vSphere Virtual Machine
Administration
VMware vSphere 6.5
VMware ESXi 6.5
vCenter Server 6.5
This document supports the version of each product listed and
supports all subsequent versions until the document is
replaced by a new edition. To check for more recent editions of
this document, see http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
EN-002356-03
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at:
http://www.vmware.com/support/
The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates.
If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to:
docfeedback@vmware.com
Copyright © 2009–2017 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright and trademark information.
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3401 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
www.vmware.com
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Contents
About vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
7
Updated Information 9
1 Introduction to VMware vSphere Virtual Machines 11
What Is a Virtual Machine? 11
Virtual Machines and the Virtual Infrastructure 12
Virtual Machine Lifecycle 13
Virtual Machine Components 13
Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines
Virtual Machine Options and Resources 15
vSphere Web Client 16
vSphere Client 17
Where to Go From Here 17
13
2 Deploying Virtual Machines 19
About Provisioning Virtual Machines 19
Create a Virtual Machine Without a Template or Clone 20
Deploy a Virtual Machine from a Template 26
Clone a Virtual Machine 32
Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client
Clone a Template to a Template in the vSphere Web Client 42
Convert a Template to a Virtual Machine 45
Customizing Guest Operating Systems 47
38
3 Deploying OVF and OVA Templates 63
OVF and OVA File Formats and Templates 63
Deploy an OVF or OVA Template in the vSphere Web Client
Browse VMware Virtual Appliance Marketplace 67
Export an OVF Template 68
64
4 Using Content Libraries 69
Create a Library 71
Synchronize a Subscribed Library 72
Edit the Settings of a Local Library 73
Edit the Settings of a Subscribed Library 74
Delete a Content Library 74
Hierarchical Inheritance of Permissions for Content Libraries 75
Sample User Role for Working with Content Libraries 77
Populating Libraries with Content 77
Working with Items in a Library 81
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Creating Virtual Machines and vApps from Templates in a Content Library
84
5 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware 87
Virtual Machine Compatibility 87
Virtual CPU Configuration 93
Virtual Memory Configuration 99
Network Virtual Machine Configuration 102
Parallel and Serial Port Configuration 106
Virtual Disk Configuration 113
SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility 123
Other Virtual Machine Device Configuration 128
Reduce Memory Overhead for Virtual machines with 3D graphics Option 139
USB Configuration from an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine 139
USB Configuration from a Client Computer to a Virtual Machine 146
Add a Shared Smart Card Reader to Virtual Machines 152
6 Configuring Virtual Machine Options 153
Virtual Machine Option Overview 153
Change the Virtual Machine Name 154
View the Virtual Machine Configuration and Working File Location 155
Change the Configured Guest Operating System 155
Configuring User Mappings on Guest Operating Systems 155
Change the Virtual Machine Console Options for Remote Users 157
Configure the Virtual Machine Power States 157
Manage Power Management Settings for a Virtual Machine 158
Enable or Disable UEFI Secure Boot for a Virtual Machine 159
Delay the Boot Sequence 160
Disable Virtual Machine Acceleration 161
Enable Virtual Machine Logging 161
Configure Virtual Machine Debugging and Statistics 161
Change the Swap File Location 162
Edit Configuration File Parameters 162
Configure Fibre Channel NPIV Settings 163
7 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp 165
Create a vApp 165
Create a Virtual Machine, Resource Pool, or Child vApp Inside a vApp 167
Add Virtual Machine or Child vApp to a vApp 167
Edit vApp Settings 167
Clone a vApp 172
Perform vApp Power Operations 173
Edit vApp Notes 174
Add a Network Protocol Profile 174
Virtual Machine vApp Options 178
8 Monitoring Solutions with the vCenter Solutions Manager 183
Viewing Solutions 183
Monitoring Agents 184
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Contents
9 Managing Virtual Machines 185
Edit Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown Settings 185
Install the VMware Enhanced Authentication Plug-in 187
Using a Virtual Machine Remote Console 187
Open the HTML 5 Remote Console 188
Install the VMware Remote Console Application 188
Using the VMware Remote Console Application 188
Answer Virtual Machine Questions 189
Adding and Removing Virtual Machines 189
Change the Template Name 191
Deleting Templates 191
Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual Machines 192
10 Upgrading Virtual Machines 203
Planning Downtime for Virtual Machines 204
Downtime for Upgrading Virtual Machines 204
Upgrade the Compatibility for Virtual Machines 205
Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for Virtual Machines
206
11 Required Privileges for Common Tasks 207
Index
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About vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration describes how to create, configure, and manage virtual machines in
®
the VMware vSphere environment.
In addition, this information provides introductions to the tasks that you can do within the system as well as
cross-references to the information that describes the tasks.
This information focuses on managing virtual machines in the VMware vSphere Web Client and includes
the following information.
n
Creating and deploying virtual machines, templates, and clones
n
Deploying OVF templates
n
Configuring virtual machine hardware and options
n
Managing multitiered applications with VMware vSphere vApp
n
Monitoring solutions with the vCenter Solution Manager
n
Managing virtual machines, including using snapshots
n
Upgrading virtual machines
®
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration covers VMware ESXi™ and VMware vCenter Server .
Intended Audience
This information is written for experienced Windows or Linux system administrators who are familiar with
virtualization.
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Updated Information
This Updated Information is updated with each release of the product or when necessary.
This table provides the update history of the vSphere Virtual Machine Administration.
Revision
Description
EN-002356-03
n
n
Updated NVMe Controller workflow “Add an NVMe Controller,” on page 126.
Updated prerequisites for adding a PCI device “Add a PCI Device in the vSphere Web Client,” on
page 135 .
EN-002356-02
n
Removed references to VM-FEX in “Change the Virtual Machine Network Adapter Configuration,”
on page 103 and “Add a Network Adapter to a Virtual Machine,” on page 104.
EN-002356-01
n
Added language to topic and subtopics to indicate that OVF processes also apply to OVA files “OVF
and OVA File Formats and Templates,” on page 63.
The following limitation is no longer correct and has been removed from the “Large Capacity Virtual
Disk Conditions and Limitations,” on page 114 topic:
n
n
n
EN-002356-00
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You cannot hot-extend virtual SATA disks, or any virtual disk if the capacity after extension is equal to or
greater than 2TB.
Added reference to video in Chapter 3, “Deploying OVF and OVA Templates,” on page 63.
Added information about security certificates to “Export an OVF Template,” on page 68 and
“Export Item from a Content Library to Your Local Computer,” on page 82.
Initial release.
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Introduction to VMware vSphere
Virtual Machines
1
Before you start creating and managing virtual machines, you benefit from some background information,
for example, the virtual machine lifecycle, components, and VMware Tools.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“What Is a Virtual Machine?,” on page 11
n
“Virtual Machines and the Virtual Infrastructure,” on page 12
n
“Virtual Machine Lifecycle,” on page 13
n
“Virtual Machine Components,” on page 13
n
“Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines,” on page 13
n
“Virtual Machine Options and Resources,” on page 15
n
“vSphere Web Client,” on page 16
n
“vSphere Client,” on page 17
n
“Where to Go From Here,” on page 17
What Is a Virtual Machine?
A virtual machine is a software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and
applications. The virtual machine consists of a set of specification and configuration files and is backed by
the physical resources of a host. Every virtual machine has virtual devices that provide the same
functionality as physical hardware are more portable, more secure, and easier to manage.
A virtual machine consists of several files that are stored on a storage device. The key files are the
configuration file, virtual disk file, NVRAM setting file, and log file. You configure virtual machine settings
through the vSphere Web Client, one of the vSphere command-line interfaces (PowerCLI, vCLI) or the
vSphere Web Services SDK.
Caution Do not change, move, or delete virtual machine files without instructions from a VMware
Technical Support representative.
Table 1‑1. Virtual Machine Files
File
Usage
Description
.vmx
vmname.vmx
Virtual machine configuration file
.vmxf
vmname.vmxf
Additional virtual machine configuration files
.vmdk
vmname.vmdk
Virtual disk characteristics
-flat.vmdk
vmname-flat.vmdk
Virtual machine data disk
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Table 1‑1. Virtual Machine Files (Continued)
File
Usage
Description
.nvram
vmname.nvram or nvram
Virtual machine BIOS or EFI configuration
.vmsd
vmname.vmsd
Virtual machine snapshots
.vmsn
vmname.vmsn
Virtual machine snapshot data file
.vswp
vmname.vswp
Virtual machine swap file
.vmss
vmname.vmss
Virtual machine suspend file
.log
vmware.log
Current virtual machine log file
-#.log
vmware-#.log (where # is a number
starting with 1)
Old virtual machine log files
Virtual Machines and the Virtual Infrastructure
The infrastructure that supports virtual machines consists of at least two software layers, virtualization and
management. In vSphere, ESXi provides the virtualization capabilities that aggregate and present the host
hardware to virtual machines as a normalized set of resources. Virtual machines can run on ESXi hosts that
vCenter Server manages.
vCenter Server lets you pool and manage the resources of multiple hosts and lets you effectively monitor
and manage your physical and virtual infrastructure. You can manage resources for virtual machines,
provision virtual machines, schedule tasks, collect statistics logs, create templates, and more. vCenter Server
also provides vSphere vMotion ™, vSphere Storage vMotion, vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler
(DRS), vSphere High Availability (HA), and vSphere Fault Tolerance. These services enable efficient and
automated resource management and high availability for virtual machines.
The VMware vSphere Web Client is the interface to vCenter Server, ESXi hosts, and virtual machines. With
the vSphere Web Client, you can connect remotely to vCenter Server. The vSphere Web Client is the primary
interface for managing all aspects of the vSphere environment. It also provides console access to virtual
machines.
Note For information about running virtual machines on an isolated ESXi host, see the vSphere Single Host
Management documentation.
The vSphere Web Client presents the organizational hierarchy of managed objects in inventory views.
Inventories are the hierarchal structure used by vCenter Server or the host to organize managed objects. This
hierarchy includes the monitored objects in vCenter Server.
In the vCenter Server hierarchy, a data center is the primary container of ESXi hosts, folders, clusters,
resource pools, vSphere vApps, virtual machines, and so on.
Datastores are virtual representations of underlying physical storage resources in the data center. A
datastore is the storage location (for example, a physical disk or LUN on a RAID, or a SAN) for virtual
machine files. Datastores hide the idiosyncrasies of the underlying physical storage and present a uniform
model for the storage resources required by virtual machines.
For some resources, options, or hardware to be available to virtual machines, the host must have the
appropriate vSphere license. Licensing in vSphere is applicable to ESXi hosts, vCenter Server, and solutions.
Licensing can be based on different criteria, depending on the specifics of each product. For details about
vSphere licensing, see the vCenter Server and Host Management documentation.
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Chapter 1 Introduction to VMware vSphere Virtual Machines
Virtual Machine Lifecycle
You create and deploy virtual machines into your datacenter in a several ways. You can create a single
virtual machine and install a guest operating system and VMware Tools on it. You can clone or create a
template from an existing virtual machine, or deploy OVF templates.
The vSphere Web Client New Virtual Machine wizard and Virtual Machine Properties editor let you add,
configure, or remove most of the virtual machine's hardware, options, and resources. You monitor CPU,
memory, disk, network, and storage metrics using the performance charts in the vSphere Web Client.
Snapshots let you capture the state of the virtual machine, including the virtual machine memory, settings,
and virtual disks. You can roll back to the previous virtual machine state when needed.
With vSphere vApps, you can manage multitiered applications. You use vSphere Update Manager to
perform orchestrated upgrades to upgrade the virtual hardware and VMware Tools of virtual machines in
the inventory at the same time.
When a virtual machine is no longer needed, you can remove it from the inventory without deleting it from
the datastore, or you can delete the virtual machine and all its files.
Virtual Machine Components
Virtual machines typically have an operating system, VMware Tools, and virtual resources and hardware
that you manage in much the same way as you would manage a physical computer.
You install a guest operating system on a virtual machine the same way as you install an operating system
on a physical computer. You must have a CD/DVD-ROM or ISO image containing the installation files from
an operating system vendor.
VMware Tools is a suite of utilities that enhances the performance of the virtual machine's guest operating
system and improves management of the virtual machine. With VMware Tools, you have more control over
the virtual machine interface.
In the vSphere Web Client, you assign each virtual machine to a compatible ESXi host version, cluster, or
datacenter by applying a compatibility setting. The compatibility setting determines which ESXi host
versions the virtual machine can run on and the hardware features available to the virtual machine.
The hardware devices listed in the Virtual Machine Properties editor complete the virtual machine. Not all
devices are configurable. Some hardware devices are part of the virtual motherboard and appear in the
expanded device list of the Virtual Machine Properties editor, but you cannot modify or remove them. For a
list of hardware devices and their functions, see “Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual
Machines,” on page 13.
Access to a virtual machine is controlled by the vSphere administrator.
Virtual Machine Hardware Available to vSphere Virtual Machines
VMware provides devices, resources, profiles, and vServices that you can configure or add to your virtual
machine.
Virtual Machine Hardware
Not all hardware devices are available to every virtual machine. The host that the virtual machine runs on
and the guest operating system must support devices that you add or configurations that you make. To
verify support for a device in your environment, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility or the Guest Operating System Installation Guide at
http://partnerweb.vmware.com/GOSIG/home.html.
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In some cases, the host might not have the required vSphere license for a resource or device. Licensing in
vSphere is applicable to ESXi hosts, vCenter Server, and solutions and can be based on different criteria,
depending on the specifics of each product. For information about vSphere licensing, see the vCenter Server
and Host Management documentation.
The PCI and SIO virtual hardware devices are part of the virtual motherboard, but cannot be configured or
removed.
Table 1‑2. Virtual Machine Hardware and Descriptions
14
Hardware Device
Description
CPU
You can configure a virtual machine that runs on an ESXi host to have one or
more virtual processors. A virtual machine cannot have more virtual CPUs than
the actual number of logical CPUs on the host. You can change the number of
CPUs allocated to a virtual machine and configure advanced CPU features, such
as the CPU Identification Mask and hyperthreaded core sharing.
Chipset
The motherboard uses VMware proprietary devices based on the following
chips:
n Intel 440BX AGPset 82443BX Host Bridge/Controller
n Intel 82371AB (PIIX4) PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator
n National Semiconductor PC87338 ACPI 1.0 and PC98/99 Compliant
SuperI/O
n Intel 82093AA I/O Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
DVD/CD-ROM Drive
Installed by default when you create a new vSphere virtual machine. You can
configure DVD/CD-ROM devices to connect to client devices, host devices, or
datastore ISO files. You can add, remove, or configure DVD/CD-ROM devices.
Floppy Drive
Installed by default when you create a new vSphere virtual machine. You can
connect to a floppy drive located on the ESXi host, a floppy (.flp) image, or the
floppy drive on your local system. You can add, remove, or configure floppy
devices.
Hard Disk
Stores the virtual machine's operating system, program files, and other data
associated with its activities. A virtual disk is a large physical file, or a set of
files, that can be copied, moved, archived, and backed up as easily as any other
file.
IDE 0, IDE 1
By default, two Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interfaces are presented to
the virtual machine. The IDE interface (controller) is a standard way for storage
devices (Floppy drives, hard drives and CD-ROM drives) to connect to the
virtual machine.
Keyboard
Mirrors the keyboard that is connected to the virtual machine console when you
first connect to the console.
Memory
The virtual hardware memory size determines how much memory applications
that are running inside the virtual machine have available to them. A virtual
machine cannot benefit from more memory resources than its configured virtual
hardware memory size.
Network Adapter
ESXi networking features provide communication between virtual machines on
the same host, between virtual machines on different hosts, and between other
virtual and physical machines. When you configure a virtual machine, you can
add network adapters (NICs) and specify the adapter type.
Parallel port
Interface for connecting peripherals to the virtual machine. The virtual parallel
port can connect to a file. You can add, remove, or configure virtual parallel
ports.
PCI controller
Bus on the virtual machine motherboard that communicates with components
such as hard disks and other devices. One PCI controller is presented to the
virtual machine. You cannot configure or remove this device.
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Chapter 1 Introduction to VMware vSphere Virtual Machines
Table 1‑2. Virtual Machine Hardware and Descriptions (Continued)
Hardware Device
Description
PCI Device
You can add up to 16 PCI vSphere DirectPath devices to a virtual machine. The
devices must be reserved for PCI passthrough on the host on which the virtual
machine runs. Snapshots are not supported with DirectPath I/O passthrough
devices.
Pointing device
Mirrors the pointing device that is connected to the virtual machine console
when you first connect to the console.
Serial Port
Interface for connecting peripherals to the virtual machine. The virtual serial
port can connect to a physical serial port, to a file on the host computer, or over
the network. You can also use it to establish a direct connection between two
virtual machines or a connection between a virtual machine and an application
on the host computer. You can configure a virtual machine with up to 32 serial
ports. You can add, remove, or configure virtual serial ports.
SATA controller
Provides access to virtual disks and DVD/CD-ROM devices. The SATA virtual
controller appears to a virtual machine as an AHCI SATA Controller.
SCSI controller
Provides access to virtual disks. The SCSI virtual controller appears to a virtual
machine as different types of controllers, including LSI Logic Parallel, LSI Logic
SAS, and VMware Paravirtual. You can change the SCSI controller type, allocate
bus sharing for a virtual machine, or add a paravirtualized SCSI controller.
SCSI device
By default, a SCSI device interface is available to the virtual machine. The SCSI
interface is a typical way to connect storage devices (floppy drives, hard drives,
and DVD/CD-ROMs) to a virtual machine. You can add, remove, or configure
SCSI devices.
SIO controller
Provides serial and parallel ports, floppy devices, and performs system
management activities. One SIO controller is available to the virtual machine.
You cannot configure or remove this device.
USB controller
The USB hardware chip that provides USB function to the USB ports that it
manages. The virtual USB Controller is the software virtualization of the USB
host controller function in the virtual machine.
USB device
You can add multiple USB devices, such as security dongles and mass storage
devices, to a virtual machine. The USB devices can be connected to an ESXi host
or a client computer.
VMCI
Virtual Machine Communication Interface device. Provides a high-speed
communication channel between a virtual machine and the hypervisor. You
cannot add or remove VMCI devices.
Virtual Machine Options and Resources
Each virtual device performs the same function for the virtual machine as hardware on a physical computer
does.
A virtual machine might be running in any of several locations, such as ESXi hosts, datacenters, clusters, or
resource pools. Many of the options and resources that you configure have dependencies on and
relationships with these objects.
Every virtual machine has CPU, memory, and disk resources. CPU virtualization emphasizes performance
and runs directly on the processor whenever possible. The underlying physical resources are used whenever
possible. The virtualization layer runs instructions only as needed to make virtual machines operate as if
they were running directly on a physical machine.
All recent operating systems provide support for virtual memory, allowing software to use more memory
than the machine physically has. Similarly, the ESXi hypervisor provides support for overcommitting virtual
machine memory, where the amount of guest memory configured for all virtual machines might be larger
than the amount of the host's physical memory.
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You can add virtual disks and add more space to existing disks, even when the virtual machine is running.
You can also change the device node and allocate shares of disk bandwidth to the virtual machine.
VMware virtual machines have the following options:
General Options
View or modify the virtual machine name, and check the location of the
configuration file and the working location of the virtual machine.
VMware Tools
Manage the power controls for the virtual machine and run VMware Tools
scripts. You can also upgrade VMware Tools during power cycling and
synchronize guest time with the host.
Advanced Options
Disable acceleration and enable logging, configure debugging and statistics,
and change the swap file location. You can also change the latency sensitivity
and add configuration parameters.
Power Management
Manage guest power options. Suspend the virtual machine or leave the
virtual machine powered on when you put the guest operating system into
standby.
CPUID Mask
Hide or expose the NX/XD flag. Hiding the NX/XD flag increases vMotion
compatibility between hosts.
Memory/CPU Hotplug
Enable or disable CPU and memory hotplug. You can add Memory or CPU
resources to a virtual machine while the virtual machine is running. You can
disable Memory or CPU hotplug to avoid adding memory or CPUs while the
virtual machine is running. Memory hotplug is supported on all 64 bit
operating systems, but to use the added memory, the guest operating system
must also support this feature. See the VMware Compatibility Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
Boot Options
Set the boot delay when powering on virtual machines or to force BIOS setup
and configure failed boot recovery.
Fibre Channel NPIV
Control virtual machine access to LUNs on a per-virtual machine basis. Nport ID virtualization (NPIV) provides the ability to share a single physical
Fibre Channel HBA port among multiple virtual ports, each with unique
identifiers.
vApp Options
Enable or disable vApp functionality. When you select the checkbox, you can
view and edit vApp properties, vApp Deployment options, and vApp
Authoring options. For example, you can configure an IP allocation policy or
a network protocol profile for the vApp. A vApp option that is specified at
the level of a virtual machine overrides the settings specified at the level of
the vApp.
vSphere Web Client
All administrative functions are available through the vSphere Web Client.
The vSphere Web Client is a cross platform application that can connect only to vCenter Server. It has a full
range of administrative functionality and an extensible plug-in-based architecture. Typical users are virtual
infrastructure administrators, help desk, network operations center operators, and virtual machine owners.
Users can use the vSphere Web Client to access vCenter Server through a Web browser. The
vSphere Web Client uses the VMware API to mediate the communication between the browser and the
vCenter Server.
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vSphere Client
Task instructions in this guide are based on the vSphere Web Client. You can also perform most of the tasks
in this guide by using the new vSphere Client. The new vSphere Client user interface terminology, topology,
and workflow are closely aligned with the same aspects and elements of the vSphere Web Client user
interface. You can apply the vSphere Web Client instructions to the new vSphere Client unless otherwise
instructed.
Note Not all functionality in the vSphere Web Client has been implemented for the vSphere Client in the
vSphere 6.5 release. For an up-to-date list of unsupported functionality, see Functionality Updates for the
vSphere Client Guide at http://www.vmware.com/info?id=1413.
Where to Go From Here
You must create, provision, and deploy your virtual machines before you can manage them.
To begin provisioning virtual machines, determine whether to create a single virtual machine and install an
operating system and VMware tools, work with templates and clones, or deploy virtual machines, virtual
appliances, or vApps stored in Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF).
After you provision and deploy virtual machines into the vSphere infrastructure, you can configure and
manage them. You can configure existing virtual machines by modifying or adding hardware or install or
upgrade VMware Tools. You might need to manage multitiered applications with VMware vApps or change
virtual machine startup and shutdown settings, use virtual machine snapshots, work with virtual disks, or
add, remove, or delete virtual machines from the inventory.
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Deploying Virtual Machines
2
To deploy virtual machines in the vCenter Server inventory, you can deploy from a template, create a virtual
machine, or clone an existing virtual machine.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“About Provisioning Virtual Machines,” on page 19
n
“Create a Virtual Machine Without a Template or Clone,” on page 20
n
“Deploy a Virtual Machine from a Template,” on page 26
n
“Clone a Virtual Machine,” on page 32
n
“Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client,” on page 38
n
“Clone a Template to a Template in the vSphere Web Client,” on page 42
n
“Convert a Template to a Virtual Machine,” on page 45
n
“Customizing Guest Operating Systems,” on page 47
About Provisioning Virtual Machines
VMware provides several methods to provision vSphere virtual machines. The optimal method for your
environment depends on factors such as the size and type of your infrastructure and the goals that you want
to achieve.
Create a single virtual machine if no other virtual machines in your environment have the requirements you
are looking for, such as a particular operating system or hardware configuration. For example, you might
need a virtual machine that is configured only for testing purposes. You can also create a single virtual
machine and install an operating system on it, and then use that virtual machine as a template from which
to clone other virtual machines. See “Create a Virtual Machine Without a Template or Clone,” on page 20.
Deploy and export virtual machines, virtual appliances, and vApps stored in Open Virtual Machine Format
(OVF) to use a preconfigured virtual machine. A virtual appliance is a virtual machine that typically has an
operating system and other software installed. You can deploy virtual machines from local file systems, such
as local disks (for example, C:), removable media (for example, CDs or USB keychain drives), and shared
network drives. See Chapter 3, “Deploying OVF and OVA Templates,” on page 63.
Create a template to deploy multiple virtual machines from. A template is a master copy of a virtual
machine that you can use to create and provision virtual machines. Use templates to save time. If you have a
virtual machine that you will clone frequently, make that virtual machine a template. See “Deploy a Virtual
Machine from a Template,” on page 26.
Cloning a virtual machine can save time if you are deploying many similar virtual machines. You can create,
configure, and install software on a single virtual machine. You can clone it multiple times, rather than
creating and configuring each virtual machine individually. See “Clone a Virtual Machine,” on page 32.
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Cloning a virtual machine to a template preserves a master copy of the virtual machine so that you can
create additional templates. For example, you can create one template, modify the original virtual machine
by installing additional software in the guest operating system, and create another template. See Clone a
Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client.
Create a Virtual Machine Without a Template or Clone
You can create a single virtual machine if no other virtual machines in your environment have the
requirements you are looking for, such as a particular operating system or hardware configuration. When
you create a virtual machine without a template or clone, you can configure the virtual hardware, including
processors, hard disks, and memory.
During the creation process a default disk is configured for the virtual machine. You can remove this disk
and add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or add an RDM disk on the Customize hardware page of
the wizard.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the following privileges:
n
Virtual machine .Inventory.Create new on the destination folder or datacenter.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are adding
a new disk.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Add existing disk on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are
adding an existing disk.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Raw device on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are using a
RDM or SCSI pass-through device.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Host USB device on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are
attaching a virtual USB device backed by a host USB device.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Advanced on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are
configuring advanced virtual machine settings.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Swapfile placement on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are
configuring swapfile placement.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Disk change tracking on the destination folder or datacenter, if you are
enabling change tracking on the virtual machine's disks.
n
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool on the destination host, cluster, or resource pool.
n
Datastore.Allocate space on the destination datastore or datastore folder.
n
Network.Assign network on the network that the virtual machine will be assigned to.
To verify the privileges assigned to your role, see the Required Privileges for Common Tasks topic in the
vSphere Security documentation.
Procedure
1
Start the New Virtual Machine Creation Process on page 21
If you need a single virtual machine with a particular operating system and hardware configuration,
you create a new virtual machine. You can open the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in
the inventory that is a valid parent object of a virtual machine.
20
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
2
Select the Virtual Machine Name and Folder on page 22
When you create a virtual machine, you provide a unique name for it. The unique name distinguishes
it from existing virtual machines in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can contain up
to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual machine, depending on
your organizational needs.
3
Select a Resource on page 22
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
4
Select a Datastore on page 22
Select the datastore or datastore cluster in which to store the virtual machine configuration files and all
of the virtual disks. Each datastore might have a different size, speed, availability, and other
properties. The available datastores are accessible from the destination resource that you selected.
5
Select the Virtual Machine Compatibility on page 23
You can accept the default ESXi host version for this virtual machine or select a different version,
depending on the hosts in your environment.
6
Select a Guest Operating System on page 23
The guest operating system that you select affects the supported devices and number of virtual CPUs
available for the virtual machine. The New Virtual Machine wizard does not install the guest
operating system. The wizard uses this information to select appropriate default values, such as the
amount of memory needed.
7
Customize Virtual Machine Hardware on page 24
Before you deploy a new virtual machine, you have the option to configure the virtual hardware.
When you create a virtual machine, the virtual disk is selected by default. You can use the New device
drop-down menu on the Customize Hardware page to add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or
add an RDM disk.
8
Finish Virtual Machine Creation on page 24
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
9
Installing a Guest Operating System on page 24
A virtual machine is not complete until you install the guest operating system and VMware Tools.
Installing a guest operating system in your virtual machine is essentially the same as installing it in a
physical computer.
Start the New Virtual Machine Creation Process
If you need a single virtual machine with a particular operating system and hardware configuration, you
create a new virtual machine. You can open the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the
inventory that is a valid parent object of a virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual machine, such as a datacenter,
folder, cluster, resource pool, or host, and select New Virtual Machine.
2
Select Create a new virtual machine and click Next.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Select the Virtual Machine Name and Folder
When you create a virtual machine, you provide a unique name for it. The unique name distinguishes it
from existing virtual machines in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can contain up to 80
characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual machine, depending on your
organizational needs.
Folders provide a way to store virtual machines for different groups in an organization, and you can set
permissions on them. For a flatter hierarchy, you can put all virtual machines and templates in a datacenter
and organize them a different way.
The virtual machine name determines the name of the virtual machine files and folder on the disk. For
example, if you name the virtual machine win8, the virtual machine files are named win8.vmx, win8.vmdk,
win8.nvram, and so on. If you change the virtual machine name, the names of the files on the datastore do
not change.
Procedure
1
Type a name for the virtual machine.
2
Select or search for the datacenter or folder in which to deploy the virtual machine.
3
Click Next.
Select a Resource
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
For example, a virtual machine has access to the memory and CPU resources of the host on which it resides.
If you select a cluster for the virtual machine, and the administrator has configured the cluster to take
advantage of HA and DRS, the virtual machine will have a greater level of availability.
Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual machine.
If deploying the virtual machine to the selected location might cause compatibility problems, the
problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
Click Next.
Select a Datastore
Select the datastore or datastore cluster in which to store the virtual machine configuration files and all of
the virtual disks. Each datastore might have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties. The
available datastores are accessible from the destination resource that you selected.
On the Customize hardware page, you can configure the storage. For example, you can add a new hard
disk, apply a Virtual machine storage policy, or place the configuration and disk files on separate storage
devices.
The amount of free space in the datastore is always changing. Ensure that you leave sufficient space for
virtual machine creation and other virtual machine operations, such as growth of sparse files, snapshots,
and so on. To review space utilization for the datastore by file type, see the vSphere Monitoring and
Performance documentation.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Procedure
u
Select the datastore location where you want to store the virtual machine files.
Option
Action
Store all virtual machine files in the
same location on a datastore.
Select a datastore and click Next.
Store all virtual machine files in the
same datastore cluster.
a
b
c
Select a datastore cluster.
(Optional) If you do not want to use Storage DRS with this virtual
machine, select Disable Storage DRS for this virtual machine and
select a datastore within the datastore cluster.
Click Next.
Select the Virtual Machine Compatibility
You can accept the default ESXi host version for this virtual machine or select a different version, depending
on the hosts in your environment.
The default compatibility for this virtual machine is determined by the host on which the virtual machine is
created or by the default compatibility settings on the host, cluster, or datacenter. You can select a different
compatibility from the default.
Only host versions that are in your environment appear in the Compatible with drop-down menu. For
information about choices and compatibility strategies, see “Virtual Machine Compatibility,” on page 87.
Procedure
u
Select the compatibility from the drop-down menu and click Next.
Select a Guest Operating System
The guest operating system that you select affects the supported devices and number of virtual CPUs
available for the virtual machine. The New Virtual Machine wizard does not install the guest operating
system. The wizard uses this information to select appropriate default values, such as the amount of
memory needed.
For details, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
When you select a guest operating system, BIOS or Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is selected by
default, depending on the firmware supported by the operating system. Mac OS X Server guest operating
systems support only EFI. If the operating system supports BIOS and EFI, you can change the default from
the Options tab of the Virtual Machine Properties editor after you create the virtual machine and before you
install the guest operating system. If you select EFI, you cannot boot an operating system that supports only
BIOS, and the reverse.
Important Do not change the firmware after the guest operating system is installed. The guest operating
system installer partitions the disk in a particular format, depending on which firmware the installer was
booted from. If you change the firmware, you will not be able to boot the guest.
The Mac OS X Server must run on Apple hardware. You cannot power on a Mac OS X Server if it is running
on other hardware.
Procedure
1
Select the guest operating system family from the Guest OS Family drop-down menu.
2
Select a guest operating system version from the Guest OS Version drop-down menu.
3
If you selected Other as the guest operating system family, and Other (32-bit) or Other (64-bit) for the
version, type a name for the operating system in the text box.
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4
Click Next.
Customize Virtual Machine Hardware
Before you deploy a new virtual machine, you have the option to configure the virtual hardware. When you
create a virtual machine, the virtual disk is selected by default. You can use the New device drop-down
menu on the Customize Hardware page to add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or add an RDM
disk.
For information about virtual disk configuration, including instructions for adding different types of disks,
see “Add a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine,” on page 115.
For help configuring other virtual machine hardware, see Chapter 5, “Configuring Virtual Machine
Hardware,” on page 87.
Procedure
1
(Optional) To add a new virtual hardware device, select the device from the New device drop-down
menu and click Add.
2
(Optional) Expand any device to view and configure the device settings.
3
To remove a device, move your cursor over the device and click the Remove icon.
This icon appears only for virtual hardware that you can safely remove.
4
Click Next.
Finish Virtual Machine Creation
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Procedure
1
Review the virtual machine settings and make changes by clicking Back to go back to the relevant page.
2
Click Finish.
The virtual machine appears in the vSphere Web Client inventory.
Installing a Guest Operating System
A virtual machine is not complete until you install the guest operating system and VMware Tools. Installing
a guest operating system in your virtual machine is essentially the same as installing it in a physical
computer.
The basic steps for a typical operating system are described in this section. See the Guest Operating System
Installation Guide at http://partnerweb.vmware.com/GOSIG/home.html.
Using PXE with Virtual Machines
You can start a virtual machine from a network device and remotely install a guest operating system using a
Preboot Execution Environment (PXE). You do not need the operating system installation media. When you
turn on the virtual machine, the virtual machine detects the PXE server.
PXE booting is supported for Guest Operating Systems that are listed in the VMware Guest Operating
System Compatibility list and whose operating system vendor supports PXE booting of the operating
system.
