mean) can be defined. See also Point Properties: Mean.
Note: A solution has to comply with both limits (Position and Height) to be automatically averaged.
Averaging Method:
Choose between Weighted or Unweighted averaging. The method Unweighted applies a simple
arithmetic mean, whereas the method Weighted takes the standard deviations of the single solutions into
account.
Time Zone:
The Time Zone to relate the Project to local time. Reference is GMT.
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Project Properties: Coordinates
This property page enables you to display/ edit the Coordinate System and the parameters for the computation of
modified grid coordinates.
Coordinate System:
The coordinate system is displayed together with the Transformation, Ellipsoid, Projection, Geoid
Model and CSCS Model attached to it. A coordinate system provides the information necessary to display
different coordinate representations (Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid) and to transform coordinates between the
WGS84 and Local system. Per default the Coordinate System WGS1984 will be defined.
Tip: Click the View button to open the Coordinate System Management and edit or create a new
Coordinate System.
Transformation:
Displays the Transformation of the attached Coordinate System.
Residuals:
Displays the method used for the distribution of the Residuals.
Ellipsoid:
Displays the Ellipsoid of the attached Coordinate System.
Projection:
Displays the Projection of the attached Coordinate System.
Geoid Model:
Displays the Geoid Model of the attached Coordinate System.
CSCS Model:
Displays the CSCS Model of the attached Coordinate System.
Compute modified grid coordinates:
This checkbox allows you to apply an average combined scale factor and a shift in Northing and Easting
to compute modified grid coordinates from the existing grid coordinates. If Compute modified grid
coordinates is checked , you can manually enter the average combined scale factor and the two shift
values. You can also have these values calculated automatically with the help of the Compute Ave.
Combined Factor functionality.
The inverse factor will be applied first and the shifts will be added to all points which are either stored as
Local Grid or which are converted to Local Grid to get the Modified Grid Coordinates. These will be
displayed in separate columns in the Points view.
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Management Components
Project Properties: Dictionary
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the optional Dictionary items.
Manager:
Name of the Project leader
Client:
Street:
Name of the client
Address of the client
Map Reference:
Information about the map sheet corresponding with the Project area
Print Header:
Header for printouts e.g. Project details
Print Footer:
Footer for printouts e.g. company name
Note:
General notes
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Project Properties: Background Image
To better visualize point locations in a local grid a map or aerial photograph of the region in which your job has
been measured may be attached as a background image to a project.
Image Name:
Select the background image to be attached to the project from the list of referenced images.
Note: Images that have not been referenced in the Image Referencing component before will not be
available in the combo box. To learn more about how to reference an image refer to: Reference a
background image.
Filename:
Indicates the filename and path where the selected image is stored.
Preview:
Offers a preview of the selected background image.
Note:


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Background images have to be referenced to the local grid in the Image Referencing component before
they may be attached to a project.
The background image cannot be detached or changed while the project is open. Close the project first so
that the Image Name combo box becomes active.
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Management Components
Project Properties: Codelist Template
This Property-Page enables you to display or change the Codelist Template attached to the selected project. The
Codelist Template defines which codes can be created inside the project specific codelist and how the codes will
be displayed.
Instrument Class:
Select an Instrument Class from the list.
Codelist type:
Select between Basic and Advanced.
For more information refer to: Codelist Type.
Note:

Coding information from different codelist types may be imported into the same project via raw data
import or via copy/ paste. The codelist template of the project will then define how codes and attributes
are displayed.
Related Topic:
Codelist Management
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Project Properties: CAD Files
In this dialog page you may select one or more DXF or Shape files to be attached to your project as CAD
background maps.
CAD files attached to the project
All CAD files that are already attached to the project are listed. They may be activated or de-activated via
check-boxes. Activated CAD files will be visible in View/Edit and Adjustment.
To add another CAD file to the list:
Insert button.
1.
Press the
2.
In the line which will be added to the list press the
3.
In the Select CAD files dialog browse to the directory where your CAD file are stored.
4.
Select a file and leave the dialog with OK.
Browse button.
Note: Only one file may be selected at a time.
5.
Back in the Project Properties: CAD files page the file is by default activated
.
The file will be converted into a suitable binary format.
6.
Leave the dialog with OK and the CAD file will be attached to your project.
Note: To be able to see the graphical information stored in the CAD file as a background map in View/Edit or
Adjustment the display of CAD files has to be switched on in the Graphical Settings: View dialog page.
To remove a CAD file from the list of attached files:
1.
Select (highlight) the CAD file to be removed from the project and press the
Delete button.
The file will be removed from the list.
2.
Leave the dialog with OK and the CAD file will be detached from the project.
You may also change the order of the CAD files in the list by selecting a file and pressing the
down buttons.
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Management Components
Coordinate System Management
Coordinate System Management
Within LGO the user can work in the global coordinate system (WGS1984) or in a local coordinate system. The
local coordinate system may be a geodetically defined system or it may be a simple grid system with neither an
Ellipsoid nor a Projection associated with it.
The Coordinate System Management is linked to a database, which is responsible for storing the parameters. This
database is independent from the Project database.
Select from the list below to learn more about Coordinate System Management:
Coordinate Systems
Transformations
Ellipsoids
Projections
State Plane Zones
Geoid Models
Country Specific Coordinate System (CSCS) Models
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Coordinate Systems
Coordinate Systems
A Coordinate System provides the information necessary to convert coordinates to different representations
(Cartesian, Geodetic, Grid) and to transform coordinates between the WGS1984 and the Local system. A
Coordinate System may be attached to a Project.
One or more of the following parameters define a Coordinate System:
Transformations
Ellipsoids
Projections or State Plane Zones
Geoid Models
Country Specific Coordinate System (CSCS) Models
Select from the index below to learn how to manage Coordinate Systems:
Add a New Coordinate System
Modify
Delete a Coordinate System
Save As
Send To
Coordinate System Properties
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Management Components
Add a New Coordinate System
Enables you to define a new Coordinate System for further use in a Project. Transformations, Ellipsoids,
Projections and Geoid Models must be previously defined in order to be able to select them from the lists.
1.
Right-click on Coordinate Systems in the Tree-View and select New.
2.
Enter the Name of the Coordinate System.
3.
Select a Transformation from the list. Transformations may be calculated using Datum/Map or in the
case of a Classical 2D and 3D, manually entered. See also Add a New Transformation.
4.
If you have selected a Transformation that was previously calculated using Datum/Map you may choose
how to distribute the Residuals. The distribution weighting may be in relation to the distances between
the point to be transformed and the control points or by using a Multi-quadratic interpolation approach. No
distribution will be selected by default.
5.
Select an Ellipsoid for the Local system (System B) from the list.
Note: An Ellipsoid cannot be selected if it is already defined in the Transformation or is not required if you
are using a One Step or an Interpolation Transformation.
6.
Select a Projection, or a Zone from the list. Except for the Customized Projections and the State Plane
Zones, which are hardwired, Map Projections have to be defined before they become available in the list.
See also: Add a New Projection.
Note: To switch between Projections and State Plane Zones right-click on the background of the
Property-Sheet and select between Projections and Zones.
A Projection is not required if you are using a One Step or an Interpolation Transformation.
7.
If required select a Geoid Model from the list.
Refer to Coordinate System Properties: General for the requirements to add a valid geoid model to the
new coordinate system.
8.
If required select a CSCS Model (Country Specific Coordinate System Model) from the list. CSCS models
have to be defined before they become available in the list. See also: Add a new CSCS Model.
9.
Enter the optional Note to describe the Coordinate System.
10. Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Import Coordinate Systems
With the help of this functionality you are able to import coordinate systems from a file as used on the instrument.
The medium for transfer of coordinate system information is the file TRFSET.dat (for SmartWorx) or the file
GPSTRF.dat (for System 500). Both files are created when:

a coordinate system is transferred from the Office software to a System 300 or 500 sensor or a
SmartWorx instrument

coordinate systems are created on the instrument
To import one or more coordinate systems from the field system to the Office software:
1.
Coordinate System Management component and select Import Coordinate System...
Open the
from the context menu (right-click).
2.
In the Open Coordinate System file dialog select a file from the browser. Only valid Leica Coordinate
System files can be read:
- GPSTRF.dat (= Coordiante System file from System 500)
- TRFSET.dat (= Coordinate System file from SmartWorx).
3.
Press Open to store the data in the Office database or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

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Only one TRFSET.dat or GPSTRF.dat file may be selected at a time.
If a coordinate system with the same name already exists, but differs in its components from the system
to be imported (e.g. has a different transformation included), then a new coordinate system with <Name
(2)> will be created automatically.
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Management Components
Delete a Coordinate System
1.
Right-click on a Coordinate System in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:


Coordinate Systems that are attached to a Project are indicated by
The Coordinate Systems
modified.
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WGS1984 and
and cannot be deleted.
None are hardwired and can neither be deleted nor
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Coordinate System Properties
Coordinate System Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display/ edit the Coordinate System Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Coordinate System in the Explorer-View or Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Make your changes in the page General.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at that particular instant.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:


The Coordinate System WGS1984 is hardwired and can neither be deleted nor modified. It is the
default coordinate system on GPS instruments.
The Coordinate System None is also hardwired and can neither be deleted nor modified. It is the
default coordinate system on TPS instruments.
Tip:
A Coordinate System can be attached to a project by selecting it in the Project Properties: Coordinates page.
If a coordinate system other than WGS1984 or None is attached, coordinates can be displayed in either
WGS84 or Local.
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Management Components
Coordinate System Properties: General
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the Coordinate System Properties.
Name:
Name of Coordinate System.
Transformation:
Displays the selected Transformation. Transformations may be calculated using Datum/Map or in the case
of a Classical 2D and 3D, manually entered. See also Add a New Transformation.
Trans. Type:
Displays the type of the Transformation selected above. Its height mode (Ellipsoidal or Orthometric) is
displayed, too.
Residuals:
For Transformations calculated using Datum/Map you might choose how to distribute the residuals. The
distribution weighting may be in relation to the distances between the point to be transformed and the
control points or by using a Multi-quadratic interpolation approach. No distribution is selected by default.
Local Ellipsoid:
Displays the Ellipsoid of the Local System (System B). Most of the commonly used Ellipsoids are hardwired.
However you may define your own Ellipsoid. See Add a New Ellipsoid.
Note: An Ellipsoid cannot be selected if it is already defined in the Transformation or is not required if you
are using a One Step or an Interpolation Transformation.
Projection (Zone):
Displays the Map Projection or the State Plane Zone. Except for the Customized Projections and the State
Plane Zones, which are hardwired, the Map Projections have to be pre-defined before they become
available in the list. See also: Add a New Projection.
Note: To switch between Projections and State Plane Zones right-click on the background of the PropertySheet and select between Projections and Zones.
A Projection is not required if you are using a One Step or an Interpolation Transformation. When using a
Stepwise or a Two-Step transformation the Projection is already defined.
Proj. Type:
Displays the type of the above selected Projection. See Projections for a complete list of all available
Projection Types.
Geoid Model:
Displays the Geoid Model. Geoid Models are not hardwired and need to be defined before they become
available in the list. See also Add a New Geoid Model.
Note: A geoid model, which is intended to be applied to a coordinate system defined on a local ellipsoid has
to generally be based upon the same local ellipsoid.
One Step, Interpolation, Stepwise and Two Step transformations cannot be combined with local geodetic
geoid models as these transformation types convert directly to local grid. Geoid models based on local grid
are allowed with these transformation types, though.
Use of geoid models based upon the WGS84 ellipsoid:
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Additionally, global geoid models which are based on the WGS84 ellipsoid can be attached to a coordinate
system which itself is defined on a local ellipsoid different to the WGS84 ellipsoid if the following conditions
are met:

The transformation is of type Classical 3D, One Step, Two Step or None.

The height mode of the transformation is Ellipsoidal, which means that the transformation results in
local ellipsoidal heights.
The resulting WGS84 geoid separations will always be converted to the local system and be stored as local
geoid separations. The orthometric heights will be calculated by applying the geoid separations directly to
the WGS84 ellipsoidal heights.
CSCS Model:
Displays the Country Specific Coordinate System Model (CSCS Model). CSCS models need to be defined
before they become available in the list. See also: Add a new CSCS Model.
Note:
Displays the optional Note to describe the Coordinate System. The Note may be up to 48 characters long.
Last Modified:
Displays the Date and Time the Coordinate System was last modified.
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Management Components
Transformation
Transformation
The Transformation is normally used to transform coordinates from WGS1984 to a Local system or vice versa.
However it may also be used to perform a Transformation between two local systems.
A Transformation is a set of parameters that describe the conversion of coordinates from one system to another.
Transformation parameters are handled using the Coordinate System Management, but they may be determined
with the Datum/Map tool.
The following Transformation approaches are available:
Classical 2D
Classical 3D
One Step
Stepwise
Interpolation
Two Step
Select from the index below to learn how to manage Transformations
Add a New Transformation
Modify
Delete a Transformation
Save As
Transformation Properties
Related topics:
Which approach to use?
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Classical 2D
The Classical 2D transformation approach allows you to determine parameters for transforming the position
coordinates (Easting and Northing) from one grid system to another grid system. No parameters for the height will
be calculated.
This transformation determines 4 parameters (2 shifts Easting and Northing, 1 Rotation and 1 Scale factor).
Note:

The Classical 2D transformation may only be used to export local Coordinates to an ASCII file. A
Classical 2D transformation can not be used in a Project.
Other transformation approaches:
Classical 3D
One Step
Two Step
Interpolation
Stepwise
Which approach to use
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Classical 3D
The Classical 3D transformation approach creates transformation parameters using a rigorous 3D Classical
method.
Basically, the method works by taking the Cartesian coordinates of the GPS measured points (WGS84 ellipsoid)
and comparing them with the Cartesian coordinates of the local coordinates. From this, Shifts, Rotations and a
Scale factor are calculated in order to transform from one system to another.
The Classical 3D Transformation approach allows you to determine a maximum of 7 transformation parameters (3
shifts, 3 rotations, and 1 scale factor). However the user can select the parameters to be determined.
The Classical 3D transformation allows the choice of two different transformation models: Bursa-Wolf or
Molodensky-Badekas.
For the Classical 3D transformation method, we recommend that you have at least three points for which the
coordinates are known in the local system and in WGS84. It is possible to compute transformation parameters
using only three common points but using four produces more redundancy and allows for residuals to be
calculated.
The Advantage
 The advantages of this method of calculating transformation parameters are that it maintains the accuracy
of the GPS measurements and may be used over virtually any area as long as the local coordinates
(including height) are accurate.
The Disadvantage
 The disadvantage is that if local grid coordinates are desired, the local ellipsoid and map projections must
be known. In addition if the local coordinates are not accurate within themselves, any new points
measured using GPS may not fit into this existing local system once transformed.

In order to obtain accurate ellipsoidal heights the Geoid separation at the measured points must be known.
This may be determined from a geoidal model. Many countries do not have access to an accurate local
geoidal model. See also Geoid Model.
Other transformation approaches:
Classical 2D
One Step
Two Step
Interpolation
Stepwise
Which approach to use
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One Step
This transformation approach works by treating the height and position transformations separately. For the position
transformation, the WGS84 coordinates are projected onto a temporary Transverse Mercator projection and then
the shifts, rotation and scale from the temporary projection to the "real" projection are calculated.
The Height transformation is a single dimension height approximation.
Because of the way in which the position transformation approach works it is possible to define a transformation
without any knowledge of the local map projection or local ellipsoid.
As with the Interpolation and Stepwise approaches, the height and position transformations are separate and
therefore errors in height do not propagate into errors in position. Additionally, if knowledge of local heights is not
good or non-existent you can still create a transformation for position only. Also, the height points and position
points do not have to be the same points.
Because of the way in which the transformation works it is possible to compute transformation parameters with just
one point in the local and WGS84 system.
The combinations of the number of points in position and the position transformation parameters that can be
calculated from them are as follows:
No. of position points
Transformation Parameters Computed
1
Classical 2D with shift in X and Y only
2
Classical 2D with shift in X and Y, Rotation about Z and Scale
more than 2
Classical 2D with shift in X and Y, Rotation about Z, Scale and Residuals
The number of points with height included in the transformation directly affects the type of height transformation
produced.
No. of height points
Height transformation based on
0
No height transformation
1
Constant height transformation
2
Average constant between the two height points.
3
Plane through the three height points
more than 3
Average plane
The Advantages:
 The advantages of this method are that transformation parameters may be computed using very little
information. No knowledge is needed of the local ellipsoid and map projection and parameters may be
computed with the minimum of points. Care should be taken however when computing parameters using
just one or two local points as the parameters calculated will only be valid in the vicinity of the points used
for the transformation.
The Disadvantage:
 Disadvantages of this approach are the same as for the Interpolation approach in that the area of the
transformation is restricted to about 10km square (Using 4 common points).
Other transformation approaches:
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Classical 3D
Classical 2D
Two Step
Interpolation
Stepwise
Which approach to use
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Two Step
This transformation approach works by treating the height and position transformation separately. For the position
transformation the WGS 84 coordinates are first transformed using a Classical 3D pre-transformation to obtain
preliminary local cartesian coordinates. These are projected onto a preliminary grid using the specified ellipsoid
and map projection. Then the 2 shifts, the rotation and the scale factor of a Classical 2D transformation are
calculated to transform the preliminary to the “real” local coordinates.
The position transformation requires knowledge of the local map projection and the local ellipsoid. However, as the
distortions of the map projection are taken into account, Two Step transformations can be used for larger areas
than One Step transformations.
The height transformation is a single dimension height approximation.
As with the Interpolation, Stepwise or One Step approaches, the height and position transformations are separate
and, therefore, errors in height do not propagate into errors in position. Additionally, if knowledge of local heights is
not good or non-existent you can still create a transformation for position only. Also, the height points and position
points do not have to be the same points.
Because of the way in which the transformation works it is possible to compute transformation parameters with just
one point in the local and WGS84 system.
The combinations of the number of points in position and the position transformation parameters that can be
calculated from them are as follows:
No. of position points
Transformation Parameters Computed
1
Classical 2D with shift in X and Y only
2
Classical 2D with shift in X and Y, Rotation about Z and Scale
more than 2
Classical 2D with shift in X and Y, Rotation about Z, Scale and Residuals
The number of points with height included in the transformation directly affects the type of height transformation
produced.
No. of height points
Height transformation based on
0
No height transformation
1
Constant height transformation
2
Average constant between the two height points.
3
Plane through the three height points
more than 3
Average plane
The Advantages:
 Errors in local heights do not affect the position transformation

The points used for determining the position and height transformation do not necessarily have to be the
same points.

The distortions of the map projection are taken into account which enables you to use this kind of
transformation for larger areas.
The Disadvantage:
 Knowledge of the local projection and local ellipsoid are required.
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Other transformation approaches:
Classical 3D
Classical 2D
One Step
Interpolation
Stepwise
Which approach to use
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Stepwise
The Stepwise transformation approach is effectively a combination of the Classical 3D approach and the
Interpolation method. The position and height transformations are split into two separate components. A Classical
transformation approach is used for the position transformation and an Interpolation method used for the height.
For this method, we recommend that you have at least four points for which the coordinates are known in the local
grid system and in WGS84. It is possible to compute transformation parameters using only three common points
but using four allows for residuals to be calculated. In addition you need to know the type of map projection on
which the local coordinates are based and it's parameters, as well as the local ellipsoid used.
Because this approach splits the transformation into two separate components, position and height are
independent of each other as with the Interpolation method. This means that the points used for determining the
position and height transformation do not necessarily have to be the same points.
As the position transformation is determined using the Classical 3D approach, the transformation area may be
larger than with the Interpolation Transformation. The limiting factor for the transformation area is the accuracy of
the height transformation.
Basically, the method works like this:
1.
The center of gravity of the common points is computed.
2.
The shifts between WGS84 and the local ellipsoid are computed.
3.
The map projection is applied to the WGS84 points.
4.
The Classical 2D transformation parameters are determined.
5.
The height interpolation is determined.
In flat or relatively flat areas, where good heights are available in the local system, the approach will have no
problem in constructing a good height transformation for relatively large areas. The more height points included,
the better the height transformation will be.
In areas where it is suspected that the geoid undulation is extreme, the area over which the transformation is
carried out should be reduced if accurate heighting is required. Note that position will not be affected by extreme
geoid undulations.
The Advantages:
 Errors in local heights do not affect the position transformation

The points used for determining the position and height transformation do not necessarily have to be the
same points.

The height transformation method will provide accurate height transformations without any knowledge of
geoid separations as long as the geoid/ellipsoid separation is reasonably constant and does not contain
sudden changes. The more height points included the better the model.
The Disadvantage:
 Knowledge of the local projection and local ellipsoid are required.
Other transformation approaches:
Classical 3D
Classical 2D
One Step
Two Step
Interpolation
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Which approach to use
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Interpolation
The Interpolation approach creates transformation parameters based on an affine transformation model that uses a
Collocation algorithm to estimate the systematic part of the noise.
Basically what this means is that the WGS84 coordinates measured by the GPS are squeezed or stretched to fit
the local grid. The local grid is constructed using the entered grid coordinates.
Position and height are treated separately and as such are independent of each other. This means that the
measured position points do not necessarily have to be the same points for which height is known and that errors
in local height measurement will not be propagated into the position transformation component.
The Interpolation approach has certain advantages over a traditional 3D Classical approach in that parameters can
be calculated without knowledge of the map projection or local ellipsoid. Additionally, heights and position are
transformed independently of each other. This means that the local coordinates do not have to contain the height
information. The height information may be obtained from different points.
The Interpolation approach will tend to distort the GPS measurements to fit the existing local grid measurements.
This may be an advantage or disadvantage as the GPS coordinates are generally found to be better than the
existing grid coordinates. That is to say that they are more homogenous.
This means that the accuracy of the GPS coordinates may be slightly compromised when using this method. This
may be advantageous if you want future transformed GPS points to tie in with your existing local network.
The Advantages:
 Errors in local heights do not affect the position transformation

The parameters can be calculated without knowledge of the map projection or local ellipsoid

The points used for determining the position and height transformation do not necessarily have to be the
same points.
The Disadvantage:
 The main disadvantage of the interpolation approach is that it is restricted in the area over which it can be
applied. This is mainly due to the fact that there is no provision for scale factor in the projection. In
practical terms, the area over which this transformation approach can be applied is about 10-15km square.
Other transformation approaches:
Classical 3D
Classical 2D
One Step
Two Step
Stepwise
Which approach to use
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Which approach to use
This question is almost impossible to answer since the approach used will depend totally on local conditions and
information.
If you wish to keep the GPS measurements totally homogenous and the information about the local map projection
is available, the Classical 3D approach would be the most suitable.
If you are unsure of the local height information but the position information is accurate and you wish to keep the
GPS measurements homogenous in position, then the Stepwise approach may be the most suitable.
For cases where there is no information regarding the ellipsoid and/or map projection and/or you wish to force the
GPS measurements to tie in with local existing control then the One-Step approach may be the most suitable.
Alternatively if a large number of common points are available and a more accurate approximation is required the
Interpolation approach can be used.
The Two-Step approach also treats position and height information separately which allows for position only control
points to be used as well. Compared to the One-Step approach, information regarding the ellipsoid and map
projection has to be known. The advantage is that this approach can be used for larger areas than the One-Step.
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Add a New Transformation
A Transformation is usually calculated using the Datum/Map tool. However a Classical 2D and Classical 3D may
also be added manually:
1.
Right-click on Transformations in the Tree-View and select New.
2.
Enter the Name of the transformation.
3.
Select the Type of the transformation.
Note: Only the types Classical 2D and Classical 3D may be added manually. Other transformation types
can only be added (determined) using the Datum/Map tool.
4.
Select the Height Mode of the transformation. Choose between Ellipsoidal or Orthometric.
Note: The Height Mode may only be selected for Classical 3D transformations. It can also be determined
using the Datum/Map tool.
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5.
Enter the necessary parameters of the selected transformation type.
6.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Delete a Transformation
1.
Right-click on a Transformation in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:

Transformations that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
deleted.
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and cannot be
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Transformation Properties
Transformation Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display/edit the Transformation Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Transformation in the Report-View or Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Make your changes in the page General.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at the particular instant.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:


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Only the Properties of Classical 3D, Classical 2D, One Step- or Two Step Transformations may be
displayed.
For Two Step transformations an additional page Pre-transformation is accessible.
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Management Components
Transformation Properties: General
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the Transformation Properties. In addition to the Properties of a
Classical 2D or Classical 3D Transformation those of any One Step or Two Step Transformation may be displayed.
Name:
Type:
Name of Transformation. The Name can only be changed if the Transformation is not being currently used
in any Coordinate System definition.
The Type Classical 3D,Classical 2D, One Step or Two Step is displayed and cannot be changed.
Height Mode:
Displays the height mode of the selected Transformation. The height mode is set in Datum & Map in the
Configuration page.
You may also change the height mode directly in this Property-Page. You have the choice between
Ellipsoidal and Orthometric.
Last modified:
Date and Time the Transformation was last modified.
Ellip. A:
Restricts the use of the Transformation to convert coordinates of the selected Ellipsoid (Datum) only. For
Classical 3D, One Step or Two Step it is usually set to WGS1984. ‘Ellip. A’ can only be modified if the
Transformation is not currently in use in any Coordinate System definition.
Ellip. B:
If an Ellipsoid for System B is defined, the Transformation is restricted to be used to convert to the selected
Datum only. For Classical 3D it is usually set to a local Ellipsoid. Since One Step Transformations typically
work without knowledge of a local ellipsoid ‘Ellip.B’ is usually set to None in this case.
Projection:
Restricts the use of a Classical 2D Transformation to a particular Projection.
When editing the properties of a One Step Transformation the projection edit field is not shown at all, since
One Step Transformations are based upon their own kind of projection. They are not related to a classical
map projection.
In case of a Two Step transformation the projection used is pre-defined as the projection attached to the
System B Project in Datum & Map.
Model:
With the Classical 3D Transformation you are allowed for the choice of two different transformation models:
Bursa-Wolf or Molodensky-Badekas.
dx, dy, dz:
Translations in X, Y and Z direction. For a Classical 2D, a One Step or a Two Step Transformation dx and
dy correspond to translations in local Easting and Northing.
Rx, Ry, Rz:
Rotations around the X, Y and Z axis. For a Classical 2D Transformation as well as for the One Step and
Two Step Transformation only Rz is available. With plane grid coordinates this is the axis being
perpendicular to the plane. Any rotation of such a plane system is about the Z axis.
SF:
Scale factor in ppm (e.g. mm/km)
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Transformation Properties: Pre-transformation
This page is only available for Two Step transformations and enables you to display the properties of the Pretransformation used in the calculation of Two Step transformations. The parameters are not editable.
Name:
Type:
Name of Pre-transformation.
The Type is fixed to Classical 3D. Only Classical 3D transformations are allowed to be used as Pretransformations.
Last modified:
Date and Time the Transformation was last modified.
Ellip. A, Ellip.B:
Displays the ellipsoid A and ellipsoid B properties of the selected Pre-transformation.
Note: When applying a Two Step transformation in a coordinate system always the ellipsoid associated with
that coordinate system is used for the calculation even if this collides with ellipsoid B of the Pretransformation. The ellipsoid B of the Pre-transformation will be ignored then.
Model:
As with all Classical 3D Transformations the Pre-transformation can also be one of two different
transformation models: Bursa-Wolf or Molodensky-Badekas.
dx, dy, dz:
Translations in X, Y and Z direction.
Rx, Ry, Rz:
Rotations around the X, Y and Z axis.
SF:
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Scale factor in ppm (e.g. mm/km)
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Ellipsoids
Ellipsoids
This component enables you to manage the Reference Ellipsoids. An Ellipsoid is defined by the semi-major axis (a)
and the flattening (f). The flattening is related to the semi-minor axis (b) by:
f = (a-b) / a
In LGO an ellipsoid is defined by the name, the semi-major axis (a) and the reciprocal value of flattening (1/f).
Most of the ellipsoids in use around the world are already pre-defined:
Name
(a)
(1/f)
Airy
6377563.396
299.32496460000
Airy (Modified)
6377340.189
299.32496460000
ATS-77
6378135.000
298.25700000000
Australian National
6378160.000
298.25000000000
Bessel 1841
6377397.155
299.15281285000
Clarke 1866
6378206.400
294.97869820000
Clarke 1880
6378249.145
293.46500000000
Everest
6377276.345
300.80170000000
Fisher 1960 (South Asia)
6378155.000
298.30000000000
Fisher 1960 (Mercury)
6378166.000
298.30000000000
Fisher 1968
6378150.000
298.30000000000
GRS 1967
6378160.000
298.24716743000
GRS 1980
6378137.000
298.25722210088
Hough 1956
6378270.000
297.00000000000
Int. Hayford
6378388.000
297.00000000000
Krassowski
6378245.000
298.30000000000
South American 1969
6378160.000
298.25000000000
WGS72
6378135.000
298.26000000000
WGS84
6378137.000
298.25722356300
Xi’an-80
6378140.000
298.25700000000
Note:


The Ellipsoids indicated by
are hardwired and can neither be deleted nor edited.
User defined Ellipsoids, which are currently being used in a Coordinate System, are indicated by
may not be deleted or renamed, but the parameters may be edited.
and
Select from the index below to learn how to manage the Ellipsoids
Add a New Ellipsoid
Modify
Delete an Ellipsoid
Save As
Ellipsoid Properties
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Add a New Ellipsoid
192
1.
Right-click on Ellipsoids in the Tree-View and select New
2.
Enter the Name of the Ellipsoid
3.
Enter the Semi-major axis (a) of the Ellipsoid
4.
Enter the Reciprocal flattening (1/f) of the Ellipsoid
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Delete an Ellipsoid
1.
Right-click on an Ellipsoid in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:


The Ellipsoids indicated by
are hardwired and cannot be deleted.
User defined Ellipsoids, which are currently being used in a Coordinate System, are indicated by
may not be deleted.
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and
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Ellipsoid Properties
Ellipsoid Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display/edit the Ellipsoid Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Ellipsoid in the Explorer-View or Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Make your changes in the page General.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at the particular instant.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

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The Ellipsoids indicated by
are hardwired and cannot be modified.
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Ellipsoid Properties: General
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the Ellipsoid Properties.
Name:
Name of Ellipsoid. The Name can only be changed if the Ellipsoid is not hardwired or not used in any
Coordinate System definition.
Semi-major axis (a):
Displays the value for the semi-major axis.
Reciprocal flattening (1/f):
Displays the reciprocal value of the flattening.
Last modified:
Date and Time the Ellipsoid was last modified
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Projections
Projections
For each different mapping area the user may define a Projection. A Projection allows the conversion of Geodetic
coordinates to Grid coordinates or vice versa.
Most of the Projections can be defined using one of the methods below. Alternatively you may define your own
User defined Projection in the form of a user written program or you may use one of the Customized Projections
(see below).
The Projection types that can be user defined are:
Mercator
Transverse Mercator (TM)
Oblique Mercator
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Cassini - Soldner
Lambert - one Standard Parallel
Lambert - two Standard Parallels
Polar Stereographic
Double Stereographic
Rectified Skewed Orthomorphic
User defined
Certain map Projections that are not definable using one of the methods above, have been hardwired in the Office
software and can neither be deleted nor changed. These Projections are called Customized Projections and they
have pre-defined Ellipsoids. The relationship between these Projections and the Ellipsoids are fixed as follows:
Projection
Ellipsoid
Czech JTSK
Bessel
Czech and Slovak
Bessel
DK (S34) Bornholm
International (Hayford)
DK (S34) Jylland
International (Hayford)
DK (S34) Sjelland
International (Hayford)
Dutch
Bessel
Finnish KKJ
International (Hayford)
Hungarian
GRS 1967
Malayan
Everest
New Zealand
International (Hayford)
Romania Stereo 70
Krassowski
Swiss
Bessel
Swiss95
Bessel
Note:

196
Defining a Coordinate System the user has the choice between Projections and State Plane Zones.

A Projection is not required if you are using a One Step or an Interpolation Transformation.

The Projections indicated by
are hardwired and can neither be deleted nor edited.
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
The Projections, which are currently being used in a Coordinate System, are indicated by
be deleted or renamed, but the parameters may be edited.
and cannot
Select from the index below to learn how to manage the Projections
Add a New Projection
Modify
Delete a Projection
Save As
Projection Properties
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Add a New Projection
1.
Right-click on Projections in the Tree-View and select New.
2.
Enter Name of Projection. It is often useful to give any Projection set a meaningful name that identifies the
area in which the Projection is applicable.
For example: UTM, Zone 5, hemisphere north (UTM 5 North)
3.
Select Type of Projection:
Mercator
Transverse Mercator (TM)
Oblique Mercator
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Cassini - Soldner
Lambert - one Standard Parallel
Lambert - two Standard Parallels
Polar Stereographic
Double Stereographic
Rectified Skewed Orthomorphic
or
User defined
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4.
Enter the necessary parameters of the selected Projection.
5.
Choose OK to accept entered values or Cancel to abort the function.
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Delete a Projection
1.
Right-click on a Projection in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting
Note:


The Projections indicated by
are hardwired and can neither be deleted nor edited.
The Projections, which are currently being used in a Coordinate System, are indicated by
be deleted.
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and cannot
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Projection Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display/edit the Projection Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Projection in the Explorer-View or Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Make your changes. The parameters may vary depending on the type of Projection that is selected:
Mercator
Transverse Mercator (TM)
Oblique Mercator
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Cassini - Soldner
Lambert - one Standard Parallel
Lambert - two Standard Parallel
Polar Stereographic
Double Stereographic
Rectified Skewed Orthomorphic
User defined
3.
Note:


200
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
The Projections indicated by
are hardwired and cannot be modified.
The Projections, which are currently being used in a Coordinate System, are indicated by
be renamed, but the parameters may be edited.
and cannot
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Mercator
Conformal Projection onto a cylinder with its axis lying on a meridian plane. The cylinder is tangent to the sphere
(ellipsoid) along the equator. The Projection is defined by:
 False Northing and False Easting

Central Meridian
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Transverse Mercator (TM)
Conformal Projection on to a cylinder with its axis lying on the equatorial plane. The cylinder is tangential to a
meridian. The Projection is defined by:

False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

Scale Factor at Origin (Central Meridian)
A zone width can also be defined. Points that exceed the zone width by 1° are not converted.
For a scale factor = 1 the cylinder is tangent to the sphere (ellipsoid), for a scale factor < 1 it is secant. Secant
means the cylinder intersects the sphere along two straight lines equidistant from the central meridian. In this case
the scale is true (1) along these two straight lines.
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Oblique Mercator
Conformal Projection on to a cylinder. The cylinder is tangent to any circle other than the equator or a meridian.
The Projection is defined by:

False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

Angle (Type: Azimuth or Skew)

Scale Factor at Origin
For a scale factor = 1 the cylinder is tangent to the sphere, for a scale factor < 1 it is secant. Secant means the
cylinder intersects the sphere along two straight lines equidistant from the central meridian. In this case the scale is
true along these two straight lines.
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Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Transverse Mercator Projection with fixed zone-defining constants. Thus it is sufficient to define:
 Zone Number (1-60)

Hemisphere (north or south)
Zone-defining constants:
Origin: Intersection of equator and central meridian of each zone
Scale factor at central meridian: 0.9996
Zone width: 6° (3° east and 3° west of the central meridian)
Zone numbering: starting with number 1 for zone 180° west to 174° west and increasing eastwards
False Northing: 0 for northern hemisphere, 10'000'000 m for southern hemisphere
False Easting: 500'000 m
Note:


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The Central Meridian is selected automatically according to the selected Zone Number.
Points, which exceed the zone width by 1° are not converted. (4° east and 4° west of the central meridian)
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Cassini - Soldner
Projection on to a Cylinder. It is neither equal area nor conformal. The scale is true along the central meridian and
along lines perpendicular to central meridian. The Projection is defined by:
 False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian
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Lambert - one Standard Parallel
Conformal Projection on to a cone, with its axis coinciding with the z-axis of the ellipsoid, defined by:
 False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

Standard Parallel

Scale Factor at Origin
If the Scale Factor at Origin = 1 the cone is tangent to the sphere (ellipsoid), if it is < 1 it is secant. Secant means
the cone intersects the sphere along two parallel lines. In this case the scale is true along these two parallel lines.
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Lambert - two Standard Parallels
Conformal Projection on to a cone, with its axis coinciding with the z-axis of the ellipsoid. The cone is secant to the
sphere. The Projection is defined by:
 False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

First Standard Parallel

Second Standard Parallel
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Polar Stereographic
Conformal azimuthal Projection on to a plane. The point of Projection is on the surface of the sphere (ellipsoid)
diametrically opposite of the origin (centre of the Projection). The Projection is defined by:

False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

Scale Factor at Origin
If the Scale Factor at Origin = 1 the plane is tangent to the sphere (ellipsoid), if it is < 1 it is secant. Secant means
the plane intersects the sphere along a circle. In this case the scale is true along this circle.
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Double Stereographic
Conformal azimuthal Projection on to a plane. The point of Projection is on the surface of the sphere diametrically
opposite of the origin (centre of the Projection). The Projection is defined by:

False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

Scale Factor at Origin
If the Scale Factor at Origin = 1 the plane is tangent to the sphere, if it is < 1 it is secant. Secant means the plane
intersects the sphere along a circle. In this case the scale is true along this circle.
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Rectified Skewed Orthomorphic
This is a special type of Oblique Mercator Projection, defined by:

False Easting and False Northing

Latitude of Origin

Central Meridian

Angle Type (Azimuth or Skew)

Rectify Type (Azimuth or Skew)

Scale Factor at Origin
For a scale factor = 1 the cylinder is tangent to the sphere (ellipsoid), for a scale factor < 1 it is secant.
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User defined projections
For Projections, which cannot be defined by the implemented standard Projections, the user can write his own
program for a particular Projection.
The necessary input for the program has to be read from an ASCII file, the produced output has to be written to an
ASCII file.
A Projection set accessing this user program can then be created by specifying the program's name and path:
Name
Name of the user defined Projection.
Path of EXE file:
Path and file name (including the extension .EXE). To select from the browser click
.
Requirements for the user program:

It must be an executable program.

No interaction is allowed.

Input and output for the user program has to be organised according to a specified File Format .
Related topics:
Input / Output file format for User defined Map Projection
Example of a User-written Program
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File Format of INPUT.USR and OUTPUT.USR
Whenever Grid coordinates are converted to Geodetic coordinates or vice versa, intermediate files are created
internally which are passed to the applied Projection program. In the case of a User-defined program, the
programmer has to know the format of these intermediate files.
Input.usr
This is the file, which has to be accessed to read in the coordinates to be converted into the user defined map
Projection program.
Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Flag for identification of coordinate type:
1 = geodetic coordinates
2 = grid coordinates
Semi-major axis of reference ellipsoid.
Flattening of reference ellipsoid.
Following lines
Each line contains:
in case of geodetic coordinates: latitude and longitude (in radians) for one point.
in case of grid coordinates: easting and northing for one point.
Example of INPUT.USR file for geodetic coordinates:
1
6378137.000
0.003352810665
0.826317296827
0.826317295438
0.826317295735
0.826317296574
0.826317295208
0.826317294691
0.826317293977
0.826317295626
0.826317295911
0.826317295738
0.167522411309
0.167522411668
0.167522412147
0.167522411113
0.167522411696
0.167522410838
0.167522410262
0.167522410202
0.167522411033
0.167522410997
Example of INPUT.USR file for grid coordinates:
2
6378137.000
0.003352810665
763092.409 245766.864
763092.411 245766.855
763092.413 245766.857
763092.408 245766.862
763092.411 245766.854
763092.407 245766.850
763092.405 245766.845
763092.405 245766.856
763092.408 245766.858
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763092.408 245766.857
Output.usr
This is the file into which the result of the Projection conversion, (i.e. the converted coordinates) has to be written.
All lines
Each line contains:
in case of grid coordinates output: easting and northing for one point.
in case of geodetic coordinates output: latitude and longitude (in radians) for one point.
Example of OUTPUT.USR file for grid coordinates:
763092.409
763092.411
763092.413
763092.408
763092.411
763092.407
763092.405
763092.405
763092.408
763092.408
245766.864
245766.855
245766.857
245766.862
245766.854
245766.850
245766.845
245766.856
245766.858
245766.857
Example of OUTPUT.USR file for geodetic coordinates:
0.826317296864
0.826317295443
0.826317295748
0.826317296554
0.826317295286
0.826317294676
0.826317293899
0.826317295626
0.826317295927
0.826317295770
0.167522411279
0.167522411684
0.167522412158
0.167522411036
0.167522411677
0.167522410728
0.167522410235
0.167522410305
0.167522411010
0.167522411004
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Example of a User-written Program
The following example shows a User–written Program (written in Turbo Pascal) for the Swiss Projection. It
transforms Swiss Grid coordinates to Geodetic coordinates (and vice versa). This map Projection is already
included as a customized Projection.
The line numbers at the beginning of each line are for reference only. They do not constitute part of the source
code.
001 Program CH_Projection_Set;
002
003 const
004 pi= 3.1415926535;
005 eps= 1.0e-10; {convergence limit}
006
007 {constants for Bessel ellipsoid}
008 ae= 6377397.155; {semi major axis}
009 ex2= 0.006674372231; {e squared}
010 lato= 46.952405556; {ell. latitude of Bern}
011 lono= 7.439583333*pi/180; {ell. longitude of Bern}
012
013 {derived constants for sphere}
014 r = 6378815.9036; {radius}
015 alpha = 1.00072913847; {scale factor along meridian through Bern}
017 rk = 0.00306673233; {integration constant}
018 bo= 46.907731456*pi/180; {spherical latitude of Bern}
019
020 var dumy: extended;
021 y,x,h,y1,x1: extended;
022 lquer,bquer,wert,wert1,wert2,bk,lk: extended;
023 cobo,sibo,cobi,sibi,coli,sili: extended;
024 ex,lati,loni,ritko: extended;
025 id: integer;
026 a,b: text;
027
028 {********* Main Program *********}
029
030 begin
031
032 {Assign and open files}
033
034 assign(a,'input.usr');
035 reset(a);
036 assign(b,'output.usr');
037 rewrite(b);
038
039 {Read the first 3 lines}
040
041 readln(a,id); {read type}
042 readln(a,dumy); {read semi-major axis, (not used, fixed programmed)}
043 readln(a,dumy); {read flattening, (not used,fixed programmed)}
044
045
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046 if id = 1 then begin
047
048 {Transformation ELLIPSOID to GRID coordinates}
049
050 while not EOF(a) do begin
051 readln(a,lati,loni);
052
053 {transformation ellipsoid to sphere}
054 ex:= sqrt(ex2);
055 wert1:= pi/4.0+lati/2.0;
056 wert1:= alpha*ln(sin(wert1)/cos(wert1));
057 wert2:= ln((1.0+ex*sin(lati))/(1.0-ex*sin(lati)));
058 wert:= exp(wert1-(alpha*ex/2.0*wert2)+rk);
059 bk:= 2.0*(arctan(wert)-pi/4.0);
060 lk:= alpha*(loni-lono);
061
062 {transformation sphere to sphere}
063 cobo:= cos(bo);
064 sibo:= sin(bo);
065 cobi:= cos(bk);
066 sibi:= sin(bk);
067 coli:= cos(lk);
068 sili:= sin(lk);
069 wert1:= cobo*sibi-sibo*cobi*coli;
070 bquer:= arctan(wert1/(sqrt(1.0-wert1*wert1)));
071 lquer:= arctan(cobi*sili/(sibo*sibi+cobo*cobi*coli));
072
073 {transformation sphere to plane}
074 x1:= r/2.0*ln((1.0+sin(bquer))/(1.0-sin(bquer)));
075 y1:= r*lquer;
076
077 {transformation civil to military coordinates}
078 x:= x1+200000.0;
079 y:= y1+600000.0;
080
081 {output}
082 writeln(b,y:15:4,x:15:4);
083 end;
084 end;
085
086 if id = 2 then begin
087
088 {Transformation GRID to ELLIPSOID}
089
090 while not EOF(a) do begin
091 readln(a,y,x);
092
093 {transformation military to civil coordinates}
094 y1:= y-600000.0;
095 x1:= x-200000.0;
096
097 {transformation plane to sphere}
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098 lquer:= y1/r;
099 bquer:= 2.0*(arctan(exp(x1/r))-pi/4.0);
100
101 {transformation sphere to sphere}
102 cobo:= cos(bo);
103 sibo:= sin(bo);
104 cobi:= cos(bquer);
105 sibi:= sin(bquer);
106 coli:= cos(lquer);
107 sili:= sin(lquer);
108 wert:= cobo*sibi+sibo*cobi*coli;
109 bk:= arctan(wert/(sqrt(1.0-wert*wert)));
110 lk:= arctan(cobi*sili/(cobo*cobi*coli-sibo*sibi));
111
112 {transformation sphere to ellipsoid}
113 ex:= sqrt(ex2);
114 lati:= bk;
115 repeat
116 ritko:= lati;
117 wert1:= pi/4.0+bk/2.0;
118 wert1:= sin(wert1)/cos(wert1);
119 wert1:= ln(wert1)/alpha;
120 wert2:= ln((1.0+ex*sin(lati))/(1.0-ex*sin(lati)))*ex/2.0;
121 lati:= 2.0*(arctan(exp(wert1+wert2-rk/alpha))-pi/4.0);
122 until (abs(ritko-lati)<eps);
123 loni:=lono+lk/alpha;
124
125 {output}
126 writeln(b,lati:15:12,loni:15:12);
127 end;
128 end;
129 close(a);
140 close(b);
141 end.
There are a few minor constraints in the user written program that must be observed in order to be able to integrate
it into a user–defined Projection set:
LINE 034
The file name for the file containing the coordinates that are to be transformed (for grid coordinates as well as for
geodetic coordinates) has to be INPUT.USR
LINE 036
The name of the file to output the transformed coordinates (for Grid coordinates as well as for Geodetic
coordinates) has to be OUTPUT.USR
LINE 041
The first line of the INPUT.USR file containing the information flag for the type of coordinates is read in:
1 = geodetic coordinates.
2 = grid coordinates.
LINE 042
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The second line of the INPUT.USR file containing the value for the semi–major axis of the reference ellipsoid is
read in. In this example the value is not used because it is implicitly stated in the program parameters.
LINE 043
The third line of the INPUT.USR file containing the value for the flattening of the reference ellipsoid is read in. In
this example the value is not used because it is implicitly stated in the program parameters.
LINE 046
The switch is set to transform from Geodetic to Grid coordinates.
LINE 051
The rest of the lines of the INPUT.USR file containing, in this case, Geodetic coordinates (latitude and longitude, in
radians) are read in.
LINE 082
The resultant Grid coordinates are written to the OUTPUT.USR file. First Easting then Northing.
LINE 086
The switch is set to transform from Grid to Geodetic coordinates.
LINE 091
The rest of the lines of the INPUT.USR file containing, in this case, Grid coordinates (Easting and Northing) are
read in.
LINE 126
The resultant Geodetic coordinates are written to the OUTPUT.USR file, first latitude then longitude (in radians).
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State Plane Zones
State Plane Zones
The State Plane Zones are special predefined Projection zones used for the State Plane Coordinate System
(SPCS) in North America. They are hardwired and can neither be modified nor deleted.
State Plane Zones are available only if North-America has been selected in Coordinate System Definitions during
installation.
Depending on the shape of a state, the zones have predefined Projection types and parameters associated with
them.
The following Projection types are used for the State Plane Zones:
Transverse Mercator (TM)
Oblique Mercator
Lambert - one Standard Parallel
Lambert - two Standard Parallels
Tip:

If you define a Coordinate System you may either use the configurable Projections or the State Plane
Zones. See also How to switch between Projections and State Plane Zones.
See also:
Properties of State Plane Zones
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State Plane Zone Properties
The State Plane Zone Properties are similar to the Projection Properties. Since the State Plane Zones are predefined Projections none of the parameters may be edited.
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How to switch between Projections and State Plane Zones
This function enables you to switch between selecting Map Projections or US State Plane Zones in the Coordinate
Systems Property-Page.

220
Right-click on the background of the Property-Page of a Coordinate System and select between
Projections and Zones.
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Geoid Models
Geoid Models
The user can utilise a Geoid Model that is appropriate for the mapping area under consideration. An Ellipsoid is
attached to the Geoid Model. It is the user's responsibility to obtain the model, which will be in the form of an
executable computer program. Geoid Models can be defined for Geodetic or Grid Coordinates and refer to a
particular Ellipsoid.
With a Geoid Model attached to a Coordinate System you can Compute Geoid Separations of the Points in a
Project. The Geoid Model replaces the requirement for you to manually input Geoid Separations for your points.
If Geoid Separations are available it enables you to switch between viewing Ellipsoidal and Orthometric heights.
The relationship between Ellipsoid and Orthometric heights is given by:
Ellipsoidal Height (h) = Orthometric Height (H) + Geoid Separation (N)
Geoid Models may also be used on the receiver in the field. To do so you have to Create a Geoid Model field file
and then upload the file to the receiver using the Data Exchange Manager.
Note:


Geoid Models are always an approximation of the actual Geoid. In terms of accuracy, they may vary
considerably and in particular global models should be used with care. If the accuracy of the Geoid Model
is not known it might be safer to use local control points with orthometric heights and apply a
transformation to approximate the local geoid. The Classical 3D Transformation can be used in areas
where the geoid has a regular shape, while the Stepwise Transformation is particularly suitable if the local
geoid contains large variations within the mapping area.
Geoid Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
and cannot be deleted.
Select from the index below to learn how to manage the Geoid Models:
Add a New Geoid Model
Modify
Delete a Geoid Model
Save As
Geoid Model Properties
Related Topics:
How to write your own Geoid Model
Compute Geoid Separations
Create Geoid Model field file
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Add a New Geoid Model
1.
Right-click on Geoids in the Tree-View and select New.
2.
Enter the Name for the new Geoid Model.
3.
Select the Coordinate Type (Geodetic or Grid) the Geoid Model shall be defined for. (For coordinate type
Geodetic with height scaling see: Geoid models with height scaling.)
If the geoid model is defined using a GEM file, then the coordinate type is defined with the geoid model
file.
4.
Select the reference Ellipsoid which the model shall refer to.
If the geoid model is defined using a GEM file, then the ellipsoid is defined with the geoid model file.
Apply on the
Note: For the Geodetic geoid models which refer to the WGS84 ellipsoid you may select
local side. The geoid separations will then be applied after the transformation, i.e. to the local ellipsoidal
heights.
5.
Enter the path and name of the geoid model file. You can either select an executable file (*.exe) or a
geoid model field file (*.gem). To select from the browser press
6.
Enter an optional Note to describe the Geoid Model.
7.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

Geoid models can either be defined by an executable file or by a geoid model field file. For geoid
models being defined by a field file the geoid separations required in your project are always kept up to
date, whereas for geoid models being defined by an executable file it is necessary to manually compute
geoid separations.
Refer to the topic How to write your own Geoidal Model for a description on how to create a geoid model
executable file.
Refer to the topic Create Geoid Model field file on how to create a geoid model field file.
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Delete a Geoid Model
1.
Right-click on a Geoid Model in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting
Note:

Geoid Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
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and cannot be deleted.
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Geoid Model Properties
Geoid Model Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display/edit the Geoid Model Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Geoid Model in the Report-View or Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Make your changes in the General page.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at the particular instant.
3.
If the Geoid model is defined from a *.gem file view the extents and spacing of the model in the Extents
page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

224
Geoid Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
but only modified.
and cannot be renamed
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Geoid Model Properties: General
This page enables you to display/edit the general Geoid Model Properties.
Name:
Name of Geoid Model. The Name can only be changed if the Geoid Model is not used in any Coordinate
System definition.
Coordinate Type:
A Geoid Model may calculate Geoid separation values for either Geodetic or Grid Coordinates. Ask the
provider of the Model for the required Coordinate Type. (For coordinate type Geodetic with height scaling
see: Geoid models with height scaling.)
If the geoid model is defined using a GEM file, then the coordinate type cannot be changed.
Ellipsoid:
A Geoid Model is referenced to a particular Ellipsoid. Ask the provider of the Model for the correct Ellipsoid.
If the geoid model is defined using a GEM file, then the ellipsoid cannot be changed.
Apply on the local side:
Apply on the local
For the Geodetic geoid models which refer to the WGS84 ellipsoid you may select
side. The geoid separations will then be applied after the transformation, i.e. to the local ellipsoidal heights.
If the geoid model is defined using a GEM file, then the this option cannot be changed.
File path:
Path and file name (including the extension) of the geoid model. You can either select an executable file
(*.exe) or a geoid model field file (*.gem). To select from the browser click
Note:
.
Displays the optional Note to describe the Geoid Model. The Note may be up to 64 characters long.
Last Modified:
Displays the Date and Time the Geoid Model was last modified.
Note:


Geoid models can either be defined by an executable file or by a geoid model field file. For geoid
models being defined by a field file the geoid separations required in your project are always kept up to
date, whereas for geoid models being defined by an executable file it is necessary to manually compute
geoid separations.
Geoid Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
but only modified.
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Geoid Model Properties: Extents
This page enables you to display the extents of the Geoid Model.
South-west corner:
The coordinates of the lower left (South-west) corner of the model are displayed as local grid coordinates or
geodetic coordinates depending on the Coordinate Type of the Geoid model.
North-east corner:
The coordinates of the upper right (North-east) corner of the model are displayed as local grid coordinates
or geodetic coordinates depending on the Coordinate Type of the Geoid model.
Spacing:
The spacing of the grid is displayed according to the Coordinate Type.
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How to write your own Geoid Model
The Geoid Model's purpose is to provide Geoid Separations (in meters) that are spatially referenced either in terms
of Grid or Geodetic coordinates.
When developing such a model there will be a data file of Geoid Separations that are ordered either on a regularly
spaced grid or in some other way (i.e., in an irregular pattern). A computer program can then be written that will
read from the database, perform some kind of spatial interpolation, and thus estimate the Geoid Separation at any
specific point within the area covered by the model.
In LGO the requirement is for the Geoid Model to output "Interpolated Geoid Separations" that coincide with the
locations of points that exist in the Local Grid (or Geodetic) coordinate systems.
It is the user's responsibility to either write, or obtain, a program that will serve as the Geoid Model. Certain
guidelines must be followed — they are somewhat similar in nature to those that apply for User defined Projections.
Requirements for the user–defined Geoid Model:

It must be an executable program.

No interaction is allowed.

Input for the user program has to be organised according to the specified file format given below.

Input, output and external data files have to be accessed from the current directory.
Input into the Geoid Model
When a user-written geoidal model is "called" by the Office software a file called "INPUT.USR" will automatically be
prepared. This file contains all the points for which the executable program has to interpolate the geoidal
undulation values. The format of such a file is shown below:
For Geodetic coordinates (Latitude, Longitude) in radians:
0.826317296827 0.167522411309
0.826317295438 0.167522411668
etc.
For Grid coordinates (Easting, Northing) in meters:
763092.4093 245766.8641
763092.4112 245766.8552
etc.
The Geoid Model must read in the coordinate file and then perform its interpolation and preparation of the Geoid
Separation values for each point contained in the "INPUT.USR" file.
Note:

In this case the order Easting/ Northing will not be affected by switching the coordinate order under Tools
– Options . This has to be taken into account when designing the executable program.
Output from the Geoid Model
The Geoid Model must then write its values to a file called "OUTPUT.USR." This file is a free–format file that
contains no header information. The only additional requirement regarding the format of this file is that the Geoid
Separations (in meters) must be written in the first column of the file. For Geoid Models of Coordinate Type
Geodetic or Grid any additional information (i.e., column 2, column 3 etc.), which is written to the file, will be
ignored by LGO. Each column must be separated by at least one blank space.
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Geoid Models of Coordinate Type Geodetic with height scaling can be used to correct the geoid separations with a
height dependent scale factor. In this case the output file must contain two columns in each line, which are
separated by at least one blank space. The first value is interpreted as the separation and the second value as a
scale factor correction.
Note:

228
If a geoid separation bigger than 500 meters is written to the OUTPUT.USR file, the geoid separation will
not be displayed in your project. Such values can be used to mark areas, where the geoid model is invalid.
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Management Components
Compute Geoid Separations
This command enables you to compute Geoid Separations for the points in a Project if a Geoid Model is defined in
the Coordinate System used. It replaces the requirement for you to manually input Geoid Separations for your
points.
This command is only required if your geoid model is defined by an executable file. If your geoid model is defined
by a geoid model field file then the geoid separations of your project are always calculated automatically.
1.
Make sure a Geoid Model is defined in the Coordinate System attached to your Project.
2.
Open the Project for which you want to compute Geoid Separations.
3.
From the Tools menu select Compute Geoid Separations. A Geoid Separation will be calculated and
stored for each Point.
Note:

If the Geoid Model you are using is defined for local Grid coordinates, make sure a Coordinate System
with the appropriate Map Projection is attached to your Project.

If you are using a regional Geoid Model that is defined for a certain area only, make sure the points of the
Project are located within this area.

In View/Edit it is also possible to display contour lines of the geoid for the extents of your project. Please
refer to Graphical Settings: View.
Related Topic:
Geoid Model
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Create Geoid Model field file
Geoid Models may also be used on the receiver in the field. This command enables you to create a Geoid Model
field file.
Geoid models usually consist of a geoid height grid where a Geoid Separation is defined for each grid point.
Depending on the extent and the grid spacing of the Geoid Model it may require considerable disk space. In order
to use the Geoid Model on a GPS sensor the disk space has to be reduced and a special field file has to be
created which will allow the field system to interpolate Geoid Separations.
This command enables you to extract a Geoid height grid from an existing Geoid Model for a particular area. The
area boundary can be defined by a rectangle or circle and a grid spacing in meters can be selected. The file can
then be uploaded to the receiver using the Data Exchange Manager.
1.
From the Tools menu select Create Geoid Model field file...
2.
Select a Geoid Model from the list or click on View and Add a New Geoid Model.
3.
Select the Interpolation method which shall be used when interpolating in the Geoid Model field file. You
can choose between Bi-quadratic, Bi-linear and Spline interpolation methods. Select Default (for System
500) if you have to create a Geoid Model field file for a System 500 instrument or for a System 1200
instrument which runs a firmware older than Version 4.0.
4.
Select the method to define the limits of the Geoid Model field file. Select between Centre & radius and
Extents.
5.
Enter the Coordinates of the Center point, the Radius and the Grid Spacing
or
enter the Coordinates of the South-west and North-east corner and the Grid Spacing. The order of the
coordinates will appear in accordance with the order set under Tools – Options – General page.
6.
Check the File size. If you wish to use the file on the System RAM it must not exceed a certain size.
Note: The maximum possible file size may vary depending on the free memory in the receivers system
RAM. Refer to the Technical Reference Manual on how to free system RAM of the receiver.
7.
Click on Save.
8.
From the browser select the path where the file shall be created.
9.
Enter a File name without extension. (Extension "gem" will be added automatically)
10. Click on Save to confirm.
Note: Depending on the file size, this may take a while.
Related Topic:
Geoid Model
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Management Components
CSCS Models
CSCS Models
Several countries have produced tables of conversion factors to directly convert between GPS measured
coordinates given in WGS84 and the corresponding local mapping coordinates, taking the distortions of the
mapping system into account. Using these tables it is possible to directly convert into the local grid system without
having to calculate your own transformation parameters. Country Specific Coordinate System Models (CSCS
Models) are an addition to an already defined coordinate system, which interpolates corrections in a grid file and
applies the interpolated corrections. The extra step of applying these corrections can be made at different
instances in the coordinate conversion process. Therefore different methods of CSCS Models are supported.
Conversion Methods:

Grid conversion method: When selecting a CSCS Model of method Grid, then -when converting from
WGS84 to Local Grid- first the transformation, map projection and ellipsoid specified will be applied to get
preliminary grid coordinates. As an extra step a shift in Easting and Northing will be interpolated in the
grid file of the CSCS Model resulting in the final local Easting and Northing.

Cartesian conversion method: When selecting a CSCS Model of method Cartesian, then -when
converting from WGS84 to Local Grid- after the specified transformation a 3D-shift will be interpolated in
the grid file of the CSCS Model resulting in Local Cartesian coordinates upon which the specified local
ellipsoid and map projection will be applied to get final local Easting and Northing.

Geodetic conversion methods are also possible. When selecting a CSCS Model of method Geodetic,
then -when converting from WGS84 to Local Grid- a shift in geodetic latitude and longitude will be
interpolated in the grid file of the CSCS Model resulting in final local geodetic coordinates to which the
map projection is applied.

