Avid Media Composer
and
Film Composer
®
®
®
Input and Output Guide
Release 9.0
for the Windows NT® Operating System
a
tools for storytellers™
© 1999 Avid Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Avid Media Composer and Film Composer Input and Output Guide for the Windows NT Operating System•
Part 0130-04216-01 Rev. A • August 1999
2
Contents
Chapter 1
Planning a Project
Working with Multiple Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
About 24p Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Types of Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Planning a Video Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Planning a 24p Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
NTSC and PAL Image Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Workflow: Film Source, SDTV Transfer, Multiformat Output 23
Film or HD Video Source, SDTV Downconversion, Multiformat
Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Alternative Audio Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
NTSC Audio and Video Synchronized During Transfer . . 30
NTSC Audio and Video Digitized Separately . . . . . . . . . . . 31
PAL Audio and Video Synchronized During Transfer (PAL
Method 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
PAL Audio and Video Digitized Separately
(PAL Method 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Film Project Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Film Shoot Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Viewing Dailies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Film Dailies Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Video Dailies Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3
Chapter 2
Film-to-Tape Transfer Methods
About the Transfer Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Transferring 24-fps Film to NTSC Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Stage 1: Transferring Film to Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Frames Versus Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Part 1: Using a 2:3 Pulldown to Translate 24-fps Film to
30-fps Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Part 2: Slowing the Film Speed to 23.976 fps . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Maintaining Synchronized Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Stage 2: Digitizing at 24 fps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Transferring 24-fps Film to PAL Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
PAL Method 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Stage 1: Transferring Sound and Picture to Videotape. . . . 46
Stage 2: Digitizing at 24 fps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
PAL Method 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Stage 1: Transferring Picture to Videotape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Stage 2: Digitizing at 24 fps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
How the Avid System Stores and Displays 24p Media . . . . . . . . . . 48
Displaying Media While Editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Displaying Media During a Digital Cut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Film-to-Tape Transfer Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Film-to-Tape Transfer Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Transfer Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Additional Film Transfer Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Chapter 3
Logging
Preparing Log Files for Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Converting Log Files with Avid Log Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Using Drag-and-Drop Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Creating Avid Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Transferring Bins from MediaLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Double-Checking the Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Importing Shot Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4
Logging Directly into a Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Logging Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Logging Preroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Logging Timecode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Naming Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Logging with an Avid-Controlled Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Adding a Memory Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Logging with Non-Avid-Controlled Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Logging Film Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Displaying Film Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Entering the Pulldown of the Sync Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Entering Frames-Per-Second Rates for PAL Transfers . . . . . . . . 82
Entering Key Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Entering Additional Timecodes (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Entering the Ink Number (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Entering Additional Film Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Modifying Clip Information Before Digitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Using the Modify Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Modify Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Exporting Shot Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Chapter 4
Preparing to Digitize
Preparing the Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Selecting Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
General Digitize Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Film Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Configuring Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Deck Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Deleting Deck Configuration Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Setting Deck Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Setting Up the Compression Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Compression Tool Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5
Choosing a Video Resolution and Color Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Entering Capture Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Setting Up the Digitize Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Selecting a Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Selecting a Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Selecting Source Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Setting the Pulldown Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Choosing a Resolution in the Digitize Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Choosing a Target Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Selecting the Target Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Targeting a Single Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Targeting Separate Drives for Audio and Video . . . . . . . . 122
Interpreting the Time-Remaining Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Selecting a Custom Preroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Digitizing to Multiple Media Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Digitizing Across Timecode Breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Preparing for Audio Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Choosing the Audio File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Establishing Sync for Audio-Only Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Checking for a Valid Digital Sync Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Adjusting Audio Project Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Using the Audio Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Resizing the Audio Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Adjusting the Reference Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Choosing a Peak Hold Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Adjusting Audio Input Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Creating Tone Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Calibrating the Eight-Channel Audio I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . 142
Calibrating Input Channels for the Audio I/O Device. . . 143
Calibrating Output Channels for the Audio I/O Device . 145
Using the Console to Check Audio Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Preparing for Video Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Using the Factory Preset Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6
Calibrating Video Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Saving Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Saving a Custom Default Setting for the Video Input Tool . . 157
Adjusting Video Levels for Tapes Without Color Bars . . . . . . 158
Digitize Preparations Check List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Chapter 5
Digitizing
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Special Digitizing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Logging Errors to the Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Creating Subclips On-the-Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Adding Locators On-the-Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Adding Clip Names and Comments On-the-Fly . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Digitizing and Logging at the Same Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Digitizing from a Mark IN to a Mark OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Setting Both Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Setting Only One Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Digitizing On-the-Fly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Autodigitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Digitizing from a Non-Avid-Controlled Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Digitizing with Time-of-Day Timecode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Digitizing to the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Digitizing Video Without Pulldown into a 24p NTSC Project . . . 179
Batch Digitizing from Logged Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Preparing to Batch Digitize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Resizing the Digitize Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Preparing Settings for Unattended Batch Digitizing . . . . 181
Batch Digitize Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Batch Digitizing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Redigitizing Your Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Redigitizing Master Clips and Subclips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Redigitizing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Saving Two Versions of a Sequence When Redigitizing . 187
7
Using Decompose When Redigitizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Redigitizing the Sequence Without Using Decompose . . 190
Relinking Clips by Key Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Modifying the Pullin Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Chapter 6
Multicamera Planning and Digitizing
Developing a Postproduction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Tape Numbering Schemes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Tape Numbering for Video Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Tape Numbering for Film Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Production Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Production Paths for Video Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Production Paths for Film Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Managing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Audio for Videotape Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Audio for Film Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Digitizing Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Digitizing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Logging Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Autodigitizing Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Storage Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Checking the Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Replacing Missing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Deleting Extra Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Checking Audio and Image Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Chapter 7
Importing Files
Preparing to Import Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Working with Mixed-Resolution Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Creating and Using Import Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Import Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Importing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Import Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
8
Using Open Media Management (OMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Setting Up to Use OMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
OMM Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Import and Export Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Using OMM to Import Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Reimporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Batch Import Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Using Decompose When Reimporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Starting the Reimport Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
About Reimporting Matte-Key Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Chapter 8
Generating Output
Preparing for Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Establishing Sync for Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Calibrating for Video Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Using the Factory Preset Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Basic Video Output Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Advanced Video Output Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Preparing for Audio Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Setting the Calibration Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Calibrating Global Output Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Adjusting Output on Eight-Channel Audio Systems. . . . 256
Preparing Record Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Frame-Accurate Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Manual Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Recording Bars and Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Enabling Assemble-Edit Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Using the Digital Cut Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Selecting a Deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Previewing a Digital Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Creating a Custom Countdown Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Remote Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Local Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
9
Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Choosing Title Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Performing an Insert Edit with Pulldown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Digital Cuts and Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Changing the Default Pulldown Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Using EDL Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Using the Matchback Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
How Matchback Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Matchback Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Using FilmScribe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
VTR Play Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Chapter 9
Exporting and Exchanging Material
About Exporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Creating and Using Export Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Export Options Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Video Compression Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
QuickTime Compression Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
AVI Compression Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Additional Export Options Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Preparing to Export a Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Mixing Down Video Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Exporting Frames, Clips, or Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Export Frames, Clips, and
Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
About OMF Interchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Choosing an OMFI Transfer Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Using OMM to Export Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Using OMM and the Drag-and-Drop Method to Export a
Clip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Using OMM and the Menu-Command Method to Export a
Clip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
About the Avid QuickTime and AVI Codecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
10
Using the Avid QuickTime Codec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Installing the Avid QuickTime Codec on Other Systems . . . . 325
Exporting with the Avid QuickTime Codec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Exporting with Other Supported QuickTime Codecs . . . . . . . 334
Exporting from a Third-Party QuickTime Application . . . . . . 334
Using the Avid AVI Codec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Installing the Avid AVI Codec on Other Systems . . . . . . . . . . 336
Exporting with the Avid AVI Codec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Exporting with Other Supported AVI Codecs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Exporting from a Third-Party AVI Application . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Transferring a Project Between Media Composer or
Film Composer (for Windows NT) Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Methods for Transferring Files Between Media Composer or
Film Composer (for Windows NT) Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Compatibility Requirements for Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Transferring a Project and Associated Media Files . . . . . . . . . 348
Transferring Projects, User Profiles, and Site Settings . . . . . . 350
Appendix A
File Format Specifications
Graphics (Image) Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Preparing Graphics Files for Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Graphics File Import Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Animation Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Audio File Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
OMF Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Two-Field Media Files and Field Dominance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Appendix B
Resolutions and Storage Requirements
Screen Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Compression and Resolutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Mixing Resolutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Resolution Groups and Image Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Video Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
11
Compression Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Storage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Estimating Drive Space Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Maximizing Drive Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Managing Storage to Improve Playback Performance . . . . . . 386
Appendix C
Avid Log Specifications
Understanding Avid Log Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Describing an Avid Log File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Global Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Column Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Data Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Sample Avid Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Index
12
Figures
Figure 1-1
Workflow: Video Project with Video Source . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 1-2
Workflow: Video Project with HD Source, SDTV
Downconversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 1-3
Offline Workflow: Film Source, SDTV Transfer . . . . . 24
Figure 1-4
Online Workflow: Film Source, SDTV Transfer,
Multiformat Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 1-5
Offline Workflow: Film or HDTV Source, SDTV
Downconversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 1-6
Online Workflow: Film or HDTV Source, SDTV Downconversion, Multiformat Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 1-7
NTSC Audio and Video Synchronized During
Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Figure 1-8
NTSC Audio and Video Digitized Separately . . . . . . . 31
Figure 1-9
PAL Audio and Video Synced During Transfer
(PAL Method 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 1-10
PAL Audio and Video Digitized Separately
(PAL Method 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 7-1
Batch Import Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
13
Tables
Table 1-1
Film Shoot Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 2-1
Ratio of Film to Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 2-2
Ratio of Film to Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 3-1
Modifying Bin Information Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 4-1
General Digitize Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Table 4-2
Deck Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Table 4-3
Deck Preferences Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Table 4-4
Film Project Pulldown and Transfer Settings . . . . . . 119
Table 4-5
Luminance Settings for Video Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Table 5-1
Function Keys Available When Digitizing. . . . . . . . . 163
Table 5-2
Locators Mapped to Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Table 5-3
Batch Digitize Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Table 7-1
Import Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Table 8-1
Video Format Output Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Table 8-2
Luminance Settings for Video Output . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Table 8-3
24p Project Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Table 8-4
VTR Emulation Settings Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Table 9-1
Export Settings Dialog Box Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Table 9-2
Export Options Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Table 9-3
QuickTime Compression Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Table 9-4
AVI Compression Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Table 9-5
Additional Export Options Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Table 9-6
Transfer Devices for Transferring Projects. . . . . . . . . 347
Table 9-7
Default Source Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Table A-1
Graphics File Import Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
14
Table A-2
Animation File Import Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Table A-3
QuickTime Import and Export Specifications . . . . . 362
Table A-4
AVI Import and Export Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Table A-5
OMF File Import Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Table A-6
Recommended Field Dominance Settings for Two-Field
Import/Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Table B-1
Resolution Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Table B-2
Resolution Specifications: Interlaced . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Table B-3
Resolution Specifications: Progressive . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Table B-4
Estimated Storage Requirements: Interlaced . . . . . . . 379
Table B-5
Estimated Storage Requirements: Progressive . . . . . 382
Table C-1
Compatible Log Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Table C-2
Avid Log Global Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Table C-3
Avid Log Column Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Table C-4
Avid Log Data Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
15
CHAPTER 1
Planning a Project
This chapter presents suggested workflows and other information that
can help you plan your film-originated or video-originated project.
This chapter includes the following topics:
•
Working with Multiple Formats
•
About 24p Media
•
Types of Projects
•
Planning a Video Project
•
Planning a 24p Project
Working with Multiple Formats
Avid systems offer you a flexible approach to finishing your project,
whether it originates as video or film.
For video projects, you can use the offline capabilities of the
Media Composer® system and the Total Conform capabilities of the
Symphony system to produce the highest quality, uncompressed
broadcast masters.
For film and 24-fps HDTV (high-definition television) projects, you
can use the Media Composer system’s Universal Offline Editing
16
option to digitize footage at 24 fps and edit the content in its native
frame rate. Then use the Symphony system’s film-tape-film-tape
(FTFT) and Total Conform capabilities to finish and deliver uncompressed NTSC, PAL, 4:3, 16:9, and letterbox formats, as well as frameaccurate film cut lists and edit decision lists (EDLs), all from the same
24p (24-fps progressive) media.
Alternatively, use the Film Composer® system’s Universal Offline
Editing technology to digitize and edit footage at 24 fps. Then output a
film cut list or EDL, or transfer the project to Symphony for finishing
and mastering.
About 24p Media
With new DTV (digital television) formats expanding the options for
content distribution, there is renewed interest in the oldest format in
the industry: 24-fps film. In addition to its common, worldwide format, film provides the highest resolution master for archiving purposes. Through a telecine transfer and the digitizing process, the Avid
system digitizes and stores film frames as 24-fps progressive media, or
24p.
For more information
about the film-to-tape
transfer process, see
Chapter 2.
Progressive media is composed of single frames, each of which is vertically scanned as one pass. The Avid system creates 24p media by
combining (deinterlacing) two video fields into a single full, reconstructed frame. For NTSC film-to-tape transfers, the system creates
24p media by removing the extra fields inserted by the 2:3 pulldown
process and creating progressive frames.
Working in 24p simplifies digital editing of film or other 24-fps-originated content, such as HDTV video that has been downconverted to
ITU-R 601 digital video. In addition, 24p media requires less storage
and processing power than 30-fps media. Because 24p provides a common production format for multiversion, multiformat delivery, it
promises to become the new universal format for all film and video
content.
17
For more information, see “How the Avid System Stores and Displays 24p Media” on page 48.
Types of Projects
When you start a project on your Avid system, you need to decide on a
project type. Choose your project type based on your source footage. If
your Avid system includes support for 24p projects, you can choose
one of the following options from the New Project dialog box:
For information on creating a new project, see
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid
system.
•
24p NTSC: For film-originated or other 24-fps footage, transferred
to NTSC videotape
•
30i NTSC: For NTSC video-originated footage (30 fps)
•
24p PAL: For film-originated or other 24-fps footage, transferred
to PAL videotape
•
25i PAL: For PAL video-originated footage (25 fps)
In these options, 24p indicates 24 fps progressive. For these projects,
your source footage is digitized and stored as 24 full, discrete frames
per second. In the 30i NTSC and 25i PAL options, the i represents interlaced frames played at 30 fps or 25 fps. An interlaced frame consists of
two fields, each of which contains one-half the scan lines of the frame.
Interlaced frames are standard for NTSC and PAL video media.
For 30i NTSC projects and 25i PAL projects, you can choose the Matchback option, which lets you digitize and edit film-originated footage at
30 or 25 fps and “match back” to a cut list for conforming your edit to
film. For more information, see “Using the Matchback Option” on
page 282.
Your Avid system also includes features that enable you to digitize
and edit multicamera projects. For more information, see Chapter 6
and the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
18
Planning a Video Project
An Avid video project is one that digitizes and stores 30-fps NTSC or
25-fps PAL media as digital video that conforms to the ITU-R 601 standard (SDTV or standard-definition TV). This section presents two possible workflows for video projects:
•
Video source (Figure 1-1)
•
High-definition (HD) source with SDTV downconversion
(Figure 1-2)
Offline editing is done in a Media Composer system, and finishing is
done in a Symphony system. With HD source footage, you need to
downconvert the high-definition format of HDTV to SDTV video for
digitizing by the Avid system.
n
You cannot create 24p media or multiple output formats from video footage
shot at 30 fps (NTSC) or 25 fps (PAL).
19
1. (Option) Import a log
file to create a bin.
(Step 1)
Betacam
Log
2. If you imported a log
file, batch digitize in the
Media Composer
offline system. Otherwise, log and digitize,
or digitize on-the-fly.
3. Complete offline
edits and create a final
sequence.
4. Copy project information from the offline
system to the
Symphony online
system.
Source footage:
NTSC 30 fps or
PAL 25 fps
Betacam or
Digital Betacam
VTR
(Step 2)
Media Composer
offline editing
system
(Step 3)
Betacam
(Step 4)
5. Batch digitize the
sequence in an online
resolution in the
Symphony system.
(Step 5)
6. Use Symphony to
finish the project.
(Step 6)
7. Create a master tape
(NTSC or PAL,
depending on your
source footage).
(Step 7)
Figure 1-1
Source footage:
NTSC 30 fps or
PAL 25 fps
Proj
Betacam or
Digital Betacam
VTR
Symphony
finishing system
Betacam
25-fps or
30-fps master
Workflow: Video Project with Video Source
20
1. (Option) Import a log
file to create a bin.
2. If you imported a log
file, batch digitize in the
Media Composer
offline system. Otherwise log and digitize, or
digitize on-the-fly. Use
an HD VTR or other
equipment to downconvert the HD source.
3. Complete offline
edits and create a final
sequence.
4. Copy project information from the offline
system to the Symphony online system.
(Step 1)
HD
Log
(Step 2)
HD VTR
Media Composer
offline editing
system
(Step 3)
HD
(Step 4)
Proj
5. Downconvert the
source footage and
batch digitize the
sequence in an online
resolution in the
Symphony system.
6. Use Symphony to finish the project.
7. Create a master tape
(NTSC or PAL) or EDL
for conforming an
HDTV master.
HD source footage:
NTSC 30 fps or
PAL 25 fps
HD source footage:
NTSC 30 fps or
PAL 25 fps
HD VTR
(Step 5)
(Step 6)
Symphony
finishing system
(Step 7)
Betacam
25-fps or
30-fps master
Figure 1-2
EDL
EDL for conformed
HDTV master
Workflow: Video Project with HD Source, SDTV
Downconversion
21
Planning a 24p Project
A 24p project is one that uses 24p media, which is created and stored
in the Avid system. In most cases, the source footage is film shot at
24 fps, but new technology is introducing 24p videotape formats, both
for cameras and VTRs. For 24p videotape, you need to use a 24p VTR
to downconvert the high-definition format of HDTV to SDTV digital
video for digitizing by the Avid system.
This section presents two possible workflows for 24p projects:
•
Film source, SDTV transfer, and multiformat output
•
Film or HD video source, SDTV downconversion, and multiformat output
For film productions that screen dailies, the paths might be somewhat
different. For more information, see “Viewing Dailies” on page 35.
NTSC and PAL Image Sizes
The Universal Mastering capabilities of your Avid system let you create both NTSC and PAL master tapes from the same project. If you
plan to output both formats, consider the following information.
In the Avid system, NTSC video uses a 4:3 aspect ratio with a screen
display of 720 x 486 pixels. PAL video uses the same aspect ratio, but
includes an additional 90 horizontal lines for a total screen display of
720 x 576. During the process of creating a digital cut, the Avid system
resizes the video image to the appropriate screen dimensions. For
example, if you are working in an NTSC project and want to output
PAL video, the Avid system resizes the NTSC video image to the
larger PAL screen dimensions. This is the same process used in other
standalone standards converters.
In general, resizing from PAL to NTSC results in better quality, especially for imported graphics. If you plan to output both NTSC and PAL
22
versions of a sequence, consider using PAL film-to-video transfer and
graphics sized for PAL. Your choice will depend on other production
requirements, such as audio workflow and hardware availability.
n
The Avid system's Title tool uses downstream-key (DSK) capabilities to apply
the correct title to each output format for your project. For more information,
see the effects guide for your Avid system.
Workflow: Film Source, SDTV Transfer, Multiformat Output
The workflow shown in Figure 1-3 and Figure 1-4 illustrates a possible path for film footage shot at the standard 24 fps, transferred to
SDTV (standard definition television or ITU-R 601) video, and digitized at 24 fps. Figure 1-3 shows the offline stage of the workflow,
using a Media Composer or Film Composer system with the Universal
Offline Editing option. Figure 1-4 shows the online stage, using a Symphony Universal system, film-tape-film-tape relinking, and multiple
output formats.
In this workflow, the sound recording is synchronized as part of the
telecine transfer. For alternative audio workflows, see “Alternative
Audio Paths” on page 29.
For details on the telecine transfer process, see Chapter 2.
23
1. The telecine process
uses one-light or bestlight transfer and syncs
picture and sound to
create ITU-R 601 video.
The process adds 2:3
pulldown to film footage to create an NTSC
videotape, or uses 4.1%
speedup for PAL videotape. The telecine process also creates a shot
log (for example, a
FLEx file).
2. Convert the shot log
file with Avid Log
Exchange (ALE), then
import the shot log file
into Media Composer
or Film Composer to
create a bin or bins.
3. Batch digitize the
footage in an offline resolution, based on the
shot log. The Avid system removes the 2:3
pulldown and creates
24p media.
4. Edit at 24 fps, apply
Pan and Scan and other
effects, and create a
final sequence.
5. Create a floppy disk
with project information for transfer to the
Symphony online system. Create a 24p pull
list for another telecine
process, for retransfer of
foortage used in the
final edit.
Telecine transfer process
Nagra or DAT
playback system
DAT
Sound
recording
(Nagra or
DAT)
Film shot
at 24 fps
Telecine controller
and record deck
(Step 1)
(Step 2)
Log
Betacam
Digital Betacam, D-5,
DCT, or D-1 format
(NTSC or PAL)
Digital Betacam, D-5,
DCT, or D-1 VTR
(Step 3)
Media Composer
or
Film Composer
offline system
(Step 4)
(Step 5)
Pull list
Proj
To the Symphony
system
Figure 1-3
To the telecine
system
Offline Workflow: Film Source, SDTV Transfer
24
6. The telecine process
uses the pull list and a
full color-corrected
transfer to create NTSC
or PAL videotape with
selects from the original negative (picture
only). The process also
creates a new shot log
file.
7. Copy the project
information from the
floppy disk to the
Symphony online
system.
8. Convert the new shot
log with ALE and
import it into the
Symphony system.
9. Batch digitize in an
online resolution, based
on the new shot log file.
10. Relink the sequence
and clips by key numbers (FTFT) and
complete any other
finishing.
11. Generate multiple
formats. For NTSC and
PAL, the system reinserts the pulldown or
re-creates the speedup.
For conforming film, it
creates a 24p cut list.
From the
offline
system
(Step 6)
Telecine transfer process (picture only)
Pull list
Film shot
at 24 fps
(Step 7)
From the
offline
system
Betacam
Proj
(Step 8)
Digital Betacam, D-5,
DCT, or D-1 format
(NTSC or PAL)
Log
Digital Betacam, D-5,
DCT, or D-1 VTR
(Step 9)
Symphony
online
system
(Step 10)
Cut list
(Step 11)
Betacam
NTSC 29.97 fps
4:3 or 16:9
or
Betacam
or
PAL 25 fps
4:3 or 16:9
Conformed
film cut
Figure 1-4
Online Workflow: Film Source, SDTV Transfer,
Multiformat Output
25
Film or HD Video Source, SDTV Downconversion, Multiformat
Output
This workflow is based on film or video footage shot at 24 fps and
planned for HDTV (high-definition television). Different workflows
are being developed for this new technology, which includes 24p tape
formats, VTRs, and cameras. This workflow presents one possible
path.
Figure 1-5 shows the offline stage of the workflow, using a
Media Composer or Film Composer system with the Universal Offline
Editing option. Figure 1-6 shows the online stage, using a Symphony
system with Universal Editing and Mastering and multiple output formats.
In this workflow, the sound recording is synchronized as part of the
telecine transfer. For alternative audio workflows, see “Alternative
Audio Paths” on page 29.
For details on the telecine transfer process, see Chapter 2.
26
1. Source videotape
comes either from a
telecine transfer or a 24fps video camera. The
telecine process transfers 24-fps film footage
at 1:1 (no pulldown). It
also creates a shot log
(for example, a FLEx
file).
2. For telecine transfer
projects, convert the
shot log file with ALE
and import it into
Media Composer or
Film Composer to create a bin or bins.
3. Batch digitize the
footage in an offline resolution, based on the
shot log. Use a 24p deck
to downconvert HDTV
to 601 video. The deck
adds 2:3 pulldown
(NTSC) or 4.1%
speedup (PAL). The
Avid system removes
the extra pulldown
fields and creates 24p
media.
4. Edit at 24 fps, apply
Pan and Scan or other
effects as desired, and
create a final sequence.
5. Create a 24p pull list
for another telecine process, for retransfer of
foortage used in the
final edit. Create a
floppy disk with project
information for transfer
to the Symphony online
system.
Telecine transfer process
Nagra or DAT
playback system
DAT
Sound
recording
(Nagra or
DAT)
Film shot
at 24 fps
Telecine controller
and record deck
HD 24
(Step 1)
(Step 2)
HD 24
Log
1:1 transfer
24-fps HD
format
Video shot by
24-fps camera
24p HD VTR
(Step 3)
Media Composer
or
Film Composer
offline system
(Step 4)
(Step 5)
Pull list
Proj
To the Symphony
system
Figure 1-5
To the telecine
system
Offline Workflow: Film or HDTV Source, SDTV
Downconversion
27
6. For film-originated
projects, the telecine
process uses the pull list
and full color-corrected
transfer to create HDTV
videotape with selects
from the original negative (picture only). The
process also creates a
new shot log file.
7. Copy the project
information from
floppy disk to the
Symphony online
system.
8. For telecine transfer
projects, convert the
new shot log file with
ALE and import it into
the Symphony system.
9. Batch digitize in an
online resolution, based
on the new shot log file.
downconvert either the
telecine transfer tape or
HDTV source tape
10. Relink the sequence
and clips by key numbers (FTFT) and
complete any other
finishing.
Telecine transfer process (picture only)
(Step 6)
From the
offline
system
Pull list
Film shot
at 24 fps
(Step 7)
From the
offline
system
HD 24
HD 24
Proj
Video shot by
24-fps camera
Log
(Step 8)
(Step 9)
Symphony
online
system
(Step 10)
24p EDL
Cut list
(Step 11)
11. Generate multiple
formats for output. For
NTSC and PAL, the
Symphony system reinserts the pulldown or
re-creates the speedup.
For conforming film, it
creates a 24p cut list.
For HDTV, it creates a
24p EDL for use in an
online suite.
Betacam
or
NTSC 29.97 fps
4:3 or 16:9
Betacam
or
or
EDL
PAL 25 fps
4:3 or 16:9
Conformed
film cut
HD
Conformed
HDTV master
Figure 1-6
Online Workflow: Film or HDTV Source, SDTV Downconversion, Multiformat Output
28
Alternative Audio Paths
The workflows in this section illustrate four alternative paths for digitizing and synchronizing audio:
•
NTSC Audio and Video Synchronized During Transfer
•
NTSC Audio and Video Digitized Separately
•
PAL Audio and Video Synchronized During Transfer (PAL
Method 1)
•
PAL Audio and Video Digitized Separately (PAL Method 2)
The Avid system provides multiple formats for output. These workflows illustrate which formats are appropriate for audio-only, and
which formats are appropriate for video with audio.
29
NTSC Audio and Video Synchronized During Transfer
This method uses audio and video synced in the telecine system and
transferred to NTSC videotape.
1. The telecine process
syncs picture and sound
to create NTSC ITU-R
601 video. The process
adds 2:3 pulldown,
slows the film speed to
23.976 fps (labeled
24 fps) and slows the
audio to 44056 or
47952 Hz (digital) or
59.94 (analog).
Telecine transfer process
Nagra or DAT
playback system
DAT
Sound
recording
(Nagra or
DAT)
Film shot
at 24 fps
Telecine controller
and record deck
(Step 1)
2. Digitize the footage
in the Avid system. Set
the pulldown switch in
the Digitize tool to 0.99.
The system digitizes
video and audio at the
slowed-down speed,
removes the 2:3 pulldown and creates 24p
media.
3. Edit and finish at
24 fps. During editing,
audio plays at the original rate of 44100 or
48000 Hz (digital) or
60 Hz (analog).
4. Choose one or more
outputs, depending on
your project needs.
Betacam
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
format tape
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
deck
(Step 2)
Avid video
editing
system
(Step 3)
(Step 4)
Figure 1-7
DAT
Digital cut at
24 (NTSC) or
24 (PAL) for
audio transfer
Betacam
Digital cut at
23.976 (NTSC) or
25 (PAL) for
broadcast master
NTSC Audio and Video Synchronized During
Transfer
30
NTSC Audio and Video Digitized Separately
In this method, you digitize audio and video separately, and then synchronize them in the Avid system.
1. The telecine process
creates NTSC ITU-R 601
video. The process adds
2:3 pulldown and slows
the film speed to
23.976 fps (labeled
24 fps). For effects
work, some footage can
be transferred and digitized without pulldown (frame-to-frame).
2. Digitize the audio. If
audio was transferred
at 29.97 fps, set the pulldown switch on the
Digitize tool to 0.99. For
field audio at 30 fps, set
the pulldown switch
to 1.0.
Telecine transfer process (picture only)
(Step 1)
Film shot
at 24 fps
(Step 2)
DAT
Sound
recording
(Nagra or DAT)
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
format tape
Betacam
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
deck
(Step 3)
3. Digitize the picture
footage in the Avid system. The system
removes the 2:3 pulldown and creates 24p
media.
Avid video
editing
system
(Step 4)
4. Use the AutoSync™
feature to sync picture
and sound. Edit and finish at 24p.
(Step 5)
5. Choose one or more
outputs, depending on
your project needs.
Figure 1-8
DAT
Digital cut at
24 (NTSC) or
24 (PAL) for
audio transfer
Betacam
Digital cut at
23.976 (NTSC)
or 25 (PAL) for
broadcast master
NTSC Audio and Video Digitized Separately
31
PAL Audio and Video Synchronized During Transfer (PAL Method 1)
This method uses audio and video synced in the telecine system and
transferred to PAL videotape. This method is known as PAL Method 1.
It is most commonly used for 24-fps film footage that is intended for
PAL TV broadcast.
1. The telecine process
syncs picture and sound
to create PAL ITU-R 601
video (25 fps). The process adds 4.1%
speedup.
Telecine transfer process
(Step 1)
Nagra or DAT
playback system
DAT
2. Digitize the footage
in the Avid system. The
system creates frameto-frame 24p media.
Sound
recording
(Nagra or
DAT)
Film shot
at 24 fps
Telecine controller
and record deck
Betacam
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
format tape
(Step 2)
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
deck
3. Edit and finish at 24p.
During editing and
playback, audio is
scrubbed to play at
44100 or 48000 Hz. During playback or digital
cut at 25 fps, audio
plays at 44100 Hz or
48000 Hz.
Avid video
editing
system
(Step 3)
(Step 4)
Betacam
4. Choose one or more
outputs, depending on
your project needs.
Figure 1-9
Digital cut at
25 (PAL) or
23.976 (NTSC)
for broadcast
master
PAL Audio and Video Synced During Transfer
(PAL Method 1)
32
PAL Audio and Video Digitized Separately (PAL Method 2)
In this method, you digitize audio and video separately, and then synchronize them in the Avid system. This method is known as PAL
Method 2.
Telecine transfer process (picture only)
1. The telecine process
creates PAL ITU-R 601
video without sound
(MOS). The process
adds 4.1% speedup.
(Step 1)
Film shot
at 24 fps
2. Digitize the audio
(without speedup) in
the Avid system.
DAT
(Step 2)
Sound
recording
(Nagra or DAT)
3. Digitize the picture
footage in the Avid system. The system creates
24p media.
4. Use the AutoSync
feature to sync picture
and sound. Edit and finish at 24p. During editing, audio plays at
44100 or 48000 Hz.
5. Choose one or more
outputs, depending on
your project needs.
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
format tape
Betacam
Digital Betacam,
D-5, DCT, or D-1
deck
(Step 3)
Avid video
editing
system
(Step 4)
(Step 5)
DAT
Digital cut at
24 (PAL) or
24 (NTSC) for
audio transfer
Betacam
Digital cut at
25 (PAL) or
23.976 (NTSC)
for audio transfer
Figure 1-10 PAL Audio and Video Digitized Separately
(PAL Method 2)
33
Film Project Considerations
This section presents information that could be useful in planning film
projects that you will edit on an Avid system:
•
Film Shoot Specifications
•
Viewing Dailies
Film Shoot Specifications
Use the guidelines in Table 1-1 to help you plan for film shoots.
Table 1-1
Film Shoot Specifications
Element
Supported Formats
Notes
Film type
16mm
Use Standard 16mm or Super 16mm.
Super 16’s aspect ratio closely matches 16:9.
35mm: 2, 3, 4, and 8 perf
16mm, 35mm 4 perf, and 35mm 3 perf are
supported as projects in the Avid system. The
remaining formats are supported through ink
numbers and auxiliary ink numbers, which
you choose in the Film Settings dialog box.
For more information, see the editing guide
for your Avid system.
65mm: 5, 8, 10, and 15 perf
Film wind
B-wind
Always use camera rolls with key numbers in
ascending order.
Audio media
1/4-inch audiotape (Nagra)
Use to record analog audio.
DAT or DA88 (digital audiotape)
Use to record digital audio.
34
Table 1-1
Film Shoot Specifications (Continued)
Element
Supported Formats
Notes
Audio timecodes
30-fps drop-frame or non-dropframe
Use for NTSC transfer projects, and for generating audio EDLs.
25-fps timecode
Use for PAL transfer projects, and for generating audio EDLs in the PAL format.
Audio sync to in-camera timecode
(Aaton® or Arri® 24-fps timecode)
Use for automatic syncing of sound with picture in the Avid system.
Clapsticks
Use for manual syncing of sound with
picture.
Electronic slate (smart slate)
Use for semiautomatic syncing.
In-camera timecode, with audio
sync
Use for automatic, “slateless” syncing in the
telecine.
Slate information
Camera roll, scene and take, shoot
date, sound-roll ID
Mark sound-roll ID as a backup.
Sound-roll cues
Sound-roll ID, date, start and end
time-of-day timecode
Include verbal time-of-day cues as a backup.
Sync methods
Viewing Dailies
Viewing dailies is a critical part of the film production process. With an
Avid system, there are two different ways to produce dailies.
•
The film dailies method relies on work print for screening, transferring, and creating conformed cuts during editing.
•
The video dailies method relies on videotape transfers from negative
for screening, transferring, and creating conformed cuts during
editing.
35
Film Dailies Method
The film dailies method involves the general procedures shown. Specifics, such as tape formats, vary depending on facilities and needs.
1. Prepare work print
for the circled (chosen)
takes.
....................
.....................
....................
.....................
Negative
2. Sync work print with
audio mag track, and
assemble each take on a
roll with ink numbers.
(Steps 1 and 2)
Work print
(Step 4)
....................
Mag track
KEM roll
(Step 3)
Screening
3. Screen the film dailies
before telecine transfer.
4. Mount and transfer
the rolls to tape in telecine.
5. (Option) Enter ink
numbers manually into
the Avid system after
you digitize, to match
the ink number on the
work print.
6. Generate ink number
lists for preparing cuts
from the work print,
and key number lists
for conforming the negative.
Telecine
(Step 5)
Betacam
Transfer
(Step 6)
Cut list
Conformed cut
When you work with film dailies and work print, the advantages are:
•
You can screen the dailies immediately after the lab work.
•
You can use work print previews to view the full film aspect
ratios, resolutions, and contrast ranges. For this reason, film dailies are often preferred for feature film projects.
The disadvantage is that the magnetic track and work print require
additional facilities, procedures, and costs.
36
Video Dailies Method
The video dailies method involves the general procedures shown. Specifics, such as tape formats, vary depending on facilities and needs.
1. Prepare film negative
for circled takes.
2. Transfer reels of negative synced to audio in
telecine. Generate a
simultaneous online
transfer, or create the
online transfer from
selects after editing the
sequence.
....................
....................
Negative
Nagra or DAT
playback system
Assembled
takes
(Steps 1 and 2)
Telecine controller
and record deck
Sound
recording
3. Screen the videotape
dailies after the transfer.
5. Edit in the Avid system.
Alternatively, generate
a matchback list of
selects for printing
selects and conforming
negative.
Betacam
Screening
Transfer
Transfer
(Steps 4 and 5)
(Step 6)
Cut list
Conformed cut
Betacam
Preview
EDL
1”
6. Record a digital cut to
preview the sequence
with effects, or generate EDLs for editing the
videotape transfers.
(Step 3)
1”
4. Import existing key
numbers and timecode
information into the
Avid system, then
digitize.
Master
The advantage of working with video dailies and film negative is that
you can avoid the cost of work print until the finishing stages, or altogether. The disadvantage is you are limited to the aspect ratio, resolution, and contrast range of video previews. For this reason, video
dailies are preferred for television projects, but you can also use this
method to economize on a feature film production.
37
CHAPTER 2
Film-to-Tape Transfer
Methods
To capture and edit film-originated footage in your Avid system, you
must transfer the footage to videotape. This chapter presents the following information about film-to-tape transfer methods:
•
About the Transfer Process
•
Transferring 24-fps Film to NTSC Video
•
Transferring 24-fps Film to PAL Video
•
How the Avid System Stores and Displays 24p Media
To help you plan the transfer, this chapter also includes the following
sections:
•
Film-to-Tape Transfer Guidelines
•
Film-to-Tape Transfer Options
38
About the Transfer Process
You have your film rolls from the day’s shooting, and you’re ready to
edit on your Avid system. To digitize that footage into the system, you
first need to transfer the film to videotape. This process uses a special
film projector called a telecine (the term loosely translates as “videofilm”). The telecine is usually part of a production system that includes
audiotape recorders, a controller, and other equipment.
After you’ve decided on a telecine facility and have supplied your
requirements (see “Film-to-Tape Transfer Guidelines” on page 50
and “Film-to-Tape Transfer Options” on page 51), the telecine facility
performs the film-to-tape transfer. The steps in the process differ,
depending on whether you include audio and whether the transfer
produces NTSC or PAL videotapes. The following sections describe
these steps.
Transferring 24-fps Film to NTSC Video
If you use an NTSC transfer, the film-to-video process takes place in
two stages:
•
Stage 1: Transferring the film to video, through the telecine process
•
Stage 2: Changing the video rate (29.97 fps) to film rate (24 fps)
during the Avid system’s digitizing process
The following illustration shows a simplified view of the NTSC filmto-video transfer process. For a complete illustration of the workflow,
see “Planning a 24p Project” on page 22.
39
Telecine
2:3 pulldown
23.976 fps
Stage 1
Betacam
Digitize and reverse
pulldown to 24 fps.
Stage 2
Betacam or
Digital Betacam
video signal 29.97 fps
Film shot at 24 fps
Avid editing system at 24 fps
Stage 1: Transferring Film to Video
The NTSC film-to-video transfer occurs as a two-part process: the telecine adds extra frames during transfer and, at the same time, slightly
reduces the film’s running speed.
Frames Versus Fields
To understand how the telecine transfers film to videotape, you need
to understand the relationship between frames and fields.
An NTSC video image consists of 525 horizontal lines of information.
The electron gun on a video monitor displays the odd-numbered lines
first and then the even-numbered lines. Each full scan of odd-numbered or even-numbered lines constitutes a field. At 30 fps, each field
takes 1/60th of a second to display; therefore, an entire frame of two
fields is scanned each 1/30th of a second. The combination of these
two fields (odd and even) is called interlacing.
A film frame, in contrast, is one full picture; it has no fields. The telecine process takes each film frame and creates a two-field video frame.
Part 1: Using a 2:3 Pulldown to Translate 24-fps Film to 30-fps Video
Film runs at 24 fps, and NTSC video runs at 30 fps. The difference in
frame rates between film and video prevents a direct frame-to-frame
transfer.
40
To compensate, the telecine process creates an extra six frames every
second (the difference between 24 and 30). That is, it creates five video
frames for every four film frames. But remember, each video frame is
subdivided into two video fields. To be more precise, the telecine creates 10 video fields (the equivalent of five video frames) for every four
film frames. This is referred to as a 4:5 ratio. Table 2-1 states this relationship between film and video.
Table 2-1
Ratio of Film to Video
Film
Video
24 fps
30 fps
4 frames
5 frames
(10 fields)
The telecine uses a method known as pulldown to create the extra
frames. As each film frame moves through the telecine projector, it is
held in place (pulled down) while a specific number of fields are
recorded on videotape. To transfer four film frames to 10 video fields,
the telecine process alternates between creating two and three video
fields per film frame (referred to as 2:3 pulldown). To transfer four film
frames to 10 video fields, the telecine pulls down the first film frame
and records two video fields, pulls down the second film frame and
records three video fields, and repeats the process.
The four frames in each series are referred to as A, B, C, and D. The
standard method for identifying the resulting fields is to label them as
A1, A2, B1, B2, and so forth. The following diagram illustrates the 2:3
pulldown process.
41
Five NTSC video frames (10 fields)
Four film frames
A
B
C
D
A1
odd
A2
even
B1
odd
B2
even
B3
odd
C1
even
C2
odd
D1
even
D2
odd
D3
even
Timecode change
Timecode change
Timecode change
Timecode change
The telecine alternates between capturing odd-numbered and evennumbered fields. For example, B1 and B3 both contain the odd-numbered scan lines of the B film frame. Later in the transfer process, when
the Avid system digitizes the fields, it must capture an odd-numbered
and an even-numbered field for each frame.
When you view the resulting video, you get the impression that you
are watching the video at 24 fps even though it is playing at 30 fps (or
more precisely, at 29.97 fps).
Part 2: Slowing the Film Speed to 23.976 fps
NTSC video, the broadcast standard used in the United States, Japan,
and other countries, plays at an actual rate of 29.97 fps, although it is
usually referred to as 30 fps.
An accurate conversion requires exact adherence to the 4:5 ratio, but
this ratio breaks down when you compare 24 fps to 29.97 fps. To
achieve a true 4:5 ratio, the film frame rate is slowed down to
23.976 fps. The telecine process makes this correction automatically,
slowing NTSC video 0.1 percent from the original film speed, so that
the video plays at 99.9 percent of its original speed.
42
Table 2-2 adds this new ratio.
Table 2-2
Ratio of Film to Video
Film
Video
24 fps
30 fps
4 frames
5 frames
(10 fields)
23.976 fps
(0.999 x 24)
29.97 fps
(0.999 x 30)
Maintaining Synchronized Sound
In most cases, the sound for your production has been recorded on a
digital audio system, such as a DAT (digital audiotape), or ¼-inch tape
system, such as a Nagra recorder. You need to synchronize the sound
with the picture and make sure they are in sync in the Avid system.
You can take one of three basic paths:
•
Transfer the original sound recording to mag track, sync the mag
track to the film work print, and transfer both to videotape
through a telecine process.
•
Sync the original sound recordings to picture during the telecine
process, and transfer both to videotape.
•
Transfer only the picture through the telecine process, digitize picture and sound separately, and sync them in the Avid system.
If the telecine transfers sound along with picture (one of the first two
paths), the sound is slowed by 0.1 percent, to maintain sync with the
picture. The reference signal slows from 60 Hz to 59.94 Hz and the rate
at which the audio is recorded changes from 44100 Hz to 44056 Hz, or
from 48000 Hz to 47952 Hz.
43
Optionally, you can transfer only picture, and digitize the original
audio directly into the Avid system. This approach can save telecine
expense and give you better quality audio. For more information, see
“Alternative Audio Paths” on page 29.
Stage 2: Digitizing at 24 fps
The telecine has converted your film footage into video running at
29.97 fps. Now you’re ready to use the digitizing process to input the
material as a 24p NTSC project.
During the digitizing process, the Avid system reverses the pulldown
procedure to capture the film footage at 24 fps. It removes the extra
fields added by the pulldown process to create full-frame, 24p media.
The digitize process captures video and audio at the slowed-down
speed (0.999).
To digitize audio transferred at 29.97 fps
(video rate) you must
set the pulldown switch
to 0.99 in the Digitize
tool. For more information, see “Setting the
Pulldown Switch” on
page 118.
The following illustration shows each stage of the film-video-24p
process.
Four film frames
A
B
C
D
Five NTSC video frames (10 fields)
A1
odd
A2
even
B1
odd
B2
even
B3
odd
C1
even
C2
odd
D1
even
D2
odd
D3
even
A
B
Skip this field.
C
D
Skip this field.
Betacam or Digital Betacam
29.97 fps
Film at 24 fps
44
Four digitized frames
24p media at 24 fps
If you have transferred sound along with picture, the Avid system captures audio at the slowed-down speed. Then during editing and playback, the system speeds up the play rate by 0.1 percent to play in sync
with the 24-fps video. Audio plays at 44100 Hz or 48000 Hz.
Now you can edit the material at 24 fps on the Avid system. This
approach ensures that all your edits correspond to true film frames so
that you see an accurate representation of the finished film.
Transferring 24-fps Film to PAL Video
If you use a PAL transfer, the film-to-video process also takes place in
two stages:
•
Stage 1: Transfer the film to videotape by speeding up the film rate
during the telecine process.
•
Stage 2: Digitize the transferred videotape into the Avid system at
the sped-up rate.
The following illustration shows a simplified view of the PAL film-tovideo transfer process. For a complete illustration of the workflow, see
“Planning a 24p Project” on page 22.
Telecine
transfer with
4.1% speedup
Stage 1
Film shot at 24 fps
Digitize
Betacam
Stage 2
Betacam or
Digital Betacam
video signal 25 fps
Avid editing system at 24 fps
There are two approaches to synchronizing sound, which are often
referred to as PAL Method 1 and PAL Method 2.
45
PAL Method 1
With PAL Method 1, you synchronize sound with picture during the
telecine process.
Stage 1: Transferring Sound and Picture to Videotape
Some PAL film-to-tape
transfers use pulldown.
This method is not currently supported in
Avid systems.
As with an NTSC film-to-tape transfer, the telecine process creates two
video fields for each film frame. However, because the film rate of
24 fps is close to the PAL video rate of 25 fps, most PAL film-to-tape
transfers involve simply speeding up the frame rate. This speedup
changes the frame rate from 24 to 25 (an increase of 4.1 percent). There
is no pulldown that creates extra fields.
With PAL Method 1, there are two ways to sync sound with picture in
the telecine process:
•
Transfer the original sound recording to mag track, sync the mag
track to the film work print, and transfer both to videotape
through a telecine process.
•
Sync the original sound recordings to picture during the telecine
process, and transfer both to videotape.
In either case, the telecine process speeds up sound at the same rate as
picture: 4.1 percent.
Stage 2: Digitizing at 24 fps
After you’ve received the PAL transfer tapes, the next step is digitizing
the footage in a 24p PAL project. During the digitizing process, the
Avid system digitizes the material at the PAL rate of 25 fps, capturing
every picture frame. It stores the two video fields as a single progressive frame, which you edit at 24 fps.
46
n
Select this option in the
Film Settings dialog
box. For more information, see“Selecting Settings” on page 95 and
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
You must digitize audio along with video at the PAL rate of 25 fps if you want
to use audio that was transferred along with picture during the telecine process. You set the Audio Transfer rate as Video Rate (100+%) in the Film Settings dialog box. For more information, see “Selecting Settings” on
page 95.
You have the option of playing back the footage at 24 fps or 25 fps. If
you choose 24 fps, the system slows both the picture and the sound by
4.1 percent for playback. This approach lets you edit at the original
film rate, but the slowdown creates a limitation for audio. Because you
digitize the audio at a rate faster than playback, some audio samples
are duplicated during playback, and sound quality is compromised.
If you choose to play back at 25 fps, there is a different limitation with
audio. Because you are playing back at the speeded-up rate (4.1 percent), the audio pitch rises slightly. This is usually acceptable for
broadcast, so PAL Method 1 is primarily used for PAL television
broadcast.
PAL Method 2
With PAL Method 2, you digitize sound and picture separately.
Stage 1: Transferring Picture to Videotape
Some PAL film-to-tape
transfers use pulldown.
This method is not currently supported in
Avid systems.
With PAL Method 2, you use the same telecine process for picture (create a video frame of two fields for each film frame, speed up rate by
4.1 percent). The difference is that you do not synchronize sound as
part of the telecine process.
47
Stage 2: Digitizing at 24 fps
Now that you have your picture-only videotapes (at the rate of 25 fps)
and your source recording tapes, you need to follow a two-step process:
•
Digitize the picture to create 24p media.
•
Digitize the sound at the film rate of 24 fps. You choose this rate
from the Audio Transfer pop-up menu rate in the Film Settings
dialog box. For more information, see “Selecting Settings” on
page 95.
In most cases, you will choose to edit at 24 fps. The sound will maintain source quality (44.1 kHz and 48 kHz) and will play in sync with
24-fps video.
PAL Method 2 is used primarily for film projects.
How the Avid System Stores and Displays 24p Media
When the Avid system digitizes video that has been transferred from
film (or video shot at 24 fps), it creates 24p media. It creates this media
by capturing the video fields, dropping extra pulldown fields (NTSC
transfers only), combining (deinterlacing) two fields for each film
frame (A1+A2, B1+B2, and so forth), and storing the fields together as
a full frame. The system always stores media as a fully reconstructed,
progressive frame. It is the construction of this full frame that gives
you the flexibility to create multiformat output.
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Displaying Media While Editing
When you click the Play button while editing a clip or a sequence
(sometimes referred to as Edit Play), the system separates (interlaces)
the progressive frames into fields and does the following:
Choose your preference for playback in the
Film Settings dialog
box. For more information, see “Film Settings” on page 98 and
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
•
On the Source, Record, Playback, or pop-up monitor, the system
displays the footage at 23.976 fps, 24 fps, or 25 fps, depending on
your project and editing preference.
•
On an NTSC monitor, the system does one of two things:
•
-
If playing at 23.976 fps (audio pulldown ON), the system performs a 2:3 pulldown that replicates the telecine pulldown,
and displays the interlaced media at 29.97 fps.
-
If playing at 24 fps (audio pulldown OFF), the system performs a 2:3 pulldown, drops every 1000th frame in the Client
monitor, and displays the interlaced media at 29.97 fps.
On a PAL monitor, the system does one of two things:
-
If playing at 24 fps, the system duplicates two fields per second to display the interlaced media at 25 fps.
-
If playing at 25 fps, the system performs a 4.1 percent
speedup, maintains 1:1 transfer of film frames to video frames,
and displays the interlaced media at 25 fps.
By default, the system uses a setting called Fast Frame Display and
displays one field of the progressive frame. You can display the full
frame if necessary, such as checking for dropouts created during the
film-to-tape transfer, and step through frame by frame. However, the
display will be slower. For more information, see the section on detecting video dropout in the effects guide for your Avid system.
Displaying Media During a Digital Cut
The Digital Cut tool lets you output multiple formats at various play
rates, all from 24p media. When you click the Play Digital Cut button,
49
the system displays the sequence as described in the previous section,
depending on your choice in the Digital Cut tool. For more information, see “Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects” on page 274.
Film-to-Tape Transfer Guidelines
Observe the following general guidelines when transferring film to
tape:
•
Instruct the telecine facility to record timecode on the address
track.
•
Instruct the facility to use only a telecine transfer process when
transferring to NTSC videotape. Do not use a film chain or any
other transfer device.
•
PAL transfers do not require pulldown so you can use either a
telecine or a film chain. However, quality is much better on a telecine.
•
Transfer all of the project’s source film footage to disk or tape by
using either the NTSC or PAL method.
-
n
Do not mix 24 fps and 30 fps transfers on the same transfer tape.
-
n
For NTSC projects, you can mix footage transferred at 24 fps
(23.976 fps) or 30 fps (29.97 fps) and mix sound transferred at
1.0 or 0.99.
For PAL projects, you cannot mix audio that has been transferred at 4.1% speedup (PAL Method 1) with audio that has
not been sped up (PAL Method 2).
PAL film-to-tape transfers that use pulldown are not currently supported in
Avid systems.
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Film-to-Tape Transfer Options
This section describes options for transfer quality and various screening and editing aids that you can request during the transfer process,
based on the considerations of budget and available facilities.
Transfer Quality
The quality of the film-to-tape transfers depends upon several options
for the telecine transfer. The transfer quality options available from a
telecine facility include:
For more information
on FTFT, see “Relinking Clips by Key Number” on page 192.
•
One-light transfers involve a single setting of color correction values, resulting in the simplest, fastest, and least costly type of transfer. One-light transfers are often used during offline stages of
editing.
•
Best-light transfers involve optimum settings of the color-grade
controls, but without scene-by-scene color correction. Best-light
transfers are an intermediate level in terms of both quality and
cost.
