CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers

CPSC Handbook
for Resale Stores and
Product Resellers U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
Saving Lives and Keeping Families Safe
Introduction
On August 14, 2008, the President signed the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008
(CPSIA) into law. This Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers was created by the U.S. Consumer
Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help sellers of used products understand the new law and existing
regulations.
The implementation of the CPSIA will have dramatic changes for the marketplace. Selling recalled
products is now unlawful. The law sets strict limits for lead in paint and for lead content. Additionally,
three types of phthalates are permanently prohibited in certain toys and child care articles and three
other phthalates are prohibited on an interim basis in certain child care articles and children’s products
that can be placed in a child’s mouth.
The purpose of this Handbook is to help you to identify the types of products that are affected and to
understand how to comply with the law, so you can keep unsafe products out of the hands of consumers.
Consumers who regularly buy used products may also find this information helpful in avoiding products
that could harm them or their family.
New requirements on importers and manufacturers of products should lead to safer products in the
resale market in the future, but right now, resellers need to be able to determine what was manufactured
in the past that may no longer be compliant. This Handbook will help you make sound business decisions
to protect yourself and your customers. Make sure you visit our Web site - www.cpsc.gov - frequently
for updated information.
Table of Contents
The Basics.........................................................................................................2
What is a Consumer Product?.........................................................................2
What You Cannot Sell......................................................................................2
General Advice to Resellers.............................................................................3
Recalled Products.............................................................................................4
Lead in Children’s Products.............................................................................5
Phthalates in Toys and Child Care Articles....................................................7
Small Parts........................................................................................................8
Clothing.............................................................................................................9
Cribs.................................................................................................................10
Mesh-Sided Play Yards and Cribs,
Portable Wooden Cribs, Wooden Playpens.................................................11
Magnetic Toys.................................................................................................12
Combination Infant Car Seats/Carriers........................................................13
Baby Walkers..................................................................................................14
Toy Chests.......................................................................................................15
Bath Seats.......................................................................................................16
Hair Dryers......................................................................................................17
Bunk Beds for Children..................................................................................18
Bean Bag Chairs..............................................................................................19
Mattresses.......................................................................................................19
Halogen Floor Lamps.....................................................................................20
Additional Resources........................................................... inside back cover
www.cpsc.gov
1
The Basics
This handbook will help sellers of used products
identify types of potentially hazardous products
that could harm children or others. CPSC’s
laws and regulations apply to anyone who sells
or distributes consumer products. This includes
thrift stores, consignment stores, charities, and
individuals holding yard sales and flea markets.
What is a Consumer Product?
A consumer product, for the purposes of
this Handbook, is any product that is found
in or around the home, a school, or in a
recreational setting, including furniture,
appliances, rugs, curtains, bed linens,
wearing apparel, jewelry, toys, sports
equipment and electronics.
Exceptions include tobacco products, motor
You are not required to test your products
vehicles and motor vehicle equipment,
for safety. However, resellers (including those
pesticides, firearms and ammunition,
who sell on auction Web sites) cannot knowingly
aircraft and aircraft equipment, boats,
sell products that do not meet the requirements
drugs, medical devices, cosmetics and food
— these products are regulated by other
of the law. You can protect yourself by screening
federal agencies.
for violative products. Ignorance of the law is not
an excuse. But more importantly, as a business
person, you do not want to sell products that have
the potential to cause harm to anyone, especially a child.
What you cannot sell or offer for sale:
› Products that have been recalled by CPSC. (see page 4)
oys and other articles intended for use by children, and any furniture, with paint or other surface
› Tcoatings
containing lead over specified amounts. (see pages 5-6)
primarily intended for children age 12 or younger with lead content over a specific amount.
› P(seeroducts
pages 5-6)
ertain toys or child care articles that contain any one of six prohibited chemicals known as
› Cphthalates,
which are primarily used as plasticizers. (see page 7)
ther products that violate CPSC’s safety standards, bans, rules or regulations or otherwise present a
› Osubstantial
product hazard. (see pages 8-20)
2
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
General Advice to Resellers
Familiarize yourself with the types of products and categories of hazards that have been subject to
recalls and may be in your store. As you read the descriptions of the hazards in the recall notices, you will
get a better idea of what problems to look for in various products and what to accept/decline through
purchase or donation.