Ellipsoidal conversion methods work similar to the Geodetic conversion method. This method also
applies a shift in geodetic latitude and longitude but at a different step in the coordinate conversion
process. When converting from WGS84 to Local Grid first the transformation and the ellipsoid specified
will be applied to get preliminary local geodetic coordinates. As an extra step a shift in latitude and
longitude will be interpolated in the grid file of the CSCS Model resulting in the final local geodetic
coordinates to which the map projection is applied.
CSCS Models may also be used on the receiver in the field. To do so you have to Create a CSCS Model field file
and then upload the file using the Data Exchange Manager.
Certain CSCS Models are pre-defined and hardwired in the Office software. They are already connected to the
corresponding grid file. These CSCS Models are:
OSTN02™ (Great Britain)
OSTN97™ (Great Britain)
GR3DF97A (France)
ETRS89-RD (Netherlands)
Jylland/ Sjelland/ Bornholm (Denmark)
SWEREF99RT90 (Sweden)
NZGD49-2000 (New Zealand)
NADCON (U.S.A.)
Models for which the correction files have to be purchased are also supported. It may be necessary to convert the
files to the LGO specific binary CSC file format. For more information see: Other CSCS Models.
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Note:


CSCS Models that are currently used in a Coordinate system are indicated by
and cannot be deleted.
If coordinates which fall outside the area covered by the CSCS model are to be converted then the CSCS
model is ignored.
Related topics:
CSCS Model Properties
Create CSCS Model field file
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Add a new CSCS Model
1.
Right-click on CSCS Models in the Tree-View and select New.
2.
Enter the Name of the CSCS Model.
3.
Enter path and name of the grid file or press
to select from the browser.
The Method, Interpolation method and the Coordinate type will be displayed if a valid CSCS file has been
selected.
4.
Enter the optional Note to describe the CSCS Model.
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Delete a CSCS Model
1.
Right-click on a CSCS Model in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting
Note:

234
CSCS Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
and cannot be deleted.
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Management Components
CSCS Model Properties
CSCS Model Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display/ edit the CSCS Model Properties.
1.
Right-click on a CSCS Model in the Report-View or Tree-View and select Properties.
2.
Make your changes in the General page.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited.
3.
View the extents and spacing of the model in the Extents page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

CSCS Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
but only modified.
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and cannot be renamed
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CSCS Model Properties: General
This page enables you to display/ edit the general CSCS Model Properties.
Name:
Name of the CSCS Model. The Name can only be changed if the CSCS Model is not used in any
Coordinate System definition.
Path of Grid file:
Path and file name (including the extension .csc). To select from the browser click
.
Method:
Displays the Conversion method of the CSCS Model. The Conversion method can be either Grid shifts,
Geodetic shifts or Cartesian shifts. It is pre-defined by the CSCS Model Grid file.
Interpolation Method:
Displays the Interpolation method used to interpolate a correction value in the grid file. The Interpolation
method is pre-defined by the CSCS Model Grid file.
Coord. Type:
Displays the Coordinate type with respect to which the grid file is given. The Coordinate type is defined by
the CSCS Model Grid file.
Note:
Displays the optional Note to describe the CSCS Model. The Note may be up to 64 characters long.
Last modified:
Date and Time at which the CSCS Model was last modified.
Note:

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CSCS Models that are currently used in a Coordinate System are indicated by
but only modified.
and cannot be renamed
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Management Components
CSCS Model Properties: Extents
This page enables you to display the extents of the CSCS Model.
South-west corner:
The coordinates of the lower left (South-west) corner of the model are displayed as local grid coordinates or
geodetic coordinates depending on the Coordinate Type of the CSCS model.
North-east corner:
The coordinates of the upper right (North-east) corner of the model are displayed as local grid coordinates
or geodetic coordinates depending on the Coordinate Type of the CSCS model.
Spacing:
The spacing of the grid is displayed according to the Coordinate Type.
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Create CSCS Model field file
CSCS Models may also be used on the receiver in the field. This command enables you to create a CSCS Model
field file.
1.
From the Tools menu select Create CSCS Model field file...
2.
Select a CSCS Model from the list or click on View and Add a New CSCS Model.
3.
Select the method to define the limits of the CSCS Model field file. Select between Centre & radius and
Extents.
4.
Enter the Coordinates of the Center point and the Radius
or
enter the Coordinates of the South-west and North-east corner. The order of the coordinates will appear
in accordance with the order set under Tools – Options – General page.
5.
Check the File size. If you wish to use the file on the System RAM it must not exceed a certain size.
Note: The maximum possible file size may vary depending on the free memory in the receivers system
RAM. Refer to the Technical Reference Manual on how to free system RAM of the receiver.
6.
Click on Save.
7.
From the browser select the path where the file shall be created.
8.
Enter a File name without extension. (Extension "csc" will be added automatically)
9.
Click on Save to confirm.
Note: Depending on the file size, this may take a while.
Related Topic:
CSCS Models
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Management Components
Antenna Management
Antenna Management
A GPS baseline consists of the vector between the phase center of two GPS antennas. Each antenna type (brand,
model) has it own phase center offset. This is especially noticeable if baselines are processed using mixed GPS
antennas.
The phase center offset of different antennas varies especially in terms of a height difference between the L1 and
L2 phase center. The difference in position usually is negligible.
The Antenna Management enables you to manage the phase center offsets for different GPS antennas. The
offsets are then applied as corrections during the baseline processing.
The phase center offsets are defined relative to a Reference Antenna. The reference antenna is a Dorne-Margolin
Type T choke ring antenna.
All Leica antennas have been calibrated against the reference antenna and the relative offsets are already
hardwired in the Office software. Thus if you are using Leica antennas only, the appropriate corrections are applied
automatically and the user is not required to make any changes in the Antenna Management tool.
Normally, the antenna type is set on the receiver in the field. If you download GPS raw data, the appropriate
antenna type is also downloaded to the project. If you want to assign a different antenna type to your GPS raw
data Drag and Drop the appropriate antenna type from the Antenna Management to the Antennas View of the
Project and then set the new antenna type using the Interval Properties of the Data Processing View.
To start the Antenna Management proceed as follows:

From the Tools menu, select Antenna Management or click on
in the Tools List Bar.
Select from the list below to learn more about Antenna Management:
Add a New Antenna
Modify
Delete an Antenna
Import Antenna file
Send To
Antenna Properties
Related topics:
Reference Antenna for phase center offsets
Antenna Height Reading
Antennas View of a Project
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Add a New Antenna
Enables you to add a new antenna in order to define the offsets and corrections.
1.
From the Context-menu (right-click) select New...
2.
Enter a Name.
3.
Optionally enter the IGS name and a Setup Id. Set the L1-only flag if required.
4.
Enter Horizontal offset and Vertical offset.
5.
Enter the Phase center offsets.
6.
Optionally enter the Additional corrections.
7.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:


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Depending on the setup you are using the Vertical and Horizontal Offsets may be different. Create a new
antenna for each setup you are using. See also Antenna Height Reading.
The combination of IGS name, Serial number and Setup Id must be unique for each antenna.
Leica Geo Office Online Help
Management Components
Delete an Antenna
1.
Right-click on the antenna to delete and select Delete.
2.
Select Yes to confirm or No to abort without deleting.
Note:

The Leica antennas
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are hardwired and can not be deleted.
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Import Antenna file
This function enables you to import an antenna calibration file in the Bernese or in the NGS or in the ANTEX format.
These files are available from AIUB (Astronomical Institute University of Bern) or from NGS (National Geodetic
Survey) and contain a list of different antenna types with its respective offsets and eccentricities.
1.
From the Context-menu (right-click) select Import Antenna file...
2.
From the browser select a file.
3.
In NGS antenna files antenna names may contain a four-digit suffix for the antenna dome. Check the
corresponding box if you wish this suffix to be included in the name which will be imported into LGO.
4.
Press Open to store the data in the Office database or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:


242
Antenna calibration data is available from NGS (National Geodetic Survey) under the following Internet
address: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL/.
If you are using external calibration data ensure that they refer to the Dorne/Margolin choke ring
antenna type T. See also Reference Antenna for phase center offsets.
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Management Components
Antenna Properties
Antenna Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the antenna properties.
1.
Right-click on an antenna in the Report-View and select Properties.
2.
In the General page make your changes.
If you are using Additional corrections use the tab to switch.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Antenna Properties: General
Name:
Name of Antenna i.e. brand and type.
IGS name:
Optional IGS name which will be used for RTCM V3.0 transmission.
Serial number:
Optional.
Setup Id:
Optional.
Horizontal offset:
Horizontal distance from the physical reference point to the point on the antenna where the slope height
reading is measured to.
Note: If you are using vertical height readings (Height Hook) this value may be 0. See also Antenna Height
Reading
Vertical offset:
Vertical distance from the physical reference point to the point where the height reading is measured to.
Note: If you are using slope height readings to a point above the physical reference plane this value must
be negative. See also Antenna Height Reading
Phase center offsets for L1 and L2
Vertical:
Vertical distance from the physical reference plane to the virtual phase center for L1 and L2 frequency.
North:
East:
Horizontal distance from the physical reference point to the virtual center in North direction for L1 and L2
frequency.
Horizontal distance from the physical reference point to the virtual center in North direction for L1 and L2
frequency.
Additional corrections:
Allows you to select between Elevation and Azimuth and Spherical harmonics. See also Additional
corrections.
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Management Components
Antenna Properties: Additional corrections
A GPS antenna does not have a single well-defined phase center. Instead, the phase center is a function of the
direction from which it receives a signal. This is known as the phase center variation. For highest accuracy the
phase center variations can be defined using the Additional corrections.
Almost all GPS antennas currently in use are azimuthally symmetric to a high degree, however azimuth
dependency can also be modelled.
The parameters for the phase center variation may be described using two different models. If either Elevation
and Azimuth or Spherical harmonics was selected on the General page you can display or edit the additional
corrections.
Elevation and Azimuth
If Elevation and Azimuth was selected you can enter phase center corrections for both frequencies at
regular elevation and azimuth intervals. Select the elevation and azimuth interval and enter the phase
center corrections in millimeters by double-clicking into the values of the table.
For azimuthally symmetric antennas or when azimuth dependency is unknown select an azimuth interval of
360 degrees.
For defining L1 corrections only click the corresponding button on the page.
Spherical harmonics
If Spherical harmonics was selected you can enter the coefficients for the development of the phase center
variations into spherical harmonics. Select degree and order of the development and enter the coefficients
by double-clicking into the values of the table.
Check the box on the page to enter the coefficients of a normalized development.
For defining L1 corrections only click the corresponding button on the page.
Note:

If the L1-only flag is checked in the Antenna Properties: General page then only L1 corrections can be
defined.
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Reference Antenna for phase centre offsets
The reference antenna used for calibration measurements is the Dorne/Margolin choke ring antenna type T.
The physical reference point on the antenna is the bottom of the pre-amplifier housing.
Phase center offset for L1: East = 0.0 mm; North = 0.0 mm; Up = 110.0 mm
Phase center offset for L2: East = 0.0 mm; North = 0.0 mm; Up = 128.0 mm
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Management Components
Antenna Height Reading
The pictures below show two different ways the height of a GPS antenna can be measured. On the left the height
is determined by measuring the slope distance to an offset point on the antenna. On the right the height is
measured by using a height hook.
HO = Horizontal Offset
VO = Vertical Offset
VR = Vertical Height Reading
SR = Slope Height Reading
VE1 = Vertical Phase Center Eccentricity for L1
VE2 = Vertical Phase Center Eccentricity for L2
BPA = Physical Reference Plane (bottom of pre-amplifier)
If you are using the Slope Height Reading the antenna height is calculated as follows:
Note: If the Offset Point on the antenna is above the Physical Reference Plane BPA, the Vertical Offset VO is
negative!
If you are using a Height Hook the Antenna height is as follows:
Antenna Height = VR + VO
The actual Heights of the Phase Centers are then calculated as follows:
Height of Phase Center L1 = Antenna Height + VE1
Height of Phase Center L2 = antenna height + VE2
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Codelist Management
Codelist Management
The Codelist Management enables you to create Codelists that will work with Leica Instruments.
A Codelist contains coding information that may be used to describe topographical features and points during
measurement in the field.
If you import raw data with a Codelist attached into LGO, the Codelist will be stored within a Project and is
accessible via the Codelist View.
Codelist may contain
A
also contain
Line and
Thematical codes and / or
Free codes. A SmartWorx advanced codelist may
Area codes.
A Codelist consists of three building blocks within its structure:
Code Groups:
The primary building block of a Codelist is known as Code Groups. One or more Code Groups may be contained
within a Codelist. A Code Group will usually describe a large group of objects such as Buildings, Vegetation etc.
Codes:
Codes are the secondary building block of a Codelist and may be definite features. For example, a Code Group
called Vegetation could have the codes Tree, Shrub and Hedge. Alternatively, the Codes could consist of numbers
only with a Code Name describing the code. E.g. code 145 could relate to the code name Tree.
Attributes:
Each Code may have one or more Attributes attached to it. Attributes are the tertiary building block of a Codelist.
Attributes prompt the user to enter information describing a Code.
For example, the code Tree could have the attributes Diameter, Species, Height, and Remark attached to it. You
may then define an Attribute Value for an Attribute. It may be chosen from a predefined Choice List or a
predefined Range. For example, possible Values for the Attribute Diameter could be from a Range from 1 to 25
(meters) and the Attribute Species from a Choice List that contains the Values Pine, Fir, and Oak.
Note that you do not have to define an Attribute Value within Codelist Management. If no value is defined for an
Attribute you may enter a value or description in the field.
A Codelist can be uploaded to a Sensor or downloaded from a Sensor using the DXM (Data Exchange
Management) tool.
Select from the list below to learn more about Codelist Management:
Create a New Codelist
Delete a Codelist
Print a Codelist
Register
Send To
Codelist Properties
Codelist Structure
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Management Components
Code Group
Code
Attributes
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Codelist
Codelist Structure
This example shows a Codelist structure as displayed in the Tree-View. The element properties (Codelist, Code
Group, Code and Attribute properties) as displayed in the Report View can be viewed by clicking on the elements
or via the context menu.
Codelist
Code Group
Code
Attribute
See also
Example - Codelist
Example - Code Group
Example - Code
Example - Attribute
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Management Components
Codelist View
The Codelist View of a Project lists all the Codes that have been used in the field. Upon importing raw data the
used Codes are automatically transferred to the Project database and can be modified in this View.

Note:

The Codelist View may be accessed via the
Codelist Tab from within a project window.
See Point Properties: Thematical Data on how to change the Thematical Codes of individual Points of a
Project database.
Select from the list below to learn more about the Codelist View:
Print a Codelist
Codelist Properties
Codelist Structure
Code Group
Code
Attributes
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Codelist Type
Codelist Type
For each Instrument class you have the choice between Basic and Advanced Codelist Types. For instrument class
TPS 1100 you additionally have the choice between GSI-8 and GSI-16 codelist types. The Codelist Type defines
the complexity of the Codelist.
The Codelist Type defines:

which types of Codes are possible (thematical or free or Lines/Area codes)

if Short Cuts for Quick Codes are supported

if Code descriptions can be entered

if Code Groups can be used

to which extent Attributes are user configurable.
The following Codelist Types are available. Click on any of the different Instrument classes for more information
on how the respective Codelist Type is defined:
Instrument
class
Codelist Types
DNA
Basic
Advanced
GPS 500
Basic
Advanced
GPS 900
Basic
SmartWorx
Basic
Advanced
TPS 1100
Basic (GSI-8)
Basic (GSI-16)
Advanced (GSI-8)
Advanced (GSI-16)
TPS 300
Basic
Advanced
TPS 400
Basic
Advanced
TPS 700
Basic
Advanced
TPS 800
Basic
Advanced
TS02/06/09
252
Basic
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Management Components
Advanced
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Codelist Type DNA
If you select DNA as your Instrument class you have the choice between Basic and Advanced.
A Basic codelist is defined by:

Only Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions cannot be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attribute types are fixed to Normal, the Value type is fixed to Text and the Value region is fixed to None.

Attribute names are pre-defined ranging from Info 1 to Info 8.
An Advanced codelist is defined by:
254

Only Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

For Attributes the Value region is fixed to None.
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Management Components
Codelist Type GPS 500
If you select GPS 500 as your Instrument class you have the choice between Basic and Advanced.
A Basic codelist is defined by:

Only Free Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are not allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attribute types are fixed to Normal and the Value type is fixed to Text..

Attribute names are pre-defined ranging from Info 1 to Info 8.
An Advanced codelist is defined by:

Free Codes and Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are not allowed.

Code Groups can be defined.

Attributes are fully user-configurable.
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Codelist Type GPS 900
If you select GPS 900 as your Instrument class the Type will be set to Basic.
The Basic codelist is defined by:
256

Only Point (Thematical) Codes and Free Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes can be entered (up to three alphanumeric characters).

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attributes are fully user-configurable.

Attribute names are pre-defined ranging from Attrib1 to Attrib4.
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Management Components
Codelist Type SmartWorx
If you select SmartWorx as your Instrument class you have the choice between Basic and Advanced.
A Basic codelist is defined by:

Only Free Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes can be entered (up to three alphanumeric characters).

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attribute types are fixed to Normal, the Value type is fixed to Text and the Value Region is fixed to None.

Attribute names are pre-defined ranging from Attrib1 to Attrib8.
An Advanced codelist is defined by:

Free and Point (Thematical) Codes are allowed as well as Line and Area Types.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes can be entered (up to three alphanumeric characters).

Code Groups can be defined.

Attributes are fully user-configurable.
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Codelist Type TPS 1100
If you select TPS 1100 as your Instrument class you have the choice between Basic (GSI-8), Basic (GSI-16) and
Advanced (GSI-8), Advanced (GSI-16).
A Basic codelist is defined by:

Only Free Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

For Attributes the Value type is fixed to Text and the Value region is fixed to None.
An Advanced codelist is defined by:

Free Codes and Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attributes are fully user-configurable.
Note:

258
The difference between GSI-8 and GSI-16 is the number of characters supported for Attribute names, i.e.
either 8 or 16 characters are supported.
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Management Components
Codelist Type TPS 300/ 400/ 800, TS02/06/09
If you select TPS 300 or TPS 400 or TPS 800 or TS02/06/09 as your Instrument class you have the choice
between Basic and Advanced.
A Basic codelist is defined by:

Only Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions cannot be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are not allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attribute types are fixed to Normal, the Value type is fixed to Text and the Value region is fixed to None.

Attribute names are pre-defined ranging from Info 1 to Info 8.
An Advanced codelist is defined by:

Only Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

For TPS 300 and TPS 400 Short cuts for Quick Codes are not allowed.
For TPS 800 and TS02/06/09 Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

For Attributes the Value region is fixed to None.
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Codelist Type TPS 700
If you select TPS 700 as your Instrument class you have the choice between Basic and Advanced.
A Basic codelist is defined by:

Only Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions cannot be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

Attribute types are fixed to Normal, the Value type is fixed to Text and the Value region is fixed to None.

Attribute names are pre-defined ranging from Info 1 to Info 8.
An Advanced codelist is defined by:
260

Only Thematical Codes are allowed.

Code descriptions can be entered.

Short cuts for Quick Codes are allowed.

Code Groups cannot be defined.

For Attributes the Value region is fixed to None.
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Management Components
Instrument Classes
Depending on which Leica instrument the Codelist is used, the format of the Codelist may vary slightly. Currently
the following instrument classes are supported:

DNA

GPS 500

GPS 900

SmartWorx

TPS 1100

TPS 300

TPS 400

TPS 700

TPS 800

TS02/06/09
For each instrument class you have the choice between Basic and Advanced Codelist Types. For instrument class
TPS 1100 you additionally have the choice between GSI-8 and GSI-16 Codelist Types.
SmartWorx codelists can be used on all instruments running the SmartWorx firmware onboard. This includes
System 1200 (GPS and TPS), GPS 900, the TS30/ TM30 and the Leica Viva series instruments.
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Create a new Codelist
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report-View right-click and select New Codelist...
2.
Enter a Codelist Name and a Location where the *.CRF file shall be stored on your harddisk. The File
Name is generated automatically according to the given Codelist Name.
3.
Enter the Creator of the Codelist. This entry is optional.
4.
In the Codelist Type field of the dialog choose an Instrument Class and a Codelist Type.
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

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The Codelist Type cannot be changed after a codelist is created.
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Delete a Codelist
To delete a Codelist:
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on a
2.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to exit without deleting.
Codelist and select Delete.
Related topics:
Delete a Code Group
Delete a Code
Delete an Attribute
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Print a Codelist
Before printing a Codelist you may want to check and modify the Print Setup.
You can either print the various Codelist Management Report Views separately or you can create an all-in-one
graphical report-style printing showing Code Groups, Codes and Attributes (including Choice Lists) in one printout.
To print a Codelist in the graphical report-style overview:
Codelist.
1.
In the Tree-View select a
2.
From the File main menu select Print Preview or select
3.
From the File main menu select Print or select
from the toolbar.
from the toolbar.
Example:
To print a single Codelist Management Report View:

In the Tree-View or in the right-hand Report View right-click and select Print from the context menu.
Alternatively:
If the focus is in the right-hand Report View you may also select
from the toolbar to print the active Report View.
Print from the File main menu or
Example:
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Register a Codelist
The list of Codelists is updated constantly. This is done automatically when you work within the Office environment.
The Codelists will normally always be registered.
You can, of course, use the Windows Explorer, e.g. to copy a Codelist from one PC to another manually or you can
copy codelists from the database of the field system to your PC manually. If you do so, this Codelist will not be
registered automatically.
In this case use Register... to link Codelists that are on the hard disk but not shown in the Codelist Management,
to the Office database.
1.
In the Tree View or in the Report View right-click and select Register....
2.
From the browser select the directory containing the Codelist to be registered. In the Name combo box all
Codelists found in the selected directory are listed.
3.
From the Name combo box select the specific Codelist to be registered.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

You can also register a codelist from an IDEX file. Browse to the *.idx file. In addition the Codelists which
may be contained in the selected directory all IDEX files will be displayed in the Name combo box.
When registering a codelist from an IDEX file, the codelist will be converted to the Office database format,
but the IDEX file will be retained. Subsequent changes to the codelist in the office software will not apply
to the original IDEX file. It will not be updated simultaneously.
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Unregister a Codelist
The Codelist Management lists all codelists that are registered in the Office database. If you wish to remove a
codelist from the list without deleting it select Unregister from the context-menu.
To unregister a codelist:
1.
In the Tree View or in the Report View right-click on the codelist to be unregistered.
2.
Select Unregister.
Unregistered Codelists can be linked back to the list of codelists by registering them again.
Note:

To unregister more than one codelist at once select a series of codelists and right-click onto the selected
block to unregister the codelists.
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Codelist Properties
To view or modify the Codelist Properties:
Codelist in the Tree-View or in the Report View and select Properties....
1.
Right-click on a
2.
In the Codelist Properties dialog you may change:
- the Codelist Name. The file name will be adapted accordingly.
- the Location where the Codelist shall be stored.
- the Creator of the Codelist.
The Codelist Type is defined during the creation of the codelist and may not be modified later.
3.
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Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Example - Codelist
This example shows possible properties of the Codelist Topogr as displayed in the Report View.
Codelist
Name
Creator
Location
File
Name
Template
Topogr
XXX
C:\temp
topogr.crf
GPS500_Advanced
See also
Example - Code Group
Example - Code
Example - Attribute
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Code Group
Code Group
Code Groups describe groups of objects, which have a common theme. A Codelist may contain as many or as
few Code Groups as you wish. For example, Utilities, Vegetation, Buildings could all be different Code Groups
within a Codelist. Each Code Group then has sub-components known as Codes and Attributes. Possible Code
Groups and their properties can be viewed in an example.
You can easily add or insert new Code Groups, modify existing Code Groups and delete Code Groups. Within a
Codelist all existing Code Groups can be set visible or invisible by changing the Code Group Display.
If no Code Group is selected all Codes will be placed in a default Code Group. Code Group names may be up to
16 characters long and may consist of alphanumeric characters.
Note:

Code Groups are only available if the Instrument class is GPS 500 or SmartWorx and if the Codelist Type
is Advanced.
Select from the list below to learn more about Code Groups:
Add a New Code Group
Delete a Code Group
Code Group Properties
Display Code Group
Example - Code Group
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Add a New Code Group
To add a new Code Group to the end of a Codelist:
1.
Codelist to which you want to add a new Code Group in the Tree View or right-click
Right-click on the
anywhere in the corresponding Report View and select New Code Group... from the context menu.
2.
Enter a new Code Group Name. A Code Group name may be up to 16 characters long.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
To insert a new Code Group in between existing Code Groups:
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on the
Code Group right before which you want to
insert a new Code Group and select New Code Group... from the context menu.
2.
Enter a new Code Group Name. A Code Group name may be up to 16 characters long.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

Code Groups are only available if Instrument class is GPS 500 or SmartWorx and Codelist Type is
Advanced.
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Delete a Code Group
To delete a Code Group from a Codelist:
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on the
2.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to exit without deleting.
Note:

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Code Group to be deleted and select Delete.
If you delete a Code Group all Codes and Attributes of that Code Group will be deleted.
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Code Group Properties
To view or modify the Properties of a Code Group:
Code Group and select Properties.
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on a
2.
Change the Code Group Name. A Code Group name may be up to 16 characters long.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:
 Edit the Code Group name in the Report View via inline editing.
Note:

Code Groups are only available if Instrument class is GPS 500 or SmartWorx and Codelist Type is
Advanced.
See also:
Add a new Code Group
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Display Code Group
Existing Code Groups can be set visible or invisible in the Tree-View. To change the current status of the Code
Group View:

Right-click in the background of the Tree-View pane and click on Display Code Group to change the
status. A
means that the Code Groups will be displayed.
If the Code Groups are switched off all codes appear to be merged in the codelist.
Note:


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Even if the Code Group View is switched off all Code Group information will be kept.
If the Code Group View is switched off new Codes will be placed on a Code Group called Default.
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Example - Code Group
This example shows possible Code Groups within the Codelist Topogr. The Code Group properties are shown as
displayed in the Report View.
Code Group Name
Vegetation
Buildings
Streets
See also
Example - Codelist
Example - Code
Example - Attribute
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Code
Code
Codes are contained within Code Groups and can be used to describe objects. For example, the Codes Tree,
Hedge, Grass may be attached to a Code Group entitled Vegetation.
You can easily add or insert new Codes, modify existing Codes and delete Codes.
Each Code may have Attributes attached to it. Attributes prompt the user to enter further information about the
Code.
A Code consists of the Code Name, an optional Code Description, a Type and an optional Short Cut for a Quick
Code. Possible Codes and their properties can be viewed in an example.
Code
The name of the Code may be up to 8 characters long and may consist of numbers or alphanumeric characters
(for example Tree). For SmartWorx the Code Name may be up to 16 characters long.
Description
The Description of a Code may be up to 16 characters long (for example Outstanding Tree). The Description of a
Code is optional. For System 500 the description may be up to 30 characters long.
Type
The Type of a Code can either be Free (Free Coding) or Point (Thematical Coding). For SmartWorx two additional
Code Types are available: Lines and Areas. For detailed information on which Code Types are available with the
different instrument classes and codelist types see: Codelist Type.
Quick Code
The Short Cut for a quick code may consist of a two digit number to describe the Code (for example 12). For
SmartWorx codelists up to three alphanumeric characters are allowed. Quick codes must be unique within a
codelist. To define a quick code is optional. For detailed information on the instrument classes for which quick
codes can be defined see: Codelist Type.
Select from the list below to learn more about Codes:
Add a New Code
Delete a Code
Properties of a Code
Example - Code
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Add a new Code
To add a new Code to a Codelist:
1.
Right-click on the
Code Group to which you want to add the new Code in the Tree View or in the
corresponding Report View and select New Code... from the context-menu.
If the display of Code Groups is switched off or if the Codelist Type does not support Code Groups rightCodelist to which you want to add the new Code.
click on the
If Code Groups are switched off the new Code will be placed in a Code Group called Default.
2.
Enter a new Code.
The name of a Code may be up to 8 characters long (16 characters for SmartWorx) and may consist of
alphanumeric characters.
If the Codelist Type supports Short Cuts for Quick Codes then you may optionally enter a 2 or 3 digit
Quick Code.
3.
Enter the optional Description.
A Description may be up to 16 characters long (30 characters for GPS 500) and may consist of
alphanumeric characters.
4.
Enter the Type.
Select between Free and Point. The availability of Free and/ or Point (Thematical) Codes depends on the
Codelist Type.
For SmartWorx advanced codelists you may additionally select between Line and Area. For both
additional properties, like border and shading styles, can be defined.
Also for SmartWorx advanced codelists you can assign the Linework option to Point codes. For details
see: Code Properties.
5.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
To insert a new Code in between existing Codes:
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on the
Code right before which you want to insert a
new Code and select New Code... from the context menu.
If the display of Code Groups is switched off the new Code will be inserted into the same underlying Code
Group as the following code belongs to.
2.
Enter the new Code Properties.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Delete a Code
To delete a Code from a Codelist:
1.
In the Tree View or in the Report View right-click on a
2.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to exit without deleting.
Note:

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Code and select Delete.
If you delete a Code all Attributes of this Code will be deleted.
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Code Properties
To view or modify a Code:
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on a
2.
In the Code Properties dialog you may change:
Code and select Properties.
- the Code Name.
- the Code Description.
- the Type (either Point or Free).
- the Short Cut for a Quick Code.
For SmartWorx advanced codelists you may also set the Code Type to either Line or Area. For both
these types additional properties can be entered:
- for Type Line define the Line Style, Color and Width. The settings can be pre-viewed in the Line/
Border column of the corresponding Report View.
- for Type Area define the Border Style, Color and Width as well as the Shading Style and Color. The
Border settings can be pre-viewed in the Line/ Border column of the corresponding Report View, the
Shading settings in the Area Shading column.
For SmartWorx advanced codelists Point codes can have the additional Linework properties. If you
select Start Line or Start Area in the Linework combo-box and use the codelist onboard a SmartWorx
instrument, a line or area will be opened automatically when this code is assigned to a point. The
graphical elements for these lines or areas (border and shading style/ color/ width) can be selected
additionally for such codes.
Note: The linework option can only be used onboard a SmartWorx instrument, if you are using Firmware
version 5.0 or higher.
For more details on the single code properties see: Code.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:
 Edit the Code Properties in the Report View via inline editing.
See also:
Add a new Code
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Example - Code
This example shows possible Codes within the Code Group Vegetation. The Code properties are shown as
displayed in the Report View.
Code Name
Code Description
Quick Code
Type
Tree
Outstanding Tree
11
Point
Grass
Area of Grass
20
Free
Hedge
Hedge
37
Point
See also
Example - Codelist
Example - Code Group
Example - Attribute
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Attribute
Attribute
Attributes are the tertiary building block of a Codelist. Attributes prompt the user to enter information describing a
Code. Attributes for the Code Tree could be Species, Diameter and Remark. You can easily add or insert new
Attributes, modify existing Attributes or delete Attributes.
An Attribute generally consists of Attribute Name and Type and the Attribute Value with a defined Value Type, an
optional Value Region and a Default Value. Possible Attributes and their properties can be viewed in an example.
Attribute Name:
The Attribute Name may consist of alphanumeric characters (for example Species). The length depends on the
codelist type.
Attribute Type:
For every Attribute the Type must be chosen. Possible Attribute Types are Normal, Mandatory or Fixed. Choosing
Normal means the Attribute Value can be edited in the field. If Mandatory is chosen, the Attribute Value must be
edited in the field. If the Attribute type is Fixed, no Value is shown on the instrument and the Default Value will
automatically be attached to the Attribute.
Value Type:
For every Attribute a Value Type must be selected. Possible Value Types are Text, Real or Integer. If you choose
Real or Integer you have the possibility of entering a Choice List or a Range of possible Values. If you choose Text
possible Values may only be entered in a Choice List.
For example for the Attribute Species choose Text, whereas for the Attribute Diameter choose Integer as the Value
Type.
Value Region:
Depending on the chosen Value Type you can select the Value Regions None, Choice List or Range. In a Choice
List all possible Values can be entered, in a Range the smallest and the largest possible Value can be entered.
For example for the Attribute Species choose Choice List, for Diameter choose Range, and for Remark choose
None.
Attribute Values:
If Choice List is chosen a list of possible Attribute Values can be entered or modified. For example Oak, Pine and
Fir could be possible Choice List entries for the Attribute Species.
To add new Values to the Choice List press the Add button.
To remove Values from the Choice List press the Delete button.
To modify the sequence of the values in the Choice List press the Move Up/ Move Down buttons.
If Range is chosen the Range interval can be entered or modified. For example, for the Attribute Diameter a Range
from 1 to 5 (meters) could be defined.
Note: The number of characters allowed depends on the codelist type.
Default Value:
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Setting a Default Value is optional. If Choice List or Range is selected for Value Region a Value from the Choice
List or within the Range can be entered. For Fixed Values a Default Value should be entered otherwise no Attribute
Value will be set at all.
Select from the list below to learn more about Attributes:
Add a new Attribute
Delete an Attribute
Properties of an Attribute
Example – Attribute
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Add a new Attribute
To add a new Attribute to a Codelist:
1.
Right-click on the
Code to which you want to add the new Attribute or on one of the existing
Attributes in the Tree View or in the corresponding Report View and select New Attribute... from the
context menu.
2.
Enter the Attribute Name. The Attribute name may consist of numbers or alphanumeric characters. The
length depends on the codelist type.
3.
Select the Attribute Type from the list. Choose between Normal, Mandatory or Fixed. If you select Fixed
the Default Value will be attached automatically to this Attribute and the Value will not be shown on the
instrument. If you select Mandatory the Value must be edited in the field.
4.
Select the Value Type from the list. Select between Text, Real or Integer.
5.
Select the Value Region from the list. If the Value Type is set to Real or Integer you have the choice
between Choice List and Range. If the Value Type is set to Text only Choice List can be chosen.
6.
Depending on your selection in Value Region enter either the Values for the Choice List or the Values for
the Range:
Choice List: Click on:
- the
Add button to add a new Value and press Enter.
- the
Delete button to delete a Value from the list.
- the
Move Up button to move a Value one position up in the list.
- the
Move Down button to move a Value one position down in the list.
Range: Enter the Range interval From and To.
7.
Enter the Default Value. If you have previously defined a Choice List or Range you may choose the
Default Value from the list or Range. Entering the Default Value is optional. If the Attribute Type is Fixed a
Default Value needs to be entered.
8.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
To insert a new Attribute in between of existing Attributes:
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on the Attribute right before which you want to insert a
new Attribute and select New Attribute... from the context menu.
2.
Enter the Attribute properties.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

Depending on the Codelist Type certain restrictions for the definition of attributes may apply.
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Delete an Attribute
To delete an Attribute from a Codelist:
284
1.
In the Tree View or in the Report View right-click on an
2.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to exit without deleting.
Attribute and select Delete.
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Management Components
Attribute Properties
To view or modify the Attribute Properties:
Attribute and select Properties.
1.
In the Tree-View or in the Report View right-click on an
2.
Change Attribute Name and Parameters as required. See also Add a new Attribute.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:
 Edit the Attribute name in the Report View via inline editing.
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Example - Attribute
This example shows possible Attributes within the Code Tree. The Attribute properties are shown as displayed in
the Report View.
Attribute
Name
Attribute
Type
Value
Type
Value
Region
Attribute
Values
Default Value
Species
Normal
Text
Choice List
Pine
Diameter
Mandatory
Integer
Range
Pine
Oak
Fir
...
Remark
Normal
Text
None
6
See also
Example - Codelist
Example - Code Group
Example - Code
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Value Types - Examples (Coding)
This Table shows examples for the three Attribute Value Types:
Value Type
Text
Real
Integer
Examples:
Pine
34.5
1
Tree001
-543.463
-24
Oak
23
438
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Satellite Availability
Satellite Availability
The Satellite Availability tool helps you to plan your GPS field work. It provides you with graphical and numerical
information on the satellite constellation for any location (Site) at a given time.
To start the Satellite Availability component:

From the Tools menu select
Satellite Availability or click on
Satellite Availability within the
Management List Bar. The Satellite Availability component opens and offers the following two tabbed
views:
Management:
Management tabbed view you can define the input data needed for determining the availability of
In the
satellites at a given time:

Define new Sites or view the properties of existing Sites.

Import new Almanacs or delete existing ones. Almanacs are automatically added during GPS raw data
import.

Define a new set of Obstructions or view the properties of existing Obstructions, import Obstructions
from a file or export Obstructions to a file.
Availability:
In the
Site.
Availability tabbed view you can graphically inspect the satellite constellation at a given time for a given

Select a Site, Almanac and Obstruction file to determine the availability.

See a Skyplot or inspect the DOPs for all healthy satellites, or inspect the Elevation, Azimuth and
Visibility for single satellites.
To get a numeric output of the results open the Satellite Availability Report.
For detailed information see also:
Satellite Availability Management
Calculating Satellite Availability
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Management Components
Management
Satellite Availability: Management
In the Management view of the Satellite Availability component Sites, Almanacs and Obstruction files are
managed.
Sites:
Define the Survey Sites for which you want to determine the satellite availability. New Sites can be entered
and existing Sites can be edited via the Site Properties.
Almanacs:
To compute the satellite availability for a specific Site, Almanac information has to be provided. During the
import of GPS raw data, almanac files are automatically stored into the Office database. But Almanacs can
also be manually imported.
By default, the Availability component will always use almanac information with a date closest to the
selected Date and Time. Nevertheless, the user may wish to manually select an older almanac for use in
survey preparations. Older almanacs that are no longer required can also be deleted from the database.
Obstructions:
Define the site-specific Obstructions. Obstructions may be defined for Rover and Reference. A new
Obstruction file can be generated graphically in the lower right-hand view. Double-click into the sky
representation to generate a new obstruction point (e.g. the top of a building). In the upper right-hand report
view you will find the numeric values (Azimuth and Elevation) for each graphically entered point.
A set of Obstructions may also be exported to a file once it is defined in LGO. You can also import
obstructions from a file instead of defining them graphically in LGO.
To modify graphically defined obstruction values right-click into the upper report view and select Modify ...
from the context menu to adapt the values.
Sites, Almanacs and Obstructions are needed as input data to the Availability calculation.
Tip:

Sites report view.
New Sites can easily be defined by copying & pasting points from a project into the
Points must have WGS84 coordinates and more than one point may be copied at a time. The number of
newly created sites will correspond to the number of copied points. The name(s) of the Site(s) will
correspond to the Id(s) of the copied point(s).
See also:
Site Properties
Import Almanacs
Obstruction Properties
Create a new Obstruction
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Import Obstructions
Export Obstructions
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Management Components
Site Properties
The Site Properties may be defined for each new Site and modified for existing Sites in the Management view of
the Satellite Availability component.
Name:
Enter a name for a Site to be newly defined or modify the name of an existing Site.
Description:
Optionally enter a description of the Site.
Region:
Optionally enter a region in which the Site is located.
Latitude/ Longitude/ Height:
Enter the WGS84 Latitude, Longitude and Height of a Site to be newly defined or modify the values of
existing Sites.
Time Zone:
Enter or modify the Time Zone in which the Site is located. The entered value will be applied to the
availability calculation.
Last Modified:
Shows the Date and Time when the Site has last been modified.
Tip:

New Sites can easily be defined by copying & pasting points from a project into the
Sites report view.
Points must have WGS84 coordinates and more than one point may be copied at a time. The number of
newly created sites will correspond to the number of copied points. The name(s) of the Site(s) will
correspond to the Id(s) of the copied point(s).
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Import Almanacs
During the import of GPS raw data into LGO, almanac files are automatically stored into the database. But
Almanacs can also be manually imported.
Almanacs may manually be imported from System 200 (*.alm files), from System 300 or 500 (*.o?? files) or from
SmartWorx (*.m?? files) raw data files.
Apart from that YUMA almanacs (*yum*.* files) may be downloaded from the Internet via the Internet Download
functionality or manually from http://www.navcen.uscg.gov. A description of the YUMA almanacs is available from
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/GPS/gpsyuma.htm.
YUMA almanacs which are extended for the GLONASS and the Galileo satellite systems are available from Leica
Geosystems.
To manually import Almanacs:
Almanacs and select
1.
In the Management view of the Satellite Availability component right-click on
Import... from the context menu.
2.
In the Import Alamanc dialog browse to the directory where the Alamanc(s) to be imported are stored.
3.
Select the Almanac(s) to be imported and press the Import button.
Check Include subfolders and select a directory if you wish to import automatically the Almanacs of
the selected directory and all sub-directories.
The newly imported Almanac(s) will be added to the list of Almanacs in the tree-view.
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Create a new Obstruction
In the Management view of the Satellite Availability component new sets of obstructions may be graphically
created.
Obstructions and select New... from the context menu.
1.
In the tree-view right click on
2.
In the New Obstruction dialog enter a Name for the new obstruction and optionally a Description.
3.
Leave the dialog with OK. The new obstruction will be added to the list of Obstructions in the tree-view.
4.
In the tree-view open the
Obstructions node and click onto the
new obstruction. The right-hand
view changes:
In the upper report view two empty columns appear which will be filled with the Azimuth and Elevation
values of each new obstruction point that you create graphically in the lower part.
In the lower part an empty skyplot appears into which obstruction points may be entered graphically.
5.
In the skyplot double-click to enter a new obstruction point at its specific Azimuth and Elevation.
Alternatively right-click into the skyplot at the Azimuth and Elevation where the new point shall be added
and select New from the context menu.
The new point will be added to the list in the upper report view. To change the Azimuth and/ or Elevation
values of an obstruction point right-click on the value to be changed in the report view and select Modify...
from the context menu.
New obstruction points can only be entered graphically. When all points have been entered the line that connects
the obstruction points will be closed automatically.

To delete obstruction points right-click onto the point in the graphic and select Delete from the context
menu. A point may also be deleted from within the report view.
The set of obstructions is stored while it is created and may be used in the Availability view for calculating the
satellite availability.
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Import Obstructions
Sets of Obstructions may be imported from a text file into the Satellite Availability component. This text file must
have a specific Obstruction file format.
Obstructions and select Import... from the
1.
In the tree-view of the Management view right-click onto
context menu
2.
In the Import Obstruction dialog browse to the directory where the obstruction file to be imported is
stored.
3.
Select the file and press the Import button.
Check Include subfolders and select a directory if you wish to import automatically the Obstruction
files of the selected directory and all sub-directories.
The newly imported Obstructions will be added to the list of Obstructions in the tree-view.
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Export Obstructions
Sets of Obstructions that have been created in the Satellite Availability component may be exported for further use.
Obstructions node and right-click on the set
1.
In the tree-view of the Management component open the
of obstructions to be exported.
2.
From the context menu select Export....
3.
In the Save as dialog browse to the directory where the set of obstructions shall be saved and enter a
File name.
4.
Press save to save the set of obstructions.
The set of obstructions will be saved in a specific Obstruction file format to a text file.
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Obstruction file format
This format is used to save sets of Obstructions to a text file or to manually write Obstruction files which shall later
be imported to the Satellite Availability component.
The file must have one column with horizontal angle readings and one column with vertical angle readings.
At the beginning of each file the following header information must be available:
@%Pointid: 16 characters for a point identifier (obstruction name)
@%Unit: The angular units may be measured in gon or decimal degrees. For gon enter "400", for decimal degrees
enter "360".
@%OrientationHz: An unknown orientation (the azimuth of the horizontal zero reading of the theodolite) can be
entered. In case that the theodolite has already been oriented in the field, the value "0" has to be entered. When
exporting obstructions always an orientation of zero will be used.
@%OrientationV: Enter "elevation" for elevation readings. When importing obstructions with zenith angle values
enter "zenith". The values will be converted to elevations during import.
Example:
@%Pointid: Town1
@%Unit: 360
@%OrientationHz: 0.000
@%OrientationV: elevation
6.859 16.199
40.898 18.031
46.674 31.752
80.823 13.427
120.210 13.510
134.597 16.210
147.047 32.667
Note:
The values for elevation and azimuth can be integer or real numbers.
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Obstruction Properties
The Obstruction Properties may be defined for each new set of Obstructions and modified for existing sets of
Obstructions in the Management view of the Satellite Availability component.
Name:
Enter a name for a set of Obstructions to be newly defined or modify the name of an existing set of
Obstructions.
Description:
Optionally enter a description for the set of Obstructions.
Last Modified:
Shows the Date and Time when the set of Obstructions has last been modified.
See also:
Create a new Obstruction
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Availability
Satellite Availability: Availability
According to the selected Almanac and taking into account the site-specific obstructions, the availability of healthy
satellites in the selected Site will be computed for the selected time span and graphically displayed in the righthand pane of the view.
Illustration:
Input data:
298

Via in-line editing (Modify...) select the Site for which you want to calculate the availability of satellites.
You may select from the list of Sites as defined in the Management component.

Select an Almanac. By default, the Almanac with its date closest to the selected Date and Time will be
selected automatically. You may select a different Almanac from the list of Almanacs as given in the
Management component. Note that the date of the almanac must not differ more than 30 days from the
selected date.
Further note that almanacs containing combined GPS and GLONASS information may have slightly
varying validities for the two GNSS systems.

Define a Cut-off Angle, below which satellites will not be used.

Select the site-specific set(s) of Obstructions. For Rover and Reference you may select from the list of
Obstructions as defined in the Management component. For the Availability computation the obstructions
as defined for Rover and Reference will be taken into account.
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
Select the type of satellites (GNSS type) to be used for the calculation. If the selected almanac contains
GLONASS satellites or if Automatic alamanac selection was chosen then you can choose between a
combination of the GPS, GLONASS and Galileo satellite systems. Changing the GNSS type resets all
de-activated satellites.

Select a Date, for which you want to determine the availability of satellites. Determine a Start time and
the Duration of your planned field work.
Chart configuration:
The right-hand chart may be configured to show either:

DOPs: the selected kind of DOP value is graphically displayed as it is computed for the selected period of
time.

or Elevation: the Elevation of each satellite, i.e. how high a satellite is above the horizon, is graphically
displayed. Satellites underneath the Cut-off Angle or behind Obstructions are sketched in outlines.

or Azimuth: the Azimuth values, i.e. the direction into which a satellite may be found in the sky, are
graphically displayed for each satellite along the selected period of time. Satellites underneath the Cut-off
Angle or behind Obstructions are sketched in outlines.

or Visibility: the time slot when a satellite is 'visible' for the receiver is graphically indicated by a colored
bar for each satellite. Satellites underneath the Cut-off Angle or behind Obstructions are displayed with
grey bars.

or Skyplot: the Skyplot summarizes the Azimuth and Elevation values for each satellite in a 2D
representation of the sky. It shows how the satellites move along the sky.
The DOP, Elevation, Azimuth and Visibilty charts all show in a light grey color the number of satellites at each
point of time in the background of the charts.
To differentiate the satellites from each other they are color coded in a Legend underneath.
Legend:
The Legend lists all satellites which are visible in the selected period of time. Healthy satellites are checked ,
unhealthy satellites remain unchecked. You may manually exclude satellites from the availabiltiy calculation by deactivating them in the Legend. Changing the satellite selection enforces a recalculation of the DOP values.
For use in the Elevation, Azimuth, Visibility and Skyplot charts each satellite is color coded in the Legend.
Note:

The Satellite Availability charts can be copied to the clipboard or can be saved to a file using the contextmenu inside the chart.
The results of the Availability computation may also be inspected in:
Satellite Availability Report
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Satellite Availability Report
To get an overview on the Satellite Availability calculation and its results you may invoke the Satellite Availability
Report.

In the Availability tab right-click into a chart and select Open report from the context menu.
The report opens in a stand-alone window and is listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
When the report has been configured to display all possible sections it presents you with the following information:
General Information
Obstructions
Obstruction Graphics
Satellites/ DOP
Satellites/ DOP Graphics
General Information:
This section of the report lists the Site that has been selected for the Availability calculation together with its
Properties. The Date, Almanac, Cut-off Angle and Obstruction that have been selected as Input data to and
subsequently been used in the Availability calculation are listed underneath.
All healthy Satellites that are visible in the given Site at the given period of time are listed as well as the manually
Disabled (de-activated) satellites.
Obstructions:
The Name(s) of the Obstruction(s) that have been selected as Input data to the Availability calculation are listed
together with their Azimuth/ Elevation tables. If no Obstructions have been selected this section of the report will
not show up.
Azimuth and Elevation of each Obstruction point are listed in each table.
Obstruction Graphics:
A graphical representation of all Obstruction(s) that have been used in the Availability computation is shown to
illustrate the table(s) given in the Obstructions section of the report. The graphical representation in the report
corresponds to the Obstructions graphics as defined in the Management tab.
You can Zoom In or Out or Copy the graphics to another application.
Satellites/ DOP
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Illustration:
For the selected Date and Time, for which the availability of satellites has been computed, the No. of Satellites,
various DOPs and the Satellite IDs are listed at fixed intervals of 10 minutes. Using the Report Template
Properties you can decide which DOP values shall be displayed.
Satellites/ DOP Graphics
Illustration:
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In a graphical representation the number of satellites and the DOP values are shown along the selected period of
time. Each DOP is drawn in a different color. The changing number of satellites is shown in a light grey color in the
background of the graphic.
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Precise Ephemeris Management
Precise Ephemeris Management
Precise Ephemeris are imported directly into the database and can be used by different projects without being
bound to one special project. This is why you are presented with a functionality under Tools – Precise Ephemeris
Management that offers you to view those precise ephemeris you have already imported and delete those you do
not need any longer. The functionality will always be active.
When invoked a new window with a simple report view (i.e. no tree-view) pops up, listing all precise ephemeris
currently stored in the database. The report view consists of 5 columns showing:
Date:
Lists the date of the first data set in the file. Due to overlappings between two days, this may be the date of
the day before . Typically, each precise ephemeris file is valid for only one day. Then Date lists the actual
date of the precise ephemeris.
GNSS Type:
Specifies whether only GPS or GPS/GLONASS satellites are included in the file.
Date of Import:
Specifies the date when the particular file was imported.
Number of Satellites:
Lists the number of satellites covered by the selected file.
Satellites:
Lists the satellites’ numbers themselves. G denotes GPS satellites and R denotes GLONASS satellites.
Agency:
Names the agency, which delivered the specific precise ephemeris file.

When you want to delete a set of precise ephemeris from the database right-click on the selected lines
and pick “Delete” from the context menu. A message box will be displayed, which gives you the chance to
either delete the data sets one by one, to delete them all at once or to abort the function.

When you want to import a new set of precise ephemeris you can do so from the same context menu or
from the window background of the Precise Ephemeris Management itself. Clicking Import links you to
the Precise Ephemeris option of the main menu. After Import the report view will be updated.
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Precise Ephemeris Import
This component allows you to import precise ephemeris information into the LGO database. A Precise ephemeris
can be used to improve accuracy when processing long baselines that have been observed for long periods of time.
Precise ephemeris files must be in the following format:
NGS/NOAA SP3-P (Position) format.
The SP3-P format is an internationally accepted standard ASCII format for precise ephemeris.
There are several services that provide precise ephemeris data, e.g.:

IGN Global Data Center

IGS International GPS Service for Geodynamics
Select from the Index to learn more about Precise Ephemeris:
Internet Download
How to Import Precise Ephemeris
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Script Management
Script Management
LGO supports scripts written in either Visual Basic or in Microsoft Java programming language. These scripts can
access the LGO database through an interface consisting of a wide series of objects each having its attributes
and methods. Scripts can either be started from inside LGO or can alternatively be called from outside LGO and
even from other programs. Scripts can especially be useful to automate routine tasks within LGO.
When invoked a new window with a simple report view (i.e. no tree-view) pops up, listing all scripts currently stored
in the database. The report view consists of four columns showing:
Name:
The name of the script.
Description:
A non-mandatory description.
Location:
Path and file name of the script.
Language:
Visual Basic or MS Jscripts are supported.
From the context menu you can:
Create a new script:
Allows you to add a new script to the list. Enter a name and description, select the programming language
and browse to the Visual Basic or MS Jscript file. Additionally, you can add an icon for your script by
clicking onto the toolbar image button.
Run a script:
Starts the script from inside LGO.
Edit a script:
Opens the text editor and allows you to edit the source code of the script.
Delete a script:
Removes the script from the list.
Script properties:
Allows you to edit the script properties.
Tip:

You may create a customized toolbar for Script Management. Go to Tools - Customize... and select the
category Scripts from the Commands tab. In the toolbar only those icons linked to a script will be active.
Clicking the toolbar button starts the script.
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See also:
Using the Howto Scripts
LGO Scripting Help Overview
The LGO Scripting Object Model
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Script Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to enter, display and/or modify the Script properties.

Right-click on a script in the Report-View and select Properties... from the context menu to display the
script properties.
In the Script properties dialog you may view/ edit the following properties:
Name:
Enter or modify the script name.
Description:
Enter or modify the description for the selected script. Descriptions are optional.
Location:
Browse to the Visual Basic or MS Jscript file which shall be associated with the script.
Language type:
Choose between Visual Basic or MS JScripts to be associated with the script.
Toolbar image:
Scripts can have their own toolbar button for quick access. Select or change the toolbar image. On how to
add the button to the toolbar see the following topic: Customize a Toolbar.
Click the toolbar button to run the script.
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Using the Howto Scripts
When you install LGO a series of example scripts is automatically installed on your harddisk. These sample scripts
are all listed in the HowTo Index and include examples for the most commonly used functionality of the LGO
Scripting. They help you to quickly understand how to use the objects, their methods and their properties.
To open the HowTo Index:

Open the
Script Management from the Tools main menu. Run the script Howto_Index. If it is not
stored in the Script Management, define it as a new script first by selecting it from its location. By default it
is stored under C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\LGO\Sample
scripts\Howto\Howto_Index.vbs.
When you run the script, a new window opens inside the LGO frame consisting of a tree-view at the left-hand side
and the respective sample script being loaded on the right-hand side. The tree is divided into separate folders with
each folder containing examples for a specific LGO Scripting object.
Each sample script starts with a short text explanation followed by a summary of the key commands that are used
in the actual sample script. These key commands in a grey background can be taken over into your own scripts
and can be modified there. This should help you to quickly get started with the LGO Scripting.
At the end of each script there is an actual script running which gives you the chance to execute the commands
explained above.
For a full description on how the objects are defined please always refer to the LGO Scripting Help.
Example for a HowTo script:
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LGOScripting Help
LGO Scripting Help Overview
The LGO Scripting Help provides you with a complete description of the LGO Scripting Object Model.
LGO Scripting Objects
The LGO Scripting Objects are the interfaces to the LGO application and the LGO database. For each
object the LGO Scripting Help provides a list of all Operations and Properties. Objects are marked with
the key symbol in the Online Help. For example, the Projects object is displayed as follows:
Operations/ Methods
For each object all available Operations are listed. These operations, also called methods, are used to
execute certain operations for the selected object. Methods are displayed in the LGO Scripting Help with
the symbol as shown below. For example, the method 'Create' can be used for the Projects object to create
a new project:
For each such method a Help topic explains all the parameters needed for the function. For the example of
the command 'Projects. Create' the LGO Scripting Help explains the parameters needed to define the
project name and the location where it shall be stored.
Properties
Each object may have a set of Properties that can be accessed. The LGO Scripting Help lists all available
properties. Properties are displayed in the LGO Scripting Help with the symbol as shown below. For
example, the property 'Name' can be used for the Project object to set the project name:
Enumerations
Various parameters of different LGO Scripting objects work with enumerated Type Definitions. The LGO
Scripting Help contains the complete description of all enumerations. Refer to the book
Type
Definitions inside the LGO Scripting Help. Enumerations are displayed with a symbol as shown below.
This is an example of how you can define the parameter 'Point Class' within your script.
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For a general overview on the various objects please refer to: The LGO Scripting Object Model
Note:

For some interfaces there exist different objects depending on whether the object represents a collection
or a single database object. For example the 'Projects' object represents the collection of all projects,
whereas the 'Project' object represents a single project for which the project properties can be accessed.
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The LGO Scripting Object Model
The LGO Scripting Objects are the interfaces to the LGO application and the LGO database. The following objects
are supported:
Application
Provides access to the root object of the LGO Object Model. The following collection objects can be
accessed for the Application object: Coordinate Systems and components, Codelists, Settings Manager,
Projects and the Satellite Availability object.
Frame
The object for the global frame can be used with a method to open a HTML report embedded into the LGO
frame. It also contains properties, which return the active or all open projects.
Codelist(s)
For the codelist collection object operations like 'Create', 'Delete' or 'Register' can be used.
For a single codelist object members for retrieving and setting the properties are available. When setting a
property the 'Update' method will update the LGO database.
For every codelist object there are objects for codegroup(s), code(s), attribute description(s) and attribute
values each having its operations and properties.
CoordSystem(s)
For the coordinate system collection object operations like 'Create', 'Delete', 'Add', 'Remove', 'Import',
'LoadAll' or 'Find' can be used.
For a single coordinate system object members for retrieving and setting the parameters are available.
When setting a property the 'Update' method will update the LGO database.
In addition to the CoordSystem object separate LGO Scripting objects are available (collection objects and
single item objects) for each of the coordinate system components:
Ellipsoid(s)
MapProjection(s)
StatePlaneZones
Transformation(s)
GeoidModel(s)
CSCSModel(s)
When working with these objects similar methods as for the Coordinate System(s) object are available.
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SettingsManager
The LGO SettingsManager object includes members for retrieving all available settings objects.
Included objects are:
UserASCIIImportSettings are created using a 'User ASCII Template' (*.uat) file. Operations like
'Create', 'Delete', 'Add', 'Remove', 'LoadAll' or 'Find' can be used.
UserASCIIExportSettings are created using a 'User Export Settings' (*.ues) file. Operations like
'Create', 'Delete', 'Add', 'Remove', 'LoadAll' or 'Find' can be used.
CustomASCIIExportSettings are created based upon a Format file (*.frt). Export settings which are
not included in the Format file can be accessed as properties of the CustomAsciiExportSetting object.
ShapeFileExportSettings can be created with the Operation 'Create' for the collection object. For a
single ShapeFileExportSetting object the properties can be modified.
The RawDataImportSetting object contains properties for the settings of the Assign Settings page of
the 'Raw Data Import' dialog.
The DataProcParameter object allows you to set the default GPS-processing parameters.
For the ASCII Import and ASCII Export Settings collection objects and single item objects are available.
Project(s)
For the project collection object operations like 'Create', 'Register', 'Delete', 'Add', 'Remove', 'LoadAll' or
'Find' can be used.
For a single
Project object methods for exporting (ASCII, RINEX, GISCAD, LandXML), importing
(Raw data, ASCII), processing, calculating loops and performing network adjustments are available.
Methods for creating onboard jobs, calculating geoid separations, copying or unregistering are also
supported. Members for retrieving and setting the project properties are available. When setting a property
the 'Update' method will update the project database.
The Project object includes the
Points
MeasuredPoints
ReferencePoints
Geometries
GPSBaselines
GPSIntervals
GPSPoints
GPSSvArcs
GPSTracks
GPSWindows
Results
TPSSetups
TPSObservations
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ResultAdjustment
AdjustmentParameter
objects as additional important
Properties. These objects allow you to access different point triplets
for a specified project as well as GPS tracks, intervals, satellite start/ stop times and baselines. You can
query TPS observations and create or re-calculate TPS setups or Traverses. The Geometries object allows
to access, create or modify lines and areas. The results of a GPS-processing run, a traverse computation
and of a loops or an adjustment computation including all points of the result and the XML logfile document
can be accessed. The GPS-processing, the Traverse-processing and the Adjustment parameters can be
modified.
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Report Template Management
Report Template Management
The Report Template Management component enables you to create new Report Templates or modify existing
Report Templates. Additionally, it allows you to list the Report Template properties.
To start the Report Management

From the Tools menu select
Report Management or click on
within the Management List Bar.
Select from the list below to learn more about Report Management:
Report Templates
Create a New Report Template
Delete a Report Template
Report Template Properties
Configure a Report
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Report Templates
Report Templates are the style sheets used for creating Reports. Report Templates are used for the following
reports:

GPS-processing Results:
GPS Summary Report
Baselines Report
Kinematic Report
SPP Report

Adjustment Results:
Pre-Analysis Report
Network Report
Loops Report

Level-processing Results:
Level Summary Report

Traverse-processing Results
Traverse Report

Setup Results
Setup Report

Sets of Angles Results
Sets of Angles Report

COGO Results
COGO Report

Surface Results
Surface Report

Quality Control:
Mean Coordinates & Differences Report
Coordinate Comparison Report
Satellite Availability Report

Import:
Fieldbook

Datum/ Map:
Transformation
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For each of these components a default Report Template exists based upon which you may easily create your own
templates to suit your very personal needs. With the help of Report templates you may individually define how your
Reports shall look like and what shall be contained. You can define the Font used, the kind of Alignment and the
Coordinate Format. You may even include your own personal Logo.
You may either:

Create a new template based upon one of the default templates or

Modify an existing template or

Delete user-defined templates which are no longer used.
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Create a new Report Template
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1.
In the Report-View or in the Tree-View right click on an existing Report Template and select New... from
the context menu.
2.
The New Report Template dialog opens and you may define a new template. The new template will be
based upon the respective default template from which the context menu was invoked. You can change
the Type if you wish to create a template for a different type of report.
3.
Enter a unique Name for the user-defined template.
4.
Optionally, enter a Note and select
5.
Define the Contents to be included in the user-defined template.
6.
Define the Coordinate Type to be used in the report. This is only required for GPS projects where you
may wish to switch the coordinates in your reports from WGS84 to Local and vice versa.
7.
Modify the Format so that paragraph styles and fonts suit your personal needs.
8.
In the Headers property page you may browse for an individual Logo to be included.
Include Table of Contents.
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Delete a Report Template
1.
Right-click on the Template to be deleted in the Tree-View or Report-View and select Delete.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:


The Default templates indicated by
are hardwired and cannot be deleted.
User-defined templates, which are currently being used, are indicated by
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and may not be deleted.
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Report Template Properties
Report Template Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the Report Template Properties.
1.
Right-click on a Report Template in the Tree-View or in the Report-View and select Properties.
2.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Contents
Coordinate Types
Format
Header
For Adjustment Reports you can additionally define the Confidence Levels in the Advanced page.
3.
Make your changes.
Note: Default Templates can also be edited. Press the Defaults button to reset the settings to the factory
default.
4.
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Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Report Template Properties: General
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the general Template properties.
Name:
Type:
Note:
Unique Report Template Name. For user-defined templates the name may be edited.
The Report Template Type is pre-defined by the default template upon which the user-defined template has
been created. The Report Template Type defines for which kind of report the template can be used.
Optionally enter a Note.
Include Table of Contents:
Check this option if your Report shall contain a table of contents with hyperlinks to the subsections of the
report.
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Report Template Properties: Contents
In the Contents page of the Report Template Properties dialog it is defined which sections shall be included in a
specific kind of Report. The available sections that can be defined vary for the different report template types.
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
Click the Defaults button to restore the default contents of the selected report template.