The virtual machine must meet the following requirements:
n
24
Have a virtual disk without operating system software and with enough free disk space to store the
intended system software.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
n
Have a network adapter connected to the network where the PXE server resides.
For details about guest operating system installation, see the Guest Operating System Installation Guide at
http://partnerweb.vmware.com/GOSIG/home.html.
Install a Guest Operating System from Media
You can install a guest operating system from a CD-ROM or from an ISO image. Installing from an ISO
image is typically faster and more convenient than a CD-ROM installation.
If the virtual machine’s boot sequence progresses too quickly for you to open a console to the virtual
machine and enter BIOS or EFI setup, you might need to delay the boot order. See “Delay the Boot
Sequence,” on page 160.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the installation ISO image is present on a VMFS datastore or network file system (NFS)
volume accessible to the ESXi host.
Alternatively, verify that an ISO image is present in a content library.
n
Verify that you have the installation instructions that the operating system vendor provides.
Procedure
1
Log in to the vCenter Server system or host on which the virtual machine resides.
2
Select an installation method.
Option
Action
CD-ROM
Insert the installation CD-ROM for your guest operating system into the
CD-ROM drive of your ESXi host.
ISO image
a
b
ISO image from a Content Library
a
b
3
Right-click the virtual machine and select Edit Settings. The virtual
machine Edit Settings dialog box opens. If the Virtual Hardware tab is
not preselected, select it.
Select Datastore ISO File from the CD/DVD drop-down menu, and
browse for the ISO image for your guest operating system.
Right-click the virtual machine and select Edit Settings. The virtual
machine Edit Settings dialog box opens. If the Virtual Hardware tab is
not preselected, select it.
Select Content Library ISO File from the CD/DVD drop-down menu,
and select an ISO image from the content library items.
Right-click the virtual machine and select Power On.
A green right arrow appears next to the virtual machine icon in the inventory list.
4
Follow the installation instructions that the operating system vendor provides.
What to do next
Install VMware Tools. VMware highly recommends running the latest version of VMware Tools on your
guest operating systems. Although the guest operating system can run without VMware Tools, you lose
important functionality and convenience without them. See Chapter 10, “Upgrading Virtual Machines,” on
page 203 for instructions on installing and upgrading VMware Tools.
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Upload ISO Image Installation Media for a Guest Operating System
You can upload an ISO image file to a datastore from your local computer. You can do this when a virtual
machine, host, or cluster does not have access to a datastore or to a shared datastore that has the guest
operating system installation media that you require.
Prerequisites
Required privileges:
n
Datastore.Browse datastore on the datastore.
n
Datastore.Low level file operations on the datastore.
Procedure
1
In the inventory, click Datastores and on the Objects tab, select the datastore to which you will upload
the file.
2
Click the Navigate to the datastore file browser icon (
3
(Optional) Click the Create a new folder icon.
4
Select the folder that you created or select an existing folder, and click the Upload a File icon (
5
On the local computer, find the file and upload it.
).
).
ISO upload times vary, depending on file size and network upload speed.
6
Refresh the datastore file browser to see the uploaded file in the list.
What to do next
After you upload the ISO image installation media, you can configure the virtual machine CD-ROM drive to
access the file.
Deploy a Virtual Machine from a Template
Deploying a virtual machine from a template creates a virtual machine that is a copy of the template. The
new virtual machine has the virtual hardware, installed software, and other properties that are configured
for the template.
Prerequisites
You must have the following privileges to deploy a virtual machine from a template:
26
n
Virtual machine .Inventory.Create from existing on the datacenter or virtual machine folder.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk on the datacenter or virtual machine folder. Required
only if you customize the original hardware by adding a new virtual disk.
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Deploy template on the source template.
n
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool on the destination host, cluster, or resource pool.
n
Datastore.Allocate space on the destination datastore.
n
Network.Assign network on the network to which the virtual machine will be assigned. Required only
if you customize the original hardware by adding a new network card.
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Customize on the template or template folder if you are customizing
the guest operating system.
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Read customization specifications on the root vCenter Server if you are
customizing the guest operating system.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Procedure
1
Start the Deploy a Virtual Machine from a Template Task on page 28
To save time, you can create a virtual machine that is a copy of a configured template. You can open
the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object of a
virtual machine, or directly from the template. The wizard provides several options for creating and
deploying virtual machines and templates.
2
Select a Template on page 28
After you select the template from which to deploy the virtual machine, you can optionally select to
customize the guest operating system and the virtual machine hardware. You can also select to turn on
the virtual machine when you complete the creation procedure. You can change the properties of the
guest operating system, such as the computer name, and network and license settings, which helps
prevent conflicts that can result if virtual machines with identical settings are deployed. You can add a
CD device such as an ISO file to install the guest operating system, or reconfigure the virtual machines'
hardware, such as storage or networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
3
Select the Virtual Machine Name and Folder on page 29
When you create a virtual machine, you provide a unique name for it. The unique name distinguishes
it from existing virtual machines in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can contain up
to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual machine, depending on
your organizational needs.
4
Select a Resource on page 29
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
5
Select a Datastore on page 29
Select the datastore or datastore cluster in which to store the virtual machine configuration files and all
of the virtual disks. Each datastore might have a different size, speed, availability, and other
properties. The available datastores are accessible from the destination resource that you selected. You
can select a format for the virtual machine's disks and assign a storage policy.
6
Select Clone Options on page 30
You can optionally select to customize the guest operating system, customize the virtual machine's
hardware, and turn on the virtual machine when you complete the creation procedure. You can
customize the guest operating system to change properties, such as the computer name, and network
and license settings, which helps prevent conflicts that can result if you deploy virtual machines with
identical settings. You can add a CD device such as an ISO file to install the guest operating system or
you can reconfigure the virtual machine storage or networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
7
Customize the Guest Operating System on page 31
When you customize a guest operating system, you can prevent conflicts that might result if you
deploy virtual machines with identical settings, such as duplicate computer names. You can change
the computer name, network settings, and license settings. You can customize guest operating systems
when you clone a virtual machine or deploy a virtual machine from a template.
8
Enter Additional Customization Parameters for the Guest Operating System on page 31
In the User Settings screen, you can enter the NetBIOS name and configure the network settings of the
virtual machine.
9
Customize Virtual Machine Hardware on page 32
Before you deploy a new virtual machine, you have the option to configure the virtual hardware.
When you create a virtual machine, the virtual disk is selected by default. You can use the New device
drop-down menu on the Customize Hardware page to add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or
add an RDM disk.
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10
Finish Virtual Machine Creation on page 32
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Start the Deploy a Virtual Machine from a Template Task
To save time, you can create a virtual machine that is a copy of a configured template. You can open the
New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, or directly from the template. The wizard provides several options for creating and deploying
virtual machines and templates.
If you open the wizard from a template, the Select a creation type page does not appear.
Procedure
u
Select to deploy a virtual machine from a template.
Option
Description
Open the New Virtual Machine
wizard from any object in the
inventory
a
b
Right-click any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, such as a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host,
and select New Virtual Machine.
Select Deploy from template and click Next.
The Select a name and folder page opens.
Open the Deploy From Template
wizard from a template
Right-click the template and select Deploy VM from this Template.
The Select a name and folder page opens.
Select a Template
After you select the template from which to deploy the virtual machine, you can optionally select to
customize the guest operating system and the virtual machine hardware. You can also select to turn on the
virtual machine when you complete the creation procedure. You can change the properties of the guest
operating system, such as the computer name, and network and license settings, which helps prevent
conflicts that can result if virtual machines with identical settings are deployed. You can add a CD device
such as an ISO file to install the guest operating system, or reconfigure the virtual machines' hardware, such
as storage or networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
This page appears only if you opened the New Virtual Machine wizard from a inventory object that is not a
template.
Note If you start the deploy operation from a template, you select the customization and power options on
a later page in the wizard.
Procedure
28
1
Search for or browse to the template.
2
(Optional) Select Customize the operating system to customize the guest operating system of the
virtual machine.
3
(Optional) Select Customize this virtual machine's hardware to configure the virtual machine's
hardware before deployment.
4
(Optional) Select Power On Virtual Machine after creation to power on the virtual machine after
creation is complete.
5
Click Next.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Select the Virtual Machine Name and Folder
When you create a virtual machine, you provide a unique name for it. The unique name distinguishes it
from existing virtual machines in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can contain up to 80
characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual machine, depending on your
organizational needs.
Folders provide a way to store virtual machines for different groups in an organization, and you can set
permissions on them. For a flatter hierarchy, you can put all virtual machines and templates in a datacenter
and organize them a different way.
The virtual machine name determines the name of the virtual machine files and folder on the disk. For
example, if you name the virtual machine win8, the virtual machine files are named win8.vmx, win8.vmdk,
win8.nvram, and so on. If you change the virtual machine name, the names of the files on the datastore do
not change.
Procedure
1
Type a name for the virtual machine.
2
Select or search for the datacenter or folder in which to deploy the virtual machine.
3
Click Next.
Select a Resource
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
For example, a virtual machine has access to the memory and CPU resources of the host on which it resides.
If you select a cluster for the virtual machine, and the administrator has configured the cluster to take
advantage of HA and DRS, the virtual machine will have a greater level of availability.
Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual machine.
If deploying the virtual machine to the selected location might cause compatibility problems, the
problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
Click Next.
Select a Datastore
Select the datastore or datastore cluster in which to store the virtual machine configuration files and all of
the virtual disks. Each datastore might have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties. The
available datastores are accessible from the destination resource that you selected. You can select a format
for the virtual machine's disks and assign a storage policy.
The amount of free space in the datastore is always changing. Ensure that you leave sufficient space for
virtual machine creation and other virtual machine operations, such as growth of sparse files, snapshots,
and so on. To review space utilization for the datastore by file type, see the vSphere Monitoring and
Performance documentation.
Thin provisioning lets you create sparse files with blocks that are allocated upon first access, which allows
the datastore to be over-provisioned. The sparse files can continue growing and fill the datastore. If the
datastore runs out of disk space while the virtual machine is running, it can cause the virtual machine to
stop functioning.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Procedure
1
2
Select the format for the virtual machine's disks.
Option
Action
Same format as source
Use the same format as the source virtual machine.
Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed
Create a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the
virtual disk is allocated during creation. Any data remaining on the
physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand
at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
Create a thick disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
Tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
In contrast to the thick provision lazy zeroed format, the data remaining
on the physical device is zeroed out during creation. It might take longer
to create disks in this format than to create other types of disks.
Thin Provision
Use the thin provisioned format. At first, a thin provisioned disk uses only
as much datastore space as the disk initially needs. If the thin disk needs
more space later, it can grow to the maximum capacity allocated to it.
(Optional) Select a storage policy from the VM Storage Policy drop-down menu.
Storage policies specify storage requirements for applications that run on the virtual machine.
3
Select a datastore location for the virtual disk.
Option
Action
Store the virtual disk and virtual
machine configuration files in the
same location on a datastore.
Select Store with the virtual machine from the Location drop-down
menu.
Store the disk in a separate
datastore location.
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu, and select a datastore
for the disk.
Store all virtual machine files in the
same datastore cluster.
a
b
4
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu and select a
datastore cluster for the disk.
(Optional) If you do not want to use Storage DRS with this virtual
machine, select Disable Storage DRS for this virtual machine and
select a datastore within the datastore cluster.
Click Next.
Select Clone Options
You can optionally select to customize the guest operating system, customize the virtual machine's
hardware, and turn on the virtual machine when you complete the creation procedure. You can customize
the guest operating system to change properties, such as the computer name, and network and license
settings, which helps prevent conflicts that can result if you deploy virtual machines with identical settings.
You can add a CD device such as an ISO file to install the guest operating system or you can reconfigure the
virtual machine storage or networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
Note If you opened the wizard from an object other than a virtual machine or template, the Select Clone
Options page does not appear. These options are available on a different page of the wizard.
Procedure
30
1
Select Customize the Operating System.
2
Select Customize this virtual machine's hardware.
3
Select Power on virtual machine after creation.
4
Click Next.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Customize the Guest Operating System
When you customize a guest operating system, you can prevent conflicts that might result if you deploy
virtual machines with identical settings, such as duplicate computer names. You can change the computer
name, network settings, and license settings. You can customize guest operating systems when you clone a
virtual machine or deploy a virtual machine from a template.
Prerequisites
To access customization options for Windows guest operating systems, Microsoft Sysprep tools must be
installed on the vCenter Server system. The Sysprep Tool is built into the Windows Vista and Windows 2008
and later operating systems. For details about this and other customization requirements, see “Guest
Operating System Customization Requirements,” on page 47.
Procedure
1
Apply a customization specification to the virtual machine.
Option
2
Description
Select an existing specification
Select a customization specification from the list.
Create a specification
Click the Create a new specification icon, and complete the steps in the
wizard.
Create a specification from an
existing specification
a
b
Select a customization specification from the list.
Click the Create a spec from an existing spec icon, and complete the
steps in the wizard.
Click Next.
Enter Additional Customization Parameters for the Guest Operating System
In the User Settings screen, you can enter the NetBIOS name and configure the network settings of the
virtual machine.
The User Settings screen appears when you apply a customization specification for which at least one of the
following conditions is true.
n
The option Enter a name in the Clone/Deploy wizard was selected during the creation of the
customization specification.
n
The option Prompt the user for an address when the specification is used was selected for IPv4 and
IPv6 during the creation of the customization specification.
See “Customize Windows During Cloning or Deployment,” on page 49 and “Customize Linux During
Cloning or Deployment,” on page 52.
Procedure
1
Enter a NetBIOS name for the computer.
2
Enter Network Adapter Settings for each network interface.
3
Click Next.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Customize Virtual Machine Hardware
Before you deploy a new virtual machine, you have the option to configure the virtual hardware. When you
create a virtual machine, the virtual disk is selected by default. You can use the New device drop-down
menu on the Customize Hardware page to add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or add an RDM
disk.
For information about virtual disk configuration, including instructions for adding different types of disks,
see “Add a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine,” on page 115.
For help configuring other virtual machine hardware, see Chapter 5, “Configuring Virtual Machine
Hardware,” on page 87.
Procedure
1
(Optional) To add a new virtual hardware device, select the device from the New device drop-down
menu and click Add.
2
(Optional) Expand any device to view and configure the device settings.
3
To remove a device, move your cursor over the device and click the Remove icon.
This icon appears only for virtual hardware that you can safely remove.
4
Click Next.
Finish Virtual Machine Creation
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Procedure
1
Review the virtual machine settings and make changes by clicking Back to go back to the relevant page.
2
Click Finish.
The virtual machine appears in the vSphere Web Client inventory.
Clone a Virtual Machine
Cloning a virtual machine creates a virtual machine that is a copy of the original. The new virtual machine is
configured with the same virtual hardware, installed software, and other properties that were configured for
the original virtual machine.
Note When heavily loaded applications, such as load generators, are running in the guest operating
system during a clone operation, the virtual machine quiesce operation can fail and VMware Tools might be
denied CPU resources and time out. It is recommended that you quiesce the virtual machines running lower
I/O disk operation.
Prerequisites
If a load generator is running in the virtual machine, stop it before you perform the clone operation.
You must have the following privileges to clone a virtual machine:
32
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Clone virtual machine on the virtual machine you are cloning.
n
Virtual machine .Inventory.Create from existing on the datacenter or virtual machine folder.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk on the datacenter or virtual machine folder.
n
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool on the destination host, cluster, or resource pool.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
n
Datastore.Allocate space on the destination datastore or datastore folder.
n
Network.Assign network on the network to which the virtual machine will be assigned.
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Customize on the virtual machine or virtual machine folder if you are
customizing the guest operating system.
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Read customization specifications on the root vCenter Server if you are
customizing the guest operating system.
Procedure
1
Start the Clone an Existing Virtual Machine Task on page 34
To make an original copy of a virtual machine, you can clone an existing virtual machine. You can
open the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object of
a virtual machine. You can also open the wizard directly from the virtual machine that you are going
to clone.
2
Select a Virtual Machine to Clone on page 34
You select a virtual machine to clone, and you can optionally select to customize the guest operating
system and the virtual machine hardware. You can also select to turn on the virtual machine when you
complete the creation procedure. You can change the properties of the guest operating system, such as
the computer name, and network and license settings, which helps prevent conflicts that can result if
virtual machines with identical settings are deployed. You can add a CD device such as an ISO file to
install the guest operating system, or reconfigure the virtual machines' hardware, such as storage or
networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
3
Select the Virtual Machine Name and Folder on page 35
When you create a virtual machine, you provide a unique name for it. The unique name distinguishes
it from existing virtual machines in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can contain up
to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual machine, depending on
your organizational needs.
4
Select a Resource on page 35
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
5
Select a Datastore on page 35
Select the datastore or datastore cluster in which to store the virtual machine configuration files and all
of the virtual disks. Each datastore might have a different size, speed, availability, and other
properties. The available datastores are accessible from the destination resource that you selected. You
can select a format for the virtual machine's disks and assign a storage policy.
6
Select Clone Options on page 36
You can optionally select to customize the guest operating system, customize the virtual machine's
hardware, and turn on the virtual machine when you complete the creation procedure. You can
customize the guest operating system to change properties, such as the computer name, and network
and license settings, which helps prevent conflicts that can result if you deploy virtual machines with
identical settings. You can add a CD device such as an ISO file to install the guest operating system or
you can reconfigure the virtual machine storage or networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
7
Customize the Guest Operating System on page 37
When you customize a guest operating system, you can prevent conflicts that might result if you
deploy virtual machines with identical settings, such as duplicate computer names. You can change
the computer name, network settings, and license settings. You can customize guest operating systems
when you clone a virtual machine or deploy a virtual machine from a template.
VMware, Inc.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
8
Enter Additional Customization Parameters for the Guest Operating System on page 37
In the User Settings screen, you can enter the NetBIOS name and configure the network settings of the
virtual machine.
9
Customize Virtual Machine Hardware on page 38
Before you deploy a new virtual machine, you have the option to configure the virtual hardware.
When you create a virtual machine, the virtual disk is selected by default. You can use the New device
drop-down menu on the Customize Hardware page to add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or
add an RDM disk.
10
Finish Virtual Machine Creation on page 38
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Start the Clone an Existing Virtual Machine Task
To make an original copy of a virtual machine, you can clone an existing virtual machine. You can open the
New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine. You can also open the wizard directly from the virtual machine that you are going to clone.
If you open the wizard from a virtual machine, the Select a creation type page does not appear.
Procedure
u
Select to clone a virtual machine.
Option
Description
Open the New Virtual Machine
wizard from any object in the
inventory
a
b
Right-click any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, such as a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host,
and select New Virtual machine > New Virtual Machine....
Select Clone an existing virtual machine and click Next.
The Select a virtual machine page opens.
Open the Clone Existing Virtual
Machine wizard from a virtual
machine
Right-click the virtual machine and select Clone > Clone to Virtual
Machine.
The Select a name and folder page opens.
Select a Virtual Machine to Clone
You select a virtual machine to clone, and you can optionally select to customize the guest operating system
and the virtual machine hardware. You can also select to turn on the virtual machine when you complete the
creation procedure. You can change the properties of the guest operating system, such as the computer
name, and network and license settings, which helps prevent conflicts that can result if virtual machines
with identical settings are deployed. You can add a CD device such as an ISO file to install the guest
operating system, or reconfigure the virtual machines' hardware, such as storage or networking, before you
deploy the virtual machine.
This page appears only if you opened the New Virtual Machine wizard from a inventory object that is not a
template.
Note If you start the deploy operation from a template, you select the customization and power options on
a later page in the wizard.
Procedure
34
1
Search for or browse to the virtual machine, and select it.
2
(Optional) Select Customize the operating system to customize the guest operating system of the
virtual machine.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
3
(Optional) Select Customize this virtual machine's hardware to configure the virtual machine's
hardware before deployment.
4
(Optional) Select Power On Virtual Machine after creation to power on the virtual machine after
creation is complete.
5
Click Next.
Select the Virtual Machine Name and Folder
When you create a virtual machine, you provide a unique name for it. The unique name distinguishes it
from existing virtual machines in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can contain up to 80
characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual machine, depending on your
organizational needs.
Folders provide a way to store virtual machines for different groups in an organization, and you can set
permissions on them. For a flatter hierarchy, you can put all virtual machines and templates in a datacenter
and organize them a different way.
The virtual machine name determines the name of the virtual machine files and folder on the disk. For
example, if you name the virtual machine win8, the virtual machine files are named win8.vmx, win8.vmdk,
win8.nvram, and so on. If you change the virtual machine name, the names of the files on the datastore do
not change.
Procedure
1
Type a name for the virtual machine.
2
Select or search for the datacenter or folder in which to deploy the virtual machine.
3
Click Next.
Select a Resource
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
For example, a virtual machine has access to the memory and CPU resources of the host on which it resides.
If you select a cluster for the virtual machine, and the administrator has configured the cluster to take
advantage of HA and DRS, the virtual machine will have a greater level of availability.
Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual machine.
If deploying the virtual machine to the selected location might cause compatibility problems, the
problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
Click Next.
Select a Datastore
Select the datastore or datastore cluster in which to store the virtual machine configuration files and all of
the virtual disks. Each datastore might have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties. The
available datastores are accessible from the destination resource that you selected. You can select a format
for the virtual machine's disks and assign a storage policy.
The amount of free space in the datastore is always changing. Ensure that you leave sufficient space for
virtual machine creation and other virtual machine operations, such as growth of sparse files, snapshots,
and so on. To review space utilization for the datastore by file type, see the vSphere Monitoring and
Performance documentation.
VMware, Inc.
35
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Thin provisioning lets you create sparse files with blocks that are allocated upon first access, which allows
the datastore to be over-provisioned. The sparse files can continue growing and fill the datastore. If the
datastore runs out of disk space while the virtual machine is running, it can cause the virtual machine to
stop functioning.
Procedure
1
2
Select the format for the virtual machine's disks.
Option
Action
Same format as source
Use the same format as the source virtual machine.
Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed
Create a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the
virtual disk is allocated during creation. Any data remaining on the
physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand
at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
Create a thick disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
Tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
In contrast to the thick provision lazy zeroed format, the data remaining
on the physical device is zeroed out during creation. It might take longer
to create disks in this format than to create other types of disks.
Thin Provision
Use the thin provisioned format. At first, a thin provisioned disk uses only
as much datastore space as the disk initially needs. If the thin disk needs
more space later, it can grow to the maximum capacity allocated to it.
(Optional) Select a storage policy from the VM Storage Policy drop-down menu.
Storage policies specify storage requirements for applications that run on the virtual machine.
3
Select a datastore location for the virtual disk.
Option
Action
Store the virtual disk and virtual
machine configuration files in the
same location on a datastore.
Select Store with the virtual machine from the Location drop-down
menu.
Store the disk in a separate
datastore location.
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu, and select a datastore
for the disk.
Store all virtual machine files in the
same datastore cluster.
a
b
4
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu and select a
datastore cluster for the disk.
(Optional) If you do not want to use Storage DRS with this virtual
machine, select Disable Storage DRS for this virtual machine and
select a datastore within the datastore cluster.
Click Next.
Select Clone Options
You can optionally select to customize the guest operating system, customize the virtual machine's
hardware, and turn on the virtual machine when you complete the creation procedure. You can customize
the guest operating system to change properties, such as the computer name, and network and license
settings, which helps prevent conflicts that can result if you deploy virtual machines with identical settings.
You can add a CD device such as an ISO file to install the guest operating system or you can reconfigure the
virtual machine storage or networking, before you deploy the virtual machine.
Note If you opened the wizard from an object other than a virtual machine or template, the Select Clone
Options page does not appear. These options are available on a different page of the wizard.
Procedure
1
36
Select Customize the Operating System.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
2
Select Customize this virtual machine's hardware.
3
Select Power on virtual machine after creation.
4
Click Next.
Customize the Guest Operating System
When you customize a guest operating system, you can prevent conflicts that might result if you deploy
virtual machines with identical settings, such as duplicate computer names. You can change the computer
name, network settings, and license settings. You can customize guest operating systems when you clone a
virtual machine or deploy a virtual machine from a template.
Prerequisites
To access customization options for Windows guest operating systems, Microsoft Sysprep tools must be
installed on the vCenter Server system. The Sysprep Tool is built into the Windows Vista and Windows 2008
and later operating systems. For details about this and other customization requirements, see “Guest
Operating System Customization Requirements,” on page 47.
Procedure
1
Apply a customization specification to the virtual machine.
Option
2
Description
Select an existing specification
Select a customization specification from the list.
Create a specification
Click the Create a new specification icon, and complete the steps in the
wizard.
Create a specification from an
existing specification
a
b
Select a customization specification from the list.
Click the Create a spec from an existing spec icon, and complete the
steps in the wizard.
Click Next.
Enter Additional Customization Parameters for the Guest Operating System
In the User Settings screen, you can enter the NetBIOS name and configure the network settings of the
virtual machine.
The User Settings screen appears when you apply a customization specification for which at least one of the
following conditions is true.
n
The option Enter a name in the Clone/Deploy wizard was selected during the creation of the
customization specification.
n
The option Prompt the user for an address when the specification is used was selected for IPv4 and
IPv6 during the creation of the customization specification.
See “Customize Windows During Cloning or Deployment,” on page 49 and “Customize Linux During
Cloning or Deployment,” on page 52.
Procedure
1
Enter a NetBIOS name for the computer.
2
Enter Network Adapter Settings for each network interface.
3
Click Next.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Customize Virtual Machine Hardware
Before you deploy a new virtual machine, you have the option to configure the virtual hardware. When you
create a virtual machine, the virtual disk is selected by default. You can use the New device drop-down
menu on the Customize Hardware page to add a new hard disk, select an existing disk, or add an RDM
disk.
For information about virtual disk configuration, including instructions for adding different types of disks,
see “Add a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine,” on page 115.
For help configuring other virtual machine hardware, see Chapter 5, “Configuring Virtual Machine
Hardware,” on page 87.
Procedure
1
(Optional) To add a new virtual hardware device, select the device from the New device drop-down
menu and click Add.
2
(Optional) Expand any device to view and configure the device settings.
3
To remove a device, move your cursor over the device and click the Remove icon.
This icon appears only for virtual hardware that you can safely remove.
4
Click Next.
Finish Virtual Machine Creation
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Procedure
1
Review the virtual machine settings and make changes by clicking Back to go back to the relevant page.
2
Click Finish.
The virtual machine appears in the vSphere Web Client inventory.
Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client
After you create a virtual machine, you can clone it to a template. Templates are master copies of virtual
machines that let you create ready-for-use virtual machines. You can make changes to the template, such as
installing additional software in the guest operating system, while preserving the original virtual machine.
You cannot modify templates after you create them. To alter an existing template, you must convert it to a
virtual machine, make the required changes, and convert the virtual machine back to a template. To preserve
the original state of a template, clone the template to a template.
Prerequisites
If a load generator is running in the virtual machine, stop it before you perform the clone operation.
Verify that you have the following privileges:
38
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Create template from virtual machine on the source virtual machine.
n
Virtual machine .Inventory.Create from existing on virtual machine folder where the template is
created.
n
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool on the destination host, cluster, or resource pool.
n
Datastore.Allocate space on all datastores where the template is created.
VMware, Inc.
Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Procedure
1
Start the Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template Task on page 39
To make a master copy of a virtual machine, you can clone the virtual machine to a template. You can
open the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object of
a virtual machine, or directly from the template. The wizard provides several options for creating and
deploying virtual machines and templates.
2
Select a Virtual Machine to Clone to a Template on page 40
To clone a virtual machine to a template, you must select an existing virtual machine to clone. You
cannot modify a template after you create it. To change the template, you must convert it back to a
virtual machine.
3
Select a Name and Location for the Template on page 40
When you deploy a template to the vCenter Server inventory, you provide a unique name for it. The
unique name distinguishes it from existing templates in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The
name can contain up to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the template,
depending on your organizational needs.
4
Select a Resource for a Virtual Machine Template on page 40
When you deploy a virtual machine template, select a host or cluster resource for the template. The
template must be registered with an ESXi host. The host handles all requests for the template and must
be running when you create a virtual machine from the template.
5
Select a Datastore for the Virtual Machine Template on page 41
Each virtual machine or virtual machine template requires a folder or directory for its virtual disks
and files. When you create a virtual machine or template to deploy to the vCenter Server inventory,
select a datastore or datastore cluster for the virtual machine's configuration and other files and all of
the virtual disks. Each datastore can have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties.
6
Finish Virtual Machine Template Creation on page 42
Before you deploy the template, you can review the template settings.
Start the Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template Task
To make a master copy of a virtual machine, you can clone the virtual machine to a template. You can open
the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, or directly from the template. The wizard provides several options for creating and deploying
virtual machines and templates.
If you open the wizard from a template, the Select a creation type page does not appear.
Procedure
u
Select an option to clone a virtual machine to a template.
Option
Description
Open the New Virtual Machine
wizard from any object in the
inventory
a
b
Right-click any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, such as a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host,
and select New Virtual Machine.
Select Clone Virtual Machine to Template and click Next.
The Select a name and folder page opens.
Open the Clone Virtual Machine to
Template wizard from a template
VMware, Inc.
Right-click the virtual machine and select Clone > Clone to Template .
The Select a name and folder page opens.
39
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Select a Virtual Machine to Clone to a Template
To clone a virtual machine to a template, you must select an existing virtual machine to clone. You cannot
modify a template after you create it. To change the template, you must convert it back to a virtual machine.
This page appears only if you opened the New Virtual Machine wizard from an inventory object other than
a virtual machine, such as a host or cluster. If you opened the wizard from a virtual machine, this page does
not appear.
Procedure
1
Browse or search for the virtual machine and select it.
2
Click Next.
Select a Name and Location for the Template
When you deploy a template to the vCenter Server inventory, you provide a unique name for it. The unique
name distinguishes it from existing templates in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can
contain up to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the template, depending on
your organizational needs.
Folders provide a way to store virtual machines and templates for different groups in an organization and
you can set permissions on them. If you prefer a flatter hierarchy, you can put all virtual machines and
templates in a datacenter and organize them a different way.
The template name determines the name of the files and folder on the disk. For example, if you name the
template win8tmp, the template files are named win8tmp.vmdk, win8tmp.nvram, and so on. If you change
the template name, the names of the files on the datastore do not change.
Procedure
1
Type a name for the template.
2
Select or search for the datacenter or folder in which to deploy the template.
3
Click Next.
Select a Resource for a Virtual Machine Template
When you deploy a virtual machine template, select a host or cluster resource for the template. The template
must be registered with an ESXi host. The host handles all requests for the template and must be running
when you create a virtual machine from the template.
Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host or cluster and select it.
Any Compatibility problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
40
Click Next.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Select a Datastore for the Virtual Machine Template
Each virtual machine or virtual machine template requires a folder or directory for its virtual disks and files.
When you create a virtual machine or template to deploy to the vCenter Server inventory, select a datastore
or datastore cluster for the virtual machine's configuration and other files and all of the virtual disks. Each
datastore can have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties.
The amount of free space in the datastore is always changing. Ensure that you leave sufficient space for
virtual machine creation and other virtual machine operations, such as growth of sparse files, snapshots,
and so on. To review space utilization for the datastore by file type, see the vSphere Monitoring and
Performance documentation.
Thin provisioning lets you create sparse files with blocks that are allocated upon first access, which allows
the datastore to be over-provisioned. The sparse files can continue growing and fill the datastore. If the
datastore runs out of disk space while the virtual machine is running, it can cause the virtual machine to
stop functioning.
Procedure
1
2
Select the format for the virtual machine's disks.
Option
Action
Same format as source
Use the same format as the source virtual machine.
Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed
Create a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the
virtual disk is allocated during creation. Any data remaining on the
physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand
at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
Create a thick disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
Tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
In contrast to the thick provision lazy zeroed format, the data remaining
on the physical device is zeroed out during creation. It might take longer
to create disks in this format than to create other types of disks.
Thin Provision
Use the thin provisioned format. At first, a thin provisioned disk uses only
as much datastore space as the disk initially needs. If the thin disk needs
more space later, it can grow to the maximum capacity allocated to it.
(Optional) Select a storage policy from the VM Storage Policy drop-down menu.
Storage policies specify storage requirements for applications that run on the virtual machine.
3
Select a datastore location for the virtual disk.
Option
Action
Store the virtual disk and virtual
machine configuration files in the
same location on a datastore.
Select Store with the virtual machine from the Location drop-down
menu.
Store the disk in a separate
datastore location.
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu, and select a datastore
for the disk.
Store all virtual machine files in the
same datastore cluster.
a
b
4
VMware, Inc.
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu and select a
datastore cluster for the disk.
(Optional) If you do not want to use Storage DRS with this virtual
machine, select Disable Storage DRS for this virtual machine and
select a datastore within the datastore cluster.
Click Next.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Finish Virtual Machine Template Creation
Before you deploy the template, you can review the template settings.
Procedure
1
Review the template settings and make any necessary changes by clicking Back to go back to the
relevant page.
2
Click Finish.
The progress of the clone task appears in the Recent Tasks pane. When the task completes, the template
appears in the inventory.
Clone a Template to a Template in the vSphere Web Client
After you create a template, you can clone it to a template. Templates are master copies of virtual machines
that let you create ready-for-use virtual machines. You can make changes to the template, such as installing
additional software in the guest operating system, while preserving the state of the original template.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the following privileges:
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Clone template on the source template.
n
Virtual machine .Inventory.Create from existing on the folder where the template is created.
n
Datastore.Allocate space on all datastores where the template is created.