Get CPSC’s recall notices and other
›safety
information at www.cpsc.gov.
There will be more product specific information later in this
booklet to target some of the more dangerous products that
our investigators have found in resale stores.
You can also receive information automatically via e-mail by subscribing on
our Web site.
If you should happen to sell or offer for sale a product in
violation of the CPSIA or other law, CPSC’s response will vary
depending upon the circumstances, including the nature of the
product defect, the number of products, the severity of the risk
of injury associated with the product and the type of violation.
The Commission’s response would also take into account the
fact that you may be a small business.
If you do not have access to e-mail, a
›partial
listing of recent recalls is available in THE SAFETY NEWS, a quarterly
publication. To subscribe, write to: CPSC
4330 East West Highway
Bethesda, MD 20814
Call CPSC’s toll-free hotline at (800)
›638-2772
for information on product
CPSC’s goal is to help you to avoid future violations
and protect your customers, not to put you out
of business. If you learn that one of the products
you sell violates the law or presents a hazard,
immediately inform the Commission. You can report a
potentially defective or hazardous product on CPSC’s
Web site (www.cpsc.gov) or by phone at (800) 638-2772.
recalls in English and Spanish.
www.cpsc.gov
3
Recalled Products
Each year, CPSC recalls several hundred types of consumer products. These include toys, nursery
furniture, home appliances, clothing, power tools, sports equipment and many other products that people
use in and around their homes and recreational settings. These recalled products pose a wide variety
of hazards to children and adults. For a number of years, the CPSC has been encouraging resale stores
not to accept, buy, or sell recalled products. CPSC studied resale and thrift stores nationwide in 1999
and found that 69 percent were selling products that had been recalled, banned, or did not meet current
safety standards.
Under the new law, it is now illegal to sell ANY recalled product (for adults
as well as children). If you are in the business of reselling products, you are
expected to know the laws, rules and regulations that apply to your business,
including whether or not a product you are selling has been recalled for a
safety issue. Before taking a product into inventory or selling it, check the
CPSC Web site for dangerous recalled products, including cribs, play yards,
strollers, high chairs, toys with magnets, toys that are choking hazards, and
other products. You can search by product type, company name, product description, hazard, country of
manufacture and by the month and year in which the recall took place.
It is against the law to sell
a recalled product; check
the CPSC Web site or
www.recalls.gov before
selling.
A special note on nursery
furniture and other infant
items: Products used in the
nursery, especially cribs and
bassinets, have caused deaths
and have been the subject of
numerous recalls of millions
of units. For this reason you
should check our Web site
recall list, and read the section
later in this booklet for more
specific things to look for
on cribs, play pens and play
yards. Do not sell any broken
or rickety nursery furniture
even if it has not been
recalled. A baby’s life could depend upon it.
4
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Lead in Children’s Products
Children’s products (ones designed or intended primarily for children 12 years of age or younger) cannot
be sold if they have more than the allowable limit of lead content. Toys, clothes, furniture, books, jewelry,
blankets, games, CDs/DVDs, strollers, and footwear may all be considered children’s products. As far as
determining what is a children’s product, you can evaluate items based on two factors:
s the product commonly recognized by consumers as being intended for use by a child 12
› Iyears
of age or younger?
s there any packaging, labeling, advertising or other material that might indicate the
› Imanufacturer’s
intention as to the appropriate age grading of the product?
Products designed or intended primarily for older children or adults are not subject to the lead limits.
There is a separate lower limit on the amount of lead that can be in the paint or surface coatings of toys,
other articles intended for use by children for any age and on any furniture. A ban on excessive lead in
paint and surface coatings has been in effect for over 30 years. The CPSIA lowers the amount of lead
that is permitted.
How can I determine if something has lead?
Resellers, in particular, need to make sound business decisions about the products they sell. As a practical
matter, you can:
the product (though not required);
› Test
accept the product;
› Not
Use
your best judgment based on your knowledge of the product; or,
› Contact
the manufacturer about questionable products.