Click Select All or Select None to activate/ de-activate all contents.
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Report Template Properties: Coordinate Types
In the Coordinate Types page of the Report Template Properties dialog it is defined in which system and type
coordinates shall be displayed.
System:
Select WGS84 or Local
Type:
Select between Cartesian or Geodetic or Grid.
Note: Grid is only available, if the System is set to Local. The coordinate system attached to the project
must allow the conversion to the selected System and Type to be able to display the coordinates as
requested.
Height mode:
If the System is set to Local you can define whether heights shall be displayed as Orthometric or Ellipsoidal.
WGS 84 Baselines:
For GPS Processing Results templates it is additionally possible to select whether the baseline vector
components shall be displayed in Cartesian or in Geodetic coordinates.
Note:

In the Fieldbook Report the following restrictions apply:
- If the System is set to WGS84 then the Type may be either Geodetic or Cartesian, the Height Mode is
fixed to Ellipsoidal.
- If the System is set to Local then only Type Grid is available, the Height Mode may be either Ellipsoidal
or Orthometric.
The coordinate system attached to the job must allow the conversion to the selected System, Type and
Height Mode to be able to display the coordinates as requested.

For the Report Templates of the Adjustment Results Reports the coordinate type cannot be configured
as a report template property, because the reports are always initially displayed in the coordinate system
and type in which the adjustment was performed. It is however possible to switch the coordinate system
and type using the Coordinate Format toolbar buttons.
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Report Template Properties: Format
This Property-Page enables you to display/ edit the paragraph formatting and font style of the each single subsection in the selected Report Template.
Section:
Each section in a report may be addressed individually. For each section paragraph alignment and font are
defined separately. The section you are currently viewing/ editing is also indicated in the right hand
graphical overview. In this graphical overview changes made to the alignment defaults are indicated
schematically.
Alignment:
The paragraph alignment may be Left, Center or Right and may be defined separately for each section.
Font:
Press the Font button to view/ edit the currently defined font for the selected section.
To restore the defaults for a specific section, press the Defaults button.
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Management Components
Report Template Properties: Header
This Property-Page enables you to replace the default Logo with your own Logo.

Press the
button and browse for one of the supported image files (*.BMP, *.GIF, *.JPG, *.JPEG) .
The Logo will be put into the header of the report.
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Report Template Properties: Advanced
In the Advanced page of the Report Template Properties dialog you may set the confidence levels at which the
precision indicators (standard deviations and error ellipses) shall be expressed in the Network Report.
From the drop-down lists select the desired value for 1D-Coordinate elements and 2D-Error ellipses. The
system default values are the standard 1-sigma values, i.e.:

for 1D-Coordinate elements: 68.3%

for 2D-Error ellipses: 39.4%
If you do not want to have all free observations included in the Adjustment Network Report de-select the checkbox
Include free observations.
Note:
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Changing the confidence levels does not have any effect on the statistical tests.
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Management Components
Image Referencing
Image Referencing
The Image Referencing component enables you to manage background images for use within the View/ Edit
component. Referenced images can be attached to a project and appear as background images in the View/ Edit
component. Background images support you in identifying the location of newly measured points in a map.
In View/Edit the background image may only be displayed when the view is switched to the local grid
representation of point coordinates. Thus, if you want to be able to profit from a referenced background image in
View/Edit you either have to have local coordinates stored in your project or a Coordinate System attached.
To start the Image Referencing component:

From the Tools menu select
Image Referencing or click on
within the Management List Bar.
The tree-view on the left-hand side contains all registered background images.

Click on an image to open it in the right-hand side view.
In the lower part of the view you find a property view indicating the image properties and a report view listing all the
points which have been identified in the image.
Before a background image can be referenced at least two common points have to be identified and matched. To
learn more about how to match common points and how to reference a background image refer to: Reference a
background image.
Tip:

In colorful images it might be advisable to blend the image to achieve a better contrast of the identical
points to their background image. Select Blend Image from the context menu.

The Blend Image functionality is also available from the context menu in View/Edit to achieve a better
contrast of the representation of points, observations, Lines and Areas etc. to the attached background
image.
Select from the list below to learn more about Image Referencing:
Register a background image
Reference a background image
Image properties
Attach a background image to a project
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Register a background image
Before you can start referencing a background image you have to register the image.
Open the
list bar.
2.
Right-click into the background of either the tree-view or the corresponding report view and select
Register... from the context menu.
3.
In the Register image dialog browse to the location where you have stored your background images. By
default All supported graphic file types found in the selected location will be listed for selection.
4.
Select an image and press the Register button to add the image to the list of image which are available in
the Image referencing component.
Note:
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Image Referencing component either from the Tools main menu or from the Management
1.
To remove an image from the Image Referencing component without deleting it select Unregister from
the context menu.

If an ESRI world file is available in the same location as the graphic file, then the image will automatically
be referenced according to the transformation elements stored in the ESRI world file. Images which are
already geo-referenced (GEOTIF image files) will also be registered together with their image reference.

The size of images that can be used depends on the memory of your PC. If the size of the image exceeds
the practical limit of 64MB, it is recommended to resample the image.
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Management Components
Reference a background image
To reference an image the local grid coordinates of the image points have to be known so that points can be
matched. Once the points have been matched the image can be oriented, i.e. referenced to the local grid.
To match common points:
1.
To identify a point in the background image zoom in
to the area of the image where the common point
is located. When you have identified the point double-click onto it to insert it into the image. A little cross
indicates the location of the point. Select from the context menu whether you want to View the Point
Id(s) or not.
2.
The point will be added to the report view with its image coordinates. When you have identified all
common points proceed with matching them to their local grid coordinates. The image will be oriented to
the local grid and new, measured points can be shown in the image.
Note: To delete points from the image either select a point in the image or select the point(s) to be deleted
in the corresponding report view. Choose Delete from the context menu to delete the selected point(s).
3.
In the report view enter the Easting and Northing of each common point manually via in-line editing.
Alternatively: Copy and paste (drag & drop) the coordinates of a common point out of a project into the
Image Referencing view. The point will be added to the report view.
Note: Point coordinates can be copied out of those project views which offer access to the point
properties, i.e. the View/Edit or the Adjustment view or the Points view.
4.
Match the image coordinates of the common point with its local grid coordinates. Select both point
representations in the report view, right-click into the selection and choose Match point from the context
menu.
The image coordinates and the local grid coordinates of the point are matched.
Note: If the image point and the local grid representation of the common point have the same Point Id
select Auto match points from the context menu to match all common points at once.
When at least two common points are matched the image can be referenced to the local grid.

Right-click into the report view and select Reference image from the context menu.
The image will be oriented according to the local grid. Referenced images are indicated with the following icon:
in the upper right corner of the view. In the property view the status of the image changes from un-referenced to
referenced.
Note: The more common points you have the better image distortions can be accounted for.
After an image has been referenced you can view the residuals of the transformation from image coordinates to
grid coordinates in the report view:

Right-click into the column heading and select Columns... from the context menu. In the Columns dialog
switch on the columns dE, dN to view the residuals.
To store the transformation between image coordinates and local grid coordinates right-click into the report view
and select Save As ESRI worldfile. A file which contains the transformation elements is written in the location
where your image is stored. If you register the image again (e.g. on another PC) together with the ESRI worldfile,
the image will automatically be referenced.
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Management Components
Image Properties
To view the properties of a registered image:

Right-click on a background image in the tree view of the Image Referencing component or right-click on
an image in the corresponding report view and select Properties... from the context menu.
In the Image Properties dialog general properties like the image's name, its filename, the date when it has last
been modified and its size are indicated to you. You can also see whether the background image has already been
referenced or not.
The name by which an image is identified can be modified.
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Project
Projects
A Project is a set of data items that belong together. These data items are stored in a Project database.
A GPS Project can hold point coordinates in WGS84 and Local Coordinate Systems. If in a GPS project a
Coordinate System defining the parameters for the Local system is attached it enables you to switch the
Coordinates from WGS84 to Local.
If with the current project WGS84 coordinates are stored or a coordinate system is attached to be able to convert
local grid coordinates to WGS84 then Google Earth my be launched to visualize your survey data in the satellite
images offered by Google Earth.
If a referenced image is attached to a project and local coordinates are available the map may be viewed as a
background image in the View/Edit tabbed view. Common points as well as newly measured points can be
identified in the image as to their local location.
If one or more CAD files are attached to the project the graphical entities contained in the CAD file(s) may be
viewed as background maps. A selection of CAD entities may be picked from the CAD file and imported into the
LGO project.
The Project Management component allows you to handle Projects. Upon opening a Project a Tabbed View will
enable you to instantly switch between the following views:
Click the tabs to read more about the corresponding view:
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Google Earth
If at least one project is open and if with the current project either WGS 84 coordinates are stored or a coordinate
system is attached to be able to convert local grid coordinates to WGS84 then the Google Earth functionality within
LGO offers you the chance to visualize your survey data in the satellite images offered by Google Earth. Google
Earth can only handle WGS 84 coordinates. Thus an error message is issued if local grid coordinates cannot be
converted.

From the View menu or from the Standard toolbar choose
Google Earth.
Point coordinate information as well as GPS and/ or TPS observations will be transferred from the currently active
project to Google Earth. If the project contains Lines/ Areas and/ or Surfaces these can be shown in Google Earth
as well. By default, only the visualization of points is active in Google Earth. The other components (Observations,
Lines, Areas, Surfaces) may be switched on as required in the Places pane of Google Earth.
Temporary Places:
A temporary place will be created with the same name that the active project has. Depending on which elements
the project offers (Points and/ or Observations and/ or Lines, Areas and/ or Surfaces) sub-nodes will be inserted by
Google Earth to differentiate between the elements and make them manageable separately:
Points:
Depending on the class the points have in LGO when Google Earth is invoked (i.e. according to the current
point class) sub-nodes will be created for:
Control & Reference points comprising the LGO classes Control, Adjusted, Reference.
Measured points comprising the LGO classes Averaged, Measured.
Other points comprising the LGO classes Single Point Solution, Navigated, Estimated.
The point classes are differentiated in Google Earth by different colors.
Lines/ Areas:
Lines and areas come across in Google Earth with the color and style properties they have in LGO.
GPS/ TPS Observations:
Observations come across in Google Earth with their default color and style.
Surfaces:
Surfaces and Contour lines come across in Google Earth with the color and style properties they have in
LGO.
Operations in Google Earth:

Click onto the top-node link which is shown in the Temporary Places tree view for the current project to
invoke detailed information on the transformation, projection and ellipsoid used with the current project.

Click with the left mouse button onto the link for a single item (a point, an observation, a line or area, a
surface) in its sub-node to invoke the core Properties of Points, Observations, Lines/ Areas and Surfaces.
Alternatively: Click onto a point, an observation, a line or area or a surface in the map view to invoke the
element properties.
If thematical codes are available for an item or images are attached these will be indicated as well. For
points a camera symbol replaces the point symbol if one or more images are attached to a specific point.
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Right-click onto an item in the map view or on an item or a group of items in the tree view and select
Properties from the Google Earth context menu to change the style and color for the selected item(s).
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
Right-click onto the top-node of the temporary place and select Save to My Places from the Google Earth
context menu to save the data imported from the current LGO project to a permanent place in Google
Earth.

Right-click onto a place, a group of elements or onto single elements and select Save Place as ... from
the Google Earth context menu to save the selected place or elements in a *.kmz file which may be redistributed to other users. Double-click onto the *.kmz file to create a temporary place of the saved data in
Google Earth.
Note: If images are attached to a point, line or area these will not be saved to the *.kmz / *.kml file when
created in Google Earth. If you want to re-distribute attached images as well, deliver them to another user
together with the *.kmz file stored in your LGO project folder. Both, the *.kmz file and the image files have
to be copied to the same folder to make Google Earth recognize the images.

Note:


Right-click and select Email ... from the Google Earth context menu to attach the data as presented in
Google Earth as a *.kmz file to an e-mail. The receiver of this e-mail can open the *.kmz file from within
his or her mail program in Google Earth by simply opening the attachment.
To be able to make use of this functionality make sure Google Earth is installed on your computer.
If you have more than one project open at a time then the Point coordinate information from the currently
active project will be taken for visualizing the location of your data in Google Earth.
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View / Edit
View/Edit
View/Edit enables you to display a graphical representation of all points and baselines contained in the Project
database. If a Coordinate System is attached to the Project or if WGS84 and Local coordinates are stored in your
project, you may switch the view to display either WGS84 coordinates or Local coordinates. The coordinate type is
fixed to WGS84 Geodetic or Local Grid in the graphical views.
If a referenced image is attached to the project it may be displayed as a background image in View/Edit. The
location of newly measured points in a map or aerial photograph of the region is visualized and becomes easily
identifiable. The background image may be switched on and off via the graphical settings.
Line and Area objects measured in the field may be graphically represented in the View/Edit component. The
representation of Line and Area objects may be switched on and off via the graphical settings.
Images that have either been imported manually or with a SmartWorx job and which are available in the Images
view can be linked to a specific point or line or area.
If one or more CAD files are attached to the project the graphical entities contained in the CAD file(s) may be
viewed as background maps. A selection of CAD entities may be picked from the CAD file and imported into the
LGO project as Points or Line/ Area objects.
Points and observations may be selected graphically and properties may be viewed and edited. Additionally, you
may display the direction and distance between two points. Make use of the Point Editor to easily enter and/ or edit
local grid coordinates for sets of existing or new points.
A selection of points may be sent to the Hard disk or to the Local Memory Device directly via the Send To
functionality.
By default, Panning is switched on so that you can comfortably navigate within the view. The Scroll to selected
point tool makes it easy to focus on a special point. To enlarge or reduce the view make use of the Zoom
functionality.

View/Edit may be accessed via the
View/Edit Tab from within a project window.
Select from the list below to learn more about View/Edit:
New Point/ New Line/ Area
Activate / De-activate
Delete
CAD Entities
Assign points to a surface
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Zoom 100%
Panning
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Show Direction & Distance
Show GPS Loop Misclosure
Send To
Compute Average Combined Factor
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale
Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station)
Update Reference Triplet
Shift Reference Triplet
Rename Tool
Point Editor
Link image to point/ line/ area
Observations View
Lines/ Areas View
Graphical Settings
Edit Intervals
Re-assign Intervals
Re-assign Reference Triplets
Re-assign Measured Triplets
Point Properties
Observation Properties
Line/ Area Properties
Scroll to a selected point
Image Referencing
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Panning
Panning is a feature of most of the graphical views inside LGO. It allows you to comfortably move a view without
having to scroll left and right and up and down.

Click with the left mouse button into a graphical view (the cursor changes into a 'hand') and keep it
pressed to move the displayed area into any direction.
The Pan mode is by default switched on.

To switch the Panning functionality off click the corresponding toolbar button
from the view's background menu.

To temporarily switch off the Panning mode keep the Shift-key pressed.
or de-select Panning
To select a series of points and/ or observations while Panning is switched on:

Keep the Shift-key pressed to drag a rectangle around the items you want to select.
Keep the Shift-key or the Ctrl-key pressed to select individual items or draw separate rectangles around
several groups of items.
To 'Drag and Drop' data items while Panning is switched on:

Note:

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Keep the Shift-key pressed while dragging and dropping (copying and pasting) data items according to
the rules given in the corresponding topic.
Panning is also available in the graphical views inside Wizards. In Wizards the Panning functionality is by
default switched off.
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Rename Tool
The Rename Tool offers you the chance to rename a selection of points or lines/ areas.

In
View/ Edit or in the
Points View select the points to be renamed and open the
Tool ... from the View/ Edit or the Points main menu
Rename
Alternatively: Open the Rename Tool ... from the View/ Edit background menu or the Points context
menu.

In the Lines/ Areas View select the lines/ areas to be renamed and open the Rename Tool ... from the
context menu.
The selected points or lines/ areas are listed in the Rename Tool with their Current ID and their New ID. If you see
that by chance a point or line/ area is included that shall not be renamed it may be deleted from the selection by
pressing the
and pressing the
Delete item button. You may also change the order of the points in the list by selecting a point
Move up/ down buttons.
General:
Insert new ID:
Insert a new Id for the selected points. The new Id can be composed of new alphanumeric characters plus
the current Id or parts of the current Id. Additionally, a numeric counter may be inserted. Spaces,
dashes, dots and underscores may serve as separators.
Add/ insert current ID:
Press the button to insert the Id which the point(s) or line(s)/ area(s) currently have into the Insert new ID
field. Before or after you may enter any combination of alphanumeric characters or add a counter to modify
the current ID as desired.
Add/insert part of current ID:
Press the button to select and insert a part of the Id which the point(s) or line(s)/ area(s) currently have into
the Insert new ID field. Before or after you may enter any combination of alphanumeric characters or add a
counter to modify the partly used current ID as desired.
Add/ insert numeric counter:
Press the button to insert a numeric counter for renumbering the IDs. The following selection fields become
active to define the counter:
Start counter at:
Define the number to start counting with.
Increment counter by:
Define how the counter shall be incremented.
Counter digits:
Define the digits that shall be reserved for inserting the counter.
A preview of the newly defined ID is given in the list below.
When you have finished redefining the IDs for the selected points, lines/ areas press OK to confirm the renaming
and close the tool.
Press Apply to confirm the renaming and take over the New IDs as Current IDs as the basis for the next change
without closing the tool. New IDs that are confirmed with Apply are remembered and offered in the Insert new ID
drop down list for future selection.
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Search and Replace:
Search for:
You may search for parts of the current Point or Line/ Area Ids that shall be renamed and replace these
parts with a new combination of alphanumeric characters. You may also search for Spaces, dashes, dots
and underscores to be replaced.
Note: Ids that have previously been confirmed by Apply are identified as the current Ids.
Replace with:
Define a replacement for the Search string. Spaces, dashes, dots and underscores may also serve or be
included as part of the Replace string. If you want to remove a fixed part of the current IDs leave the
replace string empty.
Again a preview of the new Point Ids is given in the list below.
When you have finished searching for and replacing IDs for the selected points, lines/ areas press OK to confirm
the renaming and close the tool.
Press Apply to take over the New IDs as Current IDs. Search and Replace strings that have been confirmed with
Apply are offered in the drop-down lists to be selected for future Search and Replace runs.
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CAD Entities
Viewing CAD files and managing CAD file layers
View/ Edit you may view CAD files which are attached to the project as background maps.
In
To be able to view attached CAD files as background maps you have to switch them on in the Graphical Settings:
View page. Only if CAD files are switched on in the Graphical settings will functionality for managing layers be
available.
To switch on and off single layers of attached CAD file(s):

Click on the
Select CAD file layers button in the Standard or in the View toolbar and in the drop-
down list of layers switch on
button.
or off
single layers by clicking onto the light bulb with the left mouse
To switch on or off more than one layer at a time highlight the layers to be hidden or made visible and
click onto the light bulb for one of the selected layers to switch all of them on or off.
Follow the rules for the Selection of Data Items if you want to select (highlight) more than one layer at a
time.
To make single layers of attached CAD file(s) selectable:

Click on the
Select CAD file layers button in the Standard or in the View toolbar and in the drop-
down list of layers make single layers selectable
pointer symbol with the left mouse button.
or not selectable
by clicking onto the mouse
To make more than one layer at a time selectable or not selectable highlight the layers and click onto the
mouse pointer symbol for one of the selected layers to make all of them selectable or not selectable.
Follow the rules for the Selection of Data Items if you want to select (highlight) more than one layer at a
time.
Note: If more than one CAD file is attached to your project and the files contain layers with identical names then
changing the status of a layer (switching it on or off or making it selectable or not selectable) affects all background
maps which contain a layer of that name.
The CAD file entities on layers which are switched on
and which are selectable
imported into the LGO project to which the CAD files are attached.
can be picked and
Learn more about importing CAD files entities and editing CAD entity properties in:
Import CAD file entities
CAD Entity Properties
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Import CAD file entities
If a project has one or more CAD files attached then it is possible to import CAD entities to LGO. You can select a
single CAD entity or a selection of CAD entities for import, or even multiple layers.
To define global settings for the import of CAD entities into an LGO project:

Go to Tools - Options: CAD Import in the main menu and make your settings for the default point class
the imported points shall take, for the Point, Line and Area ID prefixes, the interpretation of height
values and the conversion of white elements.
To select CAD entities:
1.
To be able to pick entities from a layer for import make sure that the layer is visible and its status set to
selectable.
2.
Click with the left mouse button onto the entity you want to import into the LGO project. If necessary
enlarge the view via the Zoom functionality.
If you want to select more than one entity for import keep the Ctrl- or the Shift-key pressed while selecting
single entities with a left mouse click.
You may also pick a whole range of entities by drawing a rectangle around the entities you want to select.
The colour of the selected entities changes to red and the entities are displayed in bold style.
3.
Right-click into the view's background and go to CAD Entities in the background menu. From the dropdown context menu select how you want to proceed.
If you have only selected a single entity you may also right-click onto the selected entity and choose from
the context menu how you want to proceed.
The following options are available for the import of CAD file entities:
Import
The selected entity will be imported into the current project and the points belonging to the entity will be
created in LGO. If the entity is of type line or area then a Line/ Area object will be created along with its
points. If the entity is only a point then just the point will be created.
Import points only
If you selected an entity of type line or area then with this option only the points belonging to the object will
be imported and created in LGO.
Import all from layer
All entities (points, lines, areas) belonging to the same layer as the selected entity will be imported into the
current project. For lines and areas Line and Area objects will be created in LGO plus the points belonging
to the objects.
Import all points from layer
All points belonging to the same layer as the selected entity will be imported into the current project. No
Line or Area objects will be created in LGO.
Furthermore, you have the chance to:
Hide the layer
If you select this option then the layer to which the selected entity belongs will be switched off and hidden
from view.
Set the layer not selectable
If you select this option then the entities on this layer will still be visible but no longer selectable.
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To switch the layer on again or to make the entities from this layer selectable again you have to press the
Select CAD file layers button in the Standard or in the View toolbar and reset the layer status to be
visible and
selectable.
For single selected entities you may also view and edit the CAD Entity Properties by selecting Properties... from
the context menu.
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CAD Entity Properties
If a project has one or more CAD files attached then you can pick single entities and invoke information on the
entity properties via a context menu.

Right-click onto an entity and select Properties... from the context menu. The current entity properties as
defined in the DXF are shown.
Note: Only on selectable layers you will be able to pick entities and invoke the Properties dialog.

Press the Import button to import a selected CAD entity from the attached CAD files into the LGO project.
Note: If the entity is of type line or area then a Line/ Area object will be created along with the points
belonging to the entity. If the entity is only a point then just the point will be created.
After import into the LGO project a Line/ Area object will appear as defined in the CAD Entity Properties dialog.
If the settings in the CAD Entity Properties dialog are changed, these changes will only affect which properties a
point, line or area will have in LGO after import. The DXF file will not be updated or changed by changing the CAD
Entity Properties.
In the CAD Properties dialog you may view and edit the following items
Point/ Line/ Area Id:
In this combo box the ID of the selected CAD entity is listed. The CAD entity will be classified as either
Point or Line or Area depending on its Type. You may change the Id for import into the LGO project.
Type:
Layer:
Code:
The entity's type of geometry is listed. It can be either Point or a line of either type Line or Polyline or Arc/
Elliptic arc or Spline or an area of either type Polygon or Circle/Ellipse.
The layer to which the selected entity belongs is listed.
Lists the point/ line/ area codes as defined in the project codelist. If you select a line/ area code from this
combo box, the Border Style, Color and Width are set according to the line/ area code and the
corresponding combo boxes become read-only. The line/ area code controls the style, color and width
properties as defined by the codelist.
If you select line/ area code None then the style, color and width properties become editable.
The following properties are only applicable to entities classified as Line or Area:
Line/ Border Style:
Lists all supported line/ border styles (solid, dash, dot and dashdot combinations).
Line/ Border Color:
Lists all supported line/ border colors (all colors and color shadings as well as all grey shadings).
Line/ Border Width:
Lists all supported line/ border widths (from 1/4 pt to 6 pt).
Shading Style (Area properties only):
Lists all supported shading styles. The shading style defines the pattern with which the area is filled. If you
want the area to be fully filled (without a pattern) select the 'blank' shading style, i.e. the first option in the
list.
Shading Color (Area properties only):
Lists all supported shading colors (all colors and color shadings as well as all grey shadings).
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Points and Observations
Point (Coordinate) Classes and Subclasses
The coordinate class describes the type and/or source of a coordinate triplet. For each point there may exist more
than one coordinate triplet in the Office database.
The coordinate classes represent the hierarchical order of the coordinate triplets. The Points View displays the
active coordinate triplet for each point. By default the triplet with the highest class is active.
E.g. if you import GPS raw data, the points are imported with Navigated coordinate triplets attached. After
processing the baseline a coordinate triplet Measured is added to the point. After processing another baseline for
the same point another coordinate triplet Measured is added and an average is calculated. The average calculation
adds another coordinate triplet of class Average to the point. Later the point is used in an Adjustment which adds
the adjusted coordinates as a coordinate triplet of class Adjusted to the point and so on.
The point subclass on the other hand gives an indication to the user as to the source from which the coordinate
came.
The following list represents the Coordinate Classes in the ascending hierarchical order:
Symb
Class Id
Description
Estimated
This coordinate class is required to support the Adjustment component when
terrestrial observations are involved. Before an adjustment can begin,
provisional (estimated) coordinates are required for each point.
The subclass of Estimated is always None.
Navigated
Navigated coordinates derived using the uncorrected Code solution of a single
epoch. E.g. points that are imported via GPS data import and that have not yet
been post-processed are awarded point class Navigated.
The subclass of Navigated is always Code only
Single point
position
Coordinates derived using the Single Point Positioning (SPP) processing of the
GPS-Processing kernel or a GPS receiver.
The subclass of Single point Position is always Code only
Measured
Coordinates that have been differentially corrected using GPS post-processing
or Real-time are awarded this point class. Target points of TPS observations will
also have coordinate class Measured.
Note that only the class Measured can hold more than one coordinate triplet. If
more than one coordinate triplet for one point exists, the different coordinate
triplets are automatically averaged and the point is awarded the point class
Average.
Depending on the source of the coordinate triplet, the point may have the
following subclasses:
- Code Only Code only solution from post-processing
- Phase Fixed Phase solution from post-processing
- Phase Phase solution from RTK
- None Target point of a TPS observation
- Hidden Calculated solution for a Hidden Point
- (Aux) With this suffix the auxiliary points for Hidden Points will be marked.
Averaged
Averaged coordinates of points for which two or more measurements exist.
Averaging algorithms exist in the office software as well as on the sensor.
Note: Measured triplets stored in different coordinate systems (WGS84 or Local)
or coordinate types (Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid) can also be averaged if the
attached coordinate system allows the conversion.
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The subclass of Averaged is always None.
Reference
For points that have been used as a Reference for GPS Post-Processing or
GPS Real-Time, a coordinate triplet of class Reference will be added. Such GPS
Reference triplets will always be stored in the WGS84 coordinate system.
Point class Reference is also used for points which are associated with a setup
which has connected TPS or Level observations in Adjustment.
Note: Only one Reference triplet can exist for anyone point.
Adjusted
Coordinates that have been adjusted using the Adjustment program.
Note: Since GPS Hidden Points do not take part in the Adjustment they will not
be awarded point class Adjusted afterwards even though subsequently their
coordinates might have changed. Thus, when you want to export e.g. all
adjusted points, be aware that you have to export the Hidden Points separately.
Control
Coordinates of class Control primarily serve as fixed coordinates for the network
adjustment. It is the highest point class and should be used if you enter
Coordinates manually. Depending on whether they are fixed in position, fixed in
height or both, they may have different subclasses and will be represented by
different symbols:
Fixed in Position and Height
Fixed in Position
Fixed in Height
Note:

Tip:

Coordinates that are manually entered may be awarded either the point class Estimated or Control only.
On how to copy and paste triplets easily refer to: Copy and Paste triplets in the Point Properties: General
page.
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Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
The point class describes the type and/or source of a point height. For each point there may exist more than one
height in the LGO database.
The point classes represent the hierarchical order of a point's heights. The Points View displays the currently active
point class for each point. By default the height with the highest class is active.
The point class in the booking sheet is independent of the currently active point class in the Points View. In the
booking sheet the only two point classes to be displayed are Measured and Control. Other classes like for example
Averaged may only be displayed in the Points View.
See also: Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
The point subclass supplies additional information relevant to the individual class. The subclass indicates to the
user the source the height came from.
The following list shows the Point Classes in ascending hierarchical order:
Class Id
Description
Measured
Class of heights that have either been calculated by the Level instrument while the Level
line was measured or that have been processed in LGO.
Measured point heights can be modified in the booking sheet. Accordingly, all measured
heights in the level line will be shifted by the same amount.
Depending on the source of the measured height a point of this class may have the
following subclasses:
- None: if the height is the measured raw height as it has been imported from the level
instrument via Raw Data Import.
- (Level) Processed: if the point has a height resulting from a processing run in LGO.
Note: Measured is the only point class which can comprise more than one height
coordinate. If more than one measured height exists for a point the average will
automatically be calculated. Points with an averaged height coordinate are awarded the
additional class Averaged.
Averaged
Class of points for which more than one height of class Measured exists.
The subclass of Averaged is always None.
Control
To process a level line in LGO at least one point must be of class Control. Control heights
are retained in a processing run. They serve as the basis relative to which all other points
are computed.
By default the first point in a level line will be set to class Control when importing level raw
data. It is assumed that the first point in a line has the known start height.
To change the default and fix point heights manually in the booking sheet select Create
Control from the context-menu.
In level projects the subclass of Control points is Fixed in Height.
Note: When you create a control you may fix the point's height to a different value than
the measured height value. Changing the point height in creating a control does not
simultaneously affect the heights of all other points. Neither the heights of all measured
points in the line nor the heights of other controls will be shifted by the same amount.
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New Point (graphical views)
Allows you to graphically or manually add a new point to the database.
Tip:
1.
Right-click in the place within the background of the graphical window where you want to create a new
point and select New Point.
2.
Enter Point Id.
3.
Optionally, adapt the parameters and/or the coordinates of the point.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.

Click Apply instead of OK if you want to manually enter a series of points.

You can also create a new 2D point by double-clicking in the graphical window. The coordinate class
Estimated and a Point Id (New Point 1, New Point 2...) will be assigned automatically.
Note:

If the location of the new point is selected graphically using the mouse, the accuracy of the coordinates
depends on the resolution of your computer’s screen as well as on the size of the area being displayed
(zoom status).
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Delete Points/ Triplets (graphical views)
Enables you to delete all or individual coordinate class triplets of a Point.
To delete a point:
1.
Highlight a point and select Delete and then Point from the context-menu or from the View/ Edit or
Adjustment main menu.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:

If you delete a Point, all coordinate triplets and all associated data including raw data will be deleted
permanently from the database.
To delete point triplets:
To delete a particular coordinate class (coordinate triplet) of one or a series of points, highlight the point(s)
to be deleted, and select Delete and then Triplets from the context menu or the View/ Edit or
Adjustment main menu and select an individual class from the list.
Note:

Tip:
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If you delete the only coordinate triplet that exists for a point, the entire point will be deleted from the
database.

If you delete the Averaged point triplet, all Measured triplets will be deleted as well.

If you select a series of Points all of them can be deleted at once. To select all points you may also press
Ctrl-A on the keyboard.
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Point Properties
Point Properties (graphical views)
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the Point Properties.
1.
In the Graphical-View right-click on a Point and select Properties.
Alternatively: Double-click on a Point.
2.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Stochastics
Setup
Thematical Data
Reliability (available only if the reliability has been previously calculated using the Adjustment component)
Mean (available only if more than one coordinate triplet of class Measured for a particular point exists)
Images (available only if at least one image is linked to the selected point)
Hidden Point functionality is only available for GPS measurements. Hidden Point Properties can only
be displayed in the View/ Edit component or in the Points View:
Hidden Point (Position) (available only if the selected point is a Hidden Point)
Hidden Point (Height) (available only if the Hidden Point has height properties attached)
3.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields with a white background may be edited at that particular instant.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:

Select a Point from the List-box
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and press Edit selected Point
from the Toolbar.
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Point Properties: Setup
Enables you to display/edit the instrument Setup of a point. A Setup describes the type of Instrument that was used
on a particular point. Thus a Setup in the case of GPS will be where a GPS reference station was situated, in the
case of terrestrial measurements it will be where the instrument was situated.
List box
Displays the Date/Time the setup was created, the Type of setup and the Point Id. If more than one Setup
for a particular point exists, select from the list.
Setup type:
The setup type is displayed but can not be changed via Point Properties.
Instrument height:
If the setup type is TPS you may change the instrument height.
For SmartWorx TPS setups the following changes are applied when changing the Instrument height:
If the instrument height was used in the field to calculate the height of the target points (Set Orientation,
Known Backsight), then a change in the instrument height will automatically modify the heights of all
connected target points by the same amount.
For the Resection methods and the methods Multiple Backsights and Height Transfer a change in the
instrument height only modifies the height of the setup, but not the heights of the connected target points,
unless the height of the setup was excluded from the setup calculation.
If the setup was not imported from SmartWorx raw data (but using GSI or TDS raw data import or if it was
manually entered), then a change of the Instrument height will always modify all connected target points.
Centring error:
The centring error defines the predicted error that could have been made when centring the instrument
(reference) over the point.
Height error:
The Height error defines the predicted error when measuring the instrument (reference) height.
Active:
You may deactivate the setup by clearing the Active check box. This will remove the setup and any
associated observations from the adjustment computation.
Note:

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When a GPS setup is selected, the instrument height may not be edited. This is due to the fact that the
Adjustment does not obtain this information from LGO and a change in instrument height would require a
re-computation of the GPS baselines.

With a TPS Setup, all categories are available for editing.

With an Azimuth Setup only the centring error may be edited. This is because there is no height
information and only horizontal angles are of concern.
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Edit Interval (View/ Edit)
Enables you to display and edit the Interval Properties of the selected Point such as Antenna Properties and
Annotations.
1.
Right-click on a point and select Edit Interval.
2.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
Antenna
Annotation
3.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at the particular instant.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:

Select a Point from the List-box
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and press Edit interval
from the Toolbar.
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Re-assign Intervals
Enables you to re-assign a single static observation interval to another Point Id. E.g. if the same Point Id was
occupied twice using static GPS techniques.
1.
Right-click on a point and select Re-assign...(or Re-assign interval)
2.
If the selected point consists of more than one interval, select the interval(s) to be re-assigned from the list
or press Select All.
3.
In From Point Id xx to select a Point Id to which the interval(s) should be re-assigned from the list of
available points or enter a new Point Id.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:


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Only static intervals can be re-assigned. Instantaneous ("time tagged") points do not have an interval
connected and cannot be re-assigned (re-named) to an existing Point Id.
You can also re-assign an interval to another Point Id by modifying the Point Id to that of an existing Point
Id in the GPS-Processing interval view.
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Link or unlink Images
All images which are available in the Images view may be manually linked to points, lines or areas within the
same LGO project.
To link one or more images from within the Images view:
1.
Click onto the
Images top node in the tree view to see the complete collection of all available images
in the corresponding thumbnail view on the right.
Alternatively, click onto the
are not yet linked.
Not linked node to see only those images in the thumbnail view which
2.
Select the images to be linked in the thumbnail view and choose Link either from the context menu or
from the Images main menu.
If you know that an image is linked already to a specific point, line or area you may also open the
thumbnail view for that point, line or area and select the image to be linked again from there.
3.
In the Link Image dialog select the Point or the Line or the Area to which the selected image(s) shall be
linked.
4.
Leave the dialog with OK.
To link one or more images from within View/ Edit:
1.
Right-click onto a point or a line or an area and select Link image to point/ line/ area ... from the context
menu.
2.
In the Link Image dialog all images that are available with the current project will be shown to you in a
thumbnail view together with the image name.
If you want to be offered for selection just the still unlinked images check the option
images only.
Show unlinked
3.
Select the images to be linked with the selected point / line/ area from the thumbnail view.
4.
Leave the dialog with OK.
The selected image(s) will be linked to the point or line or area as specified in the Link Image dialog.
In the
Images view a node for
Points or
Lines/ Areas will be added to the tree view if it is not available
yet. If a specific point or line or area does not have images linked before it will be added under its node and in the
corresponding thumbnail view the newly linked images will be shown. If a specific point or line or area does already
have linked images the newly linked images will be added to the thumbnail view.
In
View/ Edit the point symbol changes to indicate that images are linked. If all images that have been linked to
a point are unlinked again the point symbol changes back to indicate the current point class.
To unlink one or more images from within the Images view:
1.
Open the node for
Points or
Lines/ Areas and select a specific point or line or area from which
one or more images shall be unlinked.
2.
In the thumbnail view for the selected object select the image(s) to be unlinked and choose Unlink from
the context menu.
3.
Confirm the warning message that is issued with Yes to unlink the selected images.
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To unlink one or more images from within View/ Edit:
1.
Right-click onto a point or a line or an area to which images are linked and select Properties... from the
context menu.
2.
In the Properties dialog go to the Images tab and select the images to be unlinked from the selected
object in the thumbnail view.
3.
Right-click into the selection and choose Unlink from the context menu.
4.
Confirm the warning message that is issued with Yes to unlink the selected images.
Note:

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In the
Images view the Unlink functionality is only available for specific objects. You cannot unlink
Images top node.
images from within the thumbnail view for the
If an image is linked to more than one object it is only moved to the
Images view when it is unlinked from all objects.
Not linked node in the
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Observation Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the observation properties.
1.
Right-click on an observation in the graphical view and select Properties.
One or more of the following Property-Pages will be displayed:
GPS - GPS Baseline information
RTK Info - Info on the used reference station network
TPS - TPS angle and distance measurements
Azimuth - Horizontal angle reading from theodolite or compass
Level - Height difference observation.
2.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields having a white background may be edited at the particular instant. Measurements
are only editable if the observation has been manually entered.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Delete Observations
Enables you to delete observations from the database. An observation may be a processed baseline or a manually
entered terrestrial observation from the Adjustment component.
1.
Highlight an observation and select Delete and then Observation from the context menu or from the
View/Edit or Adjustment main menu.
Note: If more than one Observation exists, you will be prompted.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Tip/Note:
 GPS raw data are NOT deleted if you delete a baseline.
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
If you select a series observations all of them can be deleted at once.

If you want to delete an observation (baseline) that consists of more than one track, a dialog box appears
allowing you to select individual tracks.
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Re-assign TPS observations
Enables you to re-assign one or more TPS Survey observations to another TPS setup.

In the
View/Edit tabbed view right-click on the point on which the TPS Survey observations to be reassigned have been measured and select Re-assign TPS observation... from the context menu.
The Re-assign TPS Observations Wizard starts up:
1.
If more than one TPS setup exists on the selected point then in the Start page of the wizard select the
TPS setup on which the Survey observations to be re-assigned have been measured. Click Next.
2.
In the Select Observations page select the point to which the Survey observations shall be re-assigned
from the Move to drop-down list. In the right-hand graphical view the selected target point is displayed
together with all its existing TPS observations (including Setup and Traverse observations).
Note: Only points on which a TPS Setup exists are available in the list. New Setups can be created in
View/ Edit or in the Adjustment component.
In the left-hand side report view select the Survey observation(s) to be re-assigned. Press the
button to add the observation(s) to the right-hand side graphical view. To remove an observation again
from the graphical view, select it in the graphical view and press the
button.
Alternatively, right-click on the observation in the graphical view and select Remove from the context
menu.
3.
Click the Finish button to move all observations added to the graphical view to the selected TPS setup.
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Observations View
The Observation View gives you an overview on all observations (GPS, TPS, Level and Azimuth observations)
contained in a project. It is available in the Adjustment and in the View/ Edit graphical views.
To invoke the Observation view:

Right-click in the background of the
Adjustment or the
View/ Edit graphical view and select View
Observations... from the background context menu or from the main menu.
The Observations view opens up in a stand-alone floating window. It's a two-pane view offering a tree view on the
left-hand side and a corresponding report view on the right-hand side.
You may select from two different tree-views.
The From tab lists all points (GPS, TPS, Level and/ or Azimuth setups) in a project from which observations have
been made to several target points. Depending on the kind of setups contained in the project the corresponding
report view offers up to four different tabs (GPS, TPS, Level and/ or Azimuth) each listing the observation
properties for each target point that has been measured from the selected setup.
The To tab lists all target points contained in a project. Depending on the kind of setups (GPS, TPS, Level or
Azimuth) from which the target points have been measured the corresponding report view offers up to four different
tabs (GPS, TPS, Level and/ or Azimuth) each listing the observation properties for each setup from which the
selected target point has been measured.
Example:
The report views offer the following functionality:

Select Properties... from the context menu to display the observation properties of the selected
observation. For details see:
Observation Properties: GPS
Observation Properties: TPS
Observation Properties: Level
Observation Properties: Azimuth
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Observation Properties: RTK Info

Select Zoom to Observation from the context menu to zoom the graphical view to the extents of the
selected observation(s).

To delete one or more observations select the observations to be deleted and select Delete from the
context menu.

In the TPS observation tab you can modify the target height, the reflector type, the offsets and the
geometrical or the atmospherical ppm simultaneously for more than one observation. Select the
observations and choose Edit Target Height... or Edit Reflector Type... or Edit Offsets... or Edit
geometrical PPM... or Edit atmospherical PPM...from the context menu.
For single observations the target height, the reflector type or the offsets may also by modified via the inline edit functionality. Select the observation and right-click onto the item to be changed in its respective
column. From the context menu select Modify.... Alternatively, double-click slowly onto the item to be
changed to open the in-line edit field.
Modifying the target heights updates the measured point coordinates. Modifying reflector types updates
the slope distances and the measured point coordinates. Modifying offsets updates the measured TPS
observation(s) and the measured point coordinates. Modifying the geometrical ppm updates the
horizontal distances and the measured point coordinates. Modifying the atmospherical ppm updates the
original slope distance and the measured point coordinates.
Note: Modifying target heights, reflector types or geometrical ppm values is not allowed if the observation
is used in a 'Resection' or 'Multiple Backsights' setup application. You can modify target heights or
reflector types in the corresponding Setup Properties: Observations page, which enforces a re-calculation
of the setup. Modifying offsets is only allowed for Survey Observations.

In the TPS and in the GPS observation tab you can modify the target/ rover point codes for one or more
points simultaneously.
The thematical code of a single target/ rover point may be modified via the in-line edit functionality. Select
the observation and right-click onto Code column. From the context menu select Modify.... Alternatively,
double-click slowly onto the code to be changed to open the in-line edit field. All point codes that are
available in the Codelist of the active project will be offered for selection.
To modify the thematical code for more than one target/ rover point at once select the set of points to be
modified, right-click into the selection and select Edit Target Point Code.../ Edit Rover Point Code...
from the context menu. Again all point codes that are available in the Codelist of the active project will be
offered for selection.
Note: Attribute values which might have been defined for the selected Target/ Rover point(s) are removed
when changing the code. They would have to be re-defined for each target/ rover point in the Point
Properties: Thematical data dialog page if desired.
Note:

When you select a setup/ target point in one of the tree views the point will simultaneously be selected in
the Select point combo box of the Scroll&Query toolbar.
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Graphical Settings
Graphical Settings (View/ Edit)
The Graphical Settings Property-Sheet enables you to configure the graphical view. You may configure which
items to display and select the colors of graphical elements and the font for text items.
1.
From the context menu (right-click) or the View main menu select Graphical Settings...
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
View
Accuracy
Grid
Color
Font
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
See also:
Graphical Settings (Adjustment)
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Graphical Settings: View
This Property-Page enables you to define which graphical elements shall be displayed.
General:
Grid
Check to display a coordinate grid.
Note: To configure the grid see: Grid
North Arrow
Check
to display an arrow in the upper right corner pointing to the north.
Scale Bar
Check to display a Scale Bar in the lower left corner of the screen. The Scale bar will alter its size and
description to suit the scale at which you are zoomed in. Additionally, the scale bar will appear on any
printout that you make, when activated.
Legend
Check
to display a legend listing the point symbols of all possible point classes.
Coordinate Tracking
Check to display the mouse coordinates in the Status Line.
Background Image
Check to display the referenced image which has been attached to the project as a background image.
CAD files
Check to display the CAD files which have been attached to the project and have been activated in the
Project Properties: CAD files dialog page.
Data:
Point Ids
Check to display the Point Identifications
Note: To configure the font see: Font. To configure the color see: Color.
Height Value
Check to display the Height Values. If the view is configured to display local grid coordinates either the
orthometric or the ellipsoidal height value is displayed depending on the choice you made in the ToolsOptions: Units/ Display dialog page.
Note: Only if the requested height mode is available will a height value be displayed. Height values are only
displayed if the font for Point Id is a
True Type font. To configure the font see: Font.
Thematical Codes
Check to display the Thematical Code
Note: Thematical Code values are only displayed if the font for Point Id is a
the font see: Font.
True Type font. To configure
Abs. Error Ellipses
Check to display the point accuracy indicators. The point accuracy is represented by the corresponding
error ellipse (which represents the two-dimensional 1-sigma confidence region of the point) and the
standard deviation of the height (1-sigma confidence region).
Note: To configure scale and color of the accuracy indicators see: Accuracy.
GPS Observations
Check to display the GPS baseline vectors
Note: To configure the color of the baseline vectors see: Color.
TPS Observations
Check to display the TPS (direction and distance) measurements
Note: To configure the color of the TPS observations see: Color.
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Azimuth Observations
Check to display the Azimuth measurements
Note: To configure the color of the Azimuth observations see: Color.
Level Observations
Check to display the height difference observations
Note: To configure the color of the Level observations see: Color.
Lines
Areas
Check to display all Line objects
Note: To configure the style, color and width of the Line objects see: Line/ Area Properties.
Check to display all Area objects
Note: To configure the border and shading styles of the Area objects see: Line/ Area Properties.
Avg. Limit exceeded
Check to display a hatched rectangle for points containing measured coordinate triplets that exceed the
averaging limit.
GPS Tracks
Check to display Mixed (MXD) or Kinematic chains (tracks).
Note: To configure the color of the tracks see: Color.
GPS Hidden Point Measurements
Check if you want to have details of the Hidden Point calculation displayed in the View/ Edit window.
Level Tracks
Check to display the track along all turning points of a level line, which have position information stored.
Note: To configure the color of the tracks see: Color.
Geoid Contours
Check to automatically calculate and display contour lines of the geoid for the extents of your project.
Note: This option is only available if a coordinate system including a Geoid Model is attached to the project.
The contour lines will be removed if the attached coordinate system changes.
As geoid separations are always stored with respect to the local ellipsoid, contour lines can only be
displayed if the view is configured to Local.
Linked images
Check if you want to indicate via a special point symbol if images are attached to a point. The point
symbol for linked images is pre-defined and cannot be changed in its representation. If selected the linked
images symbol is superimposed on any other point symbol (e.g. on the symbol for the point classes
Measured or Control).
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Graphical Settings: Accuracy
This Property-Page enables you to set the scale and color of the point accuracy indicators.
The point accuracy is represented by the corresponding error ellipse (which represents the two-dimensional 1sigma confidence region of the point) and the standard deviation of the height (1-sigma confidence region).
Abs. Error Ellipses
Enter a value between 0.00001 – 1 to set the scale of the point accuracy indicators.
Select a color from the combo box.
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Graphical Settings: Color
This Property-Page enables you to set the color of the database items.

In the Color column double-click onto the corresponding color field and select a color from the in-line edit
combo box.
Selected Objects
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of selected point symbols and observations.
De-activated Objects
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color for de-activated point symbols and
observations.
Point Symbols
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the point symbols.
GPS Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the GPS baselines.
TPS Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the TPS measurements.
Setup/ Traverse Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the Setup and Traverse measurements.
Azimuth Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the azimuth measurements.
Level Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the direct leveling measurements.
GPS Tracks
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of Mixed (MXD) or Kinematic chains (tracks).
GPS Hidden Point Measurements
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the Hidden Point measurements.
Level Tracks
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the Level Tracks.
Background
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the view's background.
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Re-assign TPS Setups
Enables you to re-assign one or more Setups and all connected Setup- or Survey observations to another Point Id.
1.
In the View/Edit tabbed view right-click on the point on which the Setup(s) to be re-assigned exist(s) and
select Re-assign TPS setups... from the context menu.
In the TPS-Proc View right-click on the Setup Application to be re-assigned. Only single Setup
Applications can be re-assigned.
In the dialog Re-assign TPS Setups:
1.
If there exists more than one Setup on the selected point, select the setup(s) to be re-assigned from the
list or press Select All.
2.
Under From Point Id xx to select a Point Id to which the setup(s) shall be re-assigned from the list of
available points or enter a new Point Id.
Note: A setup cannot be re-assigned to one of its own target points, thus the target points of the selected
setup do not appear in the list for selection.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
If a setup shall be re-assigned to a point on which there already exists a Reference triplet, then the difference
between the two Reference triplets will be calculated and all rover/ target coordinates that are connected with the
setup(s) to be re-assigned will be shifted by the same amount.
If a setup shall be re-assigned to a point on which there does not exist a Reference triplet, then a new Reference
triplet will be created with the same coordinates as the current triplet of the point to which the setup(s) shall be reassigned.
If a new Point Id is entered as the point to which the setup(s) shall be re-assigned, then the Reference triplet to be
created at this new point will be the same as the Reference triplet existing on the point from which the setup(s)
shall be re-assigned.
See also:
Re-assign Reference Triplets
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Re-assign Reference Triplets
Enables you to re-assign a single Reference point triplet and all connected observations to another Point Id.
1.
In the View/Edit tabbed view right-click on a point for which a Reference triplet exists and select Reassign Triplets and then Reference.
2.
In From Point Id xx to select a Point Id to which the Reference triplet should be re-assigned from the list
of available points or enter a new Point Id.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Only one Reference triplet can exist for a point. In case a Reference triplet already exists for the point to wich the
reference shall be re-assigned, then the difference between the two Reference triplets will be calculated and all
rover/ target coordinates that are attached to the reference to be re-assigned will be shifted by the same amount.
Whereas GPS references are always stored with WGS84 coordinates, the reference triplet of a TPS setup is
typically stored with Local Grid coordinates. A coordinate system must be attached if you wish to re-assign a TPS
to a GPS reference or vice versa. If a coordinate system is missing then a warning message will be displayed
and you can cancel the operation or allow for the re-assigning of the reference triplet without shifting the connected
target/ rover points.
Note:

Only the coordinate triplet of class Reference is re-assigned to the new Point Id. If other triplets exist for
the point to be re-assigned, these will remain.

All observations (GPS baselines, TPS observations, Height difference observations) and setups will be
connected to the new Point Id.

GPS Intervals remain with the original Point Id. If you wish to also re-assign the GPS interval (and
together with it the navigated point triplet) then select Re-assign Interval.

When changing a GPS reference triplet by more than 10m it is be recommended that you to re-process
the data. In order to do so, raw data must be available. In re-processing the data the possibility of scaling
errors can be avoided.
See also:
Re-assign Measured Triplets
Re-assign Intervals
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Re-assign Measured Triplets
Enables you to re-assign a single Measured point triplet to another Point Id. E.g. if the same Point Id was given to
two different points.
1.
In the View/Edit tabbed view right-click on a point for which at least one Measured triplet exists and select
Re-assign Triplets and then Measured.
2.
If for the selected point more than one Measured triplet is stored, select the measurement to be reassigned from the list or press Select All.
3.
In From Point Id xx to select a Point Id to which the measurement should be re-assigned from the list of
available points or enter a new Point Id.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

Only the coordinate triplet of class Measured is re-assigned to the new Point Id. If other triplets exist for
the point to be re-assigned, these will remain.

Observations (GPS baselines, TPS observations, Height difference observations) will be connected to the
new Point Id together with the Measured point triplet.

GPS Intervals remain with the original Point Id. If you wish to also re-assign the GPS interval (and
together with it the navigated point triplet) then select Re-assign Interval.

The functionality to re-assign Measured triplets is also available in the context-menu of the LevelProcessing booking sheet to rename the start or end point or any turning point of a level line to a point for
which already a level measurement exists.
See also:
Re-assign Intervals
Re-assign Reference Triplets
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Assign/ Remove points to/from a surface
Points stored in the project can be assigned to a surface or can be removed from a surface. When assigning or
removing points the surface and its configured volume is instantly re-calculated.
To assign points to an existing surface:
Points in the project which are not belonging to a surface may be assigned to a surface if necessary.

In the Surfaces view make sure Unassigned Points are
enabled to be displayed for the 2D view. In
the 2D View select one or more points and select Assign to. If more than one surface is activated within
the project select the surface to which the point(s) shall be assigned.
Alternatively points can also be assigned to an existing surface from within the View/Edit or Points tabbed
view. Highlight the points and select Assign to surface from the context-menu.
To remove points from a surface:
Points belonging to the active surface(s) may be removed in the 2D View or in the Points view.

Select the point(s) to be removed. Then select Remove (Point) from the context/ background menu.
Removed points are removed from the surface but remain stored in the project. They may be assigned to the
surface again if necessary. They will not show up in the Points view any longer.
Note:


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The current triplet of the points will be used for the triangulation. It must either be stored with Local Grid
coordinates or the coordinate system attached to the project must allow to convert the point to Local Grid
coordinates. Only points with Position and Height information can be included in surface calculations.
on or off for display in the Settings view on the left-hand pane of
Unassigned Points can be switched
the window. The color of Unassigned Points can be selected in the Graphical Settings: Color dialog.
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Show Direction & Distance
This command enables you to calculate Direction, Distance and Height Difference between two points. Depending
on the selected coordinate system (WGS84 or Local) the Distance and Height Difference will be Ellipsoidal or Grid
and the direction will be either Geodetic Azimuth or Grid Bearing.
Tip:
1.
From the Context-Menu (right-click) or from the View/Edit main menu select Show Direction & Distance.
2.
Select the start point (From point Id) and end point (To point Id) from the list or by clicking on the points
in the graphical view. To switch between start and end point click on the appropriate button.
3.
The Azimuth (Bearing), Distance, Height Difference and the Slope Distance between the two selected
points will be displayed.

Use the Coordinate Format toolbar to switch between WGS84 and Local coordinate systems. Select
between
and
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or use Ctrl-W or Ctrl -G to switch between WGS84 and Grid.
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Show GPS Loop Misclosure
Show GPS Loop Misclosure
This command enables you to compute the misclosure of a loop of post-processed baselines and/or baselines
measured in real-time.
1.
From the Context-Menu (right-click) or from the View/Edit main menu select Show Loop Misclosure.
2.
Select the baselines graphically by clicking on them in the graphical display. The baselines will be
highlighted and the points will be listed under Loop points. If the last baseline (connecting back to the
start point) is selected the computation will start automatically.
Or
In the General page select the Start point and then all the Next point(s) in the loop from the combo box.
To finish the entry and start the computation of the loop, select the start point again.
3.
If necessary click on the Settings tab and enter the criteria for marking loops. Loops exceeding these
criteria will be marked with
in the Report tab.
4.
To list the results in a Report-View click the Report tab.
5.
To close the Loop Misclosure dialog click on
in the upper right corner of the Property-Sheet.
Select from the list below to learn more about Loop Misclosure:
General
Settings
Report
Note:

Tip:
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You determine the loop. It may comprise one or more independent loops.

To automatically process all independent loops in a network go to the Adjustment view and select
Compute Loops from the context-menu.

Several loops may be calculated and listed in the Report tab.

In the Report tab right-click and select Print... to generate a printout of the loop results.

In the Report tab right-click and select Save as... to save the result to an ASCII file.

In the Report tab right-click and select Delete or Delete all to delete individual or all loop results.

In the Report tab right-click on a loop and select Properties to list the properties of all baselines involved
in the selected loop.
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Show GPS Loop Misclosure: General
Lists the elements of the current loop misclosure calculation.
Start point: (Next point:)
Enables you to select the point for a loop misclosure calculation from the list.
To finish the loop entry and start the calculation select the starting point again.
Loop point:
Lists all points involved in the Loop Misclosure calculation.
Misclosure:
Displays the Loop Misclosure (Sum of all baselines vectors of the loop)
ppm:
Ratio:
dLat:
PPM is the Loop Misclosure in Millimeters divided by the total length of all baseline vectors of the loop.
The Ratio is the total length of all baseline vectors divided by the Loop Misclosure. Note: Ratios larger than
1 Million are displayed as >1000000.
Displays the Latitude component of the sum of all baseline vectors.
dLong:
Displays the Longitude component of the sum of all baseline vectors.
dHgt:
Displays the Height component of the sum of all baseline vectors.
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Show GPS Loop Misclosure: Settings
Enables you to set criteria for marking Loops. Loops Misclosures exceeding these criteria will be marked with
the Report tab.
in
Absolute + relative:
Click the checkbox and enter an absolute and a relative value. If the Misclosure of a loop exceed these
values the loop will be marked
in the Report tab.
Ratio:
Note:

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Click the checkbox and enter a value. If the Ratio of a loop is below this value the loop will be marked
with
in the Report tab.
If both criteria are selected the loop will be marked as soon as one of the criteria is not met.
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Show GPS Loop Misclosure: Report
Displays the results of the Loop Misclosure calculation in a Report-View. The Report-View allows you to list several
different loops at the time.
The results in the Report-View may be deleted, printed or stored as an ASCII file. See Report-View for more
information.
Loops exceeding the criteria set in the Settings page will be marked with
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Compute Average Combined Factor
This function allows you to compute the average Combined Scale Factor for selected points in your project. It is
only accessible, if View/Edit is the active project window, if one or more points are selected and if the coordinate
system attached to the project contains a map projection of type Transverse Mercator, UTM, Lambert two or
Double Stereographic.
1.
With such a coordinate system attached to the project, go to the View/ Edit page and select the points for
which you want to compute the average Combined Scale Factor. Then proceed to the main menu and
activate View/Edit – Compute Ave. Combined Factor.
2.
A new window appears which shows the average scale factors for the selected points. These are the
average projection, the average elevation and the average Combined Scale Factor.
3.
Tick the checkbox, if you want to apply this average Combined Scale Factor to the active project. When
doing so you will be able to obtain Modified Grid Coordinates (Easting and Northing) using this factor. To
clearly differentiate the modified grid coordinates from the ordinary grid coordinates you may then also
enter a Northing shift and an Easting shift. The average Combined Scale Factor and the shift values will
be stored as a project property.
The modified grid coordinates are displayed in the Points View and may be exported using the ASCII
export utilities.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale
The Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard enables you to transform a set of grid coordinates into new coordinates using a
Classical 2D Helmert transformation for the position and a shift for the height component.
The parameters of the transformation can either:

be entered manually

be computed independently (by comparing a set of points)

be derived from a rigorous Helmert transformation.
The transferred grid coordinates replace the existing grid coordinates of the selected points. If you want to keep
the original grid coordinates, too, you should create a backup copy of your project first.
Note:


Only coordinates stored as local grid can be transformed.
You can be sure that setup and target points will only be transformed together. It is not possible to
transform only the setup coordinates or only the target coordinates of TPS observations.
To invoke the wizard:

View/Edit tabbed view or in the
Points
Select the points to be transformed either graphically in the
view of your project and select Shift/Rotate/Scale... from the corresponding main menu or from the
background menu.
Depending on the method that shall be used for calculating the shift, rotation and scaling parameters you will be
guided through the following wizard pages:
Enter manually or calculate separately:
Calculate using Common Points:
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Start
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Start
---
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Shift
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Common Points
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Rotation
---
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Scale
---
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Finish
Transformation
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Finish
Transformation
Tip:

If you want to use Filter Settings to select the points, set the filter criteria as required and apply them to
activate a subset of points. Afterwards select Select checked items from the Points context menu to
select the active subset of points as input to the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard.
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Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station)
This command enables you to recalculate the station coordinates of a TPS setup or the coordinates of a set of
points if the coordinate system used to derive the coordinates changes.
To exchange a coordinate system becomes necessary if your setup coordinates have been derived using a Smart
Station instrument and only a preliminary coordinate system was available in the field.
To invoke the functionality:

For a single TPS setup invoke the functionality from the Setup Properties: General page by pressing the
button in the lower left corner of the dialog.

To exchange the coordinate system for one or for more than one setup select the setup(s) in the TPSProc report view and select Exchange Coordinate System... from the context menu or from the TPSProc main menu.

You can also select a series of points in the View/ Edit or in the Points tabbed view and select
Exchange Coordinate system... from the background context menu or from the main menu.
The Exchange Coordinate System Wizard starts.
Start:
In the Start page of the wizard you are presented with a list of all point triplets which will be recomputed. The
points are given together with their local grid coordinates in a configurable report view.

