Data Link and Physical Layers and 10 GbE Protocol

Data Link and Physical Layers and
10 GbE Protocol
Hakim Weatherspoon
Assistant Professor, Dept of Computer Science
CS 5413: High Performance Systems and Networking
September 12, 2014
Slides used and adapted judiciously from Computer Networking, A Top-Down Approach
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet Switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Link Layer
terminology:
 hosts and routers: nodes
 communication channels that
connect adjacent nodes along
communication path: links
 wired links
 wireless links
 LANs
 layer-2 packet: frame,
encapsulates datagram
data-link layer has responsibility of
transferring datagram from one node
to physically adjacent node over a link
global ISP
Link Layer
 datagram transferred by
different link protocols over
different links:
 e.g., Ethernet on first link,
frame relay on
intermediate links, 802.11
on last link
 each link protocol provides
different services
 e.g., may or may not
provide rdt over link
transportation analogy:
 trip from Princeton to Lausanne
 limo: Princeton to JFK
 plane: JFK to Geneva
 train: Geneva to Lausanne
 tourist = datagram
 transport segment =
communication link
 transportation mode = link
layer protocol
 travel agent = routing
algorithm
Link Layer
Services
• framing, link access:
– encapsulate datagram into frame, adding
header, trailer
– channel access if shared medium
– “MAC” addresses used in frame headers to
identify source, dest
• different from IP address!
• reliable delivery between adjacent nodes
– we learned how to do this already (chapter 3)!
– seldom used on low bit-error link (fiber, some
twisted pair)
– wireless links: high error rates
• Q: why both link-level and end-end reliability?
Link Layer
Services
flow control:
 pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes
error detection:
 errors caused by signal attenuation, noise.
 receiver detects presence of errors:
• signals sender for retransmission or drops frame
error correction:
 receiver identifies and corrects bit error(s) without resorting to
retransmission
half-duplex and full-duplex
 with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can transmit, but not at
same time
Link Layer
Where is the link layer implemented?
• in each and every host
• link layer implemented in
“adaptor” (aka network
interface card NIC) or on a chip
– Ethernet card, 802.11 card;
Ethernet chipset
– implements link, physical
layer
• attaches into host’s system
buses
• combination of hardware,
software, firmware
application
transport
network
link
cpu
memory
controller
link
physical
host
bus
(e.g., PCI)
physical
transmission
network adapter
card
Link Layer
Adapters communicating
datagram
datagram
controller
controller
receiving host
sending host
datagram
frame
 sending side:
 encapsulates datagram
in frame
 adds error checking bits,
rdt, flow control, etc.
 receiving side
 looks for errors, rdt, flow
control, etc
 extracts datagram, passes
to upper layer at receiving
side
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Switches and Local Area Networks
MAC (medium access control) addresses and
ARP (address resolution protocol)
• 32-bit IP address:
– network-layer address for interface
– used for layer 3 (network layer) forwarding
• MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet) address:
– function: used ‘locally” to get frame from one
interface to another physically-connected interface
(same network, in IP-addressing sense)
– 48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in NIC
ROM, also sometimes software settable
– e.g.: 1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
hexadecimal (base 16) notation
(each “number” represents 4 bits)
Switches and Local Area Networks
LAN (MAC) addresses and ARP
each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
LAN
(wired or
wireless)
adapter
71-65-F7-2B-08-53
58-23-D7-FA-20-B0
0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98
Switches and Local Area Networks
LAN (MAC) addresses and ARP
MAC address allocation administered by IEEE
manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to
assure uniqueness)
analogy:
 MAC address: like Social Security Number
 IP address: like postal address
 MAC flat address ➜ portability
 can move LAN card from one LAN to another
IP hierarchical address not portable
 address depends on IP subnet to which node is attached
Switches and Local Area Networks
LAN (MAC) addresses and ARP: Address
Resolution Protocol
Question: how to determine
interface’s MAC address,
knowing its IP address?
137.196.7.78
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
137.196.7.23
137.196.7.14
LAN
71-65-F7-2B-08-53
58-23-D7-FA-20-B0
0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98
137.196.7.88
ARP table: each IP node (host,
router) on LAN has table
 IP/MAC address
mappings for some
LAN nodes:
< IP address; MAC address; TTL>
 TTL (Time To Live):
time after which
address mapping will
be forgotten (typically
20 min)
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; Same LAN
• A wants to send datagram to B
– B’s MAC address not in A’s ARP table.
• A caches (saves) IP-to• A broadcasts ARP query packet,
MAC address pair in its
containing B's IP address
ARP table until
– dest MAC address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
information becomes old
– all nodes on LAN receive ARP query
(times out)
• B receives ARP packet, replies to A
– soft state: information that
with its (B's) MAC address
times out (goes away)
– frame sent to A’s MAC address
(unicast)
unless refreshed
• ARP is “plug-and-play”:
– nodes create their ARP
tables without intervention
from net administrator
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; different LAN
walkthrough: send datagram from A to B via R
– focus on addressing – at IP (datagram) and MAC layer (frame)
– assume A knows B’s IP address
– assume A knows IP address of first hop router, R (how?)
– assume A knows R’s MAC address (how?)
A
R
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; different LAN
A creates IP datagram with IP source A, destination B
A creates link-layer frame with R's MAC address as dest, frame
contains A-to-B IP datagram