›
It would make sense to test, rather than discard, any suspect children’s products that have a high resale
value. You may want to hire a qualified, trained person in your area who can quickly screen all of your
suspect products with a handheld device called an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) machine. You should not
rely on commercially sold lead testing kits that are unreliable and can give both “false positive” or “false
negative” results.
Exclusions to the Lead Limits
CPSC is currently working to determine exclusions to the lead content limits. Until the Commission
issues final rules in these areas, certain products and materials (see table on the following page) can be
sold as children’s products without risk of penalties by the Commission provided the seller does not have
actual knowledge that the products have more than the acceptable lead limit. Sellers will not be immune
from prosecution if CPSC’s Office of Compliance finds that someone had actual knowledge that one
of these children’s products contained lead or continued to distribute or sell such a product after being
put on notice by CPSC. Agency staff will seek recalls of violative children’s products or other corrective
actions, where appropriate.
www.cpsc.gov
5
Commonly Resold Children’s Products
Bicycles and other related products (such as
trailer bicycles and jogger strollers)
OK to sell; a two-year Stay of Enforcement
allows resellers to put new and old bikes and
parts out for sale.
Items made entirely of wood (without paint,
surface coatings or hardware)
OK to sell
Clothes, Blankets and other items made
OK to sell
entirely of
› Dyed or undyed textiles (cotton, wool, hemp, nylon, etc.)
› Dyed or undyed yarn
› Non-metallic thread, trim,
hook-and-loop (Velcro) and elastic
Clothes with rhinestones, metal or vinyl/
plastic snaps, zippers, grommets, closures or
appliqués.
Best to test, contact the manufacturer,
or not sell
Inexpensive children’s metal jewelry
Best to test, contact the manufacturer,
or not sell
Jewelry and other items made entirely of:
› Surgical steel,
› Precious metals such as gold (at least
10 karat), sterling silver (at least
925/1000),
› Precious and semiprecious gemstones
(excluding a list of stones that are
associated in nature with lead), or
› Natural or cultured pearls
OK to sell
Children’s books printed after 1985 that are
conventionally printed and intended to be
read (as opposed to used for play)
OK to sell; however, books with metal spiral
bindings have been recalled for lead paint.
Vintage children’s books and other collectibles OK to sell
not considered primarily intended for children
Certain educational materials, such as
chemistry sets
6
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
OK to sell
Phthalates in Toys and Child Care Articles
What are phthalates?
Phthalates are a group of chemicals that are used, among other things, to make vinyl and other plastics
soft and flexible. Many types of phthalates are in use today. As of February 10, 2009, three have been
permanently prohibited in the United States for use in certain products and three more are prohibited
pending further action by CPSC.
What products are covered by the prohibition on the use of phthalates?
The scope of the phthalates restrictions is narrower than the lead standard, which covers all children’s
products. Three phthalates, DEHP, DBP, and BBP, have been permanently banned in concentrations of
more than 0.1% in “children’s toys” or “child care articles.”
“children’s toy” is a product intended for a child 12 years of age or younger for use when
› Aplaying.
General use balls, bath toys/bath books, dolls and inflatable pool toys are examples of
toys that are covered by the law and might contain phthalates. Bikes, musical instruments, and
sporting goods (except for their toy counterparts) are not considered toys and are therefore not
affected by the ban.
“child care article” is a product that a child 3 and younger would use for sleeping, feeding,
› Asucking
or teething. Bibs, child placemats, cribs, booster seats, pacifiers and teethers are child
care articles that are covered by the law and might contain phthalates.
Three additional phthalates, DINP, DIDP, and DnOP, have been prohibited in concentrations of more
than 0.1% pending further study and review by the Commission and a group of outside experts. This
interim prohibition applies to: (a) child care articles, and (b) toys that can be placed in a child’s mouth or
brought to the mouth and kept in the mouth so that they can be sucked or chewed (for example: squeeze
toys, teethers, bathtub toys and uninflated pool toys).
How can I tell if a product contains a prohibited phthalate?