•
Timed (scene-by-scene) transfers involve color correcting each scene
or shot during transfer. Timed transfers are the most expensive
and time consuming. This option sets up the proper black and
white levels so that you can perform a tape-to-tape color correction from the source tapes, if needed.
You can use the Film-Tape-Film-Tape (FTFT) feature to perform two
separate telecine processes for a project:
•
Perform a one-light or best light transfer to obtain the most material for the initial edits.
•
After editing is complete, perform a timed, fully color-corrected
transfer of the clips that will be used in the final cut.
After you perform the final telecine operation, you can digitize at a finishing resolution, such as 1:1 (uncompressed).
51
Additional Film Transfer Aids
The transfer facility might have available one or more of the following
production aids, which you can include in your film-to-tape transfer:
c
•
Automatic logging: Whenever possible, you should instruct the
facility to log tracking information directly into a computer database program. Logs generated automatically are more accurate
than manual logs and can be imported easily into the Avid system.
A log file typically indicates the relative timecode, key numbers,
and pullin (“A” frames) for each clip that will be digitized.
•
A keypunch at the head of each camera roll: Ask the lab or transfer
house to punch the head of each camera roll at the zero frame and
give you a list of the corresponding key numbers. After you have
digitized, you can match this list with your digitized material to
check for potential transfer errors.
•
Burn-in code: If the transfer facility is equipped with a timecode
or film code character generator, you can instruct the facility to
display or “burn-in” tracking codes on the videotape transfer.
Burn-in code provides visual feedback for logging and tracking
footage.
Burn-in code cannot be removed from the image and should be used
only for the offline stage of a project.
•
16:9 wide screen format: The Avid system supports the 16:9 wide
screen display format. You can either shoot your footage using a
16:9 lens or transfer the footage anamorphically to display a larger
area of the film aspect ratio during offline and online editing. Also,
this aspect ratio lets you create media that takes advantage of new
16:9 monitors that conform to SDTV and HDTV standards.
52
CHAPTER 3
Logging
When you import shot log files or log directly into a bin, you provide
the Avid system with frame-accurate clip information used to digitize
the source footage. The logs you create form the foundation for organizing, tracking, storing, retrieving, and generating lists of edit information throughout your project. Techniques for preparing log
information prior to digitizing are covered in the following sections:
•
Preparing Log Files for Import
•
Importing Shot Log Files
•
Logging Directly into a Bin
•
Logging Film Information
•
Modifying Clip Information Before Digitizing
•
Exporting Shot Log Files
53
Preparing Log Files for Import
Preparing log files for importing into a bin can involve one or more of
the following methods:
•
Convert a log file generated by a telecine or other film-to-tape
transfer system, as described in “Creating Avid Logs” on page 62.
This is the most accurate method for providing the Avid system
with frame-accurate clip information for digitizing the transferred
source tapes.
•
Use a word processor or standard text editor to create and import
logs, as described in “Creating Avid Logs” on page 62.
•
Use the MediaLog™ application to log the material on a
Macintosh® system and transfer the bins directly into the Avid
system, as described in “Creating Avid Logs” on page 62.
Consider double-checking any log files before you import them. See
“Double-Checking the Log Files” on page 65.
Converting Log Files with Avid Log Exchange
You can use the Avid Log Exchange (ALE) utility included with your
system to quickly convert shot log files created by other sources. You
can then import the files directly into bins, as described in “Importing
Shot Log Files” on page 66.
The ALE utility allows you to:
•
Modify the text in a log file.
•
Convert log files to the ALE file.
•
Convert an ALE file to either an ATN or FLX file.
Any options you set in the ALE utility are saved each time you exit the
ALE utility.
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When you are converting an ATN file that contains multiple sections
to an ALE file, multiple ALE files are created. The Avid Log Exchange
window displays only the first ALE file created. The succeeding ALE
files are given the same file name with incremental numbering. For
example, the file Nations1.atn is converted to Nations1.ale,
Nations1_2.ale, Nations1_3.ale, and so on. The converted output files
are stored in the folder containing the original input file.
To convert a log file to an ALE file:
1. Click the Start button, and then point to Programs.
2. Point to Avid, point to Utilities, and then click Avid Log Exchange.
The Avid Log Exchange window opens.
3. Choose Open from the File menu.
The Open dialog box appears.
4. Double-click the file you want to convert.
55
5. Depending on the type of file you are opening, one of the following occurs:
•
If the file type is recognized by the ALE utility, the file appears
in the Avid Log Exchange window.
•
If the file does not contain the Windows NT line ending format, then the Line Endings dialog box appears.
56
Do one of the following:
-
Click Display & Save to open the file in the Avid Log
Exchange window and change the file to the Windows NT®
format.
-
Click Display Only to open the file in the Avid Log Exchange
window, but not change the file.
-
Click Ignore to display the file as is without changes.
The file appears in the Avid Log Exchange window.
For specific information on the various file
types shown here, see
Appendix C.
•
If the file type is not recognized, the Choose File Type dialog
box appears:
a. Select the type of file you are converting.
b. Click OK.
The file appears in the Avid Log Exchange window.
57
6. Use the Options menu to select the tracks to include in the Tracks
column of the log. The default track selections are Log V, Log A1,
and Log A2.
After you import the log into an Avid bin, the system digitizes all
tracks shown in this column when batch digitizing.
7. Choose Clean from the Options menu if you want Avid Log
Exchange to clean the ALE output file to eliminate overlapping
timecodes for clips. By default, Clean is selected.
When you choose Clean, the utility removes the end timecode
from any clip that overlaps the start of the next clip.
8. If you chose Clean, you can also choose Relaxed from the Options
menu to prevent deleting events that come earlier in the transfer.
Relaxed is not set by default.
For example, if you transfer film footage with a timecode of
2:00:00:00 and then add some clips at the end with a timecode of
1:00:00:00, Relaxed prevents the Clean function from deleting the
clips. This occurs when you shoot footage across the midnight
hour and the first half of the film has 24 hour and the second half
has 0 hour.
58
9. Choose ALE from the Convert menu.
The default output selection is the Avid Log Exchange (ALE) format. This is the required format for import into an Avid bin.
The Avid Log Exchange window displays the converted ALE file.
The converted file has the same file name as the original file,
except the file name extension matches the converted file format.
10. (Option) Choose the original file from the Window menu if you
want to convert the file again using different options.
59
11. Choose Close from the File menu.
If you made changes in the editor a message box appears.
12. Click Yes.
The converted file is stored in the same folder as the original log
file.
Using Drag-and-Drop Conversion
Use this shortcut to convert any type of file into an ALE file.
n
Before you use the drag-and-drop conversion, you should check the options in
the ALE utility. The current options are used when you perform the dragand-drop conversion.
To convert a log file by using drag-and-drop conversion:
1. Create a shortcut for the ALE utility.
2. Open the folder that contains the files you want to convert, positioning the folder so the Shortcut icon for the ALE utility is visible.
3. Select the files you want to convert.
60
4. Drag the selected files to the Shortcut icon for the ALE utility, and
release the mouse button.
5. Depending on the type of files you are converting, one of the following occurs:
•
If the file type is recognized by the ALE utility, a message box
appears, indicating the conversion was successful.
•
If the file type is not recognized, the Choose File Type dialog
box appears:
a. Select the type of the file you are converting.
b. Click OK.
61
A message box appears, indicating the conversion was
successful.
•
If the file type is an ALE file, the ALE Convert Type dialog box
appears:
a. Select a file type for the converted output file.
b. Click OK.
A message box appears, indicating the conversion was
successful.
6. Click OK to close the message box.
The converted files have the same file names as the original files,
except the file name extension matches the converted file format.
For example, the .ale extension is added to the new file names for
the Avid format. The converted files are stored in the folder containing the original log files.
Creating Avid Logs
You can prepare an Avid log on any type of Macintosh or
IBM®-compatible computer by using a word processing application or
a text editor. To ensure accuracy, you must follow the Avid log specifications described in Appendix C.
62
You can use any text editor to create Avid logs. However, you must
save the file as a text document (ASCII format).
When logging manually, you should document the following
information:
•
Identify the source tape for each shot.
•
Document each clip’s name, start timecode, and end timecode.
•
In the case of NTSC transfer tapes for film projects, you must supply pulldown information in the Pullin column of the bin before
you can digitize.
This is the minimum information required to digitize successfully. You
can also add other information such as comments, auxiliary timecodes, or key numbers for film projects. You can make a separate log
file for each videotape, or log clips from several different videotapes in
one log.
Your Windows NT system ships with a text editor called WordPad.
WordPad can handle large files and it allows you to save the file as a
text document.
To start WordPad:
1. Click the Start button, and then point to Programs.
2. Point to the Accessories folder, and then click WordPad.
To create Avid Logs, using a word processor:
1. Enter shot log information according to the specifications
described in Appendix C.
2. Save your file as a text file in the Save As dialog box.
After you have double-checked the log, import it into the Avid system.
For more information, see “Importing Shot Log Files” on page 66.
c
The Avid system only accepts text files (ASCII format).
63
Transferring Bins from MediaLog
For information on specific MediaLog procedures, see the Avid
MediaLog for Macintosh
User’s Guide or the Avid
MediaLog for
Windows NT User’s
Guide.
n
The MediaLog program is a standalone application that speeds the
process of creating and importing log information from a Macintosh or
Windows computer. MediaLog mirrors the Avid system interface for
creating projects, bins, and clip information in the bin, and includes
serial deck control for logging directly from tape.
MediaLog for Windows NT is included with your Avid system. To purchase
MediaLog for Macintosh, contact your Avid sales representative.
If you log your source footage by using MediaLog, you can transfer
the bins directly to the Avid system for batch digitizing by moving the
bin files. You can also import the logs by using the same procedure as
you would for other Avid-compatible log formats, as described in
“Importing Shot Log Files” on page 66.
To transfer bins from MediaLog:
1. Save the MediaLog bins to a floppy disk.
If you are using MediaLog for Macintosh, make sure the disk is
DOS-formatted or that your Windows NT system can mount
Macintosh-formatted disks by using a third-party utility.
If your MediaLog folders are available through a server or other
networked source, then locate the MediaLog folder there instead.
2. Insert the floppy disk from MediaLog into the Avid system’s
floppy drive.
3. Open the project folder in which you want to store the
MediaLog bins. This folder is usually located in
one of the following folders, depending on your installation:
•
D:\Avid\Media Composer\Avid Projects
•
D:\Avid\Film Composer\Avid Projects
4. Double-click My Computer and double-click the icon for the
floppy disk.
64
5. Ctrl+click the bins in the floppy disk window, and choose Copy
from the Edit menu.
6. Click the project folder window to make it active, and choose
Paste from the Edit menu.
7. Restart the application and open your project.
8. Associate the imported bins with your project by doing the
following:
a. Choose Open Bin from the File menu.
b. Locate the new bin by using the Open Bin dialog box.
c. Double-click the bin to open it within your project.
The new bin appears in the Bins scroll list in the Project window.
The bins you have imported contain master clips only with no associated media files. Before you can view or manipulate these clips, you
must create the associated media files by batch digitizing the source
material. For information about batch digitizing, see “Batch Digitizing from Logged Clips” on page 179.
Double-Checking the Log Files
When importing shot logs for video, the Avid system compares the
video duration to the video out minus the video in. When importing
film shot logs, the system compares the key number out minus the key
number in.
Open the Console by
choosing Console from
the Tools menu. For
more information, see
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
If the system detects a discrepancy, it reports the error to the Console
and does not bring the clip into the bin. The best way to ensure that
clips are not discarded on import is to double-check the logs for discrepancies in duration and marks.
65
Importing Shot Log Files
You can also import an
EDL to a bin for use in
digitizing. For more
information, see the
Avid EDL Manager
User’s Guide.
You can import any log created or converted to meet Avid log specifications. For film projects, most telecine and other film-to-tape transfer
systems generate a log that you can import directly to the bin, after
you convert it to .ALE format by using the Avid Log Exchange utility.
Even if the telecine facility supplies you with an .ALE file, you should
process it through the ALE utility, using the Clean function. For more
information, see “Creating Avid Logs” on page 62.
You can combine or merge events while importing a log so that fewer
master tapes require digitizing, as described in this section.
To import shot log files into a bin:
1. If you have created Import settings for importing shot log files,
select the Import setting that you want to use from the Settings
scroll list. See “Creating and Using Import Settings” on page 214.
2. Open the bin in which you want to store the imported files. Click
anywhere in an open bin to select it, or create a new bin for the
shot log import.
3. Choose Import from the File menu.
The Import file(s) into bin dialog box appears.
66
Look in pop-up menu
Source file list
Files of type
pop-up menu
4. Choose Shot Log (*.ale) from the Files of type pop-up menu.
5. Click the Options button to open the Import Settings dialog box, if
you want to select options for combining events on import.
For information on Import settings, see “Import Settings
Options” on page 216.
6. After selecting the appropriate options, click OK to close the
Import Settings dialog box and return to the Import file(s) into bin
dialog box.
7. Use the Look in pop-up menu to locate the folder containing the
source file.
8. Select the source file from the list and click the Open button.
When the system finishes importing the file, the clips appear in
the selected bin.
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Logging Directly into a Bin
You can log clips directly into a bin by using the Digitize tool in one of
two ways described in this section:
For complete information on working with
bin headings and clip
information, see the
editing guide or Help
for your Avid system.
•
Log directly into a bin with an Avid-controlled deck for semiautomated data entry.
•
Log manually during or after viewing of footage offline with a
non-Avid-controlled deck or other source.
Logging Tips
Observe the following important guidelines for preroll, timecode formats, and naming of tapes when logging prior to digitizing.
Logging Preroll
Be sure to leave adequate preroll with continuous timecode prior to IN
points when logging your tapes. The recommended minimum preroll
is 2 seconds for Betacam playback, and 5 seconds for 3/4-inch U-matic
playback.
n
You set the default preroll for tape playback by using Deck Settings. For more
information, see Table 4-2 on page 105.
Logging Timecode
Within an NTSC project, check the timecode format of each tape (dropframe versus non-drop-frame timecode) when you are logging without a tape in the deck. Log drop-frame timecode by using
semicolons (;) between the hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. Log
non-drop-frame timecode with colons (:).
68
n
To change the logged timecode format, choose Modify from the Clip menu.
For information, see “Modifying Clip Information Before Digitizing” on
page 85.
Naming Tapes
When entering tape names in the Digitize tool, consider the following:
n
•
Tape names must be alphanumeric characters (A to Z, 0 to 9). They
can include uppercase and lowercase characters. The maximum
length of a name is 32 characters.
•
It is possible to have a single tape listed as several different tapes if
you alter the case of the letters. For example, if you type a single
name as TAPE, Tape, and tape on three different occasions, all three
names will appear. This can cause significant problems in keeping
track of clips when batch digitizing, redigitizing, and generating
an EDL. Choose a case convention and maintain it throughout a
project.
If you want your Avid system to consider master clips as coming from the
exact same tape, you should try to choose that tape name from the Select Tape
dialog box. If you do not see the tape you are looking for, but know you have
online media from that tape, you should click the Scan for tapes button. For
more information, see “Logging with an Avid-Controlled Deck” on
page 70.
•
It is important that you devise a naming scheme for your tapes.
For example, tapes with similar names can be easily sorted and
viewed together in a bin. However, it can be difficult to distinguish among numerous tapes with similar names when trying to
locate a specific tape quickly. Name tapes based upon the amount
and complexity of your source material.
•
If you are planning to generate an edit decision list (EDL) for
import into an edit controller for online editing, double-check the
controller’s specifications beforehand. Some edit controllers will
truncate source tape names to as few as six characters, while others will eliminate characters and truncate to three numbers. Alter69
ations like these at the EDL stage might cause the system to
identify different source tapes with similar names in the same way,
causing you to lose track of source material.
Logging with an Avid-Controlled Deck
For information about
connecting a compatible deck to your system,
see the setup guide for
your Avid system.
When you log with a compatible tape deck controlled from within
your Avid system, you can automate part of the logging process by
using buttons to enter frame-accurate timecode information from the
deck. This method is more accurate than manual entry because timecodes are transferred directly from tape to the bin.
To log clips to a bin by using the Digitize tool:
1. Make sure the deck is properly connected and turned on.
2. Open the bin where you want to store the clips.
3. Choose Digitize from the Tools menu.
The Digitize tool opens. Playback from the deck is displayed in the
Client monitor.
70
Digitize/Log Mode button
Log button
Channel selection buttons
Message bar
Clip Name text box
Clip Comment text box
Timecode
display
Deck controls
Deck Selection pop-up menu
Source Tape display
n
If you forgot to connect and turn on the power to the deck before opening the
Digitize tool, you can reinitialize deck control after turning it on by choosing
Check Decks from the Deck Selection pop-up menu.
4. If the Digitize tool is not currently in Log mode, click the Digitize/
Log Mode button until the LOG icon appears.
5. Insert your tape into the deck. The Select Tape dialog box appears.
You can select the option “Show other project’s tapes” to display
the tape names and associated project names for all bins that have
been opened in the current session.
n
Because the media file database does not open when you start your Avid system, tape names of all online media files do not appear automatically.
If the tape name you are searching for does not appear in the Select Tape dialog box, click the Scan for tapes button. Tape and project names are listed.
71
New tape name
List of tapes
Show Tapes option
For guidelines when
naming tapes, see
“Naming Tapes” on
page 69.
6. Provide the system with a tape name in one of the following ways:
•
Select the name of the tape from the list in the Select Tape dialog box and click OK.
•
Click New if the tape is not in the list. A new tape name line
appears in the dialog box. Type the new name and click OK.
The tape name is displayed in the Digitize tool.
A message that the system is waiting for you to mark an IN point
is displayed in the message bar. The Log button displays an IN
point.
7. Set either an IN point or an OUT point for the clip you want to log,
using one of the following methods:
Mark IN
•
Use the deck controls in the Digitize tool to cue your source
tape to the start or end point, and click the Mark IN or Mark
OUT button.
•
Click the Log button in the upper left corner of the Digitize
tool to enter the mark.
Mark OUT
72
Go To IN
•
Go To OUT
If the footage starts at a known IN point or ends at a known
OUT point, type the timecode in the text box next to the Mark
IN or Mark OUT buttons, press the Go To IN or Go To OUT
button to scan the tape forward to the mark, or press Enter to
enter it.
After you set the mark, the icon in the Log button changes to the
corresponding OUT or IN point, and a pencil appears on the button.
8. To finish logging the clip, do one of the following:
•
Set the remaining IN or OUT point on-the-fly by using the
buttons.
•
Type a timecode for the clip’s IN, OUT, or duration in the
timecode text boxes next to the corresponding icon and press
Enter.
The system automatically calculates the appropriate timecode for
the remaining mark IN, mark OUT, or duration, and enters the
clip into the bin. The clip name, which is chosen and automatically
numbered by the system, is highlighted and ready to be changed.
c
You must enter two of the three timecode marks (IN point, OUT
point, or duration) to complete the log entry.
9. Name the clip by typing a new name before clicking any of the
buttons in the Digitize tool.
n
Consider changing the clip name immediately, because it is easy to forget the
contents of each clip if you are logging many clips. You can, if necessary,
accept the clip name and proceed with the logging process and change the clip
names in the bin at a later time.
10. Repeat these steps until you have logged all your clips.
While viewing the footage, you can continuously update your marks
on-the-fly by clicking the Mark IN or Mark OUT button repeatedly
before entering the second mark.
73
Adding a Memory Mark
You can add a memory mark to a particular location on a tape.
•
To mark the location, click the Mark Memory button on the Digitize tool.
•
To move through the tape to the marked location, click the Go to
Memory button.
•
To clear the memory mark, click the Clear Memory button.
You can add one mark per tape. The memory mark is not stored on the
tape. When you remove the tape from the deck and insert another tape
into the decks, the mark is cleared.
Clear Memory button
Mark Memory button
Go to Memory button
Logging with Non-Avid-Controlled Decks
You can use the Digitize tool to log clips directly into a bin from a
source that is not Avid-controlled. For example, you can log clips from
a deck that is not connected to the system, or from handwritten or
printed log information for a tape that was previously logged but is
not currently available.
1. If there is a deck connected to the system, eject the tape from the
deck.
74
n
For NTSC projects, when you are logging within the Digitize tool, you
should leave the deck empty. If a tape remains in the deck, the system will
determine drop-frame or non-drop-frame from that tape whether or not it
matches your tape’s timecode format.
2. Double-click Deck Preferences in the Settings scroll list of the
Project window to open the Deck Preferences dialog box.
3. For NTSC projects, choose Non-Drop-Frame or Drop-Frame from
the “When no tape in deck log as” pop-up menu.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box.
5. Open the bin where you want to store the clips.
6. Choose Digitize from the Tools menu.
The Digitize Tool window opens.
7. Click the Digitize/Log Mode button in the Digitize tool until the
LOG icon appears.
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Digitize/Log Mode button
Log button
Channel
Selection buttons
Message
bar
Clip Name text box
Clip Comment
text box
Timecode
display
Clear IN
button
Clear OUT
button
Deck controls
Deck Selection
pop-up menu
Clear
Memory
button
Source Tape display
Mark OUT button
Mark IN button
Mark Memory button Go to Memory button
8. Click the Source Tape display button. A dialog box appears.
9. Click Yes to open the Select Tape dialog box.
10. Double-click the name of the tape in the dialog box, or click New
and enter the name of the tape. Click OK.
11. Select the tracks that you want to log, using the Channel Selection
buttons in the Digitize tool.
12. Type the start and end timecodes in the Mark IN and Mark OUT
text boxes.
13. Click the Log button.
The clip is logged into the bin.
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Logging Film Information
Once you have entered or imported the basic log information into a
bin, you might want to add film-related log information before digitizing. This section describes procedures and formats for adding various
film headings.
The following are some important requirements for film-based
projects:
For information on digitizing long clips to multiple files, see
“Digitizing to Multiple
Media Files” on
page 124.
•
The minimum information required for digitizing is the data
recorded in the Start and End video timecode columns, and the
Pulldown frame for NTSC transfers, which is noted in the Pullin
column (24-fps capture only).
•
Each reel of film can be logged as a separate clip, and will correspond to a single master clip, only if the video transfer of the film
reel has continuous pulldown (NTSC format), and continuous
timecode (NTSC and PAL). If the film reels for your project do not
meet this condition, then you must log each take on a reel of film as
a separate clip, which will correspond to a single master clip.
If you log each reel as a separate clip, you can use the F1 and F2
keys to create subclips for each take. See “Creating Subclips Onthe-Fly” on page 164.
•
If you want to produce a cut list, or use film-tape-film-tape for
redigitizing, you must log key numbers. You can add key numbers
after digitizing, before you create the cut list.
•
All film and video reference numbers must be in ascending order.
Displaying Film Columns
To display film columns in the bin:
1. Choose Film from the Bin View pop-up menu, which is located at
the bottom of the Bin window, to display all the required film column headings.
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2. To log data under optional headings (for example, Ink Number,
Auxiliary TC1-Auxiliary TC5, or Film TC), choose Headings from
the Bin menu and Ctrl+click the specific headings you want to add
from the Bin Column Selection dialog box.
3. You can also track custom information for the job by creating a
custom heading. To create a new heading, type a name that
describes the information in the headings bar at the top of the bin.
For more information on customizing bin views, see the editing
guide or Help for your Avid system.
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Entering the Pulldown of the Sync Point
For information about
importing a log file, see
“Importing Shot Log
Files” on page 66.
To accurately digitize NTSC transfer tapes in 24p projects, you need to
enter pulldown information into the bin. (This information is not
required for PAL transfer tapes.) If you are importing a log generated
during the telecine transfer, the pulldown information is automatically
included in the bin. If you do not have a transfer log, you need to add
the information manually.
Start timecode
Pullin column
(information required for NTSC)
By specifying the pulldown frame in the Pullin column, you accomplish the following:
•
You ensure that the clips will start with the correct frame for the
pulldown. Otherwise, you might experience inaccuracies in keynumber tracking and in the cut lists.
•
You indicate where the pulldown fields are located so that the
Avid system can accurately eliminate the pulldown fields during
the digitizing process, leaving you with a frame-to-frame correspondence between your digital media and the original film footage.
To do this, you must indicate whether the sync point at the start of
each film clip transferred to tape is an A,B,C, or D film frame, as
described in this section. In most cases, the sync point is the A frame.
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It is easiest to determine the pulldown of a sync point if you ask your
film lab to keypunch (cut a small hole in) the sync frame at the zero
frame in the original film footage before transferring the film to video.
Many film labs or transfer houses can also provide a pulldown frame
indicator displayed at the far right of the burn-in key numbers,
depending on the equipment available. Ideally, the A-frame pulldown
coincides with timecode ending in 0 and 5 (:00, :05, :10, and so on).
For instructions on
determining the pulldown sync point for
material already digitized, see “Modifying
the Pullin Frame” on
page 194.
If the footage has not been keypunched, you can determine pulldown
according to clapsticks or any other distinctive frame at the beginning
of the clip. Determining the pulldown is easier if the frames depict
motion.
To determine the pulldown sync point:
1. While viewing the video transfer on a monitor, go to the keypunched (or clapsticks) sync point for the beginning frame of the
clip you’re logging.
2. Jog past the sync point frame field-by-field, using the step wheel
on the tape deck. You will see either two or three keypunched
fields. If the footage is not keypunched, look for two or three fields
with little or no motion.
3. If there are two fields, the pulldown is either A or C. Step through
the fields again, and note where the timecode changes:
•
If the timecode does not change from the first to the second
field, the fields came from an A frame.
•
If the timecode changes from the first to the second field, the
fields came from a C frame.
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The following illustration shows a keypunch on the A frame.
Notice where the timecode changes.
Five NTSC video frames (10 fields)
Four film frames
A
B
C
D
A1
odd
A2
even
B1
odd
B2
even
B3
odd
C1
even
C2
odd
D1
even
D2
odd
D3
even
Timecode change
Timecode change
Timecode change
Timecode change
4. If there are three keypunched fields, or fields without motion, the
pulldown is either B or D. Step through the fields again and note
where the timecode changes:
•
If the timecode changes between fields 2 and 3, the fields came
from a B frame.
•
If the timecode changes between fields 1 and 2, the fields came
from a D frame.
5. Enter the information in the Pullin column in the appropriate bin
before digitizing.
n
After you digitize an NTSC transfer, the timecode shows a loss of every fifth
frame of video. For example, don’t be alarmed if you find that your timecode
jumps at one point from 1:00:14:15 to 1:00:14:17. You haven’t lost a frame,
just an extra pulldown field.
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Entering Frames-Per-Second Rates for PAL Transfers
When you log in advance for PAL film-to-tape transfers, you must log
the footage as clips that have a 25-fps play rate, as listed in the FPS column of the bin. If you want, you can digitize the footage on-the-fly,
without logging the clips first. The minimum information required to
capture the footage is the data logged in the Start and End video timecode columns.
Entering Key Numbers
To add key numbers, highlight the KN Start column, then type the key
number for the sync point at the start of the clip by using one of the
following formats:
•
Keykode™ Format: Type a two-character manufacturer and film
type code, a six-digit prefix for identifying the film roll, a fourdigit footage count, a two-digit frame offset, and then press the
Enter key.
The Avid system adds a space, hyphen, and either a plus sign (for
35mm projects) or an ampersand (for 16mm projects) to format the
number. For example, in a 35mm project, to enter
KJ 23 6892-1234+15, type KJ236892123415. In a 16-mm project, typing the same number results in the code KJ 23 6892-1234&15.
•
Other Formats: Enter other key-number formats in the Ink Number column. Type up to eight characters for the prefix, up to five
characters for the footage count, two digits as the frame count, and
then press the Enter key.
The Avid system automatically calculates the ending key number (KN
End), based on the timecode duration.
c
Make sure the correct number appears when you press Enter. For
key number formats other than Keykode, you might need to type the
space, hyphen (-), and plus sign (+) or ampersand (&) to format the
number correctly.
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Entering Additional Timecodes (Optional)
Consider the following when you enter additional timecodes:
•
You can use the Duplicate command to convert timecodes from one
format to another. For
more information, see
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
In one of the Aux TC columns (that is, Aux TC1 through Aux TC5)
type an auxiliary timecode that syncs with the video timecode
logged in the Start column. You can enter up to five auxiliary timecodes. Supported timecodes depend on your project: 30-fps for
NTSC (drop-frame or non-drop-frame) and 25-fps for PAL. Use
one of the following formats:
-
Enter a two-digit format for hours, minutes, seconds, and
frames. You need not enter a leading zero. (For example, to
enter 01:23:02:00, type 1230200.)
-
When working with drop-frame timecode in the NTSC format
(not applicable to PAL) enter a semicolon to indicate dropframe timecode (for example, to enter 01;23;02;00, type
01;230200).
•
In the Sound TC column, enter the Nagra or DAT timecode for the
original audio for the start of the clip. The timecode should sync
with the video timecode logged in the Start column in the bin.
Enter the source sound-roll identifier in the Soundroll column.
Supported timecodes depend on your project: 30-fps for NTSC
(drop-frame or non-drop-frame) and 25-fps for PAL. The clip to be
digitized must contain an audio track.
•
In the Film TC column, enter timecode generated by a film camera
(using Aaton or Arriflex timecode) for tracking the picture at the
start of the clip. The film timecode should sync with the video
timecode logged in the Start column. Only 24-fps timecode is supported. The clip to be digitized must contain a video track.
•
In the TC24 column, enter timecode for original HDTV sources
(1080 24p) or audio DATs created for PAL feature film productions
that use in-camera timecode.
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Entering the Ink Number (Optional)
To enter ink numbers:
1. Open the Film Settings dialog box by clicking Film in the Settings
scroll list of the Project window.
2. Make sure the correct options are selected for ink number format
and ink number display, and click OK.
n
You can log different ink number formats in the same project as long as you
change the ink number setting to the appropriate format before you log each
type. Changing the ink number setting affects only the next ink numbers you
log, not numbers that are already logged.
3. Return to the bin and enter numbers under the Ink Number heading.
For example, use Keykode format or use a two-digit prefix to identify the roll, a hyphen, a four- or five-digit footage count, a plus
sign, and a two-digit frame count (for example, AA-00924+00).
Entering Additional Film Data
You can continue to log additional film data into the Labroll, Camroll,
Soundroll, Scene, and Take columns, or into your own custom columns, as necessary. You can include the information in these columns
on the cut lists you create for your edited sequence.
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Modifying Clip Information Before Digitizing
For complete information on working with
bin columns and clip
information, see “Using
Text View” in the editing guide or Help for
your Avid system.
c
You can change or modify the information logged in the bin. This is
especially useful if you find that some of the data is incorrect, or if you
need to update the information based on technical needs, such as varying timecode formats or film specifications.
There are two ways to modify clip information prior to digitizing:
•
You can modify the information directly by clicking in a column
and entering the new information one field at a time.
•
You can use the Modify command to change selected groups of
clips all at once.
Modifying tape names and timecodes will affect any key numbers
entered for the selected clips.
Using the Modify Command
The Modify command gives you specialized control over groups of
clip information. For example, you can use the Modify command to
change the name of source tapes for some or all of your clips, to
change the timecode format from drop-frame to non-drop-frame, or to
increment or decrement the start and end timecodes by a specified
length of time for one or several clips at once.
You can apply changes with the Modify command to master clips
only; subclips and sequences cannot be altered in this way. In addition,
you can only perform modifications that alter the end timecodes or the
tracks before digitizing.
To modify selected clips:
1. Open the bin.
2. Click a Clip icon to select it. Ctrl+click each additional clip you
want to modify.
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Selected clips are
highlighted.
3. Choose Modify from the Clip menu.
The Alter Timecode dialog box appears.
Modification Type
pop-up menu
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4. Choose an option, such as Set Timecode By Field, from the Modification Type pop-up menu.
Depending on the modification you select, different options
appear in the dialog box that allow you to establish the specific
modification as shown in Table 3-1.
5. After choosing the type of modification, select an option or enter
information into the text boxes (timecode values, for example)
when they appear.
6. Click OK. The modification takes effect.
Modify Command Options
The Modify command allows you to modify bin information.
Table 3-1 describes the Modify command options.
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Table 3-1
Modifying Bin Information Options
Type of Modification
Options
Description
Set Timecode Drop/
Nondrop
Drop, Nondrop
Changes the timecode format between
drop-frame and non-drop-frame. Setting
must match the timecode format of the tape.
Set Timecode By Field
Start or End
Changes either the start or end timecode.
Only start timecode can be altered after
digitizing.
Hour, Minutes, Second,
Frame
Allows you to enter custom timecode.
Start or End
Changes either the start or end timecode.
Incrementing the start timecode automatically modifies the ending timecode by the
same amount. Only start timecode can be
incremented after digitizing.
Timecode text box
Allows you to enter custom incremental
timecode.
Start or End
Changes either the start or end timecode.
Decrementing the start timecode automatically modifies the ending timecode by the
same amount. Only start timecode can be
decremented after digitizing.
Timecode text box
Allows you to enter new decremental
timecode.
Key Number text box
Allows you to enter a custom generic key
number (film and matchback projects only).
Increment Timecode
Decrement Timecode
Set Key Number
Generic (Prefix)
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Table 3-1
Modifying Bin Information Options (Continued)
Type of Modification
Options
Description
Set Pullin
Punch frame timecode
text box
Sets the timecode location of the punch
frame for pullin (film and matchback
projects only).
A, B, C, or D
Selects the pulldown frame to match to the
timecode entry (film and matchback projects
only).
Set Tracks
V, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5,
Changes the clip’s configuration of tracks
A6, A7, and A8 track selector (film projects only).
buttons
Set Source
None
Opens the Select Tape dialog box. Selects
another source tape name for the clips.
Should match the original source tape name.
Exporting Shot Log Files
You can export a shot log file from the Avid system in one of two formats for making adjustments in a text processor or for importing into
another system.
To export a shot log based on clip information in a bin:
1. Open the bin containing the clips you want to export. If necessary,
change to Text view.
2. Click a Clip icon to select it. Ctrl+click each additional clip you
want to export.
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3. Choose Export from the File menu.
The Export dialog box appears.
4. Choose the Export setting by doing one of the following:
•
If you have previously created an Export setting for exporting
shot log files, choose the setting from the Export pop-up
menu. Then, go to step 9.
For information on creating Export settings, see “Creating and
Using Export Settings” on page 290.
•
If you want to review or edit Export settings, go to step 5.
5. Click Customize.
The Export Settings dialog box appears.
6. Select either Avid Log Exchange or Tab Delimited as the file type.
90
7. Type a name in the text box at the top of the dialog box to name
the Export setting. The Export Setting name is added to the list of
formats available from the Export dialog box.
8. Click OK to close the Export Settings dialog box.
9. Click OK to close the Export dialog box.
The Export As dialog box appears with a default file name in the
File name text box, based on the file type.
91
10. (Option) Change the file name. In most cases, keep the default file
name extension.
11. Select the destination folder for the file and click Save.
The file is exported and appears at the chosen destination.
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CHAPTER 4
Preparing to Digitize
Digitizing is the process of creating digital media from videotape or
audio input. Before you begin this process — described in Chapter 5
— you need to complete the following preparations:
•
Preparing the Hardware
•
Selecting Settings
•
Configuring Decks
•
Setting Deck Preferences
•
Setting Up the Compression Tool
•
Entering Capture Mode
•
Setting Up the Digitize Tool
•
Preparing for Audio Input
•
Preparing for Video Input
This chapter also provides a check list for preparing to digitize.
93
Preparing the Hardware
Your source material can originate from a videotape, a digital audiotape (DAT), a compact disc (CD), an in-house router, a tuner, or
straight off-the-air, with the proper hardware configuration.
n
For information on connecting your equipment, see the setup guide for your
Avid system.
You should check the following items before digitizing:
For more information
on the 16:9 format
option, see the editing
guide or Help for your
Avid system.
•
Client monitor. Before you begin digitizing and editing, set up
your NTSC or PAL Client monitor by using a color bar generator
(or house pattern) and lock in those settings, if you have not done
so already.
•
16:9 format. You can edit with video in the 16:9 aspect ratio for display of wide-screen images used in the high-definition television
(HDTV) format. To view the footage on a Client monitor, you must
have a 16:9-compatible Client monitor.
•
Remote switch. The deck control switch on the front of the source
deck must be set to remote rather than local to control the deck
with the Digitize tool.
•
Striped drives. If your footage contains complex images that you
digitize at high resolution, you must use striped drives, as
described in the AVIDdrive Utility User’s Guide. In addition, various resolutions have different striping requirements. For more
information, see the release notes for your Avid system.
•
DAT (digital audiotape). To digitize music or audio from a DAT
machine, check the setup guide for your Avid system to determine
whether your model requires VLXi for deck control. Also, when
digitizing from DAT, you must choose the proper sync setting. For
more information, see “Preparing for Audio Input” on page 129.
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Selecting Settings
For information about
locating and modifying
settings, see the editing
guide or Help for your
Avid system.
Several settings dialog boxes have a direct bearing on the digitizing
process. Before digitizing, review the following options.
General Digitize Settings
The Digitize Settings dialog box includes two parts: General Digitize
Settings and Batch Digitize Settings.
Table 4-1 describes the General Digitize Settings options. For information on the batch digitize settings, see “Redigitizing Your Material”
on page 185.
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Table 4-1
General Digitize Settings Options
Option
Description
Digitize to multiple files
When this option is selected, the system writes digitized video to multiple files across multiple drive partitions. Select this option if clips might
exceed the 2-GB file size limit. For complete instructions, see “Digitizing to Multiple Media Files” on page 124.
Prepare multiple files
for (minutes)
When this option is selected, the system preallocates space on the drive
partitions to accommodate the specified number of minutes. (The preallocation can take a long time.)
The system digitizes for only the specified number of minutes; be careful not to underestimate. The default is 30 minutes.
Always display incoming
video in the client monitor
When this option is selected, incoming video displays in the Client
monitor as soon as you open the Digitize tool.
If you do not select this option, you must click the V track in the Digitize
tool to display incoming video in the Client monitor.
Ask before discarding
a canceled clip
When this option is selected, the system queries whether you want to
keep or discard the incomplete clip after you click the Trash icon.
If you do not select this option, the system discards canceled clips without querying.
Capture a single video
frame only
When this option is selected, the system digitizes a single frame, video
only, from your clip. When you click the Digitize button, the system
captures the currently displayed frame. The clip can be used as a freeze
frame, or for animators, single-frame clips can be used as keyframes
before “in-betweening.”
Use control track instead of
timecode for preroll
When this option is selected, the system does not use timecode to perform 1–6 seconds of preroll before digitizing. Instead, it uses the control
track to time the preroll and captures all footage after the timecode
break. This option is useful when you are batch digitizing across timecode breaks or manually digitizing one clip at a time.
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Table 4-1
General Digitize Settings Options (Continued)
Option
Description
Digitize across timecode
breaks
When this option is selected, the system begins digitizing a new master
clip at each timecode break. Select this option when you are performing
unattended batch digitizing or autodigitizing. Deselect this option if
you plan to digitize the entire tape as a single clip by digitizing to multiple media files. For complete instructions, see “Digitizing Across Timecode Breaks” on page 127.
_____ with outpoint set
When this option is selected, the system stops digitizing when an OUT
point is encountered. This setting is useful when you are performing
unattended batch digitizing or autodigitizing.
Switch to emptiest
drive when
When this option is selected, the system switches to another storage
drive when the specified amount of time remains.
General Settings
General Settings include options for drive filtering, NTSC tape formats, and audio file format:
•
n
Drive Filtering Based on Resolution causes the system to dim all
drives for which speed capabilities are unknown or untested in a
particular resolution. The drives might be inadequate for playback. This is the default setting in the General Settings dialog box.
The Avid system will not prevent you from using non-Avid drives, but their
reliability cannot be assured.
•
NTSC Has Setup applies to standard NTSC format. This is the
default setting in the General Settings dialog box. If the source
footage is in the NTSC-EIAJ format standard (used primarily in
Japan), deselect NTSC Has Setup.
•
The Audio File Format pop-up menu allows you to choose either
AIFF-C or WAVE as the default audio media for the project. For
more information, see “Choosing the Audio File Format” on
page 129.
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Film Settings
Film settings give the system important information about the type of
film and audio transfer you use for your project.
Transfer
settings
The following settings are important for digitizing. You should set film
preferences immediately after you create a new project and before digitizing. For information about other Film settings, see the editing
guide or Help for your Avid system.
For information about
film-to-tape transfer
methods, see Chapter 2.
•
DAT TC Format allows you to specify the digital audiotape (DAT)
timecode format: either 30 fps or 29.97 fps (NTSC only). This timecode format must conform to the timecode format on your original
DAT tapes. This setting is active when digitizing audio only.
•
Film to Video Transfer allows you to specify the type of film-totape transfer that you digitize:
-
Video Rate: Use this option for digitizing film footage that has
been transferred to PAL video, or footage transferred to NTSC
video without pulldown.
98
•
Pulldown: Choose this option when you are digitizing film
footage that has been transferred as NTSC with pulldown.
Audio Transfer allows you to specify the rate of the audio that
you digitize:
-
Film Rate (100%): Choose this option when digitizing sound
that has been synchronized to picture as part of an NTSC filmto-tape transfer. In this case, set the pulldown switch in the
Digitize tool to 0.99 (on).
Also choose this option for either NTSC or PAL when digitizing from original sound sources, such as field DAT or Nagra,
at the original sample rate (either 44,100 or 48,000 Hz) with the
audio device set using a 60 Hz reference (50 Hz for PAL). In an
NTSC project, set the pulldown switch in the Digitize tool to
1.00 (off).
-
Video Rate: (100%+): Choose this option when digitizing sound
locked to video reference as part of a PAL film-to-tape transfer.
For NTSC projects, you can mix footage transferred with pulldown
and footage transferred without pulldown (video rate). You can also
mix sound transferred at 0.99 (with pulldown) and 1.00 (without pulldown).
For PAL projects, you cannot mix audio that has been transferred at
4.1% speedup (video rate, PAL Method 1) with audio that has not been
transferred (film rate, PAL Method 2).
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Configuring Decks
Deck Configuration settings allow you to establish deck control
parameters for a single deck or for multiple decks. As with all settings,
you can create multiple versions, allowing you to select among them
for frequent changes in hardware configurations.
Deck Configuration settings and global deck control preferences
appear as separate items in the Settings scroll list of the Project
window.
Deck control settings
For information on setting Deck Preferences, see “Setting Deck Preferences” on page 106.
c
You must manually configure the appropriate hardware connections
before Deck Configuration settings can take effect. For more information, see the setup guide for your Avid system.
To configure a deck or multiple decks:
1. Double-click Deck Configuration in the Settings scroll list.
The Deck Configuration dialog box appears.
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2. If you are configuring your system for the first time, click the Add
Channel button to add a new channel box on the left side of the
Deck Configuration dialog box and automatically open a Channel
dialog box.
n
For more information
on V-LAN equipment,
contact your Avid sales
representative.
Channel refers to the signal path for deck control, whether directly through a
serial port or through a V-LAN VLXi system connected to a serial port.
Direct serial port connection allows one deck for each channel, while a V-LAN
VLXi system provides multiple decks.
3. Choose one of the following from the Channel Type pop-up menu,
depending upon your system configuration.
•
Direct if you are connecting a deck directly to the serial port.
101
•
VLAN VLX if you are connecting a deck by means of a VLAN/VLXi.
4. Choose the port to which you are connecting the deck from the
Port pop-up menu.
n
If you are not sure which port to choose, check the 9-pin serial port connectors
on the back of the system. If the ports are not labeled, see the hardware documentation supplied with your system.
5. Click OK to close the Channel dialog box.
A dialog box appears with a question asking if you want to automatically configure the channel now.
6. Click Yes if you want to automatically configure the channel.
A new channel appears in the display area of the Deck Configuration dialog box, along with the auto-configured deck.
Decks appear on the right side.
Channel boxes
appear on the
left side.
102
n
You can reopen the Channel settings to change the options at any time by
double-clicking the channel box.
7. If you did not autoconfigure the deck, click the channel box to
select it.
8. Click Add Deck to open the Deck Settings dialog box.
n
With a deck already connected to the system, you can click the
Autoconfigure button to bypass the Deck Settings dialog box and automatically configure a deck with the default settings.
9. Select settings based on your deck. For information on Deck settings, see “Deck Settings Options” on page 104.
10. Click OK to close the Deck Settings dialog box and return to the
Deck Configuration dialog box.
n
You can reopen the Deck Settings dialog box to change the options at any time
by double-clicking the deck box in the Deck Configuration dialog box.
11. Repeat steps 2 to 10 for each additional channel or deck you want
to configure.
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12. (Option) Select the “Verify configuration against actual decks”
option if you want the system to check the deck configuration
against the decks physically connected to the system.
The system checks the deck configuration after you click Apply in
the Deck Configuration dialog box and when you start the Avid
application. A message warns you if the configuration does not
match the deck.
13. Type a name in the Configuration Name text box to name the deck
configuration. The new deck configuration will appear in the Settings scroll list of the Project window.
14. Click Apply to complete the configurations and close the Deck
Configuration dialog box.
15. If necessary, double-click Deck Preferences in the Settings scroll
list of the Project window to adjust global deck control options.
For more information, see “Setting Deck Preferences” on
page 106.
Deck Settings Options
You can access the Deck Settings dialog box by doing one of the following:
•
Click the Add Deck button in the Deck Configuration dialog box.
•
Choose Adjust Deck from the Deck Selection pop-up menu in the
deck controller section of the Digitize tool.
Table 4-2 describes the Deck Settings options.
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Table 4-2
Deck Settings Options
Option
Description
Name
Type your custom name for the tape deck. The default
name matches the deck type.
Description
Enter notes about the deck.
Deck Type
Choose your manufacturer and model from the menus.
These decks have been qualified to work with your Avid
system.
Address
For V-LAN VLXi use only (see your V-LAN VLXi documentation). If you are using direct serial port deck control,
this option is unavailable.
Preroll
Specifies how many seconds the tape rolls before a digitize or digital cut starts. The default is based on the type
of VTR.
Fast Cue
Speeds up long searches, if your decks can read timecode
in fast forward or rewind mode. Otherwise, this option is
not useful.
Switch to ff/rew
(seconds)
When this option is selected, the system switches to fast forward or
rewind if the target timecode is
beyond the specified number of seconds from your current location on
the tape.
By default, the deck switches to fast
forward or rewind to reach a target
timecode that is more than
60 seconds away.
If your deck shuttles very quickly,
you can increase this number so that
the system uses fast cue only for long
searches.
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Table 4-2
Option
Deck Settings Options (Continued)
Description
Switch to search
(seconds)
When this option is selected, the system switches out of fast forward or
rewind when it is within the specified number of seconds of the target
timecode. By default, the system
switches to search mode when it is
25 seconds from the target timecode.
Deleting Deck Configuration Elements
You can delete deck configuration elements to remove or replace them.
To delete deck configuration elements in the Avid system:
1. Double-click Deck Configuration in the Settings scroll list of the
Project window.
The Deck Configuration dialog box appears.
2. Click a channel box, a deck box, or the entire configuration to
select it.
3. Click the Delete button in the dialog box to delete the element.
4. Click Apply to complete the changes and close the dialog box.
Setting Deck Preferences
Deck preferences are global settings for basic deck control. These settings apply to all decks connected to your system, regardless of your
deck configuration. You can open the Deck Preferences dialog box
from the Settings scroll list of the Project window.
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Table 4-3 describes the Deck Preferences options.
Table 4-3
Deck Preferences Options
Option
Description
When no tape in
deck log as
You choose the timecode format (Drop Frame or Non-drop Frame) for logging clips when no tape is in the deck. When a tape is in the deck, the system automatically uses the existing timecode format on the tape.
Allow assemble edit
for digital cut
You can use the assemble-edit features in the Digital Cut tool along with
the assemble-editing capabilities of your record deck. Select this option to
record frame-accurate digital cuts quickly and without striping entire tapes
in advance. For more information about digital cuts and assemble editing,
see Chapter 8.
Stop key pauses deck
This option defines the function of the stop key (space bar) on the keyboard. Select this option to map the space bar to the Pause button on the
deck. Deselect this option to map the space bar to the Stop button.
If the videotape heads are down in “Stop key pauses deck” mode, pressing
the space bar brings up the heads and pauses the deck.
The Stop button in the Digitize tool and Deck Controller tool always stops
the decks. (Choose New Deck Controller from the Tools menu to access the
Deck Controller tool.)
Shuttle holds speed
The Shuttle button continues shuttling at a constant speed instead of stopping when you release it.
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Table 4-3
Deck Preferences Options (Continued)
Option
Description
Stop any paused decks
when quitting
Any paused decks are stopped when you quit the Avid application. Selecting this option saves wear on the deck heads.
Poll deck during
digital cut
This option is selected by default. When it is selected, the Avid system
checks the deck for the current timecode and displays it in the timecode
window of the deck controller. If you see degraded image quality on your
digital cut (particularly visible as noise during black), deselect this option
and record the digital cut again. With the option deselected, the timecode
display in the deck controller will not update for the duration of the digital
cut.
Setting Up the Compression Tool
You can choose a video resolution and color setting in the Compression tool. The system will use these choices during the digitizing process.
Compression Tool Settings
The Compression tool includes the following settings.
Audio Rate
The Compression tool displays the audio sample rate. However, you
cannot change the rate in the tool. To change the audio rate, choose
either 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz from the Sample Rate pop-up menu in the
Audio Project Settings dialog box. For more information see “Adjusting Audio Project Settings” on page 132.
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Resolution
The list of resolutions depends on the model of your Avid system and
the type of project you are working in. For 25-fps and 30-fps projects,
the list shows single-field and two-field interlaced resolutions. For 24p
projects, the list shows progressive, full-frame resolutions. For more
information on video resolutions, see Appendix B.
n
You can also choose a video resolution directly from the Digitize tool.
Color
The Monochrome option on the Color pop-up menu allows you to filter out all of the color from each frame of video when digitizing. If
your original media is black and white, using the monochrome option
will give you more efficient storage and picture quality. Choose the
Full Chroma option if you intend to record full-color digital cuts.
c
If you choose the Monochrome setting and you intend to record fullcolor digital cuts, you will need to digitize at Full Chroma before
recording.
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Choosing a Video Resolution and Color Rate
To choose a video resolution and color rate:
1. Choose Compression from the Tools menu.
The Compression tool appears.
Audio settings
Video compression settings
n
In a 24p project, the Compression Tool indicates whether the pulldown switch
is on or off. For more information, see “Setting the Pulldown Switch” on
page 118.
2. Make sure the proper audio sample rate is indicated under Audio
Rate.
n
Settings in the Compression tool and the Audio Project Settings dialog box do
not affect the sample rate of audio signals that are being brought in digitally
through the AES/EBU or S/PDIF connectors on the audio I/O device.
3. Choose a video resolution and color rate from the pop-up menus.
The Resolution pop-up menu contains a list of the available compression ratios. For uncompressed media, choose 1:1 from the
menu.
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Entering Capture Mode
Capture mode provides you with the Digitize tool and the controls
you need to capture your footage in digital form. When you enter Capture mode, the system initializes the Digitize tool and establishes an
interface with the playback equipment attached to the system.
To enter Capture mode:
1. Make sure the playback deck is properly connected to the system
and is turned on.
2. Open your project and the bin in which you want to store your
master clips.
3. Enter Capture mode in either of the following ways:
•
With the bin active, choose Go To Capture Mode from the Bin
menu. The Digitize tool appears, with the active bin positioned directly below it.
•
Choose Digitize from the Tools menu. The Digitize tool
appears, but the active bin does not change its position.
4. Make sure you are in Digitize mode. If the Digitize tool is in Log
mode, click the Digitize/Log Mode button until the DIG icon
appears.
n
In Capture mode, the Client monitor displays the playback footage at all times
when the video track is selected in the Digitize tool.