MAC src: 74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
MAC dest: E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP
Eth
Phy
A
R
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; different LAN
frame sent from A to R
frame received at R, datagram removed, passed up to IP


MAC src: 74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
MAC dest: E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP
Eth
Phy
A
IP
Eth
Phy
R
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; different LAN


R forwards datagram with IP source A, destination B
R creates link-layer frame with B's MAC address as dest, frame
contains A-to-B IP datagram
MAC src: 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
MAC dest: 49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP
Eth
Phy
A
R
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
IP
Eth
Phy
B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; different LAN


R forwards datagram with IP source A, destination B
R creates link-layer frame with B's MAC address as dest, frame
contains A-to-B IP datagram
MAC src: 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
MAC dest: 49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP
Eth
Phy
A
R
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
IP
Eth
Phy
B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Switches and Local Area Networks
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol; different LAN


R forwards datagram with IP source A, destination B
R creates link-layer frame with B's MAC address as dest, frame
contains A-to-B IP datagram
MAC src: 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
MAC dest: 49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP
Eth
Phy
A
R
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55
B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D
111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Link and Physical Layer: Ethernet
“dominant” wired LAN technology:
• cheap $20 for NIC
• first widely used LAN technology
• simpler, cheaper than token LANs and ATM
• kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps
Metcalfe’s Ethernet sketch
Link and Physical Layer: Ethernet
Ethernet Physical Topologies
• bus: popular through mid 90s
– all nodes in same collision domain (can collide with
each other)
• star: prevails today
– active switch in center
– each “spoke” runs a (separate) Ethernet protocol
(nodes do not collide with each other)
switch
bus: coaxial cable
star
Link and Physical Layer: Ethernet
Ethernet frame structure/format
sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or
other network layer protocol packet) in
Ethernet frame type
dest.
source
preamble address address
data
(payload)
CRC
preamble:
7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by
one byte with pattern 10101011
 used to synchronize receiver, sender clock
rates
Link and Physical Layer: Ethernet
Ethernet frame structure/format
 addresses: 6 byte source, destination MAC addresses
 if adapter receives frame with matching destination
address, or with broadcast address (e.g. ARP packet), it
passes data in frame to network layer protocol
 otherwise, adapter discards frame
 type: indicates higher layer protocol (mostly IP but