As with lead, you are not required to test your products for phthalates or to certify that they do not
contain prohibited phthalates. There is, however, no easy way to tell whether a product contains a
phthalate or what kind of phthalate it contains. Unlike
lead, where there is a reliable screening tool (the X-ray
Fluorescence machine), there is not a screening device to
With phthalates, your safest course
is not to sell or accept certain
detect the presence of phthalates.
products (unless you know they
don’t contain phthalates).
CPSC will focus its enforcement
efforts on:
ath toys, “play” books and other plastic
› Btoys
(especially those made of polyvinyl
chloride) that are intended for young children and can be put in the mouth.
infant and baby products that
› Scanoftbeplastic
easily grasped.
www.cpsc.gov
7
Small Parts
Children under 3 can choke on, inhale, or swallow small objects they may
“mouth.” Toys and other articles that are intended for use by children under 3
and that are or have small parts, or that produce small parts when broken, are
banned and should not be sold.
Resellers should screen products for children under 3 that could present a choking
hazard. Toys, books or games that would appeal to a younger child and have
small parts or are easily breakable into small parts should not be sold. This would
include dolls and stuffed toys that have eyes, noses or other small parts that are
not fastened securely, puzzles, nursery equipment, infant furniture and equipment
such as playpens, strollers, and baby bouncers and exercisers.
A small part can be any object (whole or piece of a toy or article) that fits
completely into a specially designed test cylinder 2.25 inches long by 1.25 inches
wide that approximates the size of the fully expanded throat of a child under 3
years old (see figure).
Small Parts Cylinder
8
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Clothing
All clothing is subject to the general wearing apparel
standard, which sets a flammability standard for
clothing textiles. Most commercially-made clothing in
your possession likely meets the general flammability
standard. Children’s clothing is more complicated.
There are generally four areas to scrutinize:
1)Flammability: While children’s daywear must
meet the general wearing apparel standard,
children’s sleepwear (sized for children older than 9
months through size 14) is subject to more stringent
flammability requirements. Sleepwear garments
made from cotton or a cotton blend must either
be treated with a flame retardant or bear a label
indicating that they are not flame resistant and must
therefore be snug fitting when worn. These garments
will look small to you because they are meant to hug
a child’s body. Children’s robes and lounge wear must
also meet the sleepwear flammability requirements. Sleepwear made from polyester complies with the
sleepwear standard. If you have any children’s robes, loose fitting pajamas, nightgowns
or lounge wear made from cotton or a cotton blend, they may not meet the applicable
flammability standard.
2)Lead: Untreated natural fibers (like cotton and wool) and non-metallic fasteners and trim such as
Velcro, elastic, etc. do not contain lead. Lead can be present in zippers, snaps and any other
metal and plastic adornments on a child’s clothing.
3)Small Parts: There have been numerous recalls of clothing intended for children under the age of 3.
If any snaps, pom-poms, zipper pulls or buttons can be pulled off of a small child’s garment, it should
not be sold. So give a strong tug to these pieces before you sell them. If something comes off that
could choke a child under the age of 3, do not sell the garment.
4)Drawstrings: CPSC has recalled numerous children’s garments that have long drawstrings at
the neck or waist. Children have strangled to death when drawstrings were caught on playground
equipment or a crib. They have also caught bus doors and caused children to be dragged and killed or
seriously injured. From 1985 through July 2008, there were at least 27 reported deaths and 70 nonfatal incidents to children aged 15 years and younger related to drawstrings.
Before selling children’s (age 15 years and younger) garments, check for hood/neck
drawstrings, remove drawstrings from the hood and neck of jackets and sweatshirts; for
waist/bottom drawstrings, trim drawstrings so that no more than to 3 inches extends
from the garment on either side.
www.cpsc.gov
9
Cribs
THE PRODUCT: Cribs that don’t meet current safety standards.
THE HAZARDS: Suffocation, strangulation. More infants die each year in incidents involving cribs
than from any other nursery product.
Previously used cribs can host a variety of hidden hazards that most consumers may not detect. Thus,
unless the crib can be fully assembled and operates correctly, contains all the original hardware and
the instructions are included, the crib should not be sold. If you choose to sell a used crib, follow the
checklist below.