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Digitize/Log Mode button
Active bin
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Setting Up the Digitize Tool
The Digitize tool provides controls for cueing, marking, and logging
footage, and specifies digitizing parameters such as source and target
locations. Deck control in the Digitize tool operates in the same way as
in the deck controller.
You can open the Digitize tool in one of two ways:
•
Click a bin to activate it and choose Capture Mode from the Bin
menu.
•
Choose Digitize from the Tools menu.
The following illustration shows the Digitize tool for 25-fps and 30-fps
projects:
Digitize/Log Mode button
Digitize indicator
Trash
Toggle Source button
Record button
Channel selection
buttons
Subclip
indicators
Message bar
Clip Name text box
Clip Comment text
box
Resolution
pop-up menu
Single/Dual Drive
Mode button
Target Drive
pop-up menu
Time remaining
on target drive
Deck control
Deck Selection
pop-up menu
Source Tape
display
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When you are working in a 24p NTSC project, the Digitize tool
includes a pulldown button. For more information, see “Setting the
Pulldown Switch” on page 118.
Pulldown
button
Steps for setting up the Digitize tool are described in the following sections:
•
Selecting a Deck
•
Selecting a Tape
•
Selecting Source Tracks
•
Setting the Pulldown Switch (24p projects only)
•
Choosing a Resolution in the Digitize Tool
•
Choosing a Target Bin
•
Selecting the Target Drives
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•
Interpreting the Time-Remaining Display
•
Selecting a Custom Preroll
Selecting a Deck
The Deck Selection pop-up menu in the Digitize tool contains a list of
any decks that were connected to the system, powered up, and initialized when you entered Capture mode.
You must have V-LAN
VLXi hardware to manage more than one deck
at a time. For more
information on V-LAN
equipment, contact
your Avid sales representative.
n
To activate playback from an available deck, choose the deck from the
Deck Selection pop-up menu.
The Deck Selection pop-up menu also lists three commands:
•
Adjust Deck opens the Deck Settings dialog box. Changes you
make apply to the selected deck. For information on Deck settings,
see “Deck Settings Options” on page 104.
•
Auto-configure allows you to automatically configure the selected
deck with the default deck settings.
•
Check Decks helps to reestablish deck control if the power on
your decks was turned off or the decks were disconnected when
you first entered Capture mode.
Once deck control has been properly initialized, it will remain active for all
deck controllers throughout the session until you quit the application.
Selecting a Tape
To select a source tape:
1. Insert a tape into your deck. The Select Tape dialog box appears.
If a tape is already in the deck, click the Source Tape button in the
Digitize tool.
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For information about
deck preferences, see
“Setting Deck Preferences” on page 106.
n
For information on tape
naming conventions,
see “Naming Tapes” on
page 69.
2. In an NTSC project, play the tape briefly so that the system can
detect the timecode format of the tape (drop-frame or non-dropframe). Otherwise, the system maintains the timecode format set
in the Deck Preferences dialog box, regardless of the format on the
tape, and you might receive a message indicating a wrong tape.
Drop-frame timecode appears in the Timecode indicator with semicolons
between hours, minutes, and seconds, and frames. Non-drop-frame timecode
appears with colons.
3. Provide the system with a tape name in one of the following ways:
•
Select the name of the tape from the list in the Select Tape dialog box and click OK.
•
Expand the list by selecting the “Show other project’s tapes”
options or clicking the Scan for tapes button.
•
Click New if the tape is not in the list. A new tape name line
appears in the dialog box. Type the new name and click OK.
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Selecting Source Tracks
You can choose the tracks to digitize from the source tape. Click the
channel selection buttons in the Digitize tool to select only those tracks
that you want to digitize.
Channel selection
buttons
n
When using an Avid-controlled deck, the TC (timecode) track will be selected
by default, and the system will digitize the timecode from the source tape. If
you deselect the TC button, the system will digitize with time-of-day timecode. For more information, see “Digitizing with Time-of-Day Timecode”
on page 177.
If you are not seeing the source video or hearing source audio in
Capture mode, click the channel selection buttons to make sure they
are not the cause.
n
When batch digitizing, if the tracks are already logged into the bin, this selection will be made automatically, unless you deselect the option “Digitize the
tracks logged for each clip” in the Digitize Settings dialog box. For more
information on Batch Digitize settings, see “Batch Digitizing Clips” on
page 183.
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Setting the Pulldown Switch
If you are digitizing sound that has been created during an NTSC filmto-tape transfer, you need to set the pulldown switch before you begin
digitizing. If you are digitizing picture only, you do not need to set the
switch.
n
Make sure your film preferences are properly set. For more information, see
“Selecting Settings” on page 95.
To set the pulldown switch, click the Pulldown button in the Digitize
tool.
When the pulldown switch is off, the button is gray, and a label
explains that audio will be digitized (sampled) at the same speed at
which it was recorded (1.00).
Pulldown button off
When the pulldown switch is on, the button is green, and a label
explains that audio will be digitized (sampled) at 0.99 percent of its
recorded speed (referenced to NTSC video), to match the slowdown
rate at which the footage was transferred.
Pulldown button on
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Table 4-4 indicates how the pulldown switch and transfer settings
should be set, depending on your input media.
Table 4-4
Film Project Pulldown and Transfer Settings
Type of Input Media
Project
(Set in the
New Project
Dialog Box)
Pulldown
Switch
Setting and
Indicator on
Meridien ™
I/O Box
Source
Transfer Settings
Playback (Set in the Film
Speed
Settings Dialog Box)
(fps)
NTSC film-to-tape transfer or
simul-DAT tapesa
24p NTSC
On (0.99)
29.97
Film to Video Transfer:
Pulldown
Audio Transfer: Film Rate
Digital audio (DAT) or analog
audio (Nagra) to sync with
video in the Avid systemb
24p NTSC or
24p PAL
Off (1.00)
30 or 25
Film to Video Transfer:
NAc
Audio Transfer: Film Rate
a. For digitizing picture and sound from NTSC tape, or sound only from simul-DAT tapes created during telecine transfer.
b. For direct input of audio. Digital audio requires proper AES/EBU or S/PDIF connections.
For PAL projects, the pulldown switch does not appear in the Digitize tool.
c. NA = Not applicable.
If you are digitizing audio only, make sure to choose the proper audio
setup options. For more information, see “Establishing Sync for
Audio-Only Input” on page 131 and “Adjusting Audio Project Settings” on page 132.
If you have set Digital Sync in the Audio Project Settings dialog box,
the Pulldown button is inactive and a message states that the Pulldown button has no effect.
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Choosing a Resolution in the Digitize Tool
If you did not already choose a resolution in the Compression tool, or
the Compression tool is closed, you can use the Res (Resolution) popup menu in the Digitize tool.
To choose a resolution, click the Res pop-up menu in the Digitize tool
and make a selection.
The resolution list contains a list of the available compression ratios,
depending on the model of your Avid system. Choose 1:1 for uncompressed media.
n
For more information on the video resolutions, see Appendix B.
Choosing a Target Bin
You select a target bin as the destination for the master clips created
when you digitize on-the-fly. Alternatively, you select a target bin containing the logged clips you will use to batch digitize your media.
To choose a target bin, click the Bin pop-up menu in the Digitize tool
and make a selection. If you have opened the Digitize tool through
Capture mode, a bin will already be selected. Only opened bins appear
in the Bin pop-up menu.
To open a bin, do one of the following:
For more information
on working with bins,
see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
•
For a bin created in the current project, double-click the bin in the
Project window.
•
For a bin created in a different project, choose Open Bin from the
File menu, and then by locate and open the bin in the Open dialog
box.
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•
Create a new bin by click the New Bin button in the Project window.
Selecting the Target Drives
Selecting target drives for the digitized media is a three-step process:
1. Make sure you are in Digitize mode. If the Digitize tool is in Log
mode, click the Digitize/Log Mode button until the DIG icon
appears.
For tips on targeting
media drives for effective storage and playback, see Appendix B.
2. Decide whether to digitize audio and video to a single drive, or
separate drives, as described in the following sections. When digitizing using the uncompressed resolution, you must select separate drives for audio and video. See “Targeting Separate Drives
for Audio and Video” on page 122.
3. Choose the specific target drives from the pop-up menus, as
described in the following sections.
Targeting a Single Drive
By default, the Digitize tool targets a single media drive volume for
digitizing the audio and video for each clip. Target a single drive when
you are digitizing in a single-field resolution, for instance, and playback performance is not an issue.
n
If you choose the uncompressed resolution, you must target separate drives
for audio and video.
To target a single drive:
1. Click the Single/Dual Drives Mode button to display a single
Drive icon.
2. Choose a drive volume from the Target Drive pop-up menu.
The name shown in bold in the menu has the most storage available. Time remaining on the selected drive, displayed at the right
of the menu, is calculated based on your resolution selection.
121
Targeting Separate Drives for Audio and Video
To achieve optimal performance, stripe two or
more drives. For more
information, see the
AVIDdrive Utility User’s
Guide.
You can target separate physical drives for video and audio tracks. If
you choose the uncompressed resolution, you must target the audio to
the audio drives and target the video to the video drives. This
improves performance because the system is not required to address
all the information in separate locations on a single drive. You can also
digitize for the longest continuous amount of time because the system
is storing material on two drives rather than one.
To target separate drives for audio and video:
1. Click the Single/Dual Drives Mode button to display a two-drive
icon.
2. Choose separate drive volumes from two separate physical drives
for audio and video from each Target Drive pop-up menu.
Names shown in bold in the menus have the most storage available. Time remaining on each selected drive, displayed to the right
of each menu, is calculated based on your video resolution selection.
Interpreting the Time-Remaining Display
The Digitize tool displays the time remaining on the chosen drive after
you select a resolution and target drive or drives for the digitized
media.
122
Time remaining on
the chosen drive
You can interpret this display based on the following factors:
•
Each digitized clip has a maximum file size limit of 2 GB
(gigabytes). Any video clip whose media exceeds the 2-GB limit
will have more than one media file associated with it.
•
When you choose another resolution, the time-remaining display
adjusts accordingly.
Selecting a Custom Preroll
The Custom Preroll option and pop-up menu in the Digitize tool allow
you to select how many seconds the tape rolls before the digitizing
starts. This option overrides the global preroll setting in the Deck
Settings dialog box.
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Digitizing to Multiple Media Files
You can digitize video to multiple media files across multiple drive
volumes, with the following advantages:
•
You can create longer clips whose media files would otherwise
exceed file size limitation of 2 GB.
•
You can group all drive volumes with the multiple file options,
enabling the system to record continuously during digitizing of
long clips — such as satellite feeds or program airchecks.
•
The system makes more efficient use of drive space, particularly
when digitizing long clips.
To digitize video to multiple media files:
1. Double-click Digitize in the Settings scroll list of the Project window.
The Digitize Settings dialog box appears.
Multiple file
options
2. Select the option “Digitize to multiple files.”
3. Select the option “Prepare multiple files for (minutes).” You can
accept the default or enter a different time limit in the text box,
based on the following explanation:
Before digitizing, the system goes through a process of preparing
the drives. This process is called preallocation. With the “Digitize to
124
multiple files” option selected, the allocation process can take a
long period of time in preparation for potentially unlimited clip
lengths. This option instructs the system to preallocate according
to an estimated maximum clip length. The default is 30 minutes.
c
If you think that any of your digitized clips might exceed
30 minutes, make sure you enter a higher estimate in this field;
otherwise, the system will stop digitizing at 30 minutes.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box and apply the options.
5. Enter Capture mode or open the Digitize tool.
Target Drive
pop-up menu
6. To digitize to multiple files across drive volumes, choose Change
Group from the Target Drive pop-up menu in the Digitize tool.
125
Change Group
The Drives dialog box appears.
7. Ctrl+click to select multiple drives to include in the digitizing session, or click the All button to select all drives.
8. Click OK to close the dialog box and apply the changes.
When you digitize, any clip that exceeds the capacity of a drive
(whether that drive is empty or already contains media files) will
continue digitizing onto another drive in the group.
c
For media file management purposes, any clip whose media exceeds
the 2-GB limit will have more than one media file associated with it.
When you view the source Timeline for the clip loaded in the Source
monitor, you will also notice edit breaks based on the separate
media files (the breaks do not appear in the record-side Timeline).
126
n
For more information on managing media files, see the editing guide or Help
for your Avid system.
Digitizing Across Timecode Breaks
If the tape you are digitizing contains breaks in the timecode, there are
two settings you can use to digitize across the timecode breaks:
•
Use control track instead of timecode for preroll
When you select this option, the system does not use timecode to
perform 1 to 6 seconds of VTR preroll before digitizing. Instead, it
uses the control track to time the preroll and captures all footage
following the break. This option is useful when you are batch digitizing across timecode breaks or manually digitizing one clip at a
time.
•
Digitize across timecode breaks
When you select this option, the system begins digitizing a new
master clip at each timecode break. Select this option when you
are performing unattended batch digitizing or autodigitizing.
Deselect this option if you plan to digitize the entire tape as a single clip by digitizing to multiple media files.
When digitizing across timecode breaks, you can use control track
instead of timecode for VTR preroll.
For more information
on settings for digitizing, see “Selecting Settings” on page 95. For a
complete description of
procedures for locating
and modifying settings,
see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
To select settings for digitizing across timecode breaks:
1. Double-click Digitize in the Settings scroll list of the Project window.
The Digitize Settings dialog box appears.
2. Select the options “Use control track instead of timecode for
preroll” and “Digitize across timecode breaks.”
127
3. Click OK to close the dialog box and apply the options.
128
Preparing for Audio Input
The Avid system supports direct input of eight channels of audio.
Source track assignments are mapped directly to audio tracks in the
digitized clips. For example, when you digitize source footage with
audio channels 1 to 5, the resulting master clip has matching audio
tracks 1 to 5.
n
Eight-channel audio input requires the appropriate hardware configuration.
For more information, see the setup guide for your Avid system.
Prepare for audio input by using the following procedures described
in this section:
•
Choosing the Audio File Format
•
Establishing Sync for Audio-Only Input
•
Adjusting Audio Project Settings
•
Using the Audio Tool
•
Calibrating the Eight-Channel Audio I/O Device
•
Using the Console to Check Audio Levels
Choosing the Audio File Format
Your Avid system supports the creation of audio media in the
industry-standard Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF-C) and RIFF
Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE).
AIFF-C and WAVE audio media files can be mixed within a project.
The system default is OMF (WAVE) audio.
n
Choose the AIFF-C format for all audio media when you need to transfer
audio media files directly to a Pro Tools® system for audio sweetening.
129
To switch the audio file format:
1. Double-click General in the Settings scroll list of the Project
window.
The General Settings dialog box appears.
Audio File Format pop-up menu
2. Choose either OMF (AIFF-C) or OMF (WAVE) from the Audio File
Format pop-up menu.
3. Click OK.
Audio is written in the chosen file format when you:
•
Digitize audio tracks in Capture mode.
•
Create new clips by using the Audio Punch In tool.
•
Create tone media by using the Audio tool.
•
Mix down audio tracks by using Audio Mixdown.
130
If you switch the audio format in the middle of a project, all new audio
media files will be written in the new format with the following exceptions:
•
Media files written when rendering audio effects: The system
uses the file type of the A-side (outgoing audio) media for a transition. For example, if the A-side of an audio dissolve is in OMF
(AIFF-C) format and the B-side (incoming) is OMF (WAVE), the
rendered file will be OMF (AIFF-C).
•
Audio media files written when using the Consolidate feature:
Media files that are copied or created during a consolidate procedure retain their original file types.
Establishing Sync for Audio-Only Input
When you digitize audio with video, the video input always generates
sync for both.
When you digitize audio only, sync for the input signal can come from
several sources:
•
c
n
Analog audio input: If you are digitizing audio-only from an
analog source, sync is generated from a black burst generator or
house sync source when it is connected to both REF IN on the
Meridien I/O box and the audio deck. If there is no reference signal connected, sync is generated from internal timing.
If you need to synchronize audio with video clips recorded on separate devices in the field, Avid recommends that you connect video
reference to both REF IN on the Meridien I/O box and the audio
deck for sync. Otherwise, you might experience drifting of the audio
during editing.
For more information on connecting a reference signal, see the setup guide for
your Avid system.
131
•
Digital audio input: If you are digitizing audio from a digital
source (such as a DAT recording, for example), you should establish sync from the digital source. For more information, see
“Checking for a Valid Digital Sync Signal” on page 132 and
“Adjusting Audio Project Settings” on page 132.
Checking for a Valid Digital Sync Signal
If you are digitizing audio-only input from a digital source such as a
DAT deck, the eight-channel audio converter is limited to acquiring a
digital sync signal from channels 1 and 2.
c
Channels 1 and 2 are often the first choice for input of a signal that
provides digital sync. If you want to input audio from channels 3
through 8, however, you must have a valid digital signal coming in
on channels 1 and 2.
Check for a valid digital sync signal as follows:
•
If the yellow indicator light labeled DIGITAL on the audio
converter shines steadily during input, the system is receiving a
valid digital sync signal.
•
If the yellow light blinks during input, the system is not receiving
a valid sync signal. Make sure you have a digital sync signal
source properly connected to channel 1 or channel 2.
The effects of capturing audio without a valid digital sync source can
include random noise, silence, or a jittering effect in the audio when
played back.
Adjusting Audio Project Settings
You can use the Audio Project Settings dialog box to check the current
configuration of audio hardware, and to choose various input options.
To open the Audio Project Settings dialog box, double-click Audio
Project in the Settings scroll list of the Project window.
132
The Audio Project Settings dialog box appears.
The following items in the display are informational, and cannot be
changed from within the Audio Project Settings dialog box:
•
Card: The type of audio card installed
•
Peripheral: The type of peripheral audio device attached to the system (audio interface)
•
Slot#: The slot number where the card is located
You can make adjustments to any of the other options from within the
Audio Project Settings dialog box by clicking the option and making a
new selection from the pop-up menu. These selections include:
•
Sample Rate: The sample rate for audio. You can choose either
44.1 kHz or 48 kHz from the pop-up menu.
The broadcast standard of most high-end video postproduction
houses is 48 kHz. The sound quality of the two rates is very similar; you should select the rate based on the requirements of your
facility.
For 24p NTSC projects, the samle rate displays the slowed-down
audio rate of 44.056 kHz or 47.952 kHz.
133
•
Sync Mode: The Sync Mode pop-up menu includes two optional
sources for audio sync:
-
Video Sync — This sets the clock and timing for the sample rate
internally. Use Video Sync for all analog audio input and output to ensure the audio sample clock is always in sync with
the clock. This prevents long-term drift between audio and
video. Audio locks to the video output signal except for digitizing video, when it is locked to the video input signal.
-
Digital — If you are using a digital source, which provides a
digital word-clock signal, set the Sync Mode to Digital.
Choose digital if you are digitizing from DAT (digital audiotape) through either the AES/EBU or S/PDIF connections.
When you are working with video and digital audio simultaneously, set your digital audio equipment to the same video
reference signal as your video equipment. This prevents longterm drift between video and audio.
n
Changing the audio input selection will automatically choose the correct
audio clock source for audio sync.
•
Input Source: The Input Source pop-up menu includes two options
for the type of input: Analog and Digital. Choose digital if you are
digitizing from DAT (digital audiotape) through either the AES/
EBU or S/PDIF connections.
•
Digital Format: The Digital Format pop-up menu provides two
options for the digital input format if you chose Digital as the
input source:
-
AES/EBU (Audio Engineering Society/European Broadcast
Union) — the professional format
-
S/PDIF (Sony®/Philips® Digital Interface Format) — the consumer format
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Using the Audio Tool
For information on output procedures involving the Audio tool, see
“Preparing for Audio
Output” on page 253
and the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
Audio Tool
button
The Audio tool, along with your hardware’s audio parameters, allows
you to do the following in preparation for input:
•
Check and manage your audio hardware setup.
•
Check audio levels before digitizing.
To open the Audio tool, choose Audio Tool from the Tools menu, or
click the Audio Tool button in the Digitize tool.
The Audio tool displays meters for eight channels.
Output Control button
Setup Control button
In/Out toggle buttons
Peak Hold Menu
button
Reset Peak
button
Digital scale
(fixed)
Volume unit scale
(adjustable)
Meter display
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The Audio tool has the following characteristics:
•
The Output Control button displays a panel that contains a single
slider control for raising or lowering global audio output.
•
The Setup Control button displays a panel of audio output options
for channel assignments, mixing tracks, and ignoring pan and volume settings.
•
The Reset Peak button resets the current maximum peak measurements. It also stops the playback of the internal calibration tone.
•
The In/Out buttons switch the meter displays for each channel
between input levels from a source device and output levels to the
speakers and record devices. I indicates Input, and O indicates
Output.
•
The Peak Hold Menu button displays a pop-up menu that allows
you to choose options for customizing the meter displays, and setting and playing back the internal calibration tone.
•
The digital scale to the left of the meters displays a fixed range of
values from 0 to –90 dB (decibels), according to common digital
peak meter standards.
•
The volume unit scale (analog) to the right of the meters displays a
range of values that you can conform to the headroom parameters
of your source audio.
•
The meters dynamically track audio levels for each channel as follows:
-
Meters show green below the target reference level (default reference level is –14 dB on the digital scale).
-
Meters show yellow for the normal headroom range, above the
reference level to approximately –3 dB.
-
Meters show red for peaks approaching overload, between –
3 dB and 0 (zero) dB.
-
Thin green lines at the bottom indicate signals below the display range.
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Resizing the Audio Tool
You can resize the Audio tool for greater visibility during input and
output. For example, when batch digitizing in a busy facility, you can
make the tool larger to watch levels from across a room.
To adjust the size of the Audio tool, click the top or bottom of the tool
and drag it to the preferred size.
Adjusting the Reference Level
The volume unit scale (VU) to the right of the meters is a sliding scale
relative to the fixed digital scale displayed on the left. You can adjust
the volume unit scale up or down based upon the headroom parameters
of your playback devices.
To customize the volume unit scale:
1. Choose Set Reference Level from the PH (Peak Hold) pop-up
menu.
The Set Reference Level dialog box appears.
137
2. Enter the new value for the reference level (–12, for example), and
click OK.
The volume unit scale slides to match the new reference level,
which is displayed on the digital scale.
Digital scale displays
corresponding reference
value.
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Volume unit scale
slides up to display
less headroom.
Adjusting the reference level requires recalibration of the audio I/O device.
For more information, see “Calibrating the Eight-Channel Audio I/O
Device” on page 142.
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Choosing a Peak Hold Option
The Peak Hold pop-up menu provides two options for displaying
peak levels in the meters, as follows:
•
When you choose the Peak Hold option, the meters display a normal rising and falling volume trail in the meters. This is the
default option.
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•
When you choose the Infinite Hold option, each meter permanently retains a single bar at the peak volume level measured during playback. The effect is cumulative: the bar continues to rise
and hold with each new peak, and serves as a record of the highest
peak for each channel.
Infinite Hold peaks
remain during and after
playback.
To delete the peaks and start over at any time, click the RP (Reset
Peak) button.
To enable either Peak Hold or Infinite Hold, click the PH button and
choose an option from the pop-up menu.
Adjusting Audio Input Levels
You can use the Audio Tool to check the audio input levels. If the input
levels are too high (hot) or too low, you need to adjust the output level
of your source signal, if possible.
c
You cannot adjust the input levels for the eight-channel audio I/O
device from within the Audio tool.
140
Before you digitize, make sure the audio I/O device is properly calibrated. See “Calibrating the Eight-Channel Audio I/O Device” on
page 142.
To check and adjust input levels:
1. Click the In/Out toggle buttons in the Audio tool for the channels
that you will use for input. The Audio tool displays an I for Input.
2. Play back the source audio (from a videotape or DAT, for example). If the recording includes reference tone, cue to the tone and
play it back.
n
Voice recording can serve as a backup reference, if necessary. Upper peaks of
inflection should reach the normal target range (around –14 dB on the digital
scale or 0 VU on the volume unit scale with playback from videotape, for
example).
3. Adjust the output on the playback device so that the device’s volume meter shows the appropriate level for the reference signal in
the Audio tool (0 VU for videotape playback, for example). You
can adjust the output by using a deck that supports output gain or
by sending the signal through a mixing console.
Creating Tone Media
You can create your own tone media and master clips for editing
directly into sequences.
To create tone media:
1. Open a bin.
2. Choose Create Tone Media from the PH (Peak Hold) pop-up menu
in the Audio tool.
The Tone Media Parameters dialog box appears.
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3. Set the appropriate calibration tone parameters for the project. You
can also use the default output tone of –14 dB (digital scale) with a
1000-Hz signal.
n
If you set the tone media frequency to 0, the system generates random noise.
4. Choose a target bin for the tone master clip and a target drive for
the tone media file from the pop-up menus.
5. Click OK.
After a few seconds, the media file is created and a master clip
appears in the target bin. The default name reflects the options
you selected. You can rename the clip by typing a new name.
Calibrating the Eight-Channel Audio I/O Device
For information about
connecting the eightchannel audio
I/O device, see the
setup guide for your
Avid system.
You can use the calibration features of the Audio tool to fine-tune the
input and output channels of the eight-channel audio I/O device.
These adjustments should be made when you first install the system,
and should be repeated occasionally thereafter (once a month, for
example).
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Calibrating Input Channels for the Audio I/O Device
To calibrate input channels for the audio I/O device:
1. Connect a sine wave generator that can produce a 1-kHz tone,
+4 dBu@ 0 VU to channel 1 of the audio I/O device.
2. Choose Set Reference from the PH (Peak Hold) pop-up menu in
the Audio tool.
3. Enter the reference level for the system (typically –14 or –20) and
click OK. (For more information, see “Adjusting the Reference
Level” on page 137).
4. Send a 1-kHz tone into channel 1 of the audio I/O device.
5. In the Audio tool, click the In/Out toggle buttons for channel 1 to
display I for input.
You should see a level in the meter display.
6. Choose Calibrate from the PH (Peak Hold) pop-up menu in the
Audio tool.
The Audio tool changes to Calibrate mode: the scales display a
range of approximately 2 dB, and the meters indicate levels within
this range.
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Volume Unit scale varies,
displaying custom reference level setting, +1 dB
above and –1 dB below.
7. Adjust the Channel 1 input level trim pot by inserting a screwdriver into the trim pot and turning it until the Audio tool’s onscreen meter reaches 0 VU.
The input channel is now calibrated.
8. Repeat this procedure for each input channel of the audio I/O
device.
To return to the default Audio tool display, choose Calibrate from the
PH (Peak Hold) pop-up menu.
To set the input level during digitizing, adjust the level externally until
the signals fall within the appropriate range on the meters. Choose any
of the following:
c
•
Adjust the output level on the playback device.
•
Put an audio mixer in line, and use it to adjust track separately.
You cannot adjust the input levels for the eight-channel audio I/O
device from within the Audio tool.
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Calibrating Output Channels for the Audio I/O Device
If the input channels of the audio I/O device are correctly calibrated
for reference, you can use the input channels to calibrate the output
channels.
To calibrate output channels for the audio I/O device:
1. Make sure the audio I/O device is properly calibrated for input
(see “Calibrating Input Channels for the Audio I/O Device” on
page 143).
2. Connect two output channels to two different input channels. For
example, connect output channels 1 and 2 to input channels 7 and
8.
3. Choose Set Calibration Tone from the Peak Hold (PH) pop-up
menu of the Audio tool.
4. In the Calibration tone level text box, enter the system reference
level (for example,–14) and click OK.
5. Click the In/Out toggle buttons to display I for the channels you
are using for input, for example, 7 and 8. Click the In/Out toggle
buttons to display O for the channels you are calibrating, for
example, 1 and 2.
6. Choose Calibrate from the PH pop-up menu.
7. Choose Play Calibration Tone from the PH pop-up menu.
8. Adjust the trim pots on the output channels (1 and 2) to 0 VU,
using the meters of the input channels (7 and 8) as your guide.
9. Repeat this procedure for each channel.
Using the Console to Check Audio Levels
Once you have played back audio through the Audio tool, you can use
the Console to view a list of precise information about the peak levels.
145
To check peak levels in the Console:
1. Open the Audio tool.
2. Click the RP (Reset Peak) button to clear the system’s record of the
most recent maximum peaks.
3. Play a sequence or portion of the sequence.
4. After playing back the audio, open the Console by choosing Console from the Tools menu.
5. In the Console command line, type:
DumpMaxPeaks
6. Press Enter.
A list of peak values appears in the Console.
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Preparing for Video Input
The Avid system provides a Video Input tool for calibrating composite
video, component video, and S-Video.
n
If you are capturing serial digital video, for example, from a D1, D5, or digital
Betacam VTR, you cannot adjust levels by using the video input controls in
your Avid system. If you plan to make adjustments at the source deck, information in this section regarding the Internal Waveform and Vectorscope
monitors might be useful.
To open the Video Input tool, choose Video Input Tool from the Tools
menu. You can also open the Video Input tool in Capture mode by
clicking the Video Input Tool button on the Digitize tool.
Vectorscope Monitor button
Internal Waveform
Monitor button
Internal Waveform monitor
Vectorscope monitor
Input
pop-up
menu
Settings
pop-up
menu
Slider
Preset buttons
The Video Input tool has the following characteristics:
•
The Input pop-up menu lets you choose either a Composite, Component, Serial Digital, or S-Video input source.
•
The sliders let you change the value for each setting.
147
n
•
The preset buttons are highlighted when the factory preset levels
are displayed.
•
The Settings pop-up menu lets you save the settings for an individual tape each time you calibrate bars.
•
The Internal Waveform Monitor and Vectorscope Monitor buttons
open or hide these tools.
Your Avid system supports the SMPTE/EBU component standard for 625
timing and Betacam component levels for 525 timing. The system does not
support the MII component video standard.
•
n
The Consumer Source button is used when a source has no built-in
time-base corrector, such as a number of 3/4-inch U-matic or SVideo deck models (see “Calibrating Video Input” on page 149).
The Composite and S-Video sliders are unavailable when the Consumer
Source button is selected.
•
The 100% Bars button is used when the source tape has color bars
with 100% (versus 75%) chrominance levels.
Using the Factory Preset Buttons
The preset buttons in the Video Input tool show the status of each calibration setting as follows:
•
When you first open the Video Input tool in a new project, all preset buttons are lit (green), with the factory presets loaded for each
slider.
148
Preset button
•
When you click a slider of a lit preset button, the button pops out
(arrow turns black), and the slider moves to the position of the
pointer.
•
When a preset button has a black arrow and you click it, the button becomes lit (appears green), and the slider moves to the factory preset level for that parameter.
•
When you click a lit preset button, the button pops out (arrow
turns black), and the slider returns to the last manual setting.
As you adjust levels in the tool, you can switch the preset buttons
between the levels you set manually and the factory preset levels.
Calibrating Video Input
For information on calibrating for video output, see “Calibrating
for Video Output” on
page 243.
This section provides essential information for input calibration. You
should calibrate the input levels for each videotape when you digitize
to ensure the continuity of picture quality between tapes.
149
c
When you redigitize media from a project created on a different
Avid system, only reuse settings that originate on systems that use
the Meridien video I/O board. For projects from other Avid systems,
check the Video settings for each tape.
Before you calibrate the video input, check the following:
•
Make sure your monitor is properly calibrated for displaying footage accurately. For more information, see your monitor’s hardware documentation.
•
If your system’s output settings have not already been calibrated
according to house standards, use the procedures described in
“Calibrating for Video Output” on page 243. If you are in a facility where this is not necessary, leave the output settings at their
preset values.
•
If you are using footage in the NTSC-EIAJ format (used primarily
in Japan), deselect the option NTSC Has Setup in the General Settings dialog box. This will enable the appropriate display for the
setup portion of the signal in the Waveform monitor and also
adjusts the gain range. For more information, see “General Settings” on page 97.
To calibrate the video input:
1. Make sure you have properly connected the playback VTR to the
system. For more information, see the setup guide for your Avid
system.
2. Choose Video Input Tool from the Tools menu.
The Video Input tool opens.
3. Choose the appropriate input channel from the Input pop-up
menu based on your source tape format: Composite, Component,
S-Video, or Serial Digital. (The Input pop-up menu for systems
equipped with the serial digital video I/O board displays Composite, S-Video, and Serial Digital input options.)
150
For a description of
each parameter, click
the Video Input tool
and press the F1 key.
The Video Input tool displays the appropriate parameters for the
chosen video format.
Input pop-up menu
n
n
Sync for video input comes from the source selected in the Video Input tool,
whether composite, component, S-Video, or Serial Digital. The proper source
device must be connected to the Meridien I/O box as described in the setup
guide for your Avid system.
When you digitize audio with video, the audio is always synced to the video
source. For information regarding sync during audio-only input, see “Establishing Sync for Audio-Only Input” on page 131.
4. Cue the tape to the section containing bars and tone (usually the
beginning) and play the tape.
n
Always play the tape when calibrating. Signal display is unstable when the
tape is paused.
151
The Client monitor displays one of the following types of bars (or
a variation of them):
Full-field color bars
Color bars can be either 75% or 100% of peak levels.
Full-field bars (NTSC or PAL)
100% white
SMPTE standard split bars
SMPTE bars (NTSC only)
Color bars
(top 67% of frame)
75% white
7.5 black level
(NTSC with setup)
100% white
(lower 25% of frame)
152
5. If you are digitizing from a consumer-grade video deck (such as a
home VCR) or a deck that has no built-in time-base corrector
(which includes a number of 3/4-inch U-matic or S-Video models)
and you are having trouble with the incoming video quality, click
the Consumer Source button located below the sliders in the Video
Input tool.
If clicking the Consumer Source button does not improve the
video quality, Avid recommends that you purchase a time-base
corrector (TBC). For more information, see the release notes for
your Avid product. Make sure the deck and TBC support the
advanced sync feature. This feature eliminates the one-frame
delay that many TBCs introduce.
Do not click this button if you have added a time-base corrector
(TBC) to the deck.
n
The Composite and S-Video sliders are unavailable when the Consumer
Source button is selected.
6. Click the 100% Bars button if the source tape contains 100% bars
for calibration.
n
Internal
Waveform
Monitor
button
To distinguish between 100% and 75% full-field bars, you will notice in
100% bars that the luminance waveform plot displays fairly even steps from
the first bar (white) to the last bar (black). In 75% bars, the white bar is at
100%, which causes a larger step from the first bar (white) to the first color
bar.
7. Open the Internal Waveform monitor by clicking the icon located
second from the upper right corner of the tool.
153
NTSC waveform values
(IRE)
White level at 100 IRE (digital 235)
(100% bars)
White level at 77 IRE (digital 180)
(75% bars)
Black level at 7.5 IRE (digital 16)
(Black level falls at 0 IRE
for NTSC-EIAJ)
Line slider
PAL waveform values
(volts)
White level at 1 V (digital 235)
(100% bars)
Black level at 0.3 V (digital 16)
Line slider
8. Adjust the Line slider located below the Waveform monitor to display the appropriate line of the test pattern, then adjust the luminance values based on Table 4-5.
154
Table 4-5
Luminance Settings for Video Input
Parameter/
Video Standard a
SMPTE Bars
Full-Field Bars at
75% or 100% Signal Level
Black level (setup)
Adjust Line slider to
approximately 190
Adjust Line slider to
approximately 150
Adjust Black slider to
place black level at:
Adjust Black slider to
place black level at:
7.5 IRE
0.0 IRE
NAb
7.5 IRE
0.0 IRE
0.3 V
Adjust Line slider to
approximately 220
Adjust Line slider to
approximately 150
Adjust Gain/Y Gain slider
to place white level at:
Adjust Gain/Y Gain slider
to place white level at:
100 IRE
100 IRE
NAb
100 IRE
100 IRE
1.0 V
Video Standard:
NTSC
NTSC-EIAJ
PAL
White level (gain)
Video Standard:
NTSC
NTSC-EIAJ
PAL
a. Includes NTSC-EIAJ used in Japan
b. NA = Not applicable
9. Open the Vectorscope monitor by clicking the Vectorscope button.
Vectorscope
button
n
10. Adjust the Line slider to display the signal for color bars at around
line 150 (this applies to all formats and all types of bars).
To switch between a display of perfectly calibrated bars and your input signal
while making adjustments, press and release the Shift key.
155
11. Adjust the Sat and Hue sliders (composite or S-Video) or the RY
Gain and BY Gain sliders (component) until the angle and amplitude of the six color vectors fall within the target boxes on the
Vectorscope monitor.
n
c
There is no hue adjustment for PAL video.
If you incorrectly selected or deselected the 100% Bars button, the
factory presets for Saturation or RY and BY Gain will be incorrect.
Adjusting these controls in this condition results in oversaturated or
undersaturated video.
Saving Settings
You can save the settings for an individual tape each time you calibrate bars. Saved settings are restored each time you choose the same
tape for redigitizing clips.
The following are the Video Input settings that are saved and restored:
n
•
Level adjustments made with the sliders
•
Selection status of the Consumer Source or 100% bars options
Video Input settings do not restore the source format (Composite, Component, S-video, or Serial Digital). Instead, the source format you choose in the
Video Input tool remains the default for that project until you choose another
format from within the project. This allows you to establish a new format on a
project basis when moving between systems, or from the offline to the online
phase.
To save the Calibration settings for a tape:
1. After calibrating as described in “Calibrating Video Input” on
page 149, choose Save As from the Settings pop-up menu. The
View Name dialog box appears.
156
2. Accept the default name (matching the tape name), or type a new
name for the settings.
c
If you do not use a name that matches the tape name, the system will
not recall the setting automatically the next time you load the tape.
3. Click OK.
Whenever you batch digitize or choose a tape name during digitizing,
the system recalls the saved settings as follows:
n
c
•
The system looks for a Tape setting with the same name as the
tape. If the setting exists, the system recalls it.
•
If no matching Tape setting exists, the system looks for a setting
labeled “Default” and loads that setting. For information on customizing this default setting, see “Saving a Custom Default Setting for the Video Input Tool” on page 157.
•
If no matching Tape setting or “Default” setting exists, the Video
Input tool is left in its prior state (with the most recent settings
applied during the session).
Tape settings and the Default setting are Project settings, and are available to
the current project only.
When you redigitize media from a project created on a different
Avid system, only reuse settings that originate on systems that use
the Meridien video I/O board. For projects from other Avid systems,
check the Video settings for each tape.
Saving a Custom Default Setting for the Video Input Tool
You can create a default setting that is recalled by the system whenever you load a new tape or when there is no Tape setting that matches
a loaded tape.
157
To create a customized default Video Input tool setting:
1. Choose Video Input Tool from the Tools menu.
The Video Input tool opens.
2. Adjust the Calibration settings, as described in “Calibrating
Video Input” on page 149.
3. Choose Save As from the Settings pop-up menu in the Video Input
tool. The View Name dialog box appears.
4. Type Default, and click OK. (You must use this spelling and initial capitalization.)
Whenever you mount a new tape that does not have its own setting,
the system will recall these default settings.
Adjusting Video Levels for Tapes Without Color Bars
Color bars are the best way to set the video levels consistently. However, if you have a tape or series of tapes with no color bars, you might
need to adjust levels by using the internal Waveform and Vectorscope
monitors.
n
Calibrate your Client monitor before making these adjustments.
To adjust video levels for tapes without color bars:
•
Find a series of frames in the footage that includes black areas.
Blacks should fall around 7.5 IRE for NTSC, 0 IRE for NTSC-EIAJ,
or 0.3 V for PAL on the Waveform monitor. Blacks should not seem
flat and lacking detail.
•
Find a series of frames in the footage that includes white areas.
(Bright, well-lit regions work better than white objects.) Whites
should peak at around 100 IRE for NTSC and NTSC-EIAJ, or 1.0 V
for PAL on the Waveform monitor. Whites should not be washed
out or lacking detail.
158
•
Find a series of frames in the footage that includes skin colors.
Skin colors should fall generally between the target boxes for the
red and yellow vectors in the Vectorscope monitor. Skin colors
should be realistic.
•
Chroma should not exceed 110 or fall below –120 on the vector
•
Pure yellows should be a rich gold and not reddish or greenish in
tone. Find a pure yellow and adjust both hue and saturation as
necessary.
159
Digitize Preparations Check List
Use this check list to help you prepare for the digitizing process.
Check your hardware configurations, particularly connections
between your deck and the Avid system. (See the setup guide for your
Avid system and “Preparing the Hardware” on page 94.)
If you are working on a complex project with multiple streams of
video and high-resolution images, make sure your drives are striped
properly. (See the AVIDdrive Utility User’s Guide.)
Select options in the Digitize Settings, General Settings, and Film Settings (24p projects only) dialog boxes. (See “Selecting Settings” on
page 95.)
Configure your deck or decks using Deck Configuration and Deck
Preferences settings. (See “Configuring Decks” on page 100 and “Setting Deck Preferences” on page 106.)
Set up the Compression tool for video resolution and color compression. (See “Setting Up the Digitize Tool” on page 113.)
Insert a tape into the deck, enter Capture mode, and set up the Digitize
tool for source tape, source deck, pulldown switch (24p projects) and
other requirements. (See “Entering Capture Mode” on page 111 and
“Setting Up the Digitize Tool” on page 113.)
Use the Audio tool to set the monitor input levels. (See “Preparing for
Audio Input” on page 129.)
Use the Video Input tool to choose the input source; set the video input
levels for setup, gain, saturation, and hue; save your Video settings for
future use. (See “Preparing for Video Input” on page 147.)
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CHAPTER 5
Digitizing
When you, you convert source material from videotape into master
clips that contain reference information. You also create associated
media files that contain the digital audio and video. Once you prepare
the capture tools, as described in Chapter 4, you can digitize the
source material in one of several ways, as described in the following
sections:
•
Before You Begin
•
Special Digitizing Procedures
•
Digitizing and Logging at the Same Time
•
Digitizing to the Timeline
•
Digitizing Video Without Pulldown into a 24p NTSC Project
•
Batch Digitizing from Logged Clips
•
Redigitizing Your Material
•
Relinking Clips by Key Number
•
Modifying the Pullin Frame
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Before You Begin
Depending upon your immediate needs, use the following guidelines
for working through this chapter based on a chosen digitizing method:
•
If you want to add locators, create subclips, or log errors to the
console during digitizing, read “Special Digitizing Procedures”
on page 163.
•
If you have no logs and would like to begin digitizing right away,
see “Digitizing and Logging at the Same Time” on page 167.
•
If you want to digitize video to multiple media files across multiple drives, see “Digitizing to Multiple Media Files” on page 124.
•
If you have logs already entered in a bin and would like to automate the digitizing process with playback from an Avid-controlled
deck, see “Batch Digitizing from Logged Clips” on page 179.
•
If you are redigitizing deleted media or have imported a sequence
that lacks the associated media files, see “Redigitizing Your Material” on page 185.
•
If you have not already prepared a structure of bins for your
project, as described in the editing guide or Help for your Avid
system, consider the following tips before digitizing:
•
-
You can create one bin for each source tape. This avoids slowing the system with large bins, associates each bin with a
source tape for better organization, and simplifies redigitizing.
-
You can name the bin after the tape, so that when you autodigitize or digitize on-the-fly without noting a tape name, the system will automatically name each clip or take after the bin
(tape) and number them sequentially for easy reference.
If you are working with a multicamera production, see Chapter 6
and the editing guide or Help for your Avid system for information on the digitizing process.
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Table 5-1 lists the Function keys that are available when the Digitize
tool is active. Digitize mode overrides any other functions mapped to
these keys.
Table 5-1
Function Keys Available When Digitizing
Press
To
F1
Mark the beginning of the subclip while digitizing.
F2
Mark the end of the subclip while digitizing.
F3, F5 to F12
Add a locator to the current frame while digitizing.
Each Function key adds a different color locator. See
“Adding Locators On-the-Fly” on page 165.
F4
Start the digitizing process when in Digitize mode.
When in Log mode, press once to mark an IN point.
Press again to mark an OUT point and place the logged
clip in the bin.
Special Digitizing Procedures
This section describes several optional procedures that you can use
during the digitizing process.
Logging Errors to the Console
The Console is useful during the digitizing process for logging digitize
errors, as described in the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
To open the Console window, choose Console from the Tools menu.
Consider the following when choosing whether to log errors to the
Console during digitizing:
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For more information
on Digitize settings, see
“Redigitizing Your
Material” on page 185.
•
If the option “Log errors to the console and continue digitizing” is
selected in the Digitize Settings dialog box, when you batch digitize and the system encounters an error, it will abort the clip, enter
error comments into the console, and continue digitizing the next
clip.
•
If the option “Log errors to the console and continue digitizing” is
not selected in the Digitize Settings dialog box, a message will
appear and the system will pause if an error occurs while digitizing. If this happens, do the following:
a. Click Try Again to retry the operation. The clip might digitize
successfully.
b. If the clip does not digitize the second time you try, the error
message appears again. Click Next Clip to bypass the clip that
caused the error, and continue batch digitizing any remaining
clips, or click Abort to cancel the entire batch digitize process.
Make note of all errors, messages, and steps that you have taken and
decide whether to troubleshoot the problem on your own or contact
your reseller or Avid Customer Support.
Creating Subclips On-the-Fly
For information about
creating subclips after
digitizing, see the editing guide or Help for
your Avid system.
Subclips are marked sections of a longer master clip that you can view
and edit like any other object in a bin. This section describes a shortcut
method for creating subclips on-the-fly during digitizing. The maximum number of subclips you can generate while digitizing a clip is
100.
To create a subclip on-the-fly:
1. Start digitizing as usual.
Subclip
status
2. At the point where you want to begin the subclip, press the F1 key.
This action highlights the subclip IN mark in the Digitize tool.
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3. While the system is digitizing, you can enter a name for the subclip by typing the name. Press the Tab key to enter comments
about the clip.
4. When you want the subclip to end, press the F2 key. This highlights the subclip OUT point in the Digitize tool.
n
You can press the F2 key repeatedly as you search for the end point of the subclip. The system accepts the last occurrence as the end point. You can also
press the F1 key at anytime before pressing F2 again to remove the previous subclip marks and start a new subclip IN point.
The subclip appears in the target bin when you stop digitizing.
When digitizing is complete, a number appears between the subclip indicators to show the number of subclips created.
c
For NTSC film-to-tape transfers, you must log the correct pulldown
phase before you create subclips. For more information, see “Logging Film Information” on page 77.
When subclips are created in 24p projects, they are always created as
“hard” subclips. This means that you will not be able to trim past the
edges of the subclip when adjusting transitions and edits. Hard subclips prevent film tracking information errors for editing and cut lists.
Adding Locators On-the-Fly
For more information
on specific uses for locators, see the editing
guide or Help for your
Avid system.
Locators mark a single frame within a clip or sequence so that you can
attach a note or find the frame at a later time. This section describes a
shortcut method of adding locators on-the-fly while digitizing.
When the Digitize tool is active, eight colored locators are mapped to
nine Function keys on the keyboard. The locators override any other
functions mapped to these keys. Table 5-2 lists the colored locators
and the Function keys they are mapped to during digitizing.
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Table 5-2
Locators Mapped to Function Keys
Locator Color
Function Key
Red
F3 and F5
Green
F6
Blue
F7
Light blue (cyan)
F8
Magenta
F9
Yellow
F10
Black
F11
White
F12
To add a locator to a frame while digitizing, watch the playback of the
footage in the Edit monitor and press one of the locator keys when you
see the appropriate shot or frame.
Adding Clip Names and Comments On-the-Fly
The Avid system’s annotate feature allows you to type clip names and
comments during the digitizing of a clip. This information is saved in
the clip Name and Comments columns in the bin. You can add comments about such things as color correction or directions for editing.
n
To carry your comments over to the sequence so that they will appear in the
Timeline, cut lists, or in EDLs, you must add the comments again when creating the sequence by using the Add Comments command in the Clip Name
menu.
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To add clip names and comments on-the-fly, start typing the clip name
at any time during the digitizing of a clip. The annotate window opens
on screen, allowing you to see the text as you type. After typing the
clip name, press the Tab key and begin typing comments. You cannot
edit the text until after the digitizing is complete, but you can backspace and retype the information.
Digitizing and Logging at the Same Time
When you digitize without entering log information in a bin ahead of
time, the system creates clips and associated media files while you digitize. Digitizing in this manner involves manually cueing source footage with an Avid-controlled deck, using the deck controls in the
Digitize tool.
There are several ways to digitize and log at the same time:
c
•
Digitizing from a mark IN to a mark OUT. This method lets you
specify the exact timecode location to begin and end digitizing.
You can also specify only a mark IN or mark OUT, and enter the
other mark on-the-fly. These procedures are described in “Digitizing from a Mark IN to a Mark OUT” on page 168.
•
Digitizing on-the-fly. This method is easier than setting marks,
but it is less precise. It involves using the deck controls in the
lower left corner of the Digitize tool to cue, play, and stop the
source footage manually while digitizing. These procedures are
described in “Digitizing On-the-Fly” on page 170.
Digitizing on-the-fly and autodigitizing can cause incorrect pulldown and stuttering playback. Do not use these methods for digitizing 24-fps film that has been transferred to NTSC video.
•
Autodigitizing. This method requires the least amount of supervision and effort, but usually calls for more digitizing time and drive
storage space. It involves playing each source tape from a cue
point near the beginning and letting the system digitize the entire
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tape, automatically naming and entering each cut into the bin.
These procedures are described in “Autodigitizing” on page 173.
Two additional techniques you can use when digitizing and logging at
the same time are described in “Digitizing from a Non-Avid-Controlled Deck” on page 175 and “Digitizing with Time-of-Day Timecode” on page 177.
You can log and digitize at the same time with either a PAL or NTSC
film-to-tape transfer as the source. However, when digitizing an NTSC
transfer, you must observe the following basic rules:
n
•
Specify the pulldown of the sync point frame before digitizing.
•
The mark IN must be an A frame, and you cannot digitize with a
mark OUT only.
When you capture footage from an NTSC film-to-tape transfer with pulldown, the playback flickers in the Client monitor during digitizing because
the system is dropping occasional frames due to the pullin process. The footage will play back smoothly in the Avid system, however, once the pullin conversion is complete.
Digitizing from a Mark IN to a Mark OUT
Digitizing from a mark IN to a mark OUT lets you specify exactly
where to begin and end digitizing. You can specify both marks, or only
a mark IN or a mark OUT, and the system enters the other mark onthe-fly. Use this method in the following circumstances:
•
If logs exist in written or printout form but not in the proper format for quick import into the system
•
If the IN and OUT points are rough and need to be
double-checked for accuracy
•
If you are familiar enough with the source material to estimate the
timecode for the mark IN, the mark OUT, or both, quickly and
accurately
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Setting Both Marks
To digitize by specifying a mark IN and a mark OUT:
1. Make sure you have selected the proper Digitize Settings and set
up the capture tools, as described in Chapter 4.
Mark IN
Mark OUT
Go to IN
2. Set either a mark IN or a mark OUT for the clip you want to digitize, using either of the following methods:
•
Use the deck controls in the Digitize tool. Cue your source
tape to where you want to start or end the clip, and click the
Mark IN or Mark OUT button.
•
If the material starts at a known IN point or ends at a known
OUT point, you can type the timecode in the display area next
to the mark. Press Enter to enter the mark.
To double-check the accuracy of the IN or OUT point, click the Go
to IN button. The system cues the tape and pauses the deck at the
mark. You can play the tape and reset the mark, if necessary.
3. To finish logging the clip, use either of the following methods:
•
Set the corresponding IN or OUT point.
•
Type a timecode for the clip’s duration in the text box next to
the Duration mark (below the mark OUT) in the format
HH:MM:SS:FF.
The system automatically calculates the appropriate timecode for
the corresponding mark IN, mark OUT, or duration.
4. Click the Record button in the Digitize tool, or press the F4 key.
The Digitize tool automatically rewinds the tape to the preroll
point before the IN point of the clip, and the tape begins to play.
The Record button becomes bright red, and the message bar displays the message that the Avid system is digitizing.
5. While the system is digitizing, you can type a clip name. To enter
comments about the clip, press the Tab key after typing a clip
name and enter comments in the comment box. The information
that you type does not appear on the screen until you have com169
pleted digitizing. (After you log clips, you can modify information
to correct input errors or to add information.)