Procedure
1
Start the Clone a Template to a Template Task on page 43
To make changes to a template and preserve the state of the original template, you clone the template
to a template.
2
Select a Template to Clone in the vSphere Web Client on page 43
If you started the New Virtual Machine wizard from an inventory object other than a template, you
select a template to clone.
3
Select a Name and Location for the Template on page 43
When you deploy a template to the vCenter Server inventory, you provide a unique name for it. The
unique name distinguishes it from existing templates in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The
name can contain up to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the template,
depending on your organizational needs.
4
Select a Resource for a Virtual Machine Template on page 44
When you deploy a virtual machine template, select a host or cluster resource for the template. The
template must be registered with an ESXi host. The host handles all requests for the template and must
be running when you create a virtual machine from the template.
5
Select a Datastore for the Virtual Machine Template on page 44
Each virtual machine or virtual machine template requires a folder or directory for its virtual disks
and files. When you create a virtual machine or template to deploy to the vCenter Server inventory,
select a datastore or datastore cluster for the virtual machine's configuration and other files and all of
the virtual disks. Each datastore can have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties.
6
Finish Virtual Machine Template Creation on page 45
Before you deploy the template, you can review the template settings.
42
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Start the Clone a Template to a Template Task
To make changes to a template and preserve the state of the original template, you clone the template to a
template.
You can open the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object
of a virtual machine, or directly from the template. The wizard provides several options for creating and
deploying virtual machines and templates.
If you open the wizard from a template, the Select a creation type page does not appear.
Procedure
u
Select to clone a template to a template.
Option
Description
Open the New Virtual Machine
wizard from any object in the
inventory
a
b
Right-click any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, such as a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host,
and select New Virtual Machine.
Select Clone Template to Template and click Next.
The Select a name and folder page opens.
Open the Clone Template to
Template wizard from a template
a
b
Search or browse for a template.
Right-click the template and select Clone.
The Select a name and folder page opens.
Select a Template to Clone in the vSphere Web Client
If you started the New Virtual Machine wizard from an inventory object other than a template, you select a
template to clone.
This page appears only if you opened the wizard from a nontemplate inventory object, such as a host or
cluster. If you opened the Convert Template to Virtual Machine wizard from a template, this page does not
appear.
Procedure
1
Accept the default template, the template from which you opened the New Virtual Machine wizard, or
select a different template.
2
Click Next.
Select a Name and Location for the Template
When you deploy a template to the vCenter Server inventory, you provide a unique name for it. The unique
name distinguishes it from existing templates in the virtual machine folder or datacenter. The name can
contain up to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the template, depending on
your organizational needs.
Folders provide a way to store virtual machines and templates for different groups in an organization and
you can set permissions on them. If you prefer a flatter hierarchy, you can put all virtual machines and
templates in a datacenter and organize them a different way.
The template name determines the name of the files and folder on the disk. For example, if you name the
template win8tmp, the template files are named win8tmp.vmdk, win8tmp.nvram, and so on. If you change
the template name, the names of the files on the datastore do not change.
VMware, Inc.
43
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Procedure
1
Type a name for the template.
2
Select or search for the datacenter or folder in which to deploy the template.
3
Click Next.
Select a Resource for a Virtual Machine Template
When you deploy a virtual machine template, select a host or cluster resource for the template. The template
must be registered with an ESXi host. The host handles all requests for the template and must be running
when you create a virtual machine from the template.
Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host or cluster and select it.
Any Compatibility problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
Click Next.
Select a Datastore for the Virtual Machine Template
Each virtual machine or virtual machine template requires a folder or directory for its virtual disks and files.
When you create a virtual machine or template to deploy to the vCenter Server inventory, select a datastore
or datastore cluster for the virtual machine's configuration and other files and all of the virtual disks. Each
datastore can have a different size, speed, availability, and other properties.
The amount of free space in the datastore is always changing. Ensure that you leave sufficient space for
virtual machine creation and other virtual machine operations, such as growth of sparse files, snapshots,
and so on. To review space utilization for the datastore by file type, see the vSphere Monitoring and
Performance documentation.
Thin provisioning lets you create sparse files with blocks that are allocated upon first access, which allows
the datastore to be over-provisioned. The sparse files can continue growing and fill the datastore. If the
datastore runs out of disk space while the virtual machine is running, it can cause the virtual machine to
stop functioning.
Procedure
1
2
Select the format for the virtual machine's disks.
Option
Action
Same format as source
Use the same format as the source virtual machine.
Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed
Create a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the
virtual disk is allocated during creation. Any data remaining on the
physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand
at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
Create a thick disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
Tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
In contrast to the thick provision lazy zeroed format, the data remaining
on the physical device is zeroed out during creation. It might take longer
to create disks in this format than to create other types of disks.
Thin Provision
Use the thin provisioned format. At first, a thin provisioned disk uses only
as much datastore space as the disk initially needs. If the thin disk needs
more space later, it can grow to the maximum capacity allocated to it.
(Optional) Select a storage policy from the VM Storage Policy drop-down menu.
Storage policies specify storage requirements for applications that run on the virtual machine.
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3
Select a datastore location for the virtual disk.
Option
Action
Store the virtual disk and virtual
machine configuration files in the
same location on a datastore.
Select Store with the virtual machine from the Location drop-down
menu.
Store the disk in a separate
datastore location.
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu, and select a datastore
for the disk.
Store all virtual machine files in the
same datastore cluster.
a
b
4
Select Browse from the Location drop-down menu and select a
datastore cluster for the disk.
(Optional) If you do not want to use Storage DRS with this virtual
machine, select Disable Storage DRS for this virtual machine and
select a datastore within the datastore cluster.
Click Next.
Finish Virtual Machine Template Creation
Before you deploy the template, you can review the template settings.
Procedure
1
Review the template settings and make any necessary changes by clicking Back to go back to the
relevant page.
2
Click Finish.
The progress of the clone task appears in the Recent Tasks pane. When the task completes, the template
appears in the inventory.
Convert a Template to a Virtual Machine
Converting a template to a virtual machine changes the template. This action does not make a copy. You
convert a template to a virtual machine to edit the template. You might also convert a template to a virtual
machine if you do not need to preserve it as a master image for deploying virtual machines.
Prerequisites
Verity that you have the following privileges:
n
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Mark as virtual machine on the source template.
n
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool on the resource pool where the virtual machine will
run.
Procedure
1
Start the Convert a Template to a Virtual Machine Task on page 46
To reconfigure a template with new or updated hardware or applications, you must convert the
template to a virtual machine and clone the virtual machine back to a template. In some cases, you
might convert a template to a virtual machine because you no longer need the template.
2
Select a Template from Which to Deploy the Virtual Machine on page 46
On the Select a template page of the wizard, you select a template to deploy from the list.
3
Select a Resource on page 46
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
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4
Finish Virtual Machine Creation on page 47
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Start the Convert a Template to a Virtual Machine Task
To reconfigure a template with new or updated hardware or applications, you must convert the template to
a virtual machine and clone the virtual machine back to a template. In some cases, you might convert a
template to a virtual machine because you no longer need the template.
You can open the New Virtual Machine wizard from any object in the inventory that is a valid parent object
of a virtual machine, or directly from the template. The wizard provides several options for creating and
deploying virtual machines and templates.
If you open the wizard from a template, the Select a creation type page does not appear.
This task provides steps to convert a template to a virtual machine. To clone a virtual machine back to a
template, see Clone a Virtual Machine to a Template in the vSphere Web Client.
Procedure
u
Select how to convert a template to a virtual machine.
Option
Description
Open the New Virtual Machine
wizard from any object in the
inventory
a
b
Right-click any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual
machine, such as a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host,
and select New Virtual Machine.
Select Convert template to virtual machine and click Next.
The Select a resource page opens.
Open the Convert Template to
Virtual Machine wizard from a
template
a
b
Search or browse for a template.
Right-click the template and select Convert to Virtual Machine.
The Select a resource page opens.
Select a Template from Which to Deploy the Virtual Machine
On the Select a template page of the wizard, you select a template to deploy from the list.
This page appears only if you opened the New Virtual Machine wizard from a nontemplate inventory
object, such as a host or cluster. If you opened the Convert Template to Virtual Machine wizard from a
template, this page does not appear.
Procedure
1
Browse or search to locate a template.
2
Select the template.
3
Click Next.
Select a Resource
When you deploy a virtual machine, you select the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual
machine to run in. The virtual machine will have access to the resources of the selected object.
For example, a virtual machine has access to the memory and CPU resources of the host on which it resides.
If you select a cluster for the virtual machine, and the administrator has configured the cluster to take
advantage of HA and DRS, the virtual machine will have a greater level of availability.
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Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool for the virtual machine.
If deploying the virtual machine to the selected location might cause compatibility problems, the
problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
Click Next.
Finish Virtual Machine Creation
Before you deploy the virtual machine, you can review the virtual machine settings.
Procedure
1
Review the virtual machine settings and make changes by clicking Back to go back to the relevant page.
2
Click Finish.
The virtual machine appears in the vSphere Web Client inventory.
Customizing Guest Operating Systems
When you clone a virtual machine or deploy a virtual machine from a template, you can customize the guest
operating system of the virtual machine to change properties such as the computer name, network settings,
and license settings.
Customizing guest operating systems can help prevent conflicts that can result if virtual machines with
identical settings are deployed, such as conflicts due to duplicate computer names.
You can specify the customization settings by launching the Guest Customization wizard during the cloning
or deployment process. Alternatively, you can create customization specifications, which are customization
settings stored in the vCenter Server database. During the cloning or deployment process, you can select a
customization specification to apply to the new virtual machine.
Use the Customization Specification Manager to manage customization specifications you create with the
Guest Customization wizard.
Guest Operating System Customization Requirements
To customize the guest operating system, you must configure the virtual machine and guest to meet
VMware Tools and virtual disk requirements. Other requirements apply, depending on the guest operating
system type.
VMware Tools Requirements
The latest version of VMware Tools must be installed on the virtual machine or template to customize the
guest operating system during cloning or deployment. For information about VMware Tools support
matrix, see the VMware Product Interoperability Matrixes at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility/sim/interop_matrix.php.
Virtual Disk Requirements
The guest operating system being customized must be installed on a disk attached as SCSI node 0:0 in the
virtual machine configuration.
Windows Requirements
Customization of Windows guest operating systems requires the virtual machine to be running on an ESXi
host running version 3.5 or later.
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Linux Requirements
Customization of Linux guest operating systems requires that Perl is installed in the Linux guest operating
system.
Verifying Customization Support for a Guest Operating System
To verify customization support for Windows operating systems or Linux distributions and compatible ESXi
hosts, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility. You can use
this online tool to search for the guest operating system and ESXi version. After the tool generates your list,
click the guest operating system to see whether guest customization is supported.
Create a vCenter Server Application to Generate Computer Names and IP
Addresses
As an alternative to entering computer names and IP addresses for virtual NICs when you customize guest
operating systems, you can create a custom application and configure it so that vCenter Server can generate
the names and addresses.
The application can be an arbitrary executable binary or script file appropriate for the corresponding
operating system in which vCenter Server is running. After you configure an application and make it
available to vCenter Server, each time you initiate a guest operating system customization for a virtual
machine, vCenter Server executes the application.
The application must comply with the reference XML file in the VMware knowledge base article at
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2007557.
Prerequisites
Verify that Perl is installed on vCenter Server.
Procedure
1
Create the application and save it on the vCenter Server system's local disk.
2
Select a vCenter Server instance in the inventory.
3
Click the Configure tab, click Settings, and click Advanced Settings.
4
Click Edit and enter the configuration parameters for the script.
5
a
In the Key text box, type config.guestcust.name-ip-generator.arg1.
b
In the Value text box, type c:\sample-generate-name-ip.pl and click Add.
c
In the Key text box, type config.guestcust.name-ip-generator.arg2.
d
In the Value text box, type the path to the script file on the vCenter Server system and click Add.
For example, type c:\sample-generate-name-ip.pl.
e
In the Key text box, type config.guestcust.name-ip-generator.program.
f
In the Value text box, type c:\perl\bin\perl.exe and click Add.
Click OK.
You can select the option to use an application to generate computer names or IP addresses during guest
operating system customization.
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Customize Windows During Cloning or Deployment
You can customize Windows guest operating systems for the virtual machine when you deploy a new
virtual machine from a template or clone an existing virtual machine. Customizing the guest helps prevent
conflicts that can result if virtual machines with identical settings are deployed, such as duplicate computer
names.
You can prevent Windows from assigning new virtual machines or templates with the same Security IDs
(SIDs) as the original virtual machine. Duplicate SIDs do not cause problems when the computers are part of
a domain and only domain user accounts are used. However, if the computers are part of a Workgroup or
local user accounts are used, duplicate SIDs can compromise file access controls. For more information, see
the documentation for your Microsoft Windows operating system.
Important The default administrator password is not preserved for Windows Server 2008 after
customization. During customization, the Windows Sysprep utility deletes and recreates the administrator
account on Windows Server 2008. You must reset the administrator password when the virtual machine
starts the first time after customization.
Prerequisites
Verify that all requirements for customization are met. See “Guest Operating System Customization
Requirements,” on page 47.
To perform this procedure, start the Guest Customization wizard when you clone a virtual machine or
deploy one from a template.
Procedure
1
On the Select clone options page of the Clone Existing Virtual Machine wizard, select Customize the
operating system and click Next.
2
Type the virtual machine owner’s name and organization and click Next.
3
Enter the guest operating system's computer name.
The operating system uses this name to identify itself on the network. On Linux systems, it is called the
host name.
VMware, Inc.
Option
Action
Enter a name
a
Type a name.
b
The name can contain alphanumeric characters and the hyphen (-)
character. It cannot contain periods (.) or blank spaces and cannot be
made up of digits only. Names are not case-sensitive.
(Optional) To ensure that the name is unique, select Append a
numeric value to ensure uniqueness. This action appends a hyphen
followed by a numeric value to the virtual machine name. The name is
truncated if it exceeds 63 characters when combined with the numeric
value.
Use the virtual machine name
The computer name that vCenter Server creates is identical to the name of
the virtual machine on which the guest operating system is running. If the
name exceeds 63 characters, it is truncated.
Enter a name in the Clone/Deploy
wizard
The vSphere Web Client prompts you to enter a name after the cloning or
deployment is complete.
Generate a name using the custom
application configured with vCenter
Server
Enter a parameter that can be passed to the custom application.
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4
Provide licensing information for the Windows operating system and click Next.
Option
5
Action
For non-server operating systems
Type the Windows product key for the new guest operating system.
For server operating systems
a
b
c
d
Type the Windows product key for the new guest operating system.
Select Include Server License Information.
Select either Per seat or Per server.
If you selected Per server, enter the maximum number of
simultaneous connections for the server to accept.
Configure the administrator password for the virtual machine and click Next.
a
Type a password for the administrator account and confirm the password by typing it again.
Note You can change the administrator password only if the administrator password on the
source Windows virtual machine is blank. If the source Windows virtual machine or template
already has a password, the administrator password does not change.
b
(Optional) To log users into the guest operating system as Administrator, select the check box, and
select the number of times to log in automatically.
6
Select the time zone for the virtual machine and click Next.
7
(Optional) On the Run Once page, specify commands to run the first time a user logs into the guest
operating system and click Next.
See the Microsoft Sysprep documentation for information about RunOnce commands.
8
Select the type of network settings to apply to the guest operating system.
Option
Action
Typical settings
Select Typical settings and click Next.
vCenter Server configures all network interfaces from a DHCP server
using default settings.
Custom settings
a
b
c
d
9
50
Select Custom settings and click Next.
For each network interface in the virtual machine, click the ellipsis
button (...) .
Enter IP address and other network settings and click OK.
When all network interfaces are configured, click Next.
To specify IPv4 related settings, select IPv4 and enter IP address and other network settings.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
10
Select IPv6 to configure the virtual machine to use IPv6 network.
Note that the virtual machine can retain the IP address allocated from the network as well as IPv6
addresses. Microsoft supports IPv6 for Windows Server 2003, Windows XP with Service Pack 1 (SP1) or
later, and Windows CE .NET 4.1 or later. However, these operating systems have limited IPv6 support
for built-in applications, system services, and are not recommended for IPv6 deployment.
a
Select Prompt user for an address when the specification is used. Selecting this option prompts
you to enter either IPv4 or IPv6 address.
b
Select Use the following IPv6 addresses to choose an IPv6 address from the list.
n
Click the pencil icon to enter additional IPv6 addresses. You can specify the full address or
shorten it by using zero compression and zero suppression. You should specify at least one
IPv6 address. You can edit an existing address, but should not duplicate existing IPv6
addresses.
n
Enter subnet mask prefix. The prefix length should be between 1 to 128 where the default
value is 64. Gateway is enabled by default, except when you choose Do not use IPv6.
11
Select DNS and specify DNS server address and click OK.
12
Select WINS and specify primary and secondary WINS information.
13
Select how the virtual machine will participate in the network and click Next.
14
Option
Action
Workgroup
Type a workgroup name. For example, MSHOME.
Windows Server Domain
a
b
Type the domain name.
Type the user name and password for a user account that has
permission to add a computer to the specified domain.
Select Generate New Security ID (SID) and click Next.
A Windows Security ID (SID) is used in some Windows operating systems to uniquely identify systems
and users. If you do not select this option, the new virtual machine has the same SID as the virtual
machine or template from which it was cloned or deployed.
15
16
Save the customized options as an .xml file.
a
Select Save this customization specification for later use.
b
Specify the filename for the specification and click Next.
Click Finish to save your changes.
You return to the Deploy Template or to the Clone Virtual Machine wizard. The customization is finished
after you complete the Deploy Template or the Clone Virtual Machine wizard.
When the new virtual machine starts for the first time, the guest operating system runs finalization scripts to
complete the customization process. The virtual machine might restart several times during this process.
If the guest operating system pauses when the new virtual machine starts, it might be waiting for you to
correct errors, such as an incorrect product key or an invalid user name. Open the virtual machine’s console
to determine whether the system is waiting for information.
What to do next
After you deploy and customize versions of Windows XP or Windows 2003 that are not volume licensed,
you might need to reactivate your operating system on the new virtual machine.
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If the new virtual machine encounters customization errors while it is starting, the errors are logged to
%WINDIR%\temp\vmware-imc. To view the error log file, click the Windows Start button and select Programs >
Administrative Tools > Event Viewer.
Customize Linux During Cloning or Deployment
In the process of deploying a new virtual machine from a template or cloning an existing virtual machine,
you can customize Linux guest operating systems for the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Ensure that all requirements for customization are met. See “Guest Operating System Customization
Requirements,” on page 47.
To perform this procedure, start the Customization wizard when you clone a virtual machine or deploy one
from a template.
Procedure
1
On the Select clone options page of the Clone Existing Virtual Machine wizard, select Customize the
operating system and click Next.
2
Enter the guest operating system's computer name.
The operating system uses this name to identify itself on the network. On Linux systems, it is called the
host name.
52
Option
Action
Enter a name
a
Type a name.
b
The name can contain alphanumeric characters and the hyphen (-)
character. It cannot contain periods (.) or blank spaces and cannot be
made up of digits only. Names are not case-sensitive.
(Optional) To ensure that the name is unique, select Append a
numeric value to ensure uniqueness. This action appends a hyphen
followed by a numeric value to the virtual machine name. The name is
truncated if it exceeds 63 characters when combined with the numeric
value.
Use the virtual machine name
The computer name that vCenter Server creates is identical to the name of
the virtual machine on which the guest operating system is running. If the
name exceeds 63 characters, it is truncated.
Enter a name in the Clone/Deploy
wizard
The vSphere Web Client prompts you to enter a name after the cloning or
deployment is complete.
Generate a name using the custom
application configured with vCenter
Server
Enter a parameter that can be passed to the custom application.
3
Enter the Domain Name for the computer and click Next.
4
Select the time zone for the virtual machine and click Next.
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5
Select the type of network settings to apply to the guest operating system.
Option
Action
Typical settings
Select Typical settings and click Next.
vCenter Server configures all network interfaces from a DHCP server
using default settings.
Custom settings
a
b
c
d
Select Custom settings and click Next.
For each network interface in the virtual machine, click the ellipsis
button (...) .
Enter IP address and other network settings and click OK.
When all network interfaces are configured, click Next.
6
To specify IPv4 related settings, select IPv4 and enter IP address and other network settings.
7
To specify IPv6 related settings, select IPv6 to configure the virtual machine to use IPv6 network.
Note that the virtual machine can retain the IP address allocated from the network as well as IPv6
addresses.
a
Select Prompt user for an address when the specification is used. Selecting this option prompt
you to enter IPv6 address.
b
Select Use the following IPv6 addresses to choose an IPv6 address from the list.
n
Click the pencil icon to enter additional IPv6 addresses. You can specify the full address or
shorten it by using zero compression and zero suppression. You should specify at least one
IPv6 address. You can edit an existing address, but should not duplicate existing IPv6
addresses.
n
Enter subnet mask prefix. The prefix length should be between 1 to 128 where the default
value is 64. Gateway is enabled by default, except when you choose Do not use IPv6.
8
Enter DNS and domain settings information. The Primary DNS, Secondary DNS, and Tertiary DNS
fields accept both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
9
Save the customized options as an .xml file.
10
a
Select Save this customization specification for later use.
b
Specify the filename for the specification and click Next.
Click Finish to save your changes.
You return to the Deploy Template or to the Clone Virtual Machine wizard. The customization is finished
after you complete the Deploy Template or the Clone Virtual Machine wizard.
When the new virtual machine starts for the first time, the guest operating system runs finalization scripts to
complete the customization process. The virtual machine might restart several times during this process.
If the guest operating system pauses when the new virtual machine starts, it might be waiting for you to
correct errors, such as an incorrect product key or an invalid user name. Open the virtual machine’s console
to determine whether the system is waiting for information.
What to do next
If the new virtual machine encounters customization errors while it is starting, the errors are reported using
the guest’s system logging mechanism. View the errors by opening /var/log/vmwareimc/toolsDeployPkg.log.
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Apply a Customization Specification to a Virtual Machine
You can add guest OS specification to an existing virtual machine. When you customize a guest operating
system, you can prevent conflicts that might result if you deploy virtual machines with identical settings,
such as duplicate computer names. You can change the computer name, network settings, and license
settings.
When you clone an existing virtual machine, or deploy a virtual machine from a VM template in a folder,
you can customize the guest operating system of the resulting virtual machine during the clone or the
deployment tasks.
When you deploy a virtual machine from a template in a content library, you can customize the guest
operating system only after the deployment task is complete.
Prerequisites
n
Verify the guest operating system is running.
n
Verify that VMware Tools is installed and running.
n
Power off the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the vSphere inventory, and select Guest OS > Customize Guest OS.
The Customize Guest OS wizard opens.
2
Apply a customization specification to the virtual machine.
Option
3
Description
Select an existing specification
Select a customization specification from the list.
Create a specification
Click the Create a new specification icon, and complete the steps in the
wizard.
Create a specification from an
existing specification
a
b
Select a customization specification from the list.
Click the Create a new specification from existing one icon, and
complete the steps in the wizard.
Click Finish.
What to do next
Power on the virtual machine.
Creating and Managing Customization Specifications
You can create and manage customization specifications for Windows and Linux guest operating systems.
Customization specifications are XML files that contain guest operating system settings for virtual machines.
When you apply a specification to the guest operating system during virtual machine cloning or
deployment, you prevent conflicts that might result if you deploy virtual machines with identical settings,
such as duplicate computer names.
vCenter Server saves the customized configuration parameters in the vCenter Server database. If the
customization settings are saved, the administrator and domain administrator passwords are stored in
encrypted format in the database. Because the certificate used to encrypt the passwords is unique to each
vCenter Server system, if you reinstall vCenter Server or attach a new instance of the server to the database,
the encrypted passwords become invalid. You must reenter the passwords before you can use them.
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Create a Customization Specification for Linux
Use the Guest Customization wizard to save guest operating system settings in a specification that you can
apply when cloning virtual machines or deploying from templates.
Prerequisites
Ensure that all requirements for customization are met. See “Guest Operating System Customization
Requirements,” on page 47.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Click the Create a New specification icon.
3
Select Linux from the Target VM Operating System drop-down menu, and enter a name and
description for the specification.
4
Enter the guest operating system's computer name.
The operating system uses this name to identify itself on the network. On Linux systems, it is called the
host name.
Option
Action
Enter a name
a
Type a name.
b
The name can contain alphanumeric characters and the hyphen (-)
character. It cannot contain periods (.) or blank spaces and cannot be
made up of digits only. Names are not case-sensitive.
(Optional) To ensure that the name is unique, select Append a
numeric value to ensure uniqueness. This action appends a hyphen
followed by a numeric value to the virtual machine name. The name is
truncated if it exceeds 63 characters when combined with the numeric
value.
Use the virtual machine name
The computer name that vCenter Server creates is identical to the name of
the virtual machine on which the guest operating system is running. If the
name exceeds 63 characters, it is truncated.
Enter a name in the Clone/Deploy
wizard
The vSphere Web Client prompts you to enter a name after the cloning or
deployment is complete.
Generate a name using the custom
application configured with vCenter
Server
Enter a parameter that can be passed to the custom application.
5
Enter the Domain Name for the computer and click Next.
6
Select the time zone for the virtual machine and click Next.
7
Select the type of network settings to apply to the guest operating system.
8
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Option
Action
Standard settings
Select Use standard network settings and click Next.
vCenter Server configures all network interfaces from a DHCP server
using default settings.
Custom settings
a
b
Select Manually select custom settings.
For each network interface in the virtual machine, click the pencil icon.
To specify IPv4 related settings, select IPv4 and enter IP address and other network settings.
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9
To specify IPv6 related settings, select IPv6 to configure the virtual machine to use IPv6 network.
a
Select Prompt user for an address when the specification is used. Selecting this option prompts
you to enter IPv6 address.
b
Select Use the following IPv6 addresses to choose an IPv6 address from the list.
n
Click the pencil icon to enter additional IPv6 addresses. You can specify the full address or
shorten it by using zero compression and zero suppression. You should specify at least one
IPv6 address. You can edit an existing address, but should not duplicate existing IPv6
addresses.
n
Enter subnet mask prefix. The prefix length should be between 1 to 128 where the default
value is 64. Gateway is enabled by default, except when you choose Do not use IPv6.
10
Enter DNS and domain settings information. The Primary DNS, Secondary DNS, and Tertiary DNS
fields accept both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
11
Click Finish to save your changes.
The customization specification that you created is listed in the Customization Specification Manager. You
can use the specification to customize virtual machine guest operating systems.
Create a Customization Specification for Windows
Use the Guest Customization wizard to save Windows guest operating system settings in a specification that
you can apply when cloning virtual machines or deploying from templates.
Note The default administrator password is not preserved for Windows Server 2008 after customization.
During customization, the Windows Sysprep utility deletes and recreates the administrator account on
Windows Server 2008. You must reset the administrator password when the virtual machine starts the first
time after customization.
Prerequisites
Ensure that all requirements for customization are met. See “Guest Operating System Customization
Requirements,” on page 47.
Procedure
56
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Click the Create a new specification icon to open the New VM Guest Customization Spec wizard.
3
Select Windows from the Target VM Operating System drop-down menu, and enter a name and
optional description for the specification and click Next.
4
On the Set Registration Information page, type the virtual machine owner’s name and organization and
click Next.
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5
Enter the guest operating system's computer name.
The operating system uses this name to identify itself on the network. On Linux systems, it is called the
host name.
6
7
Option
Action
Enter a name
a
Type a name.
b
The name can contain alphanumeric characters and the hyphen (-)
character. It cannot contain periods (.) or blank spaces and cannot be
made up of digits only. Names are not case-sensitive.
(Optional) To ensure that the name is unique, select Append a
numeric value to ensure uniqueness. This action appends a hyphen
followed by a numeric value to the virtual machine name. The name is
truncated if it exceeds 63 characters when combined with the numeric
value.
Use the virtual machine name
The computer name that vCenter Server creates is identical to the name of
the virtual machine on which the guest operating system is running. If the
name exceeds 63 characters, it is truncated.
Enter a name in the Clone/Deploy
wizard
The vSphere Web Client prompts you to enter a name after the cloning or
deployment is complete.
Generate a name using the custom
application configured with vCenter
Server
Enter a parameter that can be passed to the custom application.
Provide licensing information for the Windows operating system and click Next.
Option
Action
For nonserver operating systems
Type the Windows product key for the new guest operating system.
For server operating systems
a
b
c
d
Type the Windows product key for the new guest operating system.
Select Include Server License Information.
Select either Per seat or Per server.
If you select Per server, enter the maximum number of simultaneous
connections for the server to accept.
Configure the administrator password for the virtual machine and click Next.
a
Type a password for the administrator account and confirm the password by typing it again.
Note You can change the administrator password only if the administrator password on the
source Windows virtual machine is blank. If the source Windows virtual machine or template
already has a password, the administrator password does not change.
b
(Optional) To log users into the guest operating system as Administrator, select the check box, and
select the number of times to log in automatically.
8
Select the time zone for the virtual machine and click Next.
9
(Optional) On the Run Once page, specify commands to run the first time a user logs into the guest
operating system and click Next.
See the Microsoft Sysprep documentation for information about RunOnce commands.
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10
Select the type of network settings to apply to the guest operating system.
Option
Action
Standard settings
Select Use standard network settings and click Next.
vCenter Server configures all network interfaces from a DHCP server
using default settings.
Custom settings
a
b
Select Manually select custom settings.
For each network interface in the virtual machine, click the pencil icon.
11
To specify IPv4 related settings, select IPv4 and enter IP address and other network settings.
12
To specify IPv6 related settings, select IPv6 to configure the virtual machine to use IPv6 network.
a
Select Prompt user for an address when the specification is used. Selecting this option prompts
you to enter IPv6 address.
b
Select Use the following IPv6 addresses to choose an IPv6 address from the list.
n
Click the pencil icon to enter additional IPv6 addresses. You can specify the full address or
shorten it by using zero compression and zero suppression. You should specify at least one
IPv6 address. You can edit an existing address, but should not duplicate existing IPv6
addresses.
n
Enter subnet mask prefix. The prefix length should be between 1 to 128 where the default
value is 64. Gateway is enabled by default, except when you select Do not use IPv6.
13
Select DNS and specify DNS server address and click OK.
14
Select WINS and specify primary and secondary WINS information.
15
Select how the virtual machine will participate in the network and click Next.
16
Option
Action
Workgroup
Type a workgroup name. For example, MSHOME.
Windows Server Domain
a
b
Type the domain name.
Type the user name and password for a user account that has
permission to add a computer to the specified domain.
(Optional) Select Generate New Security ID (SID) and click Next.
A Windows Security ID (SID) is used in some Windows operating systems to uniquely identify systems
and users. If you do not select this option, the new virtual machine has the same SID as the virtual
machine or template from which it was cloned or deployed.
Duplicate SIDs do not cause problems when the computers are part of a domain and only domain user
accounts are used. However, if the computers are part of a Workgroup or local user accounts are used,
duplicate SIDs can compromise file access controls. For more information, see the documentation for
your Microsoft Windows operating system.
17
Click Finish to save your changes.
The customization specification that you created is listed in the Customization Specification Manager. You
can use the specification to customize virtual machine guest operating systems.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Create a Customization Specification for Windows Using a Custom Sysprep
Answer File in the vSphere Web Client
A custom sysprep answer file is a file that stores a number of customization settings such as computer name,
licensing information, and workgroup or domain settings. You can supply a custom sysprep answer file as
an alternative to specifying many of the settings in the Guest Customization wizard.
Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP use a text file called sysprep.inf. Windows Server 2008, Windows
Vista, and Windows 7 use an XML file called sysprep.xml. You can create these files using a text editor, or
use the Microsoft Setup Manager utility to generate them. For more information about how to create a
custom sysprep answer file, see the documentation for the relevant operating system.
You can prevent Windows from assigning new virtual machines or templates with the same Security IDs
(SIDs) as the original virtual machine. Duplicate SIDs do not cause problems when the computers are part of
a domain and only domain user accounts are used. However, if the computers are part of a Workgroup or
local user accounts are used, duplicate SIDs can compromise file access controls. For more information, see
the documentation for your Microsoft Windows operating system.
Prerequisites
Ensure that all requirements for customization are met. See “Guest Operating System Customization
Requirements,” on page 47.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Click the Create New Specification icon.
3
In the Guest Customization wizard, select Windows from the Target Virtual Machine OS menu.
4
(Optional) Select Use Custom Sysprep Answer File.
5
Under Customization Specification Information, enter a name for the specification and an optional
description and click Next.
6
Select the option to import or create a sysprep answer file and click Next.
7
Option
Description
Import a Sysprep answer file
Click Browse and browse to the file.
Create a Sysprep answer file
Type the contents of the file in the text box.
Select the type of network settings to apply to the guest operating system.
Option
Action
Typical settings
Select Typical settings and click Next.
vCenter Server configures all network interfaces from a DHCP server
using default settings.
Custom settings
a
b
c
d
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Select Custom settings and click Next.
For each network interface in the virtual machine, click the ellipsis
button (...) .
Enter IP address and other network settings and click OK.
When all network interfaces are configured, click Next.
To specify IPv4 related settings, select IPv4 and enter IP address and other network settings.
