AMERICAN JOURNAL or CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Vol. 32, No. 4, October, 1059, pp. 367-369 Printed in U.S.A. A SIMPLE PORTABLE COPY DEVICE FOR COLOR TRANSPARENCIES Mercy Hospital EUGENE HILDEBRAND, M.D. and Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Denver, Colorado The staff of our laboratory, like that of most laboratories, is interested in teaching student technologists, interns, and resident physicians. We are frequently requested to aid in presenting teaching seminars. Adequate color transparencies are essential in this work. We often find that our transparency file does not contain specific examples of material that we may wish to use repeatedly in Medicine, to duplicate these transparencies, provided (1) proper credit is given, (2) the copies are to be used ethically, and (3) no damage to the original occurs during the copying process. We are also interested in producing tape recordings of lectures, to be accompanied by appropriate projection slides. Most lecturers will permit the recording of their talk and reproduction of the illustrations, when F I G . 1. Photographs of the copy devices for 35-mm. film (left) and lantern-slide size The front has been removed from the box in order to demonstrate the construction. our teaching program. The examples we lack may be available from another laboratory or from a medical school. There is seldom any difficulty in securing permission Received, May S, 1959; accepted for publication J u n e 10. Dr. Mildobrand is Pathologist, Mercy Hospital, and Assistant Professor of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Medicine. 367 (right). similar conditions to those already noted are met. In addition, however, most lecturers insist that the slide copies be made quickly so that they do not have to leave the slides behind to be copied. With these requirements in mind, a simple, portable, inexpensive copying apparatus has been developed to produce 35-mm. transparencies from other 35-mm. transparencies or from lantern-slide size trans- 368 HILDEBRAND Vol. 32 parencies. We chose the 35-mm. size for (at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) reasons of economy and ease of storage and and because of the many color medias of the projection. The degree of projection enlarge- original, that we would lose corrective conment is, of course, limited, and is not com- trol of exposure and color. For this reason, pletely suitable for large audiences, but for we retained as our light source tungsten most uses we have found 35-mm. slides to illumination." be adequate. Box. The box is constructed of plywood. For the sake of simplicity, such factors as The inside measurements are 16 in. in height elaborate controls, variations in color tem- by 15 in. in width by 8 in. in depth. The inperature, and most niters have been ignored. terior is painted dull black. A piece of opal The colors produced are so closely similar glass available from most window-glass to the original that it requires a trained eye companies, Y± in. thick, is framed and forms the hinged access door at the top to distinguish them. If one wishes to experiment with more de- of the box. As noted before, the "strobe" is tailed methods, using more complex equip- 10 in. from the glass. Masks are cut from ment, reference can be made to the work of aluminum lunchroom trays, with cut outs Halsman 5 and Brostrup. 1 Reference may for 35 mm. and for lantern-slide size, cenalso be made to the work of Brownell2 and tered over the underlying "strobe." The Gibson,4 and to the book by Evans and his aluminum of the trays (gage No. 19) is associates.3 The Leica Manual and Data the correct thickness so that it will not bend Book by Morgan and Lester7 gives an ex- easily, and will allow both glass-mounted cellent discussion of the various copying de- and unmounted transparencies to be copied successfully. The 35-mm. mask is provided vices for this camera. with guides so that the camera is centered EQUIPMENT automatically. The lantern-slide size mask Camera-. We use the Leica camera has 4 small holes that also act as centering equipped with "strobe" synchronization. guides for the legs of this device. I t is a standard model I I I F, with a SumMethod. The "strobe" is plugged in to the mitar f. 2 lens. The 1:1 copy device is the 115 v. AC line and connected to the camera, "Belun-Hessum" (Leica). The copy device which is loaded with Kodachrome "daylight for lantern slides is the "Behoo" (Leica) ad- type" film. The proper copy device is atjusted to the 1:3 setting. tached. The lens, set at "infinity," is adjusted Cameras of other makes may be used if to f. 9 for transparencies of average density, proper copying attachments are available to f. 4.5 for dark ones, or to f. 16 for light ones. The time is set at Yih sec. The f. setcommercially or can be constructed. Light. We use the Heiland "Strobonar," a tings and exposure time are the same for transistorized "strobe" unit that will operate both sizes of transparencies, either unfrom batteries or from 115 v. AC, model mounted or glass mounted. 64B. Other "strobes," of course, may be If other films are used, appropriate used if appropriate changes are made after changes in lens setting must be made, and experimentation. The usual difficulty en- some films require the use of a light-correctcountered is unevenness of light distribu- ing filter. For example, type " F " Kodation at close range. In using another "strobe" chrome may be used, but a type " F " filter (Heiland Strobonar model V), we observed must be placed over the lens. The f. that 1 or 2 sheets of onion-skin paper be- settings for type " F " film with the filter are tween the light and the opal glass provided the same as for the Kodachrome "daylight adequate diffusion. The No. 64B has a type" without a filter. diffusion lens built in. AVe use a distance of The slide to be copied must be clean and 10 in. between the light and the opal glass. free of dust. The use of a camel's hair brush Halsman 6 has used a light source similar to to. remove dirt is recommended as a routine. the one presented here and found it "prac- The slide is placed in the cut-out. In the tical." He states: "However, we felt that case of the 1:1 copy device, the camera asfor the varied requirements of our mission sembly is placed on top of it. In using the Oct. 1959 i COPYING COLOR THA NSPA RENC1 ES 1:3 device, the slides to be copied can be slipped in without moving the camera assembly. The "strobe" is allowed to warm up for a minimum of 15 sec. The picture is taken, using a cable release. The next copy can be made similarly, 15 sec. later. Other "strobes" may require either a shorter or a longer regeneration time, and this must be ascertained experimentally. The original transparency is unharmed in this process. SUMMARY The construction, operation, and usefulness of a simple, portable device for copying transparencies are described. Very acceptable copies of 35-mm. slides and of lanternslide size transparencies can be made easily, rapidly, and cheaply by an inexperienced person. It is fully portable, operating from batteries or from ordinary 115 v. AC power. SUMMARIO IN INTERL1NGUA * > Es describite le construction, le uso, e le utilitate de un simple e portabile apparato a 309 copiar ,transparentias in color. Multo satisfacente copias de vistas de projection de 35 mm o altere dimensiones pote esser prodiicite facile-, rapide-, e incostosemente per un persona sin multe experientia. Le apparato es plenmente portabile e pote esser activate per batterias o un potentia de 115 volt de currente alternative. REFERENCES 1. BnosTRUr, J . 0 . : A 35 mm. color slide duplication bench. P h o t o . Sc. & Technique, Series II, 3: No. 4, 126-133, 1956. 2. BROWNELL, C. G.: Making copies of radiographs. M. Radiog. and Photog., 27: 114-121, 1951. 3. E V A N S , R. M., H A N S O N , W. T., AND B R K W E H , W. L.: Principles of Color Photography. New Y'ork: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1953. 4. G I B S O N , H . L.: Copying radiographs with miniature kodachrome film. M. Radiog. and Photog., 27: 125-129, 1951. 5. HALSMAN, ,J.: Color duplication of transparencies. J. Biol. Photo. A., 19: 16-27, 1951. 6. HALSMAN, J . : Chief, Photographic Division, A. F . L P , Washington 25, D.C., Personal communication. 7. M O R G A N , W. D., AND. L E S T E R , . H. M.: Lcica Manual and Data Book, Ed. 13. New Y o r k : Morgan & Morgan, 1956.