When the tape reaches the clip’s OUT point, digitizing stops and
the system creates a new clip in the bin.
Setting Only One Mark
To set only one mark and enter the other mark on-the-fly:
•
Set an IN point and click the Record button to begin digitizing.
Then, click the Record button again to stop digitizing on-the-fly
and set a mark OUT.
This method is useful if you do not need a precise mark OUT. You
save time because you do not have to shuttle to locate the mark
OUT before digitizing.
•
Set a mark OUT only, then move to a position on the tape that is a
few seconds before where you want to start digitizing. Play the
tape and then immediately click the Record button to begin digitizing on-the-fly. When the tape reaches the clip’s OUT point, digitizing stops.
This method is useful if you do not need a precise mark IN, but do
need to stop at a precise OUT point, for example, just before a
timecode break.
Digitizing On-the-Fly
Use the digitizing on-the-fly method in any of the following circumstances:
•
If you are eager to begin editing immediately and no adequate
logs exist for importing into the system or setting marks
•
If your source tape does not have timecode
•
If you are digitizing from a digital source such as a CD or DAT
player
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•
n
There is a slight delay of several frames after you manually select a spot both
to start and to stop digitizing. Therefore, use this method when you do not
need precise beginning and end points in your clip.
•
c
If you are digitizing from a live source, such as a studio feed, or an
in-house router
If you are digitizing from a source deck that cannot be controlled
by the Digitize tool or a V-LAN/VLXi unit
Digitizing on-the-fly can cause incorrect pulldown and stuttering
playback. Do not use these methods for digitizing 24-fps film that
has been transferred to NTSC video.
To digitize on-the-fly:
1. Make sure you have selected the proper Digitize settings and set
up the capture tools, as described in Chapter 4.
2. Click the Digitize/Log Mode button on the Digitize tool until the
DIG icon appears.
3. (Option) Click the Open/Close triangle on the Digitize tool to display the Name and Cmnt text boxes, if you plan to enter clip
names or comments during digitizing.
Open/Close triangle
4. Use the deck controls in the bottom left corner of the Digitize tool
to locate the position on the tape where you want to start
digitizing.
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Fast forward/Rewind
Stop
Pause
Shuttle
Play
Eject
Single-frame step
Clear Marks
5. To begin digitizing, play the deck, and when it gets up to speed,
click the Record button or press the F4 key.
n
Make sure you have cleared any previous marks so that the deck does not
begin cueing to the previous location.
Digitizing begins within a few frames, and the timecode for the
clip’s IN point appears. The Digitize Indicator box, to the right of
the Record button, flashes on and off. The message bar displays a
message that your Avid system is digitizing.
6. While the system is digitizing, you can type a clip name in the
Name text box.
Message bar
Open/Close triangle
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If the Name text box is not visible on the Digitize tool, you can type a clip
name but you cannot view your typing. To display the Name text box, you
must click the open/close triangle before you begin digitizing.
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If you want comments
to appear in EDLs, add
them during editing by
using the Add Comments command from
the Clip Name menu.
For more information,
see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
7. Press the Tab key after typing a clip name to enter comments
about the clip. You cannot edit the text during digitizing, but you
can backspace to retype the comments.
8. Click the Pause button at any time to pause play. You can also
abort the digitize procedure by clicking the Trash button. The clip
will be discarded.
9. To stop digitizing and enter the OUT point of the clip, click the
Record button, or press the Escape key on the keyboard.
The system creates a new clip in the bin. It also enters basic log
information for each clip, consisting of the mark IN, the mark
OUT, the duration, and any other information typed in during the
digitize procedure.
10. If you did not enter a clip name while digitizing, type it now while
the clip name is highlighted in the bin. If you return to the Digitize
tool and begin another clip, the default clip name remains in the
bin until you change it.
In some circumstances, the digitized material might exceed the 2-GB
media file size limit. In such a case, set up the Digitize tool to digitize
to multiple media files. For more information, see “Digitizing to Multiple Media Files” on page 124.
Autodigitizing
Autodigitizing an entire tape can save you time by allowing you to
bypass both the logging process and the time it takes to cue each shot.
However, this process requires the most storage space, and more time
is spent while the system is actually digitizing entire tapes.
When you autodigitize, you mount and cue your tape to a starting
point and start the digitizing process through the Digitize tool. If you
follow the tips and techniques described in this section, you can allow
the system to complete the digitizing process unattended.
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c
c
The Avid system can digitize across timecode breaks, but it cannot
digitize across control-track breaks in the recording (that is, if the
recorded footage breaks up into noise between shots). If such breaks
in recording exist on your tape, consider using the methods
described in “Digitizing On-the-Fly” on page 170.
Digitizing on-the-fly can cause incorrect pulldown and stuttering
playback. Do not use these methods for digitizing 24-fps film that
has been transferred to NTSC video.
Before you begin autodigitizing entire tapes:
For more information
on Digitize settings, see
“General Digitize Settings” on page 95.
•
Select the following settings in the Digitize Settings dialog box:
-
Digitize to multiple files.
-
Use control track instead of timecode for preroll.
-
Digitize across timecode breaks.
-
Log errors to the console and continue digitizing.
•
Turn off the Fast Cue option and set the preroll to approximately
4 seconds in the Deck Settings dialog box.
•
You should have accurate notes on the number and content of takes
on each tape to identify the content of each clip when necessary.
To autodigitize:
1. Create one bin for each tape. This keeps bins to a manageable size
and automatically names all clips from each tape after the name of
their respective bins.
2. Name each bin after the source tape number: by default, all clips
are named after the tape and are numbered incrementally beginning with .01.
3. Open the bin for the first tape and choose Capture mode from the
Bin menu.
4. Make sure you have selected the proper Digitize settings and set
up the capture tools, as described in Chapter 4.
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5. Load the source tape and cue past any false starts.
6. Play the tape, and wait 4 seconds before clicking the Record button.
Digitizing from a Non-Avid-Controlled Deck
If you have a deck that cannot be controlled directly by the system,
you can digitize with manual deck control as follows:
1. Enter Capture mode and set up the tools, as described in
Chapter 4.
2. Click the Toggle Source button in the Digitize tool until the Deck
Offline icon appears to disable the deck controls and leave only
the Tape Name display.
Toggle Source button
n
The TC button also disappears. The footage will be digitized with
time-of-day timecode generated by the system.
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3. Click the Tape Name display to open the Select Tape dialog box
and identify the source tape.
You can select the option “Show other project’s tapes” to display
the tape names and associated project names for all bins that have
been opened in the current session.
n
Because the media file database does not open when you start your Avid system, tape names of all online media files do not appear automatically.
If the tape name you are searching for does not appear in the Select Tape dialog box, click the Scan for tapes button. Tape and project names are listed.
New tape name
List of tapes
Show Tapes option
For guidelines in naming tapes, see “Naming
Tapes” on page 69.
4. Provide the system with a tape name in one of the following ways:
•
Select the name of the tape from the list in the Select Tape dialog box and click OK.
•
Click New if the tape is not in the list. A New Tape name line
appears in the dialog box. Type the new name and click OK.
The tape name is displayed in the Digitize tool.
5. Play the tape manually and click the Record button to stop and
start the digitizing of each clip.
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Digitizing with Time-of-Day Timecode
When you digitize with an Avid-controlled deck, you can digitize your
footage with time-of-day timecode rather than source timecode.
To digitize with time-of-day timecode:
1. Enter Capture mode and set up the tools, as described in
Chapter 4.
2. When selecting tracks, deselect the TC button.
3. Digitize by using any of the techniques described in “Digitizing
On-the-Fly” on page 170.
Digitizing to the Timeline
You can digitize footage directly from tape into a sequence loaded in
the Timeline in one step, bypassing several steps such as organizing
and reviewing clips, marking edit points, and performing edits.
To digitize to the Timeline:
1. Prepare for digitizing by using standard procedures. For more
information, see Chapter 4.
2. Load a sequence into the Record monitor.
3. Mark an IN point in the sequence or place the blue position indicator where you want the edit to take place.
4. Mark the source material that you want to digitize by using the
Digitize Tool logging controls. For information on setting marks in
the Digitize tool, see “Digitizing and Logging at the Same Time”
on page 167.
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5. (Option) You can mark an OUT point based on the following:
•
If you are digitizing to the middle of a sequence in the Timeline, mark both IN and OUT points for frame accuracy of overwrite. With splice-in, you only need a mark IN.
•
If you are digitizing onto the end of a sequence, you can mark
just an IN point and then mark the OUT point later on-the-fly.
Click the Splice-in button or the Overwrite button in the Digitize tool to choose the type of edit.
Splice-in button
Overview button
Logging controls
6. Click the Record button to begin digitizing.
7. If you did not mark the OUT point in advance, click the Record
button again when the footage reaches the appropriate frame.
n
If you already marked an OUT point, digitizing will stop automatically.
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When digitizing ends, the clip appears in place in the sequence,
and a master clip appears in the bin.
Digitizing Video Without Pulldown into a 24p NTSC
Project
Film-to-tape transfers that were made without using pulldown can be
digitized directly into a 24p project. This feature is useful when special
effects are generated on a frame-to-frame basis to tape and need to be
integrated into a 24p project.
Before digitizing the footage, choose Video Rate from the Film to
Video Transfer pop-up menu in the Film Settings dialog box. The Filmto-Video Transfer setting allows you to specify the type of film-to-tape
transfer that you are digitizing. For more information, see “Film Settings” on page 98.
n
For normal 24-frame capture, select Pulldown from the Film to Video Transfer pop-up menu in the Film Settings dialog box.
Batch Digitizing from Logged Clips
Once you have imported a log or manually logged a group of clips
into a bin, you can automate the digitize process by using the Avid
system’s batch-digitizing capabilities. When you batch digitize, you
open a bin, select the clips you want to digitize, and choose Batch Digitize from the Clip menu. The Avid system automatically finds the
start and end timecode for each clip and digitizes it. To batch digitize,
source tapes must have timecode that matches the timecode for the
selected clips.
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You can also use the batch-digitizing process to redigitize clips you
have already digitized. The redigitizing process is described in
“Redigitizing Your Material” on page 185.
n
When you capture footage from an NTSC film-to-tape transfer with pulldown, the playback flickers in the Client monitor during digitizing because
the system is dropping occasional frames due to the pullin process. The footage will play back smoothly in the Avid system, however, once the pullin conversion is complete.
Preparing to Batch Digitize
Preparing for batch digitizing involves an option of resizing the Digitize tool, and establishing settings that allow you to batch digitize with
minimal supervision.
Resizing the Digitize Tool
Because your clips are already logged in a bin, you can simplify the
interface during batch digitizing by hiding the deck controller and logging controls in the Digitize tool.
To resize the Digitize tool during batch digitizing, click the open/close
triangle to the left of the deck controller.
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Open/Close triangle
The triangle points to the right, and the deck control and logging controls close.
Preparing Settings for Unattended Batch Digitizing
Unattended batch digitizing allows you to digitize a large number of
clips with minimal supervision by selecting Digitize settings that
avoid a pause in the digitize process.
For more information
on Batch Digitize settings, see Table 5-3 on
page 182.
c
To prepare for unattended batch digitizing, select the following
options in the Digitize Settings dialog box:
•
Log errors to the console and continue digitizing.
•
Switch to the emptiest drive if current drive is full.
•
Digitize across timecode breaks.
You cannot batch digitize clips that contain timecode breaks
between the logged IN and OUT points. Also, you cannot digitize
across breaks in the recording (that is, if the recorded footage breaks
up into noise between shots). If such breaks in recording exist on
your tape, consider using the methods described in “Digitizing Onthe-Fly” on page 170.
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Batch Digitize Settings Options
The Batch Digitize settings specify how to batch digitize clips.
Table 5-3 describes the Batch Digitize Settings options. For information on the General Digitize settings, see “General Digitize Settings”
on page 95.
Table 5-3
Batch Digitize Settings Options
Option
Description
Log errors to the console
and continue digitizing.
When this option is selected, the system continues the batch-digitizing
process when errors occur and reports the errors to the Console (choose
Console from the Tools menu to view the Console window).
Deselect this option to shut down the system when an error occurs. For
complete instructions, see “Logging Errors to the Console” on page 163.
Digitize the tracks logged
for each clip.
When this option is selected, the system digitizes the tracks that were
entered when the clip was logged.
Deselect this option to use the Digitize tool to choose which tracks to
digitize. Note that you cannot digitize more tracks than were actually
logged.
Use the audio sample
rate logged for each clip.
When this option is selected, the system uses the audio sample rate
logged for each clip. Deselect this option to use the audio sample rate set
for the audio card (shown in the Audio Projects Settings dialog box).
Use the video compression
logged for each clip.
When this option is selected, the system uses the video compression
logged for each clip. To determine the current Compression setting,
display the Video column heading in the bin.
Deselect this option to use the Compression tool or the Digitize tool to
choose video compression.
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Table 5-3
Batch Digitize Settings Options (Continued)
Option
Description
Switch to the emptiest
drive if current drive
is full.
When this option is selected, the system switches to the target media
storage drive with the most available space when the current target drive
becomes full during batch digitizing. The system switches before starting
to digitize the clip, based on the number of minutes in the clip. For complete instructions, see “Preparing Settings for Unattended Batch Digitizing” on page 181.
If you do not select this option, digitizing stops when a drive becomes
full.
Stop deck when done.
Pause deck when done.
Select one of these options either to stop the deck or to pause the deck
after digitizing.
Batch Digitizing Clips
To batch digitize clips:
1. Make sure you selected the proper Digitize settings and set up the
capture tools, as described in Chapter 4.
2. Open the bin that stores the clips you want to digitize.
3. If you are redigitizing media from a project created on a different
Avid system, only reuse settings that originate on systems that use
the Meridien video I/O board. For projects from other Avid systems, check the Video settings for each tape. For more information,
see “Calibrating Video Input” on page 149.
4. Select the clips to batch digitize:
•
Choose Select All from the Edit menu to select all the clips.
•
Ctrl+click to select specific clips.
5. Choose Batch Digitize from the Clip menu. The Batch Digitize dialog box appears.
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Handle length options
appear only when a
sequence is selected.
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If the clips that you want to batch digitize are not highlighted in the active
bin, Batch Digitize appears dimmed in the Clip menu.
6. Select options in the dialog box:
For more information
on handle lengths when
redigitizing, see
“Redigitizing
Sequences” on
page 187.
n
•
If the bin contains some clips that are already digitized and
you do not want to redigitize those clips, select the option
“Digitize only those items for which media is currently
unavailable.” If this option is not selected and some of the
selected clips have media files, the system deletes the media
files and redigitizes new media files.
•
If your selections include a sequence for batch digitizing, the
dialog box prompts you for handle length information; the
system will create new master clips based on the length of
edited clips in the sequence.
If you are batch digitizing the original source master clips used in the
sequence, the sequence will automatically be updated. Therefore, you might
want to deselect the sequence during this procedure.
7. Click OK.
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If you have not loaded a tape, the system prompts you to insert
the first tape.
8. Insert the tape into the tape deck and click Mounted.
A dialog box appears.
9. Click OK to confirm the tape and deck entries and begin the digitizing process. The system digitizes each clip from the tape, in start
timecode order.
10. If the system needs another source tape, the system prompts you
for the tape. At this point, you have several options:
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•
Insert the new tape and click Mounted to continue the digitizing process.
•
Click “Skip this clip” to skip just the first clip from the tape
and continue digitizing the remaining clips.
•
Click “Skip this tape” to skip all the clips from the mounted
tape. The system then prompts you for the next tape.
•
Click Abort to end the batch-digitizing process. You can also
stop digitizing at any time by clicking the Trash button in the
Digitize tool.
To skip specific clips in the process of batch digitizing a particular tape, you
must abort each clip manually by clicking the Trash button, then click next
clip in the Abort window to continue.
11. When the system has finished batch digitizing, a dialog box notifies you that the process is complete.
Redigitizing Your Material
Redigitizing is the process of capturing previously digitized source
footage based on existing clips and sequences. Redigitizing uses the
batch-digitizing process and does not require extra logging time
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because the clip information for such things as source tracks, timecodes, and compression settings already exists in the bin.
There are several situations in which you might want to redigitize:
c
•
You can redigitize a sequence after you transfer it from another
system, such as an offline Media Composer.
•
You can redigitize low-resolution clips at a higher resolution setting after they have been edited into a sequence.
•
You can quickly redigitize selected clips if you make an error
while digitizing the first time (for example, if you forget to check
audio levels or set the wrong resolution).
•
You can redigitize clips if you accidentally delete media files.
Redigitizing requires your original source footage. Do not delete the
media files if the source footage is no longer available, unless you
will not need the material again.
For information on loading the media database to relink clips, see the
editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
Redigitizing Master Clips and Subclips
The procedure for redigitizing master clips and subclips is identical to
the process for batch digitizing logged clips. See “Batch Digitizing
from Logged Clips” on page 179.
Although the procedure is the same, the result is slightly different, as
follows:
•
Master clips are linked to entire media files and serve as sources
for subclips and sequences. Therefore, when you redigitize a master clip, changes in Compression settings and levels affect all subclips and sequences created from the master clip.
•
Subclips are smaller sections of master clips. When you redigitize
a subclip, the system creates a new master clip that is linked to
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new media files and reflects the shortened length of material.
Therefore, redigitizing subclips streamlines the digitize process.
Also, redigitizing breaks the link from the subclip to the original
master clip. But if you edit the subclip into a sequence, the
sequence will reflect any changes in the newly digitized subclip.
Redigitizing Sequences
Redigitizing a sequence creates new master clips and associated media
files based on the length of each shot edited into the sequence. It
breaks any links to the original source clips, and only the sequence and
its new master clips are linked to the newly digitized media files.
There are two approaches to redigitizing a sequence:
•
Use Decompose to create a bin of clips, and then batch digitize
the clips.
•
Redigitize the sequence without using Decompose.
Saving Two Versions of a Sequence When Redigitizing
To save the original version of your sequence before redigitizing, you
can create a duplicate. For example, use this method if you create a
sequence at a low resolution to save storage space and want to redigitize the sequence at a higher resolution while retaining the first version. Avid recommends this method if you intend to use the
Decompose feature.
To make a duplicate of the sequence:
1. Select the sequence in the bin and choose Duplicate from the Edit
menu.
2. (Option) Create a new bin by choosing New Bin from the File
menu and move the duplicate sequence into the new bin. This step
saves you the confusion of mingling new sequences and master
clips with existing ones, especially when using Decompose.
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Using Decompose When Redigitizing
Decompose allows you to create new, shorter master clips based only
on the material you have edited and included in your sequence, which
saves system disk space. You can choose the handle length of the new
master clips. Decompose breaks any links to the original source clips,
and only the sequence and its new master clips are linked to the newly
digitized media files.
Decompose creates new master clips in the bin for each shot in the
sequence prior to redigitizing. Using Decompose gives you greater
control during the redigitizing process. You can use this procedure to
sort clips in the bin, modify the clips, and then redigitize selected clips
in the sequence.
For film projects, clips created with Decompose retain all the information from the original master clips, including Pullin column information, key numbers, ink numbers, or any other information formerly
entered in the bin.
To use Decompose:
1. Activate the bin that stores the sequence and select the sequence.
2. Choose Decompose from the Clip menu.
The Decompose dialog box appears.
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3. To preserve clips that already have existing media files, select the
option “Decompose only those items for which media is currently
unavailable.” Do not select this option if you plan to decompose
and redigitize the entire sequence.
4. Click the Handle Length text box and type the number of additional frames you want to digitize at the heads and tails of the new
master clips. This provides enough overlap for trimming and adding transition effects.
c
If you attempt to trim or add effects with no handles, you will
receive an error message notifying you that there is insufficient
media.
5. Click the Digitized clips check box to decompose digitized material.
6. Click OK. The new master clips appear in the bin. You can now
sort and select these clips like all other objects in the bin.
7. Proceed with the redigitizing procedures described in “Batch Digitizing Clips” on page 183.
189
Redigitizing the Sequence Without Using Decompose
When you redigitize the sequence without using Decompose, the digitizing process creates media files for each shot in the sequence during
the digitizing process. Skipping the Decompose procedure saves only
a small amount of time, and you cannot make changes after the media
files are created without repeating the entire procedure. Therefore,
review “Using Decompose When Redigitizing” on page 188 before
proceeding.
To redigitize a sequence:
1. Make sure you selected the proper Digitize settings and set up the
capture tools, as described in Chapter 4.
2. Open or activate the bin that stores the sequence.
3. Choose Go To Capture Mode from the Bin menu.
4. Select the sequence you want to redigitize.
5. Choose Batch Digitize from the Clip menu.
The Batch Digitize dialog box appears.
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6. To preserve clips that already have existing media, select the
option “Digitize only those items for which media is currently
unavailable.” Deselect this option if you plan to redigitize the
entire sequence.
7. Click the Handle Length text box and type the number of additional frames you want to digitize at the heads and tails of the new
master clips. This provides enough overlap to allow for trimming
and transition effects.
c
If you attempt to trim or add effects with no handles, you will
receive an error message notifying you that there is insufficient
media.
8. Click OK. The system prompts you to insert the first tape.
9. Insert the tape into the tape deck if you have not already done so.
10. Click Mounted to indicate to the system that the correct tape is
loaded and ready for digitizing.
A dialog box appears.
11. Click OK to confirm the tape and deck entries. The system digitizes each clip from the tape, in start timecode order. If another
source tape is needed, the system prompts for the tape.
You can stop the batch-digitizing process at any time by clicking
the Trash button in the Digitize tool.
When batch digitizing is finished, a message box notifies you that the
process is complete. The new master clips appear in the bin, and associated media files exist on the targeted drive or drives.
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Relinking Clips by Key Number
For illustrations of
workflows that include
FTFT relinking, see
“Planning a 24p
Project” on page 22.
The film-tape-film-tape (FTFT) relinking feature lets you re-create an
offline, film-originated sequence as a final finished sequence by using
the key numbers of the original film footage. During the offline stage,
you digitize and edit footage that was transferred to tape through a
one-light or best-light telecine transfer (FT). During the finishing stage,
you batch digitize, relink by key number, and edit footage that was
transferred through a second timed, color-corrected telecine transfer
(FT).
For more information
about relinking, see the
editing guide or Help
for your Avid system.
Relinking by key number eliminates the need for the telecine transfer
facility to match the timecode and pulldown of the second transfer to
the timecode of the first transfer.
To relink clips by key number:
1. After you have finished editing the offline sequence, use the
FilmScribe™ application to create a pull list of the clips used in the
sequence. (For information on using FilmScribe, see the FilmScribe
documentation.)
2. Have the telecine facility use the pull list to pull selects from the
original negative and to transfer picture-only footage by using a
timed, color-corrected telecine process. You do not need to transfer
audio again. The telecine facility supplies a new shot log file along
with the transfer tape.
3. In your original project, create a new bin.
4. Duplicate the edited offline sequence and move it to the new bin.
At this point, the duplicate sequence is still linked to the original
media.
c
Make sure to duplicate your sequence before relinking. If you relink
to the original sequence, you will lose your links to the original
media.
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5. Process the new log file through ALE and import it into the bin
that holds the duplicated sequence. (For more information, see
“Creating Avid Logs” on page 62 and “Importing Shot Log
Files” on page 66.)
6. Batch digitize the clips imported from the new log file. Choose 1:1
or another high-quality resolution. (For more information, see
“Batch Digitizing from Logged Clips” on page 179.)
7. Select the duplicated sequence and the new clips.
8. Choose Relink from the Clip menu. The Relink dialog box
appears.
9. Choose “Key Number (KN Start) - picture only” from the Relink
by pop-up menu.
10. Select the option “Relink all non-master clips to selected online
items.”
11. In most cases, select the option “Relink only to media from the
current project.”
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Deselect this option if you know the new clips were digitized with
a different project name. Also, if the sequence does not relink to
the new clips, try deselecting the option and relinking again.
12. Click OK.
The new clips are linked to the sequence. If you duplicated the offline
sequence, the offline sequence is still linked to the original clips. If you
did not duplicate the sequence and you need to relink to the original
clips, follow this procedure:
1. Duplicate the sequence.
2. Create a new bin and move the sequence to the bin.
3. Locate the original clips. Look for a bin with the original clips, or
use the Media tool to locate the original clips.
4. Copy the clips to the bin that contains the duplicated sequence.
5. Select the sequence and the original clips.
Follow steps 8 through 12 in the previous procedure.
Modifying the Pullin Frame
You can also determine
the correct pulldown
phase from the original
tape. See “Entering the
Pulldown of the Sync
Point” on page 79.
If you have digitized film-originated clips (NTSC transfer only) that
seem to stutter, the problem could be an incorrectly logged pulldown
phase. The pulldown phase is the frame at which the master clip
starts: A, B, C, or D. You log this pulldown phase in the Pullin column
of a bin. To solve the problem, you need to determine the correct
“pullin” frame, modify the clip information, and redigitize the clip.
To check for an incorrect pullin frame, first look for a section of the clip
that includes a series of frames with motion. Then step through the
clip frame by frame (using the Step buttons or another method) and
look for two frames that have no movement. If the pattern is three
frames of movement followed by two frames of no movement, the
pullin is incorrect.
194
To determine the correct pullin frame, use one of the following
approaches:
•
If the source footage includes burn-in code with the pulldown
phase, go to the start of the clip and look for the pulldown for the
first frame.
•
If you want to make sure to maintain the start timecode for each
clip, review the original tape field by field, using the procedure
described in “Entering the Pulldown of the Sync Point” on
page 79.
•
If you do not need to maintain the start timecode:
-
Step through the clip frame by frame (using the Step buttons
or another method). Look for two frames that are identical (no
movement).
-
Think of these frames as frames B and X of a five-frame series.
No movement
A
B
X
C
D
This five-frame series represents an incorrect transfer of five
video frames to four film frames. Step backward until you
locate the A frame and note the last digit of its timecode. Timecode for all A frames in the clip will start either with this digit
or this digit plus 5. For example, if the A frame has the timecode 1:00:10:20, timecode for all A frames in the clip will end
in either :00 or .05.
-
Compare these digits with the last digit of the start timecode
(first frame) of the clip to determine the correct pullin. For
example, if the A frame ends in 0 or 5, and the start timecode
ends in 4, the pullin is D.
-
If the pullin for the clip is the X frame, you need to modify the
timecode to produce a number you can associate with a pullin.
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For example, if the A frame ends in 0 or 5, and the start timecode ends in 2, the pullin falls on the X frame and you need to
modify the timecode along with the pullin. Move forward one
frame to create a start timecode ending in 3. Then you can
change the pullin to C.
c
When you change the timecode of a clip, you lose the key number of
the clip and need to enter it in the bin, adjusting it to match any
changes to the timecode.
After you determine the pullin frame, follow these steps to modify the
clip information:
1. Select the clip you want to modify and press the Delete key.
The Delete dialog box appears.
2. Deselect the option “Delete master clip(s)” and select “Delete associated media file(s).”
3. Click OK.
The original media file is deleted.
4. Make sure the clip is still selected. Press Ctrl+Shift and choose
Unlink from the Clip menu.
The clip information is unlinked and you can modify the clip
information.
5. Type the correct letter for the pulldown phase in the Pullin column. If necessary, type a new timecode and key number.
With the new clip information in the bin, batch digitize the clip. See
“Batch Digitizing Clips” on page 183. If the pulldown phase is accurate, the clip should play smoothly, with no repeated frames.
n
This method might not work for some clips that start with either an A frame
or a D frame. If, after you modify the clip as described previously, the clip still
stutters, modify the clip again. This time, if the pullin is A, change it to D. If
the pullin is D, change it to A.
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CHAPTER 6
Multicamera Planning and
Digitizing
Your Avid system’s multicamera editing tools allow you to incorporate multiple camera angles easily into the nonlinear editing process.
This chapter describes workflows and digitizing for multicamera
projects. Techniques for editing multicamera projects are described in
the editing guide and Help for your Avid system.
Developing a Postproduction Model
As the name indicates, multicamera production multiplies the amount
and complexity of source material you manage in a project. As a result,
comprehensive postproduction planning is essential to avoid the hazards of mismatched shots, takes, and entire reels during digitizing and
grouping.
This section presents a postproduction model that can help you organize your material. While the routines of a typical situation comedy
are used to illustrate these organizing principles, you can easily adapt
this model to suit the particular needs of other productions, such as
sports, documentary, and music videos.
197
The guidelines of organizing for a large multicamera project are as
follows:
•
Choose a tape-numbering scheme and be consistent.
•
Record or film the multicamera shoot logically according to offline
and online editing needs.
•
Manage the production path of both sound and picture for quality
and efficiency.
Tape Numbering Schemes
Because multicamera production involves both sequential and synchronous recording on numerous reels, a comprehensive numbering
scheme for reels, takes, and clips can help avoid confusion.
Tape Numbering for Video Productions
Many situation comedies that record on videotape classify their master record reels with two digits indicating both the sequential and synchronous identity of the tape, as follows:
•
The first digit indicates the order in which the reel was recorded.
•
The second digit indicates the source that feeds the reel.
For example, if there is a line feed or director’s cut (a switched version
of the show), this source is designated with a 0 (zero), so that reel 10 is
the first reel of the line feed. Reel 11 is the first reel recorded on ISO
(isolation) camera 1, and so forth.
Each set of reels, then, forms a decimal group, called a tape load. Each
load is traditionally referred to by its prefix. In this example, reels 10 to
14 are called the tens, reels 20 to 24 the twenties, and so on.
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Tape Numbering for Film Productions
Many multicamera film productions use alphabetical designations for
classifying source footage. For example, the cameras are referred to as
A, B, and C, covering the scene from left to right as viewed from the
camera side. A fourth camera X is often a floater, used to grab closeups and miscellaneous shots. You can classify the shot rolls with the
letter of the source camera, then numbered sequentially. For example,
camera roll A1 is the first roll for camera A.
Production Paths
In addition to a numbering scheme, you can organize the flow of
recorded material throughout postproduction to make efficient use of
resources and maintain the quality of video and audio.
Production Paths for Video Productions
For videotaped production, often two sets of reels are recorded during
production: a set of online masters and a set of offline work tapes. The
online masters remain untouched until editing of the final show master begins. Clips from the offline work tapes are digitized, and then
used for editing and generating an EDL or digital cut for review.
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Finished program
Online edit
Online masters
Betacam
D2
Simultaneous
multicamera
recording
EDL
Digitize
Offline edit
Offline work tapes
3/4 inch
Facilities and tape formats might vary. The basic model can apply to
any multicamera production in which a broadcast-quality program is
the goal.
Production Paths for Film Productions
For multicamera television productions shot on film, the most common picture path is described in “Video Dailies Method” on page 37.
This involves simultaneously transferring the camera rolls to both a
set of offline tapes (3/4-inch cassettes, for example) and a set of online
tapes (such as Betacam or 1-inch). The primary differences are:
•
Each take is multiplied by four, therefore all reels require strict
organization and labeling at all stages to avoid confusion.
•
Many productions use time-of-day timecode as the audio timecode, synced to picture using a smart slate. These audio timecodes
can be transferred to the address track of tapes in telecine and
imported into the Sound TC column or an Auxiliary TC column.
200
•
Multicamera filming
Alternatively, you can record in-camera timecode both on film and
on an audio track for autosyncing in the Avid system.
Online Edit
Online masters
Finished program
1”
EDL
D2
Simultaneous
telecine transfer
Cut list
Telecine
Digitize
Offline work tapes
For workflows that
include multiformat
output, see “Planning a
24p Project” on
page 22.
Offline Edit
Facilities and formats might vary. The basic model can apply to any
multicamera production in which high-quality output is the goal.
Managing Audio
The multicamera editing tools allow you to patch channels of audio
from any source clip to any track during editing. You can strategically
designate specific channels of audio to record on specific reels or
tracks in preparation for editing and generating an effective EDL or
cut list.
201
Audio for Videotape Productions
In the following example, the goal is to create a finished master with
production dialog on channel 1, music and sound effects on channel 2,
audience left on channel 3, and audience right on channel 4. To achieve
this, you record channels to offline work tapes with only two channels
as follows:
•
Line Feed: dialog on channel 1, mono audience on channel 2
•
Camera 1: dialog on channel 1, music and effects on channel 2
•
Cameras 2 and 3: dialog on channel 1, mono audience on 2
•
Camera 4: audience left on channel 1, audience right on 2
If the online master tapes are capable of recording four channels of
audio, they usually duplicate the configuration of channels on the final
master.
Record:
Digitize:
Online edit:
Line
Dialog &
audience
10
Ch 1: Dialog
Video
only
Ch 2: Music & FX
D2
Ch 3: Audience L
Cam 1
Dialog &
effects
11
Cam 2
Dialog &
audience
12
Ch 4: Audience R
Video &
audio
Video
only
EDL generates
the final mix.
Offline edit:
Cam 3
Dialog &
audience
13
Video
only
Cam 4
Audience L
audience R
14
Video &
audio
Digitize and patch selected channels.
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Audio for Film Productions
In the following example, the goal is to create a finished master tape
with production dialog on channel 1, music and sound effects on channel 2, audience left on channel 3, and audience right on channel 4.
Your production might use a 1/2-inch four-track audiotape recorder,
as follows:
•
Dialog on track 1
•
Audio timecode on track 2
•
Stereo audience left on track 3
•
Stereo audience right on track 4
Transfer:
Record:
1”
Track 1: Dialog
Ch 1: Dialog
Track 2: Audio TC
Track 3: Audience L
Ch 2: (clear)
Ch 3: Audience L
Track 4: Audience R
Ch 4: Audience R
Online masters
Address track: Audio TC
Telecine
Finished program:
Offline work tapes
(four channel)
Ch 1: Dialog
D2
EDL
Ch 2: Music & Effects
EDL generates
the final mix.
Ch 3: Audience L
Ch 4: Audience R
Digitize all tracks.
Patch and edit selected tracks.
Any music and effects during production can be recorded as wild
sound and can be edited into the program on track 2 along with additional effects and music during postproduction. All tracks are trans-
203
ferred to tape in telecine, with audio timecode recorded onto the
address track and used during digitizing and editing.
This is just one example. Choose the right path for your production.
Digitizing Workflow
The organization of the digitize bins helps to avoid slowing the system
with large bins. It also keeps editing resources free of clutter. The basic
procedure for using the digitize bins is as follows:
1. When you are ready to digitize, create one bin for each tape (for
film productions, usually each day’s worth of takes will fit onto a
single dailies tape). This keeps bins to a manageable size. When
you autodigitize, the system automatically names each clip (take)
after the name of the bin (tape), and numbers them sequentially.
2. After digitizing, you can rename the clips to reflect the scene and
take.
3. Gather the clips for each tape load or take into one bin. This avoids
accidentally grouping clips with the same timecode from different
days. Sort the clips by name so they group in the correct order.
4. After creating groups or multigroups, move all the new clips into
a separate bin. This simplifies the contents of the bin for editing.
The following illustration uses the numbering scheme and production
plan described in previous examples to show the video path for the
first tape load you digitize.
204
Line
10
Cam 1
11
3. Gather all multigroups
into one bin for easy access.
Cam 2
12
2. Gather each tape load
into one bin, sort by name,
then multigroup.
Cam 3
13
Cam 4
14
1. Digitize each reel separately.
For television productions shot on film, scenes are often referred to as
Scene A, B, C, and so forth. When the film is transferred to tape for
offline editing, you can import the log of the transfer and batch digitize the reels, as shown in the following illustration.
205
Cam A
Reel
001
Cam B
2. Gather takes into one bin,
sort by name, then group.
Reel
002
3. Gather appropriate groups
into one bin for each act.
Cam C
Reel
003
Cam X
Reel
004
1. Digitize each reel separately.
Digitizing Methods
For more information
on logging and digitizing procedures, see
Chapter 3, Chapter 4,
and Chapter 5.
Video productions generally use three approaches to digitizing multicamera material:
•
Log in advance and digitize selected takes: This method allows
you to shorten the time required for digitizing and to lessen the
amount of digitized material by logging timecodes noted on
selected takes during the shoot and subsequent screenings.
•
Log and digitize all takes in advance: This is similar to the previous method, except that you save less storage space by digitizing
portions of all takes.
206
•
Autodigitize entire reels: This method allows you to bypass the
logging procedure, but requires the most storage space.
Film productions generally use one digitizing method: import the log
from the telecine transfer and use this to batch digitize.
However you choose to digitize, you should have accurate notes on
the number and content of takes on each reel to identify the content of
each clip when necessary.
Logging Tips
For additional logging
tips, see “Logging
Tips” on page 68.
The following tips apply to methods that involve logging in advance
for digitizing multicamera material:
•
Narrow the IN and OUT points to avoid false starts on one or
more reels in a tape load.
•
Save time by logging just one ISO reel in each tape load, exporting
in the .ALE format, modifying reel and clip names in a text editor,
and then reimporting into bins for each of the other reels.
•
When logging in advance, name each clip with the source tape
name (same as the master tape to be used in online) and a cut
number, for quick identification when clips get moved or copied.
Autodigitizing Tips
The following tips apply to autodigitizing entire reels:
For more information
on digitize settings and
deck settings, see
“Selecting Settings” on
page 95 and “Setting
Deck Preferences” on
page 106.
•
Select the “Digitize across timecode breaks” option in the Digitize
Settings dialog box prior to digitizing.
•
Select the “Log errors to the console and continue digitizing”
option in the Digitize Settings dialog box.
•
Under Deck Settings, turn off the Fast Cue option and set the preroll to approximately 4 seconds. The Deck Settings dialog box is
207
accessed by clicking the Add Deck button on the Deck Configuration dialog box.
•
When loading a tape and assigning a name to a source reel, give
the reel the same name as the online master tape (same as the
work tape).
•
Name each bin after the source reel number. By default, all clips
are named after the reel and are numbered incrementally beginning with the file name extension .01.
•
To start digitizing, cue the source reel past any false starts, play the
tape, and wait 4 seconds before clicking the Record button in the
Digitize tool.
Storage Tips
The following tips can help you make the best use of media drives:
•
To save storage space, digitize only the audio channels required
for offline editing.
•
For the most efficient playback of multicamera material, distribute
the reels in each tape load between drives.
•
To avoid switching drives while digitizing the same reel, target
one volume per reel whenever possible.
With a large multicamera production, you can plan the use of drives in
advance, based on the number of drives available, the chosen resolution, and the length of each reel.
Consider the following example:
•
You have a four-camera production yielding two tape loads
(approximately 30 minutes per tape).
•
You want to autodigitize at 20:1 video resolution.
•
You need to digitize 2-channel audio at 44.1 kHz from camera 1
and camera 4.
208
•
For storage, you have four 9-GB drives.
With this set of circumstances, you might distribute the media as
shown in the following illustration. Storage requirements are based on
information provided in “Storage Requirements” on page 376.
Work tapes
Tracks digitized
Storage required
Line
10
X2
3.60 GB
Cam 1
11
X2
4.24 GB
Cam 2
12
X2
Cam 3
13
X2
Cam 4
14
X2
Targeted drive
3.60 GB
3.60 GB
4.24 GB
Checking the Bins
Before gathering the digitized clips into bins for grouping, you should
open the bins in each tape load or take and compare the clips for
inconsistencies. You can take steps to conform the bins now and avoid
problems during grouping and editing, as described in the following
sections.
Replacing Missing Clips
After grouping, if you find one bin has fewer clips than the others in
the tape load or take, the ISO reel or camera might have been stopped
209
during a particular take. If you group the take with the missing camera, the shots shift in the Quad Split to fill the missing angle, which can
disorient the editor. Correct this problem by creating a dummy clip.
To create a dummy clip:
1. Log a new source clip into the bin.
2. Match the timecode from one of the clips from another camera,
and use any name.
When the clips are grouped and loaded during editing, this dummy
clip displays the message “Media Offline,” and maintains the distribution of camera angles in the Quad Split.
Deleting Extra Clips
For specific procedures
for deleting clips, see
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
If a particular bin has more clips than the others in the load, one or
more false starts might have been recorded during digitizing. If you
create a multigroup, the extra clips form unusable sections with only
one or two camera angles.
To eliminate the clips:
1. Compare timecodes among bins until you isolate the unique clips.
2. Load the clips into the Source monitor, and compare timecodes
with a line script, if available.
3. If the clips are useless, delete them and their media until you have
the same takes in each bin.
Checking Audio and Image Quality
Check the Audio column to make sure the audio was recorded on the
correct channels, from the correct source reels, at the correct kHz. You
cannot play back audio compressed at different rates within the same
group or multigroup.
210
You can also spot-check the picture quality by loading two or more
clips from each bin into the Source monitor and viewing the clips. If
you find a problem, you can redigitize before the edit session begins.
211
CHAPTER 7
Importing Files
The Avid system support numerous file types. For a complete list, see
Appendix A. The following sections describe how to import files:
•
Preparing to Import Files
•
Working with Mixed-Resolution Projects
•
Creating and Using Import Settings
•
Importing Files
•
Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Import Files
•
Using Open Media Management (OMM)
•
Reimporting Files
For information about exchanging material with another system,
another application, or another platform, see the Avid Products
Collaboration Guide.
212
Preparing to Import Files
Before you begin the import process, make sure the system and the
files are ready for import as follows:
•
To read about issues and tips for mixed-resolution projects, see
“Working with Mixed-Resolution Projects” on page 213.
•
For graphics file and OMFI (Open Media Framework® Interchange) file import, prepare the files in advance according to specifications described in Appendix A.
•
For a complete description of Import settings, see “Import Settings Options” on page 216.
Working with Mixed-Resolution Projects
For more information
on resolutions, see
Appendix B.
You can work with mixed resolutions in the same sequence. This feature allows you to import graphics that will match the resolution of
the final sequence.
For example, assume that you want to use a low resolution such as
20:1 for your initial work and then redigitize your media at 2:1 for the
final version. In this case, you should import the graphics at 2:1. Then
when you redigitize your material, you will not have to reimport the
graphics.
If you plan to redigitize your media at a higher resolution, the lower
resolution must be from the same family (single-field or two-field). For
example, if you plan to finish at 2:1, you could start the project at 20:1,
but not 15:1s.
n
You cannot mix uncompressed graphics (1:1 resolution) with sequences that
contain lower resolutions.
You can also use Batch Import to reimport any imported material at a
higher resolution while maintaining links to the original master clips
213
and sequences. For more information, see “Reimporting Files” on
page 231.
Creating and Using Import Settings
You can create one or more sets of import parameters and save them as
an Import setting. For example, you can create one setting for importing QuickTime® files and another for importing files from
AudioVision®. This feature is especially useful when you use the dragand-drop method to import multiple files. See “Using the Drag-andDrop Method to Import Files” on page 226.
For information on
using the Settings scroll
list, see the editing
guide or Help for your
Avid system.
The default Import setting and any additional Import settings you create appear in the Settings scroll list. After you select a setting in the
Settings scroll list, the parameters remain the default settings for all
imported files, unless you change them during import.
To create a new Import setting:
1. Click the Settings button in the Project window to display a list of
your current settings.
2. Click Import.
3. Choose Duplicate from the Edit menu.
4. Name the setting by clicking the custom name column (in between
the setting name and the setting type identifier), typing a name,
and pressing Enter.
5. Adjust the options for the setting, as described in the following
procedure.
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To adjust the parameters in an Import Settings dialog box:
1. Double-click an Import setting in the Settings scroll list of the
Project window.
The Import Settings dialog box appears. The following illustration
shows the default settings.
2. Select the appropriate options.
For a complete description of all options in the Import Settings
dialog box, see “Import Settings Options” on page 216.
3. Click OK.
You can now select this setting whenever you import a frame, clip, or
sequence. For more information, see “Importing Files” on page 221
and “Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Import Files” on
page 226.
215
Import Settings Options
Table 7-1 describes the Import Settings options.
Table 7-1
Import Settings Options
Option
Suboption
Description
Aspect Ratio,
Pixel Aspect
Maintain, square
Select this option for an image that was created in a squarepixel environment, such as a graphics application. Use this
option primarily for icons, logos, and other graphics that cannot be resized and are not intended to fill the entire screen.
The Avid system maintains the source file pixel aspect ratio for
the imported frames, translating the square-pixel aspect ratio
to the digital video non-square-pixel environment.
The system fills the rest of the screen with video black. If the
image has an alpha channel, this black will be keyed out in the
alpha channel.
Do not use this option if you are importing:
•
Images in the 720 x 486 (NTSC) or 720 x 576 (PAL)
non-square-pixel dimensions
•
A full-screen square-pixel image that has already
been stretched to non-square-pixel dimensions
216
Table 7-1
Option
Import Settings Options (Continued)
Suboption
Description
Maintain & Resize,
square
Select this option for an image that was created in square-pixel
terms when you want to preserve an aspect ratio other than
4:3.
The system fits the longest dimension to the screen size and
fills the missing pixels in the shorter dimension with video
black, creating a border. If the image has an alpha channel, this
black will be keyed out in the alpha channel.
For example, a 540 x 300 image would have its longer dimension resized to 720, and the shorter dimension resized in proportion (to 400). The remaining “short side” pixels are replaced
with black.
For best full-screen resolution of files created in a square-pixel
environment, use 648 x 486 (NTSC) or 768 x 576 (PAL).
To create a single resolution for both NTSC and PAL,
use 720 x 540.
Do not use this option if you are importing:
ITUR-601, nonsquare
•
Images in the 720 x 486 (NTSC) or 720 x 576 (PAL)
non-square-pixel dimensions
•
A full-screen square-pixel image that has already
been stretched to non-square-pixel dimensions
Select this option to import images with the dimensions used
by the Avid system: 720 x 486 (NTSC) or 720 x 576 (PAL). Also
use this option for 720 x 540 images, or other images that fit the
4:3 aspect ratio. You must use this option to maintain field data
when you import two-field media.
The system converts the existing pixel dimensions, if necessary,
so that the image fills the screen.
If the aspect ratio of the original frames does not match the
4:3 aspect ratio used by the Avid system, the imported frames
might be distorted.
For best full-screen resolution of files created in a square-pixel
environment, use 648 x 486 (NTSC) or 768 x 576 (PAL). To create a single resolution for both NTSC and PAL, use 720 x 540.
217
Table 7-1
Option
Suboption
File Field
Dominance
Import Settings Options (Continued)
Description
This pop-up menu allows you to choose the field dominance of
the media you are importing.
When the field dominance of the imported media matches the
field dominance of the project format, no special processing is
required. For more information, see “Two-Field Media Files
and Field Dominance” on page 367.
For 24p projects, select Not Interlaced (the default setting)
This setting does not apply to OMF imports when the import
resolution matches the OMF file.
Not Interlaced
Choose this option to import still images to all formats without
concern for the temporal ordering of the fields. This option is
the default value.
Even Field
Dominant
Choose this option for even-field processing during import.
The first line in the image belongs to the even field.
Odd Field
Dominant
Choose this option for odd-field processing during import. The
first line in the image belongs to the odd field.
File Color Levels RGB Graphics
Levels
Select this option if the imported graphics file uses RGB graphics levels. Most computer-generated graphics use RGB graphics levels. The RGB color values are remapped to
ITU-R 601 (formerly CCIR 601) video color values appropriate
for the Avid system.
RGB Graphics,
dither
Select this option if the imported graphics file uses complex
color effects, such as a gradation, and you are importing at a
high resolution (2:1 or uncompressed). Do not use this option
to reimport an image that has already been imported with dithering.
218
Table 7-1
Option
Autodetect
Sequential Files
Import Settings Options (Continued)
Suboption
Description
ITUR-601 Video
Levels
Select this option if the imported graphics file uses video levels
based on the ITU-R 601 (formerly CCIR 601) standard. These
graphics include Avid color bars or images that include superblack (zero black) for keying purposes. Depending on your
installation, Avid color bars are located in one of the following
folders:
C:\Avid\Media Composer\Supporting Files\Test Patterns
C:\Avid\Film Composer\Supporting Files\Test Patterns
When this option is selected and you are importing sequential
files, the system recognizes that a sequence of connected files is
present and automatically imports the whole sequence. This is
the default option.
When this option is deselected, the system does not automatically import a whole sequence of files that have sequential
extensions. You can then select any single file for import.
You can import sequential files for any of the supported stillimage formats. For information on preparing a sequence of
image files, see “Animation Files” on page 360.
Ignore Existing
Alpha
When this option is selected, the system imports an image that
contains alpha channel transparency information as one
opaque graphic. The imported graphic appears as a single master clip in the bin.
image contains an embedded alpha channel but the sysn Iftemandoes
not support alpha channel import for the file type,
select this option to import the image successfully. For information on alpha channel support, see “Graphics File Import
Specifications” on page 355.
Invert Existing
Alpha
Select this option to reverse the black and white elements of the
alpha channel if they differ from the matte key requirements of
the system: a white background, a black foreground, and a
gray transparency blend between the two.
219
Table 7-1
Import Settings Options (Continued)
Option
Suboption
Description
Single Frame
Import
Format: Slide
Choose this option for all graphics. The other menu choice,
Media Files, is not applicable to Avid systems that use the
Meridien board.
Duration of x seconds
Select this option to specify the duration of the master clip created from the import. The default is 10 seconds. This option
does not apply to importing sequential image files because
each file represents one frame of the clip; therefore, the total
number of files determines the total duration.
Combine events
based on scene and
automatically create
subclips.
Select this option to combine all the events for a scene into a
single master clip and then link the master clip to subclips that
represent the original events for that scene. To use this option,
you must have scene numbers logged in a scene column in the
bin.
Combine events
based on camera roll
and automatically
create subclips.
Select this option to combine all the events from a camera roll
into a single master clip and then link the master clip to subclips that represent the original events for that camera roll. To
use this option, you must have camera roll numbers logged in
a camera roll column in the bin for a film project.
Merge events with
known sources and
automatically create
subclips.
Select this option to create subclips for events that are merged
or relinked to their source clips upon import. Use this option if
you have already entered master clips in a bin for each camera
roll or master scene, and have subsequently logged all the
events related to those clips for import.
Shot Log
must select the clips that you want to merge before choosn You
ing this option.
Merge events with Select this option to merge information in the shot log onto
known master clips. selected master clips based on the matching tape name. Use
this option if you have already logged (or digitized) master
clips in a bin for each take.
must select the clips that you want to merge before selectn You
ing this option.
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Table 7-1
Option
Suboption
Import Settings Options (Continued)
Description
Media Drive
Select the drive on which you want to store the imported file or
files. Boldface indicates the drive with the most available
space.
Resolution
For graphics and video files, select the resolution for the
imported media.
OMM/OMFI
Resolution
OMM
Ask Me
When this option is selected, the system displays a query about
resolution selection for each imported file when the resolution
of the OMF source file is different from the current setting in
the Import file(s) into bin dialog box.
Use Current
When this option is selected, the system uses the current resolution setting in the Import file(s) into bin dialog box. The system disregards the source file resolution.
Use Source
When this option is selected, the system maintains the source
file’s resolution. The system disregards the resolution setting in
the Import file(s) into bin dialog box or the Compression tool.
Use Video Media
When this option is selected, the system transfers the information about the clip and the actual media object of the video clip.
Use Audio Media
When this option is selected, the system transfers the information about the clip and the actual media object of the audio clip.
Importing Files
When you import source shot logs, graphics, animation, audio,
AVI, QuickTime, OMM™, or OMFI files, the system converts them into
objects in a bin. You can manipulate and edit these objects as you
would any other clip or sequence. Any corresponding media files are
stored on a target drive that you specify.
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You can access files for import from any folder or drive source
mounted on the desktop, such as a floppy disk, fixed drive, removable
drive, or network server. You can import more than one file at a time,
including files of multiple types.
n
For information on
using the drag-anddrop method, see
“Using the Drag-andDrop Method to
Import Files” on
page 226.
For more information
about the files displayed in the Import
files into bin dialog box,
click the Details button.