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9
To specify IPv6 related settings, select IPv6 to configure the virtual machine to use IPv6 network.
a
Select Prompt user for an address when the specification is used. Selecting this option prompts
you to enter IPv4 or IPv6 address.
b
Select Use the following IPv6 addresses to choose an IPv6 address from the list.
n
Click the pencil icon to enter additional IPv6 addresses. You can specify the full address or
shorten it by using zero compression and zero suppression. You should specify at least one
IPv6 address. You can edit an existing address, but should not duplicate existing IPv6
addresses.
n
Enter subnet mask prefix. The prefix length should be between 1 to 128 where the default
value is 64. Gateway is enabled by default, except when you choose Do not use IPv6.
10
Select DNS and specify DNS server address and OK.
11
Select WINS and specify primary and secondary WINS information.
12
Select Generate New Security ID (SID) and click Next.
A Windows Security ID (SID) is used in some Windows operating systems to uniquely identify systems
and users. If you do not select this option, the new virtual machine has the same SID as the virtual
machine or template from which it was cloned or deployed.
13
Click Finish to save your changes.
The customization specification that you created is listed in the Customization Specification Manager. You
can use the specification to customize virtual machine guest operating systems.
Edit a Customization Specification
You can edit existing specifications using the Customization Specification Manager.
Prerequisites
You must have at least one customization specification.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Right-click a specification and select Edit.
3
Proceed through the Guest Customization wizard to change specification settings.
Remove a Customization Specification in the vSphere Web Client
You can remove customization specifications from the Customization Specification Manager.
Prerequisites
You must have at least one customization specification.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Right-click a specification and select Remove.
3
In the confirmation dialog box, select Yes.
The specification is deleted from the disk.
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Chapter 2 Deploying Virtual Machines
Copy a Customization Specification in the vSphere Web Client
If you need a customization specification that is only slightly different from an existing specification, you
can use the Customization Specification Manager to create a copy of the existing specification and modify it.
For example, you might need to change the IP address or the administrator password.
Prerequisites
You must have at least one customization specification.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Right-click a specification and select Duplicate.
A new specification is created. If the specification does not appear in the Name column, refresh the
vSphere Web Client.
Export a Customization Specification in the vSphere Web Client
You can export customization specifications and save them as .xml files. To apply an exported specification
to a virtual machine, import the .xml file using the Customization Specification Manager.
Prerequisites
You must have at least one customization specification.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Right-click a specification and select Export.
3
Select a location for the file and click Save.
The specification is saved as an .xml file to the location you specified.
Import a Customization Specification
You can import an existing specification using the Customization Specification Manager, and use the
specification to customize the guest operating system of a virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Before you begin, you must have at least one customization specification saved as an xml file located on a
file system accessible from the vSphere Web Client.
Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client Home inventory page, select Policies and Profiles > Customization
Specification Manager.
2
Click the Import specification from a file icon.
3
From the Open dialog, browse to the .xml to import and click Open.
The imported specification is added to the list of customization specifications.
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Deploying OVF and OVA Templates
3
You can export virtual machines, virtual appliances, and vApps in Open Virtual Format (OVF) and Open
Virtual Appliance (OVA) . You can then deploy the OVF or OVA template in the same environment or in a
different environment.
In previous versions of vSphere, you needed to install the Client Integration Plug-in to deploy and export
OVF or OVA templates. vSphere 6.5 no longer requires that you install the Client Integration Plug-in to
deploy or export OVF and OVA templates.
Watch the video "vSphere Web Client after the Client Integration Plug-in Removal" for more information
about the workflow changes to the vSphere Client for deploying and exporting OVF and OVA templates:
vSphere Web Client after the Client Integration Plug-in Removal
(http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid2296383276001?
bctid=ref:video_web_client_after_cip_removal)
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“OVF and OVA File Formats and Templates,” on page 63
n
“Deploy an OVF or OVA Template in the vSphere Web Client,” on page 64
n
“Browse VMware Virtual Appliance Marketplace,” on page 67
n
“Export an OVF Template,” on page 68
OVF and OVA File Formats and Templates
OVF is a file format that supports exchange of virtual appliances across products and platforms. OVA is a
single file distribution of the same file package.
The OVF and OVA formats offer the following advantages:
n
OVF and OVA files are compressed, allowing for faster downloads.
n
The vSphere Web Client validates an OVF or OVA file before importing it, and ensures that it is
compatible with the intended destination server. If the appliance is incompatible with the selected host,
it cannot be imported and an error message appears.
n
OVF and OVA can encapsulate multi-tiered applications and more than one virtual machine.
Exporting OVF or OVA templates allows you to create virtual appliances that can be imported by other
users. You can use the export function to distribute pre-installed software as a virtual appliance, or to
distributing template virtual machines to users. You can make the OVF or OVA file available to users who
cannot access your vCenter Server inventory.
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Deploying an OVF or OVA template allows you to add pre-configured virtual machines or vApps to your
vCenter Server or ESXi inventory. Deploying an OVF or OVA template is similar to deploying a virtual
machine from a template. However, you can deploy an OVF or OVA template from any local file system
accessible from the vSphere Web Client, or from a remote Web server. The local file systems can include
local disks (such as C:), removable media (such as CDs or USB keychain drives), and shared network drives.
Deploy an OVF or OVA Template in the vSphere Web Client
You can deploy an OVF or OVA template from a local file system accessible to the vSphere Web Client, or
from a URL.
Procedure
1
Select any inventory object that is a valid parent object of a virtual machine, such as a datacenter, folder,
cluster, resource pool, or host.
2
Select Actions > Deploy OVF Template.
Select the OVF or OVA Source Location
Specify the location where the source OVF or OVA template resides.
Procedure
1
Specify the source location.
Option
Action
URL
Type a URL to an OVF or OVA template located on the Internet. Supported
URL sources are HTTP and HTTPS.
Example: http://vmware.com/VMTN/appliance.ovf.
Local file
2
Click Browse and select all the files associated with an OVF template or
OVA file. This includes files such as .ovf, .vmdk, etc. If you do not select
all the required files, a warning message displays.
Click Next.
Select OVF or OVA Name and Location
When you deploy an OVF or OVA template, you provide a unique name for the virtual machine or vApp.
The name can contain up to 80 characters. You can select a datacenter or folder location for the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
(Optional) Specify the name that the virtual machine or vApp will have when it is deployed at the
target location.
The name defaults to the selected template. If you change the default name, it must be unique within
each vCenter Server virtual machine folder.
2
Select or search for a datacenter or folder for the virtual machine or vApp.
The default location is based on where you started the wizard. For example, if you started the wizard
from a datastore, that datastore is preselected.
3
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Click Next.
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Chapter 3 Deploying OVF and OVA Templates
Select a Resource for the OVF or OVA Template
When you deploy an OVF or OVA template, you select the host, cluster, or resource pool. The virtual
machine or vApp will have access to the resources of the selected object.
For example, a virtual appliance has access to the memory and CPU resources of the host on which it
resides.
If you start the wizard from a resource such as a host, the host is preselected in the wizard.
Procedure
1
Search or browse for the host, cluster, vApp, or resource pool on which you want to deploy the OVF
template.
If deploying the OVF or OVA template to the selected location might cause compatibility problems, the
problems appear at the bottom of the window.
2
Click Next.
Review the OVF or OVA Details
The OVF or OVA template details display available information about the file.
Procedure
1
2
Review the OVF or OVA template details:
Option
Description
Product
Product name, as specified in the OVF or OVA template file.
Version
Version, if the version is specified in the OVF or OVA template file.
Vendor
Version, if the vendor is specified in the OVF or OVA template file.
Publisher
Publisher of the OVF or OVA template, if a certificate included in the OVF
or OVA template file specifies a publisher.
Download size
Size of the OVF or OVA file.
Size on disk
Size on disk after you deploy the OVF or OVA template.
Description
Description, as provided by the distributor of the OVF or OVA template.
Click Next.
Accept the OVF or OVA License Agreements
This page appears only if license agreements are packaged with the OVF or OVA template.
Procedure
u
Agree to accept the terms of the end user license agreements, and click Next.
Select OVF or OVA Deployment Configuration
The deployment configuration typically controls the memory settings, number of CPUs and reservations,
and application-level configuration parameters.
This page appears only if the OVF or OVA template contains deployment options.
Procedure
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Select the deployment configuration from the drop-down menu and click Next.
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Select Storage for OVF or OVA Template
Select the location to store the files for the deployed template.
Procedure
1
2
Select the disk format to store the virtual machine virtual disks.
Format
Description
Thick Provisioned Lazy Zeroed
Creates a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the
virtual disk is allocated when the virtual disk is created data remaining on
the physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on
demand at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
A type of thick virtual disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
In contrast to the flat format the data remaining on the physical device is
zeroed out when the virtual disk is created. it might take much longer to
create disks in this format than to create other types o disks.
Thin Provision
Use this format to save storage space. For the thin disk, you provision as
much datastore space as the disk would require based on the value that
you enter for the disk size. However, the thin disk starts small and at first,
uses only as much datastore space as the disk needs for its initial
operations.
(Optional) Select a VM Storage Policy.
This option is available only if storage policies are enabled on the destination resource.
3
(Optional) Enable the Show datastores from Storage DRS clusters checkbox to choose individual
datastores from Storage DRS clusters for the initial placement of the virtual machine.
4
Select a datastore to store the deployed OVF or OVA template.
The configuration file and virtual disk files are stored on the datastore. Select a datastore large enough
to accommodate the virtual machine or vApp and all associated virtual disk files.
5
Click Next.
Configure Networks for OVF or OVA Template
Set up and configure the networks the deployed OVF or OVA templates use.
The Setup networks wizard screen allows you to map source networks to target networks, and to specify
settings for those networks.
For each network, you can perform the mapping and optional customizations explained in the procedure.
Procedure
1
Select a Source network in the table and map it to a Destination network.
The Source column lists all networks that are defined in the OVF or OVA template. The Destination
column allows you to select a target network.
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Chapter 3 Deploying OVF and OVA Templates
2
3
If the OVF or OVA template is set up to allow network customization, you can select the IP protocol, the
IP allocation, or both.
Option
Description
DHCP
A DHCP server is used to allocate the IP addresses. Select this option only
if a DHCP server is available in your environment.
Static - Manual
You will be prompted to enter the IP addresses in the Customize template
page.
If you select this option, and no IP pool exists, a Network Protocol Profile
that contains an IP pool is automatically created and associated with the
destination networks.
Static - IP Pool
IP addresses are automatically allocated from the managed IP network
range of vCenter Server at power-on, and remain allocated at power-off.
Transient - IP Pool
IP addresses are allocated from a specified range when the appliance is
powered on. The IP addresses are released when the appliance is powered
off.
Click Next.
Customize the OVF or OVA Template
Customize the deployment properties of the template.
Procedure
1
Customize the deployment properties.
The deployment properties can be any type of properties that are described in the OVF or OVA
descriptor. For example, networking properties display only if the OVF or OVA template that you
deploy contains such properties. The network protocol settings might be for the DNS servers, gateway,
netmask, subnet, domain search path, domain name, host prefix, or http proxy. You can type IP
addresses that match the chosen IP protocol (IPv4 or IPv6). For DNS servers, you can type a commaseparated list of addresses. If you enter any of these values, and no Network Protocol Profile exist for
the selected network, a new Network Protocol Profile with the chosen networking properties and
selected network is created.
All required properties must have a valid value before you can continue.
2
Click Next.
vService Bindings
View the vServices to which the OVF or OVA templates will bind.
This page appears if the appliance you are deploying has one or more vService binding.
Procedure
u
View the binding service provider and binding status, and click Next.
Browse VMware Virtual Appliance Marketplace
The Virtual Appliance Marketplace contains a variety of virtual appliances packaged in OVF format that
you can download and deploy in your vSphere environment.
Procedure
1
Go to the Virtual Appliance Marketplace, which is part of the VMware Solution Exchange.
2
Search the Marketplace to find a prepackaged application. download it.
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3
Log in and download the appliance.
4
Deploy the appliance in your vSphere environment.
Export an OVF Template
An OVF template captures the state of a virtual machine or vApp into a self-contained package. The disk
files are stored in a compressed, sparse format.
Required privilege: vApp.Export
Prerequisites
Power off the virtual machine or vApp.
Procedure
1
From the Actions menu in the vSphere Web Client, navigate to a virtual machine or vApp and select
Template > Export OVF Template.
2
In the Name field, type the name of the template.
For example, type MyVm.
Note When you export an OVF template with a name that contains asterisk (*) characters, those
characters turn into underscore (_) characters.
3
(Optional) In the Annotation field, type a description.
4
Select the Enable advanced options checkbox if you want to include additional information or
configurations in the exported template. The advanced settings include information about the BIOS
UUID, MAC addresses, boot order, PCI Slot numbers, and configuration settings used by other
applications.
These options limit portability.
5
Click OK.
6
You are prompted to save each file associated with the template (.ovf, .vmdk, .mf).
Note If you are using the Internet Explorer browser to export and OVF template, new tabs open in the
browser for each file of the OVF template. For each new tab, you are prompted to accept a security
certificate. Accept each security certificate, before saving each file.
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Using Content Libraries
4
Content libraries are container objects for VM templates, vApp templates, and other types of files. vSphere
administrators can use the templates in the library to deploy virtual machines and vApps in the vSphere
inventory. Sharing templates and files across multiple vCenter Server instances in same or different locations
brings out consistency, compliance, efficiency, and automation in deploying workloads at scale.
You create and manage a content library from a single vCenter Server instance, but you can share the library
items to other vCenter Server instances if HTTP(S) traffic is allowed between them.
If a published and a subscribed library belong to vCenter Server systems that are in the same vCenter Single
Sign-On domain, and both the libraries use datastores as backing storage, you can take advantage of
optimized transfer speed for synchronization between these libraries. The transfer speed optimization is
made possible if the libraries can store their contents to datastores managed by ESXi hosts that are directly
connected to each other. Therefore the synchronization between the libraries is handled by a direct ESXi host
to ESXi host transfer. If the datastores have VMware vSphere Storage APIs - Array Integration (VAAI)
enabled, the library content synchronization between the published and the subscribed library is further
optimized. In this case the contents are synchronized by a direct datastore to datastore transfer.
Each VM template, vApp template, or another type of file in a library is a library item. An item can contain a
single file or multiple files. In the case of VM and vApp templates, each item contains multiple files. For
example, because an OVF template is a set of multiple files, when you upload an OVF template to the
library, you actually upload all the files associated with the template (.ovf, .vmdk, and .mf), but in the
vSphere Web Client you see listing only of the .ovf file in the content library.
You can create two types of libraries: local or subscribed library.
Local Libraries
You use a local library to store items in a single vCenter Server instance. You can publish the local library so
that users from other vCenter Server systems can subscribe to it. When you publish a content library
externally, you can configure a password for authentication.
VM templates and vApps templates are stored as OVF file formats in the content library. You can also
upload other file types, such as ISO images, text files, and so on, in a content library.
Subscribed Libraries
You subscribe to a published library by creating a subscribed library. You can create the subscribed library in
the same vCenter Server instance where the published library is, or in a different vCenter Server system. In
the Create Library wizard you have the option to download all the contents of the published library
immediately after the subscribed library is created, or to download only metadata for the items from the
published library and later to download the full content of only the items you intend to use.
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To ensure the contents of a subscribed library are up-to-date, the subscribed library automatically
synchronizes to the source published library on regular intervals. You can also manually synchronize
subscribed libraries.
You can use the option to download content from the source published library immediately or only when
needed to manage your storage space.
Synchronization of a subscribed library that is set with the option to download all the contents of the
published library immediately, synchronizes both the item metadata and the item contents. During the
synchronisation the library items that are new for the subscribed library are fully downloaded to the storage
location of the subscribed library.
Synchronization of a subscribed library that is set with the option to download contents only when needed
synchronizes only the metadata for the library items from the published library, and does not download the
contents of the items. This saves storage space. If you need to use a library item you need to synchronize
that item. After you are done using the item, you can delete the item contents to free space on the storage.
For subscribed libraries that are set with the option to download contents only when needed, synchronizing
the subscribed library downloads only the metadata of all the items in the source published library, while
synchronizing a library item downloads the full content of that item to your storage.
If you use a subscribed library, you can only utilize the content, but cannot contribute with content. Only the
administrator of the published library can manage the templates and files.
Table 4‑1. Source Objects to Which You Can Subscribe By Creating a Subscribed Library in The
vSphere Web Client .
Create a subscribed library in the
vSphere Web Client by using the
option to Download all library
content immediately
Create a subscribed library in the
vSphere Web Client by using the
option to Download library content
only when needed
A library running in a vCenter Server
6.0 instance.
Supported
Supported
A catalog running in a vCloud
Director 5.5 instance.
Supported
Not supported
A third-party library.
Supported for third-party libraries
that require authentication, if the
username of the third-party library is
vcsp. If the username of the source
third-party library is different than
vcsp, you can subscribe to it by using
VMware vCloud Suite API.
Supported for third-party libraries that
require authentication, if the username
of the third-party library is vcsp. If the
username of the source third-party
library is different than vcsp, you can
subscribe to it by using VMware
vCloud Suite API.
Source Object
Libraries store content on a file system or a datastore. To ensure optimal performance, use file systems for
libraries that are published, and use datastores for local and subscribed libraries.
This chapter includes the following topics:
70
n
“Create a Library,” on page 71
n
“Synchronize a Subscribed Library,” on page 72
n
“Edit the Settings of a Local Library,” on page 73
n
“Edit the Settings of a Subscribed Library,” on page 74
n
“Delete a Content Library,” on page 74
n
“Hierarchical Inheritance of Permissions for Content Libraries,” on page 75
n
“Sample User Role for Working with Content Libraries,” on page 77
n
“Populating Libraries with Content,” on page 77
n
“Working with Items in a Library,” on page 81
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Chapter 4 Using Content Libraries
n
“Creating Virtual Machines and vApps from Templates in a Content Library,” on page 84
Create a Library
You can create a content library in the vSphere Web Client, and populate it with templates, which you can
use to deploy virtual machines or vApps in your virtual environment.
Prerequisites
Required privileges: Content library.Create local library or Content library.Create subscribed library on
the vCenter Server instance where you want to create the library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Click the Objects tab.
3
Click the Create a New Library icon (
4
Enter a name for the content library, and in the Notes text box, enter a description for the library and
click Next.
5
Select the type of content library that you want to create.
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).
Option
Description
Local content library
A local content library is accessible only in the vCenter Server instance
where you create it.
Published content library
Select Publish externally to make the content of the library available to
other vCenter Server instances.
If you want the users to use a password when accessing the library, select
Enable authentication and set a password.
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Option
Description
Optimized published content library
Select Optimize for syncing over HTTP to create an optimized published
library.
This library is optimized to ensure lower CPU usage and faster streaming
of the content over HTTP. Use this library as a main content depot for your
subscribed libraries. You cannot deploy virtual machines from an
optimized library. Use optimized published content library when the
subscribed libraries reside on a remote vCenter Server system and
enhanced linked mode is not used.
Subscribed content library
Creates a content library that is subscribed to a published content library.
You can sync the subscribed library with the published library to see up-todate content, but you cannot add or remove content from the subscribed
library. Only an administrator of the published library can add, modify,
and remove contents from the published library.
Provide the following settings to subscribe to a library:
a In the Subscription URL text box, enter the URL address of the
published library.
b If authentication is enabled on the published library, enter the
publisher password.
c Select a download method for the contents of the subscribed library.
n If you want to download a local copy of all the items in the
published library immediately after subscribing to it, select
Download all library content immediately.
n If you want to save storage space, select Download library content
only when needed. You download only the metadata for the items
in the published library.
d
If you need to use an item, you can synchronize it to download its
content.
When prompted, accept the SSL certificate thumbprint.
The SSL certificate thumbprint is stored on your system until you
delete the subscribed content library from the inventory.
6
Click Next.
7
Select a datastore, or enter the path to a remote storage location where to keep the contents of this
library.
8
Option
Description
Enter an SMB or an NFS server and
path
If you use avCenter Server instance that runs on a Windows system, enter
the SMB machine and share name.
If you use vCenter Server Appliance, enter a path to an NFS storage. You
can store your templates on an NFS storage that is mounted to the
appliance. After the create a new library operation is complete, the
vCenter Server Appliance mounts the shared storage to the host OS.
Select a datastore
Select a datastore from your vSphere inventory.
Review the information on the Ready to Complete page and click Finish.
Synchronize a Subscribed Library
To ensure that your subscribed library displays the latest content of the published library, you can manually
initiate a synchronization task.
You can also have subscribed libraries automatically synchronize with the content of the published library.
To enable automatic synchronization of the subscribed library, select the option to Enable automatic
synchronization with the external library in the subscribed library settings. Take into account that the
automatic synchronization requires a lot of storage space, because you download full copies of all the items
in the published library.
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Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Sync subscribed library on the library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Right-click a subscribed library from the list and select Synchronize.
A new task for synchronizing the subscribed library appears in the Recent Tasks pane. After the task is
complete, you can see the updated list with library items in the tabs Templates and Other Types.
Edit the Settings of a Local Library
You can change the settings of a content library.
As an administrator of a content library, you can publish a local library from your vCenter Server instance to
share its contents across multiple vCenter Server systems. From the Edit Setting dialog box, you can obtain
the URL of your library and send it to other users to subscribe. If the library is already published, you can
change its password for authentication. Users who are subscribed to your library must update the password
to keep access to the published library.
Prerequisites
Required privileges: Content library.Update library and Content library.Update local library on the
library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Right-click a content library and select Edit Settings.
3
Edit the settings for the library.
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Type of Content Library
Action
Content library that is local
You can publish a local library to share its contents with other users.
a Select the Publish this library externally check box.
b Select whether to set a password for authentication to the library. If
you password protect the library, you must provide both the URL and
the password to users who want to subscribe to your library.
Content library that is published
You can change the following settings of a library that is published:
n You can unpublish the library by deselecting the Publish this library
externally check box. Users who are currently subscribed to this
library can no longer use the library contents.
n You can enable or disable authentication for the library, and change the
password for authentication.
n You can copy the subscription URL to your library and send it to other
users to subscribe.
Click OK.
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Edit the Settings of a Subscribed Library
You can edit the settings of a subscribed library to optimize storage space and network bandwidth by
switching between the options to download content from the published library. You might also need to
update the password for authentication to the library if the administrator of the published library changes
the password.
Prerequisites
Required privileges: Content library.Update subscribed library and Content library.Probe subscription
information on the subscribed library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Right-click a subscribed library and select Edit Settings.
3
Edit the settings of the subscribed library.
n
Enable or disable the automatic synchronization with the published library.
n
Update the password for authentication to the published library.
n
Select a download method. You can either download all library content immediately or download
library content only when needed.
If you switch from the option to download content only when needed to the option to immediately
download all library content, after confirming the dialog a synchronization task starts and content
starts to download. The number and size of items in the published library determine the amount of
time and network bandwidth that the task requires.
4
Click OK.
Delete a Content Library
You can delete a content library that you no longer want to use.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Delete subscribed library or Content library.Delete local library on
the type of library you want to delete.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Right-click a content library from the list and select Delete.
3
In the Delete library confirmation dialog box, click Yes.
The content library and all its contents are deleted.
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Hierarchical Inheritance of Permissions for Content Libraries
vSphere objects inherit permissions from a parent object in the hierarchy. Content libraries work in the
context of a single vCenter Server instance. However, content libraries are not direct children of a
vCenter Server system from an inventory perspective.
The direct parent for content libraries is the global root. This means that if you set a permission at a
vCenter Server level and propagate it to the children objects, the permission applies to data centers, folders,
clusters, hosts, virtual machines, and so on, but does not apply to the content libraries that you see and
operate with in this vCenter Server instance. To assign a permission on a content library, an Administrator
must grant the permission to the user as a global permission. Global permissions support assigning
privileges across solutions from a global root object.
The figure illustrates the inventory hierarchy and the paths by which permissions can propagate.
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Figure 4‑1. vSphere Inventory Hierarchy
root object
(global permissions level)
content library
vCenter Server
(vCenter Server instance level)
tag category
library item
data center
folder
tag
data center
VM folder
host folder
template
host
virtual
machine
vApp
network
folder
standard
switch
resource
pool
cluster
virtual
machine
resource
pool
datastore
folder
VDS
distributed
port group
datastore
datastore
cluster
vApp
vApp
virtual
machine
resource
pool
virtual
machine
To let a user manage a content library and its items, an Administrator can assign the Content Library
Administrator role to that user as a global permission. The Content Library Administrator role is a sample
role in the vSphere Web Client.
Users who are Administrators can also manage libraries and their contents. If a user is an Administrator at a
vCenter Server level, they have sufficient privileges to manage the libraries that belong to this
vCenter Server instance, but cannot see the libraries unless they have a Read-Only role as a global
permission.
For example, a user has an Administrator role that is defined at a vCenter Server level. When the
Administrator navigates to Content Libraries in the object navigator, he sees 0 libraries despite there are
existing libraries in the vSphere inventory of that vCenter Server instance. To see the libraries, the
Administrator needs a Read-Only role assigned as a global permission.
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Administrators whose role is defined as a global permissions can see and manage the libraries in all
vCenter Server instances that belong to the global root.
Because content libraries and their children items inherit permissions only from the global root object, when
you navigate to a library or a library item and click Configure tab, you can see there is no Permissions tab.
An Administrator cannot assign individual permissions on different libraries or different items within a
library.
Sample User Role for Working with Content Libraries
vSphere Web Client provides a sample role that lets you be an administrator of content libraries. You can
modify the role or use it as an example to create custom roles for specific tasks you want to allow other users
to perform.
Content Library Administrator
Content Library Administrator role is a predefined role that gives a user privileges to monitor and manage a
library and its contents.
A user who has this role can perform the following tasks:
n
Create, edit, and delete local or subscribed libraries.
n
Synchronize a subscribed library and synchronize items in a subscribed library.
n
View the item types supported by the library.
n
Configure the global settings for the library.
n
Import items to a library.
n
Export library items.
Populating Libraries with Content
You can populate a content library with OVF templates that you can use to provision new virtual machines.
You can also add other files to a content library such as ISO images, scripts, and text files.
There are multiple ways to populate a library with items.
n
Importing Items to a Content Library on page 78
You can import items such as VM templates and vApps to a content library from your local machine
or from a Web server, and use them to create virtual machines and vApps. You can also import ISO
images, certificates, and other files, which you want to keep in the library and share with other users
across multiple vCenter Server systems.
n
Clone a vApp to a Template in Content Library on page 79
You can clone existing vApps to vApp templates in a content library. You can use the vApp templates
later to provision new vApps on a cluster or a host in your vSphere inventory. The vApp is exported to
a content library in the OVF format.
n
Clone a Virtual Machine or a VM Template to a Template in a Content Library on page 79
You can clone virtual machines or VM templates from your vCenter Server inventory to templates in
the content library and use them later to provision virtual machines on a cluster or a host. You can also
clone a virtual machine or VM template to update an existing template in the library.
n
Clone Library Items from One Library to Another Library on page 80
You can clone a template from one content library to another in the same vCenter Server instance. The
cloned template is an exact copy of the original template.
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Importing Items to a Content Library
You can import items such as VM templates and vApps to a content library from your local machine or from
a Web server, and use them to create virtual machines and vApps. You can also import ISO images,
certificates, and other files, which you want to keep in the library and share with other users across multiple
vCenter Server systems.
Import Items to a Library from a URL
You can add an item that resides on a Web server to a content library.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Add library item and Content library.Update files on the library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Right-click a content library and select Import Item.
The Import Library Item dialog box opens.
3
Under Source section, select the option to import an item from a URL, and enter the path to a Webserver where the item is.
4
Under Destination section, enter a name and a description for the item, and click OK.
In the Recent Tasks pane you see two tasks, one about creating a new item in the library, and the second
about uploading the contents of the item to the library. After the task is complete, the item appears on tab
Templates or on tab Other Types.
Import Items to a Library from a Local File on Your System
You can add items to a content library by importing files from your local system. You can import an OVF
package to use as a template for deploying virtual machines and vApps. You can also import other types of
files, such as scripts, ISO files, and so on, that you want to use in your vCenter Server instance, or you want
to share across multiple vCenter Server systems.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Add library item and Content library.Update files on the library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Right-click a content library and select Import Item.
The Import Library Item dialog box opens.
3
Under Source section, select the option to import an item from a local file, and click Browse to navigate
to the file that you want to import from your local system. You can use the drop-down menu to filter
files in your local system.
Note When importing an OVF template, first select the OVF descriptor file (.ovf). Next, you are
prompted to select the other reference files in the OVF template. This might include files such as .vmdk
and .mf.
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Under Destination section, enter a name and description for the item, and click OK.
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In the Recent Tasks pane you see two tasks, one about creating a new item in the library, and the second
about uploading the contents of the item to the library. After the task is complete, the item appears on tab
Templates or on tab Other Types.
Clone a vApp to a Template in Content Library
You can clone existing vApps to vApp templates in a content library. You can use the vApp templates later
to provision new vApps on a cluster or a host in your vSphere inventory. The vApp is exported to a content
library in the OVF format.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, click vCenter Inventory Lists > vApps.
2
Right-click a vApp and select Clone > Clone to Template in Library
3
Type a name and description for the template.
4
From the list of available libraries, select the content library to which you want to add the template.
5
(Optional) Include or exclude vApp related configurations in the template you are cloning.
You can select to preserve the MAC-addresses on the network adapters and include extra configuration.
6
Click OK.
A new task for cloning to OVF package appears in the Recent Tasks pane. After the task is complete, the
vApp template appears on the Templates tab for the content library.
What to do next
Use the template to provision vApps on a host or a cluster in your vSphere inventory. See “Create New
vApp on a Host or a Cluster from a Template in a Content Library,” on page 84
Clone a Virtual Machine or a VM Template to a Template in a Content Library
You can clone virtual machines or VM templates from your vCenter Server inventory to templates in the
content library and use them later to provision virtual machines on a cluster or a host. You can also clone a
virtual machine or VM template to update an existing template in the library.
Templates are master copies of virtual machines that you can use to create virtual machines that are ready
for use. You can make changes to the template, such as installing additional software in the guest operating
system, while preserving the state of the original template. For more information, see “VM Templates and
vApp Templates in Content Libraries,” on page 81.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to the virtual machine or template that you want to clone.
2
Start the cloning task.
n
Right-click a virtual machine and select Clone > Clone to Template in Library.
n
Right-click a VM template, and select Clone to Library.
The Clone to Template in Content Library dialog box appears.
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3
Select Clone as option.
Option
Description
New template
Create a new template and add it to your content library.
a Select New template.
b Select the content library where to add the template.
Update existing template
Update a template that already exists in your content library.
a Select Update existing template.
b Select the template to update.
4
Enter a name and description for the template.
5
From the list with content libraries, select the library in which you want to add the template.
6
(Optional) Select the configuration data that you want to include in the template.
You can select to preserve the MAC-addresses on the network adapters and include extra configuration.
7
Click OK.
A new task for cloning to OVF package appears in the Recent Tasks pane. After the task is complete, the
template appears in the Templates tab for the content library.
What to do next
Use the template to create virtual machines on hosts or clusters in the vSphere inventory .
Clone Library Items from One Library to Another Library
You can clone a template from one content library to another in the same vCenter Server instance. The
cloned template is an exact copy of the original template.
When cloning a template between libraries, in the clone wizard you can select the source library to also be a
destination library.
A subscribed library can be the source of an item you want to clone, but you cannot clone items to a
subscribed library. The subscribed libraries are filtered out from the list with destination libraries in the
Clone Library Item dialog box. When the source library of an item you want to clone is a subscribed library
with the setting to download items only when needed, the item is first downloaded to the source subscribed
library and then cloned to the destination library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a content library and click the Templates tab.
3
Right-click a library item and select Clone Item.
4
(Optional) Change the name and notes for the item you clone.
5
From the list of content libraries, select the library in which you want to clone the template.
You can select the destination library to be the same as the source library if you want to have identical
copy of the template in the same library.
6
Click OK.
A new task for cloning the template appears in the Recent Tasks pane. After the task is complete, a clone of
the template appears on the Templates tab of the destination content library.
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What to do next
Deploy a virtual machine from template on a host or a cluster in your vSphere inventory.
Working with Items in a Library
You can perform various tasks with the items in a content library. You can synchronize an item from a
subscribed library to download all its contents and use the item to deploy a virtual machine for example.
You can delete items you no longer need to use, and so on.
Each VM template, vApp template, or another type of file in a library is a library item. An item can contain a
single file or multiple files. In the case of VM and vApp templates, each item contains multiple files. For
example, because an OVF template is a set of multiple files, when you upload an OVF template to the
library, you actually upload all the files associated with the template (.ovf, .vmdk, and .mf), but in the
vSphere Web Client you see listing only of the .ovf file in the content library.
VM Templates and vApp Templates in Content Libraries
In a content library you can store VM and vApp templates. You can use the VM and vApp templates to
deploy virtual machines and vApps in the vSphere inventory.
A VM template is a template of a virtual machine. The VM templates that exist in a VM template folder
differentiate from the VM templates that exist in a content library. A VM template that resides in a content
library is in OVF format and if you export it to your local system it is saved as an .ovf file. The VM
templates that exist in a VM template folder are not in OVF format but if you clone them to content library,
the resulting template is in an OVF format.
A vApp template is a template of a vApp, which can contain multiple virtual machines or multiple vApps.
A vApp template that resides in a content library is in OVF format, and if you export the template to your
local system it is saved as an .ovf file. vApp templates are inventory objects that exist only in content
libraries.
You can use VM templates and vApp templates to deploy virtual machines and vApps to a destination
object such as a host or a cluster.
Synchronize a Library Item in a Subscribed Library
To update or download the content of a library item you can synchronize it.