What to Do:
› Inspect each crib to be sure it has the following safety features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
make sure your product is not the subject of a recall;
slats spaced no more than 2 3/8 inches apart;
no missing or loose slats;
no recalled crib with drop side (millions of cribs with drop sides have been recalled)
a properly-sized mattress. The mattress is too small if you can fit more than two fingers
between the edge of the mattress and the side of the crib. An infant can get his head or
body wedged in the extra space and suffocate.
c orner posts are no more than 1/16 inch high. They can be catch points for objects or
clothing worn by a child and cause strangulation.
no missing, broken or loose hardware;
no decorative cutouts in the headboard or footboard. Cutouts can entrap a child’s head; and
n
o unsecured mattress support hangers that can be easily dislodged. Children can be
entrapped and suffocate.
PSC has conducted
› Cnumerous
recalls of
cribs over the past 15
years, which can be
found at
www.cpsc.gov.
No decorative cut-outs
on the headboard
Smooth
corners
that
› Dhaveon’tanysellof cribs
the hazards
Slat space 2 3/8 inches
described in the list
above. Destroy them.
Snug mattress fit
Mattress support
hangers are secure
10
No corner post extensions
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Mesh-Sided Play Yards and Cribs,
Portable Wooden Cribs, Wooden Playpens
THE PRODUCTS: Mesh-sided play yards (playpens) and cribs, wooden play yards, and portable
wooden cribs that don’t meet current safety standards.
Warning labels
THE HAZARDS: Suffocation, strangulation, choking.
The side of a mesh play yard or portable crib left in the down position
forms a pocket that an infant can roll into and become trapped, causing
suffocation. The top rails of a play yard or portable crib with a rotating
center hinge may collapse and form an acute V-shape that can entrap a
child’s neck and cause the child to strangle.
Areas of possible
child entrapment
A toddler can strangle in a play yard or portable crib with protruding rivets if a pacifier
string or loose (or loosely woven) clothing catches on one. An infant or toddler can also
strangle if his head gets caught in tears in the mesh. A teething infant can chew off pieces
of the vinyl covering of a play yard’s railing and choke.
A baby’s body, except for the head, can pass entirely between the slats of a wooden play yard
or portable wooden crib if the slats are more than 2 3/8 inches apart, and the baby may strangle.
What to Do:
nspect all mesh-sided play yards and portable cribs, and play yards with wooden side slats and
› Iportable
wooden cribs for the following safety features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
m
esh-sided play yards and portable cribs with drop sides have warning labels that say the
sides should never be left in the down position;
t op rails of mesh-sided play yards and cribs with a hinge in the center automatically lock
when the rails are lifted into the normal use position;
m
esh-sided play yards or portable cribs have no rivets protruding 1/16 inch or more on the
outside of the top rails;
the mesh has a small weave (the openings are less than 1/4 inch);
the mesh has no tears or loose threads;
the mesh is securely attached to the top rail and floor plate;
the covering of the top rails has no tears or holes;
any staples, rivets, or screws used in construction are not loose or missing; and
w
ooden play yards and portable wooden cribs have slats that are no more than 2 3/8 inches
apart and no broken or missing parts.
› Don’t add mattresses or pads that are not recommended by the manufacturer.
PSC has conducted numerous recalls of play yards over the past 15 years, which can be found at
› Cwww.cpsc.gov.
› Don’t sell play yards and portable cribs that fail to meet the safety criteria above. Destroy them.
www.cpsc.gov
11
Magnetic Toys
THE PRODUCT: Toys containing magnets or magnetic components, such as construction sets, action
figures, dolls, and puzzles.
THE HAZARDS: Small powerful magnets, like those found in magnetic building sets and other toys,
can kill children if ingested/swallowed.
If two or more magnets or magnetic components
or a magnet and another metal object (such as a
small metal ball) are swallowed separately, they
can attract to one another through intestinal
walls. This traps the magnets in place and
can cause holes (perforations), twisting and/
or blockage of the intestines, infection, blood
poisoning (sepsis), and death. When multiple
magnets are ingested, surgery is required to
remove the magnets and sometimes sections
of the intestines need to be removed. Small
powerful magnets found in other non-toy
products, such as jewelry and novelty stones, may
present the same hazard.