Consider copying all graphics files to a single folder on the internal hard drive
before you import the files. Using this folder helps you manage graphics from
multiple sources and streamlines the reimporting process because all graphics
will point to the same original path.
To import files:
1. If you have created one or more Import settings, select the Import
setting that you want to use from the Settings scroll list. See “Creating and Using Import Settings” on page 214.
2. Open the bin in which you want to store the imported files. Click
anywhere in the bin to select it.
3. Choose Import from the File menu.
The Import file(s) into bin dialog box appears.
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Look in pop-up menu
Details button
File browser
File to import
Files of type
pop-up menu
Options button
Resolution pop-up menu
Media Drive pop-up menu
4. Choose an import file type from the Files of type pop-up menu to
display only files of the chosen file type in the source file list:
•
Choose either Graphic or Audio to import one of more than 30
supported graphics and audio file types. For more information on the various file types and their import specifications,
see Appendix A.
•
Choose OMFI to import files that have been saved in the
OMFI file format, such as sequences transferred from an
effects or digital audio workstation.
•
Choose Sequential Files to import a sequence of files. The first
file in the sequence appears. To automatically select the entire
sequence of files, you must select the "Autodetect Sequential
Files” option on the Import Settings dialog box.
223
•
Choose Shot Log to import Avid log (.ALE) files containing
clip information into a bin. For more information about Avid
log specifications, see Appendix C.
By default, the system displays only file types that belong to the
chosen category in the source file list of the dialog box.
5. (Option) Select the option All Files from the Files of type pop-up
menu to display all files in a chosen folder, regardless of file type.
Use this option if you want to batch import from multiple file
types.
6. (Option) Click the Options button to open the Import Settings dialog box for adjusting the import parameters.
n
For a complete description of all options in the Import Settings dialog box, see
“Import Settings Options” on page 216.
7. Select the options you want and, optionally, type a new name for
the setting in the text box at the top of the dialog box.
224
8. Click OK to save the settings, close the Import Settings dialog box,
and return to the Import file(s) into bin dialog box.
9. Choose a destination drive for the imported file from the Media
Drive pop-up menu.
10. For graphics and video files, choose a resolution for the imported
media from the Resolution pop-up menu, see “Working with
Mixed-Resolution Projects” on page 213.
n
For optimum speed when importing an OMFI file, select the Use Source
option in the Import Settings dialog box. This option imports the file using
the source compression, which is the resolution set in the OMFI file you are
importing.
11. Use the Look in pop-up menu to locate the folder containing the
source files.
12. Select files or deselect files from the source file list by doing one of
the following:
n
•
To add a single file, Ctrl+click the file to import from the
source file list.
•
To add a group of files, click the first file in a group, then
Shift+click the last file in a group.
•
To deselect a single file from the source file list, Ctrl+click a
highlighted file name.
If you are importing a sequential series of image files, you must select “Autodetect Sequential Files” in the Import Settings dialog box. Then you add only
the first file in the series to the source file list.
13. Click Open.
If you are batch importing OMFI files at multiple resolutions with
the OMFI Resolution: Ask Me option selected in the Import Settings dialog box, a message box appears whenever the resolution
of the source file does not match the current Resolution setting in
the Import file(s) into bin dialog box.
225
Select either the resolution of the source file or the current Resolution setting to continue.
When the system finishes importing the files, the clips appear in
the selected bin.
n
If you import an OMF file with a stereo sound track, the Avid system creates
a new master clip that contains the right channel of the sound track. The original master clip contains the left channel. Both clips appear in the bin you
select.
Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Import Files
To import one or more files by using the drag-and-drop method:
1. In the Settings scroll list of the Project window, select the setting
you want to use for import. To view or modify the parameters,
double-click the setting. For information on modifying options,
see “Creating and Using Import Settings” on page 214.
2. Open the bin in which you want to store the imported files.
3. Open the folder that contains the files you want to import.
4. Drag the file you want to import to the bin. To select multiple files,
Ctrl+click the files, and then drag the files to the desired location.
226
Using Open Media Management (OMM)
Open Media Management (OMM) is an Avid initiative to create a standard interface for integrating asset management systems with Avid
editing systems. Avid has partnered with leading asset management
companies to implement the OMM standard. The OMM standard is
incorporated as a feature in Film Composer and Media Composer and
allows direct, networked integration with asset management systems
and Web-based media resources.
An asset management system, or asset manager, is a powerful tool that
gives you the ability to share access to media. It also has the ability to
search for specific clips and to archive large numbers of clips to be
used in the future.
OMM uses the OMF® (Open Media Framework) data model but does
not express the data as a file. Instead, OMM simplifies workflow by
using standard Internet protocols to create a rich, network-based collaboration facility.
Your Film Composer or Media Composer system can exchange information with any asset manager that uses the OMM protocol.
n
For more information about OMM, see the Avid Web site at
http://www.avid.com/3rdparty/OMM.html.
Setting Up to Use OMM
You need to configure your Avid system before you can use OMM by
creating the following settings:
•
OMM settings
•
Import settings
•
Export settings
227
After you create these settings, you can import or export clips simply
by using the drag-and-drop method. If you are exporting clips, you
can also use the Export command from the File menu (see “Using
OMM and the Menu-Command Method to Export a Clip” on
page 322).
Your asset manager application might require additional setup. See
the documentation for the asset manager application.
OMM Settings
You must specify an asset management location to let
Media Composer or Film Composer know where your asset manager
site is located. You specify the asset manager in the OMM Settings dialog box, which you access from the Settings scroll list of the Project
window.
For complete information on using settings,
see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
If you have access to more than one asset manager, you can create and
name a setting for each location in the same way that you create other
duplicate settings (for example, see “Creating and Using Import Settings” on page 214).
To specify an asset management location:
1. Click the Settings button in the Project window.
The Settings scroll list appears.
2. Click OMM.
The OMM Settings dialog box appears.
228
3. Type the Universal Resource Locator (URL) location where the
preferred asset manager is located:
•
For networks:
http://assetmanagerlocation/hostinfo.xml
The network URL is case sensitive, so make sure you use the
correct location and type the information exactly as designated.
•
For local machines
file:///c:mydir/filename.xml
4. Select Login to Asset Manager at launch if you want to log in to
your asset manager when you open your project.
5. Click OK.
The asset manager location setting is created and marked as the
default.
6. To log in directly to the asset manager, click the OK and Login button.
c
When you select an OMM setting, the Avid system uses this location
for all OMM imports and exports. If you use the drag-and-drop
method to move a clip to a different OMM location, the exported
clip will go to the location specified in the OMM setting.
229
Import and Export Settings
You create import and export settings for OMM in the same way that
you create any import or export setting. See “Creating and Using
Import Settings” on page 214 and “Creating and Using Export Settings” on page 290.
You can create multiple
import and export settings and name them
whatever you want,
such as “OMM with
media.”
There are two options for OMM that you can select in the Import Settings or Export Settings dialog box:
•
Use Video Media
•
Use Audio Media
When you select either or both of these options, the video or audio
media file (media data objects) and the media information (metadata)
associated with the clip are both copied.
If you do not select these options, only the metadata for the clip is copied.
Using OMM to Import Clips
Using OMM to import clips allows you to copy or “check out” a clip
(with or without its associated media) from the asset manager application that you have chosen. At this time, you can import only master
clips. You cannot import an entire sequence.
To import clips, you need to use the drag-and-drop method to copy
files from the asset manager browser to a bin.
To import a clip by using OMM:
1. In the Settings scroll list of the Project window, click to select an
OMM setting and an import setting (see “Setting Up to Use
OMM” on page 227).
2. Open the Media Composer or Film Composer bin in which you
want to store the imported clip.
230
3. Start your browser and locate your asset manager or start the asset
manager client application on your local machine.
4. In the asset manager window, click the clip you want to import
and drag it to the bin.
The imported clip appears in the bin and you can edit it into your
sequence.
For instructions on using OMM to export clips, see “Using OMM to
Export Clips” on page 321.
Reimporting Files
If you are working with master clips or sequences that contain
imported material, you can use the Batch Import command to reimport the imported files. For example, you might want to:
c
•
Add imported graphics for a sequence you have redigitized for
finishing.
•
Upgrade the video resolution of the imported files to an online
resolution for distribution.
•
Replace low-quality material with high-quality material finished
with other applications, such as Avid Marquee™ and Avid
Media Illusion™.
•
Create new media files when the media files are lost or accidentally deleted.
Reimporting requires your original source file. Do not delete the
media files for imported files if the source files are no longer available, unless you will not need the material again.
The Batch Import command allows you to reimport the imported files
while automatically linking the new imported material with the original master clips and sequences. When you play your sequence after
231
reimporting the files, the new imported material plays in your
sequence.
When you reimport a media file, the entire media file, including all
tracks, is reimported. For example, if only the video track of an
imported file that contains both video and audio was edited into the
sequence, the reimport process will import both the video and audio
from the source file.
n
OMF files can contain only one master clip when you reimport them.
Batch Import Dialog Box
The Batch Import dialog box allows you to select a source file for each
master clip that you selected in a bin. The Avid system finds the source
file automatically if the source file is located in the same folder as the
last time you imported the file. The Batch Import dialog box (shown in
Figure 7-1) appears when you select a master clip or sequence and
choose Batch Import from the Clip menu.
232
Look in pop-up menu
File browser
File to import
Status line
Clip information
Import settings
Resolution pop-up menu
Media Drive pop-up menu
Figure 7-1
Batch Import Dialog Box
233
File Browser Section
The file browser portion of the Batch Import dialog box allows you to
search for the source file that you want to import for the current master clip shown in the Master Clip text box. You can use the Open button to open folders or to select a file for importing. The Cancel button
allows you to cancel the entire import operation. If you click the Cancel button, none of the source files are imported.
Status Line
The Status line in the middle of the Batch Import dialog box indicates
the status of the current importing process.
Clip Info Section
The Clip Info section provides information about the imported master
clips you selected in the bin.
•
Master Clip: Shows the name of the current master clip for the
source file you are importing.
•
Original Path: Displays the item listed in the Original Path text
box in the file browser.
•
Clip n of n: Indicates the number of the master clip that you are
currently processing in relation to the total number of selected
master clips.
The buttons in the Clip Info section help you step through the list of
master clips. They also start the reimport process.
These buttons do the following:
Click
To
Back Clip
Return to previous master clip.
Skip Clip
Bypass the current master clip.
234
Click
To
OK to Original Path
Select the source file listed in the Original Path text
box for import and start the import process.
OK to All
Start the import process by using the source files in
the default folder that was chosen for the previous
clip. If a default folder was not chosen, then the original folder of the first clip’s source file is used.
If a source file is not found, the Status line displays a
message that you need to select an import media file.
Import Options (All Clips) Section
The Import Options (All Clips) section of the Batch Import dialog box
are global settings that affect all of the files you are importing.
n
•
Use source compression for OMFI: When checked, the resolution
for OMFI file compressed with native resolution types (4:1s, 3:1,
1:1) is used. This allows for fast import of these files. When not
checked, the resolution selected in the Resolution pop-up menu is
used as the resolution for import. This option always overrides the
OMFI Resolution setting in the Import Settings dialog box.
•
Override clip settings with current settings: Allows you to
change the import settings for all imported files. By default, each
file will import using the import settings from the last time it was
imported.
If you change the import settings by using Import Options, the new settings
will apply to all of the files you are importing.
Select (All Clips) Section
The Select (All Clips) section of the Batch Import dialog box are global
settings that affect all of the files you are importing.
•
Media Drive pop-up menu: Allows you to choose a destination
disk for the media files.
235
•
Resolution pop-up menu: Allows you to choose a video resolution.
Using Decompose When Reimporting
The Decompose feature creates new master clips in the bin for each
clip in the sequence prior to reimporting. Decompose allows you to
create new master clips based only on the material you have edited
and included in your sequence, which saves system memory. Using
Decompose gives you greater control during the reimporting process.
You can use this procedure to sort clips in the bin, modify them, and
then reimport selected clips in the sequence.
To use Decompose:
1. Activate the bin that stores the sequence and select the sequence.
2. Choose Decompose from the Clip menu.
The Decompose dialog box appears.
3. If you want to preserve clips that already have existing media
files, select the option “Decompose only those items for which
236
media is currently unavailable.” Deselect this option if you plan to
decompose and reimport the entire sequence.
4. Select “Imported clips” to decompose clips made from imported
files.
5. Click OK. The new master clips appear in the bin. You can now
sort and select these clips like all other objects in the bin.
6. Proceed with the reimporting procedure described in “Starting
the Reimport Process” on page 237.
n
The Handle Length option affects only digitized clips, not imported clips.
Starting the Reimport Process
n
Before beginning the reimport process, consider mounting all removable
media drives that held the original graphics.
You can streamline the reimport process by copying all graphics files to a single folder on the internal hard drive before you import the files. Then import
the files from this folder so that all graphics point to the same original path.
To reimport imported files:
1. Open the bin and select the imported master clips or sequence that
you want to reimport.
2. Choose Batch Import from the Clip menu. A dialog box appears.
3. Select one of the following:
237
•
Offline only: Reimports only the selected imported master
clips that are missing their media files.
•
All clips: Reimports all the selected imported master clips; for
example, if you need to change the video resolution of the
imported master clips.
The Batch Import dialog box appears. See Figure 7-1.
4. Choose a destination drive for all the media files from the Media
Drive pop-up menu.
5. Choose a video resolution for all the reimported files from the
Resolution pop-up menu.
For information about
the Import Settings, see
Table 7-1 on page 216.
6. (Option) By default, the file will import using the import settings
from the last time it was imported. You can change the import settings for all clips being imported by doing the following:
a. Select the option “Override clip settings with current
settings.”
b. Click the Current Settings button to open the Import Settings
dialog box.
c. Select the appropriate options and rename the setting, if
desired.
d. Click OK to close the Import Settings dialog box and save
your changes.
n
If you want to check the current Import setting without modifying it, click
Current Settings, check the settings, and then click Cancel to exit the Import
Settings dialog box without making any changes.
7. (Option) Select the option “Use source compression for OMFI” to
import OMFI files with the resolution that was used to create the
file. Do not select this option if you want to use the resolution set
by the Resolution pop-up menu.
8. Begin the batch import process by doing one of the following:
•
Click OK to Original Path if the source files for the master
clips are located in the original folder.
238
•
Click OK to All if the source files for the master clips are
located in the current folder or in their original folder.
If a source file is not found, a message that you need to select an
import media file is displayed in the Status line. Do the following:
a. Choose a source file for the current master clip, using the file
browser. The Clip Info portion of the Batch Import dialog box
provides information about the current master clip you are
processing.
b. Click Open when the source file name displays in the File
name text box.
If a source file is found in multiple locations, the Choose Batch
Import file dialog box appears.
Choose the file path you want by clicking one of the following buttons:
Choose
To
Choose Default
Select the Default Path for the current file.
Choose Original
Select the Original Path for the current file.
Always Default
Select the Default Path for all the files.
Always Original
Select the Original Path for all the files.
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About Reimporting Matte-Key Effects
The Batch Import command allows you to reimport the source files for
matte-key effects while automatically linking the new imported material with the master clips and sequences. When you play your
sequence after reimporting the matte-key effect, the new imported
material plays in your sequence. You must render imported sequential
files with alpha channels before they will play back.
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CHAPTER 8
Generating Output
The Avid system provides tools for generating output for individual
tracks or entire sequences to various videotape or audiotape formats.
In addition, you can generate an edit decision list (EDL) for use in an
online suite and a cut list for creating film negatives. You can also use
VTR emulation for direct playback of sequences by using an edit controller in an analog editing suite. These options are described in the
following sections:
•
Preparing for Output
•
Using the Digital Cut Tool
•
Using EDL Manager
•
Using the Matchback Option
•
Using FilmScribe
•
VTR Play Emulation
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Preparing for Output
Preparing for video output involves the following procedures:
For more information
on mixing down audio
tracks, see the editing
guide or Help for your
Avid system.
•
Render all non-real-time effects in the sequence, as described in
the effects guide for your Avid system.
•
Establish a sync source for output, as described in “Establishing
Sync for Output” on page 242.
•
Calibrate and adjust video output levels, as described in “Calibrating for Video Output” on page 243.
•
Calibrate and adjust audio output levels, as described in “Preparing for Audio Output” on page 253.
•
Decide whether you want to generate stereo or mono audio.
•
Mix down multiple audio tracks, if necessary.
•
Prepare the record tapes, as described in “Preparing Record
Tapes” on page 258.
•
(Option) Record reference bars and tone to tape.
•
For 24p projects, choose from among multiple output formats, as
described in “Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects” on
page 274.
Establishing Sync for Output
Sync for output comes from the reference input (REF) when black
burst or house sync is connected to the Meridien I/O box. If there is no
reference connected to the reference input, output sync is generated
from internal timing.
c
If you are working in a facility that uses house sync or a black burst
generator to maintain accurate timing between various input and
output devices, you should connect the reference signal to the refer-
242
ence input (REF) on the Meridien I/O box before performing a digital cut. For more information, see the setup guide for your Avid
system.
Your Avid system supports longitudinal timecode (LTC) output. The
LTC OUT connector on the Meridien I/O box provides SMPTE or EBU
timecode that you can use as a sync source for decks with build-in synchronizers or to stripe a destination tape.
If you connect a reference input while the Avid application is running,
you can reestablish sync by doing one of the following:
•
Exit and then restart the Avid application.
•
Open the Digital Cut tool.
•
Enter and then leave Capture mode.
Calibrating for Video Output
c
Before you calibrate video output for an NTSC-EIAJ project (for
Japan), make sure the “NTSC Has Setup” option is not selected in
the General Settings dialog box.
You can calibrate for video output by using any of the following methods:
•
Calibrating for video output using the factory presets: You
should use the factory presets if you do not have an external
Waveform monitor, or your site engineers calibrate the system as a
general maintenance procedure. See “Using the Factory Preset
Buttons” on page 244.
•
Calibrating for video output: All users can follow the steps for
calibrating video output, as described in “Basic Video Output
Calibration” on page 244.
•
Calibrating/syncing output signals in a production facility:
Advanced users and house engineers should follow the steps for
243
adjusting and conforming output signals to house standards, as
described in “Advanced Video Output Calibration” on page 249.
Using the Factory Preset Buttons
The preset buttons on the Video Output tool show the status of each
Calibration setting as follows:
•
When you first open the Video Output tool the first time you run
the application, all preset buttons are lit (green), with the factory
presets loaded for each slider.
•
When you click a slider of a lit preset button, the button dims
(appears gray), and the slider returns to the most recent manual
level setting.
•
When you click an unlit preset button, it becomes lit (green), and
the slider moves to the factory preset level for that parameter.
As you adjust levels in the tool, you can switch the preset buttons
between the levels you set manually and the factory preset levels.
Basic Video Output Calibration
You can perform basic output calibration when working with a
standalone editing workstation or in a production environment that
does not require advanced calibration of horizontal phase or use of
test patterns according to specific house standards.
n
Calibrating video output requires external waveform and vectorscope monitors. If you do not have external waveform or vectorscope monitors, leave the
Video Output tool set to the preset values.
To calibrate for video output:
1. Choose Video Output Tool from the Tools menu.
The Video Output tool opens.
244
Settings pop-up menu
n
Up to three output signals are active at once: Composite output, Serial Digital, and either Component or S-Video. You can record your output to any of
these devices, or all at once if you record manually. For more information, see
the setup guide for your Avid system.
2. Select the output format and display the appropriate controls:
n
•
For Composite output, click the Controls button in the Out 1:
Composite pane.
•
For Component or S-Video output, select either the Component or the S-Video radio button as appropriate, then click the
Controls button in the Out 2 pane.
•
For Serial Digital output, click the Controls button in the
Out 3: Serial Digital pane.
The Video Output tool for systems equipped with the serial digital I/O board
for recording to a D1 or digital Betacam VTR does not display basic calibration controls. All basic levels remain in digital form and cannot be adjusted
from within the Avid application. For H-Phase adjustment of a Serial Digital
output signal, see “Advanced Video Output Calibration” on page 249.
The Video Output tool displays the appropriate parameters for the
chosen video format, as described in Table 8-1.
245
Table 8-1
Video Format Output Parameters
Parameter
Video Formats
Description
Black
All formats,
except Serial Digital
A measurement of luminance in the video signal
that is referenced to the blackest point in the visible
picture. Also known as setup or pedestal. Color
bars are used to set the black level.
Gain, Y-Gain
All formats,
except Serial Digital
A measurement of luma (Y) in the video signal that
is the whitest point in the visible picture. Color bars
are used to set the white level.
Hue
Composite and S-Video
(not available for PAL)
An attribution of color perception based on varying
proportions of red, green, and blue in the video signal. Also known as color phase.
Sat
Composite and S-Video
Saturation: a measurement of chrominance or the
intensity of color in the video signal.
RY Gain
Component
The red (R) minus luminance (Y) color-difference
signal of an analog component system in the SMPTE
NTSC video standard. The signal consists of the following base equation for red (R), green (G), and
blue (B) components:
R–Y=-0.587G – 0.114B + 0.701R
BY Gain
Component
The blue (B) minus luminance (Y) color-difference
signal of an analog component system in the SMPTE
NTSC video standard. The signal consists of the following base equation for red (R), green (G), and
blue (B) components:
B–Y=(–0.587G + 0.886B – 0.299R) * gain value
SC Phase
Composite and S-Video
Subcarrier phase: The color burst portion of a composite or S-Video signal used to synchronize the
timing of two or more video signals.
246
n
Sync for output comes from reference input (REF) on the Meridien I/O box. If
there is no reference signal connected to the reference input, output signals
are generated from internal timing. For more information, see “Establishing
Sync for Output” on page 242.
3. Display color bars for calibrating:
•
If you edited digital bars and tone into the sequence, go to the
head of the bars and tone and click Play.
•
You can use internal bars from the Video Output tool by clicking the Arrow button in the lower left corner of the tool and
choosing either SMPTE_Bars.pct (SMPTE standard bars) or
ColorBars.pct (full-field color bars) from the Test Patterns popup menu.
Bars are displayed on the Client monitor, and the signal appears
on the external waveform and vectorscope monitors.
n
The internal Waveform and Vectorscope monitors do not display output signals from the system.
4. Adjust luminance values based on Table 8-2.
247
Table 8-2
Luminance Settings for Video Output
Parameter/
Video Standard a
SMPTE Bars
Full-Field Bars at
75% Signal Level
Full-Field Bars at
100% Level
Black level (setup)
Adjust Black slider to
place black level at:
Adjust Black slider to
place black level at:
Adjust Black slider to
place black level at:
7.5 IRE
0.0 IRE
NAb
7.5 IRE
0.0 IRE
0.3 V
7.5 IRE
0.0 IRE
0.3 V
Adjust Gain/Y Gain
slider to place white
level at:
Adjust Gain/Y Gain
slider to place white
level at:
Adjust Gain/Y Gain
slider to place white
level at:
100 IRE
100 IRE
NAb
100 IRE
100 IRE
1.0 V
100 IRE
100 IRE
1.0 V
Video Standard:
NTSC
NTSC-EIAJ
PAL
White level (gain)
Video Standard:
NTSC
NTSC-EIAJ
PAL
a. Includes NTSC-EIAJ used in Japan
b. NA = Not applicable
5. Adjust the Hue and Sat slider (composite or S-Video output), or
the RY Gain and BY Gain sliders (component output) until the
angle and amplitude of the six color vectors fall within the target
boxes on the vectorscope.
n
If you do not have separate Vectorscope and Waveform monitors, you can
use the Client monitor’s “blue only” feature, if available, to adjust SC phase
output. For more information on this feature, see your monitor’s documentation.
6. Save this setting by choosing Save As from the Settings pop-up
menu, typing a name, and clicking OK.
248
n
Output settings are Site settings, available to all users and all projects on the
system.
Advanced Video Output Calibration
Advanced users and site engineers can use the following procedures
to fine-tune output signals by using various test patterns and phase
control. You can also adjust output by using the passthrough signal
from an input device.
Displaying Advanced Calibration Controls
To display additional controls in the Video Output tool, click the arrow
button in the lower left corner of the tool.
The additional options appear and the arrow button points down. To
return to the normal display, click the arrow again.
Displays
advanced
calibration
controls
Test Patterns pop-up menu
249
Using Test Patterns
The expanded Video Output tool provides a pop-up menu of test patterns you can use to calibrate the system output. To display a test pattern, click the Test Patterns pop-up menu and choose a pattern.
To add test patterns to the list:
1. Find or create a PICT file for a chosen pattern.
n
You can create your own test pattern files by digitizing the pattern from videotape and exporting it as a PICT file. You can improve the accuracy of the
image by correcting colors and removing errors in a third-party application
such as Adobe® Photoshop®.
2. Place the file in either the NTSC or PAL folder, which is located in
one of the following folders:
•
C:\Program Files\Avid\Media Composer\
SupportingFiles\Test_Patterns
•
C:\Program Files\Avid\Film Composer\
SupportingFiles\Test_Patterns
For best results, size your new test pattern as follows:
•
NTSC test patterns should be 248 lines high with the top 5
lines set to RGB values 16, 16, 16 (ITU-R black, formerly CCIR
black).
250
•
PAL test patterns should be 296 lines high with the top 8 lines
set to 16, 16, 16.
•
Both NTSC and PAL test patterns should be 720 pixels wide.
The new test pattern appears in the Test Patterns pop-up menu in the
Video Output tool.
Adjusting Phase Controls
The expanded Video Output tool provides controls for adjusting horizontal phase globally for output. Horizontal phase, or H phase, is the
horizontal blanking interval used to synchronize the timing of two or
more video signals. Hue (or SC-H phase) and SC Phase (subcarrier
phase) controls are also available for timing two or more signals based
on the color burst portion of a composite or S-Video signal.
In most situations, you do not need to calibrate the horizontal phase or
subcarrier phase of the output signal. If you are working in a production house in which timing is necessary between various devices —
such as switchers, decks, and monitors — use these controls to adjust
phase globally for all outputs from the Avid system.
Calibrating the System with Passthrough Signals
If you work in a production environment in which house standards
are used to synchronize a number of devices including the source
decks connected to your Avid system, you can calibrate the system one
time to conform to existing standards with the least amount of alteration of the signal. This method involves the use of a passthrough signal (a signal that gets sent directly from an input source through to the
output channels).
This advanced form of calibration is an alternative to Video Input tool
Calibration settings for each source tape, and involves calibrating
tapes at the source device, using external time-base correction. You
will need both a signal generator and external waveform and vectorscope monitors to calibrate the system with passthrough.
251
To calibrate using a passthrough signal:
1. Connect a source signal with a test pattern from a signal generator.
2. Choose Video Input Tool from the Tools menu.
The Video Input tool opens.
3. Choose a video format from the Input pop-up menu. The chosen
input provides the passthrough signal.
4. Calibrate the input if necessary by using the Video Input tool, as
described in “Calibrating Video Input” on page 149.
5. Save the input calibration settings as the system Default setting, as
described in “Saving Settings” on page 156.
6. Choose Video Output Tool from the Tools menu.
The Video Output tool opens.
7. Choose Digitize Tool from the Tools menu.
The Digitize tool opens. With the Digitize tool active, the input signal passes through to the output channels.
8. Choose an output format in the Video Output tool.
n
For more information
on using the Video Output tool, see “Basic
Video Output Calibration” on page 244.
You can precisely match only one output format at a time in phase to the
reference signal. In most cases, you should choose either Composite or Serial
Digital.
9. Calibrate any of the available controls in the Video Output tool
while checking the external waveform and vectorscope monitors.
For example, composite output provides Black, Gain, and Saturation controls.
10. Select a test pattern from the Video Output tool.
The test pattern appears and is sent to the output channels (the
input signal is no longer passed through). Additional controls are
enabled on the Video Output tool for phase control.
252
11. Make any necessary adjustments to H phase, SC phase, and Hue
by using the sliders on the Video Output tool while checking the
external waveform and vectorscope monitors.
n
Whenever the Digitize tool is active, hue, horizontal phase (H phase), and
subcarrier phase (SC phase) are set to values determined by the input circuitry and are not available to control the outputs. Therefore, these controls
appear dimmed during passthrough.
12. Save this setting with an appropriate name by choosing Save As
from the Settings pop-up menu in the Video Output tool, typing a
name, and clicking OK.
The Video Output setting, a Site setting, will apply to all users and all
projects on the system. The Video Input setting you saved and named
Default will be recalled each time a new tape is loaded for digitizing in
the current project only.
Preparing for Audio Output
The Audio tool allows you to generate and customize calibration tone,
and to adjust global output levels. For information on additional audio
mix procedures such as adjusting volume and pan or mixing down
selected tracks, see the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
The Avid system supports direct output of up to eight channels of
audio, depending upon your system’s configuration.
For eight-channel audio output, you can reassign output channels
from tracks in a sequence or clip to any of the eight optional output
channels. For more information, see “Adjusting Output on EightChannel Audio Systems” on page 256.
You can also calibrate the output channels of the eight-channel audio
I/O device. See “Calibrating Output Channels for the Audio I/O
Device” on page 145.
253
c
Eight-channel audio output requires the appropriate hardware configuration. For more information, see the setup guide for your Avid
system.
Setting the Calibration Tone
The Audio tool provides an internal calibration tone that you can customize and play as a reference signal on a digital cut. You can use the
recorded reference signal for calibrating the digital cut audio at
another site.
The default tone playback is –14 dB (digital scale) with a 1000-Hz signal. In some cases, you might need to customize the signal. For example, a common reference signal convention for audio work involves
recording 30-second segments of 1-kHz, 10-kHz, and 100-Hz tone back
to back.
To change the parameters for the calibration tone:
1. Choose Audio Tool from the Tools menu. The tool opens.
2. Choose Set Calibration Tone from the Peak Hold (PH) pop-up
menu.
254
The Calibration Tone Parameters dialog box appears.
3. Enter new values for the tone level and frequency, and click OK.
To play back the tone, choose Play Calibration Tone from the Peak
Hold pop-up menu. To check the adjusted tone level in the meters,
make sure the In/Out toggle buttons are switched to O for Output.
Calibrating Global Output Levels
You can use the meters and a master attenuator (output control slider)
in the Audio tool to make global level adjustments for output from the
Avid system. These adjustments affect levels for all output tracks to
both the speakers and to record devices.
c
You should leave this setting at the factory preset of 0 dB. Adjust the
level only when necessary to raise or lower the overall volume based
on the headroom parameters of the record format, or consistently
overmodulated or undermodulated source material.
255
Adjusting Output on Eight-Channel Audio Systems
To adjust global output on a system equipped with an eight-channel
audio I/O device:
1. Choose Audio Tool from the Tools menu.
2. Click the Output Control button (the speaker icon) to display the
master attenuator (slider).
Setup Control button
Output Control button
Peak Hold
pop-up menu
Output Options
pop-up menu
Track number
displays
Setup Options panel
In/Out toggle
buttons
Reset Peak
button
Output Control slider
(Master attenuator)
Channel
assignments
Stereo
Mix Tracks
pop-up menu
3. Click the Setup Control button to open the Setup options panel.
4. Choose a type of output from the Output Options pop-up menu.
•
Choose Stereo Mix to mix the currently monitored audio
tracks into a stereo pair.
•
Choose Mono to pan all the currently monitored tracks to
center.
256
•
Choose Direct Out to map tracks directly to up to eight channels of output (depending on your hardware configuration).
5. (Option) Depending on your type of output, you can make additional adjustments:
•
By default, Stereo Mix directs the mixed tracks to output channels 1 and 2.
•
By default, Direct Out maps all audio tracks in numerical
sequence to existing output channels. You can remap a track to
any channel by clicking the channel assignment display and
choosing another channel.
•
You can select Ignore Volume or Ignore EQ to disable the customized pan, volume, or equalization effects you applied with
the audio tools.
6. Click the In/Out toggle buttons above the meters to display O for
Output.
7. Play back one of the following sources of reference audio:
•
Choose Play Calibration Tone from the Peak Hold pop-up
menu.
•
Play back a representative sequence or clip containing audio.
8. Watch the levels in the meters, and adjust the master attenuator to
the level that you want.
n
To adjust levels for individual tracks, you must use the Audio Mix tool.
9. Close the Audio tool.
257
Preparing Record Tapes
There are two basic methods of recording to tape: frame-accurate
recording by using the Digital Cut tool, and manual recording by
using controls on the record deck. Each of these methods requires different treatment of the record tapes.
Frame-Accurate Recording
Frame-accurate recording involves using the Digital Cut tool to record
your sequence onto either a prestriped tape (a tape with prerecorded
control track and timecode) or a partially striped tape.
Before you can record a frame-accurate digital cut, you must prepare
the record tapes in advance by using one of the following options:
n
•
If you intend to perform assemble-edit recording, you must record
black with timecode onto the tape including the necessary preroll
prior to the IN point plus at least 10 seconds (partially striped
tape).
•
If you intend to perform insert-edit recording, you must stripe the
record tapes (record black and timecode for the entire duration of
the tape) in advance (prestriped tape).
The Avid system supports longitudinal timecode (LTC) output for recording
onto tapes.
Manual Recording
You can use the Digital
Cut tool with local control of the record deck.
For more information,
see “Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Local
Mode)” on page 272.
Manual recording (sometimes referred to as crash recording) involves
bypassing deck control in the Avid application and using manual
operation of the record deck. Because the timing of playback is based
on manual procedures, the recording is not frame accurate. However,
you do not need to record timecode onto the tape in advance. You can
also record onto non-Avid-controlled decks, such as consumer grade
VHS or Hi8.
258
To record manually:
1. Set the serial control switch on the record deck to Local.
2. Use the controls on the deck to start the videotape recording.
3. Play the sequence in your Avid system.
Recording Bars and Tone
You can also record a portion of bars and tone onto the tape before
recording a digital cut. There are two methods of recording bars and
tone to tape:
•
If your recording must be frame accurate, consider adding a segment of digital bars and tone to the front of your sequence, or prepare it as a separate sequence that you can record by using the
Digital Cut tool. For more information, see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
•
If your recording does not need to be frame accurate, you can
manually record direct output of bars and tone from your Avid
system.
To manually record bars and tone:
1. Open the Video Output tool and the Audio tool by choosing them
from the Tools menu.
2. Choose a color bars pattern from the Test Patterns pop-up menu in
the Video Output tool.
3. Choose Play Calibration Tone from the Peak Hold pop-up menu in
the Audio tool.
4. Set the record deck to Local for manual recording.
5. Record the bars and tone as either an insert or assemble edit
according to the operation of your record deck and chosen
method. Your deck must have edit feature to perform this step.
To create your own tone media, see “Creating Tone Media” on
page 141.
259
Enabling Assemble-Edit Recording
Insert editing is the default setting for the Digital Cut tool. You can
also use Assemble-Edit settings in the Avid application, along with the
assemble-editing capabilities of your record deck, to quickly record
frame-accurate digital cuts without striping entire tapes in advance.
c
To avoid accidentally breaking timecode on prestriped tapes during
digital cut recording, enable assemble editing only when in use, and
disable it during normal insert edit recording.
To enable assemble editing:
1. Double-click Deck Preferences in the Settings scroll list of the
Project window to open the Deck Preferences dialog box.
Assemble-editing
option
2. Select the option “Allow assemble edit for digital cut.”
3. Click OK.
Once assemble editing is enabled, you select additional options in the
Digital Cut tool when you are ready to record, as described in the section, “Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Remote Mode)” on page 268.
260
These switches are often
located below the
machine’s playback
control buttons. For
more information, see
your record device’s
manual.
In addition, make sure the record deck has the following settings:
•
The free run/rec (record) run switch should be set to record run.
•
The Ext (external)/Int (internal) sync switch should be set to
internal.
•
The switch for internal timecode should be set to Regen (regenerate) or Slave Lock, not Preset.
•
After you record 15 to 30 seconds of timecode onto the record tape
for jam syncing, return the Local/Remote switch to Remote for
deck control from within the Avid application.
Using the Digital Cut Tool
The Digital Cut tool provides controls when you record a sequence to
tape. The Digital Cut tool has the following operating modes:
•
Remote mode allows you to control the record deck by using the
deck controller in the Digital Cut tool. This mode provides frameaccurate control when you record a sequence to tape. See “Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Remote Mode)” on page 268.
•
Local mode allows you to manually control the record deck by
using the controls on the deck. This mode is useful when you need
to use non-Avid-controlled decks, such as consumer-grade VHS or
Hi8. Local mode also allows you to preview the output of a digital
cut before recording it to tape. “Recording a Digital Cut to Tape
(Local Mode)” on page 272.
You can manually record a digital cut including countdown, but
the recording will not be frame accurate. For more information,
see “Preparing Record Tapes” on page 258.
n
Sync for output comes from reference input (REF) on the Meridien I/O box. If
there is no reference signal connected to the reference input, output signals
are generated from internal timing. For more information, see “Establishing
Sync for Output” on page 242.
261
The Digital Cut tool provides several options for you to manage the
recording of your sequence. For example, you can:
•
Record by using either assemble or insert edits.
•
Record a selected portion of the sequence or selected tracks.
•
Record an entire sequence.
•
Record according to different timecode parameters.
•
Select the sequence video and audio tracks to record
(Sequence Track buttons).
•
Select the tracks to record to on the tape (Enable
Track button – Remote mode only).
•
Add black at the end of a digital cut.
If your Avid system includes support for 24p projects, the Digital Cut
tool displays a section where you can choose your output format and
title format. For more information, see “Choosing Output Formats for
24p Projects” on page 274. If your system includes support for 24p
projects, and you are working on a video project, the output formats
appear dimmed.
The Digital Cut tool includes its own deck controls for:
•
Cueing a record deck from the Digital Cut tool
(Remote mode only).
•
Cueing the tape and adding an IN point. This capability applies
when you choose Mark In Time from the pop-up menu in the deck
control area (Remote mode only).
The Mark Out button does not appear in the deck controller section of
the Digital Cut tool because it has no effect on digital cuts. Also, the
Mark Out and Duration text fields are read-only. You cannot alter
them.
n
Depending on the system configuration, you might need to use the deck controls in the Digitize tool to review a digital cut.
262
Sequence Track buttons
Play Digital Cut button
Enable Track buttons
Halt Digital Cut button
Deck
control
area
Output
formats
area
(Systems
with 24p
support
only)
Deck controls
Deck Selection pop-up menu
Timecode text boxes
Selecting a Deck
The Deck Selection pop-up menu in the Digital Cut tool contains a list
of all decks that were connected to the system, powered up, and initialized when you opened the Digital Cut tool. For information about
configuring decks, see “Configuring Decks” on page 100.
263
The Deck Selection pop-up menu also lists three commands:
•
Adjust Deck opens the Deck Settings dialog box. Changes you
make apply to the selected deck.
•
Auto-configure allows you to automatically configure the selected
deck.
•
Check Decks helps to reestablish deck control if the power on your
decks was off or the decks were disconnected when you opened
the Digital Cut tool.
Previewing a Digital Cut
You can manually
record a digital cut
including countdown,
but the recording will
not be frame accurate.
For more information,
see “Preparing Record
Tapes” on page 258.
You can preview a digital cut before recording it to tape to make sure
your preparations and output settings are correct, or for screening purposes.
To preview a digital cut:
1. Choose Digital Cut from the Output menu.
The Digital Cut tool opens.
2. Select Local in the deck control option area.
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Sequence Track buttons
Play Digital Cut button
Halt Digital Cut button
Deck
control
area
Output
formats
area
(Systems
with 24p
support
only)
Deck controls
Deck Selection pop-up menu
Timecode text boxes
3. (Option) Select the With Countdown option to preview the digital
cut using a countdown. The default countdown is a
computer-generated countdown containing the Avid logo.
4. (Option) Select Custom Screen for counting down by using a customized countdown screen that you create, as described in “Creating a Custom Countdown Display” on page 266.
5. Choose a deck from the Deck Selection pop-up menu. See “Selecting a Deck” on page 263.
265
6. Select the audio tracks and topmost video track that you want represented in the digital cut preview by using the Sequence Track
buttons. The display of tracks in the Digital Cut tool varies according to the tracks existing in the sequence.
7. Click the Play Digital Cut button.
The system plays a preview of the digital cut in the Record
monitor and the Client monitor.
8. To stop the preview at any time, click the Halt Digital Cut button
or press the space bar.
Creating a Custom Countdown Display
The Custom Screen option allows you to change the font (type style),
size, and color of the countdown numbers. You can also import your
own graphic file as a background (PICT format only).
To create a custom countdown:
1. Choose Digital Cut from the Output menu.
The Digital Cut tool opens.
2. Select Local in the Deck Control option area.
3. Select both the With Countdown and the Custom Screen options.
4. Click the Choose button.
266
The Custom Countdown dialog box appears.
Font
Font Size
Font Color
5. (Option) Choose another font, font size, or font color from the
pop-up menus.
n
The menus display all currently available fonts, as determined by the contents
of the Fonts folder in the Windows NT Control Panel. For information on
adding fonts to your system, see your Microsoft Windows NT Help.
6. Click the Import button to import an available graphic file to use
as a custom background. The Open dialog box appears.
7. Locate a graphic file to serve as the new background image.
8. Select the graphic file and click Open.
9. Click OK. The custom countdown screen is ready.
n
The best resolution for imported PICT files is 720 x 486 for NTSC and
720 x 576 for PAL. The resolution cannot be changed after importing.
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Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Remote Mode)
Recording in remote mode allows you to control your record deck by
using the deck controller in the Digital Cut tool. This mode provides
frame-accurate control when you record a sequence to tape.
To record a digital cut to tape:
1. Load a sequence into the Record monitor. (You cannot access digital cut options without a sequence loaded.)
2. Choose Digital Cut from the Output menu.
The Digital Cut tool opens.
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Sequence Track buttons
Play Digital Cut button
Enable Track buttons
Halt Digital Cut button
Deck
control
area
(remote)
Output
formats
area
(Systems
with 24p
support
only)
Deck controls
Deck Selection pop-up menu
Timecode text boxes
3. Select or deselect the Entire Sequence option based upon the following:
•
Select the Entire Sequence option if you want the system to
ignore any IN or OUT points and play the entire sequence
from start to finish.
•
Deselect the Entire Sequence option if you have established an
IN point, an OUT point, or both for recording a portion of the
sequence.
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4. (Option) Select the Add Black at Tail option and enter a timecode
to add black at the end of the digital cut.
5. Choose a deck from the Deck Selection pop-up menu. See “Selecting a Deck” on page 263.
6. Select Remote in the deck control option area.
7. Choose either Insert Edit or Assemble Edit from the pop-up menu.
This menu only appears if you enabled assemble editing in the
Deck Preferences settings. For more information about this option,
see “Enabling Assemble-Edit Recording” on page 260.
8. Select an option from the pop-up menu in the deck control option
area to indicate where to start recording on the tape.
You can change the start
timecode to match the
record tape by using the
Clip Info command. For
more information, see
the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
•
Select Sequence Time to start the recording at a timecode existing on tape that matches the start timecode of the sequence. If
you intend to record several sequences to tape one after
another, this option requires resetting the start timecode on
each sequence to match appropriate IN points on the tape.
•
Select Record Deck Time to ignore the timecode of the
sequence and start the recording wherever the record deck is
currently cued.
•
Select Mark In Time to ignore the sequence timecode. Establish a specific IN point on the record tape by cueing and marking with the deck controls.
Timecode text box
9. (Option) Select the Custom Preroll option and choose the number
of seconds from the pop-up menu to indicate how many seconds
the tape rolls before the digital cut starts. This option overrides the
Preroll setting in the Deck Settings dialog box.
10. Select the audio and video tracks that you want represented in the
digital cut by using the Sequence Track buttons. The display of
tracks in the Digital Cut tool varies according to the tracks existing
in the sequence.
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11. Select the video and audio tracks to record to on the tape by using
the Enable Track buttons.
12. For 24p projects, choose an output format and title format, as
described in “Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects” on
page 274 and “Choosing Title Formats” on page 278.
c
Make sure you have connected the correct deck and black burst generator for the output format you have chosen (PAL or NTSC).
13. Click the Play Digital Cut button.
The system cues the record deck, then plays and records the
sequence. The playback appears in the Record monitor and the
Client monitor.
n
Depending on the system configuration, you might need to use the deck controls in the Digitize tool to review a digital cut.
14. To stop the recording at any time, press the space bar or click the
Halt Digital Cut button.
n
n
After assemble-edit recording, a freeze frame is usually added after the OUT
point for 1 second or more, depending upon the record deck model. This provides several frames of overlap for the next IN point before control track and
timecode break up.
If you see degraded image quality on your digital cut (particularly visible as
noise during black), deselect the “Poll deck during digital cut” option in the
Deck Preferences dialog box, which you access from the Settings scroll list.
Then record the digital cut again. With the option deselected, the timecode
display in the deck controller will not update for the duration of the digital
cut.
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Recording a Digital Cut to Tape (Local Mode)
You can record to tape
without using the Digital Cut tool. For more
information, see “Manual Recording” on
page 258.
Recording in local mode allows you to manually control your record
deck by using the controls on the deck. This mode is useful when you
need to use non-Avid-controlled decks, such as consumer-grade VHS
or Hi8.
To record a digital cut to tape by using the deck controls on the deck:
1. Load a sequence into the Record monitor. (You cannot access digital cut options without a sequence loaded.)
2. Choose Digital Cut from the Output menu.
The Digital Cut tool opens.
3. Select or deselect the Entire Sequence option based upon the
following:
•
Select the Entire Sequence option if you want the system to
ignore any IN or OUT points and play the entire sequence
from start to finish.
•
Deselect the Entire Sequence option if you have established IN
points, OUT points, or both for recording a portion of the
sequence.
4. (Option) Select the Add Black at Tail option and enter a timecode
to add black at the end of the digital cut.
5. Choose a deck from the Deck Selection pop-up menu. See “Selecting a Deck” on page 263.
6. Select Local in the deck control option area.
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Sequence Track buttons
Play Digital Cut button
Halt Digital Cut button
Deck
control
area
(local)
Output
formats
area
(Systems
with 24p
support
only)
Deck
controller
(disabled)
7. (Option) Select the With Countdown option to record the digital
cut using a countdown. The default countdown is a
computer-generated countdown containing the Avid logo.
8. (Option) Select Custom Screen for counting down by using a customized countdown screen that you create, as described in “Creating a Custom Countdown Display” on page 266.
9. Select the audio and video tracks that you want represented in the
digital cut from the Sequence Track buttons. The display of tracks
in the Digital Cut tool varies according to the tracks existing in the
sequence.
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10. For 24p projects, choose an output format, as described in “Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects” on page 274.
c
Make sure you have connected the correct deck and black burst generator for the format you have chosen (PAL or NTSC).
11. Press the Record button on the deck.
12. Click the Play Digital Cut button.
The deck plays and records the digital cut. The playback appears
in the Record monitor and the Client monitor.
n
Depending on the system configuration, you might need to use the deck controls in the Digitize tool to review a digital cut.
13. To stop the recording at any time, press the Stop button on the
deck.
n
If you see degraded image quality on your digital cut (particularly visible as
noise during black), deselect the “Poll deck during digital cut” option in the
Deck Preferences dialog box, which you access from the Settings scroll list.
Then record the digital cut again. With the option deselected, the timecode
display in the deck controller will not update for the duration of the digital
cut.
Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects
When you are working in a 24p project, you can output multiple formats for NTSC video, PAL video, and audio, all from the same 24p
media. You choose the formats you want from the Output Format popup menu in the Digital Cut tool. This menu appears only in systems
that support 24p.
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Output Format
pop-up menu
To output a particular format, choose a play rate from the Output Format pop-up menu. A brief description of each output format is displayed in the Digital Cut tool. More extensive descriptions are
provided in Table 8-3.
The play rate you choose determines how the digital cut is recorded.
For example, if you choose 23.976, you tell the Avid system to slow
down the play rate to match that used during an NTSC telecine transfer. Then, when the system records the digital cut, it adds the pulldown frames and re-creates a telecine transfer to an NTSC videotape.
For more information
on film-to-tape transfers, see Chapter 2.
For NTSC output, the Avid system automatically sets the pulldown if
necessary and turns on an indicator on the Meridien I/O box.
275
Table 8-3
Digital Cut
Tool Menu
Choice
(Playback
Speed)
24p Project Output Options
Target Project or System
Pulldown
Output Format and
Indicator on Recording Media
Meridien I/O
Box
23.976 (NTSC) NTSC TV; video screenings;
On (0.99)
digital audio workstations
(DAWs) that support pulldown
Picture and sound to NTSC
tape; sound to video-referenced audiotape
24 (NTSC)
Audio for film projection;
DAWs (video for
reference only)
Off (1.00)
Picture and sound to NTSC
tape; sound to DAT or mag tape
29.97 (NTSC)
Animation projects; negative
cutting with lockbox; some
kinescope printing
On (0.99)
Picture and sound to NTSC
tape (sound for reference only)
24 (PAL)
Audio for film projection;
DAWs (video for
reference only)
Off (1.00)
Picture and sound to PAL tape;
sound to DAT or mag tape
25 (PAL)
PAL TV; video screenings
Off (1.00)
Picture and sound to PAL tape;
sound to DAT or mag tape
The following information describes what happens when you choose
each of these options
•
23.976 (NTSC): Plays back the sequence at 23.976 fps (video rate).
This playback rate tells the Avid system to replicate a telecine
transfer with perfect 2:3 pulldown. The system adds frames and
slows the playback speed to create a digital cut to 29.97 fps. Use
this option for NTSC video output, such as broadcast masters.
•
24 (NTSC): Plays back the sequence at 24 fps (film rate). This playback rate tells the system to record audio at the film rate. If the system records video, it maintains sync by adding pulldown fields
and dropping every 1000th frame. This video should be used for
276
reference only. Use this setting for direct audio output to be used
in sync with film projection. Also use this setting when audio
media files are being used in a digital audio workstation (DAW)
and you need a digital cut for picture reference.
Before you output the digital cut, check the DAT TC Format in the
Film Settings dialog box to make sure the correct DAT timecode is
set, based on the timecode rate of the recording device. If you
choose SMPTE 29.97, the sequence duration displayed in the Deck
pane of the Digital Cut tool will be slightly shorter than the duration shown in the Timeline. This shorter duration occurs because
the video play rate is sped up in comparison with the audio timecode rate. If you choose SMPTE 30.00, the sequence duration in the
Digital Cut tool will match the sequence duration in the Timeline.
•
29.97 (NTSC): Plays back the sequence at 29.97 fps. This playback
rate tells the system to speed up the playback speed without adding pulldown fields. As a result, the sequence plays 25 percent
faster. Use this option for animations and tape-to-film transfers
where the pulldown needs to be removed to have an exact frameto-frame relationship between the film and video.
•
24 (PAL): Plays back the sequence at 24 fps. This playback rate
tells the system to record audio at the film rate. Video, when output to tape, can be used only for reference because, to maintain
sync, the system replicates a pulldown telecine transfer with one
extra pulldown field occurring every 12th and 24th frame. Use this
option when audio media files are being used for film projection
(PAL Method 2) or in a DAW and you need a digital cut for picture
reference.
•
25 (PAL): Plays back the sequence at 25 fps. This playback rate
tells the system to speed up the sequence by 4.1 percent, creating a
frame-to-frame relationship between film and video (PAL
Method 1). There are no pulldown frames with this digital cut setting. Use this option for PAL video output, such as a broadcast
master.
277
Choosing Title Formats
If your system supports 24p projects, the Title tool allows you to save a
title in any of four different formats: 4:3 NTSC, 4:3 PAL, 16:9 NTSC,
16:9 PAL. You can create titles in different formats in 24p,25i, and 30i
projects. If you have created different title formats, the Digital Cut tool
allows you to select the appropriate format for the sequence you are
recording:
•
4:3: Select this aspect ratio for standard NTSC or PAL broadcast
masters
•
16:9: Select this aspect ratio for wide-screen NTSC or PAL broadcast masters
To create a master with an aspect ratio different from the native aspect
ratio (for example, to create a 4:3 master from 16:9 footage), you must
use the Pan and Scan effect or a film mask. For more information about
the Title tool, pan and scan, and film masks, see the effects guide for
your Avid system.