When creating the subscribed library, if you selected the option to download library content only when
needed, only metadata for the library contents is downloaded to the associated storage. When you need to
use the item, you synchronize it to download its content to your local storage. When you no longer need the
item, to free space on your storage you can delete the content of the item. You continue to see the item in
your subscribed library, but it no longer takes up space on your storage because only the items metadata
remains on the storage.
Prerequisites
n
Required privilege: Content library.Sync library item on the library item.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a subscribed library from the list.
3
Synchronize the item you need to use.
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On the Templates tab, right-click a VM or a vApp template, and select Synchronize Item.
n
On the Other Types tab, right-click an item, and select Synchronize Item.
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After synchronization completes, the item content and metadata are downloaded to the backing storage of
the subscribed library, and the value for the item in the Stored Content Locally column changes to Yes.
Export Item from a Content Library to Your Local Computer
You might need to export an item from a content library to your local system.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Download files on the library.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a content library.
3
Select the type of file you want to export.
n
From the Templates tab, right-click a template from the library, and select Export Item.
n
From the Other Types tab, right-click a file from the library that is not a template, and select Export
Item.
4
The Export Library Item dialog box opens displaying the name of the library item. Click OK to
continue.
5
If you are exporting an OVF template, you are prompted to save each file associated with the template
to the browser download location (for example, .vmdk and .mf files)
Note If you are using the Internet Explorer browser to export an OVF template, new tabs open in the
browser for each file of the OVF template. For each new tab, you are prompted to accept a security
certificate. Accept each security certificate, before saving each file.
Update a Content Library Item
Managing and keeping your virtual environment up-to-date might require you to update the content of a
library item. For example, you can directly update a VM template when you want to add a patch to it,
instead of deleting the existing template and creating a new one.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Content Library Administrator role.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a content library.
3
Select the file that you want to update.
n
From the Templates tab, right-click a template from the library, and select Update Item.
n
From the Other Types tab, right-click a file from the library that is not a template, and select
Update Item.
The Update Library Item dialog box opens.
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4
Select a file to overwrite the item in your library.
Option
Description
URL
Enter the URL to a web server where the item is stored .
Browse
Navigate to an item that is stored on your local system.
5
(Optional) Change the name of the item.
6
(Optional) Change the note of the item.
7
Click OK.
The content of the item is updated. In the Summary tab of the item, you can view the time of the last update
of the item.
Delete the Contents of a Library Item
If a subscribed library is created with the option to download library content only when needed, only
metadata for the library items is stored in the associated with the library storage. For example, when you
want to use a VM template to deploy a virtual machine, you have to synchronize the item so the entire
content is downloaded to the associated storage. After you are done using the template, you can delete the
item contents to free space on the storage. The template remains visible in the subscribed library because the
metadata for it remains on the storage that is associated with the library. This also applies for vApp
templates, and other file that exist in the subscribed library.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Evict library item
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a subscribed library.
3
Delete the content of the item.
n
From the Templates tab, right-click a template from the library, and select Delete Item Content.
n
From the Other Types tab, right-click a file from the library that is not a template, and select Delete
Item Content.
The content of the item is deleted to free space on the storage. Only the item metadata remains on the
storage.
Delete Library Item
You can delete an item you no longer need to use.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Content library.Delete library item on the library item.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a library.
3
Right-click an item from the Templates or Other Types lists, and select Delete.
4
In the dialog box, confirm that you want to delete the item.
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The content and the metadata of the library item are deleted.
Creating Virtual Machines and vApps from Templates in a Content
Library
From VM or from vApp templates stored in a content library, you can deploy virtual machines and vApps
on hosts or clusters in your vSphere inventory.
The library can be a local library to the vCenter Server instance where you want to deploy the VM or the
vApp template, or can be a subscribed library to that vCenter Server instance.
The use of templates brings about consistency, compliance, and efficiency when deploying virtual machines
and vApps in your vCenter Server instance.
Deploy Virtual Machine on a Host or a Cluster from a VM Template in the
Content Library
You can use a VM template from a content library to deploy a virtual machine to a host or a cluster in your
vSphere inventory. You can also apply a customization specification to the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a content library, and click Templates.
3
Right-click a VM Template and select New VM from This Template.
The New Virtual Machine from Content Library into Host or Cluster wizard opens.
4
Enter a name, and select a location for the virtual machine.
5
To apply a customization specification to your virtual machine, select Customize VM Options checkbox, and click Next.
6
On the Customize Guest OS page, select a customization specification or create a new one, and click
Next.
7
On the Select a resource page, select a host, a cluster, a resource pool, or a vApp where to deploy the
VM template.
8
On the Review details page, verify the template details and click Next.
9
On the Select Storage page, select the location to store the files of the VM template, and click Next.
10
Select a network for each network adapter in the template, and click Next.
11
Review the page and click Finish.
A new task for creating the virtual machine appears in the Recent Tasks pane. After the task is complete, the
new virtual machine is created on the selected resource.
Create New vApp on a Host or a Cluster from a Template in a Content Library
You can use a vApp template from a content library to create new vApp on a host or a cluster in your
vSphere inventory.
Procedure
84
1
In the vSphere Web Client navigator, select vCenter Inventory Lists > Content Libraries.
2
Select a content library, and click Templates.
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3
Right-click a vApp template and select New vApp from This Template.
The New vApp from Content Library into Host or Cluster wizard opens.
4
Enter a name and select a location for the vApp, and click Next.
5
On the Select a resource page, select a host, a cluster, a resource pool, or a vApp to deploy the vApp to.
6
On the Review details page, verify the template details and click Next.
7
Select disk format and a storage resource for the vApp.
8
On the Customize template page, you can customize the deployment properties for the vApp.
9
On the Ready to Complete page, review the configurations you made for the vApp, and click Finish.
A new task for creating the vApp appears in the Recent Tasks pane. After the task is complete, the new
vApp is created.
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Configuring Virtual Machine
Hardware
5
You can add or configure most virtual machine properties during the virtual machine creation process or
after you create the virtual machine and install the guest operating system.
You configure the virtual machine hardware and can change nearly every characteristic that you selected
when you created the virtual machine. You can view the existing hardware configuration and add or remove
hardware. You can configure CPUs, memory, and disks.
Not all hardware devices are available to every virtual machine. The host that the virtual machine runs on
and the guest operating system must support devices that you add or configurations that you make.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Virtual Machine Compatibility,” on page 87
n
“Virtual CPU Configuration,” on page 93
n
“Virtual Memory Configuration,” on page 99
n
“Network Virtual Machine Configuration,” on page 102
n
“Parallel and Serial Port Configuration,” on page 106
n
“Virtual Disk Configuration,” on page 113
n
“SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123
n
“Other Virtual Machine Device Configuration,” on page 128
n
“Reduce Memory Overhead for Virtual machines with 3D graphics Option,” on page 139
n
“USB Configuration from an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine,” on page 139
n
“USB Configuration from a Client Computer to a Virtual Machine,” on page 146
n
“Add a Shared Smart Card Reader to Virtual Machines,” on page 152
Virtual Machine Compatibility
When you create a virtual machine or upgrade an existing virtual machine, you use the virtual machine
compatibility setting to select the ESXi host versions that the virtual machine can run on.
The compatibility setting determines the virtual hardware available to the virtual machine, which
corresponds to the physical hardware available on the host. Virtual hardware includes BIOS and EFI,
available virtual PCI slots, maximum number of CPUs, maximum memory configuration, and other
characteristics. New virtual hardware capabilities are typically released once a year with major or minor
releases of vSphere.
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vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
Each virtual machine compatibility level supports at least five major or minor vSphere releases. For
example, a virtual machine with ESXi 3.5 and later compatibility can run on ESXi 3.5, ESXi 4.0, ESXi 4.1,
ESXi 5.0, ESXi 5.1, ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0, and ESXi 6.5.
Table 5‑1. Virtual Machine Compatibility Options
Compatibility
Description
ESXi 6.5 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 13) is compatible with ESXi 6.5.
ESXi 6.0 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 11) is compatible with ESXi 6.0, and ESXi 6.5.
ESXi 5.5 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 10) is compatible with ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0, and
ESXi 6.5.
ESXi 5.1 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 9) is compatible with ESXi 5.1, ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0,
and ESXi 6.5.
ESXi 5.0 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 8) is compatible with ESXi 5.0, ESXi 5.1, ESXi 5.5,
ESXi 6.0, and ESXi 6.5.
ESX/ESXi 4.0 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 7) is compatible with ESX/ ESXi 4.0, ESX/ ESXi
4.1, ESXi 5.0, ESXi 5.1, ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0, and ESXi 6.5.
ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 4) is compatible with ESX/ESXi 3.5, ESX/ ESXi
4.0, ESX/ ESXi 4.1, ESXi 5.1, ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0, and ESXi 6.5. It is also compatible with
VMware Server 1.0 and later. ESXi 5.0 does not allow creation of virtual machines with
ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later compatibility, but you can run such virtual machines if they were
created on a host with different compatibility.
ESX Server 2.x and later
This virtual machine (hardware version 3) is compatible with ESX Server 2.x, ESX/ESXi
3.5, ESX/ESXi 4.x, and ESXi 5.0. You cannot create, edit, turn on, clone, or migrate virtual
machines with ESX Server 2.x compatibility. You can only register or upgrade them.
The compatibility setting that appears in the Compatible with drop-down menu is the default for the
virtual machine that you are creating. The following factors determine the default virtual machine
compatibility:
n
The ESXi host version on which the virtual machine is created.
n
The inventory object that the default virtual machine compatibility is set on, including a host, cluster, or
datacenter.
You can accept the default compatibility or select a different setting. It is not always necessary to select the
latest ESXi host version. Selecting an earlier version can provide greater flexibility and is useful in the
following situations:
n
To standardize testing and deployment in your virtual environment.
n
If you do not need the capabilities of the latest host version.
n
To maintain compatibility with older hosts.
When you create a virtual machine, consider the environment that the virtual machine will run in and weigh
the benefits of different compatibility strategies. Consider your options for these scenarios, which
demonstrate the flexibility inherent with each virtual machine compatibility selection.
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Objects in Environment
Compatibility
Results
Cluster with ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0,
and ESXi 6.5 hosts
ESXi 5.5 and later
Preserves the ability of the virtual machine to run on other hosts in
the cluster, such as ESXi 5.5.
You might not have access to the latest virtual hardware features.
Cluster with ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0,
and ESXi 6.5 hosts
ESXi 6.0 and later
Gives you access to virtual hardware features that are not available
with ESXi 5.5.
n You cannot migrate this virtual machine to an ESXi 5.5 host.
n This virtual machine does not have all the capabilities available
to virtual machines that run on ESXi 6.5, for example, you
cannot configure a virtual machine to use 256 virtual CPUs.
Cluster with ESXi 5.5, ESXi 6.0,
and ESXi 6.5 hosts
ESXi 6.5 and later
Provides access to the latest virtual hardware features, but cannot
run on ESXi 5.5 or ESXi 6.0.
Set the Default Compatibility for Virtual Machine Creation
You can set the default compatibility for virtual machine creation on the host, cluster, or data center. These
options ensure that when virtual machines are added to an existing vSphere environment, they will be
compatible with the host versions that reside there.
The following conditions apply:
n
To set the default compatibility on the cluster, the cluster must contain hosts that are connected and not
in maintenance mode.
n
A default compatibility setting on the host overrides a default cluster or datacenter setting.
n
A default compatibility setting on the cluster overrides a default datacenter setting.
Prerequisites
Required privileges:
n
On the host or cluster: Host.Inventory.Modify cluster
n
On the datacenter: Datacenter.Reconfigure datacenter
Procedure
u
Select a host, cluster, or data center in the inventory.
Option
Action
Host
a
b
Cluster
a
b
Click the Configure tab and click Settings.
In the Configuration section, select General and click the Edit button
next to Default VM Compatibility.
c Select the compatibility from the drop-down menu and click OK.
When you change the compatibility for a cluster, the compatibility for all
hosts in the cluster changes as well.
Datacenter
a
b
Click the Configure tab, and click Settings.
In the Virtual Machines section, select Default VM Compatibility and
click Edit.
c Select the compatibility from the drop-down menu and click OK.
Note You can set the compatibility only on hosts that are not part of a
cluster.
Right-click the datacenter and select Edit Default VM Compatibility.
Select the compatibility from the drop-down menu and click OK.
When you create a virtual machine on one of these objects, the default compatibility setting is used.
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Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for a Single Virtual Machine
The compatibility level determines the virtual hardware available to a virtual machine, which corresponds
to the physical hardware available on the host machine. You can upgrade the compatibility to make the
virtual machine compatible with the latest version of the host.
To schedule an upgrade for multiple virtual machines, see “Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for Virtual
Machines,” on page 206.
Prerequisites
n
Create a backup or snapshot of the virtual machines.
n
Upgrade to the latest version of VMware Tools. On Microsoft Windows virtual machines, if you
upgrade the compatibility level before you upgrade VMware Tools, the virtual machine might lose its
network settings.
n
Verify that all .vmdk files are available to the ESX/ESXi host on a VMFS-3, VMFS-5, or NFS datastore.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is stored on VMFS-3, VMFS-5 or NFS datastores.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Upgrade and select Schedule VM Compatibility Upgrade.
3
Select the compatibility from the drop-down menu.
The virtual machine compatibility is upgraded the next time you restart the virtual machine.
4
(Optional) To upgrade the compatibility when you do regularly scheduled guest maintenance, select
Only upgrade after normal guest OS shutdown.
The virtual machine compatibility is upgraded and the new version appears on the virtual machine
Summary tab.
Determine the Default Virtual Machine Compatibility Setting in the
vSphere Web Client
The compatibility setting for a virtual machine provides information about the hosts, clusters, or data center
that the virtual machine is compatible with.
The virtual machine Summary tab displays the compatibility for the virtual machine. You can set and view
the default compatibility that is used for virtual machine creation at the host, cluster, or datacenter level.
Procedure
u
90
Select an inventory object and display the virtual machine compatibility.
Option
Action
Virtual machine
Select a virtual machine and click Actions > Compatibility. You can select
Upgrade VM Compatibility or Schedule VM Compatibility Upgrade.
Host, Cluster, Datacenter
Right-click the object and select Actions > Edit Default VM Compatibility.
If a host is in a cluster, it has the virtual machine compatibility set on the
cluster, and the menu item is grayed out.
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Chapter 5 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware
Hardware Features Available with Virtual Machine Compatibility Settings
The virtual machine compatibility setting determines the virtual hardware available to the virtual machine,
which corresponds to the physical hardware available on the host. You can review and compare the
hardware available for different compatibility levels to help you determine whether to upgrade the virtual
machines in your environment.
Table 5‑2. Supported Features for Virtual Machine Compatibility
ESXi 6.5 and
later
ESXi 6.0 and
later
ESXi 5.5
and later
ESXi 5.1
and later
ESXi 5.0
and later
ESX/ESXi
4.x and
later
ESX/ESXi
3.5 and
later
Hardwar
e version
13
11
10
9
8
7
4
Maximu
m
memory
(GB)
6128
4080
1011
1011
1011
255
64
Maximu
m
number
of logical
processor
s
128
128
64
64
32
8
4
Maximu
m
number
of cores
(virtual
CPUs)
per
socket
128
128
64
64
32
8
1
Maximu
m SCSI
adapters
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Bus Logic
adapters
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
LSI Logic
adapters
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
LSI Logic
SAS
adapters
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
VMware
Paravirtu
al
controller
s
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
SATA
controller
s
4
4
4
N
N
N
N
NVMe
Controlle
rs
4
N
N
N
N
N
N
Virtual
SCSI disk
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Feature
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Table 5‑2. Supported Features for Virtual Machine Compatibility (Continued)
ESXi 6.5 and
later
ESXi 6.0 and
later
ESXi 5.5
and later
ESXi 5.1
and later
ESXi 5.0
and later
ESX/ESXi
4.x and
later
ESX/ESXi
3.5 and
later
SCSI
passthrou
gh
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
SCSI hot
plug
support
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
IDE
nodes
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Virtual
IDE disk
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Virtual
IDE CDROMs
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
IDE hot
plug
support
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
Maximu
m NICs
10
10
10
10
10
10
4
PCNet32
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
VMXNet
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
VMXNet2
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
VMXNet3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
E1000
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
E1000e
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
USB 1.x
and 2.0
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
USB 3.0
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Maximu
m video
memory
(MB)
2 GB
2 GB
512
512
128
128
128
SVGA
displays
10
10
10
10
10
10
1
SVGA 3D
hardware
accelerati
on
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
VMCI
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
PCI
passthrou
gh
16
16
6
6
6
6
0
PCI Hot
plug
support
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Nested
HV
support
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
Feature
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Table 5‑2. Supported Features for Virtual Machine Compatibility (Continued)
ESXi 6.5 and
later
ESXi 6.0 and
later
ESXi 5.5
and later
ESXi 5.1
and later
ESXi 5.0
and later
ESX/ESXi
4.x and
later
ESX/ESXi
3.5 and
later
vPMC
support
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
Serial
ports
32
32
4
4
4
4
4
Parallel
ports
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Floppy
devices
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Feature
Virtual CPU Configuration
You can add, change, or configure CPU resources to improve virtual machine performance. You can set most
of the CPU parameters when you create virtual machines or after the guest operating system is installed.
Some actions require that you power off the virtual machine before you change the settings.
VMware uses the following terminology. Understanding these terms can help you plan your CPU resource
allocation strategy.
CPU
The CPU or processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the
instructions of a computer program and is the primary element carrying out
the computer's functions. CPUs contain cores.
CPU Socket
A physical connector on a computer motherboard that accepts a single
physical CPU. Many motherboards can have multiple sockets that can in
turn accept multicore processors (CPUs). The vSphere Web Client computes
the total number of virtual sockets from the number of cores and the cores
per socket that you select.
Core
Comprises a unit containing an L1 cache and functional units needed to run
programs. Cores can independently run programs or threads. One or more
cores can exist on a single CPU.
Corelet
An AMD processor corelet is architecturally equivalent to a logical processor.
Certain future AMD processors will comprise a number of compute units,
where each compute unit has a number of corelets. Unlike a traditional
processor core, a corelet lacks a complete set of private, dedicated execution
resources and shares some execution resources with other corelets such as an
L1 instruction cache or a floating-point execution unit. AMD refers to
corelets as cores, but because these are unlike traditional cores, VMware uses
the nomenclature of corelets to make resource sharing more apparent.
Thread
Some cores can run independent streams of instructions simultaneously. In
existing implementations, cores can run one or two software threads at one
time by multiplexing the functional units of the core between the software
threads, as necessary. Such cores are called dual or multithreaded.
Resource sharing
Shares specify the relative priority or importance of a virtual machine or
resource pool. If a virtual machine has twice as many shares of a resource as
another virtual machine, it is entitled to consume twice as much of that
resource when these two virtual machines are competing for resources.
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Resource allocation
You can change CPU resource allocation settings, such as shares, reservation,
and limit, when available resource capacity does not meet demands. For
example, if at year end, the workload on accounting increases, you can
increase the accounting resource pool reserve.
vSphere Virtual
Symmetric
Multiprocessing (Virtual
SMP)
Feature that enables a single virtual machine to have multiple processors.
Virtual CPU Limitations
The maximum number of virtual CPUs that you can assign to a virtual machine is 128. The number of
virtual CPUs depends on the number of logical CPUs on the host, and the type of guest operating system
that is installed on the virtual machine.
Be aware of the following limitations:
n
A virtual machine cannot have more virtual CPUs than the number of logical cores on the host. The
number of logical cores is equal to the number of physical cores if hyperthreading is disabled or two
times that number if hyperthreading is enabled.
n
Not every guest operating system supports Virtual SMP, and guest operating systems that support this
functionality might support fewer processors than are available on the host. For information about
Virtual SMP support, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
n
Hyperthreaded hosts might affect virtual machine performance, depending on the workload. The best
practice is to test your workload to determine whether to enable or disable hyperthreading on your
hosts.
Configuring Multicore Virtual CPUs
VMware multicore virtual CPU support lets you control the number of cores per virtual socket in a virtual
machine. This capability lets operating systems with socket restrictions use more of the host CPU's cores,
which increases overall performance.
Important When you configure your virtual machine for multicore virtual CPU settings, you must ensure
that your configuration complies with the requirements of the guest operating system EULA.
Using multicore virtual CPUs can be useful when you run operating systems or applications that can take
advantage of only a limited number of CPU sockets.
You can configure a virtual machine that runs on an ESXi host 6.0 and later to have up to 128 virtual CPUs.
A virtual machine cannot have more virtual CPUs than the actual number of logical CPUs on the host. The
number of logical CPUs means the number of physical processor cores or two times that number if
hyperthreading is enabled. For example, if a host has 128 logical CPUs, you can configure the virtual
machine for 128 virtual CPUs.
You configure how the virtual CPUs are assigned in terms of cores and cores per socket. Determine how
many CPU cores you want in the virtual machine, then select the number of cores you want in each socket,
depending on whether you want a single core CPU, dual-core CPU, tri-core CPU, and so on. Your selection
determines the number of sockets that the virtual machine has.
For more information about multicore CPUs, see the vSphere Resource Management documentation.
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Change CPU Hot Plug Settings
By default, you cannot add CPU resources to a virtual machine when the virtual machine is turned on. The
CPU hot plug option lets you add CPU resources to a running virtual machine.
The following conditions apply:
n
For best results, use virtual machines that are compatible with ESXi 5.0 or later.
n
Hot-adding multicore virtual CPUs is supported only with virtual machines that are compatible with
ESXi 5.0 or later.
n
Not all guest operating systems support CPU hot add. You can disable these settings if the guest is not
supported.
n
To use the CPU hot plug feature with virtual machines that are compatible with ESXi 4.x and later, set
the Number of cores per socket to 1.
n
Adding CPU resources to a running virtual machine with CPU hot plug enabled disconnects and
reconnects all USB passthrough devices that are connected to that virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Required privileges: Virtual Machine.Configuration.Settings
Verify that the virtual machine is running and is configured as follows.
n
Latest version of VMware Tools installed.
n
Guest operating system that supports CPU hot plug.
n
Virtual machine compatibility is ESX/ESXi 4.x or later.
n
Virtual machine is turned off.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU, and select Enable CPU Hot Add.
3
Click OK.
You can now add CPUs even if the virtual machine is turned on.
Change the Number of Virtual CPUs
You can configure a virtual machine that runs on an ESXi host 6.5 and later to have up to 128 CPUs. You can
change the number of virtual CPUs while your virtual machine is powered off. If virtual CPU hotplug is
enabled, you can increase the number of virtual CPUs while the virtual machine is running.
Virtual CPU hot add is supported for virtual machines with multicore CPU support and ESXi 5.0 and later
compatibility. When the virtual machine is turned on, and CPU hot add is enabled, you can hot add virtual
CPUs to the running virtual machine. You can add only multiples of the number of cores per socket.
Important When you configure your virtual machine for multicore virtual CPU settings, you must ensure
that your configuration complies with the requirements of the guest operating system EULA.
Prerequisites
n
If CPU hot add is not enabled, turn off the virtual machine before adding virtual CPUs.
n
To hot add multicore CPUs, verify that the virtual machine is compatible with ESXi 5.0 and later.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual Machine.Configuration.Change CPU Count privilege.
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Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Expand CPU, and select the number of cores from the CPU drop-down menu.
3
Select the number of cores per socket from the Cores Per Socket drop-down menu.
4
Click OK.
Allocate CPU Resources
To manage workload demands, you can change the amount of CPU resources allocated to a virtual machine
by using the shares, reservations, and limits settings.
A virtual machine has the following user-defined settings that affect its CPU resource allocation.
Limit
Places a limit on the consumption of CPU time for a virtual machine. This
value is expressed in MHz or GHz.
Reservation
Specifies the guaranteed minimum allocation for a virtual machine. The
reservation is expressed in MHz or GHz.
Shares
Each virtual machine is granted a number of CPU shares. The more shares a
virtual machine has, the more often it gets a time slice of a CPU when there is
no CPU idle time. Shares represent a relative metric for allocating CPU
capacity.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU, and allocate the CPU capacity for the virtual machine.
3
Option
Description
Reservation
Guaranteed CPU allocation for this virtual machine.
Limit
Upper limit for this virtual machine’s CPU allocation. Select Unlimited to
specify no upper limit.
Shares
CPU shares for this virtual machine in relation to the parent’s total. Sibling
virtual machines share resources according to their relative share values
bounded by the reservation and limit. Select Low, Normal, or High, which
specify share values respectively in a 1:2:4 ratio. Select Custom to give each
virtual machine a specific number of shares, which express a proportional
weight.
Click OK.
Configure Processor Scheduling Affinity
The Scheduling Affinity option gives you detailed control over how virtual machine CPUs are distributed
across the host's physical cores. The option supports hyperthreading if hyperthreading is enabled. ESXi
generally manages processor scheduling well, even when hyperthreading is enabled. These settings are
useful only for fine-tuning critical virtual machines.
Using CPU affinity, you can assign a virtual machine to a specific processor. This assignment allows you to
restrict the assignment of virtual machines to a specific available processor in multiprocessor systems.
This setting does not appear for virtual machines in a DRS cluster or when the host has only one processor
core and no hyperthreading.
For potential issues with CPU affinity, see the vSphere Resource Management documentation.
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Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off.
n
Verify that the virtual machine does not reside in a DRS cluster.
n
Verify that the host has more than one physical processor core.
n
Privileges: Virtual machine.Configuration.Change resource
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU, and enter a comma-separated list of hyphenated processor
ranges in the Scheduling Affinity text box.
For example, "0,4-7" would indicate affinity with CPUs 0,4,5,6, and 7. Selecting all processors is identical
to selecting no affinity. You must provide at least as many processor affinities as you have virtual CPUs.
3
Click OK.
Change CPU Identification Mask Settings in the vSphere Web Client
CPU identification (CPU ID) masks control the CPU features visible to the virtual machine's guest operating
system. Masking or hiding CPU features can make a virtual machine widely available to ESXi hosts for
migration. vCenter Server compares the CPU features available to a virtual machine with the CPU features
of the destination host to determine whether to allow or disallow migration with vMotion.
For example, masking the AMD No eXecute (NX) and the Intel eXecute Disable (XD) bits prevents the
virtual machine from using these features, but provides compatibility that allows you to migrate virtual
machines to ESXi hosts that do not include this capability. When the NX/XD bit is visible to the guest
operating system, the virtual machine can use this feature, but you can migrate the virtual machine only to
hosts on which the feature is enabled.
Caution Changing the CPU compatibility masks can result in an unsupported configuration. Do not
manually change the CPU compatibility masks unless instructed to do so by VMware Support or a VMware
Knowledge base article.
Prerequisites
Turn off the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU, and in the CPUID Mask drop-down menu, select an NX/XD
option.
Option
Description
Hide the NX/XD flag from guest
Increases vMotion compatibility.
Hiding the NX/XD flag increases vMotion compatibility between hosts, but
might disable certain CPU security features.
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Expose the NX/XD flag to guest
Keeps all CPU security features enabled.
Keep current Advanced setting
values for the NX/XD flag
Uses the NX/XD flag settings specified in the CPU Identification Mask
dialog box. Enabled only when current settings specify something other
than what is specified in the other NX/XD flag options, for example, if the
NX/XD flag bit setting varies with processor brand.
Click OK.
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Expose VMware Hardware Assisted Virtualization
You can expose full CPU virtualization to the guest operating system so that applications that require
hardware virtualization can run on virtual machines without binary translation or paravirtualization.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 5.1 and later.
n
Intel Nehalem Generation (Xeon Core i7) or later processors or AMD Opteron Generation 3
(Greyhound) or later processors.
n
Verify that Intel VT-x or AMD-V is enabled in the BIOS so that hardware assisted virtualization is
possible.
n
Required Privileges: Virtual machine.Configuration.Settings set on the vCenter Server system.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU, and select Expose hardware-assisted virtualization to
guest OS.
3
Click OK.
The Configure tab refreshes, and the Nested Hypervisor CPU option shows Enabled.
Enable Virtual CPU Performance Counters
You can use performance tuning tools in the guest operating system for software profiling. You can identify
and improve processor performance problems. This capability is useful for software developers who
optimize or debug software that runs in the virtual machine.
The following conditions apply:
n
If virtual CPU performance counters are enabled, you can migrate the virtual machine only to hosts that
have compatible CPU performance counters.
n
If an ESXi host's BIOS uses a performance counter or if Fault Tolerance is enabled, some virtual
performance counters might not be available for the virtual machine to use.
Note If a virtual machine resides on an ESXi host in an EVC cluster, CPU counters are not supported for
virtual machine creation or editing. You must disable CPU performance counters.
For a list of virtualized Model-Specific Registers (MSRs), see the VMware knowledge base article at
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2030221.
Prerequisites
98
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 5.1 and later.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off.
n
Verify that Intel Nehalem Generation (Xeon Core i7) or later processors or AMD Opteron Generation 3
("Greyhound") or later processors are installed.
n
Verify that Intel VT-x or AMD-V is enabled in the BIOS so that hardware-assisted virtualization is
possible.
n
Required Privileges: Virtual machine.Configuration.Settings is set on the vCenter Server system.
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Chapter 5 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU and enable virtualized CPU performance counters.
3
Click OK.
Change CPU/MMU Virtualization Settings
ESXi can determine whether a virtual machine should use hardware support for virtualization. ESXi makes
this determination based on the processor type and the virtual machine. Overriding the automatic selection
can provide better performance for some use cases.
You can use software MMU when your virtual machine runs heavy workloads, such as, Translation
Lookaside Buffers (TLBs) intensive workloads that has significant impact on the overall system
performance. However, software MMU has a higher overhead memory requirement than hardware MMU.
Hence, in order to support software MMU, the maximum overhead supported for virtual machine limit in
the VMkernel needs to be increased. You can configure your virtual machine with up to 128 CPUs, if your
virtual machine host has ESXi 6.0 and later compatibility (hardware version 11).
Note To take advantage of all features that virtual hardware version 13 provides, use the default hardware
MMU setting.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CPU, and select an instruction set from the CPU/MMU
Virtualization drop-down menu.
3
Click OK.
Virtual Memory Configuration
You can add, change, or configure virtual machine memory resources or options to enhance virtual machine
performance. You can set most of the memory parameters during virtual machine creation or after the guest
operating system is installed. Some actions require that you power off the virtual machine before changing
the settings.
The memory resource settings for a virtual machine determine how much of the host's memory is allocated
to the virtual machine. The virtual hardware memory size determines how much memory is available to
applications that run in the virtual machine. A virtual machine cannot benefit from more memory resources
than its configured virtual hardware memory size. ESXi hosts limit the memory resource use to the
maximum amount useful for the virtual machine, so that you can accept the default of Unlimited memory
resources.
Change the Memory Configuration
You can reconfigure the amount of memory allocated to a virtual machine to enhance performance.
Minimum memory size is 4MB for virtual machines that use BIOS firmware. Virtual machines that use EFI
firmware require at least 96MB of RAM or they cannot power on.
Maximum memory size for a virtual machine depends on the host's physical memory and the virtual
machine's compatibility setting.
If the virtual machine memory is greater than the host memory size, swapping occurs, which can have a
severe effect on virtual machine performance. The maximum for best performance represents the threshold
above which the host’s physical memory is insufficient to run the virtual machine at full speed. This value
fluctuates as conditions on the host change, for example, as virtual machines are powered on or off.
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The memory size must be a multiple of 4MB.
Table 5‑3. Maximum Virtual Machine Memory
Introduced in Host Version
Virtual Machine Compatibility
Maximum Memory Size
ESXi 6.5
ESXi 6.5 and later
6128GB
ESXi 6.0
ESXi 6.0 and later
4080GB
ESXi 5.5
ESXi 5.5 and later
1011GB
ESXi 5.1
ESXi 5.1 and later
1011GB
ESXi 5.0
ESXi 5.0 and later
1011GB
ESX/ESXi 4.x
ESX/ESXi 4.0 and later
255GB
ESX/ESXi 3.x
ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later
65532MB
The ESXi host version indicates when support began for the increased memory size. For example, the
memory size of a virtual machine with ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later compatibility running on ESXi 5.0 is restricted
to 65,532MB.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Memory privilege on the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Memory.
3
In the RAM text box, type the amount of RAM to assign to the virtual machine or select one of the
suggested values from the drop-down menu.
4
Select whether the memory is specified in MB or GB.
5
Click OK.
Allocate Memory Resources
You can change the amount of memory resources allocated to a virtual machine by using the shares,
reservations, and limits settings. The host determines the appropriate amount of physical RAM to allocate to
virtual machines based on these settings. You can assign a high or low shares value to a virtual machine,
depending on its load and status.
The following user-defined settings affect the memory resource allocation of a virtual machine.
Limit
Places a limit on the consumption of memory for a virtual machine. This
value is expressed in megabytes.
Reservation
Specifies the guaranteed minimum allocation for a virtual machine. The
reservation is expressed in megabytes. If the reservation cannot be met, the
virtual machine will not turn on.
Shares
Each virtual machine is granted a number of memory shares. The more
shares a virtual machine has, the greater share of host memory it receives.
Shares represent a relative metric for allocating memory capacity. For more
information about share values, see the vSphere Resource Management
documentation.
You cannot assign a reservation to a virtual machine that is larger than its configured memory. If you give a
virtual machine a large reservation and reduce its configured memory size, the reservation is reduced to
match the new configured memory size.
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Prerequisites
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Memory, and allocate the memory capacity for the virtual
machine.
3
Option
Description
Reservation
Guaranteed memory allocation for this virtual machine.
Limit
Upper limit for this virtual machine’s memory allocation. Select Unlimited
to specify no upper limit.