others possible, e.g., Novell IPX, AppleTalk)
 CRC: cyclic redundancy check at receiver
 error detected: frame is dropped
type
dest.
source
preamble address address
data
(payload)
CRC
Link and Physical Layer: Ethernet
Ethernet service abstraction and implementation
• connectionless: no handshaking between
sending and receiving NICs
• unreliable: receiving NIC doesnt send acks or
nacks to sending NIC
– data in dropped frames recovered only if initial
sender uses higher layer rdt (e.g., TCP), otherwise
dropped data lost
• Ethernet’s MAC protocol: unslotted CSMA/CD
wth binary backoff
Link and Physical Layer: Ethernet
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Standards: link & physical layers
many different Ethernet standards
 common MAC protocol and frame format
 different speeds: 2 Mbps, 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps,
1Gbps, 10G bps
 different physical layer media: fiber, cable
application
transport
network
link
physical
MAC protocol
and frame format
100BASE-TX
100BASE-T2
100BASE-FX
100BASE-T4
100BASE-SX
100BASE-BX
copper (twister
pair) physical layer
fiber physical layer
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Ethernet Switch
• link-layer device: takes an active role
– store, forward Ethernet frames
– examine incoming frame’s MAC address,
selectively forward frame to one-or-more
outgoing links when frame is to be forwarded on
segment, uses CSMA/CD to access segment
• transparent
– hosts are unaware of presence of switches
• plug-and-play, self-learning
– switches do not need to be configured
Ethernet Switch
Switch: Multiple Simultaneous Transmission
• hosts have dedicated, direct
connection to switch
• switches buffer packets
• Ethernet protocol used on each
incoming link, but no collisions;
full duplex
– each link is its own
collision domain
• switching: A-to-A’ and B-to-B’
can transmit simultaneously,
without collisions
A
B
C’
6
1
2
4
5
3
C
B’
A’
switch with six interfaces
(1,2,3,4,5,6)
Ethernet Switch
Switch Forwarding Table
Q: how does switch know
A’ reachable via interface 4,
B’ reachable via interface
5?
 A: each switch has a switch
A
6
table, each entry:
 (MAC address of host, interface
to reach host, time stamp)
 looks like a routing table!
Q: how are entries created,
maintained in switch table?
 something like a routing
protocol?
B
C’
1
2
4
5
3
C
B’
A’
switch with six interfaces
(1,2,3,4,5,6)
Ethernet Switch
Source: A
Dest: A’
Switch: Self-learning
• switch learns which hosts can
be reached through which
interfaces
– when frame received,
switch “learns”
location of sender:
incoming LAN
segment
– records
sender/location pair
in switch table MAC addr
A
A
A A’
B
C’
6
1
2
4
5
3
C
B’
A’
interface
TTL
1
60
Switch table
(initially empty)
Ethernet Switch
Switch: Frame filtering/forwarding
When frame received at switch:
1. record incoming link, MAC address of sending host
2. index switch table using MAC destination address
3. if entry found for destination
then {
if destination on segment from which frame arrived
then drop frame
else forward frame on interface indicated by entry
}
else flood /* forward on all interfaces except arriving
interface */
Ethernet Switch
Source: A
Dest: A’
Example: Self-learning, forwarding
• frame destination, A’,
locaton unknown: flood