Performing an Insert Edit with Pulldown
If you are working in an NTSC 24p project, and you need to insert a
segment into a sequence that has already been cut to tape, the Avid
system automatically adjusts the insert edit to maintain the correct
pulldown.
To perform an insert edit with pulldown:
1. Use IN and OUT points to mark the segment you want to insert.
2. Choose Digital Cut from the Output menu.
The Digital Cut tool opens.
3. Deselect the Entire Sequence option.
4. Select Remote in the deck control option area.
278
5. Choose Sequence Time to start the recording at a timecode existing
on tape that matches the start timecode of the sequence.
6. Choose Insert Edit from the pop-up menu. This menu only
appears if you enabled assemble editing in the Deck Preferences
settings. For more information about this option, see “Enabling
Assemble-Edit Recording” on page 260.
7. Choose a deck from the Deck Selection pop-up menu. See “Selecting a Deck” on page 263.
8. Select the video tracks that you want represented in the digital cut
by using the Sequence Track buttons. The display of tracks in the
Digital Cut tool varies according to the tracks existing in the
sequence.
9. Select the video track to record to on the tape by using the Enable
Track buttons.
10. Choose 23.976 (NTSC) and either 4:3 or 16:9 from the Output
Options area.
11. Click the Play Digital Cut button.
The system cues the record deck, then plays and records the insert
edit. The Avid system automatically adds the correct pulldown
fields.
12. To stop the recording at any time, press the space bar or click the
Halt Digital Cut button.
Digital Cuts and Audio
You can use one of several tape formats and methods for audio output,
but the following are most common:
•
Record a digital cut directly to videotape by using analog output.
•
Record a digital cut directly to DAT or DA-88 by using digital output.
279
•
n
Play the sequence to an audiotape recorder by using analog output.
You cannot control some analog audio decks from the Digital Cut tool. If the
deck does not have a serial control port, you need to select Local when you
record the digital cut.
Your output choice in the Digital Cut tool automatically sets the pulldown switch (see “Choosing Output Formats for 24p Projects” on
page 274).
If you perform an audio-only digital cut, the Avid system plays the
video tracks in the Client monitor to ensure the most accurate audio
sync. A message appears at the bottom of the Digital Cut Tool window.
For information about connecting a deck, see the setup guide for your
Avid system.
Changing the Default Pulldown Frame
For more information
on film-to-tape transfers, see Chapter 2.
During a digital cut to 30-fps NTSC videotape, the Avid system
defaults to an A-frame pulldown conversion. If you are appending
sequences to the same output tape on which continuous pulldown is
required, you might need to change the default pullin to a B frame. A
digital cut can begin only on field one of an A or B frame.
For example, if one cut ends on an A frame, then before performing
the digital cut of the next sequence, change the pullin for the next
sequence to the B frame. You can determine the frame that ends a
sequence by checking the Pullout column in the bin that holds the
sequence.
280
If your sequence ends on a B or C frame, edit the sequence to end on
an A or D frame to create a continuous 2:3 pulldown.
To change the pullin:
1. Open the bin that holds the sequence.
2. Check if the Pullin column appears. If not, follow these steps:
a. Choose Headings from the Bin Fast menu.
b. Ctrl+click Pullin.
3. Type A or B in the Pullin column.
•
Pullin A: The first frame of the sequence plays back as two
fields, the second frame as three fields, the third as two, and so
on.
•
Pullin B: The first frame of the sequence plays back as three
fields, the second frame as two fields, the third as three, and so
on.
Now you can perform a digital cut to append the new sequence.
Using EDL Manager
An EDL (edit decision list) is a detailed list of the edits contained in a
sequence, including all the timecode and supported effects information required to re-create the sequence in an online videotape suite.
The EDL is organized into a series of chronological instructions called
events, which are interpreted by an edit controller that automates the
assembly of the videotape master.
Your Avid system includes EDL Manager, an application with powerful features and sorting capabilities to help you prepare an EDL.
To start EDL Manager, choose EDL from the Output menu.
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For more information on specific features and capabilities of EDL
Manager, see the Avid EDL Manager User’s Guide or the EDL Manager
Help.
Using the Matchback Option
The Matchback option on an Avid system, along with the Avid
FilmScribe application, allows you to generate a film cut list from a 30fps or 25-fps video project that uses film as the source material. This
video-to-film conversion is useful in a variety of matchback circumstances, including the following:
•
Use the Matchback option to generate both a videotape master for
the project along with a final cut on film.
•
Use the Matchback option to generate pull lists for retransferring
selects at high quality before online editing.
Matchback supports 16mm, 35mm 3-perf, and 35mm 4-perf formats.
n
Your system might not include the Matchback option. If you would like to
purchase the Matchback option, contact your Avid sales representative.
If you plan to use matchback, you must select the Matchback option
when you first create the project. See the editing guide or Help for
your Avid system.
n
Editors working in a film matchback project for the first time should pay extra
attention to duplicate material in the final edited piece. Use Dupe Detection
in the Timeline and verify any dupes flagged when delivering a cut negative.
How Matchback Works
The matchback process refers to the video edit information for your
sequence and performs a conversion to create a matching 24-fps cut
list.
282
Because of the difference in frame rates between video and film (30 fps
or 25 fps for video versus 24 fps for film), the conversion of video edit
points might fall within a film frame, requiring the addition or subtraction of a frame in that edit event in the resulting cut list.
For example, with a ratio of 24 film frames to 30 video frames, a 7frame video edit corresponds to approximately 5.6 film frames. However, film cuts cannot include partial frames, so the edit must be
rounded to 5 or 6 frames.
NTSC
video
Shot X
Shot Y
Shot Z
The matching film edit point
falls within a frame.
.................................................................................................................................
Film
.................................................................................................................................
To make these adjustments, the following occurs during matchback:
•
If the total video-sequence duration at the end of each cut is a
frame longer than the film, then the system subtracts a frame from
the last video edit. If the video is a frame too short, a frame is
added to the last video edit.
•
Where an essential frame was added or subtracted to the beginning or end of each edit, the system adds matchback information
to the cut list stating that matchback shortened or lengthened the
tail of the clip by one frame. The assistant editor or negative cutter
can use this information to check the edit.
•
Each track in the sequence must be corrected independently
because the start and end points for split edits are different for
each track. As a result, the picture and audio for a matchback
video edit might be out of sync by no more than one frame.
283
Matchback Limitations
Matchback is subject to the following limitations:
•
The Matchback option uses key numbers to conform the negative.
Therefore, you must have key-number information entered into
the bins for the project.
•
You can generate cut lists, but not change lists in a matchback
project.
•
The matchback information applies to the picture only. You must
generate a separate list (an EDL, for instance) for conforming the
audio source tapes.
•
Be sure to remove unwanted match frames (add edits) from your
sequence before generating the cut list. Otherwise, the calculation
of matchback frames will include these edits. For more information, see the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
Using FilmScribe
The FilmScribe application provides tools for creating frame-accurate
cut lists and change lists from 24p and matchback projects. You can
use these lists to conform a work print, a film negative, audio tracks, or
videotape transfers.
To start FilmScribe, choose FilmScribe from the Output menu.
For information on how to use FilmScribe, see the Avid FilmScribe
User’s Guide or the FilmScribe Help.
n
Your system might not include the FilmScribe application. If you would like
to purchase FilmScribe, contact your Avid sales representative.
284
VTR Play Emulation
VTR play emulation allows you to control a sequence loaded in the
Record monitor from an edit controller for playback in the edit room
along with other sources.
n
n
To use VTR play emulation, you must connect a supported controller (any
controller that uses Sony serial control protocol) to the system by using a special Avid 9-pin VTR emulation cable and a serial adapter. For information
about the cable connection, see the setup guide for your Avid system.
To avoid timeout errors when using VTR play emulation, you need to install
a serial driver from the Media Composer or Film Composer installation CD.
Perform a Custom installation and select only Serial Driver. For more information, see the release notes for your Avid system.
Double-click VTR Emulation in the Settings scroll list in the Project
window to open the VTR Emulation dialog box. Table 8-4 describes
the VTR Emulation Settings options.
Table 8-4
VTR Emulation Settings Options
Option
Description
Device Code
Select the device code that identifies the VTR that the system will emulate. The edit controller adjusts to this choice. The default value is a Sony
PVW 2800, which performs all the common play and record functions.
You do not need to change the device code value unless your edit controller does not recognize the VTR emulator, or you want to emulate a
specific VTR.
Runup (frames)
Specify the time (measured in frames) it takes the deck to start playing
from a cued position. The default value is five frames.
When the run-up times of two video devices are similar, it is easier for
the edit controller to synchronize the devices during preroll. If your
Avid VTR emulator does not sync up as often as you would like, try
adjusting this value so that the two devices attain full speed at nearly the
same time.
285
Table 8-4
VTR Emulation Settings Options (Continued)
Option
Description
Inhibit preloading when
cueing by single frame.
Do not inhibit preloading under normal circumstances.
Preloading occurs by default in the Avid system. It improves playback
performance by preparing the digital media for playback each time you
cue a new frame.
This option causes the system to match the behavior of a tape deck when
you step through footage frame by frame. It is recommended only for
projects that require quick cueing of one frame after another — for
example, when you are using the system to present a sequence of still
images as in a slide presentation.
With a controller properly connected, enable VTR play emulation as
follows:
1. Choose Serial (COM) Ports from the Tools menu.
The Serial (COM) Ports tool opens.
2. Select the appropriate port from the VTR Emulation pop-up
menu.
3. Close the Serial (COM) Ports tool. The system saves the setting as
a Site setting, effective for all projects.
4. Choose VTR Emulation from the Special menu when you are
ready to use the system for playback.
A check mark appears next to the command to indicate that the
system is ready. A yellow outline appears around the Play button
in the Record monitor to indicate that VTR emulation is active.
286
n
The VTR Emulation command behaves like a Local/Remote switch on a playback device, with VTR play emulation disabled (in Local mode) by default
when you start the system.
Once active, VTR play emulation allows you to control the sequence
with an edit controller as follows:
•
You can shuttle, step (jog), play, cue, and mark edit points based
on master sequence timecode for editing onto another master.
Mark points will appear in the Timeline only if the controller
sends that information to the Avid system.
•
Your control of the Avid system is for play only. For example, you
cannot arm tracks or send record commands to the Avid system
itself.
•
Smooth audio scrub is enabled by default, emulating analog audio
scrub on a VTR.
287
CHAPTER 9
Exporting and Exchanging
Material
You can export and exchange material with another system, another
application, or another platform. Your Avid video-based editing system provides tools for exporting clips and sequences in various formats, or for transferring projects and media between systems.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
About Exporting Files
•
Creating and Using Export Settings
•
Preparing to Export a Sequence
•
Exporting Frames, Clips, or Sequences
•
Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Export Frames, Clips, and
Sequences
•
About OMF Interchange
•
Using OMM to Export Clips
•
About the Avid QuickTime and AVI Codecs
•
Using the Avid QuickTime Codec
288
•
Using the Avid AVI Codec
•
Transferring a Project Between Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) Systems
About Exporting Files
You can export material directly from your Avid system to many supported file types. You can export an individual frame, a selected region
of footage, or an entire clip or sequence.
There are several reasons why you might want to export video, audio,
or both from the Avid system:
n
•
You can export audio files for audio sweetening in a digital audio
workstation (DAW), such as a Pro Tools system.
•
You can export video files for touching up or creating special
effects in third-party applications or other Avid applications.
•
You can export files compatible with CD-ROM for use in
multimedia projects.
•
You can use the export process to convert audio media files from
one supported audio format to another. Your Avid system supports AIFF-C and WAVE formats.
•
You can export files to be viewed as a AVI or QuickTime movie.
If you plan to transfer the exported files to another Avid system or third-party
application, see the appropriate section in this chapter or the Avid Products
Collaboration Guide.
The following sections describe general procedures for preparing to
export a sequence and for exporting frames, clips, and sequences.
289
Creating and Using Export Settings
You can streamline the export process by selecting a setting before
beginning the export. Use the Settings scroll list to select a preset template or customize one of your own. For example, if you are exporting
an OMFI composition with AIFF-C media to AudioVision, select the
setting labeled “AudioVision AIFF-C Embedded.” For information on
each of the templates, see the Avid Products Collaboration Guide.
Selecting a setting is especially useful when you use the drag-anddrop method to export multiple files directly from a bin. For information on the drag-and-drop method, see “Using the Drag-and-Drop
Method to Export Frames, Clips, and Sequences” on page 318.
For information on
using the Settings scroll
list, see the editing
guide or Help for your
Avid system.
The default Export setting, the preset templates, and any additional
Export settings you create appear in the Settings scroll list. After you
select a setting in the Settings scroll list, the parameters remain the
default settings for all exported files, unless you change them during
the export. This is especially useful when you batch export a number
of files directly from a bin at the same time.
To create a new Export setting:
1. Click the Settings button in the Project window.
The Settings scroll list appears.
2. Click Export.
3. Choose Duplicate from the Edit menu.
4. Name the setting by clicking the custom name column (in between
the setting name and the setting type identifier), typing a name,
and pressing Enter.
5. Adjust the options for the setting as described in the following
procedure.
290
To adjust the parameters in an Export Settings dialog box:
1. Double-click an Export setting in the Settings scroll list of the
Project window.
The Export Settings dialog box appears. The following illustration
shows the default settings.
n
The name of a custom Export setting or template Export setting appears in
place of (Untitled).
2. Select the appropriate file type and options based on the descriptions in Table 9-1.
291
Table 9-1
Option
Suboption
Export Settings Dialog Box Options
Description
Avid Log
Exchange
Select this option to export the selected bin as a shot log file that
complies with Avid Log Exchange (ALE) specifications. For
information about Avid Log Exchange, see “Converting Log
Files with Avid Log Exchange” on page 54.
Tab Delimited
Select this option to export the selected bin as a shot log file in the
form of a tab-delimited ASCII text file.
OMFI
Composition
Select this option to export a standard OMFI composition for
transfer to a third-party workstation that supports OMFI. The
export is Composition only, unless you select Use Video Media,
Use Audio Media, or both.
Version 1.0
Select this option if the application to which you are exporting
does not support OMF Version 2.0.
Version 2.0
Select this option if the application to which you are exporting
supports OMF Version 2.0. If you are not sure, select 1.0.
Use Video Media
Select this option to include (embed) video media in the OMFI
composition, for example, if you plan to add video or film effects
in an OMFI-compatible application.
Use Audio Media Select this option to embed audio media (AIFF-C or WAVE files)
in the OMFI composition. Use this option if you plan to enhance
audio in an OMFI-compatible application such as a digital audio
workstation (DAW).
• AIFF-C: Select this option to export audio tracks in the industry-standard AIFF-C format, which is compatible with many
third-party sound editing and multimedia applications. Note
that the Avid system does not compress audio media. AIFF-C
media is embedded in the OMFI file
• WAVE: Select this option to export audio tracks in the WAVE
format (.WAV file name extension) for audio files. Nearly all
Windows® and Windows NT applications that support
sound use WAVE files. QuickTime 3.0 also supports the
WAVE format. WAVE media is embedded in the OMFI file.
292
Table 9-1
Option
Export Settings Dialog Box Options (Continued)
Suboption
Description
AudioVision
Compatibility
Select this option to translate the video composition for transfer
to AudioVision.
OMM Clip
Select this option to use OMM to copy a clip or clips to an asset
manager (see “Using OMM to Export Clips” on page 321). If
you do not select one of the following options, OMM exports
only information about the clip.
Use Video Media
When this option is selected, the system transfers the information
about the clip and the actual media object of the video clip.
Use Audio Media When this option is selected, the system transfers the information
about the clip and the actual media object of the audio clip.
AVI
QuickTime
Video and Audio
Select this option if you want to export an entire clip or sequence
as an AVI file through the Avid AVI codec or other compression
tool. For more information, see “Using the Avid AVI Codec” on
page 335.
Video Only
Select this option if you want to add effects in a third-party application or use only the video in a multimedia project.
Audio Only
Select this option if you want to use or enhance audio in a thirdparty application or use only the audio in a multimedia project.
Video and Audio
Select this option if you want to export an entire clip or sequence
as a QuickTime file, for example, in a multimedia project. For
more information, see “Using the Avid QuickTime Codec” on
page 324.
Video Only
Select this option if you want to add effects in a third-party application or use only the video in a multimedia project.
Audio Only
Select this option if you want to use or enhance audio in a thirdparty application or use only the audio in a multimedia project.
293
Table 9-1
Export Settings Dialog Box Options (Continued)
Option
Suboption
Description
Sound
AIFF-C
Select this option to export audio tracks in the industry-standard
AIFF-C format, which is compatible with many third-party
sound editing and multimedia applications. Note that your Avid
system does not compress audio media.
WAVE
Select this option to export audio tracks in the WAVE format
(.WAV file name extension). Nearly all Windows and
Windows NT applications that support sound use WAVE files.
QuickTime 3.0 also supports the WAVE format.
Graphic file type
Select this option to export a single frame, a series of frames, or a
file type that supports multiple frames as a graphic file. Choose a
file type from the pop-up menu. For information about supported file types, see Appendix A.
Graphic
Options button
Click this button to open an Export Options dialog box for refining export options. For information on Export Settings options,
see “Export Options Settings” on page 297.
Additional options for the clip or sequence are listed in the lower
third region of the dialog box. The following screen shows an
example of a clip selected for export as a PICT file.
294
Current export
options set in the
Export Options
dialog box
3. If you want to change any of the additional options, click the
Options button in the Export Settings dialog box.
An Export Options dialog box appears. The export file type determines which options appear in the dialog box and the dialog box’s
name. The following screen shows the options for a clip selected
for export as a PICT file.
295
These options
do not appear
in 24p projects.
4. Select the options you want in the dialog box.
Some file types include additional settings. To view or adjust these
settings:
a. Click the Options button (for graphics files) or the Compression Settings button (for AVI or QuickTime files) in the lower
left corner of the dialog box. These buttons appear dimmed if
no additional options are available.
b. Select the options you want. For information on all options,
see “Export Options Settings” on page 297 or click the dialog
box and press the F1 key.
c. Click OK to return to the previous dialog box.
d. Click OK to return to the Export Settings dialog box.
296
5. When all options are listed correctly in the Export Settings dialog
box, click OK.
You can now choose this setting whenever you export a frame, clip, or
sequence. For more information, see “Exporting Frames, Clips, or
Sequences” on page 315 and “Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to
Export Frames, Clips, and Sequences” on page 318.
Export Options Settings
Additional options are available from the Export Settings dialog box.
The available options depend on your choice in the Export Settings
dialog box. There are four Export option dialog boxes: AVI, QuickTime
Options, Sound Options, and Graphic Options. The AVI Options,
QuickTime Options, and Graphic Options dialog boxes provide option
buttons that allow you to access more option settings. “Video Compression Options” on page 301 and “Additional Export Options Settings” on page 307.
Table 9-2 describes all the Export Options settings. The options you
see depend on your choice in the Export Settings dialog box: AVI,
QuickTime, Sound, or Graphic.
Table 9-2
Option
Suboption
Export Options Settings
Description
Use Marks
When this option is selected, the system uses current IN
and OUT points in the selected clip or sequence to determine starting and ending frames for the export. To
export the entire clip or sequence, deselect this option.
Use Enabled Tracks
When this option is selected, the system exports only the
currently enabled tracks for a selected sequence or clip.
To export all tracks in the sequence, deselect this option.
297
Table 9-2
Option
Export Options Settings (Continued)
Suboption
Description
Use Both Fields
When this option is selected, the system combines both
video fields to produce higher resolution. Select this
option if you are exporting any of the two-field resolutions (20:1, 10:1, 3:1, 2:1, or 1:1). This option is not available in 24p projects.
Field Dominance
This pop-up menu appears when Use Both Fields is
selected. It allows you to choose the field dominance
during export. The default value of this setting matches
the project default format. For more information, see
“Two-Field Media Files and Field Dominance” on
page 367. This menu is not available in 24p projects.
Destination Size
Even Field
This option selects even-field processing during export.
The first line in the image belongs to the even field.
Odd Field
This option selects odd-field processing during export.
The first line in the image belongs to the odd field.
720 x 486 (NTSC)
720 x 576 (PAL)
Full-screen, non-square-pixel dimensions according to
ITU-R 601 (CCIR-601) video standards. Use these dimensions, for example, when treating video footage in a
third-party application before reimporting into the Avid
system.
720 x 540
Matching square-pixel dimensions for the full-screen
non-square-pixel dimensions used by the Avid system.
160 x 120 (NTSC)
320 x 240 (NTSC)
640 x 480 (NTSC)
192 x 144 (PAL)
384 x 288 (PAL)
768 x 576 (PAL)
Quarter-screen, half-screen, and full-screen square-pixel
dimensions based on a normal RGB computer display.
Use these dimensions, for example, to generate
movies for a multimedia project.
n
The Destination Size option is selected automatically
when you choose an Avid AVI codec video resolution.
298
Table 9-2
Export Options Settings (Continued)
Option
Suboption
Description
Color Levels
RGB Graphics levels
When this option is selected, the system exports the file
with levels calibrated for RGB computer environments.
Choose this option for most graphics file types if the destination is a third-party computer graphics application.
ITU-R 601 Video levels When this option is selected, the system exports the file
with video levels calibrated according to the ITU-R 601
(CCIR-601) standard for display in professional video
environments. Choose this option, for example, if the file
will eventually be displayed on a video monitor or
returned to the Avid system after treatment.
FPS
This option sets the frames per second (fps) rate for AVI
5, 10, 15, 29.97, 30
6,12, 24, 30 (24p project) export.
item appears only when you choose Export from
n This
the File menu, select AVI, and click Options.
Sequential Files
None
This option produces a series of still images, numbered
sequentially. The fps rate of the source file determines
the number of still image files produced.
Audio Output
Mono
When this option is selected, the system mixes all tracks
down to track 1 on export.
Stereo
When this option is selected, the system mixes all evennumbered tracks to track 2 and all odd-numbered tracks
to track 1.
Audio Sample Rate Native Rate
The native rate of the chosen audio media (44.1 kHz or
48 kHz).
22.050 kHz
Half the sample rate of 44.1-kHz media.
11.025 kHz
One-quarter the sample rate of 44.1-kHz media.
299
Table 9-2
Export Options Settings (Continued)
Option
Suboption
Description
Audio Sample Size
8 bits
When this option is selected, the system exports an 8-bit
audio sample size for use in third-party systems that do
not support 16 bits. This option is also used to minimize
the data throughput requirements (for example, to
improve playback in multimedia projects).
16 bits
When this option is selected, the system exports a 16-bit
audio sample size (currently the industry-standard bit
rate for audio).
Create Movie
Preview
Creates a QuickTime poster (a still image preview frame)
for your movie. This option slows the export process.
Use Source
Compression
When this option is selected, the Avid AVI or QuickTime
codec is used to maintain the original compression of the
clip.
Compression
Settings
This button appears when Use Source Compression is
not selected. Click this button to open the Compression
Settings dialog box. See Table 9-3 on page 301 and
Table 9-4 on page 306.
Options
This button appears when the chosen graphic format has
additional parameters you can modify. See Table 9-5 on
page 308.
300
Video Compression Options
The Compression Settings button appears in the Export Settings dialog
box when the Use Source Compression option is deselected. Click the
Compression Settings button to open the Video Compression dialog
box.
n
Because the Avid AVI and Avid QuickTime codecs use the resolution of your
original source files, selecting another resolution requires conversion of the
media and slows down the export process considerably. Maintain the resolution of the source media whenever possible.
QuickTime Compression Options
Options for QuickTime compression settings are described in
Table 9-3.
Table 9-3
Option
Suboption
Compressor
QuickTime Compression Options
Description
The compressor suboptions are QuickTime codecs. The
exported file is in QuickTime format.
Animation
For high-quality, lossless compression (in which no picture
information is lost).
Uses a run-length encoding scheme to encode each pixel,
resulting in a file that is 70 to 95 percent the size of the
uncompressed file.
At the maximum quality, this is lossless compression (in
which no picture information is lost). See the description of
the Quality slider option later in this table.
301
Table 9-3
Option
QuickTime Compression Options (Continued)
Suboption
Description
Avid QuickTime
For quick export of high-resolution files. Maintains the resolution of the digitized media.
Encapsulates media files, making them readable by
QuickTime applications that are also equipped with the
codec. For more information, see “About the Avid QuickTime and AVI Codecs” on page 324.
Exporting with the Avid QuickTime codec does not cause
any loss in quality because the codec maintains the identical media data. However, the quality cannot be better than
the original resolution of the digitized media.
BMP
For internal encoding of individual frames as BMP
(Windows native bit map format) files.
Cinepak
For export at low resolution for use in contexts where high
quality is not an issue, such as presentations or educational
uses, or for small-screen-size playback from CD-ROM or
hard drive.
Uses compression algorithm optimized for CD-ROM playback.
Component Video
For high-quality, lossless compression (in which no picture
information is lost).
Uses the same algorithm as the Animation method but
saves the file in YUV RLE format, which separates the luminance from the chrominance. All QuickTime applications
can read this format, but only some can write to this format.
DV-NTSC
DV-PAL
For storing original or edited DV (digital video) footage in
QuickTime files.
Graphics
For export at low resolution where high quality is not an
issue, such as presentations or educational uses, or for
small-screen playback from CD-ROM or hard drive.
Uses a limited color palette version (16 colors) of Animation
compression.
302
Table 9-3
Option
QuickTime Compression Options (Continued)
Suboption
Description
H.263
For video conferencing. Optimized for low data rates and
low motion.
Intel Indeo Video 4.4
For export at low resolution where high quality is not an
issue, such as presentations or educational uses, or for
small-screen-size playback from CD-ROM or hard drive.
Files do not export at 720 x 540 and 720 x 486 frame sizes,
even though these sizes are listed.
Motion JPEG A
For medium-quality, lossy compression (in which some picture information is lost) requiring much storage space and
additional hardware support for real-time playback.
Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) is a variant of the ISO JPEG specification for use in digital video. Considered the standard for
Motion JPEG, format A is supported by chips from Zoran
Corporation and C-Cubed, Inc.
Motion JPEG B
For medium-quality, lossy compression (in which some picture information is lost) requiring much storage space and
additional hardware support for real-time playback.
Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) is a variant of the ISO JPEG specification for use in digital video. Format B cannot use the
markers that ISO JPEG and format A do; supported by
chips from LSI Logic Corporation.
None
For high-quality, lossless compression (in which no picture
information is lost). Does not compress the file; results in
very large files.
303
Table 9-3
Option
QuickTime Compression Options (Continued)
Suboption
Description
Photo-JPEG
For medium-quality, lossy compression (in which some picture information is lost) requiring moderate storage space
and data throughput on playback.
Uses the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) algorithm for image compression; results in files that are 20 to
30 percent the size of the uncompressed files. Some data is
lost during compression, and the export process takes
longer to complete (typically six times longer than the
Animation compression, for example).
Planar RGB
For high-quality, lossless compression (in which no picture
information is lost). Results in large files.
Encodes each image plane separately, using a run-length
encoding scheme. Used primarily to support Photoshop
files, which are usually stored using a planar run-length
algorithm.
Sorensen Video
For medium-quality, lossy compression (in which some picture information is lost) at a low data rate and low storage
requirements. This codec is particularly suited for Web or
CD-ROM delivery.
Video
For export at low resolution for use in contexts where high
quality is not an issue, such as presentations or educational
uses, or for small-screen-size playback from CD-ROM or
hard drive.
Uses the standard Macintosh compression, which takes less
time to compress but does not play back as effectively as
Cinepak.
304
Table 9-3
Option
Suboption
Colors
QuickTime Compression Options (Continued)
Description
Choose the colors that you want included in the exported
file. The selections vary according to the codec you choose.
Some codecs have only one color setting.
Do not select the option Millions of Colors +. This option
creates an alpha channel that is not used for export from the
Avid system. If you use the Avid QuickTime codec with
other applications that support alpha channels, you can
choose the Millions of Colors + option to create an alpha
channel that can be imported into the Avid system.
Quality
Click the option and drag this slider to adjust the image
quality for the exported file. The selections vary according
to the codec you choose. Some codecs have only one Quality setting.
If you selected the Avid QuickTime codec, a dialog box
appears, allowing you to choose a resolution.
Motion
Frames per second
Compression
Quality
Choose a frame rate from the pop-up menu. Choose 30 to
maintain full-motion video/animation. A frame rate of
29.97 conforms to NTSC video frame-rate standards.
Use this slider to adjust the quality of the compressed
image. This option is not available for uncompressed files.
Key frame every x
frames
Use this option to have the system use keyframes as a reference for subsequent frames. Enter a numeric value to specify the frequency of the keyframes. This option is not
available for the Avid QuickTime codec or for uncompressed files.
Limit data rate to x
K/Second
Use this option to set a specific data rate for the compressed
file, in kilobytes per second. This option is not available for
the Avid QuickTime codec or for uncompressed files.
305
AVI Compression Options
Options for AVI compression settings are described in Table 9-4.
Table 9-4
AVI Compression Options
Option
Suboption
Description
Compressor
Microsoft Video 1
You can use this option when creating files that will play
with Video for Windows®.
Click Configure to open the Microsoft Video 1 Configuration dialog box. You can then adjust the quality of the compressed file using the temporal quality rate slider.
Cinepak Codec by
Radius
For export at low resolution for use in contexts where high
quality is not an issue, such as presentations or educational
uses, or for small-screen-size playback from CD-ROM or
hard drive.
This codec uses a compression algorithm optimized for CDROM playback.
Click Configure to open the Cinepak for Windows 32 dialog
box. You can then choose to compress to color or to black
and white.
306
Table 9-4
Option
AVI Compression Options
Suboption
Description
Avid AVI Codec
For export of AVI files to Avid AVI-compatible applications
also equipped with this codec.
Click Configure to open the Avid AVI Codec dialog box.
You can then enable the codec and choose a compression
ratio. When you are exporting from the Avid system,
always select the “Source has ITU-R 601 Color Levels”
option.
Full Frames
(Uncompressed)
For high-quality export in which no picture information is
lost. This option does not compress the file and can result in
very large files. To export an uncompressed file at 1:1, use
the Avid AVI codec.
Key Frame
Every x frames
Use this option to have the system use keyframes as a reference for subsequent frames. Enter a numeric value to specify the frequency of the keyframes. This option is not
available for the Avid AVI codec or for uncompressed files.
Data Rate x
KB/sec
Use this option to set a specific data rate for the compressed
file, in kilobytes per second. This option is not available for
the Avid AVI codec or for uncompressed files.
Additional Export Options Settings
Dialog boxes for additional Export Options settings appear when you
choose one of the listed file types and click the Options button.
When you are working in these dialog boxes, you can click Default to
return the settings to their default values. Table 9-5 describes the additional Export Options settings.
307
Table 9-5
Additional Export Options Settings
File Type
Dialog Box
Option
Description
BMP Parameters
Windows
This option creates files that are compatible with systems
running the Microsoft Windows operating system.
OS/2®
This option creates files that are compatible with systems
running the IBM OS/2 operating system.
Blackpoint
This option allows you to adjust a film exposure value that
corresponds to filming a 2% black card. Values can be
between 0 and 1022. The default value of 0 is adequate for
most uses.
Whitepoint
This option allows you to adjust a film exposure value that
corresponds to filming a 90% white card. Values can be
between 1 and 1023.
Cineon™ Parameters
If the files came from and will be transferred back to a
Cineon system, use a whitepoint of 1023. The default value
of 685 is appropriate if the final destination is something
other than a Cineon system — for example, to a video
display.
Gamma
This option specifies an adjustment to correct for any
gamma inconsistencies in the output display. Values can be
between 0.01 and 100.0.
Use a value of 1.0 (the default) for images displayed on a
PC monitor. Use a value of 0.59 for a Silicon Graphics® or
Macintosh monitor.
Use a value of 0.45 for ITU-R 601 (CCIR-601) video.
ERIMovie Parameters
Pack 24 bits
This option controls whether the image data is packed into
24-bit color depth (compressed) or saved as 32-bit (raw).
JPEG Parameters
Quality
This option controls the output file size and quality. Higher
values produce better images but larger file sizes. Conversely, lower values reduce the image quality but result in
smaller file sizes.
308
Table 9-5
File Type
Dialog Box
Additional Export Options Settings (Continued)
Option
Description
Baseline
Only for applications that require this option for JPEG files.
Consult the documentation that came with your
JPEG-supported applications to see if this option is
required. This option is selected by default.
Progressive
This option allows you to save progressive JPEG files,
which divide the file into a series of scans of the image that
increase in quality. Each scan progressively improves the
recognizability of the image.
Progressive JPEG files can be recognized only by applications with progressive JPEG support, such as some Web
browsers.
NTSC/PAL
These buttons appear when you select a compression ratio
that allows you to select either NTSC or PAL. When you
select an option, the system displays the required image
size and the default frame rate.
OMF® Parameters
Compression
This option controls the compression ratio and, therefore,
the size of the file. You can choose from all the compression
ratio options used by the Avid system when digitizing. For
more information on Avid compression ratios, see “Compression and Resolutions” on page 370.
Photoshop
Parameters
Compression
This option controls the size of the file on disk. Disabling
compression creates larger files on disk.
PICT
Create
MacBinary
header
This option creates a file with a MacBinary header.
MacBinary is a file format for representing all the information in a Macintosh file in one binary file. It is a compact file
format, useful for storing a Macintosh file on a nonMacintosh system for later retrieval. Use a file expander
utility to decode a MacBinary file once it is back on a
Macintosh system.
309
Table 9-5
Additional Export Options Settings (Continued)
File Type
Dialog Box
Option
Description
PNG Parameters
Color Depth
The 8 bits option saves 8-bit files. The 16 bits option saves
16-bit files. The Automatic option saves the image in the
same depth as the original loaded image.
Interlaced
This option allows you to save the file for progressive display, similar to progressive JPEG files. As the file is transmitted, the recognizability of the image improves.
Interlaced PNG files can be recognized only by applications
with interlaced PNG support, such as some Web browsers.
SGI Parameters
Color Depth
The 8 bits option saves 8-bit files. The 16 bits option saves
16-bit files. The Automatic option saves the image in the
same depth as the original loaded image.
TARGA Parameters
Color Depth
This setting controls how images are saved. The 5-bit option
saves data in TARGA® 16 format. The 8-bit option saves
data in TARGA 24/32 format.
Compression
This setting controls the size of the file on disk. Disabling
compression creates larger files on disk.
Color Depth
The 8 bits option saves 8-bit files. The 16 bits option saves
16-bit files. The Automatic option saves the image in the
same depth as the original loaded image.
Compression
This setting controls the size of the file on disk. With None,
image data is not compressed and can produce large file
sizes. RLE (Run Length Encoded) produces relatively small
and fairly portable files. JPEG produces files that can vary
in size, depending on the quality you have set using the
JPEG quality slider. The higher the quality setting, the
larger the file size.
JPEG Quality
This option adjusts the image quality of the JPEG file on a
sliding scale from 0 to 100. The higher the number you set,
the higher the image quality of the JPEG file.
TIFF Parameters
310
Table 9-5
Additional Export Options Settings (Continued)
File Type
Dialog Box
Option
Description
Wavefront™
Parameters
Format Type
This option specifies one of two output file formats supported by Wavefront (either RLA or RLB).
Color Depth
The 8 bits option saves 8-bit files. The 16 bits option saves
16-bit files. The Automatic option saves the image in the
same depth as the original loaded image.
Gamma
This option specifies an adjustment to correct for gamma
differences between Macintosh and Windows PC output
display. This option is intended for cross-platform applications that require adjustment.
the documentation that came with your Waven Check
front application to see if you need to adjust this
value. Usually, you can use the default setting.
YUV Parameters
Format
This option controls the video format of saved images. If set
to NTSC, NTSC video format (720 x 486) is used. If set to
PAL, PAL video format (720 x 576) is used. Images are
either padded with black or cropped.
Smooth YUV
This option enhances the fidelity of images saved in YUV
color space (if originating in RGB color space).
Preparing to Export a Sequence
If you are exporting part or all of a sequence — to create an AVI or a
QuickTime file (through a codec), ERIMovie, Sequenced PICT, or
OMFI file, for example — you can speed the export process by preparing the sequence in advance, as follows:
•
Make sure all media for the sequence is online. For more information about selecting offline items in a bin, see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
311
For more information
on rendering, see the
effects guide for your
Avid system.
•
If you want to archive the source sequence before making any
alterations, duplicate the sequence, place the duplicate in another
bin, and prepare the duplicate for export. The original sequence
will be unaffected.
•
Consider rendering all effects in advance. Although any unrendered effects are rendered on export (except for an OMFI export),
rendering effects in advance saves you time during the export process.
•
Always render fast-saved titles before using OMFI to export a
sequence, or before creating an EDL from the sequence. In addition, make sure all rolling titles are rendered before using OMFI to
export a sequence.
•
If your sequence contains numerous video tracks, consider mixing
down the tracks in advance for faster export, unless you need to
preserve the multiple track information. For more information, see
“Mixing Down Video Tracks” on page 313.
•
If your sequence contains numerous audio tracks with various
audio effects and level adjustments, consider mixing down the
tracks for faster export, unless you need to preserve the information. For more information about mixing down audio tracks, see
the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
•
Check and adjust all pan and audio levels in advance. All current
Pan and Level settings in the sequence are carried to the exported
media. For more information on performing an audio mixdown,
see the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
•
For OMFI files, consider consolidating the sequence to create
smaller source clips, thereby saving time and disk space. For more
information on consolidating media in the editing guide or Help
for your Avid system.
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•
•
OMFI files with very complex sequences can fail during import
into some applications due to memory limitations. Try one of the
following solutions:
-
Break the sequence into smaller sequences and export the new
sequences.
-
Add more physical memory.
To export multiple clips in a single OMFI file, create a sequence
from them. For example, you can select all the clips and Alt+drag
them into the Record monitor to create an instant sequence, then
export it.
Mixing Down Video Tracks
Video mixdown allows you to combine several tracks into a single
new master clip. This is convenient for building multilayered effects,
for consolidating media, and for export and exchange.
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When you mix down video tracks, you cannot separate them again to
work on the tracks individually. All source timecode references are
also lost, and thus the source video cannot be referenced when creating an EDL or when redigitizing. Use this function only during the
last stages of editing when you no longer need to make changes, or
to make a copy for previewing.
To perform a video mixdown:
1. Choose Compression from the Tools menu.
The Compression Tool window opens.
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2. Choose a video resolution for the mixdown from the Resolution
pop-up menu.
3. Make sure the Video Track monitor is in the topmost track that
you want to mix down.
Video mixdown works from the monitored track down, regardless
of track selection.
4. Mark an IN and OUT point around the area to be mixed down.
5. Choose Video Mixdown from the Special menu.
The Video Mixdown dialog box appears.
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6. Choose a target drive for storing the new master clip and click OK.
A progress indicator appears, indicating the progress of the video
mixdown. When the mixdown is completed, a new clip appears in
the bin along with the sequence, and a new media file is created on
the target drive.
Exporting Frames, Clips, or Sequences
For information on
using the drag-anddrop method, see
“Using the Drag-andDrop Method to Export
Frames, Clips, and
Sequences” on
page 318.
To export frames, clips, or sequences:
1. Select the material you want to export in one of the following
ways:
•
To export specific tracks in a clip or sequence, enable those
tracks in the Track Selector panel, and disable all others. Make
sure Use Enabled Tracks is checked in the Export Options dialog box. You can set this option before the export. See “Creating and Using Export Settings” on page 290, or during the
export, go to step 4.
•
To export a single frame, mark an IN point to export the
marked frame from a bin or a monitor, or put the position
indicator on the frame you want to export. Make sure Use
Marks is checked and Sequential Files is not checked in the
Export Options dialog box.
•
To export part of a clip or sequence, mark IN and OUT points
to export the marked range from a bin or a monitor. If you
mark an IN point and no OUT point, the system exports from
the IN point to the end of the clip or sequence. Make sure Use
Marks is checked in the Export Options dialog box.
•
To export the entire clip or sequence, deselect the options
Use Enabled Tracks and Use Marks in the Export Options dialog box, and make sure the topmost track is monitored.
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n
When you export to an OMFI file, you do not need to select both the sequence
and its source clips. Select only the sequence to export all the necessary information, including reference clips.
2. Select a clip or sequence in one of two ways:
•
Click the monitor that displays the clip or sequence you want
to export.
•
Click the clip or sequence in a bin. Ctrl+click to select multiple
clips or sequences.
3. Choose Export from the File menu.
The Export dialog box appears.
4. Choose a setting from the Export pop-up menu. This setting determines the format of the exported file. The default setting is labeled
Untitled. If you have created an Export setting, choose it from the
menu. See “Creating and Using Export Settings” on page 290.
To create a new setting:
a. Click Customize. The Export Settings dialog box appears.
b. Choose the options that you want.
c. Rename the setting in the text box at the top of the dialog box.
d. Click OK to save the setting.
n
If you want to check the current Export setting without modifying it, click
Customize, check the selections, and then click Cancel to close the Export
Settings dialog box without making any changes.
5. Click OK.
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The Export As dialog box appears with a default file name in the
File name text box, based on the file type.
6. (Option) Change the file name. In most cases, keep the default file
name extension.
7. Select the destination folder for the file, and click Save.
The file is exported and appears at the chosen destination.
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The Avid system allows a maximum exported file size of 2 GB. If
you exceed this limit, the file is unusable and an error message is
displayed.
If a power failure or mishap occurs during the export process, the
entire file is unusable. You need to repeat the export process. The
only exception is a sequential file sequence, where all frames up to
the point of failure are usable.
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Using the Drag-and-Drop Method to Export Frames,
Clips, and Sequences
To export a frame, clip, or sequence by using the drag-and-drop
method:
1. Select the material you want to export in one of the following
ways:
n
n
•
To export specific tracks in a clip or sequence, enable those
tracks in the Track Selector panel, and disable all others. Make
sure the Use Enabled Tracks option is checked in the Export
Options dialog box. See step 2.
•
To export a single frame, mark an IN point to export the
marked frame from a bin or a monitor, or move the position
indicator to the frame you want to export. Make sure Use
Marks is checked in the Export Options dialog box.
•
To export part of a clip or sequence, mark IN and OUT points
to export the marked range from a bin or a monitor. If you
mark an IN point and no OUT point, the system exports from
the IN point to the end of the clip or sequence. Make sure Use
Marks is checked in the Export Options dialog box.
•
To export the entire clip or sequence, deselect the options
Use Enabled Tracks and Use Marks in the Export Options dialog box, and make sure the topmost track is monitored.
You cannot use the drag-and-drop method to export ALE, tab-delimited, or
sequential files.
When you export to an OMFI file, you do not need to select both the sequence
and its source clips. Select only the sequence to export all the necessary information, including reference clips.
2. In the Settings scroll list of the Project window, select the setting
you want to use for export. To view or modify the parameters,
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double-click the setting. For information on modifying options,
see “Creating and Using Export Settings” on page 290.
3. Export the frame, clip, or sequence in one of the following ways:
•
Drag either the Create Subclip icon or Create Subsequence
icon, located above the Source and Record monitors, to the
location (folder or drive) where you want to store the exported
file.
Subsequence icon
Subclip icon
•
In a bin, drag the clip or sequence you want to export to the
location (folder or drive) where you want to store the file. To
select multiple objects, Ctrl+click the objects and drag the
objects to the new location.
About OMF Interchange
OMF Interchange® (OMFI) is a platform-independent file format that
stores both the digital media (video, audio, graphics, animation) and
the information describing how the media is edited together to form a
final sequence. This editing information, called a composition, is the
OMFI representation of the sequence created in the Avid system. The
OMF Interchange format is the result of cooperative efforts of many
industry and standards partners and Avid Technology, Inc.
Any other program that supports OMFI can read OMFI files, even if
the program resides on a different computer platform. As a result,
with OMFI, you can transfer among different applications on different
platforms without worrying about cross-platform translations. This
can be very effective for importing animation or audio files created on
proprietary platforms.
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To avoid errors and incompatibilities when importing and exporting
OMFI files, observe the recommendations in Appendix A.
Choosing an OMFI Transfer Method
OMF Interchange, as implemented in the Avid system, provides two
basic methods for exporting files:
•
Method 1: OMFI compositions only
The Avid system can export an OMFI file that contains only the
editing information about a selected master clip or sequence. You
then need to transfer both the OMFI file and the media files, or
redigitize the media on the other system. After you have transferred the media once, you can transfer revised composition-only
files, unless you consolidated the media (in which case, you must
transport the media files as well). For more information on consolidating media, see the editing guide or Help for your Avid system.
To export an OMFI composition only, select OMFI Composition in
the Export Settings dialog box, but do not select Use Video Media
or Use Audio Media.
•
Method 2: OMFI compositions with media files
The Avid system exports an OMFI file that contains all the editing
information for the selected master clip or sequence along with the
video and audio media files for that master clip or sequence.
To export an OMFI composition with media, select OMFI Composition in the Export Settings dialog box, and then select Use Video
Media, Use Audio Media, or both. Select AIFF-C or WAVE when
embedding audio media files.
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Using OMM to Export Clips
For more information
about OMM and asset
managers, see “Using
Open Media Management (OMM)” on
page 227.
Exporting through Open Media Management (OMM) allows you to
copy or “check in” clips from a Media Composer or Film Composer
bin to an asset manager application. At this time, you can import only
a master clip. You cannot import an entire sequence.
You can export clips by using use either of the following two methods:
•
Using OMM and the Drag-and-Drop Method to Export a Clip
•
Using OMM and the Menu-Command Method to Export a Clip
Using OMM and the Drag-and-Drop Method to Export a Clip
To export a clip by using OMM and the drag-and-drop method:
1. In the Settings scroll list of the Project window, click to select an
OMM setting and an export setting (see “Setting Up to Use
OMM” on page 227).
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When you select an OMM setting, the Avid system uses this location
for all OMM imports and exports. If you use the drag-and-drop
method to move a clip to a different OMM location, the exported
clip will go to the location specified in the OMM setting.
2. Start your browser and locate your asset manager.
3. Open the bin that contains the clip or clips you want to export.
4. In the bin, click the clip you want to export and drag it to the asset
manager window. Ctrl+click to select multiple clips.
The exported clip appears in the asset manager database.
For instructions on using OMM to import clips, see “Using OMM to
Import Clips” on page 230.
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Using OMM and the Menu-Command Method to Export a Clip
Using the Media Composer or Film Composer File menu to export a
clip gives you the opportunity of changing your Export setting.
To export a clip by using OMM and the Export command from the File
menu:
1. In the Settings scroll list of the Project window, click to select an
OMM setting and an export setting (see “Setting Up to Use
OMM” on page 227).
c
When you select an OMM setting, the Avid system uses this location
for all OMM imports and exports. If you use the drag-and-drop
method to move a clip to a different OMM location, the exported
clip will go to the location specified in the OMM setting.
2. Start your browser and locate your asset manager.
3. Open the bin that contains the clip or clips you want to export.
4. In the bin, click the clip you want to export. Ctrl+click to select
multiple clips.
5. Choose Export from the File menu.
The Export dialog box appears.
6. If the setting displayed is not the setting you want, choose another
setting from the pop-up menu or click Customize.
The Export Settings dialog box appears.
7. Select the OMM Clips option.
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8. Select Use Video Media, Use Audio Media, or both options if you
want to transfer media along with the media information.
9. Name your setting in the text box at the top of the dialog box.
10. Click OK.
11. If the setting you want is shown in the Export dialog box, click
OK.
The exported clip appears in the asset manager database.
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About the Avid QuickTime and AVI Codecs
You can speed the process of importing and exporting AVI or QuickTime files by using the Avid AVI or Avid QuickTime codec. You can
use these codecs when exporting into a third-party application or
before reimporting AVI or QuickTime files into your Avid system. The
following sections describe the codec and procedures for using it:
•
Using the Avid QuickTime Codec
•
Using the Avid AVI Codec
To review file specifications for AVI or QuickTime export, see
Appendix A.
Using the Avid QuickTime Codec
The Avid QuickTime codec (compressor/decompressor) creates encapsulated media files for quick export of high-resolution files that are
readable within QuickTime applications.
The Avid QuickTime codec allows you to maintain video resolutions
up to 1:1. It also speeds the QuickTime import and export processes to
a rate of approximately four times real time or better (depending on
resolution). The codec provides a vast improvement over the standard
QuickTime conversion, which can take as long as 300 times real time
or more with full-size, high-resolution clips.
Consider the following:
•
Using the Avid QuickTime codec usually involves maintaining the
ITU-R 601 (CCIR-601) standard video dimensions of the media
(720 x 486 non-square pixels for NTSC, 720 x 576 for PAL) as well
as large media file sizes. This codec might not be appropriate for
some uses. For example, if the destination of your Avid QuickTime
export is a multimedia title, you can use another appropriate
codec such as Cinepak. Alternatively, you can use the Avid
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QuickTime codec to export a high-resolution QuickTime file for
further processing.
•
The Avid QuickTime codec supports a compressed alpha channel
only when importing files created in other applications. For example, you can create a title in Adobe After Effects®, export both RGB
and alpha channels by using the Avid QuickTime codec, and then
import both channels into Media Composer or Film Composer.
•
The Avid QuickTime codec automatically creates a single-file
movie that can be opened on both Macintosh and Windows NT
systems. Make sure there is space of at least two times the file size
on the destination drive for temporary processing of the
QuickTime movie.
•
Media Composer or Film Composer QuickTime files can be quite
large, depending on the video resolution, and require adequate
storage and transfer capacities.
Installing the Avid QuickTime Codec on Other Systems
When you install Media Composer or Film Composer on your system,
the Avid QuickTime codec is automatically installed. You can copy the
codec and install it at other Windows NT workstations where you are
using QuickTime-compatible applications. Once the Avid QuickTime
codec is installed on the workstation, you can export files either from
the Media Composer or Film Composer system or from the
QuickTime-compatible application for reimport into the Media Composer or Film Composer system.
To install the Avid QuickTime codec on another system:
1. On the system where the Avid QuickTime-compatible application
resides, insert the Avid Media Composer or Film Composer installation CD.
2. If the CD does not automatically start, double-click the icon for
your CD-ROM drive, and double-click Launch.exe.
3. Click the word Installers on the opening screen.
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4. Click the words Install Avid QuickTime Codec.
5. Follow the instructions on the screen.
6. Restart your system.
For information on using the codec, see “Exporting from a ThirdParty QuickTime Application” on page 334.
Exporting with the Avid QuickTime Codec
To export with the Avid QuickTime codec:
1. Select the material you want to export in one of the following
ways:
You can use the dragand-drop method to
export QuickTime files.
•
To export specific tracks in a clip or sequence, enable those
tracks in the Track Selector panel, and disable all others. Make
sure the Use Enabled Tracks option is checked in the QuickTime Options dialog box that is accessed from the Export Settings dialog box. You can set this option before the export.
•
To export part of a clip or sequence, mark IN and OUT points
to export the marked range from a bin or a monitor. If you
mark an IN point and no OUT point, the system exports from
the IN point to the end of the clip or sequence. Make sure the
Use Marks option is checked in the QuickTime Options dialog
box that is accessed from the Export Settings dialog box.
•
To export the entire clip or sequence, deselect the options
Use Enabled Tracks and Use Marks in the Export Settings dialog box, and make sure the topmost track is monitored.
2. Choose Export from the File menu.
The Export dialog box appears.
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You can set these
options in advance. See
“Creating and Using
Export Settings” on
page 290.
3. Choose the Export settings by doing one of the following:
•
Choose a setting from the Export pop-up menu, if you have
created a setting in advance, and go to step 7.
•
If you want to review or edit a setting, go to step 4.
4. Click Customize.
The Export Settings dialog box appears. The following illustration
shows QuickTime settings.
327
Current export options
set in the Export
Options dialog box
5. Select one of the following QuickTime options:
•
Video and Audio: Select this option if you are using an entire
clip or sequence in a multimedia project.