Shares
The values Low, Normal, High, and Custom are compared to the sum of
all shares of all virtual machines on the server.
Click OK.
Change Memory Hot Add Settings
Memory hot add lets you add memory resources for a virtual machine while that virtual machine is turned
on.
Enabling memory hot add produces some memory overhead on the ESXi host for the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
n
Power off the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the virtual machine has a guest operating system that supports memory hot add
functionality.
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 4.x and later.
n
Verify that VMware Tools is installed.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Memory, and select Enable to enable adding memory to the
virtual machine while it is turned on.
3
Click OK.
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Network Virtual Machine Configuration
ESXi networking features provide communication between virtual machines on the same host, between
virtual machines on different hosts, and between other virtual and physical machines. The networking
features also allow management of ESXi hosts and provide communication between VMkernel services
(NFS, iSCSI, or vSphere vMotion) and the physical network. When you configure networking for a virtual
machine, you select or change an adapter type, a network connection, and whether to connect the network
when the virtual machine powers on.
Network Adapter Types
When you configure a virtual machine, you can add network adapters (NICs) and specify the adapter type.
The type of network adapters that are available depend on the following factors:
n
The virtual machine compatibility, which depends on the host that created or most recently updated it.
n
Whether the virtual machine compatibility has been updated to the latest version for the current host.
n
The guest operating system.
The following NIC types are supported:
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E1000E
Emulated version of the Intel 82574 Gigabit Ethernet NIC. E1000E is the
default adapter for Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012.
E1000
Emulated version of the Intel 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet NIC, with drivers
available in most newer guest operating systems, including Windows XP and
later and Linux versions 2.4.19 and later.
Flexible
Identifies itself as a Vlance adapter when a virtual machine boots, but
initializes itself and functions as either a Vlance or a VMXNET adapter,
depending on which driver initializes it. With VMware Tools installed, the
VMXNET driver changes the Vlance adapter to the higher performance
VMXNET adapter.
Vlance
Emulated version of the AMD 79C970 PCnet32 LANCE NIC, an older 10
Mbps NIC with drivers available in 32-bit legacy guest operating systems. A
virtual machine configured with this network adapter can use its network
immediately.
VMXNET
Optimized for performance in a virtual machine and has no physical
counterpart. Because operating system vendors do not provide built-in
drivers for this card, you must install VMware Tools to have a driver for the
VMXNET network adapter available.
VMXNET 2 (Enhanced)
Based on the VMXNET adapter but provides high-performance features
commonly used on modern networks, such as jumbo frames and hardware
offloads. VMXNET 2 (Enhanced) is available only for some guest operating
systems on ESX/ESXi 3.5 and later.
VMXNET 3
A paravirtualized NIC designed for performance. VMXNET 3 offers all the
features available in VMXNET 2 and adds several new features, such as
multiqueue support (also known as Receive Side Scaling in Windows), IPv6
offloads, and MSI/MSI-X interrupt delivery. VMXNET 3 is not related to
VMXNET or VMXNET 2.
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PVRDMA
A paravirtualized NIC that supports remote direct memory access (RDMA)
between virtual machines through the OFED verbs API. All virtual machines
must have a PVRDMA device and should be connected to a distributed
switch. PVRDMA supports VMware vSphere vMotion and snapshot
technology. It is available in virtual machines with hardware version 13 and
guest operating system Linux kernel 4.6 and later.
For information about assigning an PVRDMA network adapter to a virtual
machine, see the vSphere Networking documentation.
SR-IOV passthrough
Representation of a virtual function (VF) on a physical NIC with SR-IOV
support. The virtual machine and the physical adapter exchange data
without using the VMkernel as an intermediary. This adapter type is suitable
for virtual machines where latency might cause failure or that require more
CPU resources.
SR-IOV passthrough is available in ESXi 5.5 and later for guest operating
systems Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and later, and Windows Server 2008 R2
with SP2. An operating system release might contain a default VF driver for
certain NICs, while for others you must download and install it from a
location provided by the vendor of the NIC or of the host.
For information about assigning an SR-IOV passthrough network adapter to
a virtual machine, see the vSphere Networking documentation.
For network adapter compatibility considerations, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
Network Adapters and Legacy Virtual Machines
Legacy virtual machines are virtual machines that are supported by the product in use, but are not current
for that product. The default network adapter types for all legacy virtual machines depend on the adapters
available and compatible to the guest operating system and the version of virtual hardware on which the
virtual machine was created.
If you do not upgrade a virtual machine to correspond with an upgrade to a newer version of an ESXi host,
your adapter settings remain unchanged. If you upgrade your virtual machine to take advantage of newer
virtual hardware, your default adapter settings will likely change to be compatible with the guest operating
system and upgraded host hardware.
To verify the network adapters that are available to your supported guest operating system for a particular
version of vSphere ESXi, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
Change the Virtual Machine Network Adapter Configuration
To change the way the virtual machine communicates with the host or other virtual machines over the
network, you can change the power-on connection setting, the MAC address, and the network connection
for the virtual network adapter configuration for a virtual machine.
For information about configuring the networking for virtual machine network adapters, see the vSphere
Networking documentation.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Network.Assign network on a network if you are changing the network the virtual
machine connects to.
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Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Network adapter, and select the port group to connect to from
the drop-down menu.
The menu lists all standard and distributed port groups that are available for virtual machine use on the
host.
If you want to provision bandwidth to the network adapter from a reserved quota by using vSphere
Network I/O Control version 3, select a port group that is associated with the network resource pool
that provides the quota.
3
(Optional) Change the Status settings.
Option
Description
Connected
Select or deselect this option while the virtual machine is running to
connect or disconnect the virtual network adapter. This check box is not
available when the virtual machine is turned off.
Connect at power on
Select this option for the virtual network adapter to connect to the network
when the virtual machine turns on. If you do not check this option, you
must manually connect the adapter in order for the virtual machine to
access the network.
4
Select the network adapter type to use from the Adapter Type drop-down menu.
5
(Optional) Select how to assign the MAC address from the drop-down menu.
6
n
Select Automatic to automatically assign a MAC address.
n
Select Manual to manually enter the MAC address that you want.
If the network adapter is connected to a distributed port group of a distributed switch that has vSphere
Network I/O Control version 3 enabled, allocate bandwidth to the adapter.
Note You cannot allocate bandwidth to SR-IOV passthrough network adapters.
7
a
From the Shares drop-down menu, set the relative priority of the traffic from this virtual machine
as shares from the capacity of the connected physical adapter.
b
In the Reservation text box, reserve a minimum bandwidth that must be available to the VM
network adapter when the virtual machine is powered on.
c
In the Limit text box, set a limit on the bandwidth that the VM network adapter can consume.
Click OK.
Add a Network Adapter to a Virtual Machine
You can add a network adapter (NIC) to a virtual machine to connect to a network, to enhance
communications, or to replace an older adapter. When you add a NIC to a virtual machine, you select the
adapter type, network connection, whether the device should connect when the virtual machine is turned
on, and the bandwidth allocation.
For information about configuring the networking for virtual machine network adapters, see the vSphere
Networking documentation
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Network.Assign network on a network.
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Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
From the New device drop-down menu, select Network and click Add.
The new network adapter appears at the bottom of the device list.
3
(Optional) Expand New Network, and change the Status settings.
Option
Description
Connected
Select this option while the virtual machine is running to connect or
disconnect the virtual network adapter. This check box is not available
when the virtual machine is turned off.
Connect at power on
Select this option for the virtual network adapter to connect to the network
when the virtual machine turns on. If you do not check this option, you
must manually connect the adapter for the virtual machine to access the
network.
4
Select the network adapter type to use from the Adapter Type drop-down menu.
5
(Optional) Select how to assign the MAC address from the drop-down menu.
6
n
Select Automatic to automatically assign a MAC address.
n
Select Manual to manually enter the MAC address that you want.
From the drop-down menu next to the New Network label, select the standard or distributed port
group to connect to.
The menu lists all standard and distributed port groups that are available for virtual machine use on the
host.
If you want to provision bandwidth to the network adapter from a reserved quota by using vSphere
Network I/O Control version 3, select a port group that is associated with the network resource pool
that provides the quota.
7
If the network adapter is connected to a distributed port group of a distributed switch that has vSphere
Network I/O Control version 3 enabled, allocate bandwidth to the adapter.
Note You cannot allocate bandwidth to SR-IOV passthrough network adapters.
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a
From the Shares drop-down menu, set the relative priority of the traffic from this virtual machine
as shares from the capacity of the connected physical adapter.
b
In the Reservation text box, reserve a minimum bandwidth that must be available to the VM
network adapter when the virtual machine is powered on.
c
In the Limit text box, set a limit on the bandwidth that the VM network adapter can consume.
Click OK.
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Parallel and Serial Port Configuration
Parallel and serial ports are interfaces for connecting peripherals to the virtual machine. The virtual serial
port can connect to a physical serial port or to a file on the host computer. You can also use it to establish a
direct connection between two virtual machines or a connection between a virtual machine and an
application on the host computer. You can add parallel and serial ports and change the serial port
configuration.
Using Serial Ports with vSphere Virtual Machines
You can set up virtual serial port connections for vSphere virtual machines in several ways. The connection
method that you select depends on the task that you need to accomplish.
You can set up virtual serial ports to send data in the following ways.
Physical serial port on
the host
Sets the virtual machine to use a physical serial port on the host computer.
This method lets you use an external modem or a hand-held device in a
virtual machine.
Output to file
Sends output from the virtual serial port to a file on the host computer. This
method lets you capture the data that a program running in the virtual
machine sends to the virtual serial port.
Connect to a named
pipe
Sets a direct connection between two virtual machines or a connection
between a virtual machine and an application on the host computer. With
this method, two virtual machines or a virtual machine and a process on the
host can communicate as if they were physical machines connected by a
serial cable. For example, use this option for remote debugging of a virtual
machine.
Connect over the
network
Enables a serial connection to and from a virtual machine's serial port over
the network. The Virtual Serial Port Concentrator (vSPC) aggregates traffic
from multiple serial ports onto one management console. vSPC behavior is
similar to physical serial port concentrators. Using a vSPC also allows
network connections to a virtual machine's serial ports to migrate seamlessly
when you use vMotion to migrate the virtual machine. For requirements and
steps to configure the Avocent ACS v6000 virtual serial port concentrator, see
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1022303.
Server and Client Connections for Named Pipe and Network Serial Ports
You can select a client or server connection for serial ports. Your selection determines whether the system
waits for a connection or initiates it. Typically, to control a virtual machine over a serial port, you select a
server connection. This selection lets you control the connections, which is useful if you connect to the
virtual machine only occasionally. To use a serial port for logging, select a client connection. This selection
lets the virtual machine connect to the logging server when the virtual machine starts and to disconnect
when it stops.
Supported Serial Ports
When you use a physical serial port for serial port passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine,
serial ports that are integrated into the motherboard are supported. A virtual machine can use up to 32 serial
ports.
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Unsupported Serial Ports
When you use a physical serial port for serial port passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine, the
serial ports connected through USB are not supported for serial port passthrough. They might be supported
by USB passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine. See “USB Configuration from an ESXi Host to a
Virtual Machine,” on page 139.
In addition, you cannot use Migration with VMotion when you use a physical serial port for serial
passthrough.
Adding a Firewall Rule Set for Serial Port Network Connections
If you add or configure a serial port that is backed by a remote network connection, ESXi firewall settings
can prevent transmissions.
Before you connect network-backed virtual serial ports, you must add one of the following firewall rule sets
to prevent the firewall from blocking communication:
n
VM serial port connected to vSPC. Use to connect the serial port output through a network with the
Use virtual serial port concentrator option enabled to allow only outgoing communication from the
host.
n
VM serial port connected over network. Use to connect the serial port output through a network
without the virtual serial port concentrator.
Important Do not change the allowed IP list for either rule set. Updates to the IP list can affect other
network services that might be blocked by the firewall.
For details about allowing access to an ESXi service through the firewall, see the vSphere Security
documentation.
Configure Virtual Machine Communication Interface Firewall
You can configure the virtual machine Communication Interface firewall (VMCI) to restrict virtual machines
accessing the hypervisor based services and VMCI based services.
You can restrict VMCI usage to a subset of VMCI-based services on each virtual machine. For example, you
can allow certain virtual machines to access VMCI services and deny access to others for security reasons.
Currently, VMCI devices support guest to host communication. A virtual machine can communicate with
VMCI services through the following means:
n
ESXi hypervisor
n
Services installed on the host operating system in the form of a vmkernel module
n
Applications installed by a verified vSphere Installation Bundle
Change the Serial Port Configuration
You can connect the virtual serial port to a physical serial port or to a file on the host computer. You can also
use a host-side named pipe to set up a direct connection between two virtual machines or a connection
between a virtual machine and an application on the host computer. In addition, you can use a port or vSPC
URI to connect a serial port over the network. You can add up to 32 serial ports to a virtual machine.
Virtual machines can be in a powered-on state during configuration.
Prerequisites
n
VMware, Inc.
Check that you know the correct media types for the port to access, vSPC connections, and any
conditions that might apply. See “Using Serial Ports with vSphere Virtual Machines,” on page 106.
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n
To connect a serial port over a network, add a Firewall rule set. See “Adding a Firewall Rule Set for
Serial Port Network Connections,” on page 107.
n
To use authentication parameters with network serial port connections, see “Authentication Parameters
for Virtual Serial Port Network Connections,” on page 109.
n
Required privileges:
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Modify device settings on the virtual machine.
n
Virtual machine .Interaction .Device connection on the virtual machine to change the device
connection status.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Serial port, and select a connection type.
Option
Action
Use physical serial port
Select this option to have the virtual machine use a physical serial port on
the host computer. Select the serial port from the drop-down menu.
Use output file
Select this option to send output from the virtual serial port to a file on the
host computer. Browse to select an output file to connect the serial port to.
Use named pipe
Select this option to set a direct connection between two virtual machines
or a connection between a virtual machine and an application on the host
computer.
a Type a name for the pipe in the Pipe Name field.
b Select the Near end and Far end of the pipe from the drop-down
menus.
Connect over the network
Select Use network to connect through a remote network.
a Select the network backing.
n Select Server to have the virtual machine monitor incoming
connections from other hosts.
n Select Client to have the virtual machine initiate a connection to
another host.
b Enter a Port URI.
c
Printer
3
The URI is the remote end of the serial port to which the virtual
machine's serial port should connect.
If vSPC is used as an intermediate step to access all virtual machines
through a single IP address, select Use Virtual Serial Port
Concentrator and enter the vSPC URI location.
Select Printer to connect to a remote printer.
(Optional) Select Yield on CPU poll.
Select this option only for guest operating systems that use serial ports in polled mode. This option
prevents the guest from consuming excessive CPUs.
4
Select Connect at power on to connect the serial port when the virtual machine powers on.
5
Click OK.
Example: Establishing Serial Port Network Connections to a Client or Server
Without Authentication Parameters
If you do not use vSPC and you configure your virtual machine with a serial port connected as a server with
a telnet://:12345 URI, you can connect to your virtual machine's serial port from your Linux or Windows
operating system.
telnet yourESXiServerIPAddress 12345
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Similarly, if you run the Telnet Server on your Linux system on port 23 (telnet://yourLinuxBox:23), you
configure the virtual machine as a client URI.
telnet://yourLinuxBox:23
The virtual machine initiates the connection to your Linux system on port 23.
Authentication Parameters for Virtual Serial Port Network Connections
When you establish serial port connections over the network, you can use authentication parameters to
secure the network. These parameters can support an encrypted connection with a remote system using SSL
over Telnet or Telnets, or an encrypted connection with a concentrator using SSL over Telnet or Telnets.
URI Forms
If you do not use virtual serial port network connection (vSPC) and you configure your virtual machine with
a serial port connected as a server with a telnet://:12345 URI, you can connect to your virtual machine's
serial port from your Linux or Windows operating system. You use one of the following formats:
n
Telnet over TCP.
telnet://host:port
The virtual machine and remote system can negotiate and use SSL if the remote system supports the
Telnet authentication option. If not, the connection uses unencrypted text (plain text).
n
Telnets over SSL over TCP.
telnets://host:port
SSL negotiation begins immediately, and you cannot use the Telnet authentication option.
Authentication Parameters
For an encrypted connection, the URI includes a set of authentication parameters. Enter the parameters as
key words or key/value pairs. You can enter authentication parameters for secure Telnet (telnets), or for
Telnet (telnet) as shown in the following syntax:
telnet://host:port #key[=value] [&key[=value] ...]
The first parameter must have a number sign (#) prefix. Additional parameters must have an ampersand (&)
prefix. The following parameters are supported.
thumbprint=value
Specifies a certificate thumbprint against which the peer certificate
thumbprint is compared. When you specify a thumbprint, certificate
verification is enabled.
peerName=value
Specifies the peer name that is used to validate the peer certificate. When you
specify a peer name, certificate verification is enabled.
verify
Forces certificate verification. The virtual machine will verify that the peer
certificate subject matches the specified peerName and that it was signed by
a certificate authority known to the ESXi host. Verification is enabled if you
specify a thumbprint or peerName
cipherList=value
Specifies a list of SSL ciphers. The ciphers are specified as a list separated by
colons, spaces, or commas.
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Example: Establishing Serial Port Network Connections to a Client or Server
Simple Server
Connection
To connect to a virtual machine's serial port from a Linux or Windows
operating system if you do not use vSPC, configure the virtual machine with
a serial port connected as a server with a telnet://:12345 URI. To access a
virtual serial port from a client, use telnet yourESXiServerIPAddress 12345.
Secure Server
Connection
To enforce an encrypted connection to the virtual machine's serial port from
a Linux operating system, you can configure Telnet to enforce encryption by
configuring the virtual machine with a serial port connected as a server with
a telnet://:12345#verify URI.
To access a virtual serial port from a client, use telnet-ssl
yourESXServerName 12345. This connection will fail if the Telnet program you
are using does not support SSL encryption.
Simple Client
Connection
If you are running a Telnet server on your system and you want the virtual
machine to automatically connect to it, you can configure the virtual machine
as a client using telnet://yourLinuxBox:23.
The Virtual machine keeps initiating the Telnet connection to port 23 on
yourLinuxBox.
Secure Client
Connection
Additional URI options allow you to enforce a specific server certificate and
restrict the ciphers being used. Virtual machines with a serial port configured
as a client with telnet://ipOfYourLinuxBox:23#cipherList=DHE-RSA-AES256SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA&peerName=myLinuxBoxName.withDomain will
connect to ipOfYourLinuxBox only if the system supports one of two listed
ciphers, and if it presents a trusted certificate issued to
myLinuxBoxName.withDomain. Replace .withDomain with the full domain
name, for example, example.org.
Add a Serial Port to a Virtual Machine
You can connect the virtual serial port to a physical serial port or to a file on the host computer. You can also
use a host-side named pipe to set up a direct connection between two virtual machines or a connection
between a virtual machine and an application on the host computer. In addition, you can use a port or vSPC
URI to connect a serial port over the network. A virtual machine can use up to 32 serial ports.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered off.
n
Check that you known the correct media types for the port to access, vSPC connections, and any
conditions that might apply. See “Using Serial Ports with vSphere Virtual Machines,” on page 106.
n
To connect a serial port over a network, add a Firewall rule set. See “Adding a Firewall Rule Set for
Serial Port Network Connections,” on page 107.
n
To use authentication parameter with network serial port connections, see “Authentication Parameters
for Virtual Serial Port Network Connections,” on page 109.
n
Required privilege: Virtual Machine .Configuration.Add or Remove Device
Procedure
1
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Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
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2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select Serial Port from the New device drop-down menu, and click Add.
The serial port appears at the bottom of the virtual device list.
3
Expand New Serial Port.
4
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Serial port, and select a connection type.
Option
Action
Use physical serial port
Select this option to have the virtual machine use a physical serial port on
the host computer. Select the serial port from the drop-down menu.
Use output file
Select this option to send output from the virtual serial port to a file on the
host computer. Browse to select an output file to connect the serial port to.
Use named pipe
Select this option to set a direct connection between two virtual machines
or a connection between a virtual machine and an application on the host
computer.
a Type a name for the pipe in the Pipe Name field.
b Select the Near end and Far end of the pipe from the drop-down
menus.
Connect over the network
Select Use network to connect through a remote network.
a Select the network backing.
n Select Server to have the virtual machine monitor incoming
connections from other hosts.
n Select Client to have the virtual machine initiate a connection to
another host.
b Enter a Port URI.
c
Printer
5
The URI is the remote end of the serial port to which the virtual
machine's serial port should connect.
If vSPC is used as an intermediate step to access all virtual machines
through a single IP address, select Use Virtual Serial Port
Concentrator and enter the vSPC URI location.
Select Printer to connect to a remote printer.
(Optional) Select Yield on poll.
Select this option only for guest operating systems that use serial ports in polled mode. This option
prevents the guest from consuming excessive CPUs.
6
Select Connect at power on to connect the serial port when the virtual machine powers on.
7
Click OK.
Example: Establishing Serial Port Network Connections to a Client or Server
Without Authentication Parameters
If you do not use vSPC and you configure your virtual machine with a serial port connected as a server with
a telnet://:12345 URI, you can connect to your virtual machine's serial port from your Linux or Windows
operating system.
telnet yourESXiServerIPAddress 12345
Similarly, if you run the Telnet Server on your Linux system on port 23 (telnet://yourLinuxBox:23), you
configure the virtual machine as a client URI.
telnet://yourLinuxBox:23
The virtual machine initiates the connection to your Linux system on port 23.
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Change the Parallel Port Configuration
You can change the output file for peripheral device output and schedule the parallel port to connect when
the virtual machine powers on.
Note If you are changing the parallel port on a virtual machine that runs on an ESXi 4.1 or earlier host, you
can send output to a physical parallel port on the host or to an output file on the host. This option is not
available with ESXi 5.0 and later.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the following privileges:
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Modify device settings on the virtual machine.
n
Virtual machine .Interaction .Device connection on the virtual machine to change the device
connection status.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Parallel port.
3
For virtual machines running on ESXi 4.1 and earlier hosts, select the type of media for the parallel port
to access.
4
Click Browse to navigate to the file location.
5
Type a name for the file in the Save As text box and click OK.
The file path appears in the Connection text box.
6
Select whether to connect the device whenever you power on the virtual machine.
You can change this setting when the virtual machine is either powered on or powered off.
7
Click OK.
Add a Parallel Port to a Virtual Machine
To connect peripheral devices to virtual machines, such as printers or scanners, you can use a parallel port.
You send the output of such devices to a file on the host computer.
Note If you are adding a parallel port to a virtual machine that runs on an ESXi 4.1 or earlier host, you can
also select to send output to a physical parallel port on the host. This option is not available with ESXi 5.0
and later host versions.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off. You cannot add or remove parallel ports if the virtual
machine is turned on.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select Parallel Port from the New device drop-down menu, and click
Add.
The parallel port appears at the bottom of the virtual device list.
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3
Expand New Parallel port, and click Browse to locate a folder to create the file in.
4
Type a name for the file in the Save As text box and click OK.
The file path appears in the Connection text box.
5
(Optional) Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine powers on.
6
Click OK.
Output from the attached peripheral device is read to the newly created file.
Virtual Disk Configuration
You can add large-capacity virtual disks to virtual machines and add more space to existing disks, even
when the virtual machine is running. You can set most of the virtual disk parameters during virtual machine
creation or after you install the guest operating system.
You can store virtual machine data in a new virtual disk, an existing virtual disk, or a mapped SAN LUN. A
virtual disk, which appears as a single hard disk to the guest operating system, is composed of one or more
files on the host file system. You can copy or move virtual disks on the same hosts or between hosts.
For virtual machines running on an ESXi host, you can store the virtual machine data directly on a SAN
LUN instead of storing it in a virtual disk file. This ability is useful if you are running applications in your
virtual machines that must detect the physical characteristics of the storage device. Additionally, mapping a
SAN LUN allows you to use existing SAN commands to manage storage for the disk.
To accelerate virtual machine performance, you can configure virtual machines to use vSphere Flash Read
Cache™. For details about Flash Read Cache behavior, see the vSphere Storage documentation.
When you map a LUN to a VMFS volume, vCenter Server or the ESXi host creates a raw device mapping
(RDM) file that points to the raw LUN. Encapsulating disk information in a file allows vCenter Server or the
ESXi host to lock the LUN so that only one virtual machine can write to it. This file has a .vmdk extension,
but the file contains only disk information that describes the mapping to the LUN on the ESXi system. The
actual data is stored on the LUN. You cannot deploy a virtual machine from a template and store its data on
a LUN. You can store only its data in a virtual disk file.
The amount of free space in the datastore is always changing. Ensure that you leave sufficient space for
virtual machine creation and other virtual machine operations, such as growth of sparse files, snapshots,
and so on. To review space utilization for the datastore by file type, see the vSphere Monitoring and
Performance documentation.
Thin provisioning lets you create sparse files with blocks that are allocated upon first access, which allows
the datastore to be over-provisioned. The sparse files can continue growing and fill the datastore. If the
datastore runs out of disk space while the virtual machine is running, it can cause the virtual machine to
stop functioning.
About Virtual Disk Provisioning Policies
When you perform certain virtual machine management operations, you can specify a provisioning policy
for the virtual disk file. The operations include creating a virtual disk, cloning a virtual machine to a
template, or migrating a virtual machine.
NFS datastores with Hardware Acceleration and VMFS datastores support the following disk provisioning
policies. On NFS datastores that do not support Hardware Acceleration, only thin format is available.
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You can use Storage vMotion or cross-host Storage vMotion to transform virtual disks from one format to
another.
Thick Provision Lazy
Zeroed
Creates a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the virtual
disk is allocated when the disk is created. Data remaining on the physical
device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand later on
first write from the virtual machine. Virtual machines do not read stale data
from the physical device.
Thick Provision Eager
Zeroed
A type of thick virtual disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
Tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time. In
contrast to the thick provision lazy zeroed format, the data remaining on the
physical device is zeroed out when the virtual disk is created. It might take
longer to create virtual disks in this format than to create other types of
disks.
Thin Provision
Use this format to save storage space. For the thin disk, you provision as
much datastore space as the disk would require based on the value that you
enter for the virtual disk size. However, the thin disk starts small and at first,
uses only as much datastore space as the disk needs for its initial operations.
If the thin disk needs more space later, it can grow to its maximum capacity
and occupy the entire datastore space provisioned to it.
Thin provisioning is the fastest method to create a virtual disk because it
creates a disk with just the header information. It does not allocate or zero
out storage blocks. Storage blocks are allocated and zeroed out when they
are first accessed.
Note If a virtual disk supports clustering solutions such as Fault Tolerance,
do not make the disk thin.
Large Capacity Virtual Disk Conditions and Limitations
Virtual machines with large capacity virtual hard disks, or disks greater than 2 TB, must meet resource and
configuration requirements for optimal virtual machine performance.
The maximum value for large capacity hard disks is 62 TB. When you add or configure virtual disks, always
leave a small amount of overhead. Some virtual machine tasks can quickly consume large amounts of disk
space, which can prevent successful completion of the task if the maximum disk space is assigned to the
disk. Such events might include taking snapshots or using linked clones. These operations cannot finish
when the maximum amount of disk space is allocated. Also, operations such as snapshot quiesce, cloning,
Storage vMotion, or vMotion in environments without shared storage, can take significantly longer to finish.
Virtual machines with large capacity disks have the following conditions and limitations:
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n
The guest operating system must support large capacity virtual hard disks.
n
You can move or clone disks that are greater than 2 TB to ESXi 5.5 or later hosts or to clusters that have
such hosts available.
n
The datastore format must be VMFS5 or later or an NFS volume on a Network Attached Storage (NAS)
server.
n
Virtual Flash Read Cache supports a maximum hard disk size of 16 TB.
n
VMFS3 volumes are not supported. You cannot move disks greater than 2 TB to a VMFS3 datastore.
n
Fault Tolerance is not supported.
n
BusLogic Parallel controllers are not supported.
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Chapter 5 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware
Change the Virtual Disk Configuration
If you run out of disk space, you can increase the size of the disk. You can change the virtual device node
and the persistence mode for virtual disk configuration for a virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the following privileges:
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Modify device settings on the virtual machine.
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Extend virtual disk on the virtual machine.
n
Datastore.Allocate space on the datastore.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Hard disk to view the disk options.
3
(Optional) To change the size of the disk, type a new value in the Provisioned Size text box and select
the units from the drop-down menu.
4
(Optional) To change the way that disks are affected by snapshots, select a disk mode option.
5
Option
Description
Dependent
Dependent disks are included in snapshots.
Independent - Persistent
Disks in persistent mode behave like conventional disks on your physical
computer. All data written to a disk in persistent mode are written
permanently to the disk.
Independent - Nonpersistent
Changes to disks in nonpersistent mode are discarded when you turn off
or reset the virtual machine. With nonpersistent mode, you can restart the
virtual machine with a virtual disk in the same state every time. Changes
to the disk are written to and read from a redo log file that is deleted when
you turn off or reset the virtual machine.
Click OK.
Add a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine
When you create a virtual machine, a default virtual hard disk is added. You can add another hard disk if
you run out of disk space, if you want to add a boot disk, or for other file management purposes. When you
add a hard disk to a virtual machine, you can create a virtual disk, add an existing virtual disk, or add a
mapped SAN LUN.
You can add a virtual hard disk to a virtual machine before or after you add a SCSI or SATA storage
controller. The new disk is assigned to the first available virtual device node on the default controller, for
example (0:1). Only device nodes for the default controller are available unless you add additional
controllers.
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The following ways to add disks can help you plan your disk configuration. These approaches show how
you can optimize controller and virtual device nodes for different disks. For storage controller limitations,
maximums, and virtual device node behavior, see “SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions,
Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
Add an existing hard
disk that is configured
as a boot disk during
virtual machine
creation.
To ensure that the virtual machine can boot, remove the existing disk before
you add the boot disk. After you add a new hard disk to the virtual machine,
you might need to go into the BIOS setup to ensure that the disk you were
using to boot the virtual machine is still selected as the boot disk. You can
avoid this problem by not mixing adapter types, and by using device node 0
on the first adapter as the boot disk.
Keep the default boot
disk and add a new disk
during virtual machine
creation.
The new disk is assigned to the next available virtual device node, for
example (0:1) You can add a new controller and assign the disk to a virtual
device node on that controller, for example (1:0) or (1:1).
Add multiple hard disks
to an existing virtual
machine.
If you add multiple hard disks to a virtual machine, you can assign them to
several SCSI or SATA controllers to improve performance. The controller
must be available before you can select a virtual device node. For example, if
you add controllers 1, 2, and 3, and add four hard disks, you might assign
the fourth disk to virtual device node (3:1).
n
Add a New Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine on page 116
You can add a virtual hard disk to an existing virtual machine, or you can add a hard disk when you
customize the virtual machine hardware during the virtual machine creation process. For example,
you might need to provide additional disk space for an existing virtual machine with a heavy work
load. During virtual machine creation, you might want to add a hard disk that is preconfigured as a
boot disk.
n
Add an Existing Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine on page 118
You can add an existing virtual hard disk to a virtual machine when you customize the virtual
machine hardware during the virtual machine creation process or after the virtual machine is created.
For example, you might want to add an existing hard disk that is preconfigured as a boot disk.
n
Add an RDM Disk to a Virtual Machine on page 119
You can use a raw device mapping (RDM) to store virtual machine data directly on a SAN LUN,
instead of storing it in a virtual disk file. You can add an RDM disk to an existing virtual machine, or
you can add the disk when you customize the virtual machine hardware during the virtual machine
creation process.
Add a New Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine
You can add a virtual hard disk to an existing virtual machine, or you can add a hard disk when you
customize the virtual machine hardware during the virtual machine creation process. For example, you
might need to provide additional disk space for an existing virtual machine with a heavy work load. During
virtual machine creation, you might want to add a hard disk that is preconfigured as a boot disk.
During virtual machine creation, a hard disk and a SCSI or SATA controller are added to the virtual machine
by default, based on the guest operating system that you select. If this disk does not meet your needs, you
can remove it and add a new hard disk at the end of the creation process.
If you add multiple hard disks to a virtual machine, you can assign them to several controllers to improve
performance. For controller and bus node behavior, see “SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions,
Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
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Prerequisites
n
Ensure that you are familiar with configuration options and caveats for adding virtual hard disks. See
“Virtual Disk Configuration,” on page 113.
n
Before you add disks greater than 2TB to a virtual machine, see “Large Capacity Virtual Disk
Conditions and Limitations,” on page 114.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk privilege on the destination
folder or datastore.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
(Optional) To delete the existing hard disk, move your cursor over the disk and click the Remove icon.
The disk is removed from the virtual machine. If other virtual machines share the disk, the disk files are
not deleted.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select New Hard Disk from the New device drop-down menu and click
Add.
The hard disk appears in the Virtual Hardware devices list.
4
Expand New hard disk.
5
(Optional) Type a value for the hard disk and select the units from the drop-down menu.
6
Select the datastore location where you want to store the virtual machine files.
Option
Action
Store all virtual machine files in the
same location on a datastore.
a
b
Store all virtual machine files in the
same datastore cluster.
a
b
c
d
Store virtual machine configuration
files and disks in separate
locations.
a
b
c
d
e
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(Optional) Apply a virtual machine storage policy for the virtual
machine home files and the virtual disks from the VM storage policy
drop-down menu.
The list shows which datastores are compatible and which are
incompatible with the selected virtual machine storage policy.
Select a datastore and click Next.
(Optional) Apply a virtual machine storage policy for the virtual
machine home files and the virtual disks from the VM storage policy
drop-down menu.