CPSC is aware of dozens of cases of children being injured from ingesting magnets. A 20 month-old
child died and many more children from 10 months to 11 years old required surgery to remove ingested
magnets. In many cases, magnets fell out of larger components of toys. Some children swallowed intact
toy components containing magnets.
What to Do:
› Don’t sell magnetic toys that have been recalled.
› Don’t sell any toy that has loose or missing magnetic components.
craft and science kits intended for children over 8 years old may have small magnets, and can
› Hbeobby,
sold provided they are labeled with a warning about the hazard.
12
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Combination Infant Car Seats/Carriers
THE PRODUCT: Certain models of combination
infant car seats/carriers that also can be used as infant
carriers outside a vehicle that don’t meet current safety
standards.
THE HAZARDS: Skull fracture, concussion, cuts,
scrapes, bruises.
When used as an infant carrier, the handles or locks can
break, release and/or rotate unexpectedly allowing an
infant to fall to the ground or be ejected.
What to Do:
PSC has conducted numerous recalls of infant car
› Cseats/carriers,
which can be found at www.cpsc.
gov. Other car seats and automobile booster seats fall
under jurisdiction of the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA). For additional
information and for a list of these product that have
been recalled, visit www.nhtsa.gov.
ontact the manufacturer if you have a recalled
› Cinfant
car seat/carrier. It may be able to be repaired to
make it safe.
a recalled infant car seat/carrier. If you
› Dfindon’toutsell
the carrier has been recalled and you cannot
fix it, destroy it.
www.cpsc.gov
13
Baby Walkers
THE PRODUCT: Baby walkers that don’t meet current safety standards and fit through standard
doorways and don’t stop at the top of stairs. (See illustration below.)
The safer style of baby walkers meets a new safety standard and is designed to help prevent injuries and
deaths from falls down stairs. (See illustration below.) Rubber-like strips underneath or around the base
grip the floor and stop the walker at the edge of a step.
THE HAZARDS: Death, skull fracture, concussion, internal injuries, broken
bones, cuts, bruises.
Out-of-date
baby walker
In the past, more children were injured with baby walkers than with any other
nursery product. Since 1973, walkers have been involved in at least 39 deaths. In
2006, an estimated 3,200 walker-related injuries among children under 15 months
old were treated in hospital emergency rooms. Most of these injuries resulted from
falls down stairs.
What to Do:
nspect each walker. Each should either be at least 36 inches wide at the base or
› Ihave
gripping strips to help stop it at the edge of a step;
Newer style has a gripping mechanism under
the edge to stop the
walker at the edge of
a step
14
› Don’t sell baby walkers unless they are one of the safer models, destroy them.
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Toy Chests
THE PRODUCT: Chests and boxes with hinged lids made or used to store toys. This includes those
specifically manufactured for toy storage, as well as trunks, cedar chests, wicker chests, footlockers,
decorator cubes, wooden storage chests, and other similar items.
THE HAZARDS: Strangulation, suffocation, brain damage, crushed and pinched fingers.
Lids can fall on children’s heads or necks, causing brain damage or death. Children who climb inside
hinged chests or boxes to hide or sleep can suffocate due to lack of air. There have been numerous
reports of deaths of children trapped inside chests.
What to Do:
nspect every toy chest and other toy storage unit with a hinged lid to be sure it meets all of the
› Ifollowing
safety criteria:
•
•
•
I t has a spring-loaded lid support that will keep the lid open in any position without
adjustment (see illustration below);
it has no latch or lock that could trap a child inside the chest; and
it has two or more ventilation holes or openings near the top of the front or sides.
sell toy chests or other large hinged boxes or chests that could be used for toy storage if they
› Dfailon’t
to meet the safety criteria above. Destroy them.
NOT SAFE: Adjustablefriction lid support
SAFE: Spring-loaded
TOY CHEST
(meets the standard)
www.cpsc.gov
15
Bath Seats
THE PRODUCT: Infant Bath Seats or Bath Rings that don’t meet current safety standards.
