usb engineering change notice

USB ENGINEERING CHANGE NOTICE
Title:
Applies to:
Pull-up/pull-down resistors
Universal Serial Bus Specification Revision 2.0
Summary of ECN:
This ECN changes the range of the pull-up and pull-down resistors used to bias the bus. New values for
the pull-down resistors are 14.25 kΩ to 24.80 kΩ. For the pull-up resistors, the values are 900 Ω to 1575
Ω when the bus is idle and 1425 Ω to 3090 Ω when the upstream device is transmitting.
Reasons for ECN:
This change allows the resistors to be moved onto the device or hub Silicon and not require laser
trimming to achieve the required tolerances. This can result in a significant savings in cost, especially for
a hub. It also has a significant impact on an OnTheGo, dual-role device that has to switch both the pullup and pull-down resistors.
Impact on existing peripherals and systems:
There is no impact to current devices that are compatible with the current versions of the USB
specification. The change has no impact on interoperability.
Hardware implications:
1) Increasing the pull-down resistor increases the discharge time of the bus after a disconnect. Worst-
case discharge time increases from 15.75 µs to 20 µs. This increase has no operational implications.
2) Decreasing the pull-up resistor value increases the amount of current used for bus biasing by a small
percentage (from 218 µΑ max to 238 µΑ or 9%). On average, the amount of current used for the
biasing is reduced as the pull-down resistor value has the largest impact on the total current. If the
increase in bias current is a problem for a device, it is free to use the older tolerance (i.e. if a device
would be affected then it does not have to implement the change and the wider tolerance on the
connected device will not have a negative impact).
3) The original values for the pull-down resistors assumed that the output leakage current of an off output
would be about 10 µΑ. With both the hub and device in the idle state, the pull-down on the low data
line (D- for high and full-speed, D+ for low-speed) would be 20 µΑ * 15.75 kΩ = 315 mV. To keep the
idle voltage at the same level, any hub/host that uses the higher value resistance has to reduce its
leakage current proportionately. If, for example, a hub has a 24.80 kΩ pull-down, then to allow for the
legacy device leakage of 10 µΑ, the leakage current on the hub has to be no more than 2.7 µΑ. This is
well within the capabilities of contemporary Si processing and testing.
4) The pull-up resistors change from lower resistance to higher resistance when the bus goes from idle to
active. This ensures that existing hub/host Si can drive the downstream device without increasing jitter
or otherwise degrading signaling margin.
5) Devices that use this scheme for their pull-down resistors must be aware that the pull-up resistor on a
LS device may be tied to Vbus. The increase in the pull-down resistance can cause the idle voltage on
the bus to rise as high as 4.1 V. If the process used does not allow this sustained voltage on the bus,
then the standard values of resistance should be used.
Software implications:
None.
Compliance testing implications:
None.
Specification Changes:
No changes outside of Chapter 7.
In Chapter 7, change all occurrences in text and in drawings of:
“15 kΩ ±5%”
to
“14.25 kΩ to 24.80 kΩ”
In Chapter 7, change all occurrences in text and in drawings of:
“1.5 kΩ ±5%”
to:
“1.5 kΩ (nominal)”
Note: No changes to test loads are proposed. All testing is to be done using the “nominal” values for
pull-up (1.5K) and pull-down (15K) as currently specified.
Change sections 7.1.5.1, 7.1.5.2 as follows:
7.1.5.1 Low/Full-speed Device Speed Identification
The USB is terminated at the hub and function ends as shown in Figure 7-20 and Figure 7-21. Full-speed and low-speed
devices are differentiated by the position of the pull-up resistor on the downstream end of the cable:
•
Full-speed devices are terminated as shown in Figure 7-20 with the pull-up resistor on the D+ line.
•
Low-speed devices are terminated as shown in Figure 7-21 with the pull-up resistor on the D- line.
•
The pull-down terminators on downstream ports are resistors of 14.25 kΩ to 24.80 kΩ15kΩ ±5% connected to
ground.
The design of the pull-up resistor must ensure that the signal levels satisfy the requirements specified in Table 7-2. In
order to facilitate bus state evaluation that may be performed at the end of a reset, the design must be able to pull-up D+ or
D- from 0 V to VIH (min) within the minimum reset relaxation time of 2.5 µs. A device that has a detachable cable
mustmay use a 1.5 kΩ ±5% resistor tied to a voltage source between 3.0 V and 3.6 V (VTERM) to satisfy these
requirements. Devices with captive cables may use alternative termination means;. Hhowever, the Thevenin resistance
of any termination must be no less than 900 Ω and the open-circuit voltage of the pull up must not exceed VBUS. These
alternative means must produce an idle voltage (VIHZ) on D- or D+ of between 2.7 V and 3.6 V when terminated with a
pull-down resistance of 15 kΩ±5% to ground .
Note: Thevenin resistance of termination does not include the 14.25 kΩ to 24.80 kΩ15kΩ ±5% resistor on the host/hub.
Alternative implementations for RPU are allowed on upstream facing ports on devices with detachable cables with the
following restrictions:
•
When the bus is in the Idle state (including Suspend) or the upstream device is asserting SE0, the pull-up resistance
must be between 900 Ω and 1575 Ω. The 1575 Ω maximum value ensures that the Idle voltage is at 2.7 V or higher
even when a minimum value of pull down (14.25 kΩ) is present.