The list shows which datastores are compatible and which are
incompatible with the selected virtual machine storage profile.
Select a datastore cluster.
(Optional) If you do not want to use Storage DRS with this virtual
machine, select Disable Storage DRS for this virtual machine and
select a datastore within the datastore cluster.
Click Next.
Click Advanced.
For the virtual machine configuration file and for each virtual disk,
click Browse and select a datastore or datastore cluster.
(Optional) Apply a virtual machine storage policy from the VM
storage profile drop-down menu.
The list shows which datastores are compatible and which are
incompatible with the selected virtual machine storage policy.
(Optional) If you selected a datastore cluster and do not want to use
Storage DRS with this virtual machine, select Disable Storage DRS for
this virtual machine and select a datastore within the datastore
cluster.
Click Next.
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7
8
Select the format for the virtual machine's disks and click Next.
Option
Action
Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed
Create a virtual disk in a default thick format. Space required for the
virtual disk is allocated during creation. Any data remaining on the
physical device is not erased during creation, but is zeroed out on demand
at a later time on first write from the virtual machine.
Thick Provision Eager Zeroed
Create a thick disk that supports clustering features such as Fault
Tolerance. Space required for the virtual disk is allocated at creation time.
In contrast to the flat format, the data remaining on the physical device is
zeroed out during creation. It might take much longer to create disks in
this format than to create other types of disks.
Thin Provision
Use the thin provisioned format. At first, a thin provisioned disk uses only
as much datastore space as the disk initially needs. If the thin disk needs
more space later, it can grow to the maximum capacity allocated to it.
In the Shares drop-down menu, select a value for the shares to allocate to the virtual disk.
Shares is a value that represents the relative metric for controlling disk bandwidth. The values Low,
Normal, High, and Custom are compared to the sum of all shares of all virtual machines on the host.
9
If you selected Custom, type a number of shares in the text box.
10
In the Limit - IOPs box, enter the upper limit of storage resources to allocate to the virtual machine, or
select Unlimited.
This value is the upper limit of I/O operations per second allocated to the virtual disk.
11
Accept the default or select a different virtual device node.
In most cases, you can accept the default device node. For a hard disk, a nondefault device node is
useful to control the boot order or to have different SCSI controller types. For example, you might want
to boot from an LSI Logic controller and share a data disk with another virtual machine that is using a
Buslogic controller with bus sharing turned on.
12
(Optional) Select a disk mode and click OK.
Option
Description
Dependent
Dependent disks are included in snapshots.
Independent - Persistent
Disks in persistent mode behave like conventional disks on your physical
computer. All data written to a disk in persistent mode are written
permanently to the disk.
Independent - Nonpersistent
Changes to disks in nonpersistent mode are discarded when you power off
or reset the virtual machine. With nonpersistent mode, you can restart the
virtual machine with a virtual disk in the same state every time. Changes
to the disk are written to and read from a redo log file that is deleted when
you power off or reset.
Add an Existing Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine
You can add an existing virtual hard disk to a virtual machine when you customize the virtual machine
hardware during the virtual machine creation process or after the virtual machine is created. For example,
you might want to add an existing hard disk that is preconfigured as a boot disk.
During virtual machine creation, a hard disk and a SCSI or SATA controller are added to the virtual machine
by default, based on the guest operating system that you select. If this disk does not meet your needs, you
can remove it and add an existing hard disk at the end of the creation process.
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Prerequisites
n
Make sure that you are familiar with controller and virtual device node behavior for different virtual
hard disk configurations. See “Add a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine,” on page 115.
n
Before you add disks greater than 2TB to a virtual machine, see “Large Capacity Virtual Disk
Conditions and Limitations,” on page 114.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add existing disk privilege on the destination
folder or datastore.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
(Optional) To delete the existing hard disk, move your cursor over the disk and click the Remove icon.
The disk is removed from the virtual machine. If other virtual machines share the disk, the disk files are
not deleted.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select Existing Hard Disk from the New device drop-down menu and
click Add.
4
In the Datastores column, expand a datastore, select a virtual machine folder, and select the disk to add.
The disk file appears in the Contents column. The File Type drop-down menu shows the compatibility
file types for this disk.
5
Click OK.
What to do next
n
(Optional) Change the virtual disk configuration. See “Change the Virtual Disk Configuration,” on
page 115.
n
(Optional) Use disk shares to prioritize virtual machine access to this disk. See “Use Disk Shares to
Prioritize Virtual Machines,” on page 121.
Add an RDM Disk to a Virtual Machine
You can use a raw device mapping (RDM) to store virtual machine data directly on a SAN LUN, instead of
storing it in a virtual disk file. You can add an RDM disk to an existing virtual machine, or you can add the
disk when you customize the virtual machine hardware during the virtual machine creation process.
When you give a virtual machine direct access to an RDM disk, you create a mapping file that resides on a
VMFS datastore and points to the LUN. Although the mapping file has the same .vmdk extension as a
regular virtual disk file, the mapping file contains only mapping information. The virtual disk data is stored
directly on the LUN.
During virtual machine creation, a hard disk and a SCSI or SATA controller are added to the virtual machine
by default, based on the guest operating system that you select. If this disk does not meet your needs, you
can remove it and add an RDM disk at the end of the creation process.
Prerequisites
n
Ensure that you are familiar with SCSI controller and virtual device node behavior for different virtual
hard disk configurations. See “Add a Hard Disk to a Virtual Machine,” on page 115.
n
Before you add disks greater than 2TB to a virtual machine, see “Large Capacity Virtual Disk
Conditions and Limitations,” on page 114.
n
Required privilege: Virtual machine.Configuration.Raw device
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Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
(Optional) To delete the existing hard disk, move your cursor over the disk and click the Remove icon.
The disk is removed from the virtual machine. If other virtual machines share the disk, the disk files are
not deleted.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select RDM Disk from the New device drop-down menu and click Add.
4
Select the target LUN for the raw device mapping and click OK.
The disk appears in the virtual device list.
5
6
7
Select the location for the mapping file.
n
To store the mapping file with the virtual machine configuration file, select Store with the virtual
machine.
n
To select a location for the mapping file, select Browse and select the datastore location for the disk.
Select a compatibility mode.
Option
Description
Physical
Allows the guest operating system to access the hardware directly.
Physical compatibility is useful if you are using SAN-aware applications
on the virtual machine. However, a virtual machine with a physical
compatibility RDM cannot be cloned, made into a template, or migrated if
the migration involves copying the disk.
Virtual
Allows the RDM to behave as if it were a virtual disk, so that you can use
such features as taking snapshots, cloning, and so on. When you clone the
disk or make a template out of it, the contents of the LUN are copied into
a .vmdk virtual disk file. When you migrate a virtual compatibility mode
RDM, you can migrate the mapping file or copy the contents of the LUN
into a virtual disk.
Accept the default or select a different virtual device node.
In most cases, you can accept the default device node. For a hard disk, a nondefault device node is
useful to control the boot order or to have different SCSI controller types. For example, you might want
to boot from an LSI Logic controller and share a data disk with another virtual machine using a
BusLogic controller with bus sharing turned on.
8
(Optional) If you selected virtual compatibility mode, select a disk mode to change the way that disks
are affected by snapshots.
Disk modes are not available for RDM disks using physical compatibility mode.
9
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Option
Description
Dependent
Dependent disks are included in snapshots.
Independent - Persistent
Disks in persistent mode behave like conventional disks on your physical
computer. All data written to a disk in persistent mode are written
permanently to the disk.
Independent - Nonpersistent
Changes to disks in nonpersistent mode are discarded when you power off
or reset the virtual machine. With nonpersistent mode, you can restart the
virtual machine with a virtual disk in the same state every time. Changes
to the disk are written to and read from a redo log file that is deleted when
you power off or reset.
Click OK.
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Chapter 5 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware
Use Disk Shares to Prioritize Virtual Machines
You can change the disk resources for a virtual machine. If multiple virtual machines access the same VMFS
datastore and the same logical unit number (LUN), use disk shares to prioritize the disk accesses from the
virtual machines. Disk shares distinguish high-priority from low-priority virtual machines.
You can allocate the host disk's I/O bandwidth to the virtual hard disks of a virtual machine. Disk I/O is a
host-centric resource so you cannot pool it across a cluster.
Shares is a value that represents the relative metric for controlling disk bandwidth to all virtual machines.
The values are compared to the sum of all shares of all virtual machines on the server.
Disk shares are relevant only within a given host. The shares assigned to virtual machines on one host have
no effect on virtual machines on other hosts.
You can select an IOP limit, which sets an upper bound for storage resources that are allocated to a virtual
machine. IOPs are the number of I/O operations per second.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Hard disk to view the disk options.
3
In the Shares drop-down menu, select a value for the shares to allocate to the virtual machine.
4
If you selected Custom, enter a number of shares in the text box.
5
In the Limit - IOPs box, enter the upper limit of storage resources to allocate to the virtual machine, or
select Unlimited.
6
Click OK.
Configure Flash Read Cache for a Virtual Machine
You can configure Flash Read Cache for your virtual machine.
Enabling Flash Read Cache lets you specify block size and cache size reservation.
Block size is the minimum number of contiguous bytes that can be stored in the cache. This block size can be
larger than the nominal disk block size of 512 bytes, between 4 KB and 1024 KB. If a guest operating system
writes a single 512 byte disk block, the surrounding cache block size bytes will be cached. Do not confuse
cache block size with disk block size.
Reservation is a reservation size for cache blocks. There is a minimum number of 256 cache blocks. If the
cache block size is 1 MB, then the minimum cache size is 256 MB. If the cache block size is 4 K, then the
minimum cache size is 1 MB.
For more information about sizing guidelines, search for the Performance of vSphere Flash Read Cache in
VMware vSphere white paper on the VMware web site.
Prerequisites
Set up virtual flash resource.
Procedure
1
Navigate to the virtual machine.
2
Right-click the virtual machine and select Edit Settings.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Hard disk to view the disk options.
4
To enable Flash Read Cache for the virtual machine, enter a value in the Virtual Flash Read Cache text
box.
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5
Click Advanced to specify the following parameters.
Option
6
Description
Reservation
Select a cache size reservation.
Block Size
Select a block size.
Click OK.
Converting Virtual Disks from Thin to Thick
You can determine whether a virtual disk is in the thin provision format and if required, convert it to the
thick provision format.
For more information on thin provisioning and available disk formats, see the vSphere Storage
documentation.
Determine the Disk Format of a Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client
You can determine whether your virtual disk is in thick or thin format.
If you have thin provisioned disks, you can change them to thick by selecting Flat pre-initialized disk
provisioning. You change thick provisioned disks to thin by selecting Allocate and commit space on
demand.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Hard disk.
The disk type is displayed in the Disk Provisioning field.
3
Click OK.
What to do next
If your virtual disk is in the thin format, you can inflate it to its full size using the vSphere Web Client.
Convert a Virtual Disk from Thin to Thick in the vSphere Web Client
When the disk space is exhausted and a thin-provisioned disk cannot expand, the virtual machine cannot
boot. If you created a virtual disk in the thin provision format, you can convert it to the thick provision
format.
The thin provisioned disk starts small and at first, uses just as much storage space as it needs for its initial
operations. After you convert the disk, it grows to its full capacity and occupies the entire datastore space
provisioned to it during the disk’s creation.
Procedure
1
2
Locate the virtual machine.
a
Select a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, host, or vApp.
b
Click the VMs tab and click Virtual Machines.
Double-click the virtual machine, click the Datastores tab.
The datastore that stores the virtual machine files is listed.
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3
Click the datastore link to open the datastore management panel.
4
Click the Configure tab and click Files.
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5
Open the virtual machine folder and browse to the virtual disk file that you want to convert.
The file has the .vmdk extension.
6
Right-click the virtual disk file and select Inflate.
The inflated virtual disk occupies the entire datastore space originally provisioned to it.
SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and
Compatibility
To access virtual disks, CD/DVD-ROM, and SCSI devices, a virtual machine uses storage controllers, which
are added by default when you create the virtual machine. You can add additional controllers or change the
controller type after virtual machine creation. You can make these changes while you are in the creation
wizard. If you know about node behavior, controller limitations, and compatibility of different types of
controllers before you change or add a controller, you can avoid potential boot problems.
How Storage Controller Technology Works
Storage controllers appear to a virtual machine as different types of SCSI controllers, including BusLogic
Parallel, LSI Logic Parallel, LSI Logic SAS, and VMware Paravirtual SCSI. AHCI, SATA, and NVMe
controllers are also available.
When you create a virtual machine, the default controller is optimized for best performance. The controller
type depends on the guest operating system, the device type, and in some cases, the virtual machine's
compatibility. For example, when you create virtual machines with Apple Mac OS X guests and ESXi 5.5 and
later compatibility, the default controller type for both the hard disk and the CD/DVD drive is SATA. When
you create virtual machines with Windows Vista and later guests, a SCSI controller is the default for the
hard disk and a SATA controller is the default for the CD/DVD drive.
Each virtual machine can have a maximum of four SCSI controllers and four SATA controllers. The default
SCSI or SATA controller is 0. When you create a virtual machine, the default hard disk is assigned to the
default controller 0 at bus node (0:0).
When you add storage controllers, they are numbered sequentially 1, 2, and 3. If you add a hard disk, SCSI,
or CD/DVD-ROM device to a virtual machine after virtual machine creation, the device is assigned to the
first available virtual device node on the default controller, for example (0:1).
If you add a SCSI controller, you can reassign an existing or new hard disk or device to that controller. For
example, you can assign the device to (1:z ), where 1 is SCSI controller 1 and z is a virtual device node from 0
to 15. For SCSI controllers, z cannot be 7. By default, the virtual SCSI controller is assigned to virtual device
node (z:7), so that device node is unavailable for hard disks or other devices.
If you add a SATA controller, you can reassign an existing or new hard disk or device to that controller. For
example, you can assign the device to (1:z ), where 1 is SATA controller 1 and z is a virtual device node from
0 to 29. For SATA controllers, you can use device nodes 0 through 29, including 0:7.
Alternatively, each virtual machine can have a maximum of four NVMe controllers. You can reassign an
existing or new hard disk or device to that controller. For example, you can assign the hard disk to (x:z ),
where x is NVMe controller and z is a virtual device node. x has values from 0 to 3, and z has values from 0
to 14.
Storage Controller Limitations
Storage controllers have the following requirements and limitations:
n
LSI Logic SAS and VMware Paravirtual SCSI are available for virtual machines with ESXi 4.x and later
compatibility.
n
AHCI SATA is available only for virtual machines with ESXi 5.5 and later compatibility.
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n
NVMe is available only for virtual machines with ESXi 6.5 and later compatibility.
n
BusLogic Parallel controllers do not support virtual machines with disks larger than 2TB.
Caution Changing the controller type after the guest operating system is installed will make the disk and
any other devices connected to the adapter inaccessible. Before you change the controller type or add a new
controller, make sure that the guest operating system installation media contains the necessary drivers. On
Windows guest operating systems, the driver must be installed and configured as the boot driver.
Storage Controller Compatibility
Adding different types of storage controllers to virtual machines that use BIOS firmware can cause
operating system boot problems. In the following cases, the virtual machine might fail to boot correctly and
you might have to enter the BIOS setup and select the correct boot device:
n
If the virtual machine boots from LSI Logic SAS or VMware Paravirtual SCSI, and you add a disk that
uses BusLogic, LSI Logic, or AHCI SATA controllers.
n
If the virtual machine boots from AHCI SATA, and you add BusLogic Parallel or LSI Logic controllers.
Adding additional disks to virtual machines that use EFI firmware does not cause boot problems.
Table 5‑4. VMware Storage Controller Compatibility
Existing
Controller
Added Controller
LSI Logic
LSI Logic
SAS
VMware
Paravirtual
SCSI
AHCI SATA
IDE
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
LSI Logic
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
LSI Logic SAS
Requires BIOS
setup
Requires BIOS
setup
Usually
Works
Usually
Works
Requires BIOS
setup
Yes
VMware
Paravirtual
SCSI
Requires BIOS
setup
Requires BIOS
setup
Usually
Works
Usually
Works
Requires BIOS
setup
Yes
AHCI SATA
Requires BIOS
setup
Requires BIOS
setup
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
IDE
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
N/A
BusLogic
Parallel
BusLogic
Parallel
Add a SATA Controller
If a virtual machine has multiple hard disks or CD/DVD-ROM devices, you can add up to three additional
SATA controllers to assign the devices to. When you spread the devices among several controllers, you can
improve performance and avoid data traffic congestion. You can also add additional controllers if you
exceed the thirty-device limit for a single controller.
You can boot virtual machines from SATA controllers and use them for large-capacity virtual hard disks.
Not all guest operating systems support AHCI SATA controllers. Typically, when you create virtual
machines with ESXi 5.5 and later compatibility and Mac OS X guest operating systems, a SATA controller is
added by default for the virtual hard disk and CD/DVD-ROM devices. Most guest operating systems,
including Windows Vista and later have a default SATA controller for CD/DVD-ROM devices. To verify
support, see the VMware Compatibility Guides at http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
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Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 5.5 and later.
n
Verify that you are familiar with storage controller behavior and limitations. See “SCSI and SATA
Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the Virtual Hardware tab, and select SATA Controller from the New device drop-down menu.
3
Click Add.
The controller appears in the Virtual Hardware devices list.
4
Click OK.
What to do next
You can add a hard disk or CD/DVD drive to the virtual machine and assign it to the new controller.
Add a SCSI Controller in the vSphere Web Client
Many virtual machines have a SCSI controller by default, depending on the guest operating system. If you
have a heavily loaded virtual machine with multiple hard disks, you can add up to three additional SCSI
controllers to assign the disks to. When you spread the disks among several controllers, you can improve
performance and avoid data traffic congestion. You can also add additional controllers if you exceed the 15device limit for a single controller.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device privilege on the virtual
machine.
n
Verify that you are familiar with storage controller behavior and limitations. See “SCSI and SATA
Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select SCSI Controller from the New device drop-down menu and click
Add.
The controller appears in the Virtual Hardware devices list.
3
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On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand New SCSI Controller, and select the type of sharing in the SCSI
Bus Sharing drop-down menu.
Option
Description
None
Virtual disks cannot be shared by other virtual machines.
Virtual
Virtual disks can be shared by virtual machines on the same ESXi host.
Select Thick provision eager zeroed when you create the disk.
Physical
Virtual disks can be shared by virtual machines on any ESXi host. Select
Thick provision eager zeroed when you create the disk.
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4
Select the controller type from the drop-down menu.
Do not select a BusLogic Parallel controller for virtual machines with disks larger than 2TB. This
controller does not support large capacity hard disks.
5
Click OK.
What to do next
You can add a hard disk or other SCSI device to the virtual machine and assign it to the new SCSI controller.
Add an NVMe Controller
If a virtual machine has multiple hard disks, you can add up to four NVMe controllers to which to assign
the disks. NVMe reduces software overhead by over 50% compared to AHCI SATA SCSI device. Reduced
guest I/O processing overhead with virtual NVMe devices leads to more virtual machines per host and more
transactions per minute.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine has a guest operating system that supports NVMe.
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 6.5 or later.
n
Verify that you are familiar with storage controller behaviour and limitations. See “SCSI and SATA
Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the Virtual Hardware tab, and select NVMe Controller from the New device drop-down menu.
3
Click Add.
The controller appears in the Virtual Hardware devices list.
4
Click OK.
What to do next
You can add a hard disk to the virtual machine and assign it to the NVMe controller.
Change the SCSI Bus Sharing Configuration in the vSphere Web Client
You can set the type of SCSI bus sharing for a virtual machine and indicate whether the SCSI bus is shared.
Depending on the type of sharing, virtual machines can access the same virtual disk simultaneously if the
virtual machines reside on the same ESXi host or on a different host.
Procedure
1
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Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
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2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand SCSI controller, and select the type of sharing in the SCSI Bus
Sharing drop-down menu.
Option
Description
None
Virtual disks cannot be shared by other virtual machines.
Virtual
Virtual disks can be shared by virtual machines on the same ESXi host.
Physical
Virtual disks can be shared by virtual machines on any ESXi host.
For virtual or physical bus sharing, select Thick provision eager zeroed when you create the disk.
3
Click OK.
Change the SCSI Controller Type in the vSphere Web Client
You configure virtual SCSI controllers on your virtual machines to attach virtual disks and RDMs to.
The choice of SCSI controller does not affect whether your virtual disk is an IDE or SCSI disk. The IDE
adapter is always ATAPI. The default for your guest operating system is already selected.
Caution Changing the SCSI controller type might result in a virtual machine boot failure.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that you are familiar with the limitations and conditions for configuring SCSI controllers. See
“SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Modify device settings privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand SCSI controller, and select a SCSI controller type from the
Change Type drop-down menu.
The vSphere Web Client displays information about what will happen if you change the controller type.
If you have selected a controller type that is not recommended for the virtual machine's guest operating
system, a warning is displayed.
3
Select whether to change the controller type.
n
Click Change Type to change the controller type.
n
Click Don't change to cancel the change and keep the original controller type.
Do not select a BusLogic Parallel controller for virtual machines with disks larger than 2TB. This
controller does not support large capacity hard disks.
4
Click OK.
About VMware Paravirtual SCSI Controllers
VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers are high performance storage controllers that can result in greater
throughput and lower CPU use. These controllers are best suited for high performance storage
environments.
VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers are available for virtual machines with ESXi 4.x and later compatibility.
Disks on such controllers might not experience optimal performance gains if they have snapshots or if
memory on the ESXi host is over committed. This behavior does not mitigate the overall performance gain
of using VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers as compared to other SCSI controller options.
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If you have virtual machines with VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers, those virtual machines cannot be
part of an MSCS cluster.
For platform support for VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers, see the VMware Compatibility Guide at
http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
Add a Paravirtualized SCSI Adapter in the vSphere Web Client
You can add a VMware Paravirtual SCSI high performance storage controller to a virtual machine to provide
greater throughput and lower CPU use.
VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers are best suited for environments, especially SAN environments,
running I/O-intensive applications.
For information about SCSI controller maximums and virtual device assignments, see “SCSI and SATA
Storage Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine has a guest operating system with VMware Tools installed.
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 4.x and later.
n
Ensure that you are familiar with VMware Paravirtual SCSI limitations. See “About VMware Paravirtual
SCSI Controllers,” on page 127.
n
To access boot disk devices attached to a VMware Paravirtual SCSI controller, verify that the virtual
machine has a Windows 2003 or Windows 2008 guest operating system.
n
In some operating systems, before you change the controller type, create a virtual machine with an LSI
Logic controller, install VMware Tools, and then change to paravirtual mode.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select SCSI Controller from the New device drop-down menu and click
Add.
The controller appears at the bottom of the Virtual Hardware device list.
3
Expand SCSI controller and select VMware Paravirtual from the Change Type drop-down menu.
4
Click OK.
Other Virtual Machine Device Configuration
In addition to configuring virtual machine CPU and Memory and adding a hard disk and virtual NICs, you
can also add and configure virtual hardware, such as DVD/CD-ROM drives, floppy drives, and SCSI
devices. Not all devices are available to add and configure. For example, you cannot add a video card, but
you can configure available video cards and PCI devices.
Change the CD/DVD Drive Configuration in the vSphere Web Client
You can configure DVD or CD devices to connect to client devices, host devices, Datastore ISO files, or
Content Library ISO files.
n
Configure a Datastore ISO File for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client on page 129
To install a guest operating system and its applications on a new virtual machine, you can connect the
CD/DVD device to an ISO file that is stored on a datastore accessible to the host.
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n
Configure a Content Library ISO File for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client on page 130
To install a guest operating system and its applications on a new virtual machine, you can connect the
CD/DVD device to an ISO file that is stored in a content library.
n
Configure a Host Device Type for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client on page 130
You can configure the virtual machine’s CD/DVD drive to connect to a physical CD or DVD device on
the host so that you can install a guest operating system, VMware Tools, or other applications.
n
Configure a Client Device Type for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client on page 131
To install a guest operating system and its applications or other media on a virtual machine, you can
connect the CD/DVD device to a physical DVD or CD device on the system from which you access the
vSphere Web Client
Configure a Datastore ISO File for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client
To install a guest operating system and its applications on a new virtual machine, you can connect the
CD/DVD device to an ISO file that is stored on a datastore accessible to the host.
If an ISO image is not available on a local or shared datastore, upload the file to a datastore from your local
system by using the datastore file browser. See “Upload ISO Image Installation Media for a Guest Operating
System,” on page 26.
To avoid performance issues and possible conflicts between virtual machines that might try to
simultaneously access the ISO image, unmount and disconnect the ISO file when the installation finishes.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the following privileges:
n
Virtual machine .Interaction .Configure CD media on the virtual machine.
n
Datastore.Browse datastore on the datastore to which you upload the installation media ISO image.
n
Datastore.Low level file operations on the datastore to which you upload the installation media ISO
image.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Expand CD/DVD drive, and select Datastore ISO File from the drop-down menu.
3
Browse to select the file and click OK.
4
In the Virtual Device Node drop-down menu, select the node that the drive uses in the virtual machine.
5
(Optional) Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine powers on.
6
Click OK.
7
Turn on the virtual machine.
8
Click Edit and select Connected next to the datastore ISO file to connect the device.
9
Click OK.
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Configure a Content Library ISO File for the CD/DVD Drive in the
vSphere Web Client
To install a guest operating system and its applications on a new virtual machine, you can connect the
CD/DVD device to an ISO file that is stored in a content library.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Virtual machine .Interaction .Configure CD media privilege on the virtual
machine .
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the Inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Expand CD/DVD drive, and select Content Library ISO File from the drop-down menu.
3
Select the ISO file and click OK.
4
Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine powers on.
5
Click OK.
6
Power on the virtual machine.
Configure a Host Device Type for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client
You can configure the virtual machine’s CD/DVD drive to connect to a physical CD or DVD device on the
host so that you can install a guest operating system, VMware Tools, or other applications.
When you create a virtual machine, a controller is added by default and the CD/DVD drive is attached to
that controller. The controller and driver type depend on the guest operating system. Typically, virtual
machines with newer guest operating systems have a SATA controller and CD/DVD drive. Other guests use
an IDE controller and CD/DVD drive.
If you connect to media that does not require you to turn off the virtual machine, you can select the media to
connect to from the CD/DVD drive connection icon on the virtual machine Summary tab.
When you add a CD/DVD drive that is backed by a USB CD/DVD drive on the host, you must add the drive
as a SCSI device. Hot adding and removing SCSI devices is not supported.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off.
n
Verify that the host is turned off before you add USB CD/DVD devices.
n
You cannot use vMotion to migrate virtual machines that have CD drives that are backed by the
physical CD drive on the host. Disconnect these devices before you migrate the virtual machine.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine .Interaction .Configure CD media privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand CD/DVD and select Host Device from the drop-down menu.
3
(Optional) Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine powers on.
4
If more than one type of CD/DVD media is available on the host, select the media.
5
In the Virtual Device Node drop-down menu, select the node the drive uses in the virtual machine.
The first available node is selected by default. You do not typically need to change the default.
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6
Click OK.
7
Turn the virtual machine on and click the Summary tab.
The connected CD/DVD device appears in the VM Hardware list.
Configure a Client Device Type for the CD/DVD Drive in the vSphere Web Client
To install a guest operating system and its applications or other media on a virtual machine, you can connect
the CD/DVD device to a physical DVD or CD device on the system from which you access the
vSphere Web Client
By default, passthrough IDE mode is used for remote client device access. You can write or burn a remote
CD only through passthrough mode access.
Prerequisites
Verify that the virtual machine is turned on.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and click the Summary tab.
2
In the VM Hardware pane, click the CD/DVD drive connection icon, select an available drive to connect
to, and browse for the CD/DVD media.
An Access Control dialog box opens. Click allow to proceed. To change your selection, click the
connection icon, select Disconnect, and select a different option.
Add a CD or DVD Drive to a Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client
You can use a physical drive on a client or host or you can use an ISO image to add a CD/DVD drive to a
virtual machine. CD/DVD drives are necessary for installing a guest operating system and VMware Tools.
The following conditions exist:
n
If you add a CD/DVD drive that is backed by a USB CD/DVD drive on the host, you must add the drive
as a SCSI device. Hot adding and removing SCSI devices is not supported.
n
You must disconnect virtual machines that have CD drives that are backed by the physical CD drive on
the host, before you migrate the virtual machine.
n
You access the host CD-ROM device through emulation mode. Passthrough mode is not functional for
local host CD-ROM access. You can write or burn a remote CD only through passthrough mode access,
but in emulation mode you can only read a CD-ROM from a host CD-ROM device.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off.
n
If an ISO image file is not available on a local or shared datastore, upload an ISO image to a datastore
from your local system by using the datastore file browser. See “Upload ISO Image Installation Media
for a Guest Operating System,” on page 26.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
From the New device drop-down menu, select CD/DVD Drive and click Add .
The new drive appears at the bottom of the Virtual Hardware list.
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3
Expand New CD/DVD Drive and select the device type.
Option
Action
Client Device
a
b
Host Device
a
b
c
Datastore ISO File
a
b
Content Library ISO File
a
b
Select to connect the CD/DVD device to a physical DVD or CD device
on the system from which you access the vSphere Web Client.
From the Device Mode drop-down menu, select Passthrough IDE.
Select to connect the CD/DVD device to a physical DVD or CD device
on the host.
From the CD/DVD Media drop-down menu, select the media to
connect to .
From the Device Mode drop-down menu, select Emulate IDE.
Select to connect the CD/DVD device to an ISO file that is stored on a
datastore accessible to the host.
Browse to the file containing the ISO image to connect to and click OK.
Select to connect the CD/DVD device to an ISO file that is stored in a
content library.
Select the ISO image to connect to and click OK.
When you turn on the virtual machine, you select the media to connect to from the VM Hardware panel
on the virtual machine Summary tab.
4
(Optional) Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine turns on.
5
(Optional) To change the device node from the default, select a new mode from the Virtual Device
Node drop-down menu.
6
Click OK.
What to do next
Turn on the virtual machine, select the media to connect to, and install the guest operating system or other
applications.
Change the Floppy Drive Configuration in the vSphere Web Client
You can configure a virtual floppy drive device to connect to a client device or to an existing or new floppy
image.
ESXi does not support floppy drives that are backed by a physical floppy drive on the host.
Note You cannot use vMotion to migrate virtual machines that have floppy drives backed by a physical
floppy drive on ESX 3.5, 4. 0, and 4.x hosts that vCenter Server 5.0 manages. You must disconnect these
devices before you migrate the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Virtual machine .Interaction .Configure floppy media privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
132
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Floppy drive.
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3
Select the device type to use for this virtual device.
Option
Action
Client Device
Select this option to connect the floppy device to a physical floppy device
or a .flp floppy image on the system from which you access the
vSphere Web Client.
Use existing floppy image
a
b
Create new floppy image
a
b
c
Select this option to connect the virtual device to an existing floppy
image on a datastore accessible to the host.
Click Browse and select the floppy image.
Select this option to create a floppy image on a datastore accessible to
the host.
Click Browse and browse to the location for the floppy image.
Enter a name for the floppy image and click OK.
4
(Optional) Select or deselect the Connected check box to connect or disconnect the device.
5
(Optional) Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine powers on.
6
Click OK.
Add a Floppy Drive to a Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client
Use a physical floppy drive or a floppy image to add a floppy drive to a virtual machine.
ESXi does not support floppy drives that are backed by a physical floppy drive on the host.
Note You cannot use vMotion to migrate virtual machines that have floppy drives backed by a physical
floppy drive on ESX 3.5, 4. 0, and 4.x hosts that vCenter Server 5.0 manages. You must disconnect these
devices before you migrate the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select Floppy Drive from the New device drop-down menu, and click
Add.
3
Expand New Floppy drive and select the device type to use for this virtual device.
Option
Description
Client Device
Select this option to connect the floppy device to a physical floppy device
or a .flp floppy image on the system from which you access the
vSphere Web Client.
Use existing floppy image
a
Create new floppy image
a
b
b
c
Select this option to connect the virtual device to an existing floppy
image on a datastore accessible to the host.
Click Browse and select the floppy image.
Select this option to create a floppy image on a datastore accessible to
the host.
Click Browse and browse to the location for the floppy image.
Enter a name for the floppy image and click OK.
4
(Optional) Select or deselect the Connected check box to connect or disconnect the device.
5
(Optional) Select Connect At Power On to connect the device when the virtual machine powers on.
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6
Click OK.
Change the SCSI Device Configuration in the vSphere Web Client
You can change the physical device and configure the virtual device node. This is useful if you no longer
need an existing device and want to connect to another device.
To prevent data congestion, you can assign a SCSI device to a SCSI controller and virtual device node other
than the default. The new device is assigned to the first available virtual device node on the default SCSI
controller, for example (0:1). Only device nodes for the default SCSI controller are available unless you add
additional controllers.
For SCSI controller and virtual device node behavior, see “SCSI and SATA Storage Controller Conditions,
Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
Prerequisites
n
Power off the virtual machine.
n
Required privilege: Virtual machine.Configuration.Raw device
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand SCSI device.
3
From the Connection drop-down menu, select the physical SCSI device to connect to.
4
(Optional) From the Virtual Device Node drop-down menu, select the virtual device node.
5
Click OK.
Add a SCSI Device to a Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client
To use peripheral SCSI devices, such as printers or storage devices, you must add the device to the virtual
machine. When you add a SCSI device to a virtual machine, you select the physical device to connect to and
the virtual device node.