destination A location
known: selectively send
on just one link
A
A A’
B
C’
6
1
2
A A’
4
5
3
C
B’
A’ A
A’
MAC addr interface
A
A’
1
4
TTL
60
60
switch table
(initially empty)
Ethernet Switch
Interconnecting Switches
switches can be connected together
S4
S1
S3
S2
A
B
C
F
D
E
I
G
H
Q: sending from A to G - how does S1 know to
forward frame destined to F via S4 and S3?
 A: self learning! (works exactly the same as in
single-switch case!)
Ethernet Switch
Institutional Network
mail server
to external
network
router
web server
IP subnet
Ethernet Switch
Switches vs Routers
both are store-and-forward:
 routers: network-layer
devices (examine networklayer headers)
 switches: link-layer devices
(examine link-layer
headers)
both have forwarding tables:
 routers: compute tables
using routing algorithms, IP
addresses
 switches: learn forwarding
table using flooding,
learning, MAC addresses
datagram
frame
application
transport
network
link
physical
frame
link
physical
switch
network datagram
link
frame
physical
application
transport
network
link
physical
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
two types of “links”:
• point-to-point
– PPP for dial-up access
– point-to-point link between Ethernet switch, host
• broadcast (shared wire or medium)
– old-fashioned Ethernet
– upstream HFC
– 802.11 wireless LAN
shared wire (e.g.,
cabled Ethernet)
shared RF
(e.g., 802.11 WiFi)
shared RF
(satellite)
humans at a
cocktail party
(shared air, acoustical)
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
MAC Protocols: Taxonomy
three broad classes:
• channel partitioning
– divide channel into smaller “pieces” (time slots, frequency, code)
– allocate piece to node for exclusive use
• random access
– channel not divided, allow collisions
– “recover” from collisions
• “taking turns”
– nodes take turns, but nodes with more to send can take longer
turns
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
MAC Protocols: Tradeoffs
channel partitioning MAC protocols:
– share channel efficiently and fairly at high load
– inefficient at low load: delay in channel access, 1/N
bandwidth allocated even if only 1 active node!
random access MAC protocols
– efficient at low load: single node can fully utilize
channel
– high load: collision overhead
“taking turns” protocols
look for best of both worlds!
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
MAC Protocols
 channel partitioning, by time, frequency or code
 Time Division, Frequency Division
 random access (dynamic),
 ALOHA, S-ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD
 carrier sensing: easy in some technologies
(wire), hard in others (wireless)
 CSMA/CD used in Ethernet
 CSMA/CA used in 802.11
 taking turns
 polling from central site, token passing
 bluetooth, FDDI, token ring
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
10GbE (10 gigabit Ethernet)
Application
Data
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
64/66b PCS
Encode
Decode
Scrambler
Descrambler
Gearbox
Blocksync
PMA
Preamble
Eth Hdr
64 bit
/S/
/D/
L3 Hdr
Data
L2 Hdr
L3 Hdr
Data
L2 Hdr
L3 Hdr
Data
Idle
characters
(/I/)
2 bit
syncheader
/D/
/D/
/D/
CRC
Gap
10.3125 Gigabits
/T/
/E/
16 bit
011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101
PMD
9/15/2014
SoNIC
46
10GbE (10 gigabit Ethernet)
Sync
Application
Data Block
Transport
Network
64/66b PCS
PMA
PMD
/S/
Start of Frame block
/T/
End of Frame block
/E/
Idle block
/D/
Data block
01
8
D0
16
D1
D2
C0
C0
D1
C1
C1
D2
C1
40
48
D5
56
65
D6
D7
D4
D4
D4
C6
D6
D6
C6
C6
C6
C6
C6
C6
D5
D5
C7
D7
D7
C7
C7
C7
C7
C7
C7
C7
D6
/T/
/E/
Block Type
/E/
/S/
Data Link
Physical
0
Block Payload
24
32
D3
D4
/T/
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
0x1e
0x33
0x78
0x87
0x99
0xaa
0xb4
0xcc
0xd2
0xe1
0xff
D0
D0
D0
D0
D0