These bathing products are designed as an aid to help caregivers bathe an infant. They are intended for
infants who can sit upright, unassisted, not for children who are walking or who can pull themselves up to
a standing position.
THE HAZARDS: Drowning.
What to Do:
Don’t sell bath seats that:
› attach to the tub floor with suction cups
› were made before 2007 (see date code stamp on the bottom of the product)
› are broken or damaged
› do not have warnings visible on the product
Destroy them.
BATH SEAT
(meets the standard)
16
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Hair Dryers
THE PRODUCT: Hair dryers that don’t have immersion protection devices (see illustration below).
THE HAZARD: Electrocution.
Electric voltage is still present when
the dryer is plugged in, even if the
switch is in the “off ” position. A hair
dryer without an immersion protection
device that is accidentally dropped into
water (such as in a sink or bathtub) can
electrocute anyone in or touching the
water.
Most new hand-held hair dryers have
immersion protective devices. Many
used ones do not.
Immersion
Protection Device
HAND-HELD HAIR DRYER
(meets the standard)
There was an average of 16
electrocutions a year involving handheld hair dryers in the early 1980s,
before immersion protection devices were included in their design. Since 2000, three deaths associated
with hair dryers have been reported.
What to Do:
› Inspect all hand-held hair dryers. Look for the following on each:
•
•
a n immersion protection device, which is a large, rectangular-shaped plug at the end of the
cord (see the illustration); and
t he certification mark of a recognized testing laboratory on the hair dryer itself.
on’t sell any hand-held hair dryer that doesn’t have an immersion protection device and
› Dcertification
mark from a recognized testing laboratory. Destroy it.
www.cpsc.gov
17
Bunk Beds for Children
THE PRODUCT: Bunk beds with mattress foundations 30 inches or more above the floor that don’t
meet current safety standards.
THE HAZARDS: Strangulation, suffocation, hanging.
Since 1990, over 70 young children have been reported to have died by strangulation or suffocation from
entrapment in bunk beds. Most were 3 years old or younger. Some children strangled when their bodies,
but not their heads, slid between a side guardrail and the side bed frame of the upper bunk, leaving their
bodies hanging. Some children suffocated when they became trapped in openings within the footboard or
headboard, or between the bed and the wall. A few children died when the bed collapsed on top of them.
In addition, from January 1990 through August 2007, CPSC staff is aware of 67 incidents of hanging
fatalities involving bunk beds and another product. Some children were hanged upon descent from a top
bunk when an article they were wearing became entangled on a vertical protrusion.
What to Do:
› Inspect each bunk bed and look for the following safety features:
Top Bunk
guardrail from end to end on the wall side of the top bunk
› aa continuous
› wallguardrail no more than 15 inches from either the footboard or headboard on the side away from the
openings should be less than 3½ inches between the guardrail sections and the bed frame
› guardrail
openings
or
in the headboard and footboard should be less than 3½ inches
› the top of theslatsmattress
there is one) is at least 5 inches below the upper edge of the guardrails
› vertical protrusions along(if the
top surface of the upper bunk are restricted to 3/16 inches or less. This
› includes ladder stiles, corner posts,
and guard rails.
Lower Bunk
ither less than 3½ inches or more than 9 inches between openings and slats in the headboard and
› efootboard
Guardrails
3½ inches or less
Bed Frame
Upper and Lower Bunks
he mattress (if there is one) is the size specified in the warning
› tlabel
on the bed and/or the mattress fits the frame snugly
m
attress
› bolts supports are securely fastened to the bed by screws or
ubular metal bunk beds: no breaks or cracks in the paint or
› tmetal
around the welds that hold the side rail to the bed frame
at all four corners of the upper and lower bunks.
BUNK BED
(meets the standard)
18
Look for labels on new bunk beds indicating that they meet
federal safety standards. Don’t sell any bunk beds that do not
have these labels or meet these safety features. Destroy them.
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Bean Bag Chairs
THE PRODUCT: Zippered bean bag chairs stuffed with small foam pellets that
don’t meet current safety standards.