If you have selected a TPS setup in the TPS-Proc view, then the Reference triplet of the station setup
and all connected measured point triplets will automatically be included in the list.

If you have selected a series of points in View/ Edit or in the Points view, then the list of points is based
upon the selection. It is influenced, though, by some conditions which add or remove points to or from the
list as follows:
- Only points stored with Local Grid coordinates are displayed. Point triplets which are not stored as
Local Grid (but e.g. as WGS84) cannot and will not be transformed.
- The points must have position information. Height-only point triplets will be ignored.
- Only Point classes Estimated, Measured, Reference, Adjusted and Control will be listed.
- Measured point triplets, to which an observation has been made, will be removed from the list, if the
reference point (the TPS setup point) from which the observation has been made is not included in the
selection either.
- If you have selected a Reference point triplet, then all connected measured point triplets will
automatically be included in the list.
By this selection mechanism it is ensured that setup and target points are always transformed together.
Inconsistencies are avoided.
Coordinate System selection:
In the Coordinate System selection page of the wizard:

Determine the old and the new coordinate system. All coordinate systems stored in the Coordinate
System Management (except WGS1984 and None) are offered for selection.

Decide if you want to Keep the heights of the preliminary system and transform only the position to
the new coordinate system.
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
Decide if you wish to Attach the new coordinate system to the project. This is recommended to
ensure that any GPS measured points fit to the newly transformed TPS points.
Finish:
In the Finish page of the wizard the new local grid coordinates are listed for all point triplets. They are derived by
transforming the original grid coordinates to WGS84 using the old coordinate system and re-transforming the
coordinates back to local grid using the new coordinate system.

Click Finish to update all points in the database. The existing local grid coordinates will be replaced with
the coordinates as displayed in this page.

Click Back if you want to modify the coordinate systems.

Click Cancel to abort the operation without any changes to your project coordinates.
Note:

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Since the backsight coordinates change together with the station coordinates for all setups of method Set
Orientation or Known Backsight the orientation of the setup is updated after executing the Exchange
Coordinate System command.
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Update Reference Triplets
Enables you to update one or more Reference point triplets with other coordinates stored for the selected point(s).
All Measured point coordinates of the target points connected to the selected Reference will then be shifted by the
same amount that the Reference point changes.
One typical example to use this functionality is when a TPS SmartStation or any GPS Reference was set up with
an approximate navigated position and the correct coordinates are only derived later using post-processing.
Another example is the need to update TPS setups measured on a sideshot of a traverse (loose traverse legs)
after the traverse was re-calculated.
1.
View/Edit tabbed view or in the
Points view right-click on a point for which a Reference
In the
triplet exists and select Update Reference triplets... from the context menu. To invoke the functionality
for more than one point highlight the points and select Update Reference triplets… from the background
menu or from the View/Edit or the Points main menu.
2.
In the Update Reference triplets dialog the current Reference coordinate triplet for the selected
point is displayed and all point triplets of point class Measured, Averaged, Adjusted and Control are listed
in the report view. The highest triplet is already selected by default.
If more than one point was selected, scroll through the Point Id combo-box to select one after the other
the points for which the reference triplets shall be modified. In the report view select the coordinates of
another point class stored with the selected reference. The reference will be updated with the selected
point triplet.
3.
Press OK to update the Reference triplet(s) with the selected coordinates. All Measured
coordinates of the target points which are connected to this/ these reference(s) will be shifted by the same
amount.
Note:

Point triplets that cannot be converted to the coordinate system and type in which the Reference triplet is
stored, will not be listed. For example, Reference triplets stored with WGS84 coordinates can only be
updated with Control triplets stored with Local Grid coordinates if a coordinate system is attached to the
project.

If more than one point was selected, the Reference triplets will be updated in chronological order (oldest
first), which may result in a chain effect when another Reference triplet gets updated with a Measured
point triplet derived from a previously updated Reference. This preserves the consistency in the project.
However, if you want to avoid this chain effect, it is recommended to update the References separately.

A single preliminary Reference triplet may also be shifted to the final point coordinates. For more
information on the Shift Reference Triplet functionality see also Shift Reference Triplet.
See also:
Shift Reference Triplet
Re-assign Reference Triplets
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Shift Reference Triplet
Enables you to calculate an average shift for a Reference point triplet. For target points with Control triplets the
Measured point coordinates can be matched with the Control triplets to calculate the shift for the Reference. After
the Reference has been shifted all connected Measured point coordinates will be shifted by the same amount.
One typical example to use this functionality is when a GPS Reference was set up with an approximate navigated
position and the correct coordinates can be derived by measuring one or more rover points (common points) with
known (Control) coordinates. Another use case is when final Measured coordinates are received for the reference
later. The Navigated coordinates of the reference may then be shifted to the Measured point triplet. See also:
Update Reference Triplet.

View/Edit tabbed view or in the
Points view right-click on a point for which a Reference
In the
triplet exists and select Shift Reference triplet... from the context menu.
In the Shift Reference triplet dialog the current Reference coordinate triplet for the selected point is displayed.
Underneath common points may be matched to calculate the shift.
To match common points:
1.
From the drop-down list select the project in which the final coordinates of the common point(s) are stored.
By default the active project will be selected.
2.
In the upper left report view (System A) select the preliminary coordinate triplet of the point to be matched.
3.
In the upper right report view (System B) double-click onto the correct coordinate triplet of the point to be
matched. Only those triplets are offered for selection which are either stored in or can be converted to
the coordinate system in which the Reference triplet is stored.
4.
Both coordinate triplets will be matched and the shift will be calculated. Both points will be listed as Point
Id A and Point Id B in the bottom report view.
5.
Repeat steps 2. and 3. until all points (at least one point) are matched. The shift is re-calculated with
each additionally selected and matched common point. The bottom view indicates the differences
between the single shifts and the calculated average shift in the columns dE, dN, dH. The calculated
average Shift value is displayed at the bottom of the dialog page.
Note: To remove a pair of matched points right-click onto the pair of points and select Delete from the
context menu.
6.
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To apply the shift to the current Reference coordinates leave the dialog with OK. All Measured
coordinates of the target points which are connected to the reference will be shifted by the same amount.
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Scroll to a selected Point
This function scrolls the view to display a selected point in the center of the screen.
1.
Select a point in the graphical window or from the points List-box
2.
On the Toolbar click the Scroll to selected point
Alternatively:
 Select a baseline and press

button.
to scroll to the rover point of the baseline.
Hold down the Shift key while selecting a baseline and press
baseline
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on the Toolbar.
to scroll to the reference point of the
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Select a series of Points / Observations
To select a series of points or observations in a graphical view use one of the following
methods:

Drag a rectangle around the items you want to select. To do so in the Panning mode keep the Shift-key
pressed while clicking with the left mouse button into the view's background and keeping the mouse
button pressed while dragging a rectangle to the lower right-hand-corner. The content of the rectangle will
be selected. When Panning is switched off you need not keep the Shift-key pressed.
Alternatively: Press Ctrl-A to select All.

Keep the Ctrl-key or the Shift-key pressed while selecting individual items.
You may select either points or observations, never a mixture.

Keep the Ctrl-key or the Shift-key pressed while dragging individual rectangles around items.
Points and observations inside the rectangles are selected.
To select a series of data items in a report view use one of the following methods:

Click on an item, keep the Shift-key pressed and click on the last item. All the items in between will be
selected.

Keep the Ctrl-key pressed and select individual items. Press Ctrl-A to select All.
Alternatively: Use the Find function to select a series of items that match a particular search string.
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Lines and Areas
Lines and Areas
With SmartWorx it is possible to collect Line and Area objects in the field. LGO supports this feature in offering you
a graphical display of lines and area objects in the View/ Edit component. You can import Lines and Areas to a
project, view and edit the object properties and make any corrections to the data before passing the information
further on. You may also create new Lines and Areas from existing points.

To display Lines and/ or Areas select Graphical Settings from the background context menu and tick the
corresponding check boxes in the Graphical Settings - View page.
Usually, the line/ area style has already been defined in the field by the line or area code definition. If you have
collected lines and areas without using codes you have the possibility to set Color properties and Shading styles
in the office.
If the properties of a Line or Area code in the project specific codelist are changed all these changes to the code
are applied to all objects which have that code attached.
Select from the list below to learn more about handling Lines and Areas in LGO:
New Line/ Area
Line/ Area Properties
Add Points to Line/ Border
Remove Points from Line/ Border
Create arc from previous to next point
Graphical Settings: View
Codelist Management
Codelist Type SmartWorx
Code
Code Properties
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Lines/ Areas View
The Lines/ Areas View gives you an overview on all lines and areas contained in a project. It is available in the
View/ Edit graphical view.
To invoke the Lines/ Areas view:

Right-click in the background of the
View/ Edit graphical view and select View Lines/ Areas... from
the background context menu or from the main menu.
The Lines/ Areas view opens up in a stand-alone floating window. It's a two-pane view offering a tree view on the
left-hand side and a corresponding report view on the right-hand side.
The tree offers two tabbed views, one for all the Lines and one for all the Areas contained in the project.

Lines is selected then for all lines in the project the Line properties are displayed in the
If
corresponding report view.

If an individual Line is selected then for all the points belonging to this line the Point properties are
listed in the corresponding report view.

If
Areas is selected then for all areas in the project the properties are displayed in the corresponding
report view.

If an individual Area is selected then for all the points belonging to this area the Point properties are
listed in the corresponding report view.
Example:
The Lines/ Areas report view offers the following functionality:

Select Properties... from the context menu to display the Line/ Area properties of the selected line or area.
For details see:
Line/ Area Properties: General
Line/ Area Properties: Thematical Data

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Select Zoom to Line/ Area from the context menu to zoom the graphical view to the extents of the
selected line or area.
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
To delete one or more Lines/ Areas without deleting the points defining the line/ area select the line or
area to be deleted and select Delete from the context menu.
If an individual line/ area is selected then the report view offers the following functionality:

Select Properties... from the context menu to display the Point Properties of the selected point. For
details see:
Point Properties: All

Select Add point to line/area ... from the context menu to add an existing point to the selected line/ area.
Points are always inserted in the direction of the line. In the report view right-click on the point directly
after which a point shall be inserted into the line. In the dialog Add point to line/area select the point to
be inserted from the combo box and leave the dialog with OK.

Right-click on a point in the report view and select Remove point from line/area from the context menu
to remove the selected point from the line or area.

Select Create arc from previous to next point from the context menu to create an arc from the previous
point to the next point through the selected point. To remove the arc select Convert arc to straights from
the context menu of the second point of the arc.

To create a spline between two specified points select the start and the end point of the spline
simultaneously and select Create spline between points from the context-menu.

To delete one or more points select the point(s) to be deleted and select Delete from the context menu.
Note: The points in the report view will always be sorted such that the first point in the report view
corresponds to the start point of the line/ area and the last point in the report view corresponds to the end
point of the line/area.
The following functionality is available in the Lines/ Areas report view as well as in the report view for individual
lines/areas:

Right-click on a line/ area or on any individual point in a line/ area and select Create spline (for all points)
from the context menu to convert the line into a spline.

Right-click on a line/ area or on any individual point in a line/ area and select Convert (all) spline(s) to
straights from the context menu to revert all spline segments into a line consisting of straight segments.
This command is only available if the selected line contains spline segments.
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New Line/ Area
This command allows you to create new Lines or Areas in
View/ Edit.
To create a new Line or Area proceed as follows:
1.
Select New - Line or New - Area from the View/ Edit main menu or right-click and select New - Line or
New - Area from the background menu.
2.
Start the new Line or Area on any point in the project. The line or border of the area will be drawn
according to the default settings.
3.
Select one after the other the points that shall belong to the new line or area.
4.
When the line or area that shall be created is complete, right click and select Enter from the context menu.
The line/ border line will be created according to the default settings for the Line/ Area Properties.
To change the graphical representation of the line/ border line select Enter & Edit from the context menu.
Make your changes in the Line/ Area Properties dialog.
To abort the creation of the Line/ Area select Cancel from the context menu.
Note:
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You may create an arc within an existing Line or Area from three points on the line/ area by using the
View/ Edit context menu.
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Delete: Lines and Areas
Enables you to delete a Line or Area object without deleting the points defining the line/ area.
To delete a Line/ Area:
1.
Select a Line/ Area (left mouse-click) and select Delete - Lines/ Areas from the background contextmenu or from the View/ Edit main menu.
Alternatively: Right-click onto the line/ area border and select Delete from the context-menu.
2.
Note:

Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
To delete more than one Line and/ or Area object at a time select the lines/ areas to be deleted (hold the
Ctrl-key pressed while you select the lines/ areas with left-mouse clicks, press Ctrl-A to select All) and
select Delete - Lines/ Areas from the context-menu or from the View/ Edit main menu.
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Line/ Area Properties: General
Usually the line/ border style has been defined by the line/ area code definition which was associated with the
object in the field. For lines/ areas without codes it is possible to define Line/ Area properties (style, color and width)
in the office.

To view and edit the line/ area properties right-click on the line object or the border of the area object and
select Properties... from the context menu.
Note: You must select the border of an area to select the object. When you invoke the context menu
within an area the object is not regarded as selected and the background context menu will be offered to
you for further selection of functionality.
Note:


If two or more line/ area objects share a segment and you invoke the Properties on the shared segment
then the IDs of all the lines/ areas will be listed in the Line/ Area Id combo box.
If the properties of a Line/ Area code in the project specific codelist are changed all these changes to the
code are applied to all objects which have that code attached.
In the Line/ Area properties dialog you may view and edit the following items:
Line/ Area Id:
In this combo box the IDs of the selected line(s)/ area(s) are listed. Select one ID to view/ edit the
corresponding properties.
Line/ Area Code:
Lists the line/ area codes as defined in the Project codelist. If you select a line/ area code from this combo
box, the Border Style, Color and Width are set according to the line/ area code and the corresponding
combo boxes become read-only. The line/ area code controls the style, color and width properties as
defined by the codelist.
If you select line/ area code None then the style, color and width properties become editable.
Line/ Border Style:
Lists all supported line/ border styles (solid, dash, dot and dashdot combinations).
Line/ Border Color:
Lists all supported line/ border colors (all colors and color shadings as well as all grey shadings).
Line/ Border Width:
Lists all supported line/ border widths (from 1/4 pt to 6 pt).
Line Length (Line properties only):
Shows the length of the line in the selected linear units.
Shading Style (Area properties only):
Lists all supported shading styles. The shading style defines the pattern with which the area is filled. If you
want the area to be fully filled (without a pattern) select the 'blank' shading style, i.e. the first option in the
list.
Shading Color (Area properties only):
Lists all supported shading colors (all colors and color shadings as well as all grey shadings).
Length of Perimeter (Area properties only):
Shows the length of the perimeter in the selected linear units.
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Area Enclosed (Area properties only):
Shows the area in the square of the selected linear units.
See also:
Line/ Area Properties: Thematical Data
Line/ Area Properties: Images
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Line/ Area Properties: Thematical Data
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the Thematical Coding information of the selected line/ area. If
Thematical Codes have been used in the field for data collection the associated Codelist is automatically
transferred to the project during data import.
Note:


If you want to change the thematical code of a line/ area you can only select Codes that are defined in the
project specific Codelist. To create new Codes and Code Groups use the Codelist Tab.
If the properties of a line/ area code in the project specific codelist are changed all these changes to the
code are applied to all objects which have that code attached.
Line/ Area Id:
Shows the line/ area identification as read-only.
Code Group:
Shows the attached Code Group. To change, select a different Code Group from the combo box.
Code:
Shows the attached Code. To change select a different Code from the combo box.
Description:
Shows the Description of the Code as read-only.
Attributes:
Lists the Attributes of the attached Code.
Type:
Value:
Shows the Attribute Type depending on which item is selected under Attributes. The following types are
possible: Text, String, Integer or Real
Shows the value of the Attribute. To change, enter a new value or choose a value from the combo box.
Note: If the Attribute is set to fixed the Default value is shown and the value cannot be changed.
See also:
Line/ Area Properties: General
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Point, Line/Area, Setup Properties: Images
In this Property-Page all images linked to the selected Point or Line/Area or TPS Setup are given in an
embedded thumbnail view together with the filename of each image and the date and time when the picture has
been taken.
Note:

This Property-Page is only available if there are images linked to the selected object.
If more than one image is linked to the selected object you may adjust the size of the thumbnails in the embedded
view to be able to see more than one thumbnail at a time.
When you select an image a context menu is available from which you may choose to Open the image in the
Windows default viewer or to Open the containing folder.
The Delete and Unlink functionality is available for a selection of one or more images.
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Add Points to Line/ Border
In addition to the possibility to view and modify the general line and area properties you are also able to add or
remove points to or from a line/ area object.
To add points to a line/ border definition:
1.
Select the line/ border segment to which you want to add the point(s). Right-click onto the line segment
and select Add points to line/ area from the context menu.
2.
An indicator (/+) will be added to the cursor and you can click on the points you wish to add to the line /
area border. As each point is selected, the line / area border is re-drawn through the newly selected point.
3.
Exit the operation mode of adding points by simply right-clicking into the background.
To add points to the beginning/ end of a line:
1.
Select the first/ last line segment. Right-click onto the line segment and select Add start/ end point to
line from the context menu.
2.
An indicator (/+) will be added to the cursor and you can click on the point you wish to add to the
beginning/ end of the line. As the point is selected, the line is re-drawn starting from or ending in the
newly selected point.
Note: The new start/ end segment is automatically selected so that you can directly proceed with adding
another new start/ end point.
3.
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Exit the operation mode of adding points by simply right-clicking into the background.
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Remove Points from Line/ Border
In addition to the possibility to view and modify the general line and area properties you are also able to add or
remove points to or from a line/ area object.
To remove points from a line/ border definition:
1.
Select the point you wish to remove from a line or border definition and select Remove points from
line/area from the context menu.
2.
Confirm with Yes to remove the point from the line / area border. If the point belongs to more than one
line/ area a dialog offers you the choice to remove the point from all lines or only from specific lines.
Note:


To remove a series of points from a line / area border definition select the points and select Remove
points from line/area from the background context menu.
A minimum of two points must remain in a line or area otherwise the object shall be deleted.
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Create arc from previous to next point
This command allows you to create an arc within an existing Line or Area in
View/ Edit.
To create an Arc from an existing Line/Area:
To create an arc from a line/ area, the line/ area object has to consist of at least three points. The arc is always
created from the previous to the next point.

Select the point in the line/ area from which you want to create an arc. Right-click onto the point and
select Create arc from previous to next point from the context menu.
Note: You cannot create an arc on the first or an the last point in a line since there is not a previous or a
next point. In an area the first point is the same as the last point.
The arc will be calculated from the selected point, its preceding point and the following point. The Line/ Area
Properties will be kept. If the selected point belongs to more than one line/ area select the desired line element
which shall be converted into an arc from the Create Arc from straights dialog.
See also:
Convert arc to straights
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Convert arc to straights
This command allows you to convert an arc within an existing Line or Area back to straight lines in
View/ Edit.
To convert an existing Arc into straight lines:
An arc of a line or area typically consists of three points or two arc segments.

In
View/ Edit select one segment belonging to the arc and select Convert arc to straights from the
context menu.
Alternatively: In the Lines/ Areas View open the report view for an individual line or area and select
Convert arc to straights from the context-menu of the second point of the arc.
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Create spline
This command allows you to create a spline within an existing Line or Area in
View/ Edit.
To create a spline:

Right-click on the line/ area object to be converted into a spline and select Create spline from the context
menu.
The line/ area will be converted into a spline between its start and end point.
To create a spline between two selected points:
1.
With a left mouse-click select the point in the line/ area from which you want the spline to start.
2.
Keep the CTRL-key pressed while, with a second left mouse-click, you select a second point in the line/
area on which you want the spline to end.
3.
Right-click in the background of the view and select Create spline between points from the background
menu.
The selected line/ area segments will be converted into a spline.
To create a spline segment:

Right-click on a line/ area segment and select Create spline segment from the context menu.
The selected segment will be converted into a spline. This command in useful if an existing spline shall be
extended by a further segment.
The spline will always be calculated according to the selected command. The Line/ Area Properties will be kept.
Note:
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Arcs are predominant, i.e. if you select a line which contains an arc to be converted into a spline, the
spline will be created up to the first point of the arc and from the end point of the arc onwards. The arc will
be kept. Points inside an arc may not be selected for the spline calculation.
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Convert spline to straights
A spline can also be reverted to straight line segments.
To convert a spline to straights:

Right-click on the spline to be converted into straight line segments and select Convert spline to
straights from the context menu.
The spline will be reverted into straight line segments between its start and end point.
To convert a spline segment to a straight segment:

Right-click on the spline segment to be converted into a straight segment and select Convert spline
segment to straight from the context menu.
The selected spline segment will be converted into a straight line segment. The remaining part(s) of the
spline will be re-calculated.
The conversion will always be calculated according to the selected command. The Line/ Area Properties will be
kept.
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Link or unlink Images
All images which are available in the Images view may be manually linked to points, lines or areas within the
same LGO project.
To link one or more images from within the Images view:
1.
Click onto the
Images top node in the tree view to see the complete collection of all available images
in the corresponding thumbnail view on the right.
Alternatively, click onto the
are not yet linked.
Not linked node to see only those images in the thumbnail view which
2.
Select the images to be linked in the thumbnail view and choose Link either from the context menu or
from the Images main menu.
If you know that an image is linked already to a specific point, line or area you may also open the
thumbnail view for that point, line or area and select the image to be linked again from there.
3.
In the Link Image dialog select the Point or the Line or the Area to which the selected image(s) shall be
linked.
4.
Leave the dialog with OK.
To link one or more images from within View/ Edit:
1.
Right-click onto a point or a line or an area and select Link image to point/ line/ area ... from the context
menu.
2.
In the Link Image dialog all images that are available with the current project will be shown to you in a
thumbnail view together with the image name.
If you want to be offered for selection just the still unlinked images check the option
images only.
Show unlinked
3.
Select the images to be linked with the selected point / line/ area from the thumbnail view.
4.
Leave the dialog with OK.
The selected image(s) will be linked to the point or line or area as specified in the Link Image dialog.
In the
Images view a node for
Points or
Lines/ Areas will be added to the tree view if it is not available
yet. If a specific point or line or area does not have images linked before it will be added under its node and in the
corresponding thumbnail view the newly linked images will be shown. If a specific point or line or area does already
have linked images the newly linked images will be added to the thumbnail view.
In
View/ Edit the point symbol changes to indicate that images are linked. If all images that have been linked to
a point are unlinked again the point symbol changes back to indicate the current point class.
To unlink one or more images from within the Images view:
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1.
Open the node for
Points or
Lines/ Areas and select a specific point or line or area from which
one or more images shall be unlinked.
2.
In the thumbnail view for the selected object select the image(s) to be unlinked and choose Unlink from
the context menu.
3.
Confirm the warning message that is issued with Yes to unlink the selected images.
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To unlink one or more images from within View/ Edit:
1.
Right-click onto a point or a line or an area to which images are linked and select Properties... from the
context menu.
2.
In the Properties dialog go to the Images tab and select the images to be unlinked from the selected
object in the thumbnail view.
3.
Right-click into the selection and choose Unlink from the context menu.
4.
Confirm the warning message that is issued with Yes to unlink the selected images.
Note:


In the
Images view the Unlink functionality is only available for specific objects. You cannot unlink
Images top node.
images from within the thumbnail view for the
If an image is linked to more than one object it is only moved to the
Images view when it is unlinked from all objects.
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Graphical Settings: View
This Property-Page enables you to define which graphical elements shall be displayed.
General:
Grid
Check to display a coordinate grid.
Note: To configure the grid see: Grid
North Arrow
Check
to display an arrow in the upper right corner pointing to the north.
Scale Bar
Check to display a Scale Bar in the lower left corner of the screen. The Scale bar will alter its size and
description to suit the scale at which you are zoomed in. Additionally, the scale bar will appear on any
printout that you make, when activated.
Legend
Check
to display a legend listing the point symbols of all possible point classes.
Coordinate Tracking
Check to display the mouse coordinates in the Status Line.
Background Image
Check to display the referenced image which has been attached to the project as a background image.
CAD files
Check to display the CAD files which have been attached to the project and have been activated in the
Project Properties: CAD files dialog page.
Data:
Point Ids
Check to display the Point Identifications
Note: To configure the font see: Font. To configure the color see: Color.
Height Value
Check to display the Height Values. If the view is configured to display local grid coordinates either the
orthometric or the ellipsoidal height value is displayed depending on the choice you made in the ToolsOptions: Units/ Display dialog page.
Note: Only if the requested height mode is available will a height value be displayed. Height values are only
displayed if the font for Point Id is a
True Type font. To configure the font see: Font.
Thematical Codes
Check to display the Thematical Code
Note: Thematical Code values are only displayed if the font for Point Id is a
the font see: Font.
True Type font. To configure
Abs. Error Ellipses
Check to display the point accuracy indicators. The point accuracy is represented by the corresponding
error ellipse (which represents the two-dimensional 1-sigma confidence region of the point) and the
standard deviation of the height (1-sigma confidence region).
Note: To configure scale and color of the accuracy indicators see: Accuracy.
GPS Observations
Check to display the GPS baseline vectors
Note: To configure the color of the baseline vectors see: Color.
TPS Observations
Check to display the TPS (direction and distance) measurements
Note: To configure the color of the TPS observations see: Color.
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Azimuth Observations
Check to display the Azimuth measurements
Note: To configure the color of the Azimuth observations see: Color.
Level Observations
Check to display the height difference observations
Note: To configure the color of the Level observations see: Color.
Lines
Areas
Check to display all Line objects
Note: To configure the style, color and width of the Line objects see: Line/ Area Properties.
Check to display all Area objects
Note: To configure the border and shading styles of the Area objects see: Line/ Area Properties.
Avg. Limit exceeded
Check to display a hatched rectangle for points containing measured coordinate triplets that exceed the
averaging limit.
GPS Tracks
Check to display Mixed (MXD) or Kinematic chains (tracks).
Note: To configure the color of the tracks see: Color.
GPS Hidden Point Measurements
Check if you want to have details of the Hidden Point calculation displayed in the View/ Edit window.
Level Tracks
Check to display the track along all turning points of a level line, which have position information stored.
Note: To configure the color of the tracks see: Color.
Geoid Contours
Check to automatically calculate and display contour lines of the geoid for the extents of your project.
Note: This option is only available if a coordinate system including a Geoid Model is attached to the project.
The contour lines will be removed if the attached coordinate system changes.
As geoid separations are always stored with respect to the local ellipsoid, contour lines can only be
displayed if the view is configured to Local.
Linked images
Check if you want to indicate via a special point symbol if images are attached to a point. The point
symbol for linked images is pre-defined and cannot be changed in its representation. If selected the linked
images symbol is superimposed on any other point symbol (e.g. on the symbol for the point classes
Measured or Control).
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GPS Processing
GPS Processing
The GPS Processing consists of two major parts, the first being the Selection of Observation Intervals including the
selection of GPS-processing Parameters. Most of the tasks in this part are supported by the graphical selection
mechanism.
The second is the Processing itself, which is fully automatic and no user interaction is required.

The GPS Processing may be accessed via the
GPS-proc Tab from within a project window.
When the GPS Processing View is entered, all observation data contained in the active project are displayed in a
Report-View on the left-hand side and the corresponding graphical representation in a Graphical View on the righthand side. The Report-View enables you to view and edit detail information of the observation intervals while the
Graphical- View displays a graphical representation of each interval and allows you to select them for processing.
Two different Processing Modes are available - the user may choose the mode which best suits the requirements
of the survey.
After the GPS Processing is completed the results can be viewed using the
Results View.
Select from the Index to learn more about GPS Processing:
Report-View
Graphical View
Modify
Edit Point Properties
Re-assign Intervals
Delete an Interval
Save As
Export to RINEX
Interval Properties
Select an Observation Interval
Select an Observation Window
Select a Satellite Window
Zooming
Processing Modes
Processing Parameters
Process
Graphical Settings
Results View
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Report View (GPS-processing)
On the left hand side of the GPS processing View the following items of the observation data is listed:
Point Id
Point Identification of the interval
Point Class
Point class of the interval
Start
End
Start date and time of the interval
End date and time of the interval
Duration
Length of interval
GNSS Type
GNSS type: GPS only or GPS/GLONASS
Type
Interval type: Static or Moving
Antenna Height
Height Reading (reduced) + Antenna offset (Vertical distance from point to phase center of antenna)
Height Measurement
Type of height reading: Vertical or Slope Distance. See also: Antenna Height Reading.
Antenna Type
Antenna Type used for the observation track. See also: Antenna Management.
Tip:

Use the scroll bar at the bottom of the window to display data items other than the Point Id and Start time.

Drag the splitter bar between the report-view and graphical view to the right to display more data items.

The Intervals of Stop and Go or Kinematic tracks may be hidden (collapsed) by clicking on the icon in
the report-view. Click on the icon to redisplay (expand) the collapsed intervals. Use Collapse All or
Expand All from the context-menu to hide or redisplay all intervals.
Related Topic:
Graphical View
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Graphical View (GPS-processing)
In the Graphical View on the right-hand side the observation tracks are displayed with their associated intervals.
Grey bars
represent the duration as well as start and end time of each interval. The observation tracks can
then be selected for computation. Depending on the selection the color of the intervals will change according to the
Graphical Settings.
Different types of observations are possible and displayed as follows:
STS, Static or Rapid Static
SGS, Stop and Go (System 200/300 only)
KIS, Kinematic with static initialization
KOF, Kinematic with On the Fly initialization
MXD, mixed static and moving intervals with On the Fly initialization
MXD, mixed static and moving intervals with static initialization
Tip:

Drag the splitter bar between the Report View and Graphical View to the left to enlarge the Graphical
View.
Related Topic:
Report View
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Zooming (GPS-processing)
The original scale of the graphical view is selected in such a way that all observation intervals stored in the current
project database fit onto the screen.
The Zoom function can be used to enlarge the graphical view to display more details or allow for a precise window
selection.
To Zoom in:
on the Toolbar.
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Zoom, or click
2.
Click the left mouse button and keep it pressed while positioning the cursor to the lower right-hand-corner
of the area you want to enlarge. The observation intervals within the rectangle will be enlarged to the
extent of the graphical view.
To Zoom out:
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Zoom 100%, or click
graphical view displays all observation intervals.
on the Toolbar. The
To Zoom to Extent of Interval/Track:
In the graphical view right-click on an interval
and choose Zoom to Interval
Alternatively: Choose Zoom to Track if a track contains more than one interval and you want to zoom to the whole
track.
Zoom to Day:
In the graphical view right-click on the background, select Zoom to Day and then Selected, to fit all observation
intervals of the selected day into the graphical display. Select Next or Previous to move from one day to another.
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Re-assign Intervals
Enables you to re-assign a single static observation interval to another Point Id. E.g. if the same Point Id was
occupied twice using static GPS techniques.
1.
Right-click on a point and select Re-assign...(or Re-assign interval)
2.
If the selected point consists of more than one interval, select the interval(s) to be re-assigned from the list
or press Select All.
3.
In From Point Id xx to select a Point Id to which the interval(s) should be re-assigned from the list of
available points or enter a new Point Id.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

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Only static intervals can be re-assigned. Instantaneous ("time tagged") points do not have an interval
connected and cannot be re-assigned (re-named) to an existing Point Id.
You can also re-assign an interval to another Point Id by modifying the Point Id to that of an existing Point
Id in the GPS-Processing interval view.
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Delete an interval
Tip:
1.
In the report-view on the left-hand side right-click on an observation interval and select Delete
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to abort the function

If you select a series of Intervals all of them can be deleted at once.
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Export to RINEX
Individual Intervals / Tracks within a Project may be exported to RINEX formatted files.
1.
In the GPS-processing Report-View (on the left hand side) select individual or a select a series of
Intervals.
2.
From the Context-Menu (right-click) select Export to RINEX...
3.
From the browser select the desired directory.
4.
Modify the file name if necessary.
Note: By default a file name is suggested with the first 4 characters being equal to the station name
contained in the data. The remaining characters are set automatically according to the RINEX file naming
convention.
5.
If you have selected more than one track and wish to write a separate file for each track then check
Separate files for different tracks.
Note: The files will be named according to the Point Id, Day of Year and Session number.
6.
Check Ignore windows if you wish to ignore any window selection made via Select an observation
window.
7.
Check Create new file every # hrs if you want to split the files into pre-defined intervals. Enter a value
between 1 and 24 hours.
Note: This function is available for static intervals only. ‘Separate files for different tracks’ has to be
checked before this function becomes available.
8.
Select the GNSS Type to be exported. You may choose whether you want to export All (GPS, GLONASS
and Galileo) or GPS L1+L2 only.
9.
Enter a name for Observer and/or Agency if you want these names to appear in the header of the
RINEX observation file.
10. Press Save to write the files or Cancel to abort the function.
Related Topic:
 RINEX File Export
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Select an observation interval for computation
Before you can process your baselines (or single point solutions) you have to define which intervals you want to
use for processing. If you are processing baselines you have to define which interval shall be used as the
reference and which interval shall be used as the rover.
Tip:

An efficient way to select baselines is to use the Toolbar. Click Select All
to select all intervals as
and select the interval(s) you want to use as Reference.
Rover, then click the Reference Tool
Select an individual observation interval
In the graphical view right-click on an interval
and choose one of the following types:
Rover
Init
Reference
SPP
or
Deselect to remove the selection
Select all observation intervals
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and choose Select all as.
2.
Select a type as listed above
Note: Choose Deselect All from the context-menu to remove all selections.
Select a series of observation intervals
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background. From Select Mode choose a type as listed above or
select the type from the Toolbar.
2.
An indicator (e.g.
) will be added to the cursor. Click on all the items you want to select as the type
you have chosen,
Alternatively: Drag a rectangle around the intervals you want to select.
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Select an observation window
Normally, the whole observation period of a track is used for processing. However, the user may wish to process
only a subset of the observations taken on a site. Observation windows for individual observation intervals to be
included or excluded can be selected.
Individual satellites can be windowed using Satellite Windows.
To precisely set a window to the nearest second, it is possible to manually enter windows. This option can be
activated or deactivated under Tools – Options by selecting the GPS-processing tab and ticking the option
Enable keyboard entry for windowing. This is a global program setting, which applies to all projects. The lastused setting is remembered.
To select an observation window to be included or excluded with keyboard entry activated:
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Windowing.
2.
Select Window (Include) or Window (Exclude).
3.
The cursor indicator (Window) will be visible. Drag a rectangle over the period of observation that you
wish to include or exclude from the computation. Immediately after a window is created with the mouse,
the corresponding property page is displayed showing the full details of the window.
4.
After modifying the window extents select OK to accept the entries. Selecting Cancel results in the whole
windowing operation to be cancelled and no window being created.
5.
The interval windows that are excluded from the selection are marked as blank spots.
Note: Several windows per interval can be selected. The excluded parts cannot be edited.
Be aware that the “Start of window” date/ time must be earlier than the “End of window” date/ time. The duration of
the window must lie within the observation interval. Otherwise a tool-tip is displayed to advise the user of the
inconsistency and the OK button is disabled.
To select an observation window to be included or excluded without keyboard entry activated:
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Windowing.
2.
Select Window (Include) or Window (Exclude).
3.
The cursor indicator (Window) will be visible. Drag a rectangle over the period of observation that you
wish to include or exclude from the computation. The interval windows that are excluded from the
selection are marked as blank spots.
4.
If you want to edit the window afterwards right-click on the remaining subset of observations and select
Edit Window. The Edit Window property page will appear and the start and stop times defined by the
mouse can be manually refined.
Note: Several windows per interval can be selected. The excluded parts cannot be edited.
Be aware that the “Start of window” date/ time must be earlier than the “End of window” date/ time. The duration of
the window must lie within the observation interval. Otherwise a tool-tip is displayed to advise the user of the
inconsistency and the OK button is disabled.
To activate/deactivate an observation window:
This function allows a window selection to be de-activated (but not removed).
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and select Activate Windows.
1.
In the graphical view right-click on a windowed interval
2.
Select one of the following options:
All in interval: De-activates the windows of the selected interval.
All in track: De-activates the windows of all intervals within a track that consists of more than one interval
(e.g. MXD track).
All: De-activates all windows of all observation intervals.
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Note: Use the same function again to activate the de-activated windows.
Alternatively: Right-click on the background and select Windowing and Deactivate all Windows or Activate all
Windows to temporarily deactivate or activate all selected windows of all observation intervals.
To remove an observation window:
This function allows a window selection to be permanently removed.
and select Remove Window.
1.
In the graphical view right-click on a window of an interval
2.
Select one of the following options:
Selected: Removes the selected window only.
All in interval: Removes all windows of the selected interval.
All in track: Removes all windows of the intervals within a track that consists of more than one interval
(e.g. MXD track).
All: Removes all windows of all observation intervals.
Alternatively: Right-click on the background and select Windowing and Remove all Windows to remove all
windows of all observation intervals.
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Select a Satellite Window

In the graphical view right-click on an interval
and select Satellite Windows.
A graphical view shows all the satellites of the selected observation interval. Grey bars
represent the
satellite number, the duration as well as start and end time of each satellite. G denotes GPS satellites and R
denotes GLONASS satellites.
This view allows the selection of windows for individual satellites.
To precisely set a window to the nearest second, it is possible to manually enter windows. This option can be
activated or deactivated under Tools – Options by selecting the GPS-processing tab and ticking the option
Enable keyboard entry for windowing. This is a global program setting, which applies to all projects. The lastused setting is remembered.
To select a satellite window to be included or excluded with keyboard entry activated:
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Window (Include) or Window (Exclude).
2.
Drag a rectangle over the observation period of a satellite that you wish to include or exclude from the
computation. Immediately after a window is created with the mouse, the corresponding property page is
displayed showing the full details of the window.
3.
After modifying the window extents select OK to accept the entries. Selecting Cancel results in the whole
windowing operation to be cancelled and no window being created.
4.
The interval windows that are excluded from the selection are marked as blank spots.
Note: Several windows per satellite can be selected. The excluded parts cannot be edited.
Be aware that the “Start of window” date/ time must be earlier than the “End of window” date/ time. The duration of
the window must lie within the observation interval. Otherwise a tool-tip is displayed to advise the user of the
inconsistency and the OK button is disabled.
To select a satellite window to be included or excluded without keyboard entry activated:
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Window (Include) or Window (Exclude).
2.
Drag a rectangle over the observation period of a satellite that you wish to include or exclude from the
computation. The interval windows that are excluded from the selection are marked as blank.
3.
If you want to edit the window afterwards right-click on the remaining subset of observations and select
Edit Window. The Edit Window property page will appear and the start and stop times defined by the
mouse can be manually refined.
Note: Several windows per interval can be selected. The excluded parts cannot be edited.
Be aware that the “Start of window” date/ time must be earlier than the “End of window” date/ time. The duration of
the window must lie within the observation interval. Otherwise a tool-tip is displayed to advise the user of the
inconsistency and the OK button is disabled.
To remove a satellite window:
This function allows a window selection to be removed.

In the graphical view right-click on a window of a particular satellite
Select one of the following options:
Remove selected Window: Removes the selected window of the selected satellite only.
Remove all Windows in Satellite: Removes all windows of the selected satellite.
Remove all Windows: Removes all the windows of all satellites.
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Alternatively: Right-click on the background and select Remove all Windows to remove all windows of all
satellites.
To Print the satellite window view:
1.
In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Print
2.
Choose a printer and select OK to accept or Cancel to abort the function
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Processing (GPS)
The computation is completely hidden for the user. All selected data is processed automatically in a batch process
without the need for any user interaction.
To start Processing:

In the graphical view right-click on the background and select Process or select
from the Toolbar.
A Processing indicator will display the progress of the computation together with information about the currently
processed baseline.
When the computation is completed, the Results View is displayed and the baselines that match the Selection
Criteria (per default baselines with resolved ambiguities) are selected automatically.
Tip:
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
To abort the processing press Cancel.

Per default the processing is running in the foreground and after the processing is completed the Results
View is displayed. This behaviour can be changed by the GPS-Processing Options from the Tools menu.
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Processing Modes (GPS)
A selection between the following two processing modes can be made:
Manual
If the user selects the manual mode, he can configure how the data is computed. Baseline Processing and
Single Point Positioning (SPP) is possible.
Automatic
If automatic mode has been selected, all logical baseline combinations according to a set of constraints will
be processed automatically from the intervals that have been selected. Unlike the baseline- processing
mode it is not possible to select a reference site. You can only select roving sites. LGO will automatically
select suitable reference sites. For example, if you have stations 1, 2, 3, and 4 with simultaneously logged
data and you select them all as roving sites for processing, then the following baseline combinations will be
computed. The processing order depends on the parameters defined in Auto. Processing Parameters:
Reference
-
Rover
1
-
a
-
2
1
-
b
-
3
1
-
c
-
4
2
-
d
-
3
2
-
e
-
4
3
-
f
-
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Results View (GPS)
The Results View is used to display the results of the GPS-Processing. The Results View can be accessed using
the Results tab of a Project window.
For each processing run a set of results will be created. A set of results comprises of a list of Baselines, a list of
Points (rover only), a list of data-processing Parameters and a set of GPS-processing Reports.
For each computed baseline (or SPP result) an analysis tool is available for advanced users to graphically display
residuals, elevation, azimuth and DOP values.
After inspection of the data processing results you may select individual or all baselines and store them in the
Project database.
By default each processing run will be named by the date and time the processing was initiated. This name can be
modified. The number of processing runs that shall be retained can be set under Results Configuration (default is
3). If the number of processing runs exceeds the number set in the configuration, the oldest processing run will be
deleted.
Select from below to learn more about GPS-Processing Results:
Baseline Results
Point Results
GPS-Processing Parameters
GPS-processing Reports
GPS-Processing Analysis Tool
Modify the Name of a Processing Run
Delete a Processing Run
Keep a Processing Run
Results Configuration
Default Selection Criteria
View Configuration
Store the Results
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GPS-processing Parameters
GPS-Processing Parameters
Select the computation parameters before you start your computation. The parameters can be changed individually,
but system default settings are also available for all parameters.
After the computation has been performed the GPS-Processing Parameter settings used for the particular
computation run are listed in the Results Manager and may also be output via a report.
How to modify GPS-processing Parameters
The GPS-processing Parameter Property-Sheet consists of the following pages:
General
Auto. Processing
In the General page an option called ‘Show advanced parameters’ may be ticked, which then offers you access to
two further pages:
Strategy
Extended Output
If this option has been ticked when configuring the default processing parameters under Tools – Options, then
these two tabs will by default be visible.
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GPS-processing Parameters: General
Cut-off angle:
Observations to low elevation satellites can sometimes prove to be problematic and loss of data can occur.
In such cases the recommended procedure is to increase the satellite elevation cut–off angle. The system
default for the elevation cut–off angle is 15°.
If there are problems with the resolution of ambiguities an increase in the cut–off angle might also improve
processing. This is because cutting off the noisier low elevation satellites can reduce the overall phase
noise. Care must be taken though to ensure that there still remains sufficient data with a good GDOP.
Ephemeris:
The option to use either Broadcast or Precise ephemeris is offered. If you wish to use precise ephemeris
you must be aware of the fact that currently only the NOAA/NGS SP3 format is supported. Precise
ephemeris data can be imported using the Precise Ephemeris Import.
If you combine different GNSS systems and precise ephemeris are not available for all systems, then LGO
switches to use broadcast ephemeris instead.
Note that when using precise ephemeris for GLONASS satellites, broadcast ephemeris must be available
as well to be able to use the precise ephemeris.
Further note that Leica Geosystems is in no way responsible for providing you with precise ephemeris data.
Solution type:
This parameter defines which data shall be used for the computation and whether the phase ambiguities
shall be resolved or not. You have the choice between:
- Automatic
- Phase: all fix
- Phase: GPS fix, GLONASS float
- Code
- Float
The default setting for this option is Automatic, which makes the system try to use code and phase
observations for the computation and to resolve the ambiguities. Normally there is no need to change this
parameter. If, for some reason, only code or phase measurements are available the system automatically
switches to use exclusively these measurements for computation, i.e. choosing Automatic guarantees for
the best possibility being selected without you having to come up for the decision.
Note: When Automatic is selected, GLONASS ambiguities will only be tried to be resolved if a receiver
from a known manufacturer has been used, i.e if the receiver type is known.
Whether you select Automatic or Phase: all fix should make little difference. The results should be more
or less identical. Selecting Phase: GPS fix, GLONASS float will only attempt to resolve ambiguities for
GPS satellites and keep ambiguities for GLONASS satellites at their float values. This may be required
when mixing GLONASS data from different manufacturers to avoid additional biases.
Selecting Code provides a code only solution and will speed up the computation process in cases where a
very high accuracy is not required.
Selecting Float will enforce that ambiguities are not resolved. Depending on the Frequency setting in the
Strategy page you can process an L1 float, L2 float, L1+L2 float or an L3 float solution. Selecting an L3 float
solution is useful when you process long baselines and have long observation times.
Note that if a baseline is longer than the value set under Fix ambiguities up to in the Strategy page, a float
solution will be computed automatically.
GNSS type:
This parameter defines whether only GPS data shall be used or combined GPS/GLONASS or GPS/Galileo
data. The default setting Automatic decides automatically depending on the data stored for reference and
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rover.
This parameter can only be set, if GLONASS processing is included in your licence.
Advanced Parameters:
On the bottom of the page you find a checkbox, by the help of which you can decide if you want to go for
the specification of advanced processing parameters, or not. Ticking this check-box invokes two further
tabs being shown to you for selection. These are:
Strategy and Extended Output
Active satellites:
A list box containing the numbers of all satellites from which measurements are available in the current
project is displayed. G denotes GPS satellites, R denotes GLONASS satellites and E denotes Galileo
satellites. Selected satellites are checked . Satellites can be manually disabled or enabled by clicking on
the check box. Inactive satellites are disabled by default.
Note: The current satellite selection is valid for all selected tracks and also applies to SPP calculations. If
satellites of individual tracks have to be deselected use Satellite Windows.
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GPS-processing Parameters: Strategy
Frequency:
This parameter defines the frequency, with which the data will be processed. LGO offers the following
choices (with L1 denoting GPS and GLONASS frequencies and E1 denoting the Galileo frequency):
- Automatic (Default)
- L1/E1
- L2
- L1/E1 + L2
- Iono free (L3)
Automatic is the default setting. When chosen LGO will automatically select the best frequency or
combination of frequencies for the final solution. If dual-frequency data is available both frequencies will
typically be used. If the data additionally offers the L5 frequency then L5 will be included in the computation.
To better understand how LGO proceeds when Automatic is chosen click here and regard the theoretical
background.
Because signal delay through the ionosphere is different for the L1/E1 and L2 frequency a linear
combination of the two frequencies, which eliminates the influence of the ionosphere can be calculated.
However, this so-called L3 solution also destroys the integer nature of the ambiguities. A float solution is
computed instead while the ambiguities remain unfixed. For very long baselines (e.g. longer than 80 km) it
is not critical to have a float solution (instead of ambiguities fixed). The L3 float solution is accurate enough
according to the system specifications provided that the observation time is long enough.
If L1/E1 and L2 ambiguities can be resolved previously a second processing run can be started introducing
the fixed L1/E1 and L2 integer ambiguities into the ionospheric-free linear combination. Ionospheric
disturbances are eliminated while fixed ambiguities are used. This strategy is preferably used when
ambiguities can be resolved but the ionospheric influence is significant (e.g. with baselines longer than 15
km).
With short baselines, though, using the ionospheric-free linear combination would increase the noise with
little benefit. A standard L1/E1+L2 solution is best used then.
Selecting Automatic makes LGO use an L3 solution if dual-frequency data is available and the baseline is
longer than 15 km. If ambiguities have been resolved previously these are introduced into the ionosphericfree solution. If ambiguities have not been resolved, the result will be an L3 float solution.
If the baseline is shorter than 15 km L1/E1+L2 will be processed.
Selecting L1/E1 or L2 will force the system to use only this particular frequency for computing a solution.
Selecting L1/E1 + L2 will force the computation to use both frequencies L1/E1 and L2 without a second
iono-free processing run independent of the baseline length.
Selecting Iono free (L3) makes the system compute an L3 solution independent of the baseline length.
Fix ambiguities up to:
This value defines the maximum distance of a baseline for which the system should try to resolve
ambiguities. The system default value is 80km. Although you can set the limitation to a higher value, you
should take care when doing so. Certainly there is no point in setting the value unrealistically high. For
baselines above the limit a float solution will be computed.
The frequency used for computation depends on the selected Frequency parameter. If Automatic has
been selected an L3 solution will be computed for baselines longer than 15 km. For long baselines (with
typically long observation times!) it is not critical to have an L3 float solution (instead of ambiguities fixed).
The L3 float solution will be accurate enough according to the system specifications.
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Min. duration for float solution (static):
This parameter defines the minimum time for which LGO allows the computation of a float solution for static
intervals. For short observation times float solutions may not be accurate enough and a simple code
solution may be preferable. The default setting of 300 sec. makes LGO switch to a code-only solution in
case the ambiguities cannot be resolved for observation periods which are shorter than 300 sec.
Sampling rate:
The user can specify how much of the recorded data to use in GPS processing. For example the
observation rate set on the field system may have been 1 second. During post–processing of the data in
the office using LGO, the user may only want to use every second or third observation for example. The
available sampling rates are 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60 seconds. The use all
option will use all recorded observations.
Tropospheric model:
The troposphere, that part of the atmosphere up to a height of about 30 kilometers causes a delay in the
propagation of electromagnetic waves such as those used in GPS. To compute this delay the behavior of
the refractive index for the troposphere must be known. Various models exist (all based on information of
pressure, temperature and relative humidity of the ground station) which allow this path delay to be
computed.
LGO offers the following choice of models:
- Hopfield
- Simplified Hopfield
- Saastamoinen
- No troposphere
- Computed
The differences that result from using different models are small (a few millimeters). It is recommended that
the locally–used model is adopted for all computations in a particular country or area. If you are not familiar
with any of these models use the system default Hopfield.
The model No troposphere does not apply any corrections and should not be used for practical purposes.
It might however be interesting for investigation purposes.
Select Computed if you want to calculate variations of the tropospheric zenith delay between reference
and rover from epoch to epoch. This may be advisable for longer baselines or for baselines with a larger
height difference. In these cases tropospheric conditions are assumed to vary over the time or to be
different on reference and rover. Selecting the option Computed will improve the height component of the
processed baseline.
Ionospheric model:
The ionosphere is a tenuous atmosphere of electrically charged gas (plasma) that surrounds the Earth at
altitudes between 100-1000 km. The ionosphere causes a signal path delay, which can sometimes amount
to several tens of meters.
The Ionospheric model parameter defines which model is used to reduce the impact of the ionosphere.
This is of special importance if you try to resolve ambiguities.
The following models for the ionosphere are available:
- Automatic (Default)
- Computed model
- Klobuchar model
- Standard
- No model
- Global / Regional model
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The system default is Automatic. LGO selects a model to be used according to the duration of the
sessions without you having to interfere and decide on a specific model. For observation times on the
reference longer than 45 min. your own ionospheric model may be computed, so that automatically the
option Computed model will be taken, whereas with shorter observation periods the Klobuchar model will
be preferred. If no almanac is available, though, No model will be used with observation times below 45
min.
If Computed model is selected and if the user has at least 45 minutes of static or rapid-static dualfrequency data collected at the reference station, LGO will compute an ionospheric model. This is
advantageous, as the model computed is in accordance with conditions prevalent at the time and position
of observation. If this model has been selected manually, but less than 45 minutes of data are available the
processing parameters will automatically be switched to No model.
The Klobuchar model reflects the 11-year cycle of solar activity particularly well and can be advantageous
during the time of high solar activity. The Klobuchar model should only be selected if observation data from
Leica receivers is being used to process, since this kind of data contains the necessary almanac files. If the
observation data has been imported via RINEX and the Klobuchar model is selected, the processing
parameters automatically switch to No model because of the missing almanac.
The Standard model is a single layer model that is based upon assumptions on the total amount of
electrons and their distribution within this layer. Based on this model the ionospheric path delay is
computed at each epoch to each satellite.
Whether it is chosen automatically or manually, the choice of No model implies low ionospheric activity.
With increasing ionospheric activity it might be better to select a different model. The ionospheric activity
follows an eleven years cycle with its last peak in 2002.
In the IGS network global ionospheric models are computed on a daily basis and are available on
anonymous FTP accounts free of charge. The University of Bern in Switzerland currently offers such files in
Bernese format. LGO supports files in this Bernese format only.
The user may use a Global / Regional model if such an ionospheric file is available. If the user selects this
option and there is no such file available, the option No model will be selected automatically.
To download the daily files from the University of Bern and use them in LGO proceed as follows:
1.
Use FTP, the address is FTP.UNIBE.CH (or 130.92.4.48)
2.
User ID (name) is "anonymous". Use your email address as the password.
3.
Change to the directory aiub/CODE
4.
Change to the directory of the required year.
5.
Select the file you require. The naming convention is as follows: CODwwwwd.ION.z
With ‘wwww’ being the GPS week and ‘d’ the day of the week (Sunday = 0, Monday = 1 etc)
6.
Use WINZIP to extract the file CODwwwwd.ION.z.
7.
When the download is complete, copy the file into the directory of your project. Do not change the file
name.
Use stochastic modelling:
Select this option if you want to model the ionosphere additionally by calculating the ionospheric impact
for each epoch. Stochastic modelling supports ambiguity resolution on medium and longer baselines when
you suspect the ionosphere to be quite active. You should, however, be careful with short baselines since
bad data –e.g. influenced by multipath or obstructions- may be misinterpreted as being influenced by
ionospheric noise.
Thus, it is recommended to leave the default value for the Min. distance set to 8 km. With shorter
baselines the ionospheric influence is smaller and stochastic modelling is not necessary.
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It is advisable to leave the Ionospheric activity option set to Automatic. LGO will then, depending on the
baseline length, automatically set the level by which the changing of the ionospheric activity from epoch to
epoch is modelled. You may set the Ionospheric activity parameter manually to Low, Medium or High, if
you have reliable indications on the current ionospheric activity.
Note: The option to use stochastic modelling is disabled:
- if Solution Type is set to Code
- if Solution Type is set to Float and Frequency is set to Iono-Free (L3).
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GPS-processing Parameters: Extended Output
In this Property page you can select additional information to be calculated during the processing run. The
parameters will then be available in the Results View.
Note:

You have to select the extended output parameters before you start the processing run. Only then will
they be calculated and displayed in the GPS-Processing Analysis tool and in the GPS Processing reports.
DOP values, Azimuth/ Elevation:
If this option is checked LGO will compute DOP values for each observation as well as azimuth and
elevation for each satellite and each observation. The various values can then be displayed graphically in
the GPS-Processing Analysis Tool. The minimum and maximum DOP values for GDOP, PDOP, HDOP and
VDOP may also be displayed in the Results View and in the Processing reports.
Storage rate for DOPs/ Azimuth/ Elevation:
From the combo box select the rate at which DOP values and/ or azimuth/ elevation values are calculated.
You can select a rate of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, 60 or 300 seconds. The storage
rate is independent of the sampling rate defined in the Strategy page. Selecting 20% of date rate will
calculate the values for every 5th observation.
A storage rate for DOP values and/ or azimuth/ elevation can only be selected if you decided on these
values to be calculated.
Residuals:
If this option is checked LGO will compute the Residuals for each epoch, satellite and observation type
(code and phase; L1, L2, L3, L4 or L5). The Residuals can then be displayed graphically in the GPSProcessing Analysis Tool.
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Auto. Processing Parameters
The Auto. Processing Parameters only apply if the Processing Mode has been set to Automatic.
The Automated Processing mode will intelligently select the reference and rover stations and process all possible
combinations of baselines that conform to the following parameters.
Min. time for common data:
This sets the minimum amount of time over which simultaneous measurements must be taken at two
stations before LGO will try to process the baseline between those two stations. The default value is 300
seconds.
Max. baseline length:
Sets the maximum length of baselines up to which LGO will try to process.
Processing mode:
If all baselines is selected LGO will process all possible combinations of baselines that conform to the
previous two parameters.
If independent set has been selected LGO will only process a set of independent baselines.
Note that between n points which are measured at the same time only n-1 independent baselines exist.
Example:
Baselines are also treated as independent if they are mathematically linear-dependent (e.g. 3 baselines
building up a triangle), but not measured at the same time.
Example:
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Coordinate seeding strategy:
Selecting distance means that the shortest baseline from the first reference point will be computed first.
LGO then decides which is the next shortest baseline. This may be from the first point or from the point that
was last computed. This line is processed next and then the process is repeated. Note that this is also
dependent on the first two parameters set (see above).
Selecting time means that the baseline with the longest common observation time will be computed first.
Similarly to the distance method, LGO then decides which point has the next longest common observation
time and processes that line. The process continues like that. Note that this is also dependent on the first
two parameters set (see above).
Session by session: If this option is checked , LGO computes all possible baselines from the reference
that has been identified according to the selected seeding strategy before proceeding with the next
reference. The point with the longest interval will be selected as the first reference.
Use float solutions as reference:
Allows points, for which only float solutions exist, to be used as reference points for further processing.
Re-compute already computed baselines:
If this option is checked baselines that have been calculated and stored previously will be re-calculated.
Compute baselines between control triplets:
If this option is checked baselines between points having Control triplets will also be processed. This
may be interesting if the Control points are not kept absolutely fixed in a subsequent adjustment.
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Modify GPS-processing Parameters
1.
From the context menu (right-click) select Processing Parameters.
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Auto. Processing
In the General page an option called ‘Show advanced parameters’ may be ticked, which then offers you
access to two further pages:
Strategy
Extended Output
If the default setting is such that these two pages are visible anyhow, then they may be hidden by
deselecting this option. Change the default data processing settings under Tools – Options.
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

If you intend to modify the default values itself, you may do so under Tools - Options - Default Parameters.
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Properties
Display Interval Properties (Track)
Enables you to display and edit the Interval Properties of a Track such as Antenna Properties and Annotations.
1.
In the GPS-Proc Report View on the left-hand side right-click on an observation interval and select
Properties.
2.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
Antenna
Annotation
3.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields with white backgrounds may be edited at the particular instant.
4.
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Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Interval Properties (Point): Annotation
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the Annotations of all Intervals for the selected Point.
Interval list box
If more than one Interval exists for a point, select an interval from the list.
Change the annotation 1-4 as required.
Note:


Annotation 4 may contain the Seismic Record. For more information about Seismic Records please refer
to the Technical Reference manual.
All annotations for all intervals of a point can also be displayed in the Points Report View.
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Interval Properties (Point): Antenna
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the Antenna Type and Height Reading of all Intervals of the
selected Track.
Interval list box
If more than one Interval exists for the selected Point, select an interval from the list.
Antenna Type:
Displays the antenna type and allows you to change if necessary. All the antenna types used in the project
are listed.
To create a new antenna type, press View... to open the Antenna Management property-page. In the local
page the antennas associated with the project are displayed, while the global page show all antennas
defined with the Antenna Management tool. To copy an antenna from global to local (project) use Ctrl-C
and Ctrl-V from the keyboard or open the Antenna Management and drag an antenna definition to the
Antenna View of the project.
Horizontal Offset:
This value depends on the antenna type selected. See also: Antenna Management.
Vertical Offset:
This value depends on the antenna type selected. See also: Antenna Management.
Height Reading:
The height reading that was measured and entered in the field.
Measurement Type:
The Height Reading can be measured Vertical or as a Slope distance. See also: Antenna Height Reading.
Total vertical Height:
Vertical distance from the point on the ground to the mechanical reference plane on the antenna.
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Interval Properties (Track): Annotation
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the interval (point) annotation.
Interval list box:
If a track consists of more than one interval, select an interval from the list.
Change the annotation 1-4 as required.
Note:


Annotation 4 may contain the Seismic Record. For more information about Seismic Records please refer
to the Technical Reference manual.
All annotations for all intervals of a point can also be displayed in the Points Report View.
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Interval Properties (Track): Antenna
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the antenna type and reading of all intervals of a track.
Interval list box:
If a track consists of more than one interval, select an interval from the list.
Antenna Type:
Displays the antenna type and allows you to change if necessary. All the antenna types used in the project
are listed.
To create a new antenna type, press View... to open the Antenna Management property-page. In the local
page the antennas associated with the project are displayed, while the global page show all antennas
defined with the Antenna Management tool. To copy an antenna from global to local (project) use Ctrl-C
and Ctrl-V from the keyboard or open the Antenna Management and drag an antenna definition to the
Antenna View of the project.
Horizontal Offset:
This value depends on the antenna type selected. See also: Antenna Management.
Vertical Offset:
This value depends on the antenna type selected. See also: Antenna Management.
Height Reading:
The height reading that was measured and entered in the field.
Measurement Type:
The Height Reading can be measured Vertical or as a Slope distance. See also: Antenna Height Reading.
Total vertical Height:
Vertical distance from the point on the ground to the mechanical reference plane on the antenna.
Change antenna height for all moving parts (non-instantaneous points) of track
Change antenna height for all instantaneous points in track
Depending on the measuring mode the antenna height for the moving intervals may be different from the antenna
height of the static intervals. I.e. if you are using a vehicle for the moving intervals and a pole for the static intervals
you may want to change the height for either the moving intervals only or for the moving and the static intervals. Or
you want to change the height of individual static intervals or all static intervals together.
For System500 data this applies to the Mixed Track (MXD) only.
For System 200/300 this applies to time tagged points in the case of KIS and KOF data and to the static intervals in
the case of SGS data.
Note:
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Within the Office software you have the possibility to modify the antenna details type and height reading
after the data has been assigned to a project.