D0
D0
D1
D1
D1
D1
D1
D1
C2
C2
C3
C3
D3
C2
C2
D2
D2
D2
D2
D2
/D/
SoNIC
/D/
/D/
C5
D5
D5
D4
C3
C3
C3
Ethernet Frame
/S/
C4
C4
C4
C4
C4
D3
D3
D3
D3
C5
C5
C5
C5
C5
Gap
/D/
47
10GbE (10 gigabit Ethernet)
SoNIC: Software network interface card
Hyper-fidelity network measurements
Application
• Interpacket gap, spacing, arrival time, …
IPG
Transport
Packet i
Network
IPD
Data Link
Physical
• Important metric for network
measurements
Increasing
Detecting
Packet
–
Generation
Throughput
timing channel
Packet Capture
Can be improved with access to the PHY
Characterization
9/15/2014
Packet i+1
Estimating
bandwidth
48
10GbE (10 gigabit Ethernet)
SoNIC: Software network interface card
Hyper-fidelity network measurements
Application
• Valuable information: Idle characters
IPG
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
Packet i
Packet i+1
IPD
– Can provide precise timing base for
control
• Each bit is ~97 ps wide
9/15/2014
49
10GbE (10 gigabit Ethernet)
SoNIC: Software network interface card
Hyper-fidelity network measurements
Application
12 /I/s = 100bits
• Valuable information:
Idle= 9.7ns
characters
IPG
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
–
Packet
Generation
9/15/2014
Packet i
Packet i+1
One Idle character
(/I/)
= 7~8 bits
Can provide
precise timing
control
•
Detecting
Each bit is ~97timing
ps wide
channel
base for
Packet Capture
50
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Perspective
 principles behind data link layer services:
 link layer addressing
 sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access
 error detection, correction
instantiation and implementation of various link
layer technologies
 Ethernet
 switched LANS
Perspective
• Journey down protocol stack complete
• Basic understanding of networking practices and principles
• lots of interesting topics in data center and high
performance systems and networks
Before Next time
• Project Proposal
– due today, Friday
– Meet with groups, TA, and professor
• Lab1
– Single threaded TCP proxy
– Due today, Friday
• Required review and reading
– “A 50-Gb/s IP Router,” Craig Partridge , Senior Member , Philip P. Carvey , Isidro
Castineyra , Tom Clarke , John Rokosz , Joshua Seeger , Michael Sollins , Steve
Starch , Benjamin Tober , Gregory D. Troxel , David Waitzman , Scott Winterble.
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (ToN), Volume 6, Issue 3 (June 1998),
pages 237-248.
– http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=700888
– http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.129.3926&rep=rep1
&type=pdf
• Check website for updated schedule
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
consider:
 CS user moves office to EE, but
wants connect to CS switch?
 single broadcast domain:
Computer
Science
Electrical
Engineering
Computer
Engineering
 all layer-2 broadcast
traffic (ARP, DHCP,
unknown location of
destination MAC
address) must cross
entire LAN
 security/privacy,
efficiency issues
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
Virtual Local
Area Network
switch(es) supporting
VLAN capabilities can
be configured to
define multiple virtual
LANS over single
physical LAN
infrastructure.
port-based VLAN: switch ports
grouped (by switch management
software) so that single physical
switch ……
1
7
9
15
2
8
10
16
…
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)
… operates as multiple virtual switches
1
7
9
15
2
8
10
16
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
…
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-16)
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
Port-based VLAN
router
 traffic isolation: frames to/from
ports 1-8 can only reach ports 18
 can also define VLAN based on MAC
addresses of endpoints, rather than
switch port