THE HAZARD: Suffocation, choking.
Children have unzipped bean bag chairs, crawled inside, inhaled or ingested the foam
pellets, and they suffocated. Some have unzipped the chairs, then pulled out the foam
pellets and played with them. The pellets clogged their mouths and noses, and they
suffocated. Other children choked on the pellets but survived.
CPSC is aware of five reported deaths and at least 27 non-fatal incidents associated
with bean bag chairs. Since 1996, bean bag chairs have been manufactured with
zippers that young children can’t open.
ZIPPERED BEAN
BAG CHAIR
(recalled product)
What to Do:
zippered bean bag chair for the following:
› Inspect• each
t he zipper is not visible and can’t be opened by young children
•
n
o stuffing is coming out
at the chair’s seams. They shouldn’t come apart. If they do, the foam pellets could escape, posing
› Pa ull
hazard to children.
› Don’t sell any zippered bean bag chair that doesn’t meet these safety criteria. Destroy it.
Mattresses
THE PRODUCT: Older mattresses that don’t meet CPSC’s
open flame standard (16 CFR Part 1633)
THE HAZARD: Fire.
Mattresses manufactured on or after July 1, 2007 must meet
the CPSC flammability standard. The mandatory standard
is designed to reduce the severity of mattress fires ignited by
open flame sources such as candles, matches and lighters.
CPSC estimates that, once fully effective, the new federal
flammability standard will prevent as many as 270 deaths and
1,330 injuries every year.
www.cpsc.gov
19
What to Do:
nspect each mattress (and accompanying box spring) for a “Part 1633” compliance label. Further,
› Ithrift
stores that "renovate" mattresses must do so such that the renovated mattress meets the standard.
› Selling a used mattress is illegal in some jurisdictions. Check your local regulations before selling.
› Don’t sell older mattresses that don’t meet the new standard. Destroy them.
Halogen Floor Lamps
THE PRODUCT: Freestanding floor lamps about six feet tall that use
tubular halogen light bulbs (see illustration below).
THE HAZARD: Fire.
A halogen light bulb can heat up to nearly 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Flammable material that contacts
the bulb may catch fire.
From 1992–1999, CPSC received reports of at least 270 fires and 18 fire-related deaths involving halogen
torchiere floor lamps. Halogen torchiere floor lamps manufactured after February 5, 1997, that meet
voluntary safety requirements, are made with a wire or glass guard. The guard fits over the glass bulb
shield that covers the light bulb and reduces the potential fire hazard. The guard makes it harder for
flammable materials to come in contact with the light bulb and catch fire.
What to Do:
Inspect each halogen torchiere floor lamp. Look for the following:
in the bowl at the top of the lamp. The top of the guard
› a wire or glass guard over the glass bulb shieldshould
be three inches from the glass bulb shield.
The tubular halogen light bulb should not
› bbeulboverwattage.
Wire guard
300 watts, even if the original label on the lamp
Glass bulb
shield
›
›
›
says that a 500-watt bulb can be used.
the plug. It should be polarized (one blade wider than
the other).
the cord. Inspect the cord for mechanical damage.
signs of corrosion, bent or loose parts. Any of these may
indicate a malfunctioning or potentially hazardous lamp.
Don’t sell any halogen torchiere floor lamp that doesn’t
have a wire or glass guard over the glass bulb shield or that
has any of the other hazards above. Destroy it.
20
CPSC Handbook for Resale Stores and Product Resellers
Additional Resources
CPSC’s Home Page
www.cpsc.gov
Recalls
(all agencies)
www.recalls.gov
Recalls
(CPSC only)
www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/prerel/prerel.html
Small Business
Information
www.cpsc.gov/businfo/smbus.html
Guidance on the CPSIA
for Small Business
www.cpsc.gov/about/cpsia/smbus/cpsiasbguide.html
Regulations, Laws and
Information by Product
www.cpsc.gov/businfo/regsbyproduct.html
Report an Unsafe
Product
www.cpsc.gov/talk.html
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
4330 East West Highway
Bethesda, MD 20814
Pub 254
August 2009