•
Video Only: Select this option if you are adding effects in a
third-party application.
•
Audio Only: Select this option if you are using or enhancing
audio in a third-party application.
After you select export options, note that additional current
options for the clip or sequence are listed in the bottom part of the
328
dialog box. These options vary depending on the current video
compressor selected.
The following is an example of a sequence selected for export as a
QuickTime file:
Current export options
set in the Export
Options dialog box
6. Select the Avid QuickTime codec, resolution, and other options for
the export by doing the following:
a. Click the Options button in the Export Settings dialog box.
The Export Options dialog box appears, with the QuickTime
options shown.
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b. Select the options you want.
n
For information on QuickTime options, see “QuickTime Compression
Options” on page 301.
•
If you want to use the resolution of the source file, select
Use Source Compression (which uses the Avid QuickTime
codec) and go to substep k.
•
If you want to use a different codec or a different resolution, deselect the Use Source Compression option. Additional options appear on the dialog box.
330
These options
do not appear
in 24p projects.
Destination size
text boxes
Compression
Settings button
c. Change the additional options if appropriate and then click
the Compression Settings button.
The Compression Settings dialog box appears.
331
n
For more information on other codecs and video compression options, see
“Exporting with Other Supported QuickTime Codecs” on page 334.
d. If you want to change the compression, drag the Quality slider
to display the Avid QuickTime Codec Configuration dialog
box or click OK.
e. Select the appropriate format for the media you want to create: NTSC or PAL.
f. Select the appropriate board set for the media: NuVista (AVR
resolutions), Studio (AVR resolutions), Meridien Interlaced
332
(25i and 30i resolutions), or Meridien Progressive (24p resolutions).
g. Choose a resolution from the Resolution pop-up menu. The
Resolution pop-up menu updates depending on the format
and system type you choose.
h. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the Compression Settings dialog box.
i. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the Export
Options dialog box.
j. Click OK to close the Export Options dialog box and return to
the Export Settings dialog box.
k. Name the setting by typing a name of your choice in the text
box at the top of the Export Settings dialog box and click OK
to return to the Export dialog box.
7. Click OK in the Export dialog box.
The Export As dialog box appears with the default QuickTime file
name extension in the File Name text box.
8. (Option) Change the file name. In most cases, keep the default file
name extension.
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9. Select the destination folder for the file, and click Save.
The file is exported and appears at the chosen destination.
c
c
The Avid system allows a maximum exported file size of 2 GB. If
you exceed this limit, the file is unusable and an error message is
displayed.
If a power failure or mishap occurs during the export process, the
entire file is unusable. You need to repeat the export process. The
only exception is a sequential file sequence, where all frames up to
the point of failure are usable.
Exporting with Other Supported QuickTime Codecs
In addition to the Avid QuickTime codec, the Avid system also supports other QuickTime codec applications.
To export files by using any supported third-party codec, follow the
steps from “Exporting with the Avid QuickTime Codec” on page 326
with the following change:
When performing step 6, substep c, select the appropriate
QuickTime codec from the Compression Settings dialog box and set
the appropriate video compression options. Options might differ,
depending on the codec you choose.
For information on QuickTime compression options, see “QuickTime
Compression Options” on page 301.
Exporting from a Third-Party QuickTime Application
Exporting from a third-party QuickTime application by using the Avid
QuickTime codec and the default Media Composer or Film Composer
system frame size allows you to speed the process of reimporting into
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the Media Composer or Film Composer system to approximately three
to four times real time (video only).
To export files from a QuickTime-compatible application on a
Windows NT system for import (or reimport) into the Avid system:
1. Make sure the AvidQTCodec.qtx file is installed in the
C:\Winnt\system32 folder.
The exact name of the Winnt folder will vary, depending on how
Windows NT was installed on the system.
n
For instructions on installing the Avid QuickTime codec, see “Installing the
Avid QuickTime Codec on Other Systems” on page 325.
2. Conduct the export procedure according to the procedures used
by the particular software.
3. When you get to the step where the standard QuickTime Export
Options dialog box appears, select the option Avid QuickTime
compressor.
n
If you select another frame size, the Media Composer or Film Composer system will not import the file quickly using the Avid QuickTime codec.
4. Complete the export.
Using the Avid AVI Codec
The Avid AVI codec (compressor/decompressor) creates encapsulated
media files for quick export of high-resolution files that are readable
within AVI applications.
The Avid AVI codec allows you to maintain video resolutions up to
1:1. It also speeds the AVI import and export processes to a rate of
approximately four times real time or better (depending on resolution). The codec provides a vast improvement over the standard AVI
335
conversion, which can take as long as 300 times real time or more with
full-size, high-resolution clips.
Consider the following:
•
Using the Avid AVI codec usually involves maintaining the ITU-R
601 (CCIR-601) standard video dimensions of the media (720 x 486
non-square pixels for NTSC, 720 x 576 for PAL) as well as large
media file sizes. This codec might not be appropriate for some
uses. For example, if the destination of your Avid AVI export is a
multimedia title, you can use another appropriate codec such as
Cinepak. Alternatively, you can use the Avid QuickTime codec to
export a high-resolution AVI file for further processing.
•
Avid AVI files can be quite large, depending on the video resolution, and require adequate storage and transfer capacities.
Installing the Avid AVI Codec on Other Systems
When you install Media Composer or Film Composer on your system,
the Avid AVI codec is automatically installed. You can install the codec
at other workstations where you are using AVI-compatible applications. Once the Avid AVI codec is installed on the workstation, you can
export files either from the Media Composer or Film Composer system
or from the AVI-compatible application for reimport into the
Media Composer or Film Composer system.
To install the Avid AVI codec on another system:
1. On the system where the AVI-compatible application resides,
insert the Media Composer or Film Composer installation CD.
2. If the CD does not automatically launch, double-click the icon for
your CD-ROM drive, and double-click Launch.exe.
3. On the opening screen, click the word Installers.
4. Click the words Install Avid AVI Codec.
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5. Follow the instructions on the screen.
6. Restart your system.
For information on using the codec, see “Exporting from a ThirdParty AVI Application” on page 345.
Exporting with the Avid AVI Codec
To export with the Avid AVI codec:
1. Select the material you want to export in one of the following
ways:
•
To export specific tracks in a clip or sequence, enable those
tracks in the Track Selector panel, and disable all others. Make
sure the Use Enabled Tracks option is checked in the AVI
Options dialog box that is accessed from the Export Settings
dialog box. You can set this option before the export. See “Creating and Using Export Settings” on page 290, or during the
export, go to step 4.
•
To export part of a clip or sequence, mark IN and OUT points
to export the marked range from a bin or a monitor. If you
mark an IN point and no OUT point, the system exports from
the IN point to the end of the clip or sequence. Make sure the
Use Marks option is checked in the AVI Options dialog box
that is accessed from the Export Settings dialog box.
•
To export the entire clip or sequence, deselect the options
Use Enabled Tracks and Use Marks in the Export Settings dialog box, and make sure the topmost track is monitored.
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You can use the dragand-drop method to
export AVI files. See
“Using the Drag-andDrop Method to Export
Frames, Clips, and
Sequences” on
page 318.
2. Choose Export from the File menu.
You can set these
options in advance. See
“Creating and Using
Export Settings” on
page 290.
3. Choose the Export settings by doing one of the following:
The Export dialog box appears.
•
If you have created a setting in advance, choose a setting from
the Export pop-up menu, and go to step 7.
•
If you want to review or edit a setting, go to step 4.
4. Click Customize.
The Export Settings dialog box appears. The following illustration
shows AVI settings.
338
Current export options
set in the Export
Options dialog box
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5. Select one of the following AVI options:
•
Video and Audio: Select this option if you are using an entire
clip or sequence in a multimedia project.
•
Video Only: Select this option if you are adding effects in a
third-party application.
•
Audio Only: Select this option if you are using or enhancing
audio in a third-party application.
After you select export options, note that additional current
options for the clip or sequence are listed in the bottom part of the
dialog box. These options vary depending on the current video
compressor selected.
The following is an example of a sequence selected for export as
an AVI file:
Current export options
set in the Export
Options dialog box
6. Select the Avid AVI codec, resolution, and other options for the
export by doing the following:
a. Click the Options button in the Export Settings dialog box.
The Export Options dialog box appears with the AVI options
shown.
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b. Select the options you want.
n
For information on AVI options, see “Export Options Settings” on
page 297.
•
If you want to use the resolution of the source file, select
Use Source Compression (which uses the Avid AVI codec)
and go to substep k.
•
If you want to use a different codec or a different resolution, deselect the Use Source Compression option. Additional options appear in the dialog box.
341
These options
do not appear
in 24p projects.
Color Levels
pop-up menu
FPS Rate
pop-up menu
Compression
Settings button
c. Change the additional options if appropriate and then click
the Compression Settings button.
The Video Compression dialog box appears.
d. Choose Avid AVI Codec from the Compressor list.
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n
For more information on other codecs and video compression options, see
“Exporting with Other Supported AVI Codecs” on page 345.
e. Click the Configure button to select a video resolution.
The Avid AVI Codec Configuration dialog box appears.
f. Select the appropriate format for the media you want to create: NTSC or PAL.
g. Click the appropriate resolution for the media: Interlaced (30i
or 25i resolutions) or Progressive (24p resolutions).
h. Choose a resolution from the Resolution pop-up menu and
select “Source has ITU-R 601 video levels.”
The resolution you choose automatically updates the correct
destination size in the Export Settings dialog box.
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i. Click Close to save the settings, to close the Avid AVI Codec
Configuration dialog box, and to return to the Video Compression dialog box.
j. Click OK to close the dialog box and return to the Export
Options dialog box.
k. Click OK to close the Export Options dialog box and to return
to the Export Settings dialog box.
l. Name the setting by typing a name of your choice in the text
box at the top of the Export Settings dialog box and click OK
to return to the Export dialog box.
7. Click OK in the Export dialog box.
The Export As dialog box appears with the default AVI file name
extension in the File name text box.
8. (Option) Change the file name. In most cases, keep the default file
name extension.
9. Select the destination folder for the file, and click Save.
The file is exported and appears at the chosen destination.
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c
c
The Avid system allows a maximum exported file size of 2 GB. If
you exceed this limit, the file is unusable and an error message is
displayed.
If a power failure or mishap occurs during the export process, the
entire file is unusable. You need to repeat the export process. The
only exception is a sequential file sequence, where all frames up to
the point of failure are usable.
Exporting with Other Supported AVI Codecs
In addition to the Avid AVI codec, the Avid system also supports other
third-party codec applications.
To export files by using any supported third-party codec, follow the
steps from “Exporting with the Avid AVI Codec” on page 337 with
the following change:
•
When performing step 6, substep d, select the appropriate
codec from the Video Compression dialog box and set the appropriate video compression options.
For information on video compression options, see “AVI Compression Options” on page 306.
Options might differ, depending on the AVI codec you choose.
Exporting from a Third-Party AVI Application
Exporting from a third-party AVI application by using the Avid AVI
codec and the default Media Composer or Film Composer system
frame size allows you to speed the process of reimporting into the
Media Composer or Film Composer system to approximately three to
four times real time (video only).
345
To export files from an AVI-compatible application for import (or
reimport) into the Avid system:
1. Make sure the AvidAVICodec.dll file is installed in the
C:\Winnt\system32 folder.
The exact name of the Winnt folder will vary, depending on how
Windows NT was installed on the system.
n
For instructions on installing the Avid AVI codec, see “Installing the Avid
AVI Codec on Other Systems” on page 336.
2. Conduct the export procedure according to the procedures used
by the particular software.
3. When you get to the step where the standard AVI Export Options
dialog box appears, select the option Use Source Compression.
n
If you select another frame size, the Media Composer or Film Composer system will not import the file quickly using the Avid AVI codec.
4. Complete the export.
Transferring a Project Between Media Composer or
Film Composer (for Windows NT) Systems
This section describes how to move projects and media folders
between Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) systems of the same release. If you plan to transfer the files to a different
Avid system or a third-party application, see the Avid Products Collaboration Guide for recommended procedures.
There are two basic methods for transferring projects between
Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) systems:
•
Moving project folders, settings, and media files between the
systems
346
For information on
redigitizing, see
“Redigitizing Your
Material” on page 185.
•
Moving project folders and settings between the systems, then
redigitizing the media
Methods for Transferring Files Between Media Composer or
Film Composer (for Windows NT) Systems
The type of transfer device you use depends on which method of
transfer you choose. Moving project folders, settings, and media files
requires large amounts of storage space because of the size of media
files. Transferring only the project folders and settings files requires
minimal storage space.
Table 9-6 lists the recommended transfer devices for transferring
projects between systems. For more information on transfer options
and instructions for transferring, see the Avid Products Collaboration
Guide.
Table 9-6
Transfer Devices for Transferring Projects
Transfer Device
For Transferring
Floppy drive or equivalent device
Project and settings files
Removable storage device, such as a
hard drive
Media, project, and settings files
A high-speed network
using AvidNet™
Media, project, and settings files
A network storage device, such as
a file server
Media, project, and settings files
347
Compatibility Requirements for Transfer
When you transfer a project between Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) systems, make sure:
•
Both systems have the same release or a compatible releases of the
application.
•
The resolutions are compatible, if you are transferring media files.
•
The fonts used in the project are installed on both systems.
For more information about compatibility between Avid editing applications, see the Avid Products Collaboration Guide and the release notes for
your Avid system.
Transferring a Project and Associated Media Files
There are three basic methods for transferring projects with their
media files between Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) systems:
n
•
Back up the project files and transport the media files on a removable storage device.
•
Send sequences, clips or entire projects over a high-speed
network using AvidNet.
•
Send sequences, clips, or entire projects to a network storage
device.
For more information on using AvidNet, see the AvidNet Transfer Tool
User’s Guide. If you would like to purchase AvidNet, contact your Avid
sales representative.
348
To transfer a work in progress and associated media files to another
Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) system:
1. (Option) Consolidate the media for the project onto an appropriate
drive for transfer to the other system.
c
•
For more information on consolidating media, see the editing
guide or Help for your Avid system.
•
For more information on transferring files by using removable
storage devices, see the Avid Products Collaboration Guide.
Do not rename the folders named OMFI MediaFiles located on the
media drive. The target system uses the folder names to locate the
media files.
2. Copy the project folder and any settings files you want to maintain
at the new location onto a floppy disk or a location on a server. For
more information, see “Transferring Projects, User Profiles, and
Site Settings” on page 350.
Alternatively, create a folder at the top level of the media drive
and copy the project folder and any settings files to that folder.
3. Close the Avid application and shut down your system.
4. Remove the drives containing the media files, and take these and
the floppy disk to the new location.
n
For more information on moving hard drives, removable drives, and striped
sets from one system to another, see the Avid MediaDrive Utilities User’s
Guide.
5. With the system at the new location turned off, insert or connect
the drives and start the system.
6. Copy the Project folder and any settings files to the appropriate
folder. For more information, see “Transferring Projects, User
Profiles, and Site Settings” on page 350.
7. Start the Avid application, open the project, and resume work.
349
n
The Avid system will reconstruct the MediaFiles database the first time you
start the application to incorporate the new media into the system’s internal
directory.
Transferring Projects, User Profiles, and Site Settings
For information about
these files and folders,
see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
To open projects, bins, and user profiles created with another
Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) system, you
must transfer specific folders directly into the Avid Projects or Avid
Users folder before starting the application.You can also transfer a Site
Settings file between systems.
When moving a project with titles, make sure that both systems have
the same fonts that were used to create the titles. For more information
on adding fonts, see the Windows NT Help. For more information on
compatibility requirements when working with title effects, see the
Avid Products Collaboration Guide.
n
Adding a project folder from another system does not transfer accompanying
media files. For more information on moving media files between systems, see
“Transferring a Project and Associated Media Files” on page 348.
To transfer project files, user profiles, and site settings to another
Media Composer or Film Composer (for Windows NT) system:
1. On the source system, select the project folder, user folder, or Site
Settings file you want to transfer. The default locations are listed in
the following table:
Table 9-7
Default Source Location
Folder or File
Location
Project folder
drive:\Avid\Media Composer\Avid Projects
drive:\Avid\Film Composer\Avid Projects
350
Table 9-7
n
Default Source Location
Folder or File
Location
User folder
drive:\Avid\Media Composer\Avid Users
drive:\Avid\Film Composer\Avid Users
Site Settings file
drive:\Avid\Media Composer\Settings
drive:\Avid\Film Composer\Settings
The exact location depends on how the Avid application was installed on your
system.
2. Copy the files to a floppy disk or a location on a server.
3. On the destination system, copy the project folder, user folder, or
Site Settings file to the appropriate location, as listed in step 1.
n
Do not rename the project folder. The project settings will not link to the
project if you rename the project folder.
The next time you see the Open Project dialog box, the new project will
appear in the Project scroll list. New user settings will appear in the
User scroll list. Site settings are active for all projects at the new location.
c
Do not open a project directly from the transfer device. You must
copy the folder to the system drive first.
351
APPENDIX A
File Format Specifications
To be compatible with a variety of imaging standards,
Media Composer or Film Composer accommodates many file types
and formats. For import and export procedures, see Chapter 7 and
Chapter 9. This appendix contains descriptions, specifications, and
notes for importing and exporting specific file formats.
To ensure usability and high quality, the files in some formats require
preparation before being imported to the Avid application. Consequently, this appendix contains many more notes for import than for
export. When you export a file, you choose a file format from the
Export Settings dialog box and select options appropriate to the format. For descriptions of the dialog box options, see “Export Options
Settings” on page 297.
Graphics (Image) Files
Media Composer or Film Composer uses Image Independence® to
produce usable files from a large number of graphics formats. Once
you have imported a file in a format, you can export it in the same or
different format.
352
This list briefly describes the supported graphics (image) file formats:
•
Alias: Alias® PIX image format, developed by Alias Research, Inc.
(now Alias|Wavefront, a division of Silicon Graphics Limited) for
use with their animation and visualization software.
•
BMP: Developed by Microsoft Corporation as the standard image
file format used by Microsoft Windows.
•
Chyron®: Developed by Chyron Corporation for use with video
frame buffers of Chyron character-generator titles.
•
Cineon: Developed by Eastman Kodak for use in the Cineon
Digital Film System. It is a subset of the SMPTE DPX (Digital
Picture Exchange) format.
•
Framestore: Developed by NewTek for use with their Video
Toaster™ system.
•
IFF: Developed by Electronic Arts. IFF (Interchange File Format),
or more specifically IFF-ILBM (InterLeaved BitMap), is the standard file format by which applications on the Amiga™ platform
transfer image files.
•
JPEG: Developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group
(JPEG). This format is highly suited for image storage and transmission purposes because of its ability to dramatically reduce the
storage requirements for a file. JFIF files (JPEG File Interchange
Format, the standard for constructing JPEG files) can also be
imported and exported.
•
OMF: (import only) Developed by Avid Technology, Inc. and
many industry and standards partners for the interchange of digital media data between platforms and applications.
•
PCX: Developed by Zsoft Corporation for use with their
PC PaintBrush™ paint software.
•
Photoshop: Developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated for use
with their Adobe Photoshop image-editing software.
•
PICT: Developed by Apple Computer, Inc. as the format for
Macintosh QuickDraw® images.
353
•
Pixar®: Developed by Pixar for stored pictures.
•
PNG: Developed by the PNG Development Group originally as
an alternative to the GIFSM image format. PNG is an acronym for
Portable Network Graphics and is pronounced “ping.”
•
QRT: Developed on the Amiga personal computer to run on several operating systems. Used by many ray tracing programs, such
as DKB Ray Trace and the QRT ray tracer.
•
Rendition: Developed by Numerical Design Ltd.
•
SGI: Developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. for use as the standard
format on their line of workstations.
•
Softimage: Developed by Softimage, Inc. (now a division of Avid
Technology, Inc.) for use in their SOFTIMAGE® software.
•
Sun Raster™: Developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. and supported mainly in Sun® applications.
•
TARGA: Developed by Truevision, Inc. (now Pinnacle Systems)
and originally intended for support of the Truevision image-capturing hardware.
•
TIFF: Developed by Aldus Corporation (now Adobe Systems
Incorporated) and Microsoft Corporation. TIFF is an acronym for
Tag Image File Format.
•
Wavefront: Developed by Wavefront Technologies, Inc. (now
Alias|Wavefront, a division of Silicon Graphics Limited) for storing pictures in a machine-independent manner.
•
XWindows: Developed by the MIT X Consortium and supported
by many X Window System™ applications on workstations and
some personal computers.
•
YUV: Defined by Abekas Video Systems (now Accom, Inc.), the
YUV format is the raw data sent to the Abekas® machines.
354
Preparing Graphics Files for Import
Before you import a graphics file to Media Composer or Film Composer, you can use third-party image-editing software, such as Adobe
Photoshop, to make adjustments such as the following:
n
•
Convert the file to the appropriate size, resolution, and bit depth.
•
Crop or color-correct an image.
•
Eliminate jagged edges in an image by using the image-editing
application’s anti-aliasing or high-quality option.
•
Add transparency (to some formats) by setting the resolution to
32 bits per pixel to add an alpha channel.
•
In some cases, you can convert an image file that does not support
an alpha channel to a format that does, in order to add
transparency.
You can import and key the image over video by using key effects within the
Avid application. However, importing an image with an existing alpha channel provides the best results.
For specific procedures and file formats, see the documentation that
accompanies the image-editing software.
Graphics File Import Specifications
Table A-1 contains graphics file import specifications. The table uses
the following terms:
•
Full-screen image size: These numbers describe the recommended width and height, in pixels, to create a source image that
will be displayed full-screen after import. Using these dimensions
helps minimize distortion after conversion to the Avid application
native resolution of 720 x 486 non-square pixels for NTSC or
720 x 576 for PAL. An image with smaller dimensions will take up
less of the screen or will be distorted, while an image that exceeds
355
these dimensions might be distorted. An image resolution of
72 pixels per inch is recommended.
•
Bit depth: These numbers refer to color-depth resolution of the
image based on the number of bits per pixel. For example, 2-bit
images are displayed in black and white; 8-bit images are displayed in 256 colors; 16-bit images are displayed in thousands of
colors; 24-bit images are displayed in millions of colors; and 32-bit
images are displayed in millions of colors with an alpha channel.
•
Alpha channel: This column states whether or not alpha channel
import is supported. An alpha channel determines regions of
transparency in the picture when it is keyed over a background.
•
NA: This notation means Not Applicable.
Table A-1
Graphics File Import Specifications
Format
Default Recommended Bit Depth
Exten- Full-Screen
Support
sion
Size (Pixels)
Alpha
Notes
Channel
Support
Alias
.als
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit color,
720 x 576 PAL
8-bit grayscale
No
BMP
.bmp
720 x 486 NTSC 1-, 4-, 8-, and 24-bit
720 x 576 PAL
No
Dots-per-inch (dpi) information is preserved.
Four-bit BMP files saved
with RLE compression are
not supported.
Photoshop does not support
four-channel BMP files.
Chyron
.chr
720 x 486 NTSC 32-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Yes
Cineon
.cin
720 x 486 NTSC 10-bit (logarithmic)
720 x 576 PAL
NA
356
Dots-per-inch (dpi) information is preserved.
Table A-1
Graphics File Import Specifications (Continued)
Format
Default Recommended Bit Depth
Exten- Full-Screen
Support
sion
Size (Pixels)
Alpha
Notes
Channel
Support
Framestore
.fs
No
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Pixel aspect information is
saved with image data.
When importing files generated from Video Toaster,
choose the option Force to
Fit Screen.
IFF
.iff
720 x 486 NTSC 1-bit to 24-bit color;
1-bit
720 x 576 PAL
1-bit to 8-bit
alpha
grayscale;
only
64-color EHB;
4096-color HAM;
262,144-color HAM8;
SHAM;
A-HAM;
A-RES
JPEG
.jpg
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit color,
720 x 576 PAL
8-bit grayscale
OMF
.omf
720 x 486 NTSC
720 x 576 PAL
PCX
.pcx
720 x 486 NTSC Color-mapped and
720 x 576 PAL
24-bit color
Dots-per-inch (dpi) information is preserved.
Pixel aspect information is
saved with image data.
No
See “OMF Files” on
page 364.
NA
Dots-per-inch (dpi) information is preserved.
PCX files with 1-bit color
depth or odd-numbered
pixel widths are not
supported.
Photoshop
.psd
720 x 486 NTSC Grayscale, indexed
No
720 x 576 PAL
color, RGB, and duotone variations
357
Duotone files are loaded as
grayscale.
Multichannel (greater than
four channels) files are not
supported.
Table A-1
Graphics File Import Specifications (Continued)
Format
Default Recommended Bit Depth
Exten- Full-Screen
Support
sion
Size (Pixels)
Alpha
Notes
Channel
Support
PICT
.pic
Yes
720 x 486 NTSC 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and
720 x 576 PAL
32-bit
Dots-per-inch (dpi) information is preserved.
If no dpi is specified, 72 dpi
is used.
Pixar
.pxr
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit, 36-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Yes
PNG
.png
720 x 486 NTSC 1-bit to 32-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Yes
QRT
.dbw
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit
720 x 576 PAL
No
Rendition
.6rn
720 x 486 NTSC 32-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Yes
SGI
.rgb
720 x 486 NTSC 8-bit or 16-bit
Yes
720 x 576 PAL
grayscale;
8-bit grayscale plus
8-bit alpha channel;
24- and 48-bit color;
24-bit color plus 8-bit
alpha channel;
64-bit (16 bits per
component)
358
Table A-1
Format
Graphics File Import Specifications (Continued)
Default Recommended Bit Depth
Exten- Full-Screen
Support
sion
Size (Pixels)
SOFTIMAGE .pic
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit plus
720 x 576 PAL
8-bit alpha
Alpha
Notes
Channel
Support
Yes
Pixel aspect information is
saved with the image.
Double-clicking a
SOFTIMAGE file will start
the application associated
with PICT files because
they use the same extension. Avoid double-clicking
SOFTIMAGE files to view
them.
Sun Raster
.sun
720 x 486 NTSC 1-, 8-, or 24-bit
720 x 576 PAL
No
TARGA
.tga
720 x 486 NTSC 8-, 15-, 16-, or 24-bit;
720 x 576 PAL
32-bit
Yes
TIFF
.tif
720 x 486 NTSC 8-bit color-mapped; Yes
720 x 576 PAL
8-bit or 16-bit grayscale;
24- and 48-bit color;
24-bit color plus 8-bit
alpha;
36-bit color plus
12-bit alpha;
42 bit color plus
14-bit alpha;
48-bit color plus
16-bit alpha
Wavefront
.rla
720 x 486 NTSC 32-bit and 64-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Yes
XWindows
.xwd
720 x 486 NTSC 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, 24-,
720 x 576 PAL
and 32-bit
No
359
Dots-per-inch (dpi) information is preserved.
The following types of files
are not supported:
Multichannel (greater than
four channels) files; Group
3-compressed (fax) files;
CMYK files with extra channels; and JPEG-compressed
files.
Four-channel files from Avid
Matador™ are imported as
three-channel files.
Table A-1
Graphics File Import Specifications (Continued)
Format
Default Recommended Bit Depth
Exten- Full-Screen
Support
sion
Size (Pixels)
Alpha
Notes
Channel
Support
YUV
.yuv
No
720 x 486 NTSC 24-bit
720 x 576 PAL
Pixel aspect information
(based on the video format)
is saved with image data.
When importing, choose the
option Force to Fit Screen.
Animation Files
Media Composer or Film Composer supports the following animation
file formats:
•
ERIMovie: Developed by Elastic Reality, Inc. (now a division of
Avid Technology, Inc.) for quick playback of rendered movies on
Silicon Graphics, Inc. platforms.
•
PICS: Developed by Apple Computer, Inc. A PICS file is a
sequence of PICT images. Many applications that handle multiple
image formats on the Macintosh platform also support PICS files.
•
QuickTime: Developed by Apple Computer, Inc. for multimedia
on multiple platforms.
•
AVI (Audio Video Interleave): Developed by Microsoft for storing video and audio information as part of its Video for Windows
standard.
Table A-2 shows animation file import specifications. QuickTime
import and export information appears in Table A-3. AVI import and
export information appears in Table A-4.
n
Media Composer or Film Composer imports the file at the frame rate that is
set in the project (29.97 fps, 25 fps, or 24 fps). Set the appropriate frame rate
for the project when you export from a third-party application.
360
Table A-2
Animation File Import Specifications
Format
Default Bit Depth Alpha
Notes
Exten- Support
Channel
sion
Support
ERIMovie
.mov or 24-bit
Yes
.eri
packed
and 32-bit
raw movie
files
QuickTime for Windows also uses the .mov file
name extension. However, QuickTime does not
support ERIMovie, and double-clicking an
ERIMovie file will cause an error.
is no player for ERIMovie on Macintosh or
n There
Windows platforms; the mview program supports ERIMovie on Silicon Graphics systems.
PICS Animation
.pcs
Sequenced image Various
files
2-, 4-, 8-,
16-, and
32-bit
Yes
Only uncompressed data can be stored in PICS format. PICs export does not allow PICs containers
larger than 16 MB.
Yes
Name each file in the sequence NameN.ext, with
Name identifying the animation, N indicating the
file order, and .ext indicating the file type (for
example, Image1.PIC, Image2.PIC, Image3.PIC).
The numbering can start at any number except 0 or
use any numbering format (for example,
Image010.PIC, Image012.PIC, or Imagef28.PIC,
Imagef29.PIC).
361
Table A-3
QuickTime Import and Export Specifications
QuickTime File
Notes
Import Specifications
QuickTime files
QuickTime import and export requires QuickTime software, version 4.0.
QuickTime software is installed when you install your Avid application.
Avid QuickTime files
The Avid QuickTime codec enables you to import and export QuickTime files
at a rate of three to four times real time. To use the codec in a third-party
application, see “Exporting from a Third-Party QuickTime Application” on page 334.
Resolution
Use Export settings to specify the compression ratio of a QuickTime file for
export. For more information, see “Export Options Settings” on
page 297.
The compression ratio of a QuickTime file is set at export time from a
third-party application equipped with the Avid QuickTime codec. The Avid
system imports the file at this compression ratio. For more information on
exporting from a third-party application, see “Exporting from a
Third-Party QuickTime Application” on page 334.
Image size
To take advantage of the Avid QuickTime codec speed, you must export the
files from the QuickTime application at the following frame sizes in order to
import to Release 6.0 and later of the Media Composer products:
720 x 486 pixels for NTSC images (non-square pixels)
720 x 576 pixels for PAL images (non-square pixels)
File extension
After you import a QuickTime file, the file maintains the .mov extension,
which is visible in a bin. The .mov extension is the default for export.
QuickTime alpha
To save a QuickTime movie with alpha channel in a third-party QuickTime
application, use the Avid QuickTime codec or a codec that supports a color
depth or “millions +.” The Avid application does not support matte key or
alpha channel for QuickTime export; it does import alpha channel when one
exists.
362
Table A-4
AVI Import and Export Specifications
AVI File Import and
Export Specifications
Notes
Avid AVI codec
You can import and export Avid AVI files by using standard AVI conversion
or by using the Avid AVI codec.
The Avid AVI codec enables you to import and export AVI files at a rate of
approximately four times real time or better (depending on resolution) — far
faster than the system’s standard AVI conversion. Files created by the codec
are readable within applications also equipped with the codec. For more
information on using the codec and making it available to AVI-compatible
applications, see “Using the Avid AVI Codec” on page 335.
Resolution
Use Export settings to specify the compression ratio of an AVI file for export.
For quick export of files using the Avid AVI codec, select “Use Source Compression” in the Export Settings dialog box. To control the compression ratio
when using the Avid AVI codec, deselect “Use Source Compression,” click
Compression Settings, and choose the ratio you want from the Avid AVI
Codec Configuration dialog box. For more information, click the dialog box
and then press the F1 key.
The resolution of an AVI file is set at export time from a third-party application equipped with the Avid AVI codec. The Avid system imports the file at
this resolution. For more information on exporting from a third-party application, see the“Exporting from a Third-Party AVI Application” on
page 345.
File size
Avid AVI files can be quite large, especially at high video resolutions. They
require adequate storage and transfer capabilities.
File name extension
After you import an AVI file, the file maintains the .avi file name extension,
which is visible in a bin. The .avi extension is the default for export.
AVI alpha channel
Media Composer or Film Composer does not support alpha channel for AVI
import or export.
363
Audio File Formats
This list briefly describes the supported audio file formats:
n
•
Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF-C): Format for audio files
developed by Apple Computer, Inc.
•
Wave Format (WAVE): Format for audio files developed jointly by
Microsoft and IBM. WAVE files are playable by nearly all Windows applications that support sound.
You can digitize, render, and edit audio in AIFF-C or WAVE file
formats.
OMF Files
OMF was developed by Avid Technology, Inc. and many industry and
standards partners for the interchange of digital media data between
platforms and applications. For information about creating an OMF
file on a non-Avid application, see the documentation for the
application.
The information in Table A-5 applies to importing OMF files.
364
.
Table A-5
OMF File Import Specifications
OMF File
Notes
Import Specifications
Resolution
For optimum import speed and quality, export or render the file from the
source application at the resolution you want, and then import the file into
the Avid application at that resolution. To do this, click the Options button in
the Import File(s) into Bin dialog box, and then select the “Use Source”
option from the OMFI Resolution area of the Import Settings dialog box. The
system disregards the Resolution setting in the Import File(s) into Bin dialog
box and automatically imports at the file’s existing resolution.
If you want to verify that files you are importing have a specific resolution,
select the “Ask Me” option in the OMFI Resolution area of the Import Settings dialog box, and set the resolution you want in the Import File(s) into
Bin dialog box. The system imports files that match that resolution automatically and displays a query for any files that do not match that resolution. You
can then choose to import those files at their source resolution or to convert
them.
If you are sure you want to change the resolution of a file you are importing,
select the “Use Current” option in the OMFI Resolution area of the Import
Settings dialog box, and set the resolution you want in the Import File(s) into
Bin dialog box.
For more information on OMFI, see the OMFI Web site at
http://www.omfi.org.
Frame or Edit rate
You must import sequences and clips to projects that have the same edit rate
(29.97 fps for NTSC, 25 fps for PAL, 24 fps for film). If the edit rates do not
match, you will receive an error message.
Composer or Film Composer cannot import an OMF audio file that
n Media
was produced with an edit rate equal to the audio sampling rate. Trying to
import such a file results in the error message Unrecognized file
type. Create the source file with an edit rate at the project edit rate (29.97
fps, 25 fps, or 24 fps).
365
Table A-5
OMF File Import Specifications (Continued)
OMF File
Notes
Import Specifications
OMFI version
Media Composer or Film Composer recognizes and supports OMF 1.0 composition and media files and OMF 2.0 composition files.
The following OMF 2.0 effects are supported generally:
•
Video effects: dissolves, wipes, freeze frame, film pulldown, slow
motion, fade to black
•
Audio effects: pan and volume, audio dissolves
Other effects can be imported from other Avid applications.
Film pulldown
To import audio media, set the pulldown switch to 1.0.
Audio sample rate
Audio media is imported at the sample rate that is set on the
Media Composer or Film Composer system.
Composer or Film Composer cannot import an OMF audio file that
n Media
was produced with an edit rate equal to the audio sampling rate. Trying to
import such a file results in the error message Unrecognized file
type. Set the edit rate to the project edit rate (29.97 fps, 25 fps, or 24 fps).
Avid MCXpress™ for
Windows NT files
If you are importing OMF compositions from Avid MCXpress for
Windows NT, you might receive an error if the sequence includes video or
audio effects. If this happens, create a cuts-only version of the sequence in
Avid MCXpress and export it again. You cannot import video media from
Avid MCXpress for Windows NT; if you import a composition, you must
redigitize the media.
File transfer
If you are transferring an OMF file over a network, transfer it as a binary file.
Reimporting Avid
media files
If you import OMF files that contain media that you exported from the same
Media Composer or Film Composer system, you need to delete the original
media. Otherwise, the new media will not overwrite the original media. To
learn how to find related media files for a sequence, see the editing guide or
Help for your Avid system.
366
Two-Field Media Files and Field Dominance
Media with two fields can be even-field dominance or odd-field dominance. The first line of the image determines the dominance of the
media. If the first line of the image belongs to the first field, then the
media is odd-field dominant. If the first line of the image belongs to
the second field, then the media is even-field dominant. The Avid system includes options to specify the field dominance in both the Import
Settings and Export Options dialog boxes.
n
These options do not apply to 24p projects. The 24p media is stored as full,
reconstructed frames.
When the field dominance of an imported media file does not match
the field dominance of the project format, the Avid system drops the
first line of the input frame and repeats the last line of the input frame.
This action shifts the imported image by one pixel.
When the field dominance of an exported media file does not match
the field dominance of the project format, the Avid system repeats the
first line of the input frame and drops the last line of the input frame.
n
Import and export shift in opposite directions to keep the image from sliding
down during repeated round-trip import and exports.
To avoid having Media Composer or Film Composer shift the image of
an imported or exported file by one line, you should set field dominance to the correct value in both the Avid system and in the graphics
application handling the file. For example, set the correct field dominance value in the graphics application when you export the file, and
set the same field dominance value in the Import Settings dialog box
in the Avid system.
Table A-6 lists the field dominance settings you should use for each
media type.
367
Table A-6
Recommended Field Dominance Settings for
Two-Field Import/Export
Format
Visible Frame Size
Recommended Field
Dominance Setting
AVR NTSC
720 x 243 x 2
Odd Field
AVR PAL
720 x 288 x 2
Odd Field
Meridien NTSC
720 x 243 x 2
Even Field
Meridien PAL
720 x 288 x 2
Odd Field
368
APPENDIX B
Resolutions and Storage
Requirements
When the Avid system digitizes and stores video, it employs compression techniques that affect the size of the resulting files and the resolution of the images they contain. The less the data is compressed, the
higher the image resolution, and the more drive space the file requires.
Large media files at high resolutions can use very large amounts of
drive space. When you are choosing an image resolution for your
project, you need to balance your requirements in terms of image quality with your available drive resources.
You can use lower resolutions when your work does not require very
high image quality (for example, in offline work, or in CD-ROM or
Web authoring projects), and higher resolutions when you need excellent image quality. You can also mix different resolutions within the
same project as long as those resolutions are compatible with one
another.
Your Avid application also supports the digitizing and storage of
video that is not processed by a data compression scheme. Uncompressed video conforms to ITU-R 601 standards. The image quality of
uncompressed video is very high, but uncompressed files require very
large amounts of drive space.
369
This appendix describes the different resolutions and lists their specifications. It also explains how to estimate the drive space you will
require to store your digitized media. This appendix includes the following sections:
n
•
Screen Resolution
•
Compression and Resolutions
•
Storage Requirements
•
Maximizing Drive Space
The resolutions available on your Avid system depend on its model and
options.
Screen Resolution
The screen resolution for the Avid application is different for NTSC
and for PAL:
•
NTSC resolution is 720 x 486 non-square pixels covering all the
active video. The stored media includes 10 lines of blanking or
VITC per frame (5 lines per field).
•
PAL resolution is 720 x 576 non-square pixels covering all the
active video. The stored media includes 16 lines of blanking or
vertical interval timecode (VITC) per frame (8 lines per field).
Compression and Resolutions
The Avid application uses a simple notation — x:1 — to identify the
resolutions it supports. The value of x indicates the level of compression that is applied to the image data. For example, a 3:1 compression
ratio compresses the original data to one-third of its uncompressed
size.
370
A lower compression ratio (a lower number to the left of the colon)
results in better image quality but requires more drive space to store
the digitized media. A lower compression ratio might also require
drive striping to keep up with the high volume of data.
Mixing Resolutions
In a single sequence, you can mix resolutions within a group, but you
cannot mix resolutions from different groups. Table B-1 lists the five
groups of resolutions.
Table B-1
Resolution Groups
NTSC 30i and PAL 25i Projects
24p Projects
Single-Field
Two-Field
Uncompressed
(Interlaced)
Progressive
Uncompressed
(Progressive)
15:1s
4:1s
2:1s
20:1
10:1
3:1
2:1
1:1
35:1
28:1
14:1
3:1
2:1
1:1
For example, in an NTSC 30i project, you can mix 10:1 and 2:1 because
both are two-field resolutions. However, you cannot mix 15:1s with
2:1.
You cannot mix uncompressed video (1:1) with any of the compressed
video formats, and you cannot mix interlaced resolutions with progressive resolutions.
371
Mixing resolutions in a sequence saves time and effort in a variety of
circumstances:
•
You can do most of your work at a resolution that can play back
real-time effects, digitizing only the most complex shots and
graphics at a high-quality, single-stream resolution.
•
For storage and playback efficiency, you can digitize complex footage at the draft-quality online resolution and edit it along with
other online resolutions.
•
You can avoid some redigitizing by importing complex graphics at
a high-quality resolution and digitizing the remaining footage at
draft quality during the offline phase. However, you cannot mix
uncompressed graphics (1:1) with footage digitized at other resolutions.
•
You can exchange material between projects with a minimum of
redigitizing.
•
You can develop material among workstations at different resolutions and bring the material together for a final cut without redigitizing.
For any limitations concerning playback with mixed resolutions, see
the release notes for your Avid system.
Resolution Groups and Image Quality
Although it is generally true that a lower compression ratio means
higher image quality, the resolution group itself (single-field,
two-field, progressive, or uncompressed) is also a factor in the quality
of the final image.
Single-field resolutions work with smaller amounts of original image
data than two-field or progressive resolutions. They use only half the
image width of two-field resolutions, and they use only one of the two
fields in the standard video signal.
372
For example, there is a 2:1 resolution for both single-field and
two-field resolutions. In both cases, the image data is compressed to
one-half of its original size. However, the image quality of these two
resolutions is different. The single-field 2:1 resolution has lower image
quality because it processes only one-quarter of the original image
data used by the two-field 2:1 resolution.
Video Streams
Whenever you have more than one video track, or a transition effect
on a single track, you have two streams of data (“dual streams”). Some
effects create a second stream. When you render effects, you combine
two streams into one. Two streams demand a significantly higher
throughput than one stream. Sometimes, drive striping is required to
accommodate two streams, even though a single stream at the same
resolution would not require striping.
Compression Specifications
For information about
interlaced and progressive media, see
Chapter 2.
n
Table B-2 provides information about the resolutions for interlaced
media (30i NTSC and 25i PAL projects). Table B-3 provides information for progressive media (24p NTSC and 24p PAL projects).
Progressive media is stored as a full frame. For more information, see “How
the Avid System Stores and Displays 24p Media” on page 48.
For information on drive striping requirements for different resolutions, see the release notes for your Avid system and the documentation for your drives.
For detailed guidelines on estimating space requirements, see “Storage Requirements” on page 376.
373
Table B-2
Resolution Specifications: Interlaced
Resolution
Field Size
(Pixels)
15:1s
352 x 248 (NTSC) 1
352 x 296 (PAL)
Offline
352 x 248 (NTSC) 1
352 x 296 (PAL)
Offline
352 x 248 (NTSC) 1
352 x 296 (PAL)
Online
720 x 248 (NTSC) 2
720 x 296 (PAL)
Offline
720 x 248 (NTSC) 2
720 x 296 (PAL)
Offline/online
720 x 248 (NTSC) 2
720 x 296 (PAL)
Online
4:1s
2:1s
20:1
10:1
3:1
374
Fields
per
Frame
Quality
Maximum storage with enough
image detail to make basic editing decisions (you can check lip
sync on a medium shot)
A good storage resolution combined with a good offline image
quality
Provides enough detail for finishing multimedia jobs such as
CD-ROM and Web authoring
Useful for mixing storageefficient offline footage with
online-quality resolutions
A good compromise for
high-quality, two-field offline
or low-quality online that saves
drive space
A medium-quality online
resolution that can sustain
two-stream playback on 2-way
striped drives
Table B-2
Resolution Specifications: Interlaced (Continued)
Resolution
Field Size
(Pixels)
2:1
720 x 248 (NTSC) 2
720 x 296 (PAL)
Online
720 x 248 (NTSC) 2
720 x 296 (PAL)
Online
1:1
(Uncompressed)
Table B-3
28:1
14:1
3:1
Quality
Provides the highest image
quality of any compressed resolution and sustains two-stream
playback on 4-way striped
drives
Provides the highest image
quality possible
Resolution Specifications: Progressive
Resolution Frame Size
(Pixels)
35:1
Fields
per
Frame
Quality
720 x 496 (NTSC)
720 x 592 (PAL)
Offline
720 x 496 (NTSC)
720 x 592 (PAL)
Offline
720 x 496 (NTSC)
720 x 592 (PAL)
Offline
720 x 496 (NTSC)
720 x 592 (PAL)
Online
375
Maximum storage with enough image
detail to make basic editing decisions
Low storage requirements combined with
a good offline image quality
The best offline image quality
A medium-quality online
resolution that can sustain two-stream
playback on 2-way striped drives
Table B-3
Resolution Specifications: Progressive (Continued)
Resolution Frame Size
(Pixels)
2:1
1:1
(Uncompressed)
Quality
720 x 496 (NTSC)
720 x 592 (PAL)
Online
720 x 496 (NTSC)
720 x 592 (PAL)
Online
Provides the highest image quality of any
compressed resolution and sustains
two-stream playback on 4-way striped
drives
Provides the highest image quality possible
Storage Requirements
You should plan the use of drive volumes in advance, especially when
you digitize numerous reels.
This section contains recommendations for achieving efficient storage
for your digital media. It explains how playback performance can be
affected by the way you set up the storage drives and target them
when you digitize.
Estimating Drive Space Requirements
You need to choose a resolution that provides adequate picture quality
for your project. However, you might be limited by the amount of
media drive space available. Before you digitize, estimate your media
drive space requirements.
376
To estimate media drive space requirements:
1. Use Table B-2 or Table B-3 and the information in your media
drive documentation to select a resolution that is compatible with
the drive and striping capacity on your system.
2. Open the Digitize tool, choose a resolution and target drive or
drives, and note the time remaining on the chosen drives (see
“Interpreting the Time-Remaining Display” on page 122.
3. Get a total duration for all the clips to be digitized. Use the Console and the Get Bin Info command, as described in the editing
guide or Help for your Avid system.
4. Use Table B-4 or Table B-5 to estimate your drive space requirements based on the resolution and the number of audio tracks. To
get an estimate of the number of gigabytes needed, do one of the
following:
•
Calculate by dividing the duration of your material (number
of minutes) by the estimated minutes per gigabyte.
•
Calculate by combining storage figures from the “Drive space
Needed for x Minutes of Media” columns as necessary to
match the number of minutes of material you have.
5. Compare the gigabytes available on your drives with the result of
step 4. If your needs are greater than your drive space, choose a
lower resolution and recalculate.
Table B-4 and Table B-5 show estimated drive space requirements for
each resolution, including uncompressed. They show figures for estimated minutes per gigabyte and also figures for the drive space
required for certain amounts of material.
n
The figures in the table represent drive space for video material that includes
typical variations in image complexity. Actual drive space requirements
might vary slightly from these estimates, depending on the overall complexity
of the video you digitize and store.
377
Consider the following when you interpret this information:
•
For 30-fps media (NTSC) and 25-fps media (PAL), the minutes per
gigabyte are approximately the same because PAL video contains
approximately 17 percent fewer frames per second, but each frame
contains approximately 16 percent more pixels.
For 24p media, which uses the same frame rate for both NTSC and
PAL, 24p footage from a PAL transfer requires more storage space.
c
n
•
Figures for audio storage in the table are based on the standard
rates for audio sampling (16 bits per sample, 44.1 kHz). To calculate additional audio storage (for numbers of channels not listed in
the table), add 88.2 KB per second (approximately 5.3 MB per
minute) to your estimate for each additional audio channel.
•
Storage requirements are affected by the number of channels of
audio, not the frequency of the digitized audio signal. The difference in storage requirements between 44.1-kHz and 48-kHz audio
is negligible, while the difference between two or three channels is
more significant, as reflected in the table.
Rolling titles add 1.4 MB (NTSC) or 1.6 MB (PAL) per second to storage requirements. If you are on the upper edge of the requirements
for drive capacity or striping, adding a rolling title might prevent
you from playing real-time material.
Avid recommends that you designate separate drive space for video and audio
when working in uncompressed format. When estimating storage requirements, you need to be aware of the amount of space you have available for
video as distinct from that available for audio. For more information, see your
drive documentation.