dynamic membership: ports
can be dynamically assigned
among VLANs
forwarding between VLANS: done
via routing (just as with separate
switches)
 in practice vendors sell combined
switches plus routers
1
7
9
15
2
8
10
16
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
…
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
VLANs spanning multiple switches
1
7
9
15
1
3
5
7
2
8
10
16
2
4
6
8
…
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
…
Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)
Ports 2,3,5 belong to EE VLAN
Ports 4,6,7,8 belong to CS VLAN
• trunk port: carries frames between VLANS defined over
multiple physical switches
– frames forwarded within VLAN between switches can’t be vanilla
802.1 frames (must carry VLAN ID info)
– 802.1q protocol adds/removed additional header fields for frames
forwarded between trunk ports
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
802.1Q VLAN frame format
type
preamble
dest.
address
source
address
data (payload)
CRC
802.1 frame
type
preamble
dest.
address
source
address
data (payload)
2-byte Tag Protocol Identifier
(value: 81-00)
CRC
802.1Q frame
Recomputed
CRC
Tag Control Information (12 bit VLAN ID field,
3 bit priority field like IP TOS)
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
two types of “links”:
• point-to-point
– PPP for dial-up access
– point-to-point link between Ethernet switch, host
• broadcast (shared wire or medium)
– old-fashioned Ethernet
– upstream HFC
– 802.11 wireless LAN
shared wire (e.g.,
cabled Ethernet)
shared RF
(e.g., 802.11 WiFi)
shared RF
(satellite)
humans at a
cocktail party
(shared air, acoustical)
Multiple access protocols
 single shared broadcast channel
 two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes:
interference
 collision if node receives two or more signals at the
same time
multiple access protocol
 distributed algorithm that determines how nodes share
channel, i.e., determine when node can transmit
 communication about channel sharing must use channel itself!
 no out-of-band channel for coordination
An ideal multiple access protocol
given: broadcast channel of rate R bps
desiderata:
1. when one node wants to transmit, it can send at
rate R.
2. when M nodes want to transmit, each can send at
average rate R/M
3. fully decentralized:
• no special node to coordinate transmissions
• no synchronization of clocks, slots
4. simple
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
MAC Protocols: Taxonomy
three broad classes:
• channel partitioning
– divide channel into smaller “pieces” (time slots, frequency, code)
– allocate piece to node for exclusive use
• random access
– channel not divided, allow collisions
– “recover” from collisions
• “taking turns”
– nodes take turns, but nodes with more to send can take longer
turns
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: TDMA
TDMA: time division multiple access
access to channel in "rounds"
each station gets fixed length slot (length =
pkt trans time) in each round
unused slots go idle
example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt,
slots 2,5,6 idle
6-slot
frame
6-slot
frame
1
3
4
1
3
4
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: FDMA
FDMA: frequency division multiple access
FDM cable
frequency bands
 channel spectrum divided into frequency bands
 each station assigned fixed frequency band
 unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle
 example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, frequency bands 2,5,6
idle
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Random Access Protocols
• when node has packet to send
– transmit at full channel data rate R.
– no a priori coordination among nodes
• two or more transmitting nodes ➜ “collision”,
• random access MAC protocol specifies:
– how to detect collisions
– how to recover from collisions (e.g., via delayed
retransmissions)
• examples of random access MAC protocols:
– slotted ALOHA
– ALOHA
– CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Slotted ALOHA
assumptions:
operation:
 when node obtains fresh
 all frames same size
frame, transmits in next slot
 time divided into equal size
 if no collision: node can
slots (time to transmit 1
send new frame in next
frame)
slot
 nodes start to transmit only
 if collision: node
slot beginning
retransmits frame in each
subsequent slot with prob.
 nodes are synchronized
p until success
 if 2 or more nodes transmit
in slot, all nodes detect
collision
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Slotted ALOHA
node 1
1
1
node 2
2
2
node 3
3
C
1