When changing the height reading of an observation interval on a reference the coordinates of the
reference will remain unchanged, but all rover coordinates computed with respect to this reference
observation will be shifted by dh. This shift also has its effect on the baseline properties.

If the height reading of a rover observation is changed, then just that one measured triplet will be affected.
This shift also has its effect on the properties of that particular baseline.

If you change the antenna type, this will have no direct effect on the associated coordinates. When
changing the antenna type re-processing of the baselines is recommended.
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Point Properties (GPS-proc)
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the point properties.
1.
In the report-view on the left-hand side right-click on an observation interval and select Edit Point...
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Stochastics
Thematical Data
Reliability (available only if the reliability has been previously calculated using the Adjustment component)
Mean (available only if more than one baseline for a particular point exists)
Hidden Point (Position) (available only if the selected point is a Hidden Point)
Hidden Point (Height) (available only if the Hidden Point has height properties attached)
2.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at the particular instant.
3.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Graphical Settings
Graphical Settings (GPS-processing)
The Graphical Settings Property-Sheet consists of the pages General and Styles and Colors.
1.
In the graphical view right-click in the background and select Graphical Settings...
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Styles and Colors
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3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Graphical Settings: General (GPS-proc)
Grid Scale:
The Grid lines are the vertical lines in the graphical view that represent the time intervals. If automatic is
checked a suitable grid scale will be chosen automatically by the system and the time marks in the
heading will change accordingly.
To select a user-defined interval, deselect automatic, chose Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds and
enter a time interval.
Text:
Using these check-boxes
in the graphical view.
you can select to display additional information to the observation interval bars
Show Point Id
To show the point id of an interval
Show Duration
To show the duration of an interval
Clear background
To cut out the text from the background. Select this option if you
have chosen a dark background color for the reference interval.
Tip: Displaying this information can be useful when printing.
Printing:
Select Condensed it you want to reduce the height of the graphical elements for printing.
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Graphical Settings: Styles and Colors (GPS-proc)
Use this Property-Page to define the colors and line types for manual selection:
Reference:
Select the color for the Reference tracks from the list.
Background:
Select the color for the Background of the Reference tracks from the list.
Rover:
Init:
SPP:
Select the color for the Rover tracks from the list.
Select the color for the Initialization on known point tracks from the list.
Select the color for Single Point Positioning tracks from the list.
Real-time only:
Select the color for the Real-time only tracks from the list. These are the tracks for which no raw data is
available.
Deselect:
Select the color for Deselected tracks from the list.
Track:
Grid:
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Select the color and the line type for the Track lines (horizontal lines) from the list.
Select the color and the line type for the Grid lines (vertical lines) from the list.
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TPS Processing
TPS-Processing
The TPS-Proc view enables you to display all Setup Applications, all Traverses and all Sets of Angles
Applications within a project. The Setups, Traverses and Sets of Angles are displayed in a user-configurable
report view.

TPS-Proc Tab from within a project window.
The TPS-Processing may be accessed via the
The tree-view lists all
ID and its Date/ Time.
Setups,
Traverses and
Sets of Angles each indicated by its Station or Traverse
Setup Applications:
When you click on the
Setups node in the tree-view all Setup Applications within the project will be listed in the
corresponding report-view.
For each setup the folder in the tree-view contains the
Setup Observations and the
Survey Observations.
The Setup Observations list all measurements included in the definition of the Setup application. Such
observations contributed to setting the orientation and, depending on the setup method, to setting the
station coordinates.
The Survey Observations contain all sideshots taken with the orientation of the selected setup.
Setups may be deleted without deleting the included observations.
Via the TPS-Proc view you may access the Properties of the TPS Setups and Observations. From within the
Setup Properties dialog you can Recalculate setup applications. You can also re-calculate all setups which are
stored with the 'Allow automatic update' flag using the Update Setups command.
In addition you can change the setup coordinates for Smart Station setups using the Exchange Coordinate
System command if the existing coordinates have been derived with a preliminary coordinate system.
To get an overview on the setup data in a printable report, including information like the method that was used, the
observations and target coordinates used in the calculation and/or the calculation results invoke the Setup Report.
Traverses:
Traverses consist of Setups and may either be imported from the SmartWorx Traverse Application or be created
manually from Setup Applications stored in the TPS-Proc view.
When you click on the
Traverses node in the tree-view all Traverses within the project will be listed in the
corresponding report-view. When you click on a single
Traverse in the tree-view the Traverse Booking Sheet
and a graphical representation of the selected traverse will be displayed in the right-hand side Traverse View.
For each traverse the folder in the tree-view contains the
Observations.
Traverse Observations and the
Survey
The Traverse Observations include all the measurements on a Setup in the traverse to its backsight
setup and its foresight setup.
The Survey Observations contain all sideshots taken from a setup in the traverse. If Check Points have
been measured for the selected traverse the measurements to those check points will be included in the
respective Survey Observations node.
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Traverses may be deleted without deleting the included setups.
Via the TPS-Proc view you may access the Properties of a Traverse. From within the Traverse Properties dialog
you can Recalculate a traverse.
The Processing Parameters may be set individually and the computation results may be viewed in a Traverse
Report, which may be printed or saved as an HTML file.
In addition you can change the setup coordinates in a traverse for Smart Station setups using the Exchange
Coordinate System command if the existing coordinates have been derived with a preliminary coordinate system.
A summary of the different ways in which a traverse may be measured is given in the overview topic: Traversing
techniques.
Sets of Angles Applications:
When you click on the
Sets of Angles node in the tree-view all Sets of Angles Applications within the project
will be listed in the corresponding report-view.
For each Sets of Angles the folder in the tree-view contains the included
Observations and the
Results.
The Observations list all measurements included in the definition of the Sets of Angles calculation. For
each target point and set observations may be included in both faces.
Under Results the reduced observations for each target point are listed in the report view on the righthand side. Additionally, the
Sets of Angles Report may be invoked for each
Sets from the Results
tree.
Sets of Angles applications may be deleted without deleting the included observations.
Via the TPS-Proc view you may access the Properties of the Sets of Angles applications. From within the Sets of
Angles Properties dialog you can view the results for each target point, activate or de-activate entire sets or
target points (in all sets) and recalculate the application.
The tolerances for residuals and face differences can be set in the Sets of Angles Tolerances dialog.
To get an overview on the Sets of Angles calculation in a printable report, including information on the instrument
that has been used in the field, on the mean errors calculated for the sets of angles and on the point results, the
residuals and face differences invoke and see the Sets of Angles Report.
See also:
Create a Setup Application
Exchange Coordinate System
Allow automatic update
Update Setups
Setup Report
Setup Properties
TPS Observation Properties
New Traverse
Delete a Traverse
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Traverse View
Traverse Report
Traverse-processing Parameters
Traverse Properties
Create a Sets of Angles Application
Sets of Angles Tolerances
Sets of Angles Properties
Sets of Angles Report
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Calculate geometrical PPM
With each TPS Observation the geometrical PPM factor is stored and used to calculate the horizontal distance and
the coordinates of the target points. Modifying the geometrical PPM does not change the original slope distance
measurement.
You can display and modify the geometrical PPM of a TPS observation in the Observations View or in the Survey
Observations report view of the TPS-Processing tabbed view.
To modify the geometrical PPM:

Highlight one or more TPS observations and select Edit geometrical PPM... from the context menu.
In the Calculate geometrical PPM dialog you may decide to manually calculate the PPM factor from the
projection scale factor, the height scale factor and an individual scale factor. If a coordinate system is attached to
the project, you may alternatively decide to automatically calculate the geometrical PPM from the parameters
defining the coordinate system and from the station heights.
Manual calculation:
If you select Manual in the Calculate Scale combo-box, you may enter the following parameters:

Scale at Central Meridian

Offset to the Central Meridian

Height above Reference Ellipsoid

Individual PPM
The Map Projection Scale Factor (Map Proj. PPM), the Height Scale Factor (PPM above Ref.) and the total
geometrical PPM factor are then calculated from the input parameters.
Automatic calculation:
If you select Automatic in the Calculate Scale combo-box, the Map Projection Scale Factor (Map Proj. PPM) is
calculated automatically for each selected TPS observation using the coordinate system attached to the project
and the local grid coordinates of the station coordinates. The Height Scale Factor (PPM above Ref.) is calculated
using the height of the setup point.
If more than one observation was selected, the calculated scale factors can be displayed by scrolling through the
observations listed on the page.
Note:
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Modifying the geometrical PPM is not allowed if the observation is used in a Resection or Multiple
Backsights setup application.
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Calculate atmospherical PPM
With each SmartWorx TPS observation the atmospherical PPM factor is stored, which was used on the instrument
to calculate the slope distance. Modifying the atmospherical PPM will change the original slope distance
measurement. As a consequence the measured coordinates of the target point will be modified.
You can display and modify the atmospherical PPM of a TPS observation in the Observations View or in the
Survey Observations or Setup Observations report view of the TPS-Processing tabbed view.
To modify the atmospherical PPM:

Highlight one or more TPS observations and select Edit atmospherical PPM... from the context menu.
In the Calculate atmospherical PPM dialog you may decide to either calculate the PPM factor from the measured
meteorological data (temperature, pressure, humidity) or to enter the scale factor manually.

Modify the values for Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure and Relative Humidity in the Setting
column via in-line editing. The Units may be switched via in-line editing, too. The entered Setting value is
adapted automatically.
Note: Instead of the Atmospheric Pressure you may enter the Elev. above MSL and instead of the
Relative Humidity you may enter the Temp. Wet-Bulb. Switch the options via in-line editing.
Note:

When modifying the atmospherical PPM of a setup or traverse observation it is recommended to recalculate the setup or traverse.
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Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station)
This command enables you to recalculate the station coordinates of a TPS setup or the coordinates of a set of
points if the coordinate system used to derive the coordinates changes.
To exchange a coordinate system becomes necessary if your setup coordinates have been derived using a Smart
Station instrument and only a preliminary coordinate system was available in the field.
To invoke the functionality:

For a single TPS setup invoke the functionality from the Setup Properties: General page by pressing the
button in the lower left corner of the dialog.

To exchange the coordinate system for one or for more than one setup select the setup(s) in the TPSProc report view and select Exchange Coordinate System... from the context menu or from the TPSProc main menu.

You can also select a series of points in the View/ Edit or in the Points tabbed view and select
Exchange Coordinate system... from the background context menu or from the main menu.
The Exchange Coordinate System Wizard starts.
Start:
In the Start page of the wizard you are presented with a list of all point triplets which will be recomputed. The
points are given together with their local grid coordinates in a configurable report view.

If you have selected a TPS setup in the TPS-Proc view, then the Reference triplet of the station setup
and all connected measured point triplets will automatically be included in the list.

If you have selected a series of points in View/ Edit or in the Points view, then the list of points is based
upon the selection. It is influenced, though, by some conditions which add or remove points to or from the
list as follows:
- Only points stored with Local Grid coordinates are displayed. Point triplets which are not stored as
Local Grid (but e.g. as WGS84) cannot and will not be transformed.
- The points must have position information. Height-only point triplets will be ignored.
- Only Point classes Estimated, Measured, Reference, Adjusted and Control will be listed.
- Measured point triplets, to which an observation has been made, will be removed from the list, if the
reference point (the TPS setup point) from which the observation has been made is not included in the
selection either.
- If you have selected a Reference point triplet, then all connected measured point triplets will
automatically be included in the list.
By this selection mechanism it is ensured that setup and target points are always transformed together.
Inconsistencies are avoided.
Coordinate System selection:
In the Coordinate System selection page of the wizard:

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Determine the old and the new coordinate system. All coordinate systems stored in the Coordinate
System Management (except WGS1984 and None) are offered for selection.
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
Decide if you want to Keep the heights of the preliminary system and transform only the position to
the new coordinate system.

Decide if you wish to Attach the new coordinate system to the project. This is recommended to
ensure that any GPS measured points fit to the newly transformed TPS points.
Finish:
In the Finish page of the wizard the new local grid coordinates are listed for all point triplets. They are derived by
transforming the original grid coordinates to WGS84 using the old coordinate system and re-transforming the
coordinates back to local grid using the new coordinate system.

Click Finish to update all points in the database. The existing local grid coordinates will be replaced with
the coordinates as displayed in this page.

Click Back if you want to modify the coordinate systems.

Click Cancel to abort the operation without any changes to your project coordinates.
Note:

Since the backsight coordinates change together with the station coordinates for all setups of method Set
Orientation or Known Backsight the orientation of the setup is updated after executing the Exchange
Coordinate System command.
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Setups
Create a Setup Application
Setups measured with the SmartWorx Setup Application will automatically be listed as
Setups in the TPSProc view. They contain information on the Setup method and the observation type (Setup observations are clearly
differentiated from Survey Observations).
However, setups that have been imported from a GSI or TDS file or that have been manually created in the
View/ Edit or the
Adjustment component lack information on the Setup method and the Observation type.
Thus, to recognize such setups as Setup Applications and have them displayed as
Setups in the
Proc view they have to be manually defined via the New Setup application... functionality.
TPS-
To create a Setup Application:
1.
In the
TPS-Proc view right-click on
from the context menu.
Setups in the tree view and select New Setup application...
Alternatively, right-click in the Setups report view and select New Setup application... from the context
menu.
The New Setup Wizard starts up.
2.
In the Start page of the wizard select the TPS Reference point from which the Setup observations
that shall make up the new Setup Application have been measured. Click Next.
3.
In the Select Setup page select one of the Setups that have been measured or manually created
on this Reference point.
Note: Only those Setups will be offered for selection that have not been used already for creating a Setup
Application, i.e. a Setup can only be used once for creating a Setup Application.
Click Next.
4.
In the Select Setup Observations page select the Setup Method that shall be used for
calculating the new Setup. In the left-hand side report view select (an) observation(s) from the currently
selected TPS Reference point to one or more target points.
In the left-hand report view (multi-)select the required target points and press the
button to add the
observation(s) to the right-hand side graphical view. To remove an observation again from the graphical
view, select it in the graphical view and press the
button.
Alternatively, right-click on the observation in the graphical view and select Remove from the context
menu.
Note: If a method allows for just one observation (Set Orientation or Known Backsight) to be selected,
multi-select is not possible and the observation added to the graphical view will instantly be removed
again at the moment another observation is added to the graphical view. For 'Resection' and 'Multiple
Backsights' methods at least two observations must be added to the calculation.
5.
Click the Finish button to calculate the Setup. All observations added to the graphical view will be
used in the calculation. Multiple observations to the same point will be averaged for the calculation. The
current coordinates of the backsight point(s) will be used to calculate backsight azimuth, orientation
and/or the Reference coordinates of the setup.
The newly calculated Setup will be stored and added to the list of
Setups in the TPS-Proc view. It may be
flagged now to Allow automatic update and it may take part in the Update Setups process.
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To get an overview on the setup data, like the method that was used, the observations and target coordinates used
in the calculation and/or the calculation results invoke the Setup Report.
Note:

Tip:
For the setup method Resection Helmert only observations with distance measurements are offered for
selection.
If the current triplet of the backsight is a position-only point, then the observation will only be offered for
Resection and Multiple Backsights setups and only if a distance measurement is included.

Even if the Setup calculation fails the Setup will be added to the list of Setups in the TPS-Proc view. But
its Orientation and the coordinates of the TPS Reference point remain the same as the input values, i.e.
Orientation and coordinates are not re-computed.

To view/ edit the Observation Properties right-click on an observation either in the left-hand report view or
in the graphical view and select Properties... from the context menu.
To view the Point Properties right-click on a point in the graphical view and select Properties... from the
context menu.

To zoom in and out of the graphical view right-click and select Zoom In/ Out from the background menu.

Panning may be switched on from the background menu to be able to comfortably navigate within the
graphical view.

To modify the settings for the graphical view right-click and select Graphical Settings... from the
background menu. If a background image is attached to the project it may be switched on in the graphical
view via the Graphical Settings....
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Delete a Setup Application
Enables you to delete a Setup Application in the
1.
In the Setups report view highlight a Setup and select Delete from the context menu.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:
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TPS-Proc component.
The observations included in the Setup to be deleted will be kept.
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Edit a Setup Application
Existing Setups listed under
Setups in the
TPS-Proc view may be edited to change the Setup Method or to
add/ remove observations to/ from the Setup calculation.
To edit a Setup Application:
1.
In the TPS-Proc view right-click on a Setup and select Edit Setup... from the context menu.
2.
In the Edit Setup dialog add/ remove observations to/ from the Setup as required and change the
selected Setup Method if necessary.
3.
Leave the dialog with OK to apply the changes. The Setup will be re-calculated.
To get an overview on the setup data, like the method that was used, the observations and target coordinates used
in the calculation and/or the calculation results invoke the Setup Report.
See also:
Setup Properties: General
Setup Properties: Observations (Set Orientation, Known Backsight)
Setup Properties: Observations (Resection, Multiple Backsights, Height Transfer)
Create a Setup Application
Tip:

To view/ edit the Observation Properties right-click on an observation either in the left-hand report view or
in the graphical view and select Properties... from the context menu.
To view the Point Properties right-click on a point in the graphical view and select Properties... from the
context menu.

To zoom in and out of the graphical view right-click and select Zoom In/ Out from the background menu.

Panning may be switched on from the background menu to be able to comfortably navigate within the
graphical view.

To modify the settings for the graphical view right-click and select Graphical Settings... from the
background menu. If a background image is attached to the project it may be switched on in the graphical
view via the Graphical Settings....
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Allow automatic update
If in the Setup Properties: Observations page for Set Orientation and Known Backsight setup applications or for
Resection and Multiple Backsights setup applications the flag called Allow automatic update is active, then the
respective setup is included into the automatic Update Setups process. The status may be changed to include or
exclude a setup in or from the automatic recalculation of multiple setups.
To change the 'Allow automatic update' status:
Setups node in the TPS-proc tree view.
1.
Click on the
2.
In the corresponding report view (multi-) select the Setup(s) for which you want to activate or de-activate
the flag.
3.
Right-click into the selection and select Allow automatic update from the context menu. The status will
be changed for all selected setups.
You may check the current status in the Allow autom. update column.
Note:
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For single setups the Allow automatic update status may also be changed in the respective Setup
Properties: Observations page.
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Update Setups
This command enables you to recalculate multiple setups when new coordinates are available for your backsight
points.
To invoke the operation:

Select Update setups from the background menu of the TPS-Proc view or from the TPS-Proc main
menu.
When you execute this command the office software will loop over all TPS setups stored in the TPS-Proc view and
will recalculate all setups which have the Allow automatic update checkbox ticked in the Setup Properties:
Observations page. The operation makes use of the grid coordinates (current point class) of the backsight points
to recalculate the orientation and to, subsequently, update all measured points connected to each setup. All types
of setups including 'Resection' methods and 'Multiple Backsights' may be included in the automatic update.
Depending on the complexity of the project it may be necessary to inspect the current coordinates of the backsight
points before.
Note:

After importing the data the Allow automatic update box is checked for all setups which had the
'Update later' option set on the instrument. However, it is possible to modify the setting later so that
setups may be included or excluded manually from the automated update.

You may include or exclude multiple setups from the automatic update mechanism by selecting Allow
automatic update from the context menu of the Setups report view in the TPS-Proc tabbed view.

Every setup will only be recalculated once when executing the Update setups command. The update is
performed in chronological order starting with the oldest setup.

For setups of method 'Height Transfer' automatic update is not supported.
See also:
Allow automatic update
Setup Properties: Observations (Set Orientation, Known Backsight)
Setup Properties: Observations (Resection, Multiple Backsights)
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Setup Report
To get an overview on one or more Setups in your project you may invoke the Setup Report.

In the TPS-proc tree view right-click on a
the context menu.
Setup in the
Setups node and select Setup Report from
Alternatively: Right-click on a Setup in the Setups report view and select Setup Report from the context
menu.
Note: To get a report on several Setups at a time multi-select the Setups to be included in the report in
the Setups report view, right-click into the selection and select Setup Report from the context menu.
The report opens in a stand-alone window and is listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
When the report has been configured to display all possible sections it presents you with the following information:
Project Information
Instrument Information
Setup Method
Setup Observations
Target Coordinates
Fixpoints
Target Residuals
Setup Results
Station Coordinate Comparison
Project Information
Example:
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Project
This section gives you general information on the Project Properties, like the project name, creation date and time
and the attached coordinate system.
If information has been entered in the Dictionary page of the Project Properties dialog these pieces of information
will be added to this section of the report.
Instrument Information
Example:
This section gives you information on the instrument that was used in the field to measure the setup. The
instrument type and serial number are listed, together with the instrument height and the time when the setup was
measured. In addition information on the range of Geometrical and Atmospheric ppm values is given, summarized
for all Setup observations.
Setup Method
This section lists the Setup Method that was used for calculating the setup for which the report has been invoked.
Setup Observations
Example:
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In this section the Setup Observations that were measured and used for the calculation of the setup are listed.
Target Coordinates
In this section the measured coordinates of the points to which the Setup Observations were made (of the Target
points) are listed.
Fixpoints
For the methods Resection, Resection Helmert, Multiple Backsights and Known Backsight a sub-section with the
Control coordinates of the Fixpoints that were used in the calculation will be added.
Target Residuals
Example:
In this section the differences between the measured Target Coordinates and the Fixpoints are listed as the
resulting Target Residuals.
Setup Results
Example:
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At the end the Results of the Setup calculation are listed, i.e. the station coordinates, the used and calculated
scale factor, the calculated orientation and whether the scale factor is to be applied to the Survey Observations
made on this setup.
Station Coordinate Comparison
Example:
If, except from the calculated station coordinates (calculated from the Setup Observations), the point on which the
setup is calculated (the station) has a Control triplet, too, then a Coordinate Comparison between the Reference
and the Control triplet will be calculated and the results are listed in this section of the report.
Note:

If the report is invoked for more than one setup then the single setups are reported on in the same order
as they are listed in the Setups report view.
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TPS Processing Guide
Whenever new coordinates become available for stations, on which a TPS setup exists, it may be required to
update the reference coordinates assigned to the TPS setup as well as the orientation of the setup.
For the following operations such a case is automatically detected and you are suggested to perform these
operations automatically:

When a traverse was re-calculated and stored, all sideshots of the traverse are automatically updated. In
this case it is checked whether on any of the sideshots a TPS setup exists and you are suggested to
update this setup.

When a GPS baseline is stored in the Results Manager, it is also checked whether a TPS setup exists for
the rover point and you are suggested to update this setup. This will typically happen when postprocessing SmartStation setups.
Whenever such a case is detected, the TPS Processing Guide dialog is displayed. This dialog lists all TPS setups,
for which new coordinates have been stored in a report view. Activate all setups for which you want to perform
the update and press OK. Alternatively press Cancel to abort the function.
The following operations will be done:

The Reference triplet will be updated with the highest triplet (apart from the existing Reference triplet)
available for the point after the previous store operation. This will automatically shift all connected TPS
target points or GPS rover points.

Afterwards the orientation of the setup will be re-calculated using the new setup coordinates. Changes in
the orientation will also be applied to all connected TPS target points.
See also:
Update Reference Triplet
Setup Properties
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Setup Properties
Setup Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the TPS Setup properties stored in the TPS-proc view.
1.
Right-click on a setup in the tree-view or in the corresponding report view and select Properties... from
the context menu.
Depending on the method the selected setup has been measured with one of the two different
Observations pages will be displayed in addition to the General Setup properties:
General
Observations (Set Orientation, Known Backsight)
Observations (Resection, Multiple Backsights, Height Transfer)
Images (only available if at least one image is linked to the selected setup)
2.
Make your changes.
In the Observations page you can recalculate the setup. Changes of the setup coordinates or
orientation will be applied to recalculate all connected Survey Observations.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Setup Properties: General
This property page enables you to display or edit general information of SmartWorx TPS setups.
Date/ Time:
Displays the Date/Time the setup was created.
Method:
Displays the method the selected setup was measured with. The method cannot be changed for a selected
setup. The following methods are possible:
Set Orientation:
Instrument was set up on a known point and oriented to a
known azimuth.
Known Backsight:
Instrument was set up on a known point and oriented to a
known backsight point.
Multiple Backsights:
Instrument was set up on a known point. The Orientation
and/ or height were calculated by measuring to known
target points.
Height Transfer:
Instrument was set up on a known point. The height was
calculated by measuring to known target points.
Resection/ Resection Helmert:
Instrument was set up on an unknown point. Station
coordinates and the orientation were calculated by
measuring to known target points.
Orientate to Line:
Station coordinates and Orientation were derived from
measuring to two points which define a local coordinate
system.
Point Id:
Displays the Point Id of the selected setup. You may deactivate the setup by clearing the Active check box.
This will exclude the setup and any associated observations from the adjustment computation.
Easting, Northing, Height:
Displays the reference coordinates and the associated standard deviations for the selected setup in local
grid.
If necessary the point coordinates may be changed. Subsequently, all target coordinates connected to the
setup will be shifted by the same amount.
Note: You can use the buttons in the lower left corner of the page to
coordinate triplet to or from the clipboard.
Copy or
Paste the complete
Use the
button to exchange the coordinate system from which your setup coordinates have been
derived. This functionality is available for setup coordinates that have been derived on a Smart Station
instrument with a preliminary coordinate system.
Instrument Height:
Displays the instrument height on the selected setup. If necessary the instrument height may be changed.
If the instrument height was used in the field to calculate the height of the target points (Set Orientation,
Known Backsight), then a change in the instrument height will automatically modify the heights of all
connected target points by the same amount.
For the Resection methods and the methods Multiple Backsights and Height Transfer a change in the
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instrument height only modifies the height of the setup, but not the heights of the connected target points,
unless the height of the setup was excluded from the setup calculation.
Instrument type/ SN:
Displays the type of instrument used on the selected setup and its serial number.
Centring Error:
The Centring error defines the predicted error that could have been made when centring the instrument
over the point. If necessary the centring error may be changed.
Height Error:
The Height error defines the predicted error when measuring the instrument height. If necessary the height
error may be changed.
Tip:

To get an overview on the setup data in a printable report, including information like the method that was
used, the observations and target coordinates used in the calculation and/or the calculation results invoke
the Setup Report.
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Setup Properties: Observations (Resection, Multiple Backsights, Height Transfer)
For the 'Resection' methods and the methods 'Multiple Backsights' and 'Height Transfer' the Observations page
displays the following information:
Point Id:
Displays the Point Id of the selected setup.
Report view:
Displays all observations used within the setup application together with the target point coordinates and
the residuals of the calculation.
Note: The coordinates displayed are the current point coordinates of the target points.
The following items can be modified by selecting Modify from the context menu:
- Point Id: Select an existing Point Id. The grid coordinates of the current point triplet will be filled into the
Coordinates columns.
- Use: Select 'Use' if the observation shall be used for the position and/ or height calculation. Choose
between 3D, 2D, 1D and No.
- Easting, Northing, Ortho. Height: Modify the grid coordinates of the target points if required. The
modified coordinates will be used for the calculation, but will not be stored in the project.
- Target Height: Change the target height if required. This will not affect the target coordinates.
- Reflector Type: Modify the reflector type if required. Changes in the additional constant will be applied to
the measured slope distances. The coordinates of the target points will not be changed.
Computed Coordinates:
Displays the current coordinates and standard deviations for the selected setup. The computed coordinates
will be updated when you press the Recalculate button.
Computed Orientation/Scale:
Displays the current orientation and scale of the selected setup. The computed orientation and scale will be
updated when you press the Recalculate button.
Allow automatic update:
This setting can be used to automatically recalculate multiple setups. The status may be changed to include
or exclude a setup in or from the automatic Update Setups process.
Recalculation of setups:
To recalculate the coordinates and/ or the orientation proceed as follows:
1.
Modify any of the observations used in the setup application.
2.
From the Compute combo-box in the upper right corner select which elements of the setup shall be
recalculated.
For Resection/ Resection Helmert choose between:
- Easting, Northing, Height and Orientation
- Easting, Northing and Height
- Easting, Northing and Orientation
For Multiple Backsights choose between:
- Height and Orientation
- Height
- Orientation
The elements not computed remain as stored.
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3.
From the Scale combo-box select, whether you want to calculate a scale factor for your distances (Yes)
or whether you want to keep the scale factor which was used in the field (No).
4.
From the Method combo-box select, whether you want to calculate using Least squares or Robust
techniques. The difference between the two methods is the weighting that gets applied to the
observations. With the Robust method the weights are calculated from the fit between the observed and
the computed values. This allows for good results even in case that errors are in the data, provided that
sufficient target points have been observed.
For setups of type Resection Helmert you can select from the Height combo-box how the heights derived
from the setup observations shall be weighted. You can choose between 1/d and 1/d2.
5.
Press the Recalculate button. The computed coordinates and/ or the computed orientation will be
updated. The residuals of the computation are displayed in the corresponding columns of the report view.
6.
If you selected to calculate the Scale, the resulting value will be displayed as well. Check Apply to
survey observations, if you wish to use the calculated scale factor as a geometrical ppm for all
connected survey observations.
7.
Leave the property page with OK. All connected measured point triplets calculated from the modified
setup will be updated according to the new station coordinates and new orientation.
Note:


If you recalculate a setup of method 'Orientate to Line', it will be processed as a standard Resection.
For setups of the method 'Height Transfer' only the station height will be recalculated. Station coordinates,
orientation and scale will be kept and are not available for selection. Automatic update is not supported.
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Setup Properties: Observations (Set Orientation, Known Backsight)
For the methods 'Set Orientation' and 'Known Backsight', the Observations page displays the following
information:
Point Id:
Displays the Point Id of the selected setup.
Backsight Point Id:
Lists the backsight Point Id used in the setup application together with its grid coordinates.
Note: The coordinates displayed are the current point coordinates of the backsight point. In case of method
'Set Orientation' the coordinates may not be available, if no distance was measured.
TPS observations:
The TPS Observations (Direction, Distance and Zenith Angle) are displayed and cannot be changed.
Azimuth:
Displays the azimuth to the backsight Point Id used for setting the orientation. This value can only be
modified for setups of method 'Set Orientation'. When recalculating the orientation by selecting a different
backsight point, the Orientation will be updated when pressing Re-calculate.
Allow automatic update:
This setting is activated, if 'Update later' was set in the field for backsight points for which new coordinates
will be available later. In the Office the flag is used to automatically recalculate multiple setups. The status
may be changed to include or exclude a setup in or from the automatic Update Setups process.
Orientation:
Displays the current orientation of the selected setup.
Recalculation of setups:
To recalculate the orientation of your setup, you have the following possibilities:
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
Modify the grid coordinates of your backsight point. Press the Recalculate button to compute the new
azimuth and the new orientation. Leave the property page with OK to update all measured point
coordinates connected to the setup.

Select a new backsight Point Id from the drop-down list. The grid coordinates of the current point triplet for
the selected point will be loaded. Press the Recalculate button to compute the new azimuth and the new
orientation. Leave the property page with OK to update all measured point coordinates connected to the
setup.

For setups of method 'Set Orientation' you can additionally directly change the azimuth value. Note, that
you only can either enter a new azimuth or modify the backsight point. Press the Recalculate button to
update the orientation. Leave the property page with OK to update all measured point coordinates
connected to the setup.
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Point, Line/Area, Setup Properties: Images
In this Property-Page all images linked to the selected Point or Line/Area or TPS Setup are given in an
embedded thumbnail view together with the filename of each image and the date and time when the picture has
been taken.
Note:

This Property-Page is only available if there are images linked to the selected object.
If more than one image is linked to the selected object you may adjust the size of the thumbnails in the embedded
view to be able to see more than one thumbnail at a time.
When you select an image a context menu is available from which you may choose to Open the image in the
Windows default viewer or to Open the containing folder.
The Delete and Unlink functionality is available for a selection of one or more images.
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Traverses
New Traverse
This functionality enables you to create a new traverse from existing TPS Setups stored in the TPS-Proc view.

To create a new traverse right-click on the
Traverse... from the context-menu.
Traverses node in the tree-view and select New
In the New Traverse dialog:
1.
Enter a Traverse Id.
2.
to add the setup to the traverse which will
Select a setup from the right-hand view and press
subsequently be built up in the left hand view. After a setup has been included in the traverse (left-hand
view) the right-hand view is updated to list only those setups, which have a Setup Observation to the
currently last Setup Point in the traverse.
Note: If the first setup contains more than one Setup Observation (e.g. in case of a Resection setup),
select the observation that shall be used as the initial Backsight Point Id.
3.
For the last setup select the Foresight Point Id from the list of observations. This observation will be
used as the final foresight in the traverse.
4.
Press OK to store the traverse.
Note:

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Each setup can only be included in one traverse. Setups which are already included in a traverse will not
be available for selection in the right-hand view any more.

You can remove a setup from the traverse before finally storing the traverse by right-clicking onto the
setup in the left-hand view and selecting Delete from the context menu. All following setups will be
removed as well.

A setup which has a setup observation only to the following traverse station can also be used as the start
point of the traverse. However, since such traverses do not have an initial backsight, they can only be
processed by entering a Start Azimuth in the Traverse Properties dialog or by using the Helmert 2D
method.
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Delete a Traverse
Enables you to delete traverses in the
TPS-proc component.
Traverse in the tree view and select Delete from the context menu.
1.
Right-click on a
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting the traverse.
Note:


If you select more than one traverse then all of them can be deleted at once.
If a traverse is deleted all included setups will be kept.
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Traverse Report
To get an overview on the results of a traverse calculation you may invoke the Traverse Report.

In the TPS-proc tree view right-click on a
Report from the context menu.
Traverse in the
Traverses node and select Traverse
Alternatively: Right-click in the upper part of the Traverse view (in the Booking Sheet) and select
Traverse Report from the context menu.
The report opens in a stand-alone window and is listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
Note:

in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
The contents of a Traverse Report always reflect the current status of the traverse calculation. If the
traverse is re-calculated with different settings the report has to be invoked again.
When the report has been configured to display all possible sections it presents you with the following bits of
information:
Project Information
Traverse Information
Processing Parameters
Traverse Results
Traverse Station Differences
Observations
Project Information
Example:
This section gives you general information on the Project Properties, like the project name, creation date and time
and the attached coordinate system.
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If information has been entered in the Dictionary page of the Project Properties dialog these pieces of information
will be added to this section of the report.
Traverse Information
Example:
This section supplies you with General information on the traverse for which the report has been invoked, such as
the Traverse Id, its Start and End Point, the Number of Points (stations) included in the traverse and its Total
Length.
Furthermore you get a list of detailed information on the Accuracies that have been achieved with the current
calculation. The listed values correspond to the properties listed in the Traverse Properties: General page.
If the traverse has been adjusted with the 2D Helmert method the two Common Points will be listed together with
the calculated Shift, Rotation and Scale factor. Length errors and Cross errors will not be displayed.
Processing Parameters
Example:
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The Processing Parameters (i.e. the Methods for the Traverse Adjustment, the Angle Balancing and the Height
Balancing) as set for the current calculation are listed. Additionally, the Calculated Scale is given together with
the information whether it has been applied to connected Survey Observations or not.
Traverse Results
Example:
The results of the current traverse calculation are listed: Each Station is listed with its current local grid
coordinates (Easting, Northing and Height) and its current Orientation. The Check Points are listed with their
currently calculated local grid coordinates and the coordinate Differences to their Control triplets. The less these
differences are the better the traverse calculation fits.
The items listed in this report section correspond to the items listed in the Traverse Properties: Stations page and
the Traverse Properties: Check Points page.
Traverse Station Differences
Example:
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This section displays the differences in Easting, Northing and Height between the initial Reference triplet
coordinates and the re-calculated Reference triplet coordinates for all traverse station points.
Observations
Example:
This section corresponds to the contents of the Traverse Booking Sheet in the TPS-Processing: Traverse View.
For each Station the averaged backsight and foresight obervations are listed.
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Traversing techniques
Various types of Traverse-processing are supported in the office software. The availability of the different
computation methods depends on how the traverse is built and for which points Control coordinates are available.
In the diagrams below the following abbreviations are used:

A … Start point of the traverse with the first station setup.

B … End point of the traverse with the last station setup.

A0 … Initial Backsight at point A.

B0 … Final Foresight at point B.

1, 2, (3) … Points within the traverse.
Traverse closed in position
Control coordinates are available for start point, end point, initial backsight and final foresight. This is the
recommended method. Angular and coordinate misclosures can be calculated and distributed. Instead of Control
coordinates for the initial backsight a Start Azimuth can alternatively be used. Instead of Control coordinates for the
final foresight an End Azimuth can alternatively be used.
Traverse closed in position – without angular closure
If Control coordinates are available for start point, end point and initial backsight, but not for the final foresight, then
only coordinate misclosures, but no angular misclosure can be calculated and distributed. Instead of Control
coordinates for the initial backsight a Start Azimuth can alternatively be used.
Open (flying) traverse
If Control coordinates are only available for start point and initial backsight (or alternatively a Start Azimuth is given)
neither angular nor coordinate misclosures can be calculated and the traverse is not controlled in any way.
However, it is still possible to calculate new station coordinates and update the sideshots.
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Minimally constrained traverse
If two Control coordinates are available, one for either start point A or initial backsight A0, and one for either end
point B or final foresight B0, then the traverse can be transformed to the given Control coordinates by using the 2D
Helmert Adjustment Method. A typical example is a traverse starting on a known Control point (A) and closing on a
known point without occupying the final Control point (B0) with the instrument. Angular and coordinate misclosures
cannot be calculated.
Note: When choosing Adjustment Method 2D Helmert the height misclosue will be calculated between the given
heights of the two used Control points (A and B0 in this case), and not between the start and end point.
Closed loop traverse
The case of a traverse building a geometrically closed loop can be considered as a special case of a traverse
closed in position, where start point and end point co-incide (A=B) and the instrument has been set up on the start
point again. For this case no Control coordinates are required for A0 and/or B0 to calculate the angular misclosure.
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A loop traverse can also be built without setting up the instrument on the start point again by using the end point B
as the initial backsight (A0=B) and the start point A as the final foresight (B0=A). Angular and coordinate
misclosures will be calculated without the need for Control coordinates on points A and B .For the distribution of
coordinate misclosures a distance must have been measured for the final traverse leg.
For this type of closed traverse loop no End Azimuth can be entered in the Traverse Properties. A Start Azimuth
can be used to define the azimuth of the initial backsight (= final traverse leg).
Note:

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If a traverse contains setups on any of the side shots (“loose traverse legs”) these can automatically be
adjusted when storing the traverse results by using the TPS Processing Guide.
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
For all cases in which Control coordinates are required, it is only necessary that Control triplets are stored
for the point. They do not have to be the current triplet.
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Traverse-processing Parameters
Traverse-processing Parameters
Select the computation parameters before you recalculate a traverse. The parameters can be changed individually,
but system default settings are also available for all parameters.
After a traverse has been recomputed the Traverse-processing Parameters can be displayed in the Traverse
Report.
How to modify the Traverse Processing Parameters
The Traverse-processing Parameters Property-Sheet consists of the following pages:
Traversing
Angle Balance
Height Balance
See also:
Traversing techniques
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Traverse-processing Parameters: Traversing
Adjustment method:
Choose the method how the coordinate misclosure (Easting, Northing) shall be distributed.
If you select Compass Rule the coordinate misclosure will be distributed with respect to the length of the
traverse legs. The Compass Rule assumes that the biggest error comes from the longest traverse
observations. This method is suitable when the precision of the angles and distances are approximately
equal.
If you select Transit Rule the coordinate misclosure will be distributed with respect to the coordinate
changes in Easting and Northing. Use this method if the angles were measured with a higher precision than
the distances.
If you select No Adjustment the coordinate misclosures will not be distributed to the station coordinates.
If you select 2D Helmert the traverse will be adjusted by a 2D Helmert transformation. Shift, Rotation and
Scale factor will be computed and applied to the traverse.
Max. Length Error:
The tolerance for the Length Error is defined as F = a+b*L+c*sqrt(L). This formula contains the constants a,
b and c and the total traverse length L. If the computed Length Error exceeds the Max. Length Error, a
warning message will be displayed and the Length Error will be marked in the Traverse Report.
Max. Cross Error:
The tolerance for the Cross Error is defined as F = a+d*L+e*n*sqrt(n). This formula contains the constants
a, d and e and the number of stations n. If the computed Cross Error exceeds the Max. Cross Error, a
warning message will be displayed and the Cross Error will be marked in the Traverse Report.
Apply Scale to survey observations
Tick this checkbox, if you wish to apply the scale factor resulting from the traverse computation to all
survey observations connected to any of the setups contained in the traverse. If this setting is active the
geometrical ppm stored with these survey observations will be changed, which in turn affects the measured
point coordinates of all connected survey points when being applied.
Note:

Control coordinates have to be stored for the Start and End Point in the traverse if you wish to calculate
and distribute the coordinate misclosure by either the Compass Rule or the Transit Rule.

The Compass Rule is also known as the Bowditch method.

If you choose to adjust the traverse by a 2D Helmert transformation it is not necessary to define a max.
length error and a max. cross error. The corresponding functionality will not be available. The scale factor
is automatically applied as part of the transformation.

A summary of the different ways in which a traverse may be measured is given in the overview topic:
Traversing techniques.
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Traverse-processing Parameters: Angle Balance
Adjustment method:
Choose the method how the angular misclosure shall be distributed.
If you select Equally the angular misclosure will be divided by the number of traverse angles and the same
correction will be applied to each setup.
If you select By Distance the angular misclosure will be distributed with respect to the length of the
traverse legs. The shorter a traverse leg is, the bigger the correction will be.
If you select No Distribution the angular misclosure will not be distributed to the traverse angles.
Max. Angular Error
The tolerance for the Angular Error (in 0.01 gons) is defined as F = a+(b/L)+(n-1)*sqrt(n). This formula
contains the constants a and b, the total traverse length L and n, the number of stations. If the computed
Angular Misclosure exceeds the Max. Angular Error, a warning message will be displayed and the
Angular Misclosure will be marked in the Traverse Report.
Note:

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The selected Angle Balance Method will be applied to calculate the coordinate misclosures. To distribute
the coordinate misclosures to the station coordinates select the Adjustment Method in the Traversing
page as required.

Control coordinates have to be stored for the Start Point, the initial Backsight Point, for the End Point
and for the last Foresight Point of the traverse if you wish to calculate and distribute the angular
misclosure either Equally or By Distance.

A summary of the different ways in which a traverse may be measured is given in the overview topic:
Traversing techniques.
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Traverse-processing Parameters: Height Balance
Adjustment method:
Choose the method how the height misclosure shall be distributed.
If you select Equally the height misclosure will be divided by the number of stations and the same
correction will be applied to each station height.
If you select By Distance the height misclosure will be distributed with respect to the length of the traverse
legs. The longer a traverse leg is, the bigger the correction will be.
If you select No Distribution the height misclosure will not be distributed to the station heights.
If you select Keep Heights the heights of the stations will be kept and only the position information of the
traverse stations will be updated.
Max. Height Error per station point
Define the tolerance for the Height Misclosure.
If the computed Height Misclosure divided by the number of stations exceeds the Max. Height Error per
station, a warning message will be displayed and the Height Misclosure will be marked in the Traverse
Report.
Note:


If 2D Helmert has been chosen as the Adjustment method in the Traversing page, then the height
misclosure will be calculated and distributed between the two Control points of the Helmert transformation.
For all other methods the height misclosure is always calculated and distributed between start and end
point of the traverse.
A summary of the different ways in which a traverse may be measured is given in the overview topic:
Traversing techniques.
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Modify Traverse Processing Parameters
1.
In the TPS-Proc view right-click and select Processing parameters... from the context menu.
Alternatively: Select
Processing parameters... from the TPS-Proc main menu or click on the
corresponding toolbar button in the Standard toolbar.
2.
The following pages will be displayed in the Configure Traverse-processing Parameters dialog:
Traversing
Angle Balance
Height Balance
The default Processing settings can be changed under Tools - Options: Default Parameters.
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters in the
selected page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:

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If you intend to modify the default values, you may do so under Tools - Options.
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Traverse Properties
Traverse Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display the Traverse properties and to recalculate a traverse stored in the
TPS-proc view.
1.
Right-click on a Traverse in the tree-view or in the Traverse Booking Sheet and select Properties... from
the context menu.
The following pages will be displayed in the Traverse Properties dialog:
General
Check Points
Stations
2.
In the General page you can recalculate the traverse. Additionally, you may modify the Traverse Id.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Traverse Properties: General
This property page enables you to display general information on SmartWorx traverses. To get information on the
different ways in which a traverse may be measured, please, see the overview topic: Traversing techniques.
Date/ Time:
Displays the Date and Time when the traverse was created. If the traverse was measured using the
Traverse Application on the instrument this is the time when the application was started. For manually
created traverses this is the time when the traverse was stored in the office software.
Traverse Id:
Unique identification of the traverse. You may deactivate the traverse by clearing the Active check box.
This will exclude all setups included in the traverse and all associated observations from the adjustment
computation.
Use start/ end Azimuth:
Check one or both of these options if you want to enter and use a given start and/ or end Azimuth value
for calculating the traverse instead of calculating the azimuth from Control coordinates of the initial
backsight point (Known Backsight on the first point in the Traverse) and/ or from Control coordinates of the
final foresight point (known foresight on the last point in the Traverse).
Note: Only if these options are selected will the entered Azimuth values be used.
If Control triplets exist for the start and the end point of the traverse then the coordinate misclosures may
be computed in addition to the angluar misclosure.
If the Adjustment Method 2D Helmert has been chosen in the Traverse-processing Parameters: Traversing page
the following options will be available instead of the 'Use start/ end Azimuth' functionality:
Start/ End Point:
From the combo boxes select the point(s) that shall serve as the start or end point of the traverse in the
calculation of the 2D Helmert transformation.
As start point either the first point in the traverse or the initial backsight point may be selected if for both
Control triplets exist. As end point either the last point in the traverse or the final foresight point may be
selected if for both Control triplets exist.
Properties
Lists the Traverse Properties. To save or print the properties select Save as... or Print from the context
menu.
The misclosures of the computation (angular and coordinate misclosures) are shown. The Length Error,
Cross Error and Height Error are derived from the coordinate misclosures and are listed together with the
maximum allowed errors as specified in the Traverse-processing Parameters. The 1D and 2D Accuracies
are displayed as a ratio of the error against the Total Distance.
If the traverse has been adjusted with the 2D Helmert method the two Common Points will be listed
together with the calculated Shift, Rotation and Scale factor. Length errors and Cross errors will not be
displayed then.
Use the
button to exchange the coordinate system from which the coordinates of the traverse setups have
been derived. This functionality is available for setup coordinates that have been derived on a Smart Station
instrument with a preliminary coordinate system.
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Recalculation of traverses:
1.
To recalculate a traverse using the selected Traverse-processing Parameters press Recalculate. The
currently selected Adjustment method is displayed above the Properties view.
2.
Press OK to apply the changes. On all stations the Reference point triplets will be replaced with the newly
computed coordinates. The orientations will be updated for each setup in the traverse. All connected
measured point triplets calculated from the modified setups will be updated according to the new station
coordinates and new orientations.
Note:

To calculate the angular misclosure either the start and end Azimuth values must be given or Control
coordinates must be stored for the Start Point, the initial Backsight Point, for the End Point and for the
last Foresight Point of the traverse.
To calculate coordinate misclosures (Latitude, Departure and Height) Control coordinates must be stored
for the Start Point and for the End Point of the traverse.
If neither start and end Azimuth values nor Control coordinates are given a warning message will be
issued and the coordinates of traverse stations will be calculated without angular balance and without any
distribution of the coordinate misclosures.
To set the Control values for the local grid coordinates (Easting, Northing and Height) as required go to
the Point Properties: General page and select Point Class Control.
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Traverse Properties: Check Points
This property page enables you to display information on the Check Points that have been measured from any of
the setups included in the traverse. All points within the selected traverse to which Survey Observations
(sideshots) have been made and which in addition have a Control triplet stored, will be listed as a Check Point.
Traverse Id:
Displays the Id of the selected traverse.
Report view:
Lists all Check Points that have been measured for the selected traverse with their local grid coordinates.
When the traverse is re-calculated in the General page the dEasting, dNorthing and dHeight values are
updated for all check points taking into account the newly computed orientations. The smaller the
differences are the better the traverse fits.
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Traverse Properties: Stations
This property page enables you to display information on the station coordinates that have been calculated for all
setups in the traverse.
Traverse Id:
Displays the Id of the selected traverse.
Report view:
The report view displays the local grid coordinates and the orientations currently stored or newly computed
for all stations contained in the traverse. When a traverse has been recalculated the differences between
the stored coordinates and orientations and the newly computed values is displayed as well.
When leaving the Traverse Properties with OK the reference triplets and the orientations will be updated for all
setups that are listed in the Stations page.
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Traverse View
TPS-Processing: Traverse View
Traverse is selected in the TPS-Processing tree-view, the right-hand view changes to display the
If a
Traverse Booking Sheet and a corresponding graphical representation of the traverse, the so-called Traverse
View.
The Traverse Booking Sheet lists the observations to the Backsight Point Id and to the Foresight Point Id for
each Setup in the traverse. Direction (Hz), Zenith Angle (V), Slope Distance, Horizontal Distance and Height
Difference can be displayed. If multiple measurements exist for a Foresight or Backsight point then the averaged
observations will be displayed.
The Traverse Booking Sheet offers the following functionality:

To modify a Setup Point Id right-click onto the Setup Point Id and select Modify... from the context menu.

To modify the Traverse-processing Parameters right-click into the booking sheet and select Processing
Parameters from the context menu.

To recalculate a traverse right-click into the booking sheet, select Properties... from the context menu
and press the Recalculate button in the Traverse Properties: General page.

To view the stored Traverse Properties in an HTML Report right-click into the booking sheet and select
Traverse Report from the context menu.

To exchange the coordinate system for all setups included in the traverse right-click into the booking
sheet and select Exchange Coordinate System from the context menu.
The lower part of Traverse View offers a graphical representation of the data given in the booking sheet. All
Setups and
Traverse Observations are displayed. Survey observations are not included to provide a clearer
overview on the traverse.
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The Traverse View offers the following functionality:

To zoom in or out of the view right click and select Zoom In, Zoom Out or Zoom 100% from the view's
background menu. Alternatively, use the corresponding toolbar buttons (
,
)from the View toolbar.

By default, Panning is switched on so that you can comfortably navigate within the view.

To modify the Graphical Settings right-click and select Graphical Settings... from the background menu.
Via the Graphical Settings functionality you may even decide to activate a background image for the
view. The background image has to be attached to the project first. You may do so in the Background
Image page of the Project Properties dialog.
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Zooming (Traverse-processing)
The original scale of the Traverse View is selected in such a way that the whole traverse fits into the view.
Via the Zoom functionality different sections of the traverse may be enlarged to inspect the details.
To Zoom in:
1.
In the graphical view right-click and select Zoom In from the background menu.
Alternatively: Select
from the Toolbar.
The symbol of the cursor changes to a magnifying glass.
2.
Draw a rectangle around the area you want to enlarge. To do so click the left mouse button and keep it
pressed while positioning the cursor to the lower right-hand-corner of the area you want to enlarge.
The section of the traverse within the rectangle will be enlarged to the extent of the graphical view.
To Zoom out:
In the graphical view right-click and select Zoom Out or Zoom 100% from the background menu.
Alternatively: Select
or
from the Toolbar.
The Zoom 100% functionality resizes the view to its original extents in one step.
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Sets of Angles
Create a Sets of Angles Application
Sets of angles measured with the SmartWorx Sets of Angles Application will automatically be listed as
of Angles in the TPS-Proc view.
Sets
If sets of angles have been measured in the field without making use of the Sets of Angles application on the
instrument then the sets may be manually created in the office software.
To create a Sets of Angles Application:
1.
In the
TPS-Proc view right-click on
Angles... from the context menu.
Sets of Angles in the tree view and select New Sets of
Alternatively, right-click in the Sets of Angles report view and select New Sets of Angles... from the
context menu.
The New Sets of Angles Wizard starts up.
2.
In the Start page of the wizard select the TPS Reference point for which the Sets of Angles
application shall be defined. Click Next.
3.
In the Select Setup page select one of the Setups that have been measured or manually created
on this Reference point.
Note: Only those Setups will be offered for selection that have not been used already for creating a Sets
of Angles application, i.e. a Setup can only be used once for creating a Sets of Angles application.
Click Next.
4.
In the Select Sets of Angles Observations page select the Number of Sets that shall be
included in the application. Each set has to be manually created then.
In the left-hand report view (multi-)select the target observations that shall be included into the selected
set. If the report view is sorted by Date/ Time (default) the required observations can easily be selected in
a single block. Face I and II may be included in a single step.
Press the
button to add the selected observations to the right-hand side graphical view.
To remove an observation again from the graphical view, select it in the graphical view and press the
button. Alternatively, right-click on the observation in the graphical view and select Remove from
the context menu.
5.
Repeat step 4. for each set. The sets have to be selected one after the other from the combo box
at the top.
6.
Click the Finish button to calculate and create the Sets of Angles.
The newly calculated Sets of Angles will be stored and added to the list of
view.
Sets of Angles in the TPS-Proc
To get an overview on the Sets of Angles data including information on the instrument that has been used in the
field, on the mean errors calculated for the sets of angles and on the point results, the residuals and face
differences invoke and see the Sets of Angles Report.
Note:
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Tip:

In a set a point may only be selected once. It must not but may be selected in face I and II. Face I is
sufficient, though. Observations that cannot be selected any more because another observation to the
same target point in the same face has already been assigned, are indicated by a different color.

All points belonging to the first set must also be included in all following sets. It must be the same points,
not less and no more.

The selected number of sets have to be created completely before the dialog may be left with Finish.

To view/ edit the Observation Properties right-click on an observation either in the left-hand report view or
in the graphical view and select Properties... from the context menu.
To view the Point Properties right-click on a point in the graphical view and select Properties... from the
context menu.
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
To zoom in and out of the graphical view right-click and select Zoom In/ Out from the background menu.

Panning may be switched on from the background menu to be able to comfortably navigate within the
graphical view.

To modify the settings for the graphical view right-click and select Graphical Settings... from the
background menu. If a background image is attached to the project it may be switched on in the graphical
view via the Graphical Settings....
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Delete a Sets of Angles Application
Enables you to delete a Sets of Angles application in the
TPS-Proc component.
1.
In the Sets of Angles report view highlight a Sets of Angles and select Delete from the context menu.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:

The observations included in the Sets of Angles to be deleted will be kept.
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Sets of Angles Report
To get an overview on one or more Sets of Angles in your project you may invoke the Sets of Angles Report.

In the TPS-proc tree view open a
Sets of Angles in the Sets of Angles node and click on
Report in the
Results folder to open the Sets of Angles report embedded in the right-hand report
view.

In the TPS-proc tree view right-click on a
Sets of Angles in the Sets of Angles node and select
Sets of Angles Report from the context menu to open the report in a stand-alone window. The report will
then be listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Alternatively: Right-click on a Sets of Angles in the Sets of Angles report view and select Sets of Angles
Report from the context menu.
Note: To get a report on several Sets of Angles at a time multi-select the Sets of Angles to be included in
the report in the Sets of Angles report view, right-click into the selection and select Sets of Angles
Report from the context menu.
Embedded reports and stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
When the report has been configured to display all possible sections it presents you with the following information:
Project Information
Instrument Information
Sets of Angles Information
Point Results
Residuals/ Face Differences
Project Information
Example:
This section gives you general information on the Project Properties, like the project name, creation date and time
and the attached coordinate system.
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If information has been entered in the Dictionary page of the Project Properties dialog these pieces of information
will be added to this section of the report.
Instrument Information
Example:
This section gives you information on the instrument that was used in the field to measure the Sets of Angles. The
instrument type and serial number are listed, together with the instrument height and the time when the Sets of
Angles were measured.
Sets of Angles Information
Example:
This section lists the number of measured sets together with the number of points included in the sets. The
accuracies (mean errors) are listed for the reduced and single observations.
The Tolerance values as set in the Tolerances dialog are listed, too.
Point Results
Example:
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For each target point a sub-section is added to the report in which the observations (direction, distance and vertical
angle) are listed as averaged from face I and II and reduced to the first point in each set. Additionally, the Target
Height and Reflector Type used in each set are given.
At the top of each sub-section the mean observations averaged from all sets are listed for a point.
If in the report template the Residuals/ Face Differences section is selected to be switched on for display in the
report then underneath the point results the residuals of the single observations to their mean values and the
differences between the Face I and Face II observations are listed for each measured set.
If one of the tolerance values as defined in the Sets of Angles Tolerances dialog is exceeded for at least one of the
residuals or one of the face differences in a set then a warning ( ) will be issued in the Tolerance exceeded
column.
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Sets of Angles Tolerances
To invoke the Sets of Angles Tolerances dialog:

Right-click in the Sets of Angles report view and select Sets of Angles Tolerances... from the context or
background menu.
In this dialog you may define tolerance values for the residuals and face differences resulting from a Sets of Angles
calculation.
Residuals Hz, V, Slope Dist.:
Define a tolerance for the residuals resulting from a Sets of Angles calculation for the reduced direction,
vertical angle and slope distance.
Face Differences Hz, V, Slope Dist.:
Define a tolerance for the differences between face I and II resulting from a Sets of Angles calculation for
the direction, vertical angle and slope distance within a single set.
If one of the tolerance values is exceeded a warning message (
the Report.
) is issued in the Sets of Angles Properties and in
If one of the options is de-selected the corresponding values resulting from a calculation will not be checked for
whether the tolerance is exceeded.
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Sets of Angles Properties
Sets of Angles Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display the Sets of Angles properties and to recalculate a Sets of Angles
application stored in the TPS-proc view.
1.
Right-click on a Sets of Angles application in the tree-view or in the corresponding report views and select
Properties... from the context menu.
The following pages will be displayed in the Sets of Angles Properties dialog:
General
Targets
2.
In the General page you can view some general properties and result values. In the Targets page you
can view the results for each target point and recalculate the application.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Sets of Angles Properties: General
This property page enables you to display general information on a Sets of Angles application.
Station Point Id:
Displays the Point Id of the selected station setup. For every point multiple Sets of Angles applications may
be stored.
Date/ Time:
Displays the Date and Time when the Sets of Angles application was created. If the application was
measured using the SmartWorx TPS Sets of Angles application this is the time when the application was
started. For manually created sets of angles this is the time when the application was stored in the office
software.
Instrument Type / SN:
Displays the type of instrument used and its serial number.
Properties
Lists the general Sets of Angles properties. To save or print the properties select Save as... or Print from
the context menu.
The number of sets and the number of target points in each set are displayed. Information on the
accuracies is given for the observations (horizontal angle, vertical angle and slope distance) reduced from
all sets and for single observations.
Recalculation of Sets of Angles:
To recalculate a Sets of Angles application switch to the Targets page, where you can activate or de-activate sets
or target points (for all sets) and recalculate the application.
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Sets of Angles Properties: Targets
This property page enables you to display the observations for each target point (averaged for face I and II and
reduced to the first point) in each set, to activate or de-activate sets or target points (for all sets) and recalculate
the application.
Station Point Id:
Displays the Point Id of the selected station setup.
Target Point Id:
From the combo box select one of the target points included in the Sets of Angles application. The report
view below will change to display the set results for the selected target point. To de-activate a target point
for all sets from the calculation de-select the Activate checkbox. The point will be de-activated in all sets.
Report view
Displays the following results for each set of the selected target point.
Hz, V, Slope Dist.: Observations averaged for face I and face II and reduced to the first point. The
horizontal distance and height difference can be displayed as well.
Residuals Hz, V, Slope Dist.: Difference between the set result and the mean of all sets. If one of the
residuals exceeds the tolerances a warning symbol is displayed for this set.
Face Differences Hz, V, Slope Dist.: Absolute difference between face I and face II for each set. If one of
the face differences exceeds the tolerances a warning symbol is displayed for this set.
To deactivate a complete set de-select the checkbox in the report view for any of the target points. The set
will be de-activated for all target points.
Computed Mean of all Sets:
Displays the current, reduced observations resulting from all sets for the selected target point. The
computed observations will be updated when you press the Recalculate button.
Recalculation of Sets of Angles:
To recalculate the Sets of Angles application proceed as follows:
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1.
Decide if you wish to de-activate a set or target point for all sets. Press Recalculate to display the
updated results.
2.
Leave the property page with OK to store the newly calculated result.
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Graphical Settings
Graphical Settings (TPS-processing)
In the
Setups component the Graphical Settings dialog enables you to configure the map view included in the
New Setup wizard or in the Edit Setup dialog. In the
Traverses component the Graphical Settings dialog
enables you to configure the graphical Traverse View. In the
Sets of Angles component the Graphical
Settings dialog enables you to configure the map view included in the New Sets of Angles wizard.
You may configure which items shall be displayed and select the colors for the graphical elements and the font for
text items.
1.
From the view's background menu (right-click) select Graphical Settings...
2.
In the Graphical settings dialog use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
View
Grid
Color
Font
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Graphical Settings: View
This Property-Page enables you to define which graphical elements shall be displayed in the Traverse View or in
the New Setup/ Edit Setup map views or in the New Sets of Angles map view.
General:
Grid
Check to display a coordinate grid.
Note: To configure the grid see: Grid.
North Arrow
Check
to display an arrow in the upper right corner pointing to the north.
Scale Bar
Check to display a Scale Bar in the lower left corner of the view. The Scale bar will alter its size and
description to suit the scale at which you are zoomed in. Additionally, the scale bar will appear on any
printout that you make, when activated.
Legend
Check
to display a legend listing the point symbols of all possible point classes.
Coordinate Tracking (only available in the Traverse View)
Check to display the mouse coordinates in the Status Line.
Background Image
Check to display the referenced image which has been attached to the project as a background image.
Data:
Point Ids
Check to display the Point Identifications.
Note: To configure the font see: Font.
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Graphical Settings: Color
This Property-Page enables you to set the color of the database items.