•
When the upstream device is transmitting data, the pull-up resistance shall switch to a value between 1425 Ω and
3090 Ω. The 1425 Ω minimum value ensures that the load presented by the switched resistance is no greater than the
load presented by a 1.5 kΩ ±5%. The 3090 Ω maximum value is sufficient to ensure that the data line is held in a
valid high state if the receiver has interpreted noise on the line as the start of a packet.
•
When the upstream device is transmitting SE0, the pull-up resistance should be less than 3090 Ω but not less than 900
Ω. The resistance must be less than 3090 Ω to ensure that the data line will be pulled high within 2.5 µs if the
upstream device stops driving the SE0 without driving the bus back to an Idle state.
If a variable RPU is implemented, then the resistance switches from its low-resistance value (900 Ω to 1575 Ω) to its highresistance value (1425 Ω to 3090 Ω) when a J-K transition is detected on the bus. This change must occur within 0.5 bit
times of the transition. The resistance is switched from its high-resistance value to its low-resistance value when SE0 is
detected on the bus for more than 0.5 bit times, or when the bus has been in the J state for more than 7 bit times. An
implementation may implement either or both of these schemes. Figure 7-22 illustrates an implementation of a variable
RPU.
The nominal value for the pull-down resistors is 15 kΩ±5%. Values of up to 24.8 kΩ are allowed; however, when values
exceeding 15.75 kΩ are used, allowance must be made for alternative pull-up means as described above. In particular, the
pull-up resistor on the downstream device may be connected to VBUS instead of to a local 3.3 V supply with a resistor
value as 7.2 kΩ. If a pull-down resistance of 24.8 kΩ is used, the idle voltage (VHIZ) on the D- or D+ lines can be as high
as 4.1 V. Downstream ports using pull-down resistors greater than 15.75 kΩ and upstream ports of devices with captive
cables using alternative termination means must be able to accommodate this idle voltage (VHIZ), which is greater than the
value for (VHIZ) given in table 7.3.2.
The voltage source on the pull-up resistor must be derived from or controlled by the power supplied on the USB cable
such that when VBUS is removed, the pull-up resistor does not supply current on the data line to which it is attached.
R PU
D+
D+
Full-speed or
R PD
Low-speed USB
Transceiver
DR PD
D-
Z 0 =90Ω ±15%
R PD =14.75 kΩ to 24.80 kΩ
Host or
Hub Port
R PU=1.5KΩ (typical)
Full-speed USB
Transceiver
Hub Upstream Port
or
Full-speed Function
Figure 7-20. Full-speed Device Cable and Resistor Connections
RPU
D+ Low-speed USB
Transceiver
D+
Full-speed or
Low-speed USB
RPD
Transceiver
DRpd=14.75 kΩ to 24.80 kΩ
RPD
D- Slow Slew Rate
Buffers
Rpu=1.5KΩ (typical)
Host or
Hub Port
Low-speed Function
Figure 7-21. Low-speed Device Cable and Resistor Connections
PPU2
SW2
SW1
RPU1
D+ or D-
Bus State
Idle
Receiving
Transmitting
Vbus Off
SW1
Closed
Closed
X
Open
SW2
Closed
Open
X
X
RPU1 = 900 Ω to 1.575 kΩ
RPU2 = 525 Ω to 1.515 kΩ
Figure 7-22. Variable Pull-up Example
7.1.5.2 High-speed Device Speed Identification
The high-speed Rreset and Ddetection mechanisms follows the behavioral model for low-/full- speed. When reset is
complete, the link must be operating in its appropriate signaling mode (low -speed, full- speed, or high- speed as governed
by the preceding usage rules), and the speed indication bits in the port status register will correctly report this mode.
Software need only initiate the asserting of reset and read the port status register upon notification of reset completion.
High-speed capable devices initially attach as full-speed devices. This means that for high-speed capable upstream facing
ports, RPU (1.5 kΩ nominal+/-5%) must be connected from D+ to the 3.3 V supply (as illustratedshown in Figure 7-1 or
in 7-22) through a switch which can be opened under SW control.
After the initial attachment, high-speed capable transceivers engage in a low level protocol during reset to establish a
high-speed link and to indicate high-speed operation in the appropriate port status register. The protocol is described in
Section 7.1.7.5.
In table 7-7 on page 178, change the following entry:
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min.
Max.
Units
Input Levels for Low-/full-speed:
High (floating)
VHIZ
Note 4, Section 7.1.4
2.7
3.6
V
to:
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min.
Max.
Units
Input Levels for Low-/full-speed:
High (floating)
VHIZ
Note 16, Section 7.1.4
2.7
3.6
V
Add note 16 to page 185 as follows:
Note 16: Measured at A connector with 1.5 kΩ±5% to 3.3 V ± 0.3 V connected to D+ or D- and at B connector with 15 kΩ±5%
to ground connected to D+ and D-.
In table 7-7 on page 180, change the following entries:
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min.
Max.
Units
1.575
kΩ
Terminations:
Bus Pull-up Resistor on
Upstream Port
RPU
1.5 kΩ ±5%
Section 7.1.5
Bus Pull-down Resistor on
Downstream Port
RPD
15 kΩ ±5%
Section 7.1.5
1.425
14.25
15.75
kΩ
to:
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min.
Max.
Units
Terminations:
Bus Pull-up Resistor on
Upstream Port (idle bus)
RPUI
Section 7.1.5.1
0.900
1.575
kΩ
Bus Pull-up Resistor on
Upstream Port (upstream port
receiving)
RPUA
Section 7.1.5.1
1.425
3.090
kΩ
Bus Pull-down Resistor on
Downstream Port
RPD
Section 7.1.5.1
14.25
24.80
kΩ