1
2
3
E
C
S
E
Pros:
 single active node can
continuously transmit at
full rate of channel
 highly decentralized: only
slots in nodes need to be
in sync
 simple
C
3
E
S
S
Cons:
 collisions, wasting slots
 idle slots
 nodes may be able to
detect collision in less
than time to transmit
packet
 clock synchronization
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Slotted ALOHA: Efficiency
efficiency: long-run
fraction of successful slots
(many nodes, all with many
frames to send)
 suppose: N nodes with
many frames to send,
each transmits in slot with
probability p
 prob that given node has
success in a slot = p(1-p)N1
 prob that any node has a
success = Np(1-p)N-1
 max efficiency: find p*
that maximizes
Np(1-p)N-1
 for many nodes, take limit
of Np*(1-p*)N-1 as N goes
to infinity, gives:
max efficiency = 1/e = .37
at best: channel
used for useful
transmissions 37%
of time!
!
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Pure (unslotted) ALOHA
 unslotted Aloha: simpler, no synchronization
 when frame first arrives
 transmit immediately
 collision probability increases:
 frame sent at t0 collides with other frames sent in
[t0-1,t0+1]
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Pure (unslotted) ALOHA
P(success by given node) = P(node transmits) .
P(no other node transmits in [t0-1,t0] .
P(no other node transmits in [t0-1,t0]
= p . (1-p)N-1 . (1-p)N-1
= p . (1-p)2(N-1)
… choosing optimum p and then letting n
= 1/(2e) = .18
even worse than slotted Aloha!
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
CSMA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access
CSMA: listen before transmit:
if channel sensed idle: transmit entire frame
• if channel sensed busy, defer transmission
• human analogy: don’t interrupt others!
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
CSMA collisions
• collisions can still occur:
propagation delay
means two nodes may
not hear each other’s
transmission
• collision: entire packet
transmission time
wasted
– distance & propagation
delay play role in in
determining collision
probability
spatial layout of nodes
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
CSMA/CD (collision detection)
CSMA/CD: carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA
 collisions detected within short time
 colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel
wastage
collision detection:
 easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths,
compare transmitted, received signals
 difficult in wireless LANs: received signal strength
overwhelmed by local transmission strength
human analogy: the polite conversationalist
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
CSMA/CD (collision detection)
spatial layout of nodes
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
Ethernet CSMA/CD algorithm
1. NIC receives datagram
from network layer,
creates frame
2. If NIC senses channel idle,
starts frame transmission.
If NIC senses channel
busy, waits until channel
idle, then transmits.
3. If NIC transmits entire
frame without detecting
another transmission, NIC
is done with frame !
4. If NIC detects another
transmission while
transmitting, aborts and
sends jam signal
5. After aborting, NIC enters
binary (exponential)
backoff:
– after mth collision, NIC
chooses K at random from
{0,1,2, …, 2m-1}. NIC waits
K·512 bit times, returns to
Step 2
– longer backoff interval
with more collisions
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
CSMA/CD efficiency
 Tprop = max prop delay between 2 nodes in LAN
 ttrans = time to transmit max-size frame
 efficiency goes to 1
 as tprop goes to 0
 as ttrans goes to infinity
 better performance than ALOHA: and simple, cheap, decentralized!
efficiency =
1
1 + 5t prop /t trans
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
channel partitioning MAC protocols:
– share channel efficiently and fairly at high load
– inefficient at low load: delay in channel access, 1/N
bandwidth allocated even if only 1 active node!
random access MAC protocols
– efficient at low load: single node can fully utilize
channel
– high load: collision overhead
“taking turns” protocols
look for best of both worlds!
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
“Taking turns” MAC protocols
polling:
• master node “invites”
slave nodes to transmit
in turn
• typically used with
“dumb” slave devices
• concerns:
– polling overhead
– latency
– single point of
failure (master)
data
poll
master
data
slaves
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
“Taking turns” MAC protocols
token passing:



control token passed
from one node to next
sequentially.
token message
concerns:
 token overhead
 latency
 single point of failure
(token)
T
(nothing
to send)
T
data
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
“Taking turns” MAC protocols: Cable Access Networks
Internet frames,TV channels, control transmitted
downstream at different frequencies
cable headend
…
CMTS
cable modem
termination system
ISP


…
splitter
cable
modem
upstream Internet frames, TV control, transmitted
upstream at different frequencies in time slots
multiple 40Mbps downstream (broadcast) channels
 single CMTS transmits into channels
multiple 30 Mbps upstream channels
 multiple access: all users contend for certain upstream
channel time slots (others assigned)
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
“Taking turns” MAC protocols: Cable Access Networks
cable headend
MAP frame for
Interval [t1, t2]
Downstream channel i
CMTS
Upstream channel j
t1
Minislots containing
minislots request frames
t2
Residences with cable modems
Assigned minislots containing cable modem
upstream data frames
DOCSIS: data over cable service interface spec


FDM over upstream, downstream frequency channels
TDM upstream: some slots assigned, some have contention
 downstream MAP frame: assigns upstream slots
 request for upstream slots (and data) transmitted
random access (binary backoff) in selected slots
Multiple Access Links, Protocols
MAC Protocols
 channel partitioning, by time, frequency or code
 Time Division, Frequency Division
 random access (dynamic),
 ALOHA, S-ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD
 carrier sensing: easy in some technologies
(wire), hard in others (wireless)
 CSMA/CD used in Ethernet
 CSMA/CA used in 802.11
 taking turns
 polling from central site, token passing
 bluetooth, FDDI, token ring
Goals for Today
• Link Layer and Physical Layer
– Abstraction / services
– Switches and Local Area Networks
• Addressing, ARP (address resolution protocol)
• Ethernet
• Ethernet switch
– Multiple Access Protocols
• Data Center Network
– 10GbE (10 Gigabit Ethernet)
• Backup Slides
– Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN)
– Multiple Access Protocols
– Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web request
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
journey down protocol stack complete!
 application, transport, network, link
putting-it-all-together: synthesis!
 goal: identify, review, understand protocols (at
all layers) involved in seemingly simple
scenario: requesting www page
 scenario: student attaches laptop to campus
network, requests/receives www.google.com
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
Scenerio
DNS server
browser
Comcast network
68.80.0.0/13
school network
68.80.2.0/24
web page
web server
64.233.169.105
Google’s network
64.233.160.0/19
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
Connecting to the Internet
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
 connecting laptop needs to get
its own IP address, addr of
first-hop router, addr of DNS
server: use DHCP
DHCP

DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
router
(runs DHCP)


DHCP request encapsulated
in UDP, encapsulated in IP,
encapsulated in 802.3
Ethernet
Ethernet frame broadcast
(dest: FFFFFFFFFFFF) on LAN,
received at router running
DHCP server
Ethernet demuxed to IP
demuxed, UDP demuxed to
DHCP
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
Connecting to the Internet
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
router
(runs DHCP)
• DHCP server formulates
DHCP ACK containing
client’s IP address, IP
address of first-hop router
for client, name & IP
address of DNS server
 encapsulation at DHCP
server, frame forwarded
(switch learning) through
LAN, demultiplexing at
client
 DHCP client receives
DHCP ACK reply
Client now has IP address, knows name & addr of DNS
server, IP address of its first-hop router
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
ARP (before DNS, before HTTP)
DNS
DNS
DNS
ARP query
DNS
UDP
IP
ARP
Eth
Phy
ARP
ARP reply
Eth
Phy
router
(runs DHCP)
 before sending HTTP request, need
IP address of www.google.com:
DNS
 DNS query created, encapsulated in
UDP, encapsulated in IP,
encapsulated in Eth. To send frame
to router, need MAC address of
router interface: ARP


ARP query broadcast, received by
router, which replies with ARP
reply giving MAC address of
router interface
client now knows MAC address
of first hop router, so can now
send frame containing DNS
query
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
Using DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DNS
DNS
DNS
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy
DNS server
DNS
Comcast network
68.80.0.0/13
router
(runs DHCP)

IP datagram containing DNS
query forwarded via LAN
switch from client to 1st hop
router

IP datagram forwarded from
campus network into comcast
network, routed (tables created
by RIP, OSPF, IS-IS and/or BGP
routing protocols) to DNS server

demux’ed to DNS server
DNS server replies to client
with IP address of
www.google.com

Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
TCP Connection to carry HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN

router
(runs DHCP)
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
web server
64.233.169.105



to send HTTP request,
client first opens TCP
socket to web server
TCP SYN segment (step 1 in 3way handshake) inter-domain
routed to web server
web server responds with TCP
SYNACK (step 2 in 3-way
handshake)
TCP connection established!
Putting it all together: A day and a life of a web req
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP

HTTP Request/Reply
web page finally (!!!) displayed

HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy
web server
64.233.169.105
router
(runs DHCP)



HTTP request sent into
TCP socket
IP datagram containing HTTP
request routed to
www.google.com
web server responds with
HTTP reply (containing web
page)
IP datagram containing HTTP
reply routed back to client