In the Color column double-click onto the corresponding color field and select a color from the in-line edit
combo box.
Setup/ Traverse Observations/ Sets of Angles Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the Setup or Traverse measurements or of
the Sets of Angles measurements.
Background
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the view's background.
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Level Processing
Level-Processing
The processing of Level data is fully automated and no user interaction is required.

Level-Proc Tab from within a project window.
The Level Processing may be accessed via the
When the Level Processing View is entered, all jobs contained in the active project are displayed in the Tree-View
on the left-hand side.

Click on the main folder
View.

Click on a

Click on a
line to obtain detailed information on the observations in the booking sheet on the righthand side. A graphical representation of the level line is given in the Level Line view underneath the
booking sheet.
Jobs to display all jobs contained in the project in the right-hand Jobs Report-
job to obtain detailed information on the line(s) in the right-hand Lines Report-View.
Use the different Report Views to start processing on different levels:

To process a specific level line start the processing from within the booking sheet. Right-click in the
booking sheet and select Process from the context-menu. Alternatively, select
Level-Proc main menu or the toolbar.

Process from the
To process several lines in a job in a single processing run select the lines to be processed in the Lines
Report View and start the processing. Right-Click on one of the selected lines and select Process from
the context-menu. Alternatively, select
selected lines will be processed.
Process from the Level-Proc main menu or the toolbar. The
If you select a job in the Tree-View and start the processing then from the main menu all lines contained
in the job will be processed in one run.

To process all lines in several jobs in a single processing run select the jobs to be processed in the
Jobs Report-View and start the processing. Right-click on one of the selected jobs and select Process
from the context menu. Alternatively, select
The selected jobs will be processed.
Process from the Level-proc main menu or the toolbar.
If you select Jobs in the Tree-View and start the processing then from the main menu all lines in all of
the jobs contained in the project will be processed in one run.
After the Level-Processing is completed the results can be viewed and stored in the
Results View.
Select from the list below to learn more about Level-Processing:
Jobs Report View
Lines Report View
Booking sheet
Level Line view
Join or split level lines
De-activate Points and Observations in the Booking Sheet
Modify Point Heights in the Booking Sheet
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Create Control
Level-processing Parameters
Processing Level lines
Results View
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Level-Processing: Jobs Report View
If the
Jobs folder is selected in the Level-Proc Tree-View then on the right-hand side of the Level-Processing
View by default the following items of the Level project are listed:
Job name:
Identification of the job(s) contained in a project.
Operator name:
Identification of the man/ woman who has operated the instrument in the field for that particular job.
Comment 1/2:
Possibly entered annotations as to e.g. bad weather conditions, obstructions in the sight etc.
Date/ Time:
Date of recording the line.
Right-click on the Report-View column headings and select Columns... to configure the visible columns of the Jobs
Report-View.
Possible operations in the Jobs Report View:
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
Select Modify from the context-menu to modify Job Name, Operator Name or the Comments.

Select Delete from the context-menu to delete job(s) from the project.

Right-click and select Processing Parameters... to modify the Level-processing parameters.

If one or more jobs are highlighted and you select Process from the context menu, all lines within all
selected jobs will be automatically processed.
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Level-Processing: Lines Report View
If a job is selected in the Level-Proc Tree-View then on the right hand side of the Level-Processing View by default
the following items of the Job data are listed:
Line Name
Identification of the line(s) contained in a job.
Method
Observation method used with a line. The available methods are:
BF: Backsight - Forsight
BFFB: Backsight - Forsight - Forsight - Backsight
aBF: alternate Backsight - Forsight
aBFFB: alternate Backsight - Forsight - Forsight - Backsight
Staff ID 1/2
Identification of the two staffs that have been used for measuring the level line.
Start Point ID
Point Identification of the start point.
Time
Date of recording the line.
Right-click on the Report-View column headings and select Columns... to configure the visible columns of the Lines
Report-View.
The following additional columns may be displayed:
No. Observations:
Indicates the total number of observations. At each setup at least two observations are taken depending on the
observation mode. For BFFB sequences at least four observations are taken plus possibly repeated
measurements and intermediate sights.
No. Stations:
Indicates the number of setups in the line.
Line Length:
Indicates the length of the line as the sum of the backsight and foresight distances at each station.
Dist. Balance:
Is the difference between the distance to the backsight point and the foresight point.
Total Station Diff.:
Indicates the sum of all station differences as computed at each station in the level line.
Comments:
Possibly entered annotations as to e.g. bad weather conditions, obstructions in the sight etc.
Possible operations in the Lines Report View:

Select Modify from the context-menu to modify Line Name, Staff ID 1/ 2 or the Comments.

Select Delete from the context-menu to delete individual lines. If you delete the last line in a job, the job
will also be deleted.

Right-click and select Join level lines to connect existing level lines.

Right-click and select Processing Parameters... to modify the Level-processing parameters.
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If one or more lines are highlighted and you select Process from the context menu, the selected lines will
be automatically processed.
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Join Level Lines
In the

Level-Processing component you may select separate Level Lines to be joined into one.
Right-click onto a
Level Line in the tree-view or in the Lines Report View and select Join Level Line...
from the context menu.
Alternatively: Right-click into the Booking Sheet of a Level Line to invoke the functionality.
In the Join Level Line dialog:
1.
Select the lines to be joined in the right-hand report view and press
to add each line to the left hand
report view. The right-hand report view offers all lines contained in all jobs for selection. The lines in the
left-hand report view will be joined in the order in which they have been added to the view. The Name of
the New Line will be the same as the name of the line that has first been added to the left-hand view.
Note: You can join two or more lines from the same or from different jobs.
2.
Press OK to join the lines.
Job folder that contained the line which has first
The tree-view changes to show the newly joined line in the
been selected for joining. The lines that have been joined to the first line disappear.
Note: The height difference observations indicating the total height difference of a level line are automatically
updated when joining level lines.
Level Lines may also be split. To split a line:

Right-click on a line in the Booking Sheet indicating the levelled point height and select Split Level Line
from the context menu.
Note: A line may be split on any levelled point in a line.
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Processing Level lines
The computation of level lines is an automated procedure without the need for any user interaction.
To process a Level line:

Click on a

Right-click in the booking sheet and select Process from the context-menu or select
or the Level-Proc main menu.
Level line in the tree-view of the Level-Proc tab to open the booking sheet.
from the Toolbar
When the computation is completed by default the view is switched automatically to the Results View, where the
processing results can be inspected and stored. To change the default behaviour go to Tools - Options - Default
Parameters and change the corresponding setting.
Tip:

Note:
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More than one level line may be processed at a time. You may process several lines in a job, complete
jobs or even several jobs in a project in a single processing run. Select the lines or jobs to be processed
in the Lines Report View or the Jobs Report View. Select Process from the context-menu or from the
Toolbar or the Level-Proc main menu.
If the level line to be processed comprises an invalid Point Id sequence, which does not allow processing,
then that computation run will be cancelled and a warning message will be issued.
To undo a processing run for a special level line right-click in the booking sheet and select Reset Heights
from the context menu.
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Booking Sheet
Level-Processing: Booking sheet
If a Line
is selected in the Level-Processing Tree-View, the Report-View on the right-hand side changes to
display the so-called booking sheet and a corresponding graphical representation of the level line (the so-called
Level Line view). The booking sheet is the electronic representation of the level fieldbook and, therefore, has a lot
of similarities with the classic, hand-written level fieldbook. By default the following items of the level line are listed:
Point Id
Point identification.
Back
Intm.
Backsight staff reading. Depending on the observation method you have one or two backsights for one
instrument setup.
Intermediate staff readings. Next to the level line you might want to take intermediate sights. The heights of
such intermediate points are determined by single, uncontrolled staff readings. Intermediate points are staff
setups which are not part of the line but which are supposed to be read correctly when the line turns out to
be inside the limits set for processing.
Intm. Type
Defines the type of measurement in the Intermediate column. The Intm. Type may be either Intermediate
Measurement, Set out or Measurement only.
Fore
Foresight staff reading. Depending on the observation method you have one or two foresights for one
instrument setup.
Distance
Distance between the level instrument and staff 1/ 2. Ideally the distances should be the same to cancel
errors due to curvature and refraction.
Height
The height of a point as calculated in relation to the Start Height. Control heights are fixed, while measured
heights are adjusted when a level line is processed in LGO.
Point Class
Type and/ or source of a point height. Points may be either of class Measured, Averaged or Control. Note
that only classes Measured and Control are displayed in the booking sheet. Averaged heights are only
shown in the Points View.
Point Subclass
The point subclass supplies additional information relevant to the individual class. Points of class
Measured may have sublass Raw or Processed. Points of class Averaged always have subclass None.
Points of class Control always have subclass Fixed in Height.
Code
This column displays the Thematical code which has been attached to the points.
Comment
For each measurement on the DNA a comment can be recorded. This is normally related to the
measurement. The user can also enter a comment for a measurement in the booking sheet.
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Right-click on the Report-View column headings and select Columns... to configure the visible columns of the
Booking sheet.
The following additional columns may be displayed:
Diff. B1-B2
For BFFB sequence measurements the difference between the first and second backsights is recorded.
Ideally the difference should be 0.
S/O Diff. Hgt
The Set Out Difference in Height is the difference between the height measured and the fixed height (the
height planned).
S/O Diff. Delta Hgt
Is the difference between the measured difference in height and the planned difference in height. (This Diff.
Hgt utilises the Backsight measurement.)
S/O Diff. Dist
Is the difference between the measured distance to a set out point and the planned distance to a setout
point.
Diff. F1-F2
For BFFB sequence measurements the difference between the first and second foresights is recorded.
Ideally the difference should be 0.
Source
Indicates where the measurements came from. Measurements downloaded from the Leica digital levels will
have the source Measured.
Station No.
Indicates at which Station the measurements were taken. Each level line starts at Station 1.
Station Diff.
The station difference is used for BFFB (and aBFFB) sequence measurements. It is the sum of the
differences in the backsights and foresights.
Total Station Diff.
The Total Station Difference is a running total of the Station Differences for every station in the level line up
until that point.
Dist. Balance
The Distance Balance is the difference between the distance to the backsight point and the foresight point.
Total Dist.
The Total Distance is a running total of the Backsight distance and Foresight distance at each station.
Easting
If the Easting has been recorded it can be displayed in the booking sheet.
Northing
If the Northing has been recorded it can be displayed in the booking sheet.
Diff Hgt.
The Height Difference is the difference between the height of the Backsight point and Foresight point of a
setup.
Sequ. Diff. Hgt.
The Sequential Height Difference is the height difference between successive intermediate, set-out or
foresight points of a station, in the order of measurement.
No. Measurements
Is the number of measurements taken by the instrument for that observation. This is displayed for
measurement modes rept. Single, mean, mean+s and median.
Earth curv. corr.
Indicates whether the Earth Curvature Correction has been applied to the observations.
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Int. time
This column shows the integration time for measurements. The NA3003 level has integration times of
2,3,4...9 seconds.
Measure mode
The measure mode indicates how the observations were taken. The DNA series levels have single, repeat
single, mean, mean+s and median measure modes.
Spread
The spread is the difference between the highest and lowest observations in repeat single, mean, mean+s
or median measure modes.
Std. Dev
This column shows the Standard Deviation of an observation recorded in repeat single, mean, mean+s or
median measure mode. To edit one or more Standard Deviations highlight one or more staff reading and
select Edit Standard Deviations... from the context menu.
Std. Dev. Mean
The Standard Deviation Mean is the Mean of all the Standard Deviations calculated in the level line up to
that point. It can be used for finding the average variation in the measurements, rather than the variation for
each observation.
Type
The Type indicates what sort of data the Booking Sheet line contains. Backsight 1, Backsight 2, Foresight 1,
Foresight 2, Intermediate Sight, Measurement Only, Set Out and Point Height can all be displayed in lines
of the booking sheet.
Most of the items in the booking sheet are read-only. The only items which may be modified in the office are:
- the Point Id
- the Height
- the Point Class and Subclass
- the Standard Deviations
- the Comment
In the Booking Sheet it is also possible to split a level line:

Right-click on a line indicating the levelled point height and select Split Level Line from the context menu.
A line may be split on any levelled point in a line, resulting in a new level line stored in the same job.
You can also invoke the functionality to join level lines from the context-menu in the Booking Sheet.
Select from below to learn more about the booking sheet:
De-activate Points and Observations in the Booking Sheet
Modify Point Ids in the Booking Sheet
Modify Point Heights in the Booking Sheet
Edit Level Standard Deviations
Create Control (Level)
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
Join level lines
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Level-processing Parameters
Processing Level lines
Level-Processing: Level Line view
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Level observation techniques
There are four major techniques how level lines may be observed.
Backsight - Foresight (BF):
The pattern for BF measurements is that you have one backsight to the previous point in the level line and one
foresight to the next point in the level line. In between you may have as many intermediate sights as you like. For
the intermediate points as well as for the next point in the level line point heights are calculated and saved together
with the measurements in the GSI or DNA file.
Booking Sheet example (BF):
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Backsight - Foresight - Foresight - Backsight (BFFB):
The pattern for BFFB measurements is that you have first a backsight to the previous point in the level line, then a
foresight to the next point in the level line. After that you make a second foresight to the next point and a final
second backsight to the previous point before you leave the setup. After the first backsight you may have as many
intermediate sights as you like. For the intermediate points as well as for the next point in the level line point
heights are calculated and saved together with the measurements in the GSI or DNA file.
Booking Sheet example (BFFB):
alternate Backsight - Foresight (aBF):
The pattern for aBF measurements is that after you had a backsight to point A and a forsight to point B on the first
setup, you'll have first the forsight to point C and then the backsight to point B on the second setup. On the third
setup you'll first take the backsight to point C again and so on. You alternate the observation sequence from one
setup to the next, i.e. after you observed a BF sequence you always observe an FB sequence next. Doing so you
may reduce errors caused by inaccuracies of the bubble.
Intermediate sights may be taken after each BF/ FB sequence. For the intermediate points as well as for the next
point in the level line point heights are calculated and saved together with the measurements in the GSI or DNA file.
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Booking Sheet example (aBF):
alternate Backsight - Foresight - Foresight - Backsight (aBFFB):
The pattern for aBFFB measurements is that you observe a BFFB sequence on the first setup and an FBBF
sequence on the next setup. The second next observation sequence will be a BFFB again and so on. You
alternate the observation sequence from one setup to the next. Doing so you may reduce errors caused by
inaccuracies of the bubble.
Intermediate sights may be taken after each BFFB/ FBBF sequence. For the intermediate points as well as for the
next point in the level line point heights are calculated and saved together with the measurements in the GSI or
DNA file.
Booking Sheet example (aBFFB):
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Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
The point class describes the type and/or source of a point height. For each point there may exist more than one
height in the LGO database.
The point classes represent the hierarchical order of a point's heights. The Points View displays the currently active
point class for each point. By default the height with the highest class is active.
The point class in the booking sheet is independent of the currently active point class in the Points View. In the
booking sheet the only two point classes to be displayed are Measured and Control. Other classes like for example
Averaged may only be displayed in the Points View.
See also: Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
The point subclass supplies additional information relevant to the individual class. The subclass indicates to the
user the source the height came from.
The following list shows the Point Classes in ascending hierarchical order:
Class Id
Description
Measured
Class of heights that have either been calculated by the Level instrument while the Level
line was measured or that have been processed in LGO.
Measured point heights can be modified in the booking sheet. Accordingly, all measured
heights in the level line will be shifted by the same amount.
Depending on the source of the measured height a point of this class may have the
following subclasses:
- None: if the height is the measured raw height as it has been imported from the level
instrument via Raw Data Import.
- (Level) Processed: if the point has a height resulting from a processing run in LGO.
Note: Measured is the only point class which can comprise more than one height
coordinate. If more than one measured height exists for a point the average will
automatically be calculated. Points with an averaged height coordinate are awarded the
additional class Averaged.
Averaged
Class of points for which more than one height of class Measured exists.
The subclass of Averaged is always None.
Control
To process a level line in LGO at least one point must be of class Control. Control heights
are retained in a processing run. They serve as the basis relative to which all other points
are computed.
By default the first point in a level line will be set to class Control when importing level raw
data. It is assumed that the first point in a line has the known start height.
To change the default and fix point heights manually in the booking sheet select Create
Control from the context-menu.
In level projects the subclass of Control points is Fixed in Height.
Note: When you create a control you may fix the point's height to a different value than
the measured height value. Changing the point height in creating a control does not
simultaneously affect the heights of all other points. Neither the heights of all measured
points in the line nor the heights of other controls will be shifted by the same amount.
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Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
In the booking sheet a point can either have class Measured only or it can have both, class Measured and class
Control. Since the booking sheet represents the classical level fieldbook points cannot be set to class Averaged.
If for a point both, a Measured and a Control height are stored in the database you may decide on which class you
want to have displayed in the booking sheet.

Note:

Right-click on the point class of such a point and select Modify from the context-menu. Alternatively,
double-click on the point class and change the class to be diplayed via inline editing.
Only if the point's class is set to Control, its height will be hold fixed in the next processing run. If class
Measured is active the control height will be ignored in processing
See also:
Create Control (Level)
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
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Create/ Delete Control (Level)
Heights which are meant to be retained in a processing run have to be set to point class Control. For example, the
heights of known points, which you have come across while measuring the level line, may be fixed by setting them
to class Control.
To create a Control highlight the point in the booking sheet and select Create Control from the context-menu. A
control height will be added for that point and its class will change to Control.
When creating a Control its height may either be left identical to the measured height or may be set to a different
value. Changing the point height when creating a Control leaves all other heights in the line unaffected until the
results of the next processing run are stored.
If a Control already exists for a particular point then the Create Control option changes to Delete Control in the
context-menu. This allows you to remove a control height from a point.
Note:

If a point has class Control but is set back to Measured in the booking sheet then the Control will be
ignored in the next processing run. Only if Control is the active class then will the height of that point be
hold fixed in processing.
See also:
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
Modify Point Heights in the Booking Sheet
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Reset Heights
If you have processed a level line and adjusted the heights you may undo the computation run by resetting the
heights.

Right-click into the booking sheet and select Reset Heights from the context-menu. Alternatively, select
Reset Heights from the Level-Proc main menu.
All heights in the line will be reset to those that have been initially imported during Level Raw Data Import. This
means that manually entered Control heights, modified Measured heights as well as processed (adjusted)
heights will be reset.
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Activate/ De-activate Points and Observations in the Booking Sheet
In the booking sheet each measurement and point height has its own check-box for activating or de-activating the
measurement or point height.

Click on a check-box or select Activate/ De-activate from the context menu to activate/ de-activate
individual observations or point heights.
Directly after import all checkboxes are active except for those measurements that have been repeated in the field.
When you de-activate measurements to line points it depends on the observation method how the processing will
react:

If you de-activate a backsight or a foresight to a point in a BF or an aBF level line, then the line will be
broken and all heights following the de-activated observation will not be calculated.
Example:

If you de-activate a backsight and/ or a foresight to a point in a BFFB or an aBFFB level line, then the line
remains unbroken. The station is re-computed using the remaining measurements.
Example:

If you de-activate both backsights or foresights to a point in a BFFB or an aBFFB level line, then the line
is broken and all heights following the de-activated observation will not be calculated.
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Example:
When you de-activate the measurement to an intermediate or a set-out point then that single height will not be
calculated in processing.
Example:
If you de-activate the height of a line point, an intermediate point or a set-out point then the respective height will
not be re-calculated when processed.
Example:
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Modify Point Heights in the Booking Sheet
To modify point heights in the booking sheet double-click on the height and change it via inline editing. Alternatively,
right-click on a point height and select Modify from the context-menu.

If you modify a measured height, then all measured heights in the level line will be shifted by the same
amount.

If you modify a control height, this leaves all other heights in the line unaffected until the results of the
next processing run are stored.
See also:
Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
Create Control (Level)
Reset Heights
Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
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Modify Point Ids in the Booking Sheet
To modify a Point Id in the booking sheet:

Double-click on the Point Id and change it via in-line editing.
Alternatively, right-click on a Point Id and select Modify from the context menu.
The Point Id will be changed for the Foresight, the Point Id Height and the Backsight row in the booking sheet.
Note:

It is not allowed to change via Modify a Point Id to another Point Id for which a level measurement
already exists in the open project. If you wish to re-name a Point Id to an already existing one then you
have to go via the Re-assign Measured triplet functionality, which is available from the booking sheet
context menu.
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Edit Level Standard Deviations
With each level staff reading a standard deviation is stored and can be displayed in the Booking sheet. Editing the
standard deviation will modify the standard deviation of the levelled point height and the standard deviation of the
height difference observation of the total level line.
To modify the standard deviation of level staff readings:

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Highlight one or more lines in the Booking Sheet indicating level height readings and select Edit
Standard Deviations... from the context menu. Enter the value that shall be applied to the selected staff
readings and press OK. The standard deviations for the point height and for the total level line will be
updated.
Standard Deviations for level height readings can also be applied during Level raw data import using the
Import Settings: Standard Deviations.
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Level Line View
Level Processing: Level Line view
The Level Line view is a graphical representation of the data given in the booking sheet. The profile of the selected
level line is visualized, i.e. the rises and falls resulting from calculated point heights. Since the distances between
the instrument setups and the staff setups are known a proportionally correct overview on the line structure may be
provided.
A graphical representation of the backsight and foresight measurements as well as of the instrument and staff
setups may be switched on or off via the Graphical Settings.
Select from below to learn more about the Level Lines view:
Zooming (Level-Processing)
Vertical Exaggeration
Graphical Settings (Level-Processing)
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Zooming (Level-Processing)
The original scale of the graphical view is selected in such a way that all observations belonging to the selected
level line fit into the view.
Via the Zoom functionality different sections of the level line may be enlarged to inspect the details.
To Zoom in:
1.
In the graphical view right-click and select Zoom In from the background menu.
from the Toolbar.
Alternatively: Select
The symbol of the cursor changes to a magnifying glass.
2.
Draw a rectangle around the area you want to enlarge. To do so click the left mouse button and keep it
pressed while positioning the cursor to the lower right-hand-corner of the area you want to enlarge.
The section of the level line within the rectangle will be enlarged to the extent of the graphical view.
To Zoom out:
In the graphical view right-click and select Zoom Out or Zoom 100% from the background menu.
Alternatively: Select
or
from the Toolbar.
The Zoom 100% functionality resizes the view to its original extents in one step.
Note:
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You may change the vertical exaggeration by selecting Vertical Exaggeration... from the background
context menu.
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Vertical Exaggeration
When you open the Level Line view, the profile of the selected level line is exaggerated in height to fit into the size
of the view. You may change the vertical exaggeration by selecting Vertical Exaggeration... from the background
context menu. Enter a new value or move the slider to modify the exaggeration factor for the heights.
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Graphical Settings
Graphical Settings (Level-Processing)
The Graphical settings dialog enables you to configure the Level Lines view. You may configure which items to
display and select the colors of graphical elements and the font for text items.
1.
From the context menu (right-click) or the View main menu select Graphical Settings....
2.
In the Graphical settings dialog use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
View
Grid
Color
Font
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3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to reset the parameters to their default values.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Graphical Settings: View
This Property-Page enables you to define which graphical elements shall be displayed in the Level Lines view.
General:
Grid
Check to display a level profile grid.
Note: To configure the grid see: Grid
Scale Bar
Check to display a Scale Bar in the lower left corner of the screen. The Scale bar will alter its size and
description to suit the scale at which you are zoomed in. Additionally, the scale bar will appear on any
printout that you make, when activated.
Legend
Check
to display a legend listing the point symbols of all possible point classes.
Coordinate Tracking
Check to display the mouse coordinates in the Status Line.
Measurements/ Staves
Check to display the measurements to the levelled points and staff symbols on the levelled points.
Setups
Check
to display the point of the instrument setup.
Data:
Point Ids
Check to display the Point Identifications.
Note: To configure the font see: Font.
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Graphical Settings: Color
This Property-Page enables you to set the color of the database items.

In the Color column double-click onto the corresponding color field and select a color from the in-line edit
combo box.
Measurements
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the levelling measurements (observations).
Level
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Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the levelled heights.
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Level-processing Parameters
Level-processing Parameters
Select the computation parameters before you start your computation. The parameters can be changed individually,
but system default settings are also available for all parameters.
After the computation has been performed the Level-processing Parameter settings used for the particular
computation run are listed in the Results Management and may also be output via the Summary Report.
How to modify Level-processing Parameters
The Level-processing Parameters Property-Sheet consists of the following pages:
Level Line
Observations
Point Heights
Staff Corrections
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Level-processing Parameters: Level Line
Adjustment method
Choose adjustment per station or per distance. In case of adjustment per station the misclosure is equally
divided among all stations. In case of adjustment per distance, the levelling distance is taken into account,
because most systematic errors are proportional with this distance.
Misclosure E
The Misclosure tolerance of a Level line is defined as E = a+b*sqrt(L). This formula contains the two
constants a and b and L, the sum of the backsight and foresight distances. The sum of the backsight and
foresight distances is averaged when measuring in the BFFB levelling sequence. a and b are empirically
derived factors. a is the factor relating to the instrument (usually 0.002) while the b constant is a factor for
each particular class of levelling.
1st order levelling b = 0.005
2nd order levelling b = 0.008
3rd order levelling b = 0.012
If the processing formula E = b sqrt(L) is required a 0.000 value can be entered in the Misclosure's a field. If
one or more distances are missing in a level line, the misclosure tolerance is reduced to E = a.
Height error per station
The maximum Height error per station is equal to the Misclosure tolerance E divided by the number of
stations.
Distance balance
The total Distance balance is defined as the sum of all backsight distances minus the sum of all foresight
distances.
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Level-processing Parameters: Observations
Double observation check
The Double observation check can only be applied when using a BFFB levelling sequence. BFFB levelling
sequences imply that on each station four measurements are done: backsight (B1), foresight (F1), again
foresight (F2) and again backsight (B2). The difference between the two backsights (B1-B2) and the
difference between the two foresights (F1-F2) ought to be lower than the Double observation check. In an
ideal situation these differences are zero.
Station difference
Like the Double observation check, the Station difference is also only determined in case of BFFB levelling
sequences. The two height differences, (B1-F1) and (B2-F2), which can be calculated from the
measurements ought to be the same in an ideal situation and therefore should not differ more than the
Station difference tolerance.
Max. sight distance
The Maximum sight distance of fore- and backsights is set to restrict errors which increase with the
distance.
Min. ground clearance
The Minimum ground clearance is the minimum staff reading to prevent errors due to lines of sight being
close to the ground.
Stakeout difference
The Stakeout difference is the difference between the observed height and its fixed height. In an ideal
situation this difference is zero.
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Level-processing Parameters: Point Heights
Height spread
The Height spread tolerance is the maximum variation of the heights within a level line. It is the difference
between the smallest and the largest height.
Maximum difference from fixed height
To restrict the difference of a calculated height from observations and any fixed hight for a point, the
'Maximum difference from fixed height' tolerance is set.
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Level-processing Parameters: Staff Corrections
Staff Corrections:
If this option is checked
in processing:
the following correction formula is applied to staff readings before they are used
with:
L
=
corrected staff reading (in metres)
L'
=
measured staff reading (in metres)

=
expansion coefficient (ppm/ C°)
T
=
temperature (C°)
To
=
calibration temperature (20 C°)
Expansion coefficient:
The expansion coefficient is the  value in the formula. This value varies depending on the type of staff
used. Typical expansion coefficients are:
Invar
< 1 ppm/ C°
Dry Wood
5 ppm/ C°
Fibreglass
< 10 ppm/ C°
Aluminium
24 ppm/ C°
Temperature during Measurement:
The temperature during measurement is the T value in the formula. Enter the actual temperature
determined while you were observing the level line to be processed.
Calibration Temperature:
The calibration temperature To is the temperature that the staff is calibrated for. This will normally be 20C°.
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Modify Level-processing Parameters
1.
2.
From the context menu (right-click) select Processing Parameters.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
Level Line
Observations
Point Heights
Staff Corrections
Change the default Processing settings under Tools – Options.
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Note:
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If you intend to modify the default values, you may do so under Tools - Options - Default Parameters.
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Adjustment
Adjustment
Adjustment is an optional component in LGO and Flex Office. It enables you to perform the following tasks:

Network simulations based upon default observation precisions to find out how good the design of your
network is before you measure. Details on selecting and using the design capabilities are given in Using
the Design capabilities.

Network adjustment of GPS baselines and terrestrial data (directions, distances, zenith angles, azimuths
and height differences) and detection of outliers within the network.
The Adjustment component uses observations and point coordinates within a project database. Refer to Raw Data
Import on how to import raw data to a project.
GPS baseline information may also be imported via ASCII files. Additionally, observations may be imported by
using the Drag and Drop capability.
If a Coordinate System is attached to a Project or if WGS84 and Local coordinates are stored in your project, you
may switch the view to display either WGS84 coordinates or Local coordinates. The coordinate type is fixed to
WGS84 Geodetic or Local Grid in the graphical views.
To comfortably navigate within the view Panning is, by default, switched on. The Scroll to selected point tool makes
it easy to focus on a special point. To enlarge or reduce the view make use of the Zoom functionality.

The adjustment component may be accessed via the
Adjustment Tab from within a Project window.
Select from the list below to learn more about Adjustment:
New
Activate / De-activate
Delete
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Zoom 100%
Panning
General Parameters
Pre-analysis
Compute Network
Compute Loops
Store
Results
Observations View
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Graphical settings
Point Properties
Observation Properties
All about Adjustment - This topic offers basic ideas, mathematical concepts and stochastic models used in least
squares adjustment.
Note on adjusting GPS and Terrestrial measurements - This topic offers steps to follow in computing least squares
adjustments containing GPS and Terrestrial measurements.
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Panning
Panning is a feature of most of the graphical views inside LGO. It allows you to comfortably move a view without
having to scroll left and right and up and down.

Click with the left mouse button into a graphical view (the cursor changes into a 'hand') and keep it
pressed to move the displayed area into any direction.
The Pan mode is by default switched on.

To switch the Panning functionality off click the corresponding toolbar button
from the view's background menu.

To temporarily switch off the Panning mode keep the Shift-key pressed.
or de-select Panning
To select a series of points and/ or observations while Panning is switched on:

Keep the Shift-key pressed to drag a rectangle around the items you want to select.
Keep the Shift-key or the Ctrl-key pressed to select individual items or draw separate rectangles around
several groups of items.
To 'Drag and Drop' data items while Panning is switched on:

Note:

Keep the Shift-key pressed while dragging and dropping (copying and pasting) data items according to
the rules given in the corresponding topic.
Panning is also available in the graphical views inside Wizards. In Wizards the Panning functionality is by
default switched off.
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Zoom In
1.
In the graphical view select Zoom In either from the context-menu (right-click in the background of the
view) or from the View main menu, or click the
a magnifying glass.
2.
-button in the Toolbar. The cursor's shape switches to
Take that cursor and click with the left mouse button into the view's background. The area around the
cursor will be enlarged and centered.
or
Take that cursor, click with the left mouse button into the view's background and keep the mouse button
pressed while dragging a rectangle to the lower right-hand-corner of the area you want to enlarge. The
content of the rectangle will be enlarged.
3.
Use the arrow keys from your keyboard to navigate left, right, up or down, or use the scroll bars on the left
and bottom of the graphical window.
Alternatively:
 Use the “+” -key on your keyboard to enlarge the view.
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Zoom Out
1.
In the graphical view select Zoom Out either from the context-menu (right-click in the background of the
view) or from the View main menu, or click the
a magnifying glass.
2.
-button in the Toolbar. The cursor's shape switches to
Take that cursor and click with the left mouse button into the view's background. The area around the
cursor will be reduced and centered.
Alternatively:
 Use the “-” -key from your keyboard to reduce the view.
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Zoom 100%

In the graphical view select Zoom 100% either from the context-menu (right-click in the background of
the view) or from the View main menu, or click the
-button in the Toolbar. The view will be zoomed to
the extent needed for fitting all points and baselines as well as kinematic chains exactly into the graphical
window.
Alternatively:
 Press <Home> on the keyboard to zoom to complete extent including kinematic chains.
Tip:
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
Press <Ctrl><Home> on the keyboard to zoom to the extents of points only.

Use the arrow keys from your keyboard to navigate left, right, up or down.
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Points and Observations
New: Point, Setup, Observation (Adjustment)
This command allows you to create new Points, Setups or Observations.
An instrument Setup describes the type of Instrument that was used on a particular point and the centring / height
errors. Setups of type GPS, TPS, Azimuth or Level can be created. In case of a TPS setup, the instrument height
may be entered.
An Observation describes the type and the actual value(s) of the measurement, the standard deviation of the
measurement and the centring / height errors of the target point.
Note:


A Setup can only be created for existing points.
An Observation between two points can only be created if an instrument Setup for the start / reference
point is defined.
Select from the list below to learn more about the New command:
New Point
New Setup
New Observation
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New Point (graphical views)
Allows you to graphically or manually add a new point to the database.
Tip:
1.
Right-click in the place within the background of the graphical window where you want to create a new
point and select New Point.
2.
Enter Point Id.
3.
Optionally, adapt the parameters and/or the coordinates of the point.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.

Click Apply instead of OK if you want to manually enter a series of points.

You can also create a new 2D point by double-clicking in the graphical window. The coordinate class
Estimated and a Point Id (New Point 1, New Point 2...) will be assigned automatically.
Note:
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If the location of the new point is selected graphically using the mouse, the accuracy of the coordinates
depends on the resolution of your computer’s screen as well as on the size of the area being displayed
(zoom status).
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New Setup
Enables you to add a new Instrument Setup to a point. A Setup describes the type of Instrument that was used on
a particular point. Thus, with GPS measurements a Setup will be where a GPS reference station was situated, with
TPS measurements it will be where the instrument was situated and with Level measurements it will be where the
level line started.
The centring / height errors may be entered. With TPS Setups the instrument height may be entered additionally.
1.
Right-click on a point and select New and Setup.
2.
From the list box Type choose one of the following:
- GPS
- TPS
- Azimuth or
- Level
3.
In case of TPS enter the Instrument Height.
4.
Modify the default Centring and Height error if necessary (not available for Level Setups).
Note: The default values may be set via Configuration General Adjustment: Centring / Height.
5.
Note:

Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
A Setup can only be created for existing points. A Setup on the reference (start) point needs to be defined
before a new observation from this point can be created.

When a GPS Setup is selected, the instrument height may not be edited. This is due to the fact that the
Adjustment does not obtain this information from LGO and a change in instrument height would require
re-processing the GPS baselines.

With a TPS Setup, all categories are available for editing. From manually created TPS setups new TPS
Setup applications can be created in the TPS-Proc View.

With an Azimuth Setup only the centring error may be edited. This is because there is no height
information and only horizontal angles are of concern.

With a Level Setup centering and height errors do not show up.
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New Observation
Enables you to define a new observation between two existing points. New observations can only be defined in the
Adjustment component.
1.
Right-click on a point you want to use as the reference (start) point and select New and Observation.
2.
Click on the target (end) point.
Note: If more than one type of setup exists for the selected start point, select the required observation
type (e.g. GPS, TPS) from the list box.
3.
Enter the observation values, the centring and height errors for the target point and the absolute plus
relative estimates or the elements of the Qxx matrix.
Note: This page does not pop up if the Data Creation Parameters: Observation are set to not Show
details on creation and if only one type of setup exists.
4.
Note:
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Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Before you are able to create an observation between two existing points a Setup has to be defined for
the reference (start) point.
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Point Properties
Point Properties (graphical views)
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the Point Properties.
1.
In the Graphical-View right-click on a Point and select Properties.
Alternatively: Double-click on a Point.
2.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Stochastics
Setup
Thematical Data
Reliability (available only if the reliability has been previously calculated using the Adjustment component)
Mean (available only if more than one coordinate triplet of class Measured for a particular point exists)
Images (available only if at least one image is linked to the selected point)
Hidden Point functionality is only available for GPS measurements. Hidden Point Properties can only
be displayed in the View/ Edit component or in the Points View:
Hidden Point (Position) (available only if the selected point is a Hidden Point)
Hidden Point (Height) (available only if the Hidden Point has height properties attached)
3.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields with a white background may be edited at that particular instant.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
Alternatively:

Select a Point from the List-box
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and press Edit selected Point
from the Toolbar.
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Point Properties: Setup
Enables you to display/edit the instrument Setup of a point. A Setup describes the type of Instrument that was used
on a particular point. Thus a Setup in the case of GPS will be where a GPS reference station was situated, in the
case of terrestrial measurements it will be where the instrument was situated.
List box
Displays the Date/Time the setup was created, the Type of setup and the Point Id. If more than one Setup
for a particular point exists, select from the list.
Setup type:
The setup type is displayed but can not be changed via Point Properties.
Instrument height:
If the setup type is TPS you may change the instrument height.
For SmartWorx TPS setups the following changes are applied when changing the Instrument height:
If the instrument height was used in the field to calculate the height of the target points (Set Orientation,
Known Backsight), then a change in the instrument height will automatically modify the heights of all
connected target points by the same amount.
For the Resection methods and the methods Multiple Backsights and Height Transfer a change in the
instrument height only modifies the height of the setup, but not the heights of the connected target points,
unless the height of the setup was excluded from the setup calculation.
If the setup was not imported from SmartWorx raw data (but using GSI or TDS raw data import or if it was
manually entered), then a change of the Instrument height will always modify all connected target points.
Centring error:
The centring error defines the predicted error that could have been made when centring the instrument
(reference) over the point.
Height error:
The Height error defines the predicted error when measuring the instrument (reference) height.
Active:
You may deactivate the setup by clearing the Active check box. This will remove the setup and any
associated observations from the adjustment computation.
Note:
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When a GPS setup is selected, the instrument height may not be edited. This is due to the fact that the
Adjustment does not obtain this information from LGO and a change in instrument height would require a
re-computation of the GPS baselines.

With a TPS Setup, all categories are available for editing.

With an Azimuth Setup only the centring error may be edited. This is because there is no height
information and only horizontal angles are of concern.
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Observation Properties
Observation Properties
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the observation properties.
1.
Right-click on an observation in the graphical view and select Properties.
One or more of the following Property-Pages will be displayed:
GPS - GPS Baseline information
RTK Info - Info on the used reference station network
TPS - TPS angle and distance measurements
Azimuth - Horizontal angle reading from theodolite or compass
Level - Height difference observation.
2.
Make your changes
Note: Only the fields having a white background may be edited at the particular instant. Measurements
are only editable if the observation has been manually entered.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Observation Properties: GPS
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit GPS observations.
List box
Displays the Date/Time the observation was created, the Reference Id (From) and the Rover Id (To).
Select from the list, if more than one observation exists.
Active:
You may deactivate the observation by clearing the check box. This will ignore the observation for the
adjustment computation.
Centring Error:
The centring error defines the predicted error that could have been made when centring the target (rover)
over the point.
Hgt. Error:
The Height error defines the predicted error when measuring the target (rover) height.
Target Hgt:
The target height 0.000 is displayed and may not be edited. This is because the Adjustment does not obtain
this information from LGO and a change in height would require a re-computation of the GPS baselines.
Baseline Vector:
The three baseline components DX, DY, and DZ of the observation data are displayed.
Note: The baseline components may only be edited if they have been created manually by using the New
Observation command.
Use covariance matrix:
Use absolute plus relative estimates:
Allows to select the weighting scheme and edit the values. The weighting scheme used will depend on
where the GPS observation data has come from. GPS observations from baseline processing, imported
from other projects or imported as a SKI Baseline Vector ASCII file will use the covariance matrix by default.
If instead of this you wish to use the absolute plus relative estimates, you may do so here. GPS
Observations that have been created manually will most likely have an absolute and a relative estimate.
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Observation Properties: RTK Info
This Property-page displays information on the real-time solution either computed with the differential correction
data received from a single base reference station or by making use of a reference station network via a server. It
is only displayed if the observation has been calculated using RTK.
List box
Displays the Date/Time when the observation was created, the Reference Id (From) and the Rover Id (To).
Select from the list, if more than one observation exists.
Solution type:
There are two different solution types when RTK is used to compute a Rover position: Network and Single
baseline.
A Network solution always includes the data from more than one reference station to compute corrections.
The network consist of cells each of which is made up of at least three reference stations.
Network type:
Lists the kind of solution used within a reference station network. Available are FKP, VRS, i-Max, Max and
Nearest as different kinds of a network solution.
If Nearest is shown this indicates that a single base solution has been computed from within the network.
RTK data format:
Lists the format of the transmitted correctional data. Available are:
- Leica 4G, - Leica
- RTCM v3
- CMR/CMR+
- RTCM 1,2 v2, - RTCM 9,2 v2, - RTCM 18,19 v2, - RTCM 20,21 v2
- SBAS
No. of ref. stations used:
If Network Type Max has been used then the number of reference stations that have been used to
compute the corrections for a rover position are listed here.
Mountpoint:
A Mountpoint is an identification name from which real-time corrections are to be received.
Network operator:
Lists the operator of the used reference station network.
IP address/ Port:
To get access to an NTRIP server its IP address and Port have to be known. Both are listed here.
GPUID:
GPUID is a user authentication at a server via NMEA.
Rover inside of network:
Indicates whether the rover has been inside the network cell used for computing the correction data and
which level of accuracy can be expected accordingly. If the rover is inside the cell the correction data can
be interpolated best. If the rover is outside the cell the accuracy of the rover position is diminished.
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Observation Properties: TPS
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit TPS observations.
List box
Displays the Date/Time the observation was created, the Setup Id (From) and the Target Id (To). Select
from the list, if more than one observation exists.
Active:
You may deactivate the observation by clearing the check box. This will ignore the observation for the
adjustment computation.
Centring Error:
The centring error defines the predicted error that could have been made when centring the target over the
point.
Hgt. Error:
The Height error defines the predicted error when measuring the target height.
Target Hgt:
The target height is displayed and may be edited.
When changing the target height the height of the measured target coordinates will be shifted by the same
amount.
TPS Observation:
The direction, distance and zenith angle are displayed and may be de-activated. De-activated
observations are not used in an Adjustment calculation. The TPS observations (direction, distance and
zenith angle) can only be edited for manually entered observations.
Standard deviations: The absolute and relative standard deviations can be edited for all TPS observations.
Reflector type:
The reflector type for the selected observation is displayed and may be changed. The Add. Const. for the
selected reflector type is displayed next to the reflector type.
All default reflector types are available in the list and can be selected together with their additional
constants.

To add a new reflector type right-click into the Reflector type combo box and select New.
You can then enter a name and edit the additional constant for this reflector type. Changing the
Add. Const. modifies the measured slope distance and the target point of the observation.
Manually entered reflector types will be available for all observations of the selected project.

To delete one or all user-defined reflector types right-click into the combo box and select Delete or
Delete All.
Offsets:
The offsets of the selected observation (in Length and/ or Cross and/or Height) are displayed and may be
changed. Changing the Offsets modifies the measured TPS observation(s) and the target point of the
observation.
Note:
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Modifying Target heights and Reflector types is not allowed if the observation is used in a Resection or
Multiple Backsights setup application. You can modify these items in the corresponding Setup
Properties: Observations page, which enforces a re-calculation of the setup. Modifying Offsets is only
allowed for Survey Observations.
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
You can change the target height, the reflector type or the offsets simultaneously for more than one
observation in the Observations View or in the Survey Observations report view in the TPS-Proc tabbed
view.
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Observation Properties: Azimuth
The Setup point and Target point are displayed. The centring error may be edited if required.
The observation data is displayed below this in the Observations box. The Azimuth together with its standard
deviation is displayed and is available for editing if required.
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Observation Properties: Level
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit height difference observations.
List box
Displays the Date/Time the observation was created, the Start Point Id (From) and the End Point Id (To) of
the level line. Select from the list, if more than one observation exists.
Active:
You may deactivate the observation by clearing the check box. The observation will be ignored in the
adjustment computation.
Height Difference Observation:
The Height difference together with its Absolute Standard Deviation and the Distance levelled are
displayed. The values can only be edited for manually entered height difference observations.
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Observations View
The Observation View gives you an overview on all observations (GPS, TPS, Level and Azimuth observations)
contained in a project. It is available in the Adjustment and in the View/ Edit graphical views.
To invoke the Observation view:

Right-click in the background of the
Adjustment or the
View/ Edit graphical view and select View
Observations... from the background context menu or from the main menu.
The Observations view opens up in a stand-alone floating window. It's a two-pane view offering a tree view on the
left-hand side and a corresponding report view on the right-hand side.
You may select from two different tree-views.
The From tab lists all points (GPS, TPS, Level and/ or Azimuth setups) in a project from which observations have
been made to several target points. Depending on the kind of setups contained in the project the corresponding
report view offers up to four different tabs (GPS, TPS, Level and/ or Azimuth) each listing the observation
properties for each target point that has been measured from the selected setup.
The To tab lists all target points contained in a project. Depending on the kind of setups (GPS, TPS, Level or
Azimuth) from which the target points have been measured the corresponding report view offers up to four different
tabs (GPS, TPS, Level and/ or Azimuth) each listing the observation properties for each setup from which the
selected target point has been measured.
Example:
The report views offer the following functionality:

Select Properties... from the context menu to display the observation properties of the selected
observation. For details see:
Observation Properties: GPS
Observation Properties: TPS
Observation Properties: Level
Observation Properties: Azimuth
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Observation Properties: RTK Info

Select Zoom to Observation from the context menu to zoom the graphical view to the extents of the
selected observation(s).

To delete one or more observations select the observations to be deleted and select Delete from the
context menu.

In the TPS observation tab you can modify the target height, the reflector type, the offsets and the
geometrical or the atmospherical ppm simultaneously for more than one observation. Select the
observations and choose Edit Target Height... or Edit Reflector Type... or Edit Offsets... or Edit
geometrical PPM... or Edit atmospherical PPM...from the context menu.
For single observations the target height, the reflector type or the offsets may also by modified via the inline edit functionality. Select the observation and right-click onto the item to be changed in its respective
column. From the context menu select Modify.... Alternatively, double-click slowly onto the item to be
changed to open the in-line edit field.
Modifying the target heights updates the measured point coordinates. Modifying reflector types updates
the slope distances and the measured point coordinates. Modifying offsets updates the measured TPS
observation(s) and the measured point coordinates. Modifying the geometrical ppm updates the
horizontal distances and the measured point coordinates. Modifying the atmospherical ppm updates the
original slope distance and the measured point coordinates.
Note: Modifying target heights, reflector types or geometrical ppm values is not allowed if the observation
is used in a 'Resection' or 'Multiple Backsights' setup application. You can modify target heights or
reflector types in the corresponding Setup Properties: Observations page, which enforces a re-calculation
of the setup. Modifying offsets is only allowed for Survey Observations.

In the TPS and in the GPS observation tab you can modify the target/ rover point codes for one or more
points simultaneously.
The thematical code of a single target/ rover point may be modified via the in-line edit functionality. Select
the observation and right-click onto Code column. From the context menu select Modify.... Alternatively,
double-click slowly onto the code to be changed to open the in-line edit field. All point codes that are
available in the Codelist of the active project will be offered for selection.
To modify the thematical code for more than one target/ rover point at once select the set of points to be
modified, right-click into the selection and select Edit Target Point Code.../ Edit Rover Point Code...
from the context menu. Again all point codes that are available in the Codelist of the active project will be
offered for selection.
Note: Attribute values which might have been defined for the selected Target/ Rover point(s) are removed
when changing the code. They would have to be re-defined for each target/ rover point in the Point
Properties: Thematical data dialog page if desired.
Note:

When you select a setup/ target point in one of the tree views the point will simultaneously be selected in
the Select point combo box of the Scroll&Query toolbar.
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Activate / De-activate Points, Setups and Observations (graphical views)
Allows you to activate or de-activate points, setups and/or observations. If a point, a setup or an observation is
deactivated it is still visible on the screen and stored in the database.
See Graphical Settings: Color to set the color for de-activated points and observations.
Activate:

Highlight a de-activated point/ setup or observation and select Activate from the context menu or from the
main menu.
or
Select a series of de-activated points/ setups or observations and select Activate and then either Points/
Setups or Observations.
De-activate:

Highlight a point/ setup or observation and select De-activate from the context menu or from the main
menu.
or
Select a series of points/ setups or observations and select De-activate and then either Points/ Setups
or Observations.
Note:
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If more than one setup or observation exists for a point or between two points then the single setups and
observations may be activated or deactivated via the corresponding property pages.

Deactivated points, setups or observations will not be used in the optional Adjustment component.

Observations connected to deactivated points will not be displayed.

Deactivated points can be ignored in ASCII Export.
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Delete: Point, Setup, Observation
You may delete Points, Triplets, Setups and/or Observations from the database.
Select from the list below to learn more about the Delete command:
Delete Points/ Triplets
Delete Setups
Delete Observations
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Delete Points/ Triplets (graphical views)
Enables you to delete all or individual coordinate class triplets of a Point.
To delete a point:
1.
Highlight a point and select Delete and then Point from the context-menu or from the View/ Edit or
Adjustment main menu.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:

If you delete a Point, all coordinate triplets and all associated data including raw data will be deleted
permanently from the database.
To delete point triplets:
To delete a particular coordinate class (coordinate triplet) of one or a series of points, highlight the point(s)
to be deleted, and select Delete and then Triplets from the context menu or the View/ Edit or
Adjustment main menu and select an individual class from the list.
Note:

Tip:
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If you delete the only coordinate triplet that exists for a point, the entire point will be deleted from the
database.

If you delete the Averaged point triplet, all Measured triplets will be deleted as well.

If you select a series of Points all of them can be deleted at once. To select all points you may also press
Ctrl-A on the keyboard.
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Delete Setups
Enables you to delete Point Setups in the View/ Edit and in the Adjustment component.
1.
Highlight a point, select Delete and then Setup from the context menu or from the View/Edit or
Adjustment main menu.
Note: If more than one Setup exists, you will be prompted.
Tip:
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.

If you select a series of Setups (points) all of them can be deleted at once.

If a Setup is deleted in View/Edit or in the Adjustment view, all observations associated with that setup
will be deleted also.

Setup Applications stored in the TPS-Proc view can be deleted via the context menu of the TPS-Proc
view. The observations included in the Setup Application to be deleted will be kept.
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Delete Observations
Enables you to delete observations from the database. An observation may be a processed baseline or a manually
entered terrestrial observation from the Adjustment component.
1.
Highlight an observation and select Delete and then Observation from the context menu or from the
View/Edit or Adjustment main menu.
Note: If more than one Observation exists, you will be prompted.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Tip/Note:
 GPS raw data are NOT deleted if you delete a baseline.
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
If you select a series observations all of them can be deleted at once.

If you want to delete an observation (baseline) that consists of more than one track, a dialog box appears
allowing you to select individual tracks.
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Pre-analysis
The Pre-analysis computation is used for checking the network prior to the adjustment. Quality control checks as
well as mathematical checks on the data are carried out.

Right-click and select Pre-analysis from the context-menu. This functionality can only be selected, if under
Graphical Settings – View either GPS or TPS or Azimuth or Level or a combination of these
four observation types has been ticked. De-activated observations do not take part in the Pre-analysis
computation either.
The computation is performed using the MOVE3 Adjustment kernel licensed to LEICA Geosystems AG by Grontmij
Geo Informatie, bv, Rosendaal, The Netherlands. For detailed information refer to: www.move3.com.
The results of the Pre-analysis computation are contained in the Pre-analysis Report.
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Compute Network
The network computation performs either the adjustment computation or the design simulation, depending on the
parameters set under General Parameters: Control.

toolbar button. In both cases
Right-click and select Compute from the context-menu or click the
Compute can only be selected, if under Graphical Settings – View either GPS or TPS or Azimuth
or Level or a combination of these observation types has been ticked. De-activated observations do
not take part in the Adjustment computation either.
The computation is performed using the MOVE3 Adjustment kernel licensed to LEICA Geosystems AG by Grontmij
Geo Informatie, bv, Rosendaal, The Netherlands. For detailed information refer to: www.move3.com.
The results of the network computation are contained in the Network Report.
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Compute Loops
Of all the possible loops you might determine in a network some are redundant because they comprise of two or
more smaller loops. The Loops functionality is used for the automatic computation of network loops and loop
misclosures. It detects the complete set of the shortest loops, i.e. any other loop can be constituted from a
combination of the loops found. The shortest loop is the one with the minimum number of sides. The calculated
closing errors are tested using the W-Test. Note that the routine does not use approximate and known coordinates,
and does not necessarily use all observations.

Right-click in the Adjustment View and select Compute Loops from the context-menu. Alternatively,
select Compute Loops from the Adjustment main menu.
The computation is performed using the MOVE3 Adjustment kernel licensed to LEICA Geosystems AG by Grontmij
Geo Informatie, bv, Rosendaal, The Netherlands. For detailed information refer to: www.move3.com.
The computation results are stored in the Loops Report and can be viewed via the Results - Loops entry in the
Adjustment main menu. The loops and closing errors are listed per loop type as described below.
The following types of loops can be detected in a network:
1.
GPS baseline loops
In a GPS baseline loop the three sums of all coordinate differences DX, DY and DZ yield closing errors in
X, Y and Z.
2.
Direction & distance loops
In a direction & distance loop the sum of the angles in the loop should be a multiple of 200 gon or 180 deg.
The remainder is the angular closing error. The closing errors in X (local Easting) and Y (local Northing)
are computed in a local XY system, with the positive Y axis parallel to the first side of the loop, and the X
axis perpendicular to it.
Note: If the two directions of one angle in a loop are not from the same setup, the angular closing error
cannot be computed. The closing errors in X and Y however can still be computed by starting at the point
with the missing angle. If two or more angles are missing no closing errors can be computed.
3.
Zenith angle & distance loops
In a zenith angle & distance loop the sum of the derived trigonometric height differences also yields a
closing error in height.
4.
Height difference loops
In a height difference loop the sum of all height differences equals the closing error in height.
Loops formed with combinations of these types are not considered.
Instrument heights (loop types 3 and 4), scale factors (loop types 2 and 4) and vertical refraction coefficients (loop
types 2 and 4) are accounted for.
According to the Dimension set under General Adjustment Parameters: Control the computation will be based
upon 3D, 2D or1D measurements.
- If the Dimension is set to 3D then all types of loops will be considered in the computation.
- If the Dimension is set to 2D then only types 1 and 2 will be considered in the computation.
- If the Dimension is set to 1D then only types 3 and 4 will be considered in the computation.
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Note:

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The Compute Loops functionality is an automated process. GPS baseline loops may also be computed
manually in View/ Edit via the Loop Misclosure functionality. The Compute Loops functionality as
integrated into the Adjustment component is always applied to the unadjusted network and may be used
independent of the protected Adjustment component.
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Graphical Settings
Graphical Settings (Adjustment)
The Graphical Settings Property-Sheet enables you to configure the graphical view. You may configure which
items to display, select the colors of graphical elements and the font for text items.
1.
From the context menu (right-click) or the View main menu select Graphical Settings...
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
View
Accuracy
Grid
Color
Font
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a
page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Graphical Settings: View
This Property-Page enables you to define which graphical elements shall be displayed.
General:
Grid
Check to display a coordinate grid.
Note: To Configure the grid see: Grid.
North Arrow
Check
to display an arrow in the upper right corner pointing to the north.
Scale Bar
Check to display a Scale Bar in the lower left corner of the screen. The Scale bar will alter its size and
description to suit the scale at which you are zoomed in at. Additionally, the scale bar will appear on any
printout that you make, when activated.
Legend
Check
to display a legend listing the point symbols of all possible point classes.
Coordinate Tracking
Check to display the mouse coordinates in the Status Line.
CAD files
Check to display the CAD files which have been attached to the project and have been activated in the
Project Properties: CAD files dialog page.
Data:
Point Ids
Check to display the Point Identifications
Note: To configure the font see: Font. To configure the color see: Color.
Height Value
Check to display the Height Values. If the view is configured to display local grid coordinates either the
orthometric or the ellipsoidal height value is displayed depending on the choice you made in the ToolsOptions: Units/ Display dialog page.
Note: Only if the requested height mode is available will a height value be displayed. And height values are
True Type font. To configure the font see: Font.
only displayed if the font for Point Id is a
Thematical Codes
Check to display the Thematical Code
Note: Thematical Code values are only displayed if the font for Point Id is a
the font see: Font.
True Type font. To configure
Abs. Error Ellipses
Check to display the point accuracy indicators. The point accuracy is represented by the corresponding
error ellipse (which represents the two-dimensional 1-sigma confidence region of the point) and the
standard deviation of the height (1-sigma confidence region).
Note: To configure scale and color of the accuracy indicators see: Accuracy.
Rel. Error Ellipses
Check to display the observation accuracy indicators. The observation accuracy is represented by the
corresponding error ellipse (which represents the two-dimensional 1-sigma confidence region of the
observation) and the standard deviation of the height difference(1-sigma confidence region).
Reliability
Check to display the point reliability indicators. The point reliability is represented by the corresponding
rectangle (which represents the two-dimensional reliability of the point coordinates) and a vertical bar
(which represents reliability of the height)
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GPS Observations
Check to display the GPS baseline vectors
Note: To configure the color of the baseline vectors see: Color.
TPS Observations
Check to display the TPS (direction and distance) measurements
Note: To configure the color of the TPS observations see: Color.
Azimuth Observations
Check to display the Azimuth measurements
Note: To configure the color of the Azimuth observations see: Color.
Level Observations
Check to display the height difference observations
Note: To configure the color of the Level observations see: Color.
Avg. Limit exceeded
Check to display a hatched rectangle for points containing measured coordinate triplets that exceed the
averaging limit.
Note:

Those observation types (GPS, TPS, Azimuth and Level) which are switched off will also not be used in
the adjustment.
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Graphical Settings: Accuracy
This Property-Page enables you to set the scale and color of the point accuracy indicators.
The point accuracy is represented by the corresponding error ellipse (which represents the two-dimensional 1sigma confidence region of the point) and the standard deviation of the height (1-sigma confidence region).
Abs. Error Ellipses
Enter a value between 0.00001 – 1 to set the scale of the point accuracy indicators.
Select a color from the combo box.
Rel. Error Ellipses
Enter a value between 0.00001 – 1 to set the scale of the observation accuracy indicators.
Select a color from the combo box.
Reliability
Enter a value between 0.00001 – 1 to set the scale of the point reliability accuracy indicators.
Select a color from the combo box.
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Graphical Settings: Grid
This Property-Page enables you to set the interval, style and color of the coordinate grid.
Type
Select Automatic. Depending on the zoom status of the view a suitable grid spacing will be chosen
automatically.
Select Geodetic and enter the grid spacing in degrees.
Select Grid and enter the grid spacing in linear units.
Grid style
Select between Cross and Full to display cross symbols or full gridlines.
Line style
Select a line style from the list if full gridlines are displayed.
Color
Note:

Select a color from the combo box.
For the Level Lines view, for the TPS-Proc Traverse view, for the Cogo Map view and for the
Surfaces 2D view only the Grid Type Automatic is available.
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Graphical Settings: Color
This Property-Page enables you to set the color of the database items.

In the Color column double-click onto the corresponding color field and select a color from the in-line edit
combo box.
Selected Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of selected point symbols and observations.
De-activated Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color for de-activated point symbols and
observations.
Point Symbols
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the point symbols.
GPS Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the GPS baselines.
TPS Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the TPS measurements.
Setup/ Traverse Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the Setup and Traverse measurements.
Azimuth Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the azimuth measurements.
Level Observations
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the direct leveling measurements.
Outlier
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the biggest outlier.
Background
Select a color from the in-line edit combo box to set the color of the view's background.
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Graphical Settings: Font
This Property-Page enables you to set the Font for Point Ids, Legend and Grid labels.

Note:

Tip:
Click on the corresponding radio button to open the standard Windows font dialog. Select font, size, color
etc. Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
The font for Point Id is also valid for displaying the Height and Thematical Code values. Height and
Thematical Code values are only displayed if you select a
True Type font.

For points resulting from Cogo Calculations but not being stored in the project, yet, a font may be
selected separately.

