2012 Hospital medical equipment - general information Microscopes, light, laboratory UMDNS 15156 Microscopes, light, laboratory GMDN 35484 Basic light microscope Other common names: Laboratory microscopes; binocular microscopes Health problem addressed Microscopic analysis of blood cells helps diagnose infections and allergies, leukemias, anemias, and other blood disorders. Microscopic examinations can detect abnormal changes in cells or tissues to differentiate benign, inflammatory, precancerous, or malignant conditions. And, examinations of urinary sediment are valuable in laboratory evaluation of kidney function. Selective staining techniques can be used in microscopy to help identify parasites, fungi, and bacteria. Product description The basic parts of a light microscope are the lens system (eyepieces, objectives, and substage condenser), the body (observation tubes with diopter adjustment, interpupillary adjustment, and revolving nosepiece), the stage and stage controls, and the illumination system. Most microscopes use Koehler illumination, which requires a light source, a lamp condenser, an iris diaphragm, a corrected substage condenser, and a first-surface mirror or silvered right-angle prism. Principles of operation Objectives collect light from the light source and focus it to produce a magnified image of the specimen on the opposite side of the lens system. The eyepiece magnifies the image of the specimen produced at the rear of the objective. The total magnification equals the objective magnification multiplied by the eyepiece magnification. The substage condenser focuses light from the light source onto the specimen plane, supplying enough convergent light for the microscope to achieve the full resolving power of the objective. The stage, on which the specimen slide is placed, is in the center of the microscope; the stage can be moved in the X, Y, or Z direction. The microscope body also features a revolving nosepiece on which the objectives (4 or 5) are mounted. Various contrast methods enhance contrast and color in specimen images, including darkfield, fluorescence, interference, phase, and polarized-light methods. Many microscopes offer two or more contrast method options. User(s): Laboratory technician; physician Maintenance: Biomedical engineering staff and/ or service contract with the manufacturer or third-party organization; OEM servicers Training: Initial training by manufacturer; operator’s manuals; user’s guide Environment of use Settings of use: Clinical or research laboratory; physician office; clinic; hospital Requirements: Line power Product specifications Approx. dimensions (mm): [380-450] x  x [305-380] Approx. weight (kg): 10 Consumables: NA Price range (USD): 200-26,000 (1,000-3,000 typical); price covers all types and variations Typical product life time: 10 years Shelf life (consumables): NA Types and variations Operating steps • Place specimen slide on to stage. • Adjust diopter wheel and interpupillary wheel to adjust for operator’s eyesight and distance between the operator’s eyes. • If applicable, select contrast method depending on specimen type. • Select appropriate eyepiece and objective lenses to adequately view specimen details. Reported problems Special care must be taken in fluorescence microscopy. A field radiated in ultraviolet light should never be observed without the barrier filter in place; permanent eye damage may result. The repeated use of microscopes that are improperly designed may increase the potential for cumulative trauma disorders. Injury can occur if the user is forced to lean over the eyepieces or bend the wrists at an unnatural angle. Viewing sharp, crisp images helps reduce eyestrain and fatigue. http://www.who.int/medical_devices Use and maintenance • Various illumination methods (Koehler most common) • Monocular, binocular, trinocular eyepiece configuration (binocular most common) • Abbe, achromatic, aplanatic substage condensers (Abbe condenser most common) • Achromatic, fluorite (semiapochromatic), apochromatic objective types (Achromatic most common) • Brightfield, darkfield, fluorescence, interference, phase contrast, polarized contrast methods (Brightfield most common) • Stereo microscopes for 3-D viewing • Inverted stage microscopes for largespecimen viewing • Optional camera equipment © Copyright ECRI Institute 2012 (not including GMDN codes and device names). UMDNS codes and devices names: © Copyright ECRI Institute 2012. Reproduced with Permission from ECRI Institute’s Healthcare Product Comparison System. GMDN Codes and Term Names: © Copyright and database rights: GMDN Agency Ltd 2005-2012. All rights reserved.