378
Table B-4
Estimated Storage Requirements: Interlaced
Resolution
Audio
Tracks
Minutes
per
Gigabyte
Drive Space
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
15:1s
0
48.5
20.6 MB
206 MB
618 MB
1
38.6
25.9 MB
259 MB
777 MB
2
32.1
31.2 MB
312 MB
936 MB
3
28.2
35.5 MB
355 MB
1.07 GB
4
24.5
40.8 MB
408 MB
1.22 GB
8
16.1
62.0 MB
620 MB
1.86 GB
0
11.6
85.8 MB
858 MB
2.57 GB
1
11.0
91.1 MB
911 MB
2.73 GB
2
10.5
95.4 MB
954 MB
2.86 GB
3
9.9
101 MB
1.01 GB
3.03 GB
4
9.4
106 MB
1.06 GB
3.18 GB
8
7.9
127 MB
1.27 GB
3.81 GB
0
5.8
172 MB
1.72 GB
5.16 GB
1
5.7
177 MB
1.77 GB
5.28 GB
2
5.5
182 MB
1.82 GB
5.46 GB
3
5.4
187 MB
1.87 GB
5.61 GB
4
5.2
193 MB
1.93 GB
5.79 GB
4:1s
2:1s
379
Table B-4
Resolution
20:1
10:1
3:1
Estimated Storage Requirements: Interlaced
(Continued)
Audio
Tracks
Minutes
per
Gigabyte
Drive Space
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
8
4.7
214 MB
2.14 GB
6.42 GB
0
16.6
60.1 MB
601 MB
1.80 GB
1
15.3
65.4 MB
654 MB
1.96 GB
2
14.1
70.7 MB
707 MB
2.12 GB
3
13.2
76.0 MB
760 MB
2.28 GB
4
12.3
81.3 MB
813 MB
2.44 GB
8
9.8
103 MB
1.03 GB
3.09 GB
0
8.3
120 MB
1.20 GB
3.60 GB
1
7.9
126 MB
1.26 GB
3.78 GB
2
7.6
131 MB
1.31 GB
3.93 GB
3
7.3
136 MB
1.36 GB
4.08 GB
4
7.2
140 MB
1.40 GB
4.20 GB
8
6.2
161 MB
1.61 GB
4.83 GB
0
2.9
344 MB
3.44 GB
10.32 GB
1
2.9
349 MB
3.49 GB
10.47 GB
2
2.8
354 MB
3.54 GB
10.62 GB
3
2.8
360 MB
3.60 GB
10.80 GB
380
Table B-4
Resolution
2:1
1:1
(Uncompressed)
Estimated Storage Requirements: Interlaced
(Continued)
Audio
Tracks
Minutes
per
Gigabyte
Drive Space
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
4
2.7
365 MB
3.65 GB
10.95 GB
8
2.6
386 MB
3.86 GB
11.58 GB
0
1.9
516 MB
5.16 GB
15.48 GB
1
1.9
521 MB
5.21 GB
15.63 GB
2
1.9
526 MB
5.26 GB
15.78 GB
3
1.9
531 MB
5.31 GB
15.94 GB
4
1.9
537 MB
5.37 GB
16.11 GB
8
1.8
558 MB
5.58 GB
16.74 GB
0
0.8
1.22 GB
12.2 GB
36.6 GB
1
0.8
1.23 GB
12.3 GB
36.9 GB
2
0.8
1.23 GB
12.3 GB
36.9 GB
3
0.8
1.24 GB
12.4 GB
37.2 GB
4
0.8
1.24 GB
12.4 GB
37.2 GB
8
0.8
1.26 GB
12.6 GB
37.8 GB
381
Table B-5
Estimated Storage Requirements: Progressive
Resolution
Audio
Tracks
Minutes per Drive Space
Gigabyte
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
35:1
0
36.4 (NTSC)
30.3 (PAL)
27.5 MB
33.0 MB
275 MB
330 MB
824 MB
990 MB
1
30.5 (NTSC)
26.1 (PAL)
32.8 MB
38.3 MB
328 MB
383 MB
983 MB
1.14 GB
2
26.3 (NTSC)
22.9 (PAL)
38.1 MB
43.6 MB
381 MB
436 MB
1.14 GB
1.30 GB
3
23.1 (NTSC)
20.4 (PAL)
43.4 MB
48.9 MB
434 MB
489 MB
1.30 GB
1.47 GB
4
20.5 (NTSC)
18.4 (PAL)
48.7 MB
54.2 MB
487 MB
542 MB
1.46 GB
1.63 MB
8
14.3 (NTSC)
13.3 (PAL)
69.9 MB
75.4 MB
699 MB
754 MB
2.10 GB
2.26 GB
0
29.1 (NTSC)
24.3 (PAL)
34.4 MB
41.2 MB
344 MB
412 MB
1.03 GB
1.23 GB
1
25.2 (NTSC)
21.5 (PAL)
39.7 MB
46.5 MB
397 MB
465 MB
1.19 GB
1.39 GB
2
22.2 (NTSC)
19.3 (PAL)
45.0 MB
51.8 MB
450 MB
518 MB
1.35 GB
1.55 GB
3
19.9 (NTSC)
17.5 (PAL)
50.3 MB
57.1 MB
503 MB
571 MB
1.51 GB
1.71 GB
4
18.0 (NTSC)
16.0 (PAL)
55.6 MB
62.4 MB
557 MB
624 MB
1.67 GB
1.87 GB
28:1
382
Table B-5
Resolution
14:1
3:1
Estimated Storage Requirements: Progressive
(Continued)
Audio
Tracks
Minutes per Drive Space
Gigabyte
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
8
13.0 (NTSC)
12.0 (PAL)
76.8 MB
83.6 MB
768 MB
836 MB
2.30 GB
2.51 GB
0
14.6 (NTSC)
12.1 (PAL)
68.5 MB
82.6 MB
685 MB
826 MB
2.05 GB
2.48 GB
1
13.6 (NTSC)
11.4 (PAL)
73.8 MB
87.9 MB
738 MB
879 MB
2.21 GB
2.64 GB
2
12.6 (NTSC)
10.7 (PAL)
79.1 MB
93.2 MB
791 MB
932 MB
2.37 GB
2.80 GB
3
11.8 (NTSC)
10.1 (PAL)
84.4 MB
98.5 MB
844 MB
985 MB
2.53 GB
2.96 GB
4
11.1 (NTSC)
9.6 (PAL)
89.7 MB
103 MB
897 MB
1.04 GB
2.69 GB
3.12 GB
8
9.0 (NTSC)
8.0 (PAL)
111 MB
125 MB
1.11 GB
1.25 GB
3.33 GB
3.75 GB
0
3.6 (NTSC)
3.0 (PAL)
278 MB
333 MB
2.78 GB
3.33 GB
8.33 GB
10.0 GB
1
3.5 (NTSC)
3.0 (PAL)
283 MB
339 MB
2.83 GB
3.39 GB
8.49 GB
10.2 GB
2
3.5 (NTSC)
2.9 (PAL)
288 MB
344 MB
2.88 GB
3.44 GB
8.65 GB
10.3 GB
3
3.4 (NTSC)
2.9 (PAL)
294 MB
349 MB
2.94 GB
3.49 GB
8.81 GB
10.5 GB
4
3.3 (NTSC)
2.8 (PAL)
299 MB
355 MB
2.99 GB
3.55 GB
8.97 GB
10.6 GB
383
Table B-5
Resolution
2:1
1:1
(Uncompressed)
Estimated Storage Requirements: Progressive
(Continued)
Audio
Tracks
Minutes per Drive Space
Gigabyte
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
8
3.1 (NTSC)
2.7 (PAL)
320 MB
376 MB
3.20 GB
3.76 GB
9.61 GB
11.3 GB
0
2.4 (NTSC)
2.0 (PAL)
417 MB
500 MB
4.17 GB
5.00 GB
12.5 GB
15.0 GB
1
2.4 (NTSC)
2.0 (PAL)
422 MB
505 MB
4.22 GB
5.05 GB
12.7 GB
15.2 GB
2
2.3 (NTSC)
2.0 (PAL)
427 MB
510 MB
4.27 GB
5.11 GB
12.8 GB
15.3 GB
3
2.3 (NTSC)
1.9 (PAL)
433 MB
516 MB
4.33 GB
5.16 GB
13.0 GB
15.5 GB
4
2.3 (NTSC)
1.9 (PAL)
438 MB
521 MB
4.38 GB
5.21 GB
13.1 GB
15.6 GB
8
2.2 (NTSC)
1.8 (PAL)
459 GB
542 GB
4.59 GB
5.42 GB
13.8 GB
16.3 GB
0
1.0 (NTSC)
0.9 (PAL)
1.00 GB
1.15 GB
10.0 GB
11.5 GB
30.0 GB
34.5 GB
1
1.0 (NTSC)
0.9 (PAL)
1.01 GB
1.15 GB
10.1 GB
11.5 GB
30.3 GB
34.6 GB
2
1.0 (NTSC)
0.9 (PAL)
1.01 GB
1.16 GB
10.1 GB
11.6 GB
30.3 GB
34.8 GB
3
1.0 (NTSC)
0.9 (PAL)
1.02 GB
1.17 GB
10.2 GB
11.7 GB
30.6 GB
35.1 GB
384
Table B-5
Resolution
Estimated Storage Requirements: Progressive
(Continued)
Audio
Tracks
Minutes per Drive Space
Gigabyte
Needed for
1 Minute of
Media
Drive Space
Needed for
10 Minutes
of Media
Drive Space
Needed for
30 Minutes
of Media
4
1.0 (NTSC)
0.9 (PAL)
1.02 GB
11.7 GB
10.2 GB
11.7 GB
30.6 GB
35.1 GB
8
1.0 (NTSC)
0.8 (PAL)
1.04 GB
1.19 GB
10.4 GB
11.9 GB
31.3 GB
35.8 GB
Maximizing Drive Space
If your media drive space is limited or you are digitizing a large
amount of source material, follow these suggestions to maximize your
usage of the media drive space:
For more information
on batch digitizing and
redigitizing, see “Batch
Digitizing from
Logged Clips” on
page 179.
•
Digitize only the audio channels required for the edit.
•
Log in advance. Batch digitize only the footage required for the
edit.
•
Digitize at a lower resolution for editing. Redigitize only the clips
included in the final cut at a higher resolution.
385
Managing Storage to Improve Playback Performance
The way you set up the media drives and target them when you digitize can affect playback performance. Here are some suggestions for
working with complex video images at high resolution, multiple video
layers, or multicamera material:
•
For more effective playback of multiple streams of video at higher
resolutions, stripe the media drives. Some resolutions require drive
striping; see the release notes for your Avid system and the documentation for your drives.
•
For more effective playback of multiple streams of video at higher
resolutions without drive striping, distribute the video tracks as
evenly as possible among available drives, and target separate
drives for audio and video.
•
Try to target one volume per reel.
386
APPENDIX C
Avid Log Specifications
This section explains the Avid log file format. The Avid application can
import logs that meet Avid log specifications. These logs must follow
the formatting requirements.
Table C-1 lists the log formats that can be imported directly into the
Avid application. You can use a text editor to adapt other log formats
so that they meet Avid log specifications.
387
Table C-1
Compatible Log Formats
Log
Requirements
File Name Extension
AatonBase
Conversion required
.ATN or .ATL
Avid Logs
Create with text editor
and import directly
.ALE
CMX EDL
Conversion required
.CMX
Evertz
Import directly
(conversion optional)
.FTL
Excalibur
Conversion required
.ALE or .FLX
FLEx
Conversion required
.FLX
Keyscope
Import directly
.KSL
Log Producer
Conversion required
.LLP
Log right
Import directly
.ALE
OSC/R
Conversion required
.ASC
Understanding Avid Log Specifications
This section contains tables that show how to enter headings and data
to create an Avid log. The tables use the following conventions:
•
<A supported value> is surrounded by angle brackets. <Alternative supported values> appear underneath, also in angle brackets.
You must enter exactly one of these values. For example, <29.97>
is one of the supported values for the FPS heading; to specify that
value, type 29.97.
•
<A variable data value> is also surrounded by angle brackets. For
example, <time code> is the data entry for the Start heading; type
388
the correct timecode, in the format 08:19:10:00 (or
08;19;10;00, for drop-frame timecode).
•
[Tab] and [Enter] keys are surrounded by standard brackets.
•
The fifth column contains the word “Required” if the heading
must be included in the log.
•
The final column contains notes about the heading or values.
The following is a sample heading from the format table:
FPS
[Tab]
<25>
<29.97>
[Enter]
Required
Capture rate is 25 fps for PAL and
29.97 fps for NTSC video.
Note that FPS is a required heading. The information in this sample
tells how to make a log entry for the FPS heading:
1. Type FPS.
2. Press the Tab key.
3. Type one of the supported values (25 or 29.97).
4. Press the Enter key.
Describing an Avid Log File
An Avid log is composed of three or four sections, in this order:
•
Global headings
•
Standard column headings
•
Custom column headings (optional)
•
Data headings
389
The tables in this section adhere to this order. When you create an Avid
log, you must follow the order precisely.
You can choose not to display a defined heading (including a required
heading), except for Name. Name must always be displayed.
The maximum number of combined global, standard, and custom
headings in a log file is 64.
Global Headings
The global headings must come first in an Avid log file, and you must
enter one value for each heading.
Table C-2 shows the format for the global headings and the supported
values for each heading.
390
Table C-2
Avid Log Global Headings
GLOBAL HEADINGS: Global headings are case sensitive and must be spelled exactly as shown.
Include all required headings. Other headings are optional but might be necessary for your project.
The maximum number of combined global, standard, and custom headings in a log file is 64.
Heading
FIELD_DELIM
[Tab]
<TABS>
VIDEO_FORMAT
[Tab]
<NTSC>
<PAL>
AUDIO_FORMAT
[Tab]
[Enter]
Required
This marks the start of the global headings.
[Enter]
Required
Enter TABS to show that the file
is Tab delimited.
[Enter]
Required
<22 kHz>
<24 kHz>
<44 kHz>
<48 kHz>
[Enter]
[Enter]
Required
Name of the videotape reel you
are logging. If you omit this
heading, the file name becomes
the global tape name. You can
override this for individual
clips.
[Enter]
Required
Capture rate is 25 fps for PAL
and 29.97 fps for NTSC video.
TAPE
[Tab]
<Tape
Name>
FPS
[Tab]
<25>
<29.97>
[Enter]
391
Audio sampling rate for digitizing. You can override this for
individual clips.
Press Enter a second time after
entering the FPS value. This
marks the end of the global
headings.
Column Headings
The standard column headings appear after the global headings in the
Avid log file. Note that you do not enter the data for a column heading
along with the heading. You will enter the data later, in a separate data
section.
You must include the five required standard column headings; they
are listed first in Table C-3.
You can create your own custom column headings. Enter them after
the standard headings (see the last heading in this table). To create a
custom heading, substitute the custom heading name for
<Your_heading>. You can create several custom headings, as long as
the total of global, standard, and custom headings does not exceed 64.
Table C-3
Avid Log Column Headings
COLUMN HEADINGS: Column headings are case sensitive and must be spelled exactly as shown.
Note that the first five headings are required. Other headings are optional but might be necessary for
your project. The maximum number of combined global, standard, and custom headings in a log file
is 64.
Column
[Enter]
Required
Indicates the start of the column headings.
Name
[Tab]
Required
Heading for clip name.
Tracks
[Tab]
Required
Heading for tracks you select for digitizing.
Start
[Tab]
Required
Heading for video timecode of sync point — the timecode IN for clip. From address track of video.
End
[Tab]
Required
Heading for timecode OUT for clip. From address
track of video.
AUDIO_FORMAT
[Tab]
Heading for audio sampling rate for digitizing the
individual clip. If omitted, the global entry for
AUDIO_FORMAT applies.
392
Table C-3
Avid Log Column Headings (Continued)
Auxiliary TC1
[Tab]
Heading for auxiliary timecode.
Auxiliary TC2
[Tab]
Heading for auxiliary timecode.
Auxiliary TC3
[Tab]
Heading for auxiliary timecode.
Auxiliary TC4
[Tab]
Heading for auxiliary timecode.
Auxiliary TC5
[Tab]
Heading for auxiliary timecode.
CFPS
[Tab]
Heading for video capture rate for digitizing the individual clip. If omitted, the global entry applies.
Color Framing
[Tab]
Creation Date
[Tab]
Heading for date of clip creation.
Disk
[Tab]
Heading for target disk ID.
Duration
[Tab]
Heading for timecode Start to timecode End, the
length of the video clip.
FPS
[Tab]
Heading for video frames per second rate for digitizing the individual clip (NTSC = 29.97, PAL = 25). If
omitted, the global entry applies.
IN-OUT
[Tab]
Heading for duration between clip’s mark IN and
mark OUT (if present).
Mark IN
[Tab]
Heading for timecode of clip’s mark IN (if present).
Mark OUT
[Tab]
Heading for timecode of clip’s mark OUT (if present).
Offline
[Tab]
Heading for tracks currently without digitized media
files online.
Tape
[Tab]
Heading for source tape ID for the individual clip. If
omitted, the global entry applies.
Video
[Tab]
Heading for video resolution.
393
Table C-3
Avid Log Column Headings (Continued)
Labroll
[Tab]
Heading for lab roll ID for clip. Lab rolls are a combination of several camera rolls.
Camroll
[Tab]
Heading for camera roll ID for clip.
Sound TC
[Tab]
Heading for Nagra time code, Aaton code, Arri code,
and so on, at the sync point. Syncs with the Start timecode. Required if tracking the sync sound. Capture
rate can be 25 or 30 fps.
Soundroll
[Tab]
Heading for sound roll ID for clip.
Scene
[Tab]
Heading for scene ID for clip.
Take
[Tab]
Heading for take ID for clip.
TC 24
[Tab]
Heading for 24-fps timecode
TC 25P
[Tab]
Heading for 25-fps timecode with pulldown
TC 25
]Tab]
Heading for 25-fps timecode
TC 30
[Tab]
Heading for 30-fps timecode
DESCRIPT
[Tab]
Heading for description of clip.
COMMENTS
[Tab]
Heading for comments about clip.
<Your_heading>
[Tab]
Press the Tab key between each heading. Do not press
the Tab key after the last heading. Add any category
of information you want. Add as many headings as
you want, but do not use more than a total of 64 global
and column headings in the file.
[Enter]
[Enter]
Press Enter twice (not Tab) after the last heading.
394
Data Headings
Some data, such as Creation Date, is gathered
by the system.
Table C-4 does not
include entries for such
data.
The data headings come after the Custom column headings. Table C-4
shows the format for entering data. Enter a line of data in this format
for every clip. Be sure to start the data section for each clip with the
word Data [Enter].
You must enter data so that it aligns with its column heading. For
example, the data that goes with the ninth column heading must be
the ninth data entry.
Be sure to enter data for all the required values. To leave a data position unfilled, press the Tab key instead of typing data. Press Enter at
the end of each line.
395
Table C-4
Avid Log Data Headings
DATA HEADINGS: The word Data marks the start of the data for each clip.
Data
[Enter]
Required
Enter the word Data to mark the start of the logged clip
entries.
DATA FOR EACH CLIP: Enter a line of data for each clip. Enter the data so that it aligns with its column
heading. (The data that goes with the ninth column heading must be the ninth data entry.) Be sure to
enter data for all the required values. To leave a data position unfilled, press the Tab key instead of typing data. Press Enter at the end of each line. Note that your Avid system supports up to four audio tracks
in imported and exported logs.
<clip name>
[Tab]
Required
Under Name heading. Enter a clip identifier (32 characters maximum).
[Tab]
Required
Under Tracks heading. Enter the tracks you want digitized for the clip. Enter V for MOS takes. Enter A1, A2, or
A1A2 for wild sound.
<V>
<VA1>
<VA2>
<VA1A2>
<A1A2>
<A1>
<A2>
<22 kHz>
<24 kHz>
<44 kHz>
<48 kHz>
[Tab]
Under AUDIO_FORMAT heading. Enter the audio
sampling rate for this clip only. If omitted, global entry
applies.
396
Table C-4
<Source tape ID>
Avid Log Data Headings (Continued)
[Tab]
Under Tape heading. Enter the source videotape ID for
this clip only.
<29.97>
[Tab]
Under FPS heading. Enter the video capture rate for this
clip only. If omitted, global entry applies. Use 25 fps for
PAL video or 29.97 fps for NTSC video.
<time code>
[Tab]
Required
Under Start heading. Enter the video timecode for sync
point, the first frame in clip. Use colons for
non-drop-frame (for example, 01:00:12:20). Use one or
more semicolons for drop-frame (for example,
01;18;00;02).
<time code>
[Tab]
Required
Under End heading. Enter the video timecode for the last
frame of clip.
<time code>
[Tab]
Under Duration heading. Enter the length of the video
clip, Start to End.
<lab roll ID>
[Tab]
Under Labroll heading. Identify the lab roll using letters
and numbers.
<camera roll ID>
[Tab]
Under Camroll heading. Identify the camera roll using
letters and numbers.
<time code>
[Tab]
Under Auxiliary TC heading. Enter a Nagra timecode,
Aaton code, Arri code, and so on, for the sync point.
Syncs with the Start timecode.
<Sound roll ID>
[Tab]
Under Soundroll heading. Identify the sound roll using
letters and numbers.
<scene ID>
[Tab]
Under Scene heading. Identify the scene using letters and
numbers.
<take ID>
[Tab]
Under Take heading. Identify the take using letters and
numbers.
<clip description>
[Tab]
Under DESCRIPT heading. Describe the clip.
<25>
397
Table C-4
Avid Log Data Headings (Continued)
<clip comments>
[Tab]
Under COMMENTS heading. Comment on the clip.
<information>
[Tab]
Press the Tab key between each heading. Do not press the
Tab key after last heading. Under the headings you created yourself, type the appropriate information.
[Enter]
Press Enter (not Tab) after the last entry for the clip.
Enter an additional line of data for each remaining clip.
Sample Avid Log
This section contains a sample Avid log for an NTSC video project.
Formatting keys (such as [Tab] and [Enter]) are shown in brackets.
Heading [Enter]
FIELD_DELIM [Tab] TABS [Enter]
VIDEO_FORMAT [Tab] NTSC [Enter]
AUDIO_FORMAT [Tab] 44kHz [Enter]
TAPE [Tab] 001 [Enter]
FPS [Tab] 29.97 [Enter]
[Enter]
Column [Enter]
Name [Tab] Tracks [Tab] Start [Tab] End [Enter]
[Enter]
Data [Enter]
CU Josh & Mary [Tab] V [Tab] 01:00:00:00 [Tab] 01:15:05:00 [Enter]
CU Josh [Tab] VA1 [Tab] 01:15:06:00 [Tab] 01:20:00:00 [Enter]
398
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY
Numerics
A
16:9 format 52, 94
2:3 pulldown
transferring film to video with 40
24-fps film
transferring to NTSC video 39 to 45
transferring to PAL video 45 to 48
24p media
described 17
digitizing without pulldown 179
stored and displayed 48
24p projects
output formats 274
planning 22
starting 18
25i projects
starting 18
30i projects
starting 18
3-perf support 282
4-perf support 282
8 x 8 audio interface See Audio I/O device
8-channel audio I/O device
adjusting output on 256
calibrating 142
Add Channel button (Deck Configuration
dialog box) 101
Add Deck button (Deck Configuration dialog
box) 103
Adding a memory mark 74
Adding clip names
during digitizing 166
Adding comments
during digitizing 166
Adding locators
during digitizing 165
Adjust Deck command (Deck Selection pop-up
menu) 115, 264
Adjusting audio input levels 140
Adjusting chrominance settings
for video output 248
Adjusting luminance settings
for video output 247
Adjusting output
on eight-channel audio systems 256
Adjusting phase control
for video output 251
Adjusting reference level
in the Audio tool 137
Adjusting video levels 147 to 159
for tapes without color bars 158
399
setup, in the Audio tool 135
storage requirements 378
timecode for shoots 35
workflows 29
Audio Engineering Society/European
Broadcast Union (AES/EBU) See AES/
EBU
Audio File format
selecting 129
Audio File Format pop-up menu 97
Audio file types
importing 221
Audio files
formats for 364
Audio I/O device
adjusting output on 256
calibrating 142
Audio input
preparing for 129
Audio input levels
adjusting 140
calibrating for audio I/O device 143
Audio output
calibrating 253 to 259
preparing for 253
Audio peak levels
checking 145
Audio Project Settings dialog box 132
Audio sample rate
in Compression tool 108
Audio settings
Digital Format options 134
Input Source option 134
Sync Mode option 134
Audio Setup display See Audio tool
Audio sync
on input 131, 134
on output 242
with work print 36
Audio tone media
creating 141
AES/EBU (Audio Engineering Society/
European Broadcast Union) digital format
defined 134
AIFF-C file format
brief description of 364
ALE (Avid Log Exchange)
converting shot log files with 54
Alias file format
brief description of 353
import specifications for 356
Alpha channel
adding to a graphics image 355
defined 356
in imported animation 361
options in Import settings 219
support in graphics formats 356
Alter Timecode dialog box 86
Animation codec (QuickTime) 301
Annotate feature 166
Anti-aliased images 355
ASCII file format
importing Avid logs 63
Aspect Ratio options (Import settings) 216
Assemble-edit recording 258
enabling in Deck Preferences 260
Assembling takes 36
Asset manager
exporting clips to 321
importing clips from 230
Audio
See also Audio tool
and digital cuts 279
checking quality for multicamera 210
eight-channel input 129
format heading in Avid logs 392
input levels, adjusting 140
managing for multicamera productions 201
media for shoots 34
options in Export settings 299
requirements for film transfers 98, 118
sample rates, setting 133
400
Avid logs
See also Shot log files
audio format heading in 392
clip data in 395
creating 62, 389
custom headings in 392
data headings in 395
Evertz format 388
formatting guidelines 388
fps (frames per second) heading in 393
global headings in 390
importing 387
importing ASCII file format 63
keyscope format 388
log right format 388
sample created with text editor 398
specifications 388
standard headings in 392
timecode headings in 393
Avid MCXpress for Windows NT
importing files from 366
Avid QuickTime codec
described 324
exporting with 326
installing on other systems 325
Avid-controlled deck
logging with an 70
AvidNet
See also AvidNet Transfer Tool User’s Guide
transferring files with 347
Audio tool
Calibrate mode 143
checking input levels with 140
digital scale, defined 136
features, described 135
Peak Hold option, choosing 139
reference level, adjusting 137
resizing 137
Setup options 135
volume meters, defined 136
volume unit scale, defined 136
Audio Tool command (Tools menu) 135
Audio-only input
establishing sync for 131
Audio-only output 279
Auto-configure command (Deck Selection
pop-up menu) 115, 264
Autodigitizing 173
multicamera material 206
Automatic logging 52
Auxiliary timecode headings
in Avid logs 393
AVI (Audio Video Interleave) export
compression options 306
with Avid AVI codec 335
with other codecs 345
AVI codecs
See also Avid AVI codec, Compressor
options
exporting with other supported 345
supported 306
AVI file format
brief description 360
frames per second rate for export 299
import and export specifications for 363
Avid AVI codec
described 335
exporting with 337
installing on other systems 336
Avid Log Exchange See ALE
B
Bars and tone
recording to tape 259
Batch Digitize command (Clip menu) 183, 190
Batch Digitize dialog box 183
Batch Digitize options (Digitize Settings dialog
box) 182
Batch digitizing
401
adjusting for video output 248
See also Autodigitizing, Digitizing,
Redigitizing
from logged clips 179
options 184
preparing for 179
procedure 183
Batch Import command (Clip menu) 232
Batch importing See Reimporting files
Best-light transfers
defined 51
Bins
checking for multicamera 209
displaying film columns in 77
logging directly into 68 to 76
modifying clip information in 85
preparing for digitizing 162
targeting for digitizing 120
transferring
with MediaLog 64
Bit depth
defined 356
Black level
adjusting for input 154
adjusting for output 247
Blue-only feature 248
BMP file format
additional export options 308
brief description of 353
import specifications for 356
Burn-in code 52
Buttons
Add Channel (Deck Configuration dialog
box) 101
Add Deck (Deck Configuration
dialog box) 103
In/Out (Audio tool) 136
Output Control (Audio tool) 136
Preset (Video tools) 148, 244
Reset Peak (Audio tool) 136
BY Gain slider
adjusting for video input 156
C
Calibrate command (Peak Hold pop-up menu)
143
Calibrating
audio I/O device 142
audio output 255
global levels 253
of digital cut 254
video input 150
table of luminance settings 155
with vectorscope 155
with Waveform monitor 153
video output 243
advanced procedures 249
basic procedures 244
using passthrough signals 251
using test patterns 250
Calibration tone
creating media for 141
setting 254
Camroll data 84
Capture mode
entering 111
CCIR See ITU-R 601
Change lists
using FilmScribe to create 284
Changing bin information 85
Changing clip information
before digitizing 85
Changing default pulldown frame 280
Channel dialog box 101
Channel selection buttons (Digitize tool) 117
Check Decks command (Deck Selection pop-up
menu) 115
Check list
for preparing hardware before digitizing 94
for preparing to digitize 160
402
Compression
defined 369
in relation to drive space 369
in relation to image quality 369
Compression command (Tools menu) 110
Compression options
AVI 306
QuickTime 301
Compression ratios
See also Video resolutions
defined 370
mixing 371
Compression tool 108
Compressor options
AVI codecs 306
QuickTime codecs 301
Configuring decks 100
Console
checking peak audio levels with 145
logging digitizing errors to 163
Console command (Tools menu) 146
Consumer-grade video deck
digitizing from 153
Control track breaks, digitizing across 181
Control track, using for preroll 127
Converting shot log files
using Avid Log Exchange 55
using drag-and-drop conversion 60
Countdown
customizing 261
in a digital cut 261
Crash recording See Manual recording
Creating
Avid log files 62
subclips during digitizing 164, 164
tone media 141
Custom countdown display
creating 265
Custom headings
in Avid logs 392
Custom preroll
Chrominance settings
adjusting for video input 156
adjusting for video output 248
Chyron file format
brief description of 353
import specifications for 356
Cineon file format
additional Export options 308
brief description of 353
import specifications for 356
Cinepak codec (AVI) 306
Cinepak codec (QuickTime) 302
Clip data
in Avid logs 395
Clip information
modifications table 88
Clips
See also Master clips, Subclips
batch digitizing 183
deleting extra multicamera 210
exporting 315
modifying information in 85
relinking by key number 192
replacing missing 209
Codecs See AVI codecs, QuickTime codecs
Color bars
See also Bars and tone
types of 152
Color option (QuickTime) 305
Color rate
choosing 110
Column headings
in Avid log file 392
Comments
adding during digitizing 166
Compatability requirements
See also Avid Products Collaboration Guide
for transferring projects between
systems 348
Component Video codec (QuickTime) 302
403
selecting 123
Cut lists
using FilmScribe to create 284
using when redigitizing 188
using while reimporting files 236
Default pulldown frame
changing the 280
Deinterlacing 48
Deleting
deck configurations 106
Destination bins
choosing 120
Destination drives
selecting 121
Destination Size options (Export settings) 298
Device Code option (VTR Emulation settings)
D
D1 VTR
calibrating input from 147
recording to 245
Dailies
viewing 35
DAT See Digital audiotape
Data headings
in Avid log file 395
Deck Configuration settings
Add Channel options 101
adjusting 100
deleting elements in 106
Deck controller
in Digital Cut tool 262, 264
Deck Preferences settings
description 106
for assemble-edit recording 260
Deck Selection pop-up menu 115
Digital Cut tool 264
Digitize tool 115
Deck settings
Fast Cue option 105
for configuring decks 103, 115, 264
Preroll option 105
Decks
configuring 100
digitizing from consumer-grade 153
digitizing from non-Avid-controlled 175
for digital cut 263
logging with Avid-controlled 70
logging with non-Avid-controlled 74
poll deck option 108
selecting 115
Decompose feature 188
285
Dialog boxes
Alter Timecode 86
Batch Digitize 183
Import file(s) into bin 66
Digidesign hardware
See Audio I/O device
Digital audiotape (DAT)
digitizing from 94, 118
Digital Betacam VTR
calibrating input from 147
recording to 245
Digital Cut command (Output menu) 262
Digital Cut tool
24p output formats 274
deck controller in 262
selecting decks from 263
Digital cuts
audio-only 279
previewing 261
Record options 270
recording 261 to 281
Digital Format options (Audio Settings dialog
box) 134
Digital scale (Audio tool)
defined 136
Digital sync signal
checking for 132
404
Digitize command (Tools menu) 70
Digitize settings
Batch Digitize options 182
General Digitize options 95
Digitize tool
logging with 70
resizing 180
resolution, choosing 120
setting up 113
subclip status in 164
Digitizing 161 to 196
See also Autodigitizing, Batch digitizing,
Redigitizing
across control track breaks 181
across timecode breaks 127
adding clip names during 166
adding comments (annotating) during 166
adding locators during 165
and logging at the same time 167 to 174
audio 118
creating subclips during 164
film transfers, minimum information for 77
from a mark IN to a mark OUT 168
from a non-Avid-controlled deck 175
modifying clip information before 85
multicamera material 206
on-the-fly 170, 171
preparing for 93 to 160
Audio Tool setup 135 to 145
Compression tool setup 108
deck selection 115
Digitize Tool setup 113
hardware considerations 94
resolution selection 120
settings selection 95
source track selection 117
tape selection 115
targeting bins 120
targeting drives 121
video input 147 to 159
preparing hardware before 94
setting custom preroll 123
setting only one mark 170
sources for 95
storage guidelines 376
to multiple media files 124
to the Timeline 177
using time-of-day timecode 177
video transferred without pulldown 179
workflow for multicamera projects 204
Displaying 24p media
during a digital cut 49
while editing 49
Displaying film columns 77
Dominance
described 367
Export Settings options 298
Import Settings options 218
Downconversion
24p to SDTV 26
HDTV to SDTV 19
Drag-and-drop method
for converting files to ALE format 60
for exporting files 318
for exporting files with OMM 321
for importing files 226
Drive Filtering Based on Resolution option 97
Drive Filtering option (General Settings dialog
box) 97
Drive space
estimating for audio 378
for rolling titles 378
managing to improve playback performance
386
maximizing use of 385
NTSC/PAL equivalency for estimating 378
planning 376
Drive striping
in relation to resolutions 373
Drives
selecting for digitizing 121
striped for digitzing 94
405
Dominance options 298
how to use 297
ITU-R 601 video levels 299
options 291 to 300
options for specific file types 307
RGB graphics levels 299
Video Compression options 301
Export Settings dialog box
adjusting parameters in 291
options 291 to 294
Exporting clips with OMM
drag-and-drop method for 321
menu-command method for 322
Exporting files
See also Avid Products Collaboration Guide
overview 289
preparing for 311
preparing for OMF export 311
procedure for 315
reasons for 289
using drag-and-drop method for 318
with Avid AVI codec
described 335
from third-party application 345
procedure for 337
settings for 340
with Avid QuickTime codec
described 324
from third-party application 334
procedure for 326
settings for 329
Exporting shot log files 89
External drive See Media drive
E
Edit controller
with VTR play emulation 285
Edit decision list
See EDL
EDL (edit decision list)
See also Avid EDL Manager User’s Guide
creating 281
described 281
Eight-channel audio I/O device
calibrating 142
Eight-channel audio systems
adjusting input on 129
adjusting output on 256, 256
slot number, in Audio Project Settings dialog
box 133
Enable Track buttons (Digital Cut tool) 262
Entering
additional film data 84
ink numbers 84
key numbers 82
optional timecodes 83
pulldown of the sync point 79
Entering frames-per-second rates
for PAL transfers 82
ERIMovie file format
additional export options 308
brief description 360
import specifications for 361
Errors
logged during digitizing 163
viewing digitizing errors in the Console 163
Estimating drive space requirements 376
Events in an EDL
defined 281
Evertz log format 388
Export settings 299
Audio options 299
creating 290
Destination Size options 298
F
Factory preset buttons
in Video Input tool 148
in Video Output tool 244
Fast Cue option (Deck settings) 105
406
Film dailies method
defined 35
illustrated 36
Film settings 98
Film speed
slowing to 23.976 fps 42
Film Type for shoots 34
Film Wind for shoots 34
FilmScribe application
See also Avid FilmScribe User’s Guide
accessing 284
Film-to-tape transfer
audio requirements for NTSC 118
guidelines for 50
methods 38 to 52
options for 51
settings for 98
fps (frames per second)
and storage requirements 378
heading in Avid logs 393
Frame-accurate recording 258
Frames
exporting 289
Frames versus fields
described 40
Frames-per-second rates for PAL 82, 82
Framestore file format
brief description of 353
import specifications for 357
FTFT (film-tape-film-tape) feature
described 192
Full-screen image size
defined 355
Function keys
available when digitizing 163
locators mapped to 165
Field dominance
described 367
Export Settings options 298
Import Settings options 218
recommended settings 367
Fields versus frames
described 40
Files
See also Avid Products Collaboration Guide
exporting
procedure for 315
reasons for 289
using Avid AVI codec for 335 to 345
using Avid QuickTime codec for 324 to
334
using drag-and-drop method 318
importing
guidelines for 213
mixed resolutions 213
procedure for 222
using drag-and-drop method 226
reimporting 231
specifications for importing animation 360
specifications for importing graphics 355
specifications for importing OMFI 365
Film
columns, displaying 77
data, entering 84
information, logging 77
minimum information for digitizing 77
project workflow 23
shoot specifications 34
timecodes, entering 83
transferring to NTSC 39
transferring to PAL 45
Film Composer systems
transferring project files between 350
transferring projects and media files
between 349
Film cut lists
generating 284
G
General Digitize options (Digitize Settings
407
dialog box) 95
General settings (General Settings dialog box)
Image quality
for interlaced compression ratios 374
for progressive compression ratios 375
Image sizes
NTSC and PAL compared 22
Import command (File menu) 66
Import files into bin dialog box 66
Import settings
Alpha Channel options 219
Aspect Ratio options 216
creating 214
Dominance options 218
ITU-R 601 video levels 219
OMFI Resolutions options 221
options 216
RGB graphics levels 218
Shot Log options 220
Importing clips with OMM 230
Importing files 212 to 240
See also Reimporting files
before you begin 213, 213
guidelines for 213
in mixed-resolution projects 213
preparing for 355
procedure for 222
specifications for audio files 364
specifications for graphics files 355
specifications for OMF files 364
using drag-and-drop method 226
Importing shot log files 66
97
Global headings
in Avid log file 390
Global settings
Export 290
Go To Capture Mode command (Bin menu) 111
Graphics (image) files
import specifications 355
importing 221
preparing for import of 355
supported formats 353
Graphics codec (QuickTime) 302
Guidelines
for film-to-tape transfers 50
for logging 68
for naming tapes 69
H
Hard recording See Manual recording
Hard subclips 165
Hardware check list
before digitizing 94
HDTV
using 16:9 format for 94
workflow with 24p source 26
workflow with downconversion 19
Hue slider
adjusting for video input 156
adjusting for video output 248
In/Out buttons (Audio tool)
defined 136
Infinite Hold option (Audio tool) 140
Inhibit Preloading option (VTR Emulation
settings) 286
Ink numbers
entering 84
Input Source options (Audio Project Settings
dialog box) 134
Insert-edit recording 258
I
IFF file format
brief description of 353
import specifications for 357
408
Logging 53 to 92
and digitizing at the same time 167 to 174
automatic 52
bypassing by autodigitizing 173
directly into a bin
with a non-Avid-controlled deck 74
with an Avid-controlled deck 70
errors during digitizing 163
film information 77
guidelines for 68
multicamera material 206
preroll 68
timecode 68
tips for multicamera material 207
Logs See Shot log files
Longitudinal timecode (LTC) output 243
LTC (longitudinal timecode) output 243
Luminance settings
adjusting for video input 154
adjusting for video output 247
table of 247
with pulldown 278
Installing
Avid AVI codec on other systems 336
Avid QuickTime codec on other systems 325
Interlaced resolutions
specifications for 374
storage requirements for 379
Interlacing 40
ITU-R 601
video levels for export 299
video levels for import 219
video standards 369
J
JPEG file format
additional Export options for 308
brief description of 353
import specifications for 357
K
M
Key numbers
entering 82
formats for 82
relinking clips by 192
Keykode format 82
Keyscope log format 388
Maintaining synchronized sound 43
Manual recording 258
Mark In Time option (Digital Cut tool) 270
Marking tape location
using Mark Memory button 74
Marquee
importing materials finished with 231
Master clips
redigitizing 186
Matchback option
described 282
limitations 284
Matte-key effects
reimporting 240
Maximizing drive space 385
Media Composer systems
L
Labroll data 84
Line slider (Waveform monitor) 154
Locators
adding during digitizing 165
mapped to function keys 165
Log files See Shot log files
Log right log format 388
409
transferring project files between 350
transferring projects and media files
between 349
Media drive
targeting 121
Media files
moving between systems 348
multiple, digitizing to 124
Media Illusion
importing materials finished with 231
MediaLog
transferring bins with 64
Memory marks
adding 74
Menu commands
Adjust Deck (Deck Selection pop-up menu)
VTR Emulation (Special menu) 286
Menu-command method
for exporting clips with OMM 322
Meters See Volume meters
Microsoft Video 1 306
MII component video standard
unsupported 148
Mixed-resolution projects 213
Mixing compression ratios 371
Mixing down video tracks 313
Modify command (Clip menu) 85
Modifying
clip information 85
the pullin frame 194
Motion JPEG A codec (QuickTime) 303
Motion JPEG B codec (QuickTime) 303
Motion option (QuickTime) 305
Moving projects and media files
between systems 348
Moving settings
between systems 350
Multicamera productions
developing a production model for 197
digitizing workflow for 204
logging tips for 207
managing audio in 201
paths for film productions 200
paths for video productions 199
storage tips for 208
tape classification for 198
Multiple formats
working with 16
Multiple media files
digitizing to 124
115, 264
Audio Tool (Tools menu) 135
Auto-configure (Deck Selection pop-up
menu) 115, 264
Batch Digitize (Clip menu) 183, 190
Batch Import (Clip menu) 232
Calibrate (Peak Hold pop-up menu) 143
Check Decks (Deck Selection
pop-up menu) 115
Compression (Tools menu) 110
Console (Tools menu) 146
Digital Cut (Output menu) 262
Digitize Tools (Tools menu) 70
Go To Capture Mode (Bin menu) 111
Import (File menu) 66
Modify (Clip menu) 85
Play Calibration Tone (Peak Hold pop-up
menu) 255
Serial (COM) Ports (Tools menu) 286
Set Calibration Tone (Peak Hold pop-up
menu) 254
Set Reference Level (Peak Hold pop-up
menu) 137
Video Input Tool (Tools menu) 147
Video Output Tool (Tools menu) 147, 244
N
Nagra
digitizing from 118
Naming tapes 69
410
Non-Avid-controlled deck
digitizing from 175
logging with a 74
NTSC (National Television Systems
Committee) video
digitizing audio from 118
image size compared to PAL 22
logging and digitizing 168
luminance values 247
PICT resolution 267
transferring 24-fps film to 39
transfers
creating Avid log files for 63
waveform values 155
NTSC frame resolution for imported files 356
NTSC Has Setup option 97, 243
NTSC-EIAJ format 243
setting 97
waveform values 155
See also Digital cuts, EDL, FilmScribe
application
audio 279
calibrating for video 244
change list 284
cut list 284
establishing sync for 242
generating 241 to 287
longitudinal timecode (LTC) 243
multiformat 274
options 241
preparing for 242
Output Control button (Audio tool)
defined 136
Output formats
described 16
for 24p projects 274
P
PAL (Phase Alternating Line) video
frames-per-second rates 82
image size compared to NTSC 22
logging and digitizing 168
luminance values 247
PICT resolution 267
transferring film to 45
waveform values 155
PAL frame resolution for imported files 356
PAL Method 1
described 46
workflow 32
PAL Method 2
described 47
workflow 33
Passthrough signals
calibrating video output using 251
PCX file format
brief description of 353
import specifications for 357
O
OMF file format
additional export options for 309
brief description of 353
Resolution options in Import settings 221
OMF Interchange files
described 319
import specifications 357, 365
importing 221
methods for exporting 320
preparing to export 311
OMM (Open Media Management)
creating settings for 227
described 227
exporting clips with 321
importing clips with 230
OMM Settings dialog box 228
One-light transfers 51
Output
411
Peak Hold option (Audio tool) 139
Peak Hold pop-up menu (Audio tool)
defined 136
Phase control
adjusting for video output 251
Photo JPEG codec (QuickTime) 304
Photoshop file format
additional Export options 309
brief description of 353
import specifications for 357
PICT file format
additional export options for 309
brief description of 353
import specifications for 358
PICT files
importing for custom countdown 267
importing for test pattern 250
PICT sequence import specifications 361
Picture quality
calibrating input levels to ensure 147
Pixar file format
brief description of 354
import specifications for 358
Planar RGB codec (QuickTime) 304
Planning
24p projects 22
video projects 19
Play Calibration Tone command (Peak Hold
pop-up menu) 255
Playback
improving performance of (storage
management) 386
PNG file format
additional Export options 310
brief description of 354
import specifications for 358
Poll deck option 108
Preallocation of space on drive 124
Preparing
for audio input 129
for output 242
for video input 147
hardware before digitizing 94
record tapes 258
sequences for export 311
sequences for OMF export 311
shot log files
with MediaLog 64
with text editors 62
to digitize 93 to 158
to export a sequence 311
to import files 213
Preroll
custom for digital cut 270
custom for digitizing 123
logging 68
using control track for 127
Preroll option (Deck Settings dialog box) 105
Preset buttons 244
in Video Input tool 148
Prestriped tape 258
Previewing digital cuts 261
Production paths for multicamera editing 199
Progressive media
described 17
Progressive resolutions
specifications for 375
storage requirements for 382
Projects
24p 22
moving between systems 348
planning 16 to 37
types of 18
video 19
Pulldown
described 41
digitizing without 179
finding at the sync point 79
Pulldown frame
changing the default 280
Pulldown phase
incorrectly logged 194
412
to the Timeline 177
Redigitizing
See also Autodigitizing, Batch digitizing,
Digitizing
master clips and subclips 186
sequences
procedure 187
using Decompose 188
using Decompose during 188
Reference level (Audio tool)
adjusting 137
Reimporting files 231 to 240
matte-key effects 240
procedure for 237
using Decompose 236
Relinking clips by key number 192
Removing deck configuration elements 106
Rendition file format
brief description of 354
import specifications for 358
Replacing deck configuration elements 106
Res (Resolution) pop-up menu (Digitize tool)
Pulldown switch (Digitize tool)
setting 118
Pullin
changing 280
Pullin frame
modifying 194
Pullout column 280
Q
QRT file format
brief description of 354
import specifications for 358
Quality of film-to-tape transfer 51
Quality option (QuickTime) 305
QuickTime codecs
See also Avid QuickTime codec, Compressor
options
exporting with other supported 334
supported 301
QuickTime export
compression options for 301
described 324
with Avid QuickTime codec 324
with other codecs 334
QuickTime file format
import and export specifications for 362
120
Reset Peak button (Audio tool)
defined 136
Resizing
the Audio tool 137
the Digitize tool 180
Resolutions See Screen resolutions, Video
resolutions
RGB graphics levels
Export settings 299
Import settings 218
Runup option (VTR Emulation settings) 285
RY Gain slider
adjusting for video input 156
adjusting for video output 248
R
Record Deck Time option (Digital Cut tool) 270
Record tapes
preparing 258
Recording
assemble-edit 260
digital cuts 261 to 281
using Local mode 272
using Remote mode 268
manually 258
413
S
Serial digital input
calibrating 147
Serial digital output
calibrating 245
Set Calibration Tone command (Peak Hold
pop-up menu) 254
Set Reference Level command (Peak Hold
pop-up menu) 137
Settings
audio 132
deck configuration 100
export 290
film 98
import 214
in Video Input tool 156
moving between systems 350
selecting before digitizing 95
Settings scroll list
Export 297
Setup Control button (Audio tool)
defined 136
SGI file format
additional export options for 310
brief description of 354
import specifications for 358
Shot log files
Avid log file specifications 62
converting with Avid Log Exchange 55
exporting 89
importing 66
preparing
text editors for 62
with MediaLog 64
Shot Log options (Import settings) 220
Shot logs See Shot log files
Single/Dual Drives Mode button (Digitize tool)
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format)
defined 134
Sample Rate option (Audio Project settings) 133
Sat slider
adjusting for video input 156
adjusting for video output 248
Saving settings
in Video Input tool 156
SC phase
adjusting for output 248
Scanning for tapes 71, 176
Scene data 84
Screen resolutions
NTSC and PAL differences 370
Select Tape dialog box 71, 176
Selecting a custom preroll 123
Selecting decks for digitizing 115
Selecting drives for digitizing 121
Selecting settings
before digitizing 95
for deck configuration 100
for film projects 98
Selecting tapes for digitizing 115
Selecting tracks for digitizing 117
Sequence Time option (Digital Cut tool) 270
Sequence Track buttons (Digital Cut tool) 262
Sequenced PICT files
import specifications for 361
Sequences
exporting 315
output options for 241
preparing to export 311
redigitizing
procedure 187, 190
saving two versions for 187
using Decompose 188
reimporting
using Decompose 236
Serial (COM) Ports command (Tools menu) 286
121
Site settings
moving between systems 350
Sixteen by nine (16:9) format 52
Slate information for shoots 35
414
Slowing film speed 42
SMPTE bars 247
SMPTE/EBU component standard
support 148
Softimage file format
brief description of 354
import specifications for 359
Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format (S/PDIF)
defined 134
Sound roll
cues for shoots 35
entering data for 84
Source tapes
selecting for digitizing 115
Source tracks
selecting for digitizing 117
Specific File Type options (Export settings) 307
Specifications
animation file import 361
AVI import and export 363
Avid log 388
for film shoots 34
graphics file import 355
OMF file import 365
QuickTime import and export 362
Standard headings
in Avid log files 392
Storage
estimating drive space requirements for 376
estimating for audio 378
for rolling titles 378
guidelines for multicamera 208
managing to improve playback performance
Striped drives
preparing to digitize 94
Striping record tapes 258
Subclip status (Digitize tool) 164
Subclips
creating during digitizing 164, 164
redigitizing 186, 186
SunRaster file format
brief description of 354
import specifications for 359
S-Video deck
digitizing from 153
Sync
establishing for output 242
for audio-only input 131, 134
for video input 151
methods for shoots 35
of work print with audio mag 36
Sync Mode option (Audio Project Settings
dialog box) 134
Sync point
finding the pulldown at 79
Sync pop-up menu (Audio Project Settings
dialog box) 134
Synchronized sound
maintaining 43
T
Tape deck See Decks
Tape name
finding 71, 176
Tape numbering schemes
for multicamera film productions 199
for multicamera video productions 198
Tapes See Videotape
TARGA file format
additional Export options 310
brief description of 354
import specifications for 359
386
maximizing 385
NTSC/PAL equivalency for estimating 378
planning 376
Storage estimates
in minutes per gigabyte 377
Storing 24p media 48
415
Tone media
creating 141
recording to tape 259
Tools
Audio 135
Compression 108
Digitize 113
Video Input 147
Video Output 244
Total Conform 16
Tracks
selecting
for digitizing 117
Transfer methods
for film to tape 38
Transferring bins
with MediaLog 64
Transferring files
methods for 347
Transferring film to tape 38 to 52
aids to 52
in NTSC format 39 to 45
in PAL format 45 to 48
quality options 51
without sound (PAL) 47
Transferring projects
compatability requirements for 348
with associated folders and site settings 350
with associated media files 348
Transferring settings
between systems 350
Transparency
adding to a graphics image 355
Trim pots
adjusting 144
Two-field media
and field dominance 367
Target bin
choosing 120
Target Drive pop-up menu (Digitize tool) 121
TBC (time-base corrector)
with consumer-grade video deck 153
Telecine
transfer quality 51
Test patterns
See also Bars and tone
for calibrating video output 250
importing new 250
Text editor
creating Avid logs with 389
Text editors for Avid logs 62
Third-party AVI applications
exporting from 345
Third-party QuickTime applications
exporting from 334
TIFF file format
additional Export options 310
brief description of 354
import specifications for 359
Time-base corrector (TBC)
with consumer-grade video deck 153
Timecode
breaks, digitizing across 127
entering 83
headings in Avid logs 393
logging drop-frame and non-drop-frame 68
time-of-day, digitizing with 177
Timed (scene-by-scene) transfers 51
Timeline
digitizing to 177
recording to 177
Time-of-day timecode
digitizing with 177
Time-remaining display (Digitize tool) 122
Tips
logging 68
storage 208
416
U
Video levels
adjusting without color bars 158
Video mixdown 313
Video output
advanced calibration 249, 249
basic calibration 244
calibrating for 243
calibrating for NTSC-EIAJ 243
Video Output tool
advanced calibration controls 249
options display 244
using preset buttons in 244
Video Output Tool command (Tools menu) 244
Video project
planning 19
Video resolutions
choosing in the Compression tool 110
choosing in the Digitize tool 120
drive striping requirements 373
guidelines for use 369
in mixed-resolution projects 213
mixing 371
specifications for interlaced 374
specifications for progressive 375
storage in minutes per gigabyte 377
storage requirements for 376
Video streams
defined 373
Video test patterns 250
Video tracks
mixing down 313
Videotape
classification schemes for multicamera
editing 198
guidelines for naming 69
preparing for output 258
recording digital cut to 262
recording to 258
striping requirements for 258
Videotape decks See Decks
Viewing dailies 35
U-matic deck
digitizing from 153
Unattended batch digitizing
See also Batch digitizing, Digitizing,
Redigitizing
setting up for 181
Uncompressed video
defined 369
V
Vectorscope monitor
using 155
VHS decks
digitizing from 153
recording to 258
Video codec (QuickTime) 304
Video compression
defined 369
Video Compression options (Export settings)
301
Video dailies method
defined 35
Video decks See Decks
Video input
adjusting chrominance settings for 156
adjusting luminance settings for 154
calibrating 150
preparing for 147 to 159
sync for 151
Video Input pop-up menu
(Video Input tool) 150
Video Input tool
Line slider 154
saving settings in 156
Vectorscope monitor 155
Waveform monitor 153
Video Input Tool command (Tools menu) 147
417
PAL Method 2 33
Working with multiple formats 16
VITC (Vertical Interval Timecode)
NTSC 370
PAL 370
V-LAN/VLXi 101
Volume meters
in the Audio tool, defined 136
Volume unit scale (Audio tool)
defined 136
VTR Emulation command (Special menu) 286
VTR Emulation settings
Device Code option 285
Inhibit Preloading option 286
Runup option 285
VTR play emulation 285
setting ports for 286
VTR See Decks
X
XWindows file format
brief description of 354
import specifications for 359
Y
YUV file format
additional Export options for 311
brief description of 354
import specifications for 360
W
WAVE file format
brief description of 364
Waveform monitor
calibrating input with 153
Wavefront file format
additional Export options 311
brief description of 354
import specifications for 359
Wide-screen format (16:9) 94
Word processor
creating Avid logs with 389
WordPad editor 62
Work print
syncing with audio mag 36
Workflows
audio 29
film or 24p source 26
film source 23
for multicamera projects 199 to 205
for video projects 19
PAL Method 1 32
418