Refer to Windows Help on how to use fonts.
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Using the Design capabilities
In order to check a network design and calculate a priori values without making any actual observations, proceed
as follows:
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1.
Create your Points using the New Point command.
2.
Create the Setups at those points using the New Setup command.
3.
Create the Observations using the New Observation command.
4.
From the Context-Menu (right-click) select Configuration and General Parameters. In the Control page
select Design – selection based on theoretical observations.
5.
Compute the network.
6.
The results will be presented in the Network Report.
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Note on adjusting GPS and Terrestrial measurements
When you want to adjust GPS baselines together with Terrestrial data, all the measurements have to be referred to
the same local ellipsoidal system. The terrestrial measurements will already be in this local system but the GPS
baselines will be in WGS84.
The following steps must be taken in order to achieve meaningful results when adjusting Terrestrial data with GPS
data:
1.
Use existing GPS baseline data from the current project, copy baselines from other projects or import via
SKI ASCII file.
2.
Import the Terrestrial data via Raw data import or enter the measurements manually using the New
command from the Context-menu.
3.
In general, at least three points in the network must be fixed. This can be absolutely fixed or weighted
fixed according to the standard deviations of the point. Right-click on a point, select Properties and
change the Point Class to Control. Fixed points are set as weighted or not under Configuration, General
Parameters: Known Station.
4.
Under Configuration, General Parameters: Coordinate System change the Coordinate System to Local
Geodetic and enable the computation of rotation and scale parameters.
5.
Check if General Parameters: Control are set correctly.
6.
Compute the Network.
Note on heights:
 You may enter either local ellipsoidal heights or orthometric heights for the fixed points. If orthometric
heights are given, the geoid-ellipsoid separations are largely absorbed by the estimated transformation
parameters and the adjusted coordinates will have orthometric heights, if this was configured in the
General Parameters: Coordinate System page. This approach to obtain orthometric heights directly works
well when the geoid-ellipsoid separation changes only slowly and consistently in the network area.
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Configuration
Configuration Adjustment
The Configuration menu contains settings that configure set the way in which the adjustment is computed and the
way the results of that adjustment is presented.
Select from the list below to learn more about Configuration:
General Parameters
Terrestrial Parameters
Data Creation
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General Adjustment Parameters
General Adjustment Parameters
This Property-Sheet enables you to define the General Adjustment Parameters:
1.
From the context menu (right-click) select Configuration and General Parameters.
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
Control
Standard Dev.
Centring / Height
Known Station
Test Criteria
Coordinate System
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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General Parameters: Control
The Control page enables you to define parameters that affect the adjustment mode, number of iterations and
iteration criteria.
Mode:
Design - enables you to design a network and simulate an adjustment based on theoretical observations to
obtain predicted precisions of the coordinates. Actual observation data is not used. The accuracy
information that is applied to the observations is that set in Standard Deviation.
Adjust - will perform an adjustment computation using the accuracy information imported from the field
observations, i.e. real observations, if this information is available.
Max. no. of iterations:
This sets the maximum number of iterations or runs of calculation that will be performed in order to try to
reach the iteration criteria (see below). It prevents the computation going into an endless loop if there are
problem observations and the iteration criteria cannot be met. With GPS observations, 1 iteration is
normally sufficient to meet the Iteration criteria. The Adjustment component will automatically finish the
computation if (for example), the Iteration criteria are met in the first iteration and 3 iterations have been set.
Iteration criteria:
The iteration criteria is the size of the correction to the coordinates which must be reached before iterations
will stop (subject to Max no. of iterations).
Dimension:
This setting allows you to choose between performing a 1D-, 2D- or 3D Adjustment. Depending on the
chosen dimension the following types of data will be adjusted:
3D:
3D data will be adjusted. Where only 2D or 1D data is available (e.g. Level observations within a GPS
network), the 2D and 1D observations will be adjusted as well.
2D:
If your network contains GPS baselines these will always be adjusted in 3D even if the dimension is set to
2D.
TPS slope distances & zenith angles will be reduced to horizontal distances. Slope distances without zenith
angles are ignored in the adjustment.
Level height differences are not included in a 2D solution.
1D:
GPS baselines are not included in a 1D adjustment.
TPS slope distances & zenith angles will be reduced to trigonometric height differences. TPS directions are
ignored.
In addition, the Dimension setting affects the Loops computation. The Loops computation will include the
same observations as specified for the adjustment (3D, 2D or 1D).
Overview table:
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GPS
TPS
Level
3D
DX, DY, DZ
Direction & Zenith angle & slope dist.
height diff.
2D
DX, DY, DZ
Direction & horizontal dist.
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1D
---------------
Trig. height diff.
height diff.
Use Sets of Angles results:
When calculating a network adjustment all active observations will be used. Check this option, if you
wish to use only the reduced observations for all Sets of Angles applications stored in the project. The
single observations contained in the Sets of Angles will then not be used. All observations stored with the
same setup, but not being used within the Sets of Angles application will be skipped as well.
The standard deviations for the reduced observations will be taken from the Sets of Angles calculation (i.e.
the mean error of the averaged observations).
Include turning points of level lines:
this
For processed level lines the total height difference of the line is used as an observation. Check
option, if you wish to include the turning points of the level line and feed the subsequent height differences
into the adjustment computation instead. This may be required if adjusted heights are needed for any of the
turning points or if intermediate sights shall be adjusted as well.
Note: Due to the high number of observations with small redundancy the statistical test figures may become
less informative if this option is selected.
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General Parameters: Standard Deviation
The Standard Deviation page enables you to define the default accuracy applied to any new observation that is
manually created or that shall be applied as the default to all observations during the adjustment computation.
Basically you can define the accuracy of an observation by defining the accuracy of the measurement between the
two points. Additionally, if required, define the accuracy with which the two end points of the measurement were
located using Centring / Height.
Each type of measurement supported by the Adjustment component is given together with the currently defined
default standard deviation. The given standard deviations may be amended if required. The standard deviations
are defined in terms of an Absolute accuracy and a Relative accuracy. For example, with a GPS baseline an
absolute value of 0.01m followed by a relative value of 1 ppm (part per million) renders a standard deviation of
10mm (absolute) plus 1x5mm = 15mm when applied to a 5 km baseline.
Note: Scale factor corrections for TPS distance observations may be defined under Scale factor correction.
Compute using:

individual settings for all observations - uses the individual accuracy that was assigned to the
observation during creation.

the default settings to all observations - uses the default accuracy defined above for all observations.
When adjusting GPS observations (baselines) the following two options are available additionally:
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
the default settings to GPS observations only - uses the default accuracy for GPS observations from
above and the individual accuracy for terrestrial observations.

the default settings to terrestrial observations only - uses the default accuracy for terrestrial
observations and the individual accuracy for GPS observations.
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General Parameters: Centring / Height
The Centring / Height page enables you to define the default accuracy applied to any new Setup or Observation
that is manually created or that shall be applied as the default to all observations during the adjustment
computation.
The Centring and Height accuracy of the two end points (Reference/Setup and the Rover/Target) may be defined
in addition to the Standard Deviation of a measurement.
The Centring error defines the predicted error that could have been made when centring the instrument/target
over the point. The Height error defines the predicted error when measuring the height of the instrument/target
above the point.
These values may be assigned to observations or setups as they enter a network by setting the appropriate Data
Creation Parameters of Observations or Setups.
Compute using:
ignore centring and height errors - will set all centring and height errors to zero (i.e. there will not be any
centring and height error).
individual settings for all observations - uses the centring and height error that was applied when the
observation was created.
the default settings to all observations - uses the default centring and height error as defined above.
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General Parameters: Known Station
This page enables you to define how to treat Known Stations (control points) in the adjustment.
Treat control points as absolutely fixed (Constrained Adjustment)
When the fixed stations are treated as absolutely fixed, they may not move in any direction and the
standard deviations of the fixed stations will be ignored.
Treat control points as weighted fixed according to standard deviations (Weighted Constrained
Adjustment)
When the fixed stations are treated as relatively fixed, you may enter the standard deviations of the fixed
stations and this will be taken into account in the adjustment computation.
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General Parameters: Test Criteria
This page enables you to set the Test Criteria for the adjustment.
Alpha (%)
This is the probability of rejecting a good observation. 5% is selected as default as this is seen as a good
compromise. Setting the Alpha value too low may result in a bad observation being accepted.
1-Beta (%)
This can be defined as the power of the test or the probability of accepting a bad observation. 80% is
selected by default as this is seen as a good compromise. Setting the Beta value too high may result in
good observations being rejected.
Note: The Alpha and Beta settings are subjective and should be made by the experienced surveyor who
carried out the field work. If in doubt as to what Alpha and Beta should be set to, accept the default values
suggested.
Sigma a priori (GPS)
This value is to compensate for optimistic GPS observations. Quite often, observations coming from GPS
post-processing programs are overly optimistic in their accuracy information. This in itself does not matter
when adjusting GPS observations alone but is important when combining GPS and terrestrial observations.
Sigma a posteriori
This is a global value that adjusts for the uncertainty of the a priori value. It will affect the estimated
precision of the adjusted coordinates. You may, if required only apply the sigma a posteriori if the adjusted
coordinates fail the so-called F-test. The F-test is a test that is applied to the sigma a priori and sigma a
posteriori. If they are statistically different it indicates that the stochastic values awarded to the observations
were incorrect (assuming outliers have been removed). Applying the sigma a posteriori would then
compensate for this problem.
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General Parameters: Coordinate System
This page enables you to define parameters that affect the Coordinate System in which the adjusted coordinates
are presented i.e. to which coordinate system the known (fixed) stations refer to.
GPS measurements are always made on the WGS84 ellipsoid. However, if required you can output results in any
local ellipsoidal system. In this case the Adjustment component needs to be able to transform the GPS baselines
during the adjustment. The required transformation parameters may be known to you already or you may wish to
compute them.
If you are combining terrestrial observations with GPS observations your terrestrial observations will always be in a
local ellipsoidal system while your GPS observations will be in WGS84 system.
You can also adjust terrestrial observations in a local grid system. The adjusted coordinates will then also refer to
this local grid.
Coordinate system:
Choose WGS84 if you want to adjust your observations to the WGS84-coordinates of the Known (fixed)
Stations.
Choose Local Geodetic if you have a local coordinate system attached to your project and you want to
adjust the observations to the local coordinates of the Known (fixed) Stations.
Note: The transformation used in your local coordinate system has to be either a Classical 3D or None for
this option to become active.
See Project Management on how to attach a local coordinate system to a project.
Choose Local Grid (Terrestrial only) if you want to adjust pure terrestrial observations in a local grid
system. In this case no information on the local ellipsoid is necessary. Note: Only terrestrial observations
are adjusted if this option is selected. If there are GPS observations among your terrestrial observations the
GPS observations will be ignored. Choose Local Geodetic if you want to compute a combined adjustment.
Height mode:
Choose Ellipsoidal if you want to adjust your observations to the ellipsoidal height of the Known (fixed)
Stations.
Note: If the ellipsoidal height of a Known Point is not defined a Geoid separation of zero will be assumed.
Choose Orthometric if you want to adjust your observations to the orthometric height of the Known (fixed)
Stations.
Note: If the orthometric height of a Known Point is not defined a Geoid separation of zero will be assumed.
The adjusted coordinates will have ellipsoidal or orthometric heights depending on the selected height
mode.
Note: If orthometric heights are available for the Known Points and a geoid model is included in the
coordinate system attached to the project then proceed as follows:
1. Calculate geoid separations for your project.
2. Run the adjustment with setting the height mode to ellipsoidal.
After the adjustment the geoid separations will be applied again to get the orthometric heights of the
adjusted coordinates.
Transformation:
In order for the transformation to take place, there are four parameters that are required - three rotations
about each axis and a scale factor. These are the parameters that are required when transforming
observations.
Note: For transformation of coordinates or points, up to 7 parameters may be required and therefore the
Datum/Map component should be used.
If you know the transformation parameters, enter them by double clicking on each parameter and entering
the Value. Double click on the Compute parameter and set it to be inactive by selecting No.
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If you do not know the transformation parameters, double click on each Compute parameter in turn and set
it to be computed by selecting Yes.
Note:

In order to compute transformation parameters you should hold at least three of your points fixed. Failure
to do so will create error messages when the network computation is carried out. It is also important to
note that the computed transformation parameters are only valid for transforming GPS baselines - they
are not to be used for transforming coordinates.
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Terrestrial Adjustment Parameters
Terrestrial Adjustment Parameters
This Property-Sheet enables you to set certain correction factors which may be used in conjunction with terrestrial
observations:
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1.
From the context menu (right-click) select Configuration and Terrestrial Parameters.
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
Vertical refraction coefficient
Azimuth offset
Scale factor correction
3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function
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Terrestrial Parameters: Vertical refraction coefficient
This Property-Page enables you to define the vertical refraction coefficient, which accounts for the influence of
refraction on zenith angles:
Default value:
The default value is 0.13, which is a typical value that may be changed if required.
Note: As the Vertical refraction coefficient will apply to all vertical angle measurements in the Network, it
should only be used in networks that cover relatively small areas.
Select Apply to zenith / vertical angles if you want to apply the above set default value to all vertical
angles.
Select Do not apply to zenith / vertical angles if you wish to apply the corrections to the vertical angles
individually before entering the data into the Adjustment.
Alternatively select Estimate if you wish to estimate the vertical refraction coefficient. This will mainly be
used where there are many vertical angle measurements and a good estimate can be obtained.
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Terrestrial Parameters: Azimuth offset
This Property-Page enables you to define the azimuth offset, which accounts for systematic biases in the azimuth
measurements.
Default value:
Enter an offset if required.
Note: It is a constant offset for (E.g.) magnetic azimuths to geodetic azimuths. The Adjustment component
always takes azimuth readings as geodetic.
Select Apply to azimuths if you want to apply the above set default value to all vertical angles.
Select Do not apply to azimuths if you wish to apply the offset to the azimuths individually before entering
the data into the Adjustment.
Alternatively select Estimate if you wish to estimate the offset. This will mainly be used where there are
many azimuth measurements and a good estimate can be obtained.
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Terrestrial Parameters: Scale factor correction
This Property-Page enables you to define the scale factor, which will be applied to distance measurements and is
an additional factor used to correct for (E.g.) atmospheric conditions.
Default value:
Enter a value in ppm (part per million).
Select Apply to distances if you want to apply the above default value to all distances.
Select Do not apply to distances if you wish to apply the scale factor to the distances individually before
entering the data into the Adjustment.
Alternatively select Estimate if you wish to estimate the scale factor. This will mainly be used where there
are many distance measurements and a good estimate can be obtained.
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Data Creation Parameters of Adjustment
Data Creation Parameters of Adjustment
This Property-Sheet enables you to define the Data Creation Parameters. These parameters are used when you
are manually entering Observation or Setup data:
1.
From the context menu (right-click) or the Adjustment main menu select Configuration and Data
Creation.
2.
In the Property-Sheet use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
Observation
Setup
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3.
Make your changes or press the Default button to apply the default values to the parameters of a page.
4.
Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Data Creation: Observation
This Property-Page enables you to set parameters that will be used when you are creating new Observations
manually.
Interface:
Multiple 'To' station selection will enable you to select multiple target stations from the same
reference/setup.
Show details on creation allows you to display the observation details as the observations are created.
Stochastic defaults at target / rover:
Select between standard deviation and centring and height precisions or standard deviation only. The
default values will be applied to new observations as set in the General Adjustment Parameters Centring /
Height and Standard Deviation.
Note: At least the standard deviations will always be applied since there is no point in trying to adjust a
network of fixed points!
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Data Creation: Setup
This Property-Page enables you to set parameters that will be used when you are creating new Setups manually.
Stochastic defaults at setup / reference:
Select between centring and height precisions or none. If you select centring and height precisions, the
default values will be applied to new setups as set in the General Adjustment Parameters Centring / Height
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Results
Results
The Results menu provides you with the means to display specific reports on your results.

From the background context menu (right-click) select Results and then one of the following:
Pre-analysis
To display the Pre-analysis report.
Network
To display the Network report.
Loops
To display the Loops report.
Delete Stored Values
On activating this functionality, all adjusted triplets in the selected project will be deleted and the menu item
itself will simultaneously be de-activated. Delete Stored Values is active when one or more points in the
selected project contain an adjusted triplet. The same functionality can be achieved by selecting all points
and activating the main menu item Edit-Delete-Triplets-Adjusted.
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Adjustment Pre-analysis Report
To get an overview on the pre-analysis that has been performed for the adjustment of your network you may
invoke the Adjustment Pre-Analysis Report.

From the Adjustment main menu select Results and then Pre-analysis to get a report on the preanalysis that has been performed for your network adjustment.
Alternatively: Right-click and select Results and then Pre-analysis from the background context menu.
The report opens in a stand-alone window and is listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
Some or all of the following information will appear in the report depending on the type of network, the type of
observations included and the contents of the report as configured in the Report Template properties - Contents
page:
Project Information
General Information
Configuration Defects
Check of Input Data
Project Information
This section gives the Project name and the version of the integrated Adjustment processing kernel.
General Information
The Type of network may be:

Inner constrained - No points in the network are held fixed.

Minimally constrained - One position and one height held fixed, (not necessarily on the same point). The
adjustment will tend to swing the network around the fixed point.

Fully constrained - Two or more points are kept fixed.

Weighted constrained: Control points are treated fixed according to their standard deviations. This can be
configured in the General Adjustment Parameters: Known Station page.
Stations
Lists the number of (partly) known and unknown stations.
Observations
Lists the type and number of observations contained in the network as well as the Inner constraints.
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The inner constraints is the datum defect of the network. In case of a free GPS network it will be set to 3. This
means that 3 artificial constraints have been set in order to be able to calculate the adjustment. In case of a
network combining terrestrial and GPS measurements the datum defect will be set to 7 (depending on the
terrestrial observations used). In case of a free adjustment of height difference observations it will be set to 1.
When at zero, the adjustment is constrained by the user in some way.
Unknowns
Lists the type and number of unknown elements that will be computed by the network adjustment computation.
The Degree of freedom is calculated from the number of observations (including the inner constraints) minus the
number of unknowns.
Configuration Defects
Reports on unknowns which cannot be solved (singularities).
Check of Input Data
Observations:
This reports on multiple observations to the same point that differ by a certain amount and therefore may
be suspect. If there is a high probability that an error exists, this will be marked with
at the end of the line.
Other reported suspect observations are left to the discretion of the user.
Observations and Approximate Coordinates:
This reports on observations checked against the pseudo-observations derived from the approximate
coordinates. Those observations where a large difference is identified are listed.
Possibly Identical Observations:
This reports on observations which are suspect to be identical. You may wish to inspect, if these are really
separate observations.
Possibly Coinciding Stations:
This reports on stations which have a distance smaller than 2 meters. Such stations are suspect to be
identical, but have not been given the same point Id.
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Adjustment Network Report
To get an overview on the adjustment that has been performed for your network you may invoke the Adjustment
Network Report.

From the Adjustment main menu select Results and then
Network to get a report on the adjustment
that has been performed for your network.
Alternatively: Right-click and select Results and then Network from the background context menu.
The report opens in a stand-alone window and is listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
Some or all of the following information will appear in the report depending on the type of adjustment, the type of
observations included in the adjustment computation and the contents of the report as configured in the Report
Template properties - Contents page:
Project Information
General Information
Input data
Adjustment Results
Testing and Estimated Errors
Warning Messages
Project Information
This section gives you general information on the Project Properties, like the project name, creation date and time,
the time zone and the attached coordinate system. You also get information on the version of the integrated
Adjustment processing kernel.
If information has been entered in the Dictionary page of the Project Properties dialog these pieces of information
will be added to this section of the report.
General Information
Adjustment
This section gives you general information on the type of adjustment that has been performed.
The Type of network may be:
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
Inner constrained: none of the points in the network is kept fixed.

Minimally constrained: one position and one height are kept fixed (not necessarily on the same point). The
adjustment will tend to swing the network around the fixed point.
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
Fully constrained: two or more points are kept fixed.

Weighted constrained: Control points are treated fixed according to their standard deviations. This can be
configured in the General Adjustment Parameters: Known Station page.
The dimension is indicated as set in the General Adjustment parameters: Control page.
Coordinate system and Height mode are indicated as set in the General Adjustment parameters: Coordinate
System page.
The number of iterations that were taken in order to reach the maximum coordinate correction is given. The
iteration criteria and maximum number of iterations are defined in the General Adjustment parameters: Control
page.
Stations
This sections shows the number of (partly) known or fixed stations and the number of unknown stations in the
computation.
Observations
Lists the type and number of observations contained in the network as well as the inner constraints and the
transformation parameters that have been selected for computation. If points are kept fixed for the adjustment, the
known coordinates are also counted as observations.
The inner constraints is the datum defect of the network. In case of a free GPS network it will be set to 3. This
means that 3 artificial constraints have been set in order to be able to calculate the adjustment. In case of a
network combining terrestrial and GPS measurements the datum defect will be set to 7 (depending on the
terrestrial observations used). The inner constraints of a free adjustment of height difference observations will be
set to 1. When at zero, the adjustment is constrained by the user in some way.
Unknowns
Lists the type and number of unknown elements that will be computed by the network adjustment computation.
The Degree of freedom is used to compute the sigma a posteriori and is defined as the number of observations
(including the inner constraints) minus the number of unknowns.
Testing
Example:
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Displays the various values computed for the various tests that will be made in the adjustment computation.
-Alpha (multi dimensional) - Level of significance of multi-dimensional F test.
-Alpha (one-dimensional) - Level of significance of one-dimensional W-test.
-Beta - The power of all tests.
-Sigma a-priori (GPS) - The entered value that will compensate for the generally over optimistic nature of GPS
standard deviations. This can be set to be applied or not under Configuration, General Adjustment Parameters:
Test Criteria .
-Critical value W-test - Value above which an observation will fail the W-test. Test of one dimension.
-Critical value T-test - Value above which an observation will fail the T-test. Test of 1 or 2 or 3 dimensions
depending on the observation or coordinate type to be tested.
-Critical value F-test - Test of whole network. A global value that should approximate to 1.
F-test - The result of the F-test, which confirms the correctness of the stochastical model of the global network
(sigma a posteriori). It is stated below this whether or not the sigma a posteriori has been applied to the results.
Input data
Depending on the type of adjustment and the type of included observations the report may be configured to show
the following sub-sections:
Approximate Coordinates:
The unadjusted input coordinates of all stations are given. Fixed stations are marked in the report.
Additional Parameters:
In this sub-section the General transformation parameters and the Terrestrial parameters are listed as
they have been set under Configuration - General parameters - Coord. System and Configuration Terrestrial Parameters. The terrestrial parameters are applied to Terrestrial observations included in the
adjustment.
Observations:
The unadjusted observations are displayed: the observation type, the Station name (this might be a GPS
reference station, a TPS setup or the start point of a level line), the Target name (this might be a GPS
Rover, a TPS target or the end point of a level line), the Instrument height (St ih) (terrestrial observations
only), the target height (Tg ih) (terrestrial observations only) and the actual observation value (Reading).
Standard Deviations:
The following information is given in a six column table:
Observation type, the Station name (this might be a GPS reference station, a TPS setup or the start point
of a level line) the Target name (this might be a GPS Rover, a TPS target or the end point of a level line).
Then for terrestrial measurements the absolute part of the standard deviation (Sd abs), the relative part of
the standard deviation (Sd rel) and the total standard deviation (Sd tot) calculated from the absolute and
relative standard deviations and the centring and height errors.
For GPS observations, the three columns (Cor)are used to display the correlation matrix calculated from
the co-variance information supplied from baseline processing or input by the user.
Note that the Centring error and the Height of instrument error (if used) are included in the input
standard deviations.
Adjustment Results
Depending on the type of adjustment and the type of included observations the report may be configured to show
the following sub-sections:
Coordinates:
These are the adjusted coordinates. The Station name is given, followed by the coordinate (e.g. Latitude/
Longitude, Easting/ Northing or Height), the adjusted Coordinate value and the adjusted value minus the
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approximate (unadjusted) value (Corr). The standard deviation (Sd / Prec) of the adjusted value will be
presented at the confidence level specified in the Report Template Properties: Confidence Levels page.
Example:
Additional Parameters:
The additional parameters specified in the Options menu under Configuration, Terrestrial Parameters and
the transformation parameters General Parameters: Coordinate System are given as used to match GPS
and terrestrial observations.
For each additional parameter the adjusted value for the parameter (Adj val), the adjusted value minus the
approximate (unadjusted) value (Corr) and the standard deviation of the adjusted parameter (Sd) are
displayed.
Example:
Observations and Residuals
The adjusted observations are presented. The observation type (e.g. DX or DH) is given followed by the
instrument Station name (this might be a GPS reference station, a TPS setup or the start point of a level
line), the Target name (this might be a GPS rover, a TPS target or the end point of a level line), the
adjusted observation value (Adj obs), the unadjusted value minus the adjusted value (Resid), the
correction in Easting, Northing and Height (Resid (ENH)) and the standard deviation of the adjusted value
(Sd).
Via a hyperlink on the observation type you may enter the Observations dialog from inside the report to
inspect the observation properties.
Note that this functionality is not available if the observation is the result of a Sets of Angles application and
Sets of Angles results are configured to be used in the General Adjustment Parameters: Control page.
Example:
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GPS Baseline Vector Residuals:
If GPS observations are included in the adjustment this section will be included in the logfile. It shows the
length of the baseline (Adj. vector), the residual for each baseline vector and its corresponding value in
terms of parts-per-million (ppm) with respect to the baseline length.
External Reliability:
This can be defined as the largest effect of an undetected error on a coordinate component due to a
connected observation.
For each Station name and coordinate component (e.g. Latitude/ Longitude, Easting/ Northing or Height)
the external reliability (Ext Rel) is displayed together with the observation or fixed station coordinate that
causes the external reliability value.
Example:
Absolute Error Ellipses:
These are the error ellipses for each point. The Station is given followed by the magnitude of the axes of
the ellipse (A and B), the ratio of A to B (A/B), the angle about which the ellipse is rotated (Psi) relative to
North and the height precision (Sd Hgt). Values for A, B and Sd Hgt are displayed at the given confidence
level as specified under Report Template Properties: Confidence Levels.
Relative Error Ellipses:
The relative error ellipses give an indication of the precision between two connected stations.
The connected Stations are given followed by the magnitude of the axes of the ellipse (A and B), the ratio
of A to B (A/B), the angle about which the ellipse is rotated (Psi) relative to the connecting line between the
two stations and the relative height precision (Sd Hgt). Values for A, B and Sd Hgt are displayed at the
given confidence level as specified under Report Template Properties: Confidence Levels.
Testing and Estimated Errors
Depending on the type of adjustment and the type of included observations the report may be configured to show
the following sub-sections:
Coordinate Tests:
This section only appears when known (fixed) coordinates are used. The Station name is given followed by
the coordinate component, the minimal detectable bias (MDB), which is the minimum value of error that
can be detected by the outlier test, the Bias to Noise Ratio (BNR) which is the effect of the MDB on the
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network (consistency is desirable here), the value of the W-test (outlier test for each coordinate component)
and the value of the T-test (outlier test for coordinate triplet). Possible outliers (fail W-test and/or T-test) are
marked with .
Observation Tests:
The results of the statistical tests performed upon the observations are presented. The observation type is
given followed by the instrument Station name (this might be a GPS reference station, a TPS setup or the
start point of a level line), the Target name (this might be a GPS rover, a TPS target or the end point of a
level line), the minimal detectable bias (MDB) which is the value below which outliers cannot be detected,
the redundancy (Red) of the observation in percentage terms, the bias to noise ratio (BNR) which is the
effect of the MDB on the whole network (consistency is desirable here), the W-test value and the T-Test
value for a complete GPS baseline vector. If points are connected to the network with only a single (free)
observation, then this observation cannot be tested and the values will not be available. Observations that
fail the W-test and/or the T-test are considered outliers and will be marked with .
Example:
Redundancy Graphics:
The distribution of the redundancy numbers of all observations is graphically displayed in a histogram. The
percentage of observations which have a redundancy lower than 10 is marked with a red bar.
Example:

Right-click into the histogram to get access to Copy and Save functionality for the graphics.
Observation Test Graphics (W-Test, T-Test):
The distribution of the results of the W-Test and the T-Test is graphically displayed in a histogram. The
percentage of observations which are above the critical value for each test are marked with a red bar.
Example:
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
Right-click into the histogram to get access to Copy and Save functionality for the graphics.
Estimated Errors (Coordinates):
This section may contain the following tests performed on the fixed station coordinates:
Estimated Errors for Coordinates with Rejected W-Tests:
The 10 coordinates that fail the W-test by the largest amount are presented with an estimation of the error
that could have caused the rejection. The Station name is given followed by the coordinate component, the
W-test value, the Factor by which the W-test critical value is exceeded and the estimated error (Est err).
Estimated Errors for Stations with Rejected T-Tests
This is very similar to the above but is in terms of the 3-dimensional T-Test on points. Therefore, the
estimated errors are presented as vector components.
Estimated Errors (Observations):
This section may contain the following tests performed on the observations:
Estimated Errors for Observations with Rejected W-Tests:
The 10 observations that have failed the W-test by the largest amount are displayed in descending order of
magnitude of failure. The observation type is given followed by the Station name (this might be a GPS
reference station, a TPS setup or the start point of a level line), the Target name (this might be a GPS
rover, a TPS target or the end point of a level line), The W-test value, the factor (Fact) by which the
observation failed the test and the estimated error (Est err) of the observation.
Estimated Errors for Observations with Rejected T-Tests:
This is very similar to the Estimated Errors for Observations with Rejected W-Tests but is concerned with
the 3 dimensional observation and not with single components of observations.
Estimated Errors for Observations with Rejected Antenna Height W-Tests:
If an error in GPS Antenna heights is suspected, an estimation of this error is given. The observation type is
given followed by the instrument Station name (GPS reference station), the Target name (GPS rover), the
W-test value, based upon the alternative hypothesis of an antenna height error, the factor (Fact) by which
the value exceeds the critical value of the W-test, the minimal detectable bias (MDB) and the estimated
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antenna error (Est ant err).
Error Messages
All errors and warnings occurring during the adjustment computation are listed in this section.
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Adjustment Loops Report
To get an overview on the loops computation that has been performed for your network you may invoke the
Adjustment Loops Report.

From the Adjustment main menu select Results and then Loops to get a report on the Loops
computation that has been performed for your network.
Alternatively: Right-click and select Results and then Loops from the background context menu.
The report opens in a stand-alone window and is listed in the Open Documents list bar.
Stand-alone reports can be saved as HTML files or printed:

To save a report as an HTML file right-click inside the report and select Save As….

To print a report right-click inside the report and select Print. A Print Preview is also available from the
context menu.

To select the contents and the format of the report right-click and select Properties... from the context
menu or click
in the Reports toolbar. For further details refer to: Configure a Report.
Some or all of the following loop types will be reported depending on the kind of observations used and the
contents of the report as configured in the Report Template properties - Contents page:
Project Information
GPS Baseline Loops
Direction and Distance Loops
Zenith Angle and Distance Loops
Height Difference Loops
Warning Messages
Project Information
This section gives you general information on the Project Properties, like the project name, creation date and time,
the time zone and the attached coordinate system.
If information has been entered in the Dictionary page of the Project Properties dialog these pieces of information
will be added to this section of the report.
Additionally this section displays the Critical value for the outlier tests performed on the loops and the Dimension
as defined in the General Adjustment Parameters: Control page.
GPS Baseline Loops
Example:
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In this section all the GPS Baseline Loops that have been found and calculated in your network are listed.
For each loop the points making up the loop are given followed by the closing error in Cartesian WGS84
coordinates and the length of the error vector. An outlier test is performed for each loop. The value of the W-test
(outlier test for each coordinate component) is displayed next to the closing errors in X, Y and Z. Possible outliers,
which fail the W-test, are marked with .
Direction and Distance Loops
Example:
In this section all the Direction and Distance Loops that have been found and calculated in your network are listed.
For each loop the points making up the loop are given followed by the closing error for the angle and for the local
coordinates X and Y. The closing errors in X (local Easting) and Y (local Northing) are computed in a local XY
system, with the positive Y axis parallel to the first side of the loop, and the X axis perpendicular to it. An outlier test
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is performed for each loop. The value of the W-test is displayed next to the closing errors. Possible outliers, which
fail the W-test, are marked with .
Zenith Angle and Distance Loops
In this section all the Zenith Angle and Distance Loops that have been found and calculated in your network are
listed.
For each loop the points making up the loop are given followed by the closing error in height derived from the
trigonometric height differences in the loop. An outlier test is performed for each loop. The value of the W-test is
displayed next to the closing error. Possible outliers, which fail the W-test, are marked with .
Height Difference Loops
In this section all the Height Difference Loops that have been found and calculated in your network are listed.
For each loop the points making up the loop, the height differences and the distances of the level lines are given
followed by the closing error in height and the total length of the loop. An outlier test is performed for each loop.
The value of the W-test is displayed next to the closing error. Possible outliers, which fail the W-test, are marked
with .
Warning Messages
All errors and warnings occurring during the loops computation are listed in this section.
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All about Adjustment
All about Adjustment
Explains why adjustment is necessary, the mathematics and statistics behind it and how the testing is carried out.
Introduction
Least Squares Adjustment
Precision and Reliability
Statistical Testing
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Introduction
It is important for a surveyor, as for any other professional, to assess and control the quality of his work. The
reasons for this are obvious:

the work will have to meet certain requirements, so it is essential to be able to assess whether the
requirements are met;

when for some structural (bad design) or incidental reason (observation error) the requirements are not
met, tools must be available to improve the situation.
Knowing about the costly consequences of ill-designed networks or undetected errors, especially when these
deficiencies are discovered in an advanced stage of the survey, it is clear that quality control will save both time
and money. Quality control has gained importance in survey work due to the instrumental developments in recent
years. Modern survey instruments are capable of producing a bulk of survey data, thus demanding efficient tools
for assessing their sufficiency and accuracy.
Besides instrumental developments, also developments in survey software have opened the way for an increase in
the application of quality control. Not long ago the quality assessment of survey networks by means of reliability
parameters and statistical testing, was reserved for specialists able to operate complex computer systems.
Nowadays by the introduction of easy to operate PC based software packages, quality control can reach
professionals on all sorts of different levels.
In this part of the manual quality control for geodetic networks is introduced by means of a review of (the
parameters of) precision and reliability, according to the 'Delft Method':
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
The control of the propagation of random errors, present in the observations, into the coordinates is
measured in terms of precision.

The identification of gross errors and/or biases in the observations and the control over the sensitivity of
the data to these errors and biases is measured in terms of reliability.
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Relationship between Adjustment, Precision, Reliability and Testing
From observations carried out in the field, the surveyor will have to compute an end result: the coordinates. When
redundant observations are available, as it should be, a strategy has to be chosen so as to get a unique and
optimal solution. In geodesy, this strategy usually is the least squares adjustment. It is based on the following
criterion: the sum of squares of the observational residuals must be minimized. After carrying out a least squares
adjustment we know that we have the best possible solution based on the available observations.
Having determined a solution, it is important for the surveyor to be able to assess the quality of this solution. It is
therefore necessary to somehow quantify the quality. By doing so, it can be verified whether the network meets the
requirements. For example, a surveyor working as a contractor will know before delivery whether or not and to
what extent the quality of the network meets the client's demands. This works two ways:

a network of poor quality will not be accepted by the client, this will obviously cause problems;

a network with a far better quality than asked for by the client, is often undesirable from a cost-efficiency
point of view.
The quality of a network, whether already measured or only existing as a design, can be assessed in terms of
precision and reliability. Both precision and reliability can be quantified by parameters which will be discussed in
the other topics.
By designing a network keeping in mind the demands on precision and reliability, it is possible to control the quality.
However, designing a 'perfect' network is not enough. Practice has learned that, mainly due to human failures,
about 1 in every 100 observations is erroneous.
This means that the quality control will have to include some sort of statistical testing, in order to clear the result
of possible outliers. The effectiveness of the testing will depend on the reliability of the network. The more reliable
a network is, the higher the probability that outliers will be detected by the testing.
The explanation above should clarify the relationship between the least squares adjustment, the precision and
reliability concept, and the statistical testing. To summarize, one could say that:

the least squares adjustment will produce the best possible result, given the available data;

the statistical testing checks the result in order to make it 'error-free';

the precision and reliability parameters quantify the quality of the result.
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Quality Control in Network Planning
As explained in Relationship between Adjustment, Precision, Reliability and Testing , the quality of a network can
be assessed in terms of precision and reliability. This valuation may take place before the start of the actual
measurements in the field, namely during the planning or design of the network. Usually the study of topographic
maps of the area and reconnaissance in the field precedes the initial design. The outcome of the (initial) network
design depends on the purpose of the network and on related demands on precision and reliability. Furthermore
the location of the known stations and the characteristics of the area (e.g. mountainous or flat) can affect the
design.
A number of general rules of thumb apply for network design:

Aim for a balanced distribution of known stations over the network. Moreover, the integration of known
stations should be acceptable from a precision and reliability point of view, e.g. an intersection by at least
three, preferably four directions.

Try to include loops in the network, keeping in mind that the lesser the number of stations in a loop, the
better the reliability. In 2D networks, the reliability of loops can be improved by measuring directions and
distances to temporarily monumented auxiliary stations.

Strive for network sides of approximately equal length.
Note that when establishing a GPS network with a number of simultaneously operating receivers (at least three),
the actually planned network configuration can be altered even after completion of the measurements in the field.
In case of N receivers, the number of possible baselines is N*(N-1)/2. However, only a subset of N-1 linearly
independent baselines should be selected for computation in the raw data processing.
Precision and reliability of a network design can be examined based on the following input:

Approximate coordinates of all stations, e.g. scaled off from topographic maps. (Since observation
readings are not available, approximate coordinates can not be computed.)

Observations, i.e. not the actual readings but station and target information, and the intended type of
observation.

Known stations

The stochastic model of observations and known stations, i.e. a-priori standard deviations.
The output of the design computation is:

Absolute and relative standard ellipses.

A-posteriori standard deviations of observations.

A-posteriori standard deviations of stations.

Minimal Detectable Bias (MDB) of observations.

Minimal Detectable Bias (MDB) of known stations.

Bias to Noise Ratio (BNR) of observations.

Bias To Noise Ratio (BNR) of known stations.
Based on this output, the network can be further improved until the requirements are satisfied. The design process
is presented by the scheme below.
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Least Squares Adjustment
Least Squares Adjustment
In this section the basic ideas of least squares adjustment are introduced, together with the concepts of
mathematical and stochastic models. Furthermore, important notions such as approximate values, nuisance
parameters, and constraints are explained.
General Remarks on Least Squares Adjustment
Mathematical Model
Stochastic Model
Free and Constrained Adjustments
Formulae
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Least Squares Adjustment: General remarks
It is common practice for a surveyor to carry out extra measurements when establishing a geodetic network. This
will enable compensation for a possible loss of observations and, more important, the quality of the network can be
improved. As a consequence of the extra measurements there is no longer a unique solution which satisfies the
conditions in the network exactly (e.g. the angles of a triangle should add up to 200 gon). Therefore a method is
needed to correct the observations in order to make them meet the conditions. The amount by which each
observation has to be corrected is called the observation residual. The least squares adjustment method will
make the observations fit into the model by minimizing the sum of squares of the observation residuals. The
residuals are referred to as least squares corrections.
Any least squares adjustment model consists of two equally important components: the mathematical model and
the stochastic model. The mathematical model is a set of relations between the observations and the unknowns.
The stochastic model describes the expected error distribution of the observations.
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Mathematical Model
Usually in a survey, the observables themselves are not the quantities, which we are aiming for. Instead, we use
the observations to determine unknown parameters, e.g. the coordinates of stations in a network. The observations
are expressed as a function of the parameters in the so-called functional or mathematical model.
In some cases, the model representing the relations between the observables and the unknown parameters is very
simple. The relation, for instance, in a 1-dimensional leveling problem between the observed height differences
and the unknown heights is simply linear:
More complicated is the case for a GPS network where the unknowns are coordinates (X,Y,Z) to be determined in
a reference system different from that of the observed baselines X:
with
 as transformation parameters.
As the least squares approach requires linear equations, the model above must be linearized. Usually this means
that a number of iterations is needed to reach a solution. Moreover, approximate values for the coordinate
unknowns in the adjustment are required. Bad approximate values can lead to an increasing number of iterations
or, in the worst case, to no convergence at all.
Since coordinates are our main concern, other unknowns in the mathematical model are not always useful for us.
Unknowns such as the transformation parameters mentioned above, are called additional or nuisance parameters.
Typical nuisance parameters are: transformation parameters, scale factors, azimuth offsets, orientation unknowns
and refraction coefficients. Some of these parameters can be kept fixed at a certain value, in which case they are
not corrected in the adjustment. Whether or not to fix parameters is a question which can not easily be answered.
We must always be careful to avoid overconstraining as well as overparameterization. The introduction of
refraction coefficients for example, could result in the absorbtion of systematic effects which are not caused by
refraction. However, ignoring the refraction, when in fact it does have an influence on the measurements, will
cause an equally unfavourable effect. The success of what could be referred to as 'tuning' of the model will depend
largely on the user's expertise.
A scale factor may be estimated for the distance measurements. The aim of introducing a free scale factor in the
adjustment is to overcome a possible bias in the internal scale of the measurement equipment and, in more
general terms, to prevent the overconstraining of the network in a free adjustment. A free scale factor will 'shrink' or
'blow up' the network in order to make it fit onto the known stations in constrained adjustments. As a result, in
some situations a free scale factor may obstruct the statistical testing of known stations. An outlier in the
coordinates of a known station could remain undetected when, due to the 'shrink' or 'blow up' effect, the network
can still be forced to fit the known stations without any rejections. The outlier in question is absorbed by the scale
factor, which will consequently have a value distinctly different from 1.0 . It is therefore recommended to examine
the value of the scale factor after the adjustment and, in case of doubt, to re-run the adjustment with a fixed scale.
An adjustment will fail when the mathematical model, as represented by the design matrix and normal matrix (see
Formulae ), is singular. Singularity is caused by:
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
an ill-posed problem;

an improperly formulated model.
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The problem may be ill-posed because we expect too much from the observations, or because too few
observations were included. An example of an ill-posed problem is the determination of the 2D coordinates of an
unknown station by a single horizontal direction from another station. A model is improperly formulated, when too
many parameters are included. In general an improperly formulated model does not correctly represent the existing
physical reality.
For computerized solutions to least squares problems the ill-conditioning of the normal matrix N could result in
singularity.
Singularity is the limiting case of ill-conditioning. An ill-conditioned matrix can become 'singular' as a result of the
internal accuracy limits of the computer hardware. An example of an ill-conditioned problem is the intersection of a
station by two or more nearly parallel directions.
Apart from the problems mentioned above, an adjustment of terrestrial observations cannot be solved unless the
location, orientation and scale of the network are established, i.e. a 'datum' must be defined. This is done by
imposing constraints on the solution. The minimum number of constraints depends on the dimension of the
network:

In a 3D network there are 3 translations, 3 rotations and 1 scale factor. The singularity is then eliminated
by fixing at least 7 coordinates of 3 stations (Lat1, Lon1, h1, Lat2, Lon2, h2, h3).
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Stochastic Model
A geodetic observable, such as a direction, distance or height difference, is a random or stochastic variable. A
stochastic variable cannot be described by a single and exact value because there is an amount of uncertainty
involved in the measurement process. For example, repeatedly measuring the distance between two stations will
result in a range of different values. This variation is accounted for by a probability distribution. This means that in
addition to the mathematical model, it is necessary to formulate a second model which describes the stochastic
deviations of the observations; the stochastic model.
For geodetic observables a normal probability distribution is assumed (see below). This distribution is based on the
mean  and the standard deviation .
The mean  represents the value of the mathematical expectation of the observable. The standard deviation is a
measure of the dispersion or spread of the probability. The standard deviation characterises the precision of the
observable (see Precision ) The square of  is called the variance. By definition there is a 0.684 probability that
normally distributed stochastic variables will fall within a window limited by - and +. For a window limited by -2
and +2 this probability is 0.954. In general, the probability that a stochastic variable takes a value between x1 and
x2 is equal to the area enclosed by the curve, and the x1 and x2 ordinates. This is the shaded area in the diagram
above.
It is possible for two or more observables to be interdependent or correlated. This means that a deviation in one
observable will influence the other. The correlation between two observables x and y is mathematically expressed
by the covariance xy . The covariance is also used in the correlation coefficient, defined as:
The coefficient takes values between minus and plus one:
-1    1
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If the observables are not interdependent it follows that = 0. The vector elements (DX,DY,DZ) of a GPS baseline
are an example of correlated observables. To express this correlation a 3x3 matrix is used. This symmetric matrix
is a combination of standard deviations and correlation coefficients:
In essence the stochastic model consists of a choice for the probability distribution of the observables. Practically
this means that for each observable a standard deviation  is chosen. The value for  is based on knowledge
about the measurement process (conditions in the field, type of instrument) and experience. The standard
deviation of most observables is supposed to consist of an absolute part, and a relative part. In the relative part the
dependence on the distance between station and target, which characterises the precision of most observables, is
accounted for. The thus defined standard deviations are entered in the variance-covariance matrix b (see
Formulae ). The precision of the unknowns in the adjustment depends on the precision of the observables given in
b, and on the propagation of this precision through the mathematical model.
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Free and Constrained Adjustments
The adjustment of a network is usually subdivided into two separate steps or phases:

free network adjustment;

constrained adjustment.
This approach is intended to separate the testing of observations and known stations.
A free network can be defined as a network of which the geometrical layout is determined by the observations only.
The position, scale and orientation of the network are fixed by a minimum number of constraints, through the base
stations. Thus, the base stations impose no extra constraints on the adjustment solution. In a free network
adjustment the emphasis is laid on the quality control of the observations, rather than on the computation of
coordinates. Selecting other stations to fix the position, scale and orientation will change the coordinates, but not
the statistical testing.
Having eliminated possible outliers in the observations in the free adjustment, the network can be connected to the
known stations. This does impose extra constraints on the solution. Now the emphasis is on the analysis of the
known stations and on the computation of the final coordinates. There are two types of constrained adjustments:
absolutely constrained and weighted constrained. The difference between these two types is in the coordinate
computation. In an absolutely constrained adjustment the coordinates of the known stations are kept at their
original value, i.e. they do not receive a least squares correction. An absolutely constrained adjustment is
sometimes called a pseudo least squares adjustment. In a weighted constrained adjustment however, the
known stations do receive a correction. The choice for an absolutely or weighted constrained adjustment leaves
the testing results unchanged.
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Formulae
The (linearized) mathematical model is:
b + e = Ax + a
with
b = (m) vector of observations;
e = (m) vector of corrections;
A = (m x n) design matrix;
x = (n) vector of unknowns;
a = (n) vector of constants.
The stochastic model is:
b = Q = P
-1
with
b = (m x m) variance-covariance matrix;
 = a-priori variance-of-unit-weight;
Q = (m x m) weight coefficient matrix;
P = (m x m) weight matrix.
The least squares criterion is:
t
e Pe = minimum
The solution is:
-1
t
x = N A P(b - a)
2
t
s = e Pe/(m - n)
with
t
N = (A P A), (n x n) normal matrix;
2
s = a-posteriori variance-of-unit-weight.
The variance-covariance matrix of the unknowns:
-1
x = N
Note : the a-priori  is used, not the a-posteriori s
2
In case of a linearized mathematical model, the solution for the vector of unknowns x is available after a series of
iterative updates x of the approximate values:
x = x0 + x
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After each iteration, the new solution is compared with the previous one. If the difference between the two solutions
satisfies the iteration criterion, the iteration process is ended and the last solution is regarded as final.
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Precision and Reliability
Precision and Reliability
The result of an adjustment must be precise and reliable. It is not enough for an observation to be precise,
meaning that repetition will lead to a high degree of closeness. Observations should also be reliable, i.e. close to
the true value. The accuracy or, more generally, the quality of a network can therefore be described by two
elements: precision and reliability. In this chapter, the parameters which quantify precision and reliability will be
reviewed.
General remarks
Precision
Reliability
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Precision and Reliability: General remarks
Before proceeding to a more in depth treatment, it is important to realize that precision and reliability are two
separate notions. A measurement process can be very precise, but is therefore not necessarily reliable. On the
other hand, a reliable process is not always a precise one. Compare the relative frequencies f A and fB of two
measurement processes A and B (see diagrams below). The precision of process A is better than of process B; the
degree of closeness of the observations in process A is higher. But although process A is more precise, it is not
very reliable. A systematic error has resulted in a shift of the frequency distribution, away from the true value .
Process B is not very precise, but definitely more reliable, since its distribution is close to the true value . In this
section the precision and reliability concept is introduced, together with the tools implemented for the analysis of
precision and reliability of a network.
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Precision
In the Least Squares Adjustment section the standard deviation of an observable is introduced. It is necessary to
describe an observation by both the measured value, and the standard deviation. The standard deviation
expresses the stochastic variabilities of the observation. The precision of a network can be defined as the influence
of the stochastic variabilities of the network observations on the coordinates.
The a-posteriori standard deviations of all observations and stations are presented. For presenting the precision of
stations standard ellipses are often used. Standard ellipses can be regarded as the 2-dimensional equivalent of
standard deviations. These ellipses are also known as confidence ellipses. There is a certain level of confidence,
that a station can be found within the area enwrapped by its ellipse. For standard ellipses the level of confidence is
0.39 (to get a level of confidence of 0.95 the axes have to be multiplied by a factor 2.5). Absolute standard ellipses
represent the propagation of random errors through the mathematical model into the coordinates. Relative
standard ellipses represent the precision between station pairs. The shape of an ellipse is defined by the semi
major axis A and semi minor axis B. The orientation of an absolute standard ellipse is defined by the angle Phi
between the semi major axis and the Y-North axis of the coordinate system. The orientation of a relative standard
ellipse is defined by the angle Psi between the semi major axis and the connecting line between station and target.
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Reliability
The reliability of a network can be described in terms of the sensitivity to the detection of outliers. Reliability can be
subdivided into internal and external reliability:

Internal reliability is expressed by the Minimal Detectable Bias (MDB). The MDB presents the size of
the smallest possible observation error, still detectable by the statistical test (datasnooping) with a
probability equal to the power  of the test. A large MDB indicates a weakly checked observation or
coordinate. Thus, the larger the MDB the poorer the reliability. If an observation is not checked at all, no
MDB can be computed and the observation is marked as a 'free observation'.

External reliability is expressed by the Bias to Noise Ratio (BNR). The external reliability is used as a
measure to determine the influence of a possible error in the observations on the adjusted coordinates.
The BNR of an observation reflects this influence, whereby the size of the observation error is defined
equal to the MDB of that particular observation. The BNR is a dimensionless parameter combining the
influence of a single observation on all coordinates. A practical interpretation can be given if we regard
the BNR as an upperbound for the ratio between the influence  of the MDB of an observation on any
coordinate x, and the a-posteriori standard deviation  of this coordinate:
In other words: the BNR can be interpreted as the ratio between reliability and precision. It is desirable that
the BNR is homogeneous for the entire network.
An important quality of both the MDB and BNR is that they are independent of the choice of base stations.
To illustrate the behaviour of the reliability parameters, consider the example presented in the following table.
Observation
Reading (m)
MDB (m)
BNR
W-test
Distance A-B
1051.426
0.048
10.8
-0.76
Distance A-B + 
1051.476
0.048
10.8
3.53**
Example Internal and External Reliability
In this example the distance A-B is an observation in a network which has been adjusted and tested. As follows
from the last column of the table, the testing has accepted this observation (critical value W-test = 3.29). The
internal reliability is given by an MDB of 0.048 m. This means that an error of this size will probably be detected by
the W-test (see W-Test ). To verify this, an error  of 0.05 m is introduced in the distance A-B. The network is now
adjusted and tested again, including this simulated error. Indeed as seen from the second value in the last column,
the observation is now rejected by the W-test because the critical value is exceeded.
The external reliability is given by a BNR of 10.8. This means that the influence of the MDB of 0.048 m on any
coordinate in the net, is smaller than 10.8 times the a-posteriori standard deviation of the coordinate. For general
purpose networks it is desirable to have a homogeneous external reliability. The network in the example is
considered as homogeneous, when the BNR values of all observations are on the same level. Alternatively the
network is inhomogeneous when the BNR of e.g. distance A-B strongly exceeds the BNR of other observations in
the network. In that case the network is unstable or inhomogeneous, i.e. the reliability depends mainly on the
correctness of one single observation.
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Statistical Testing
Statistical Testing
The aim of statistical testing is to check whether the mathematical and stochastic model (see Least Squares
Adjustment ) are a correct representation of 'reality'. Furthermore, it is important to detect possible outliers
(blunders) in the observations which could ruin the achievable accuracy. This makes statistical testing essential for
the process of quality control. The statistical testing presented here is carried out together with the least squares
adjustment. It is based on the analysis of least squares residuals. The detection of blunders can also be carried out
prior to the adjustment by e.g. a check on loop misclosures or on erroneous station numbering. These checks are
regarded as part of the preprocessing and are not further discussed here.
Different types of statistical tests are implemented: the F-test, W-test and T-test. The T-Test is a 3-dimensional test
and is, therefore, not available when adjusting pure Level observations.
In this section the testing procedures are explained, preceded by a general description of hypothesis testing. In the
final paragraphs attention is paid to the interpretation of the testing results and estimated errors.
Related topics:
General remarks
F-Test
T-Test
W-Test
Estimated Errors
Interpreting Test Results
Antenna Height-test
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Statistical Testing: General remarks
The mathematical and stochastic model are based on a set of assumptions. This set is called a statistical
hypothesis. Different assumptions will result in different hypotheses. Statistical testing is used to verify the
hypotheses. A special set of assumptions is referred to as the null-hypothesis H0. This hypothesis implies that:

there are no gross errors (blunders) present in the observations;

the mathematical model gives a correct description of the relations between the observations and the
unknown parameters;

the chosen stochastic model for the observations appropriately describes the stochastic properties of the
observations.
It is clear that there are two possible outcomes for the testing of a hypothesis: acceptance or rejection. A specific
cut-off point or critical value decides over acceptance and rejection. The critical values establish a window of
acceptance. The further beyond this window, the less certain the set of assumptions is satisfied. Critical values are
determined by the choice of a level of significance . The probability that the critical value is exceeded, although
the set of assumptions is valid, is equal to . In other words,  is the probability of an incorrect rejection.
Alternatively the complementary level of confidence 1-, is a measure of the confidence one can have in the
decision.
In the testing of the null-hypothesis H0 there are two unfavourable situations that might occur:

Rejection of H0 while in fact it is true. The probability of this situation occurring is equal to the significance
level . This situation is called a Type I error (table below).

Acceptance of H0 while in fact it is false. The probability of this situation occurring is 1-, with  the power
of the test. This situation is called a Type II error (table below).
SITUATION
DECISION: accept H0
DECISION: reject H0
H0 true
correct decision:
Type I error:
probability = 1-
probability = 
Type II error:
correct decision:
probability = 1-
probability = 
H0 false
Testing of null Hypotheses
Methods are reviewed for testing the null-hypothesis and alternative hypotheses in F-Test , W-Test and T-Test .
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F-Test
The F-test is a very commonly used multi-dimensional test for checking the null-hypothesis H0. The F-test is often
called the overall model test, because it tests the model in general.
The F-value is given by the expression:
2
2
F=s /
with
2
s = a-posteriori variance factor, depending on the computed residuals and the redundancy;
2
 = a-priori variance factor.
The F-value is tested against a critical value of the F-distribution, which is a function of the redundancy and the
significance level . There are three sources of rejection, further described below, namely: gross errors, incorrect
mathematical model, and incorrect stochastic model.
The information provided by the F-test, namely acceptance or rejection of the null-hypothesis, is not very specific.
Therefore if H0 is rejected, it is necessary to find the cause of the rejection by tracing errors in observations or
assumptions. If we suspect that the H0 is rejected due to a gross error present in one of the observations, the Wtest is required. The so-called datasnooping utilizes the W-test in order to seek for errors in individual
observations. The F- and W-test are linked by a common value of the power . This is the so-called B-method of
testing. The W-test and the B-method are described in the next paragraph.
The H0 is likewise rejected when the mathematical model is incorrect, or not refined enough. For example: the
vertical refraction coefficient is disregarded, or observations related to different datums are combined without
solving the parameters of the datum transformation. In this case the mathematical model has to be improved, in
order to prevent an inferior outcome.
Another source of rejection is a too optimistic a-priori variance-covariance matrix. Such a rejection can easily be
remedied by increasing the input standard deviations of the observations. Of course we should remain aware of
the purpose of statistical testing; the purpose is not to have all observations accepted, but rather to detect outliers
and model errors.
Of course a combination of the three sources of rejection above can also occur.
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W-Test
A rejection of the F-test does not directly lead to the source of the rejection itself. In case the null-hypothesis is
rejected, other hypotheses must be formulated which describe a possible error, or a combination of errors.
There is an infinite number of hypotheses which can be formulated as an alternative for the null-hypothesis. The
more complex these hypotheses become, the more difficult they will be to interpret. A simple but effective
hypothesis is the so-called conventional alternative hypothesis, based on the assumption that there is an outlier
present in one single observation while all others are correct. The one-dimensional test associated with this
hypothesis is the W-test.
The assumption of a single outlier is often very realistic. A strong rejection of the F-test can often be traced back to
a gross error or blunder in just one observation. There is a conventional alternative hypothesis for each
observation, which implies that each individual observation is tested. The process of testing each observation in
the network by a W-test is called datasnooping.
The size of the least squares correction alone is not always a very precise indicator when checking the
observations for outliers. A better test quantity, though only suited for uncorrelated observations, is the least
squares correction, divided by its standard deviation. For correlated observations, e.g. the three elements of a
baseline, the complete weight matrix of the observations must be taken into account. This condition is fulfilled by
the test quantity W of the W-test, which has a standard normal distribution and is most sensitive for an error in one
of the observations.
The critical value W crit depends on the choice of the significance level 0. If W>W crit (the W-test is rejected), there is
a probability of 1-0 that the corresponding observation indeed holds an outlier. On the other hand there is a
probability 0 that the observation does not hold an outlier, which means the rejection is unjustified. In geodesy
values for 0 between 0.001 and 0.05 are most commonly chosen. The table below presents an overview of the 0values and the corresponding critical values. The actual choice depends on how strict and rigid we want to test the
observations. A very strict testing (a small critical value), will lead to a larger 0 and consequently an increasing
probability of rejection of valid observations. An 0 = 0.001 means one false rejection in every 1000 observations.
This has proven to be a workable choice in practice.
sign. level 0
0.001
0.010
0.050
critical value W-test
3.29
2.58
1.96
Significance level/critical value overview
Essential for the B-method of testing is that an outlier is detected with the same probability by both the F-test and
the W-test. For this purpose the power  of both tests is fixed on a level of usually 0.80 . The level of significance
0 of the W-test is also fixed, which leaves the level of significance  of the F-test to be determined. Having 0 and
 fixed,  depends strongly on the redundancy in the network. For large scale networks with many observations
and a considerable amount of redundancy, it is difficult for the F-test to react on a single outlier. The F-test, being
an overall model test, is not sensitive enough for this task. As a consequence of the link between the F-test and the
W-test by which the power is forced at 0.80, the level of significance  of the F-test will increase. Considering the
above, it is common practice to always carry out the datasnooping, no matter the outcome of the F-test.
During the datasnooping, each individual observation is tested through a conventional alternative hypothesis.
However, as mentioned before, other alternative hypotheses can be formulated as well. A special hypothesis has
been implemented, in order to trace antenna height errors in GPS baselines. The hypothesis is based on the fact
that the direction of an antenna height error will coincide with the direction of the local vertical. The antenna height
W-test has proven to be a very efficient tool, for instance in tracing 10 cm antenna height reading errors.
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T-Test
As discussed in W-Test , the W-test is a 1-dimensional test which checks the conventional alternative hypotheses.
These hypotheses assume that there is just one observation erroneous at the time. This so-called datasnooping
works very well for single observations, e.g. directions, distances, zenith angles, azimuths and height differences.
However, for some observations such as GPS baselines, it is not enough to test the DX-, DY-, DZ-elements of the
vector separately. It is imperative to test the baseline as a whole as well.
For this purpose the T-test is introduced. Depending on the dimension of the quantity to be tested, the T-test is a 3or 2-dimensional test. As with the W-test, the T-test is also linked to the F-test by the B-method of testing. The Ttest has the same power as both other tests, but has its own level of significance and its own critical value (see
tables below).
sign level 0
0.001
0.010
0.050
sign. level  (2 dim)
0.003
0.022
0.089
critical value T-test
5.91
3.81
2.42
Overview of significance level/critical value for 2 dimensional T-test, based on 0 of W-test
sign level 0
0.001
0.010
0.050
sign. level  (3 dim)
0.005
0.037
0.129
critical value T-test
4.24
2.83
1.89
Overview of significance level/critical value for 3 dimensional T-test, based on 0 of W-test
The T-test is equally useful when testing known stations. The datasnooping will test for an outlier due to, e.g. a
typing error, in either the X East, or Y North, or h-coordinate. The deformation of a station might not be detected
by the datasnooping when the deformation-shifts decomposed in X East, Y North, and h-direction are relatively
small. For the testing of a possible deformation influencing both the X East, and Y North, and h-coordinate a
different alternative hypothesis is needed. The 3-dimensional T-test on the complete coordinate triplet is better
equipped to trace the deformation, although it will not be able to trace the exact direction in which the station has
moved.
Note: The situation in which the W-test is accepted, and the associated T-test of the observation is rejected, which
is not unlikely in practice, does not imply a contradiction. It is simply a matter of testing different hypotheses.
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Antenna Height-test
During the datasnooping, each individual observation is tested through a conventional alternative hypothesis.
However other alternative hypotheses can be formulated as well. In the Adjustment a special hypothesis is
implemented, in order to trace antenna height errors in GPS baselines. The hypothesis is based on the fact that
the direction of an antenna height error will coincide with the direction of the local vertical. The antenna height Wtest has proven to be a very efficient tool, for instance in tracing 10 cm antenna height errors.
The antenna height test is always computed if GPS-baselines are used. The test consists of three W-test
computations:

East-component

North-component

Height-component
The antenna height is only rejected if the height –component is rejected and the northing- and easting-component
are accepted.
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Interpreting Test Results
When dealing with testing results we always have to keep in mind that a certain amount of probability is involved in
the process, and that there is no 'absolute truth'. Statistics in general should be used with discretion, i.e. in
conjunction with common sense, practical experience and external independent evidence.
As discussed in the F-test explanation a rejection of the F-test, meaning a rejection of H0, could be due to:

gross errors or blunders;

an incorrect mathematical model;

an incorrect stochastic model.
The fact that also a combination of these rejection sources is possible, makes it difficult to give any strict rules for
drawing conclusions from the F-test value. In general, a rejected F-test in combination with a pattern of rejected Wtests points to a model error. An incidental W-test rejection points to one or more gross errors or blunders.
Since the F-test, W-test and T-test are linked, it is best to interpret both tests combined:

A rejected F-test in combination with a limited number of W-test (T-test) rejections usually points to one or
more gross errors.

If the F-test is rejected and all observations of a specific type (e.g. all zenith angles) are rejected as well,
the problem could be the mathematical model which needs correction or refinement. For instance, if all
W-tests for the zenith angles are rejected, it may be useful to include refraction coefficients.

If the F-test is rejected as well as most of the W-test values (without extremes), the problem could be the
stochastic model. The input standard deviations are then too optimistic. On the other hand, if the F-test
value is well below the critical value, and the W-test (T-test) values are all close to zero, the input
standard deviations could be too pessimistic.
Suppose that the datasnooping on the observations in a network has resulted in a (limited) number of rejections. It
is assumed that the rejections are not caused by mathematical model errors, and that obvious errors such as
typing mistakes have been fixed. This leaves a number of options:

Remove the corresponding observation. This is a valid but rather abrupt way of handling rejections.
Remember that the removal of observations decreases the redundancy, and therefore influences
precision and reliability.

Remeasure the corresponding observation. Remeasuring observations is an obvious but often
expensive way to eliminate rejections, especially when the fieldwork is already completed. It is therefore
recommended to process as much of the data as possible on the site.

Increase the standard deviation of the corresponding observations. Increasing the standard
deviation of an observation will always work, meaning that it will always result in lowering the F-, W-, Ttest values. However, one should keep in mind that the goal is not to get all tests accepted, but rather to
detect blunders or model errors.

Ignore the rejections. This option is obviously very risky and is only applicable in case the W-test values
just exceed the critical value. It is useful to look at the estimate of the error involved with the rejection, and
to see whether it is acceptable or not. We also have to remember that, depending on the level of
significance, there is always a probability of rejecting a valid observation.
It must be stressed that an observation must never be edited in order to make it better fit in with the other
observations of the network, unless there is clear evidence of the source of the errors, e.g. a typing error.
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Estimated Errors
The size of the error responsible for the rejection of an observation or known coordinate is estimated by Design
and Adjustment. This so-called estimated error is a useful tool, but should be handled with care:
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
Only the estimated error associated with the largest W-test or T-test should be considered.

As far as the W-test is concerned, the estimated error is based on the conventional alternative hypothesis
that just one observation or known coordinate contains an error. Consequently if more errors are present
in the network the result of the estimation could be meaningless, unless errors have been made
(geographically) far apart.

As far as the T-test is concerned, the estimated error is based on the hypothesis that just one GPS
baseline or known station contains an error. Consequently if more errors are present in the network the
result of the estimation could be meaningless, unless errors have been made (geographically) far apart.
The test results and estimated errors are only meaningful when observational errors have been filtered
out in the foregoing free adjustment and testing phase.
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Points
Points View
The Points View enables you to display a list of all available points within a Project. The Points are displayed in a
user configurable Report View.

The Points View may be accessed via the
Points Tab from within an open Project.
Alternatively: The Points View may be displayed upon selecting Points in the Tree-View of the Project
Management.
Select from the Index to learn more about the Points View:
Add New Points
Activate / De-activate Points
Delete Points/ Triplets
Assign points to a surface
Modify Point items
Save As
Send To
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale
Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station)
Update Reference Triplet
Rename Tool
Point Editor
Point Properties
Configure the Points View
Move / Copy Points
Notes about Drag and Drop (Copy & Paste) points
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Configure the Points View
The Points View can be configured such that you can decide which kind of coordinate representation you want to
see and which items of Quality information shall be listed.
In the Points View you may switch between the coordinate system (WGS84 or Local) and you may switch between
the coordinate type (Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid) to be displayed.
The graphical views View/ Edit and Adjustment also offer the possibility to switch between the WGS84 coordinate
system and a Local coordinate system. The coordinate type is fixed to WGS84 Geodetic or Local Grid in the
graphical views.
Select the Coordinate System

WGS84 and
In the View main menu or the Coordinate Format Toolbar select between
right-click on a column heading, select Coord. System and choose a system from the list.
Local, or
Alternatively: Use Ctrl-W or Ctrl-G to switch from WGS84 to Local.
To be able to switch between the WGS84 and Local coordinates of a point, a Coordinate System defining the
parameters for the conversion must be attached to the Project.
Note: You can switch the Points view also if the conversion is not possible and even if no Coordinate System
is attached. Points which cannot be converted will not be displayed in this case.
Tip: To see all points in the Coordinate System in which they are stored to the database, select Coordinate
System and then As Stored from the View main menu.
Select the Coordinate Type

In the View main menu or the Coordinate Format Toolbar select between
and
Cartesian,
Geodetic
Grid, or right-click on a column heading, select Coord. Type and choose a type from the list.
To be able to switch between the Cartesian, Geodetic and Grid coordinates of a point a Coordinate System
defining the parameters for the conversion must be attached to the Project. Note that Grid is only possible if
the Coodinate System is Local.
Note: You can switch the Points view also if the conversion is not possible and even if no Coordinate System
is attached. Points which cannot be converted will not be displayed in this case.
Tip: To see all points in the Coordinate Type in which they are stored to the database, select Coordinate
Type and then As Stored from the View main menu.
Select the Coordinate Quality

In the Report-View of Points right-click on a column heading and select Coord. Quality. Select the
coordinate quality items that shall be displayed :
Standard Deviations, Var-covariance elements and/or Quality.
Configure the columns

Right-click on the column heading and select Columns... In the Columns dialog configure
- which columns you want to see (via the check-boxes or via the Show/ Hide buttons).
- the column order (via the Move up/ Move down buttons).
- the column width (in pixels).
Click Reset to restore the original settings.
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Related topics:
Report-View
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Add a New Point to the Points View
1.
From the Context-Menu (right-click) select New....
2.
Enter a unique Point Id.
3.
Change Point Class and Subclass if necessary.
4.
Select the Coordinate Type and Format. Additionally, if you add a new point to a Project select between
WGS84 and Local coordinates.
5.
If the coordinate format includes height, select between Ellipsoidal and Orthometric height.
6.
Enter the Point Coordinates and if necessary Geoid Separation.
7.
Enter the Standard deviations (optional).
Note: To toggle between standard deviations and quality information right-click in the background of the
page.
8.
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Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
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Point Properties
Point Properties (Points View)
This Property-Sheet enables you to display and/or modify the point properties.
1.
Right-click on a point in the Report-View and select Properties.
Use the tabs to switch between the following pages:
General
Stochastics
Thematical Data
Reliability (available only if the reliability has been previously calculated using the Adjustment component)
Mean (available only if more than one coordinate triplet of class Measured for a particular point exists)
Images (available only if at least one image is linked to the selected point)
Hidden Point functionality is only available for GPS measurements. Hidden Point Properties can only
be displayed in the View/ Edit component or in the Points View of LGO:
Hidden Point (Position) (available only if the selected point is a Hidden Point)
Hidden Point (Height) (available only if the Hidden Point has height properties attached)
2.
Make your changes.
Note: Only the fields with white background may be edited at that particular instant.
3.
Note:

Press OK to confirm or Cancel to abort the function.
This Property-Sheet does not list all possible point properties. All point properties at once may be
displayed in the Report-View only. Please refer to Point Properties: All for a complete description of all
point properties.
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Point Properties: All
Point Id
Point Identification
Point Class
Indicates the hierarchical position of a coordinate triplet for a point. For a complete listing of all Point
Classes refer to Point (Coordinate) Classes and Subclasses. When working with pure Level data only a
limited number of Point Classes is of relevance. In this case refer to Point Classes and Subclasses (Level).
Point Subclass
Certain Point Classes may have a Subclasses defined e.g. to describe the source of the coordinate triplet.
Date / Time
Date and Time the point triplet was created.
Coordinate Type
Displays the coordinate representation type: Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid. Additionally it allows you to
alternate between WGS84 and Local coordinate system.
Coordinate Format
Coordinate representations of the selected coordinate type:
- Cartesian: X, Y, Z
- Geodetic:
Latitude, Logitude
Latitude, Longitude, Height
Height
- Grid (only available if the Coordinate System is set to Local):
Easting, Northing
Easting, Northing, Height
Height
Geoid Separations are available in all Coordinate Formats if the Coordinate System is set to Local.
Coordinate Source X,Y / Coordinate Source Z
Refers to the source as to how the coordinate triplet was created. The Coordinate Source is displayed
separately for the position and height component.
X,Y,Z or Lat., Long., Height or Easting, Northing, Height
Values for the point coordinate triplets. The format depends on the Coordinate Type.
Geoid Sep.
The Geoid Separation is the difference between ellipsoidal and orthometric height
Coding Columns
The Coding Columns Code Group, Code, Description and Attributes enable you to get an overview of
the Thematical coding which has been attached to points. Due to the relationships between the data in
these columns, the data fields for these columns are read-only, i.e. they cannot be modified. As default,
these columns are hidden.
The Attributes column may contain more than one attribute for a point. In this case the single attributes are
delimited by a forward slash. The specific values are assigned to the single attributes with the help of the
equals sign.
Annotations
Displays all annotations that have been recorded on this point in the field. Note that for each occupation
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interval up to 4 annotations can be entered on the field system. In the office software these annotations are
delimited by a forward slash.
M0, Q11-Q33
Elements of the Variance – Covariance Matrix of the coordinate triplet.
Sd. X (Lat., East.)
Standard deviation:
Sd. Y (Long., North.)
Standard deviation:
Sd. Z (Height)
Standard deviation:
Posn. Qlty
Position Quality:
.
Hgt. Qlty
Height Quality:
.
Posn. + Hgt. Qlty
Position and Height Quality:
.
Semi-major (a) / Semi-minor (b) / Orientation (Phi)
Elements of the error ellipse.
Sd. Height
Standard deviation of the height as an equivalent to the error ellipse.
Reliability (E-W) / Reliability (N-S) / Reliability Height
The absolute Reliability is derived using the optional Design and Adjustment module. The elements are split
up in a East-West, North-South and Height component.
Averaging Limit Column
With the help of this indicator you may -if desired- get an overview of all points exceeding the averaging
limit. To group all these points together you may make use of the sort functionality. Deactivating all those
points may serve as an export filter.
The principle is that all measured triplets will be considered to decide whether the limit has been exceeded,
regardless of their Use-status. If one or more triplets exceed the limit, the point is flagged. The averaging
limit indicator is displayed regardless of whether the current triplet is of class Average.
Any time you associate different triplets with a point or you change the averaging limit of the project the
Averaging Limit-status will be updated.
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Point Properties: General
This Property-Page enables you to display/ edit General Point Properties.
Point Id
Point Identification
Point Class
Indicates the hierarchical position of a coordinate triplet for a point. The currently selected point class is
active for the selected point. It may be changed to any of the other classes that are available for the
selected point.
For a complete list of all Point Classes refer to Coordinate (Point) Classes and Subclasses.
Point Subclass
Certain Point Classes may have a Subclasses defined e.g. to describe the source of the coordinate triplet.
Coordinate Type:
Displays the coordinate representation type: Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid. Additionally it allows you to
alternate between WGS84 and Local coordinate system.
Coordinate Format
Coordinate representations of the selected coordinate type:
- Cartesian: X, Y, Z
- Geodetic: Latitude, Longitude, Height
- Grid: Easting, Northing, Height (only available if the Coordinate System is set to Local)
Note: The order of Easting and Northing depends on the coordinate order set under Tools - Options: Units/
Display.
The Geoid separation is the difference between ellipsoidal and orthometric height. Geoid Separations can
be added to all Coordinate Formats if the Coordinate System is set to Local.
Note: This input field is only visible if the Coordinate Format includes a Geoid Separation.
Height Mode:
If the Coordinate System is set to Local, height values may be displayed as follows:
-Ellipsoidal Heights above the Ellipsoid
-Orthometric Heights above mean sea level
The values of the point coordinate triplets are displayed depending on whether Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid has
been chosen as Coordinate Type. .
The standard deviation is listed to the right of each coordinate value. The standard deviations are derived from
the elements of the variance – covariance matrix as follows:
Tip: Right-click in the background of the General page to display the Coordinate Quality instead of Standard
Deviations and vice versa.
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In case a Reference point has been selected for display, the coordinate triplet is editable. Subsequently, all GPS
rover coordinates and all TPS target coordinates computed with respect to modified reference coordinates will be
shifted by the same amount as the reference coordinate triplet itself. In case GPS and TPS observations are
connected to the same reference then a coordinate system must be attached to the project to be able to convert
the amount of the shift from WGS84 to Local Grid.
to the clipboard and subsequently pasted
into another
The complete coordinate triplet can be copied
triplet of the same or of a different point. Use the corresponding buttons in the lower left corner of the Point
Properties: General page.
Note: Paste is only allowed if the coordinate type and system matches and if the triplet is editable.
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Point Properties: Stochastics
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the stochastic information of a point that refer to the point accuracy.
M0, Q11-Q33
Elements of the upper triangle of the variance - covariance matrix
Semi-major (a)
Semi-major axis of the error ellipse
Semi-minor (b)
Semi-minor axis of the error ellipse
Orientation (Phi)
Orientation of the semi-major axis
Sd. Height
Standard deviation of the height as an equivalent to the error ellipse.
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Point Properties: Thematical Data
This Property-Page enables you to display/edit the attached Thematical Coding information of a point. Thematical
Coding information is only available if a Codelist is attached to the project. If Thematical Codes have been used in
the field for data collection a Codelist is automatically transferred to the project during data import.
Note:

If you change the thematical code of a point you can only select Codes that are defined in the Codelist. To
create new Codes and Code Groups use the Codelist Tab.

The thematical code of a point can also be changed via in-line editing in the Points View or in the
Observations View in the View/ Edit or the Adjustment component. Only Codes that are defined in the
Codelist of the active project are available for selection.

Codes may also be changed for a multiple selection of points. On how to proceed in this case refer to
the topic: Modifying Point Codes.
Point Id:
Shows the point identification as read-only.
Code Group:
Shows the attached Code Group. To change select a different Code Group from the list.
Code:
Shows the attached Code. To change select a different Code from the list.
Description:
Shows the Description of the Code as read-only.
Attributes:
Lists the Attributes of the attached Code.
Type:
Value:
Shows the Attribute Type depending on which item is selected under Attributes. The following types are
possible: String, Integer or Real
Shows the value of the Attribute. To change enter a new value or choose a value from the list. Press Erase
to delete the value.
Note: If the Attribute is set to fixed the default value is shown and the value can not be changed.
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Point Properties: Reliability
This Property-Page displays the external reliability rectangle of a point. The external reliability can be defined as
the largest effect of an undetected error on a coordinate component due to a connected observation. See also All
about Adjustment: Reliability.
The reliability is available only if a point has been adjusted using the adjustment component and has been
determined by at least two independent measurements.
E-W:
Reliability in East-West direction (Longitude)
N-S:
Reliability in North-South direction (Latitude)
Height:
Reliability in Height
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Point Properties: Mean
If point coordinates are determined by two or more measurements, the software automatically takes the mean
(average) of all solutions (Measured coordinate triplets). This Property-Page enables you to display all Measured
coordinate triplets for a point and their differences to the mean.
Note:

This Property-Page is only available if more than one measurement exists for a particular point.
Point Id:
Point Identification
Averaging Limit:
Defines the maximum distance limit within which a coordinate triplet is automatically used to calculate a
mean (average). This limit can be set via Project Management under Project Properties: General.
Note: A solution has to comply with both limits (Position and Height) to be automatically averaged.
Current Mean Coordinates:
Displays the coordinates of the selected point and the Coordinate Quality (CQ).
List box:
Lists all Measured coordinate triplets for a point and the differences in position and height to the mean.
in the Use column.
Measurements that exceed the Averaging Limit are marked with
You may also manually accept or reject measurements for Mean calculation.
Computed Coordinates:
Displays the number of coordinate triplets that exceed the averaging limit and the mean (averaged)
coordinates based upon the current selection in the Use column.
Tip:

A summary of all points with mean coordinates is available in the Mean Coordinates and Differences
Report.
Related topics:
How to activate/ de-activate measurements for Mean calculation
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Point, Line/Area, Setup Properties: Images
In this Property-Page all images linked to the selected Point or Line/Area or TPS Setup are given in an
embedded thumbnail view together with the filename of each image and the date and time when the picture has
been taken.
Note:

This Property-Page is only available if there are images linked to the selected object.
If more than one image is linked to the selected object you may adjust the size of the thumbnails in the embedded
view to be able to see more than one thumbnail at a time.
When you select an image a context menu is available from which you may choose to Open the image in the
Windows default viewer or to Open the containing folder.
The Delete and Unlink functionality is available for a selection of one or more images.
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Point Properties: Hidden Points
Hidden Points are points that cannot be measured by GPS due to satellite shading, which may be caused by
trees overhead, the close proximity of buildings etc.
Nevertheless, such points can be captured by using one of the following methods with System 500 and GIS
System 50 sensors:

Bearing and Distance

Double Bearing

Double Distance

Chainage and Offset
Note: For further description of these methods see the Technical Reference Manual.
Depending on whether height information is attached to the Hidden Point the point property sheet offers you one or
two additional pages:

Hidden Point (Position) and/ or

Hidden Point (Height)
Both are designed to enable editing and subsequent re-calculation.
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Hidden Point (Position)
When Hidden Points have been measured and imported to LGO you will be offered one or two additional pages
on the corresponding Point Properties pages. The Position page will always be available for points of subclass
Hidden.
If a point has been measured twice or more as a Hidden Point you may select single intervals from the combo box
at the top of this page.
Method:
Each Hidden Point must have been measured using one of the following techniques:

Bearing and Distance

Double Bearing

Double Distance

Chainage and Offset
The method will be indicated to you in this combo box.
Note: For further description of the above mentioned methods see the Technical Reference Manual.
Posn. measurement qlty:
Here you are presented with the Position Quality of the Hidden Point as it has been configured on the
sensor in the field. It may be edited in this box for each point.
Depending on the method the following Hidden Point parameters are displayed an may be edited:
Bearing and Distance:
Editable elements:
Auxiliary point A
Bearing
Distance
Double Bearing:
Editable elements:
Auxiliary point A
Bearing (A)
Auxiliary point B
Bearing (B)
Double Distance:
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Editable elements:
Auxiliary point A
Distance (A)
Auxiliary point B
Distance (B)
Point is to the (left or right)
Chainage and Offset:
Editable elements:
Auxiliary point A
Auxiliary point B
Chainage
Offset
Point is to the (left or right)
If you want the chainage to be reverted
check Chainage from Auxiliary
point B toAuxiliary point A.
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Hidden Point (Height)
This page will only be available if the Hidden Point has height properties attached.
Method:
The height of a Hidden Point may have been derived by either applying the height difference measurement
on only one auxiliary point or by applying the mean height difference derived from measurements on two
auxiliary points or by applying a height difference derived from a slope distance and elevation angle
measurement on an auxiliary point. No matter which method has been applied, it will always be read-only
and is not editable. The following three methods are available:

Height difference

Height difference mean

Slope distance and elevation angle
Hgt. measurement qlty:
Here you are presented with the Height Quality of the Hidden Point as it has been configured on the
instrument in the field. It may be edited in this edit field for each point.
Depending on whether the height has been determined as an average or not, you will be presented with either the
height measurement based upon auxiliary point A or B or with height measurements on A and B. In both cases
the functionality for the edit fields and combo boxes described below is the same.
Auxiliary point A/ B:
Select the auxiliary point from which the height of the hidden point shall be derived. You may choose
between the auxiliary points used in the position calculation.
Height of auxiliary point A/ B:
The WGS84 height of the selected auxiliary point is indicated to you.
Height difference from auxiliary A/ B (Height difference methods):
Here you can edit the height difference(s) between the selected auxiliary point(s) and the Hidden Point.
Slope distance/ Elevation angle (Slope distance and elevation angle method):
Here you can edit the slope distance and elevation angle measured on the auxiliary point to the Hidden
Point. Changes result in a different height difference being calculated and applied.
Difference in the two solutions:
If an average height has been calculated for the Hidden Point, then the difference between the two height
solutions from which the average has been calculated will be indicated to you.
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Point Editor
The Point Editor is a spreadsheet style window which allows you to easily enter and/ or edit local grid coordinates
for existing or new points in an LGO project.
To be able to open the Point Editor the coordinates in your project either have to be stored as local grid or a
coordinate system has to be attached for WGS84 data.
To invoke the Point Editor:
1.
View/ Edit or in the
In
toolbar.
2.
Right-click into the view's background to invoke the Point Editor with an empty spreadsheet.
If one or more points are selected these will already be entered into the spreadsheet when the Point
Editor is opened.
Alternatively, select
toolbar.
3.
Points view switch the view to Local Grid in the Coordinate Format
Open Point Editor from the View/ Edit or the Points main menu or from the
Leave the Point Editor with OK to take your entries and/ or changes over into the active project.
The following point information is shown in the Point Editor:
Point Id:
The Id(s) of the selected point(s) are shown and may be edited. Ids for new points may be entered.
Point Class:
The current class of the selected point(s) is displayed but cannot be modified. The class of newly entered
points is always Control.
Easting, Northing, Ortho. Height:
The local grid coordinates of the selected point(s) are displayed. If the Point Class is Control the
coordinates may be edited. The coordinates for new points may be entered. The coordinate order will be as
set under Tools-Options: Units/Display.
Code, Code Group:
If the selected point(s) have a code attached it will be displayed as well as the code group it belongs to.
Codes and Code Group may always be changed or newly entered. Select a code from the drop-down list
(slow double-click) or enter a new code. You may either select a code group for newly entered codes or the
new codes will be inserted into the Default code group automatically.
Note:


The Point Editor opens by default with a limited number of lines displayed for entering data. To extend the
list simply click ENTER after you have completed the last line and a new line will be added automatically.
The columns may be arranged and configured as in any of the report views including sorting, moving,
hiding and viewing and a resetting the configuration.
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Modifying Point Items
Enables in-line editing of selected items.
1.
Right-click on the item to be edited and select Modify... from the context menu.
Alternatively: Double-click slowly onto an item.
2.
Change the value or select a value/ property from the list.
3.
Click Enter to confirm or Esc to abort the function.
Note:

Only items that are allowed to be modified at the particular time or instant are active.
For detailed information on special items see also:
Modifying Point Classes
Modifying Point Codes
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Modifying Point Codes
In the Points View and in the Observations View the thematical point code can be changed for single points or a
multiple selection of points.
For single points the code can be changed either via the Point Properties: Thematical Data property-page or via
in-line editing.
If the code(s) for more than one point shall be changed simultaneously:
1.
Select the points for which the code shall be changed.
2.
Right-click into the selection and select Edit Thematical Data... from the context menu. In the
Observations View select Edit Target/ Rover Point Code... from the context menu.
In this dialog:
3.
Select a Code from the same or another Code Group. All point codes that are available in the
Codelist of the active project will be offered for selection.
4.
Leave the dialog with OK to apply the selected Code Group, Code and Code Description to all
points included in the selection.
Note: Attribute values which might have been defined for the selected point(s) are removed when changing
the code. They would have to be re-defined for each point in the Point Properties: Thematical data dialog
page if desired.
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Modifying Point Classes in the Points View
In the Points View the point class can be changed for single points or a multiple selection of points.
For single points the class can be changed either in the General page of the Point Properties dialog or via in-line
editing.
If the class shall be changed for more than one point simultaneously:
1.
Select the points for which the class shall be changed.
2.
Right-click into the selection and select Change current Point Class... from the context menu. From the
sub-menu that pops up then select the point class to be applied to the selection.
Note:

If for one or more points in a selected set of points the selected point class does not exist then the
current class will not be changed for this or these specific point(s).
For example, if in a set of Control points there is one point that has class Averaged lying underneath and
if for the whole set the class shall be changed to Measured, then for all points except the one point that
also has class Averaged the Point class shall be changed to Measured. The one point with class
Averaged underneath will remain unchanged because for averaged points class Measured is not unique.
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Point (Coordinate) Classes and Subclasses
The coordinate class describes the type and/or source of a coordinate triplet. For each point there may exist more
than one coordinate triplet in the Office database.
The coordinate classes represent the hierarchical order of the coordinate triplets. The Points View displays the
active coordinate triplet for each point. By default the triplet with the highest class is active.
E.g. if you import GPS raw data, the points are imported with Navigated coordinate triplets attached. After
processing the baseline a coordinate triplet Measured is added to the point. After processing another baseline for
the same point another coordinate triplet Measured is added and an average is calculated. The average calculation
adds another coordinate triplet of class Average to the point. Later the point is used in an Adjustment which adds
the adjusted coordinates as a coordinate triplet of class Adjusted to the point and so on.
The point subclass on the other hand gives an indication to the user as to the source from which the coordinate
came.
The following list represents the Coordinate Classes in the ascending hierarchical order:
Symb
Class Id
Description
Estimated
This coordinate class is required to support the Adjustment component when
terrestrial observations are involved. Before an adjustment can begin,
provisional (estimated) coordinates are required for each point.
The subclass of Estimated is always None.
Navigated
Navigated coordinates derived using the uncorrected Code solution of a single
epoch. E.g. points that are imported via GPS data import and that have not yet
been post-processed are awarded point class Navigated.
The subclass of Navigated is always Code only
Single point
position
Coordinates derived using the Single Point Positioning (SPP) processing of the
GPS-Processing kernel or a GPS receiver.
The subclass of Single point Position is always Code only
Measured
Coordinates that have been differentially corrected using GPS post-processing
or Real-time are awarded this point class. Target points of TPS observations will
also have coordinate class Measured.
Note that only the class Measured can hold more than one coordinate triplet. If
more than one coordinate triplet for one point exists, the different coordinate
triplets are automatically averaged and the point is awarded the point class
Average.
Depending on the source of the coordinate triplet, the point may have the
following subclasses:
- Code Only Code only solution from post-processing
- Phase Fixed Phase solution from post-processing
- Phase Phase solution from RTK
- None Target point of a TPS observation
- Hidden Calculated solution for a Hidden Point
- (Aux) With this suffix the auxiliary points for Hidden Points will be marked.
Averaged
Averaged coordinates of points for which two or more measurements exist.
Averaging algorithms exist in the office software as well as on the sensor.
Note: Measured triplets stored in different coordinate systems (WGS84 or Local)
or coordinate types (Cartesian, Geodetic or Grid) can also be averaged if the
attached coordinate system allows the conversion.
The subclass of Averaged is always None.
Reference
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For points that have been used as a Reference for GPS Post-Processing or
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GPS Real-Time, a coordinate triplet of class Reference will be added. Such GPS
Reference triplets will always be stored in the WGS84 coordinate system.
Point class Reference is also used for points which are associated with a setup
which has connected TPS or Level observations in Adjustment.
Note: Only one Reference triplet can exist for anyone point.
Adjusted
Coordinates that have been adjusted using the Adjustment program.
Note: Since GPS Hidden Points do not take part in the Adjustment they will not
be awarded point class Adjusted afterwards even though subsequently their
coordinates might have changed. Thus, when you want to export e.g. all
adjusted points, be aware that you have to export the Hidden Points separately.
Control
Coordinates of class Control primarily serve as fixed coordinates for the network
adjustment. It is the highest point class and should be used if you enter
Coordinates manually. Depending on whether they are fixed in position, fixed in
height or both, they may have different subclasses and will be represented by
different symbols:
Fixed in Position and Height
Fixed in Position
Fixed in Height
Note:

Tip:
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
Coordinates that are manually entered may be awarded either the point class Estimated or Control only.
On how to copy and paste triplets easily refer to: Copy and Paste triplets in the Point Properties: General
page.
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Point Classes and Subclasses (Level)
The point class describes the type and/or source of a point height. For each point there may exist more than one
height in the LGO database.
The point classes represent the hierarchical order of a point's heights. The Points View displays the currently active
point class for each point. By default the height with the highest class is active.
The point class in the booking sheet is independent of the currently active point class in the Points View. In the
booking sheet the only two point classes to be displayed are Measured and Control. Other classes like for example
Averaged may only be displayed in the Points View.
See also: Changing Point Classes in the Booking Sheet
The point subclass supplies additional information relevant to the individual class. The subclass indicates to the
user the source the height came from.
The following list shows the Point Classes in ascending hierarchical order:
Class Id
Description
Measured
Class of heights that have either been calculated by the Level instrument while the Level
line was measured or that have been processed in LGO.
Measured point heights can be modified in the booking sheet. Accordingly, all measured
heights in the level line will be shifted by the same amount.
Depending on the source of the measured height a point of this class may have the
following subclasses:
- None: if the height is the measured raw height as it has been imported from the level
instrument via Raw Data Import.
- (Level) Processed: if the point has a height resulting from a processing run in LGO.
Note: Measured is the only point class which can comprise more than one height
coordinate. If more than one measured height exists for a point the average will
automatically be calculated. Points with an averaged height coordinate are awarded the
additional class Averaged.
Averaged
Class of points for which more than one height of class Measured exists.
The subclass of Averaged is always None.
Control
To process a level line in LGO at least one point must be of class Control. Control heights
are retained in a processing run. They serve as the basis relative to which all other points
are computed.
By default the first point in a level line will be set to class Control when importing level raw
data. It is assumed that the first point in a line has the known start height.
To change the default and fix point heights manually in the booking sheet select Create
Control from the context-menu.
In level projects the subclass of Control points is Fixed in Height.
Note: When you create a control you may fix the point's height to a different value than
the measured height value. Changing the point height in creating a control does not
simultaneously affect the heights of all other points. Neither the heights of all measured
points in the line nor the heights of other controls will be shifted by the same amount.
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Activate / De-activate Points (Points View)
Allows you to Activate or De-activate Points of a Project manually. If a Point is deactivated it is still visible on the
screen and stored in the Project database. When exporting points, de-activated points may be included via the
Settings pages of the various ASCII Export types. De-activated Points are marked with a blank check box to the
left of the Point Id.
Note: Additionally, de-activated points are not used in the optional adjustment component.
Activate:

Highlight a de-activated Point and select Activate from the context menu or from the Points main menu.
or
Select a series of de-activated Points and select Activate.
De-activate:

Highlight a de-activated Point and select De-activate from the context menu or from the Points main
menu.
or
Select a series of Points and select De-activate.
Alternatively:
 Use the check box to the left of the Point Id to activate
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or deactivate
points.
Be aware that single points as well as groups of points may also be activated or de-activated with the help
of Filters.
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Delete Points/ Triplets (Points View)
Enables you to delete a coordinate class (coordinate triplet) of a point or to delete an entire point.
To delete a point:
1.
Highlight a Point and select Delete and then Points from the context-menu or from the Points main menu.
2.
Press Yes to confirm or No to exit without deleting.
Note:

If you delete a Point, all coordinate triplets and all associated data including raw data will be deleted
permanently from the database.
To delete point triplets:
To delete a particular coordinate class (coordinate triplet) of one or a series of points, highlight the point(s)
to be deleted, go to Delete and then Triplets in the context-menu or the Points main menu and select an
individual class from the list.
Note:

Tip:
If you delete the only coordinate triplet that exists for a point, the entire point will be deleted from the
database.

If you delete the Averaged point triplet, all Measured triplets will be deleted as well.

If you select a series of points all of them can be deleted at once.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale
The Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard enables you to transform a set of grid coordinates into new coordinates using a
Classical 2D Helmert transformation for the position and a shift for the height component.
The parameters of the transformation can either:

be entered manually

be computed independently (by comparing a set of points)

be derived from a rigorous Helmert transformation.
The transferred grid coordinates replace the existing grid coordinates of the selected points. If you want to keep
the original grid coordinates, too, you should create a backup copy of your project first.
Note:


Only coordinates stored as local grid can be transformed.
You can be sure that setup and target points will only be transformed together. It is not possible to
transform only the setup coordinates or only the target coordinates of TPS observations.
To invoke the wizard:

Select the points to be transformed either graphically in the
View/Edit tabbed view or in the
Points
view of your project and select Shift/Rotate/Scale... from the corresponding main menu or from the
background menu.
Depending on the method that shall be used for calculating the shift, rotation and scaling parameters you will be
guided through the following wizard pages:
Enter manually or calculate separately:
Calculate using Common Points:
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Start
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Start
---
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Shift
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Common Points
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Rotation
---
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Scale
---
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Finish
Transformation
Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Finish
Transformation
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Tip:

If you want to use Filter Settings to select the points, set the filter criteria as required and apply them to
activate a subset of points. Afterwards select Select checked items from the Points context menu to
select the active subset of points as input to the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Start
In the Start page of the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard you are presented with a list of all point triplets which will be
affected by the transformation. The points are given together with their local grid coordinates in a configurable
report view.
The list of points is based upon the selection of points as given in the View/ Edit or Points tabbed view when
invoking the wizard. It is influenced, though, by some conditions which add or remove points to or from the list as
follows:

Only points stored with Local Grid coordinates are displayed. Point triplets which are not stored as Local
Grid (but e.g. as WGS84) cannot and will not be transformed.

The points must have position information to apply the 2D transformation. Height-only point triplets will
only be shifted in height.

Only Point classes Estimated, Measured, Reference, Adjusted and Control will be listed.

Measured point triplets, to which an observation has been made, will be removed from the list, if the
reference point (the TPS setup point) from which the observation has been made is not included in the
selection either.

If you have selected a Reference point triplet, then all connected measured point triplets will
automatically be included in the list.

If you have selected the Start point and the End point of a level line, then the measured point triplets of
all turning points will also be included.
By this selection mechanism it is ensured that setup and target points are always transformed together.
Inconsistencies are avoided.
You can decide on this wizard page which method shall be used for calculating the shift, rotation and scaling
parameters.

Select Enter manually or calculate separately if you want to either enter known parameters or calculate
the parameters independently using points stored in the project.
Click Next to proceed to the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Shift page.

Select Calculate using Common Points if you want to calculate the parameters for a Classical 2D
Helmert transformation by matching common points. The new coordinates of the common points can be
taken from any project.
Click Next to proceed to the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Common Points page.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Shift
In this page you may determine the Shift parameters for the 2D-Helmert transformation and the shift in height.
Shift parameters:
Enter the shift parameters dE, dN, dH manually. If you want the shifts in Easting, Northing and Height to be
calculated from two points in the project or from two manually entered sets of coordinates select
Calculate using Points.
The shift will be applied to all points listed in the Start page.
Calculate using Points:
Select two points between which the shift vector shall be calculated. From the drop-down lists you may
select any point which is either stored in local grid or can be converted to local grid in the project. You can
also enter Easting, Northing and Height manually.
The calculated differences in Easting, Northing and Height will be indicated as the shift parameters in the
dE, dN, dH edit fields. The shift will be applied to all points listed in the Start page.
Click Next to proceed with the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Rotation page.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Rotation
In this page you may determine the Rotation parameters for the 2D-Helmert transformation.
Rotation parameters:
Enter the rotation angle Rz manually. If you want the rotation to be calculated from points in the project
select Calculate using Points.
Select an Origin for the rotation. Enter the Easting and Northing coordinates manually or select any point
which is either stored in local grid or can be converted to local grid in the project from the drop-down list.
Based on the given Origin the rotation will be applied to all points listed in the Start page.
Calculate using points:
The rotation can be computed from the difference between two azimuth values. Enter the old and the new
azimuth values manually or select two points from which the old and new azimuth shall be calculated.
From the drop-down lists you may select any point which is either stored in local grid or can be converted to
local grid in the project.
The rotation angle Rz is calculated as the difference between the two azimuth values (new minus old).
The calculated rotation angle will be indicated in the Rz edit field. Based on the given Origin the rotation will
be applied to all points listed in the Start page.
Click Next to proceed with the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Scale page.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Scale
In this page you may determine the scale factor for the 2D-Helmert transformation.
Scale factor:
Enter the scale factor manually.
If you want the scale factor to be calculated from two given distances select Calculate using Distances.
If you want the scale factor to be calculated from the distances between two pairs of points in the project
select Calculate using Points.
Calculate using Distances:
Enter two distances (old and new) for the computation of the scale factor. The scale factor is derived by
dividing the new by the old distance.
The calculated scale factor will be indicated in the scale factor edit field.
Calculate using Points:
Select two pairs of points (old and new) from which the scale factor shall be calculated. Form the dropdown lists you may select any point which is either stored in local grid or can be converted to local grid in
the project.
For both of the selected pairs of points (old and new) the distances between Point Id 1 and Point Id 2 will
be calculated. The scale factor is derived by dividing the new by the old distance.
The calculated scale factor will be indicated in the scale factor edit field. The scale factor will be applied to
the selection of points listed in the Start page.
Click Next to proceed with the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation parameters page.
Tip:

If you want to transform the distance between a pair of given points to a specified new distance, proceed
as follows:
Select Calculate using Points and select the Point Ids between which the old distance shall be
calculated from the corresponding drop down lists.
After that de-select Calculate using Points. Calculate using Distances becomes active. Enter the
new distance manually.
The scale factor will then be computed from the computed old and the manually entered new distances.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale: Transformation parameters
In this page you may select which transformation parameters shall be calculated when points are matched in the
Common Points page.
Number of parameters:
Select all to compute all parameters for a Classical 2D Helmert transformation.
Select one of the predefined number of parameters (2 shifts or 2 shifts, rotation). For the parameters that
are set to No, a Value (which will be held fixed throughout the computation) can be introduced. Doubleclick on the parameter in the column Value, change the value and press Enter.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Common Points
In this page you may determine the parameters for a Classical 2D Helmert transformation and a shift in height by
matching common points.
The view is divided into 3 separate report views:

The top left view lists all point triplets as given in the Start page plus all Averaged triplets stored as local
grid.

The top right view offers local grid points for matching. These points may be taken from any available
project.

The bottom view shows the matched coordinate pairs.
To match common points:
1.
Click on a point in the top left view (System A).
2.
From the drop-down list select the project from which you want to select a common point. All point triplets
that are either stored in local grid or can be converted to local grid are listed in the top right report view
(System B). Double-click onto any of the points to match Point A and B. Both points will be listed as
Point A and Point B in the bottom report view.
3.
Repeat steps 1. and 2. until all points (at least 2 points) are matched. The transformation is re-calculated
with each additionally selected and matched common point. The bottom view indicates the residuals of
the transformation in the columns dE, dN, dH.
Note: To remove a pair of matched points right-click onto the pair of points and select Delete from the
context menu.
Once sufficient points are matched click Next to proceed with the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation
parameters page.
Note:


You can select common points from different projects by selecting another project from the drop-down list
after a point has been matched.
If you want to manually enter coordinates for the common points:
- Select None from the Project drop-down list.
- Right-click into the top right report view (System B) and select New Point... from the background menu.
- Modify the Point Id and Coordinates of the newly created common point via in-line editing or by
selecting Modify... from the context menu.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Transformation parameters
This page gives you an overview on the manually entered or calculated transformation parameters.

dE, dN, dH: Shift parameters in Easting, Northing and Height.

Rz, Easting, Northing: Rotation angle and coordinates of the rotation origin.

Scale factor
To save the 2D transformation enter a Name and press Save.
The Classical 2D transformation will be added to the list of transformations in the Coordinate System Management.
Note: The height shift will not be stored.
Click Next to finish the transformation.
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Shift/ Rotate/ Scale Wizard - Finish Transformation
This page lists all triplets of all points that will be transformed using the parameters as indicated in the
Transformation parameters page.

Click Finish to update all points in the database. The existing local grid coordinates will be replaced with
the coordinates as displayed in this page.

Click Back if you want to modify the transformation parameters.

Click Cancel to abort the operation without any changes to your project coordinates.
Note:

As all raw observations remain unchanged, the orientation of all TPS setups included in the selection will
be updated after finishing the Shift/ Rotate/ Scale wizard.
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Exchange Coordinate System (Smart Station)
This command enables you to recalculate the station coordinates of a TPS setup or the coordinates of a set of
points if the coordinate system used to derive the coordinates changes.
To exchange a coordinate system becomes necessary if your setup coordinates have been derived using a Smart
Station instrument and only a preliminary coordinate system was available in the field.
To invoke the functionality:

For a single TPS setup invoke the functionality from the Setup Properties: General page by pressing the
button in the lower left corner of the dialog.

To exchange the coordinate system for one or for more than one setup select the setup(s) in the TPSProc report view and select Exchange Coordinate System... from the context menu or from the TPSProc main menu.

You can also select a series of points in the View/ Edit or in the Points tabbed view and select
Exchange Coordinate system... from the background context menu or from the main menu.
The Exchange Coordinate System Wizard starts.
Start:
In the Start page of the wizard you are presented with a list of all point triplets which will be recomputed. The
points are given together with their local grid coordinates in a configurable report view.

If you have selected a TPS setup in the TPS-Proc view, then the Reference triplet of the station setup
and all connected measured point triplets will automatically be included in the list.

If you have selected a series of points in View/ Edit or in the Points view, then the list of points is based
upon the selection. It is influenced, though, by some conditions which add or remove points to or from the
list as follows:
- Only points stored with Local Grid coordinates are displayed. Point triplets which are not stored as
Local Grid (but e.g. as WGS84) cannot and will not be transformed.
- The points must have position information. Height-only point triplets will be ignored.
- Only Point classes Estimated, Measured, Reference, Adjusted and Control will be listed.
- Measured point triplets, to which an observation has been made, will be removed from the list, if the
reference point (the TPS setup point) from which the observation has been made is not included in the
selection either.
- If you have selected a Reference point triplet, then all connected measured point triplets will
automatically be included in the list.
By this selection mechanism it is ensured that setup and target points are always transformed together.
Inconsistencies are avoided.
Coordinate System selection:
In the Coordinate System selection page of the wizard:

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Determine the old and the new coordinate system. All coordinate systems stored in the Coordinate
System Management (except WGS1984 and None) are offered for selection.
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
Decide if you want to Keep the heights of the preliminary system and transform only the position to
the new coordinate system.

Decide if you wish to Attach the new coordinate system to the project. This is recommended to
ensure that any GPS measured points fit to the newly transformed TPS points.
Finish:
In the Finish page of the wizard the new local grid coordinates are listed for all point triplets. They are derived by
transforming the original grid coordinates to WGS84 using the old coordinate system and re-transforming the
coordinates back to local grid using the new coordinate system.

Click Finish to update all points in the database. The existing local grid coordinates will be replaced with
the coordinates as displayed in this page.

Click Back if you want to modify the coordinate systems.

Click Cancel to abort the operation without any changes to your project coordinates.
Note:

Since the backsight coordinates change together with the station coordinates for all setups of method Set
Orientation or Known Backsight the orientation of the setup is updated after executing the Exchange
Coordinate System command.
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Rename Tool
The Rename Tool offers you the chance to rename a selection of points or lines/ areas.

In
View/ Edit or in the
Points View select the points to be renamed and open the
Tool ... from the View/ Edit or the Points main menu
Rename
Alternatively: Open the Rename Tool ... from the View/ Edit background menu or the Points context
menu.

In the Lines/ Areas View select the lines/ areas to be renamed and open the Rename Tool ... from the
context menu.
The selected points or lines/ areas are listed in the Rename Tool with their Current ID and their New ID. If you see
that by chance a point or line/ area is included that shall not be renamed it may be deleted from the selection by
pressing the
and pressing the
Delete item button. You may also change the order of the points in the list by selecting a point
Move up/ down buttons.
General:
Insert new ID:
Insert a new Id for the selected points. The new Id can be composed of new alphanumeric characters plus
the current Id or parts of the current Id. Additionally, a numeric counter may be inserted. Spaces,
dashes, dots and underscores may serve as separators.
Add/ insert current ID:
Press the button to insert the Id which the point(s) or line(s)/ area(s) currently have into the Insert new ID
field. Before or after you may enter any combination of alphanumeric characters or add a counter to modify
the current ID as desired.
Add/insert part of current ID:
Press the button to select and insert a part of the Id which the point(s) or line(s)/ area(s) currently have into
the Insert new ID field. Before or after you may enter any combination of alphanumeric characters or add a
counter to modify the partly used current ID as desired.
Add/ insert numeric counter:
Press the button to insert a numeric counter for renumbering the IDs. The following selection fields become
active to define the counter:
Start counter at:
Define the number to start counting with.
Increment counter by:
Define how the counter shall be incremented.
Counter digits:
Define the digits that shall be reserved for inserting the counter.
A preview of the newly defined ID is given in the list below.
When you have finished redefining the IDs for the selected points, lines/ areas press OK to confirm the renaming
and close the tool.
Press Apply to confirm the renaming and take over the New IDs as Current IDs as the basis for the next change
without closing the tool. New IDs that are confirmed with Apply are remembered and offered in the Insert new ID
drop down list for future selection.
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Search and Replace:
Search for:
You may search for parts of the current Point or Line/ Area Ids that shall be renamed and replace these
parts with a new combination of alphanumeric characters. You may also search for Spaces, dashes, dots
and underscores to be replaced.
Note: Ids that have previously been confirmed by Apply are identified as the current Ids.
Replace with:
Define a replacement for the Search string. Spaces, dashes, dots and underscores may also serve or be
included as part of the Replace string. If you want to remove a fixed part of the current IDs leave the
replace string empty.
Again a preview of the new Point Ids is given in the list below.
When you have finished searching for and replacing IDs for the selected points, lines/ areas press OK to confirm
the renaming and close the tool.
Press Apply to take over the New IDs as Current IDs. Search and Replace strings that have been confirmed with
Apply are offered in the drop-down lists to be selected for future Search and Replace runs.
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Move / Copy Points
1.
In the Points Report-View of a Project select the points you want to copy or move.
2.
Choose
3.
Scroll to the Points Report-View of another Project.
4.
Choose
Copy from the Edit menu or Toolbar.
Paste from the Edit menu or Toolbar.
Alternatively:
 Use Drag and Drop to move points from one location to another.
Tip:

Note:

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You can duplicate a point if you copy and paste it into the original Project. A new point with the point id
extension (2) will be created.
A selection of points may also be sent to the Hard disk or to a Local memory device via the Send To
functionality in order to create a job that can be used with a SmartWorx or System 500 instrument.
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Project
Notes about Drag and Drop (Copy & Paste) Points
Drag and Drop (or Copy & Paste) Points between Projects has certain restrictions, especially if points are copied
that already exist in another Project.
Copy to a Project (more than one coordinate triplet may exist for a point):

Only the currently active coordinate triplet may be copied.

If a coordinate triplet already exists in the target Project, a new point is created with a unique Point Id (E.g.
‘PointA’ is copied as ‘PointA (2)’) except for coordinate triplets of Coordinate Class Measured. Coordinate
triplets of class Measured are added to an existing point and a new average is calculated.

If the Point Id does not exist in the target project, a new point with the same Point Id is created. If a point
with Coordinate Class Average or Reference is copied, the class is converted to Control.

Raw data is not transferred when dragging and dropping (or Copy & Paste) points.
Related topics:
Points View
Notes about importing Points
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Modifying Reference Coordinates
Reference triplets are created in the project database automatically when storing GPS-processing results,
importing GPS Real-Time or TPS raw data, when importing GPS baseline vector information from ASCII files or
when dragging and dropping observations (GPS or TPS) into the project.
For points that have been used as a GPS reference the reference coordinate triplet will be stored with its WGS84
coordinates. For points that are associated with a TPS setup (containing TPS observations) the reference
coordinate triplet will typically be stored with Local Grid coordinates.
If it turns out that wrong coordinates have been used for the reference in GPS-processing or for a TPS setup, then
you have the chance to modify the reference coordinates later. This might be essential if you are, for example, a
pure GPS Real-Time user who does not collect raw data and is, therefore, unable to post-process.
Modifying Reference Coordinates after Import:
In contrast to the Measured GPS Rover or TPS Target coordinates Reference coordinates can be viewed and
edited in the Point Properties – General page. On selecting OK or Apply after making your modification, the
difference in the Reference coordinates is computed. All rover/ target coordinates computed with respect to the
modified reference will be shifted by the same amount.
If GPS and TPS observations are connected to the selected reference, then typically some Measured triplets will
be stored in WGS84 (for GPS) and some in Local Grid (for TPS). Then a coordinate system is needed to apply the
shift of the Reference coordinates to all connected Measured rover and target coordinates.
Note:
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If you attempt to change a GPS reference by more than 10m it will be recommended that you re-process
the data. In order to do so raw data must be available. In re-processing the data the possibility of
introducing scaling errors can be avoided.

Incorrect GPS reference coordinates may arise due to incorrectly entered antenna heights or a wrongly
assigned antenna. In this case you have the chance to modify the antenna heights directly under Interval
Properties (Track): Antenna.

When modifying Reference coordinates the GPS baseline vectors (DX, DY, DZ) and all TPS observations
remain unchanged. After the modification has been applied the affected Average coordinates will be recomputed. However, to avoid that a network of baselines becomes in-homogenous, modifying one
Reference triplet never automatically shifts the coordinates of another Reference triplet.
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Surfaces
Surfaces
The Surfaces view enables you to graphically view and edit all surfaces within a project. Surfaces may either be
imported from SmartWorx jobs or they may be created manually in the Surfaces view. Surfaces can be visualized
in a 2D or in a 3D view. Volumes can be calculated against reference heights or between surfaces.

The Surfaces View may be accessed via the
Surfaces Tab from within a project window.
The view consists of three left-hand panes and two right-hand panes.
Example:
In the top left-hand pane all surfaces currently stored in the project will be displayed.

To create a new surface right-click into the Surfaces pane and select New... from the context menu. A
default name will be given and can be edited.

To later modify a surface name right-click onto the surface and select Modify from the context-menu.

To delete a surface select Delete from the context menu. All points, lines and areas assigned to the
surface will remain stored in the project.
One or more
Surfaces may be activated in the Surfaces pane. Depending on which view is currently active
in the Views pane the right-hand pane either displays the active surface(s) graphically (2D View, 3D View) or
lists the points belonging to the active surface(s) in a report view (Points view).
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To switch between the representations of the active surface(s) make your selection in the Views pane on the lefthand side of the window. You can choose between the following views:
2D View
3D View
Points View
The lower part of the right-hand side displays the Surface Property view and represents the Surface Results. The
calculated volume, the area and some more information is displayed for the selected surface.
To get an overview on the surface results in a printable report, including the information displayed in the Surface
Property view, invoke the Surface Report.
The settings for the selected surface may be viewed and edited in the Active Surface Settings pane in the lower
part of the left-hand side. The Active Surface Settings pane consists of two sections:
The Surface settings allow to select graphical settings for the selected surface and are independent of the
selected view type (2D or 3D or Points). If more than one surface is stored in the project select the surface in the
top part of the left-hand pane to individually change the following surface settings:
Name:
Indicates the name of the selected surface.
Border style/ color/ width:
Indicates the line style, color and width of the border of the triangles in the selected surface. The settings
may be changed if necessary.
Shading color:
Indicates the shading color of the selected surface. The color may be changed if necessary.
Contour settings:
In the 2D View you can select to display contour lines. For the contour lines you can select the color, the
difference between contour lines and set a minimum and maximum height value for the contour lines.
The color of the contour lines can be set separately for all contour lines which lie above or below a given
threshold height.
Autom. boundary creation:
To avoid flat triangles being built at the edge of the surface model the settings for Automatic boundary
creation may be modified. Choose between Distance or Angle and enter a Value for one or the other.
Automatic boundary creation may also be switched Off. Selecting a Distance criteria will avoid triangles
with sides longer than the specified distance being built at the edge of the surface. Selecting an Angle
criteria will avoid triangles with angles smaller than the specified value being built at the edge of the surface.
The additional settings that can be selected in the Show section allow to switch the most important Graphical
Settings on and off. These settings are dependent on whether the 2D or the 3D view is selected for display. For a
description of the view dependent settings refer to the topics 2D View and 3D View.
See also:
Surfaces: 2D View
Surfaces: 3D View
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Surfaces: Points View
Graphical Settings (Surfaces)
Surface Results
Surface Report
Assign/ Remove points to/from a surface
Include/ Exclude triangles
Breaklines
Boundaries
Exporting Surfaces
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Assign/ Remove points to/from a surface
Points stored in the project can be assigned to a surface or can be removed from a surface. When assigning or
removing points the surface and its configured volume is instantly re-calculated.
To assign points to an existing surface:
Points in the project which are not belonging to a surface may be assigned to a surface if necessary.

In the Surfaces view make sure Unassigned Points are
enabled to be displayed for the 2D view. In
the 2D View select one or more points and select Assign to. If more than one surface is activated within
the project select the surface to which the point(s) shall be assigned.
Alternatively points can also be assigned to an existing surface from within the View/Edit or Points tabbed
view. Highlight the points and select Assign to surface from the context-menu.
To remove points from a surface:
Points belonging to the active surface(s) may be removed in the 2D View or in the Points view.

Select the point(s) to be removed. Then select Remove (Point) from the context/ background menu.
Removed points are removed from the surface but remain stored in the project. They may be assigned to the
surface again if necessary. They will not show up in the Points view any longer.
Note:
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The current triplet of the points will be used for the triangulation. It must either be stored with Local Grid
coordinates or the coordinate system attached to the project must allow to convert the point to Local Grid
coordinates. Only points with Position and Height information can be included in surface calculations.
on or off for display in the Settings view on the left-hand pane of
Unassigned Points can be switched
the window. The color of Unassigned Points can be selected in the Graphical Settings: Color dialog.
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Activate/ De-activate points
Points belonging to the active surface(s) may be activated or de-activated in the 2D View or in the Points view.

Select the point(s) to be activated/ de-activated. Then select Activate/ De-activate (Point) from the
context/ background menu.
De-activated points are excluded from the surface, but remain assigned to the surface. For the remaining active
points the triangulation will be re-computed. De-activated points may be activated again.
See also:
Assign/ remove points to/ from a surface
Include/ Exclude triangles
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Include/ Exclude triangles
Triangles belonging to the active surface(s) may be excluded from the surface as well as included again in the
2D View.

To include or exclude a single triangle select the triangle and select Include or Exclude from the
background context menu.

If you multi-select triangles by dragging a rectangle around the desired area, only those triangles will be
included into the selection, of which all three points constituting the triangle are included into the selection.
To include or exclude the selected triangles select Include triangles or Exclude triangles from the
background context-menu.
Note: If you have zoomed into the view you must select Include triangles or Exclude triangles from the
Surfaces main menu.
When including or excluding triangles the surface and its configured volume is instantly re-calculated.
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Breaklines
Breaklines are lines with a constant grade, which can be introduced into the surface calculation. For example, the
side of a road or the top of a ridge can be defined as a breakline. Assigning breaklines to a surface will force the
triangles in the terrain model to be rebuilt by taking the grade of the line into account. As a consequence the
breaklines will become triangle edges and there will not be any incorrect interpolation across the breaklines.
Breaklines can be defined as lines connecting any point stored in the project. The points from which the breakline
is built do not have to be assigned to the surface. You can either assign a line already stored in the project to a
surface or you can manually create new breaklines in the Surfaces view.
To assign an existing line as a breakline:

enabled to be displayed for the 2D view. In the 2D View
In the Surfaces view make sure Lines are
right-click on the line and select Assign Breakline to. If more than one surface is activated within the
project select the surface to which the breakline shall be assigned.
To create a new breakline for the selected surface:

Within the Surfaces tabbed view select New and Breakline from the background context-menu of the 2D
View. Select one after the other the points that shall belong to the breakline. When the breakline that shall
be created is complete, right click and select Enter from the context menu. To change the graphical
representation of the line select Enter & Edit from the context menu. To abort the creation of the
breakline select Cancel from the context menu.
Note: Breaklines created in the Surfaces tabbed view are also visible as lines in the View/Edit tabbed
view.
Effect of introducing breaklines:
When a new breakline is assigned to a surface, the intersections between the breakline and all existing triangle
edges are calculated. For the resulting new break points the heights will be interpolated along the breakline. The
new break points are added to the model and new triangles will be built automatically.
Example:
After introducing the red line as a breakline additional triangles will be built as shown below:
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If the start or end point of a breakline lies within an active triangle, these points will be added to the triangulation.
Parts of a breakline outside the boundary will be ignored.
To remove a breakline from a surface:

In the Surfaces 2D view right-click on the breakline and select Remove breakline from from the context
menu. If a breakline is simultaneously assigned to more than one surface select the surface from which
the breakline shall be removed.
Graphical Settings:
Breaklines can be switched
on or off for display in the Settings view on the left-hand pane of the window. The
color of breaklines can be selected in the Graphical Settings: Color dialog.
Note:
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Breaklines must not cross each other unless they pass through a common point. Crossing breaklines are
reported in the Surface property view below the displayed surface.
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Boundaries
Two types of boundaries are supported within the Surfaces view:

Include boundaries are areas that should be included in the terrain model. Points outside an Include
boundary are discarded for the surface model calculation.

Exclude boundaries are areas inside an Include boundary that shall be excluded from the calculation.
Automatic boundary calculation:
When the surface is created an Include boundary is automatically built as the convex hull of all surface points.
The definition of this automatically created boundary can be modified with some settings available from the Active
Surface Settings pane. This may help to avoid flat triangles being built at the edge of the model:

In the Active Surface Settings pane you can choose three different methods for Autom. Boundary
creation:
Off: the automatically created Include boundary (the convex hull of all surface points) is taken.
Distance: Outer triangles of which one edge is longer than the user-defined Value will be excluded from
the surface.
Angle: Outer triangles in which one angle is smaller than the user-defined Value will be excluded from
the surface.
Manual boundary calculation:
Manually adding boundary lines will force the triangles in the terrain model to be rebuilt. Boundary lines will
become triangle edges and intersections between boundary lines and existing triangle edges will be introduced into
the computation as additional break points.
Boundaries can be defined as areas connecting any point stored in the project. The points from which the
boundary is created do not have to be assigned to the surface. You can either assign an area already stored in the
project to a surface or you can manually create new boundaries in the Surfaces view.
To assign an existing area as a boundary:

In the Active Surface Settings pane of the Surfaces view make sure Areas are
enabled to be
displayed for the 2D View. In the 2D View right-click on the area and select Assign Include Boundary to
or Assign Exclude Boundary to. If more than one surface is activated within the project select the
surface to which the boundary shall be assigned.
To create a new boundary for the selected surface:

Within the Surfaces tabbed view select New and Include Boundary or Exclude Boundary from the
background context-menu of the 2D View. Select one after the other the points that shall belong to the
boundary. When the boundary that shall be created is complete, right click and select Enter from the
context menu. To change the graphical representation of the boundary select Enter & Edit from the
context menu. To abort the creation of the boundary select Cancel from the context menu.
Note: Boundaries created in the Surfaces tabbed view are also visible as areas in the View/Edit tabbed
view.
Effect of introducing boundary lines:
When a new boundary is assigned to a surface, the intersections between the boundary and all existing triangle
edges are calculated. For the resulting new break points the heights will be interpolated along the triangle edges.
The new break points are added to the model and new triangles will be built automatically.
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Example:
After introducing the red area (A1-A2-A3-A4) as an exclude boundary additional triangles will be built as shown
below:
Boundary points that fall within existing triangles will be added to the surface. The height will be interpolated within
the triangle plane.
To remove a boundary from a surface:
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In the Surfaces 2D graphical view right-click on the boundary and select Remove Include Boundary
from or Remove Exclude Boundary from from the context menu. If a boundary is simultaneously
assigned to more than one surface select the surface from which the boundary shall be removed.
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Graphical Settings:
on or off for display in the Settings
Include Boundaries and Exclude Boundaries can separately be switched
view on the left-hand pane of the window. The color of Include Boundaries and Exclude Boundaries can be
selected in the Graphical Settings: Color dialog.
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Surfaces: 2D View
In the 2D View all
pane.
active surfaces are graphically displayed with their triangle representation in the right-hand
Surface Settings:
Independent of whether a surface is active or not it may be selected in the Surfaces pane. The Settings for the
currently selected surface may be viewed and edited in the Active Surface Settings pane on the left-hand side:
Name:
Indicates the name of the selected surface.
Border style/ color/ width:
Indicates the line style, color and width of the border of the triangles in the selected surface. The settings
may be changed if necessary.
Shading color:
Indicates the shading color of the selected surface. The color may be changed if necessary.
Contour settings:
For the contour lines you can select the color, the difference betwe