The SCSI device is assigned to the first available virtual device node on the default SCSI controller, for
example (0:1). To avoid data congestion, you can add another SCSI controller and assign the SCSI device to a
virtual device node on that controller. Only device nodes for the default SCSI controller are available unless
you add additional controllers. If the virtual machine does not have a SCSI controller, a controller is added
when you add the SCSI device.
For SCSI controller and virtual device node assignments and behavior, see “SCSI and SATA Storage
Controller Conditions, Limitations, and Compatibility,” on page 123.
Prerequisites
Required privileges: Virtual machine.Configuration.Raw device
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select SCSI Device from the New device drop-down menu and click
Add.
The SCSI device appears in the Virtual Hardware devices list.
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3
Expand New SCSI device to change the device options.
4
(Optional) From the Virtual Device Node drop-down menu, select the virtual device node.
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5
Click OK.
The virtual machine can access the device.
Add a PCI Device in the vSphere Web Client
vSphere DirectPath I/O allows a guest operating system on a virtual machine to directly access physical PCI
and PCIe devices connected to a host. This action gives you direct access to devices such as highperformance graphics or sound cards. You can connect each virtual machine to up to six PCI devices.
You configure PCI devices on the host to make them available for passthrough to a virtual machine. See the
vSphere Networking documentation. However, PCI passthroughs should not be enabled for ESXi hosts that
are configured to boot from USB devices.
When PCI vSphere DirectPath I/O devices are available to a virtual machine, you cannot suspend, migrate
with vMotion, or take or restore Snapshots of such virtual machines.
Prerequisites
n
To use DirectPath, verify that the host has Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d) or
AMD I/O Virtualization Technology (IOMMU) enabled in the BIOS.
n
Verify that the PCI devices are connected to the host and marked as available for passthrough. Disable
the USB controller for passthrough if your ESXi host is configured to boot from a USB device, or if the
active coredump partition is configured to be on a USB device or SD cards connected through USB
channels. VMware does not support USB controller passthrough for ESXi hosts that boot from USB
devices or SD cards connected through USB channels or if the active coredump partition is configured
to be on a USB device or SD card connected through USB channels. For more information, see
http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1021345.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is compatible with ESXi 4.x and later.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select PCI Device from the New Device drop-down menu, and click
Add.
3
Expand New PCI device and select the passthrough device to connect to the virtual machine from the
drop-down list and click Next.
4
Click OK.
Configuring 3D Graphics
When you create or edit a virtual machine, you can configure 3D graphics to take advantage of Windows
AERO, CAD, Google Earth, and other 3D design, modeling, and multimedia applications. Before you enable
3D graphics, become familiar with the available options and requirements.
You can enable 3D on virtual machines that have Windows desktop or Linux guest operating systems. Not
all guests support 3D graphics. To verify 3D support for a guest operating system, see the VMware
Compatibility Guide at http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility.
Prerequisites
VMware supports AMD and NVIDIA graphics cards. See the vendor Web site for supported cards. To use
the graphics card or GPU hardware, download the appropriate VMware graphics driver from the vendor
Web site.
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Go to the NVIDIA Web site for information about the VMware graphics driver for your NVIDIA
graphics card.
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n
Go to the AMD Web site for information about the VMware graphics driver for your AMD graphics
card.
Linux distributions must have a 3.2 or later kernel. If 3D is not available on a Linux guest, verify that the
driver is available in the Linux kernel. If it is not available, upgrade to a more recent Linux distribution. The
location of the kernel depends on whether the distribution is based on deb or rpm.
Table 5‑5. Linux Driver Location
VMware Linux Guest Kernel
Drivers
Debian Format
RPM Format
vmwgfx.ko
dpkg -S vmwgfx.ko
rpm -qf vmwgfx.ko
vmwgfx_dri.so
dpkg -S vmwgfx_dri
rpm -qf vmwgfx_dri
vmware_drv.so
dpkg -S vmware_drv
rpm -qf vmware_drv
libxatracker.so.1
dpkg -S libxatracker
rpm -qf libxatracker
3D Rendering Options
You can select the 3D rendering options for each virtual machine to be Hardware, Software, or Automatic.
Table 5‑6. 3D Rendering Options
Rendering Option
Description
Hardware
The virtual machine must have access to a physical GPU. If
the GPU is not available, the virtual machine cannot power
on.
Software
The virtual machine's virtual device uses a software
renderer and will not attempt to use a GPU, even if one if
present.
Automatic
The default setting. The virtual device selects whether to
use a physical GPU or software-based rendering. If a GPU
is available on the system and has the resources required
by the virtual machine, the virtual machine uses the GPU.
Otherwise software rendering is used.
How Enabling 3D Graphics Affects the Virtual Machine
You can use vMotion to migrate virtual machines that have 3D graphics enabled. If the 3D Renderer is set to
Automatic, virtual machines use either the GPU on the destination host or a software renderer, depending
on GPU availability. To migrate virtual machines with the 3D Renderer set to Hardware, the destination host
must have a GPU.
You can set a group of virtual machines to use only Hardware rendering. For example, if you have virtual
machines that run CAD applications or have other complex engineering capabilities, you might require that
those virtual machines have persistent high-quality 3D capability present. When you migrate such virtual
machines, the destination host must also have GPU capability. If the host does not have GPU, the migration
cannot proceed. To migrate such virtual machines, you must turn them off and change the renderer setting
to Automatic.
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Configure 3D Graphics and Video Cards
When you enable 3D graphics, you can select a hardware or software graphics renderer and optimize the
graphics memory allocated to the virtual machine. You can increase the number of displays in multi-monitor
configurations and change the video card settings to meet your graphics requirements.
The default setting for total video RAM is adequate for minimal desktop resolution. For more complex
situations, you can change the default memory. Typically, 3D applications require a video memory of 64–
512MB.
Fault Tolerance and HA are not supported for virtual machines that have 3D graphics enabled.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered off.
n
Verify that the virtual machine compatibility is ESXi 5.0 and later.
n
To enable 3D graphics in virtual machines with Windows 8 guest operating systems, the virtual
machine compatibility must be ESXi 5.1 or later.
n
To use a Hardware 3D renderer, ensure that graphics hardware is available. See “Configuring 3D
Graphics,” on page 135.
n
If you update the virtual machine compatibility from ESXi 5.1 and later to ESXi 5.5 and later, reinstall
VMware Tools to get the latest SVGA virtual graphics driver and Windows Display Driver Model
driver.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine.Configuration.Modify device settings privilege on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Video Card.
3
Select custom or automatic settings for your displays from the drop-down menu.
4
Option
Description
Auto-detect settings
Applies common video settings to the guest operating system.
Specify custom settings
Lets you select the number of displays and the total video memory.
Select the number of displays from the drop-down menu.
You can set the number of displays and extend the screen across them.
5
Enter the required video memory.
6
(Optional) Click Video Memory Calculator to calculate the required video memory based on the
maximum number of displays and resolution that the guest operating system must support, and click
OK.
7
(Optional) Click Enable 3D support.
This check box is active only for guest operating systems on which VMware supports 3D.
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8
9
(Optional) Select a 3D Renderer.
Option
Description
Automatic
Selects the appropriate option (software or hardware) for this virtual
machine.
Software
Uses normal CPU processing for 3D calculations.
Hardware
Requires graphics hardware (GPU) for faster 3D calculations.
Note The virtual machine will not power on if graphics hardware is not
available.
Click OK.
Sufficient memory allocation is set for this virtual machine's graphics.
Add an NVIDIA GRID vGPU to a Virtual Machine
If an ESXi host has an NVIDIA GRID GPU graphics device, you can configure a virtual machine to use the
NVIDIA GRID virtual GPU (vGPU) technology.
NVIDIA GRID GPU graphics devices are designed to optimize complex graphics operations and enable
them to run at high performance without overloading the CPU. NVIDIA GRID vGPU provides unparalleled
graphics performance, cost-effectiveness and scalability by sharing a single physical GPU among multiple
virtual machines as separate vGPU-enabled passthrough devices.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that an NVIDIA GRID GPU graphics device with an appropriate driver is installed on the host.
See the vSphere Upgrade documentation.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is compatible with ESXi 6.0 and later.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Right-click a virtual machine and select Edit Settings.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select Shared PCI Device from the New device drop-down menu.
4
Click Add.
5
Expand the New PCI device, and select the NVIDIA GRID vGPU passthrough device to which to
connect your virtual machine.
6
Select a GPU profile.
A GPU profile represents the vGPU type.
7
Click Reserve all memory.
8
Click OK.
The virtual machine can access the device.
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Reduce Memory Overhead for Virtual machines with 3D graphics
Option
Virtual machines with the 3D graphics option enabled can have higher memory consumption than other
virtual machines. You can reduce the memory overhead by editing the configuration file (.vmx file) of your
virtual machines and disabling certain memory related settings. Reducing the memory overhead of virtual
machines can help you increase the number of virtual machines per host.
Prerequisites
Verify that your virtual machines are using hardware version 10 or later.
Procedure
1
Shut down the virtual machine on which the 3D graphics option is enabled.
2
Disable the Accelerate 3D Graphics option.
3
Upgrade your ESXi host to use the features available in hardware version 10 or later.
4
Set the maximum size of your display to the size you need.
5
Locate the configuration file (.vmx) of your virtual machine.
6
Open the virtual machine configuration file in a text editor and add the line, vga.vgaOnly=TRUE.
This option removes all graphics and SVGA functionality from your SVGA device, but does not remove
the settings that allow BIOS to enter VGA mode.
7
Save the changes and exit the text editor.
8
Power on your virtual machine and check the display console.
9
Verify the memory reservation settings in the vmware.log file.
USB Configuration from an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine
You can add multiple USB devices to a virtual machine when the physical devices are connected to an ESXi
host. USB passthrough technology supports adding USB devices, such as security dongles and mass storage
devices to virtual machines that reside on the host to which the devices are connected.
How USB Device Passthrough Technology Works
When you attach a USB device to a physical host, the device is available only to virtual machines that reside
on that host. The device cannot connect to virtual machines that reside on another host in the datacenter.
A USB device is available to only one virtual machine at a time. When a device is connected to a powered-on
virtual machine, it is not available to connect to other virtual machines that run on the host. When you
remove the active connection of a USB device from a virtual machine, it becomes available to connect to
other virtual machines that run on the host.
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Connecting a USB passthrough device to a virtual machine that runs on the ESXi host to which the device is
physically attached requires an arbitrator, a controller, and a physical USB device or device hub.
USB Arbitrator
Manages connection requests and routes USB device traffic. The arbitrator is
installed and enabled by default on ESXi hosts. It scans the host for USB
devices and manages device connection among virtual machines that reside
on the host. It routes device traffic to the correct virtual machine instance for
delivery to the guest operating system. The arbitrator monitors the USB
device and prevents other virtual machines from using it until you release it
from the virtual machine it is connected to.
USB Controller
The USB hardware chip that provides USB function to the USB ports that it
manages. The virtual USB Controller is the software virtualization of the USB
host controller function in the virtual machine.
USB controller hardware and modules that support USB 3.0, 2.0, and USB 1.1
devices must exist on the host. Eight virtual USB controllers are available to
each virtual machine. A controller must be present before you can add USB
devices to the virtual computer.
The USB arbitrator can monitor a maximum of 15 USB controllers. Devices
connected to controllers numbered 16 or greater are not available to the
virtual machine.
USB Devices
You can add up to 20 USB devices to a virtual machine. This is the maximum
number of devices supported for simultaneous connection to one virtual
machine. The maximum number of USB devices supported on a single ESXi
host for simultaneous connection to one or more virtual machines is also 20.
For a list of supported USB devices, see the VMware knowledge base article
at http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1021345. You can add USB 3.0 devices to Mac
OSX guest operating system for VMware Fusion.
USB Autoconnect Feature
When you add a USB device connection from an ESXi host to a virtual machine, the autoconnect feature is
enabled for the device connection. It is not disabled until you remove the device connection from the virtual
machine.
With autoconnect enabled, the device connection re-establishes in the following cases:
n
The virtual machine is cycling through power operations, such as Power Off/Power On, Reset,
Pause/Resume.
n
The device is unplugged from the host then plugged back in to the same USB port.
n
The device is power cycled but has not changed its physical connection path.
n
The device is mutating identity during usage.
n
A new virtual USB device is added
The USB passthrough autoconnect feature identifies the device by using the USB path of the device on the
host. It uses the physical topology and port location, rather than the device identity. This feature can seem
confusing if you expect the autoconnect feature to match the connection target by device ID.
If the same device is plugged back in to the host through a different USB port, it cannot re-establish
connection with the virtual machine. If you unplug the device from the host and plug in a different device to
the same USB path, the new device appears and is connected to the virtual machine by the autoconnect
feature that the previous device connection enabled.
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Autoconnect is useful in cases where devices mutate during usage. For example, for iPhones and other such
devices, the device VID:PID changes during software or firmware upgrades. The upgrade process
disconnects and reconnects the devices to the USB port.
The USB port is speed-specific. The autoconnect feature assumes that devices do not transition from USB 1.1
(low-full speed) to USB 2.0 (high speed) or the reverse. You cannot interchange USB 2.0 high-speed devices
with USB 1.1 devices. For example, you might connect a USB 2.0 high-speed device to a port and connect
that device to the virtual machine. If you unplug the device from the host and plug a USB 1.1 device into the
same port, the device does not connect to the virtual machine.
For a list of supported USB devices for passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine, see the VMware
knowledge base article at http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1021345.
vSphere Features Available with USB Passthrough
Migrations with vMotion and DRS are supported with USB device passthrough from an ESXi host to a
virtual machine.
Table 5‑7. vSphere Features Available for USB Passthrough from an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine
Feature
Supported with USB Device Passthrough
vSphere Distributed Power Management (DPM)
No
vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)
Yes
vSphere Fault Tolerance
No
vSphere vMotion
Yes
For details about migration with vMotion, see “Configuring USB Devices for vMotion,” on page 141.
If a host with connected USB devices resides in a DRS cluster with DPM enabled, you must disable DPM for
that host. Otherwise DPM might turn off the host with the device, which disconnects the device from the
virtual machine.
Configuring USB Devices for vMotion
With USB passthrough from a host to a virtual machine, you can migrate a virtual machine to another ESXi
host in the same datacenter and maintain the USB passthrough device connections to the original host.
If a virtual machine has USB devices attached that pass through to an ESXi host, you can migrate that virtual
machine with the devices attached.
For a successful migration, review the following conditions:
n
You must configure all USB passthrough devices connected to a virtual machine for vMotion. If one or
more devices is not configured for vMotion, the migration cannot proceed. For troubleshooting details,
see the vSphere Troubleshooting documentation.
n
When you migrate a virtual machine with attached USB devices away from the host to which the
devices are connected, the devices remain connected to the virtual machine. However, if you suspend or
power off the virtual machine, the USB devices are disconnected and cannot reconnect when the virtual
machine is resumed. The device connections can be restored only if you move the virtual machine back
to the host to which the devices are attached.
n
If you resume a suspended virtual machine that has a Linux guest operating system, the resume process
might mount the USB devices at a different location on the file system.
n
If a host with attached USB devices resides in a DRS cluster with distributed power management (DPM)
enabled, disable DPM for that host. Otherwise DPM might turn off the host with the attached device.
This action disconnects the device from the virtual machine because the virtual machine migrated to
another host.
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n
Remote USB devices require that the hosts be able to communicate over the management network
following migration with vMotion, so the source and destination management network IP address
families must match. You cannot migrate a virtual machine from a host that is registered to vCenter
Server with an IPv4 address to a host that is registered with an IPv6 address.
Avoiding Data Loss with USB Devices
When a virtual machine connects to a physical UBS device on an ESXi host, virtual machine functions can
affect USB device behavior and connections.
n
Before you hot add memory, CPU, or PCI devices, you must remove any USB devices. Hot adding these
resources disconnects USB devices, which might result in data loss.
n
Before you suspend a virtual machine, make sure that a data transfer is not in progress. During the
suspend or resume process, USB devices behave as if they have been disconnected, then reconnected.
For information about suspend and resume behavior after migration with vMotion, see “Configuring
USB Devices for vMotion,” on page 141.
n
Before you change the state of the arbitrator, make sure that USB devices residing on the host are not
attached to a virtual machine. If USB devices become unavailable to a virtual machine, a host
administrator might have disabled the arbitrator. When an administrator stops or disconnects the
arbitrator for troubleshooting or other purposes, USB devices attached to that host become unavailable
to the virtual machine. If a data transfer is taking place at this time, you might lose the data. To
reestablish the arbitrator, you must restart the host.
Connecting USB Devices to an ESXi Host
You can connect and chain multiple USB hubs and devices to an ESXi host. Careful planning and knowledge
of hub behavior and limitations can help ensure that your devices work optimally.
USB physical bus topology defines how USB devices connect to the host. Support for USB device
passthrough to a virtual machine is available if the physical bus topology of the device on the host does not
exceed tier seven. The first tier is the USB host controller and root hub. The last tier is the target USB device.
You can cascade up to five tiers of external or internal hubs between the root hub and the target USB device.
An internal USB hub attached to the root hub or built into a compound device counts as one tier.
The quality of the physical cables, hubs, devices, and power conditions can affect USB device performance.
To ensure the best results, keep the host USB bus topology as simple as possible for the target USB device,
and use caution when you deploy new hubs and cables into the topology. The following conditions can
affect USB behavior:
n
Communication delay between the host and virtual machine increases as the number of cascading hubs
increases.
n
Connecting or chaining multiple external USB hubs increases device enumeration and response time,
which can make the power support to the connected USB devices uncertain.
n
Chaining hubs together also increases the chance of port and hub error, which can cause the device to
lose connection to a virtual machine.
n
Certain hubs can cause USB device connections to be unreliable, so use care when you add a new hub
to an existing setup. Connecting certain USB devices directly to the host rather than to a hub or
extension cable might resolve their connection or performance issues.
Note To prevent additional problems, be aware of the physical constraints of long-term deployment in a
machine room environment. Small devices are easily damaged by being stepped on or knocked loose.
In some cases, you must hard reset the device and hub to restore the device to a working state.
For a list of supported USB devices for passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine, see the VMware
knowledge base article at http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1021345.
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USB Compound Devices
For compound devices, the virtualization process filters out the USB hub so that it is not visible to the virtual
machine. The remaining USB devices in the compound appear to the virtual machine as separate devices.
You can add each device to the same virtual machine or to different virtual machines if they run on the same
host.
For example, the Aladdin HASP HL Drive USB dongle package contains three devices (0529:0001 HASP
dongle, 13fe:1a00 Hub, 13fe:1d00 Kingston Drive). The virtualization process filters out the USB hub. The
remaining Aladdin HASP HL Drive USB dongle devices (one Aladdin HASP dongle and one Kingston
Drive) appear to the virtual machine as individual devices. You must add each device separately to make it
accessible to the virtual machine.
Add USB Devices to an ESXi Host
You can connect multiple USB devices to ESXi hosts so that virtual machines that run on the hosts can access
the devices. The number of devices that you can connect depends on several factors, such as how the devices
and hubs chain together and the device type.
Each ESXi host has several USB ports. The number of ports on each host depends on the physical setup of
the host. When you calculate the depth of hub chaining, remember that on a typical server the front ports
connect to an internal hub.
The USB arbitrator can monitor a maximum of 15 USB controllers. If your system includes controllers that
exceed the 15 controller limit and you connect USB devices to them, the devices are not available to the
virtual machine.
The host treats USB CD/DVD-ROM devices as SCSI devices. Hot adding and removing these devices is not
supported.
Prerequisites
n
If a host has attached USB devices and resides in a DRS cluster with DPM enabled, disable DPM for that
host. See the vSphere Resource Management documentation for instructions about overriding the default
DPM setting for an individual host.
n
Verify that you know the virtual machine requirements for USB devices. See “Connecting USB Devices
to an ESXi Host,” on page 142.
n
Verify that the ESXi host is powered off before you add USB CD/DVD-ROM devices.
n
Verify that the current version of your ESXi host is 6.0 or later for adding eight virtual xHCI controller
to the ESXi host.
Procedure
u
To add a USB device to an ESXi host, connect the device to an available port or hub.
What to do next
You can now add the device to the virtual machine. See “Add USB Devices from an ESXi Host to a Virtual
Machine,” on page 145.
Add a USB Controller to a Virtual Machine in the VMware Host Client
USB controllers can be added to virtual machines to support USB passthrough from an ESXi host or from a
client computer to a virtual machine.
You can add one virtual xHCI controller, one virtual EHCI controller, and one virtual UHCI controller per
virtual machine. With Hardware Version 11, the supported number of root hub ports per xHCI controller is
eight (four logical USB 3.0 ports and four logical USB 2.0 ports).
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The conditions for adding a controller vary, depending on the device version, the type of passthrough (host
or client computer), and the guest operating system.
Table 5‑8. USB Controller Support
Controller type
Supported USB Device
Version
Supported for Passthrough
from ESXi Host to VM
Supported for Passthrough from
Client Computer to VM
EHCI+UHCI
2.0 and 1.1
Yes
Yes
xHCI
3.0, 2.0, and 1.1
Yes (USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1
devices only)
Yes (Linux, Windows 8 and later, and
Windows Server 2012 and later
guests)
For Mac OS X systems, the EHCI+UHCI controller is enabled by default and is required for USB mouse and
keyboard access.
For virtual machines with Linux guests, you can add one or both controllers, but 3.0 superspeed devices are
not supported for passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine. You cannot add two controllers of
the same type.
For USB passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine, the USB arbitrator can monitor a maximum of
15 USB controllers. If your system includes controllers that exceed the 15 controller limit and you connect
USB devices to them, the devices are not available to the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
n
ESXi hosts must have USB controller hardware and modules that support USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1 devices
present.
n
Client computers must have USB controller hardware and modules that support USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1
devices present.
n
To use the xHCI controller on a Linux guest, ensure that the Linux kernel version is 2.6.35 or later.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered on.
n
Required Privilege (ESXi host passthrough): Virtual Machine.Configuration.Add or Remove Device
Procedure
1
Click Virtual Machines in the VMware Host Client inventory.
2
Right-click a virtual machine in the list and select Edit settings from the pop-up menu.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, click Add other device, and click USB Controller from the drop-down
menu.
The new USB controller appears at the bottom of the Virtual Hardware device list.
4
Expand New USB Controller to change the USB controller type.
If compatibility errors appear, fix them before you add the controller.
5
Click Save.
What to do next
Add one or more USB devices to the virtual machine.
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Add USB Devices from an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine
You can add one or more USB passthrough devices from an ESXi host to a virtual machine if the physical
devices are connected to the host on which the virtual machine runs.
If a USB device is connected to another virtual machine, you cannot add it until that machine releases it.
Note If you have the Apple Frontpanel Controller device in your environment, you can safely add it to a
virtual machine. However, this device has no documented function and no known use. ESXi hosts do not
use it and do not provide Xserver functionality for USB passthrough.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine is compatible with ESX/ESXi 4.0 and later.
n
Verify that a USB controller is present. See “Add a USB Controller to a Virtual Machine in the VMware
Host Client,” on page 143.
n
To use vMotion to migrate a virtual machine with multiple USB devices, enable all attached USB
devices for vMotion. You cannot migrate individual USB devices. For vMotion limitations, see
“Configuring USB Devices for vMotion,” on page 141.
n
When you add a CD/DVD-ROM drive that is backed by a USB CD/DVD drive on the host, add the
drive as a SCSI device. Hot adding and removing SCSI devices is not supported.
n
Verify that you know the virtual machine requirements for USB devices. See “USB Configuration from
an ESXi Host to a Virtual Machine,” on page 139.
n
Required privileges: Virtual Machine.Configuration.HostUSBDevice
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, select Host USB Device from the New device drop-down menu, and
click Add.
The new USB device appears at the bottom of the Virtual Hardware device list.
3
Expand New USB Device, and select the device to add.
You can add multiple USB devices, but only one device at a time.
4
If you do not plan to migrate a virtual machine with USB devices attached, deselect the Support
vMotion option.
This action reduces migration complexity, which results in better performance and stability.
5
Click OK.
Remove USB Devices That Are Connected Through an ESXi Host
When you remove USB devices from a virtual machine, devices that use passthrough technology from a
host to the virtual machine revert to the host. The devices become available to other virtual machines that
run on that host.
Prerequisites
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n
To minimize the risk of data loss, follow the instructions to safely unmount or eject hardware for your
operating system. Safely removing hardware allows accumulated data to be transmitted to a file.
Windows operating systems typically include a Remove Hardware icon located in the System Tray.
Linux operating systems use the umount command.
Note You might need to use the sync command instead of or in addition to the umount command, for
example, after you issue a dd command on Linux or other UNIX operating systems.
Procedure
1
Unmount or eject the USB device from the guest operating system.
2
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
3
To remove the device, move your cursor over the device and click the Remove icon.
4
Click OK to save your changes.
Remove USB Devices from an ESXi Host
You can remove USB devices from the host if you must shut down the host for maintenance or if you do not
want those devices to be available to virtual machines that run on the host. When you detach a USB device
from the host, the device disconnects from the virtual machine.
Caution If data transfer is taking place when you remove USB devices from a host, you can lose data.
Prerequisites
Verify that the USB devices are not in use.
Procedure
u
Follow the device manufacturers instructions to safely remove the device.
When you remove the device from the host, it is no longer available to the virtual machines that run on
the host.
USB Configuration from a Client Computer to a Virtual Machine
You can add multiple USB devices to a virtual machine when the physical devices connect to a client
computer on which the vSphere Web Client is running. The vSphere Web Client must be logged in to an
instance of vCenter Server that manages the ESXi host where the virtual machines reside. USB passthrough
technology supports adding multiple USB devices, such as security dongles, mass storage devices, and
smartcard readers to virtual machines.
How USB Device Passthrough Technology Works
The USB controller is the USB hardware chip that provides USB function to the USB ports that it manages.
USB controller hardware and modules that support USB 3.0, 2.0, and USB 1.1 devices must exist in the
virtual machine. Two USB controllers are available for each virtual machine. The controllers support
multiple USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1 devices. The controller must be present before you can add USB devices to the
virtual machine.
You can add up to 20 USB devices to a virtual machine. This is the maximum number of devices supported
for simultaneous connection to one virtual machine.
Note If you connect to a USB device on a Mac OS X client computer, you can add only one device to the
virtual machine at a time.
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You can add multiple devices to a virtual machine, but only one at a time. The virtual machine retains its
connection to the device while in S1 standby. USB device connections are preserved when you migrate
virtual machines to another host in the datacenter.
A USB device is available to only one powered-on virtual machine at a time. When a virtual machine
connects to a device, that device is no longer available to other virtual machines or to the client computer.
When you disconnect the device from the virtual machine or shut the virtual machine down, the device
returns to the client computer and becomes available to other virtual machines that the client computer
manages.
For example, when you connect a USB mass storage device to a virtual machine, it is removed from the
client computer and does not appear as a drive with a removable device. When you disconnect the device
from the virtual machine, it reconnects to the client computer's operating system and is listed as a removable
device.
USB 3.0 Device Limitations
USB 3.0 devices have the following requirements and limitations:
n
The virtual machine that you connect the USB 3.0 device to must be configured with an xHCI controller
and have a Windows 8 or later, Windows Server 2012 and later, or a Linux guest operating system with
a 2.6.35 or later kernel.
n
USB 3.0 devices are available only for passthrough from a client computer to a virtual machine. They
are not available for passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine.
Avoiding Data Loss
Before you connect a device to a virtual machine, make sure the device is not in use on the client computer.
If the vSphere Web Client disconnects from the vCenter Server or host, or if you restart or shut down the
client computer, the device connection breaks. It is best to have a dedicated client computer for USB device
use or to reserve USB devices connected to a client computer for short-term use, such as updating software
or adding patches to virtual machines. To maintain USB device connections to a virtual machine for an
extended time, use USB passthrough from an ESXi host to the virtual machine.
Connecting USB Devices to a Client Computer
You can connect and chain any multiple low, full, and high- or super-speed USB hubs and devices to a client
computer. Careful planning and knowledge of hub behavior and limitations can help ensure that your
devices work optimally.
USB physical bus topology defines how USB devices connect to the client computer. Support for USB device
passthrough to a virtual machine is available if the physical bus topology of the device on the client
computer does not exceed tier seven. The first tier is the USB host controller and root hub. The last tier is the
target USB device. You can cascade up to five tiers of external or internal hubs between the root hub and the
target USB device. An internal USB hub attached to the root hub or built into a compound device counts as
one tier.
The quality of the physical cables, hubs, devices, and power conditions can affect USB device performance.
To ensure the best results, keep the client computer USB bus topology as simple as possible for the target
USB device, and use caution when you deploy new hubs and cables into the topology. The following
conditions can affect USB behavior:
n
Connecting or chaining multiple external USB hubs increases device enumeration and response time,
which can make the power support to the connected USB devices uncertain.
n
Chaining hubs together increases the chance of port and hub error, which can cause the device to lose
connection to a virtual machine.
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n
Certain hubs can cause USB device connections to be unreliable, so use care when you add a new hub
to an existing setup. Connecting certain USB devices directly to the client computer rather than to a hub
or extension cable might resolve their connection or performance issues. In some cases, you must
remove and reattach the device and hub to restore the device to a working state.
USB Compound Devices
For compound devices, the virtualization process filters out the USB hub so that it is not visible to the virtual
machine. The remaining USB devices in the compound appear to the virtual machine as separate devices.
You can add each device to the same virtual machine or to different virtual machines if they run on the same
host.
For example, the Aladdin HASP HL Drive USB dongle package contains three devices (0529:0001 HASP
dongle, 13fe:1a00 Hub, 13fe:1d00 Kingston Drive). The virtualization process filters out the USB hub. The
remaining Aladdin HASP HL Drive USB dongle devices (one Aladdin HASP dongle and one Kingston
Drive) appear to the virtual machine as individual devices. You must add each device separately to make it
accessible to the virtual machine.
Connect USB Devices to a Client Computer
You can connect multiple USB devices to a client computer so that virtual machines can access the devices.
The number of devices that you can add depends on several factors, such as how the devices and hubs chain
together and the device type.
The number of ports on each client computer depends on the physical setup of the client. When you
calculate the depth of hub chaining, remember that on a typical server the front ports connect to an internal
hub.
The USB arbitrator can monitor a maximum of 15 USB controllers. If your system includes controllers that
exceed the 15 controller limit and you connect USB devices to them, the devices are not available to the
virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Verify that you know the requirements for configuring USB devices from a remote computer to a virtual
machine. See “USB Configuration from a Client Computer to a Virtual Machine,” on page 146.
Procedure
u
To add a USB device to a client computer, connect the device to an available port or hub.
The USB device appears in the toolbar menu.
What to do next
You can now add the USB device to the virtual machine. See “Add USB Devices from a Client Computer to a
Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client,” on page 150.
Add a USB Controller to a Virtual Machine in the VMware Host Client
USB controllers can be added to virtual machines to support USB passthrough from an ESXi host or from a
client computer to a virtual machine.
You can add one virtual xHCI controller, one virtual EHCI controller, and one virtual UHCI controller per
virtual machine. With Hardware Version 11, the supported number of root hub ports per xHCI controller is
eight (four logical USB 3.0 ports and four logical USB 2.0 ports).
The conditions for adding a controller vary, depending on the device version, the type of passthrough (host
or client computer), and the guest operating system.
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Table 5‑9. USB Controller Support
Controller type
Supported USB Device
Version
Supported for Passthrough
from ESXi Host to VM
Supported for Passthrough from
Client Computer to VM
EHCI+UHCI
2.0 and 1.1
Yes
Yes
xHCI
3.0, 2.0, and 1.1
Yes (USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1
devices only)
Yes (Linux, Windows 8 and later, and
Windows Server 2012 and later
guests)
For Mac OS X systems, the EHCI+UHCI controller is enabled by default and is required for USB mouse and
keyboard access.
For virtual machines with Linux guests, you can add one or both controllers, but 3.0 superspeed devices are
not supported for passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine. You cannot add two controllers of
the same type.
For USB passthrough from an ESXi host to a virtual machine, the USB arbitrator can monitor a maximum of
15 USB controllers. If your system includes controllers that exceed the 15 controller limit and you connect
USB devices to them, the devices are not available to the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
n
ESXi hosts must have USB controller hardware and modules that support USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1 devices
present.
n
Client computers must have USB controller hardware and modules that support USB 3.0, 2.0, and 1.1
devices present.
n
To use the xHCI controller on a Linux guest, ensure that the Linux kernel version is 2.6.35 or later.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered on.
n
Required Privilege (ESXi host passthrough): Virtual Machine.Configuration.Add or Remove Device
Procedure
1
Click Virtual Machines in the VMware Host Client inventory.
2
Right-click a virtual machine in the list and select Edit settings from the pop-up menu.
3
On the Virtual Hardware tab, click Add other device, and click USB Controller from the drop-down
menu.
The new USB controller appears at the bottom of the Virtual Hardware device list.
4
Expand New USB Controller to change the USB controller type.
If compatibility errors appear, fix them before you add the controller.
5
Click Save.
What to do next
Add one or more USB devices to the virtual machine.
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Add USB Devices from a Client Computer to a Virtual Machine in the
vSphere Web Client
You can add one or more USB passthrough devices from a client computer to a virtual machine in the
vSphere Web Client. The devices must be connected to a client computer that connects to the ESXi host on
which the virtual machine resides.
Note If you connect to a USB device on a Mac OS X client computer, you can add only one device to the
virtual machine at a time.
The devices maintain their virtual machine connections in S1 standby, if the vSphere Web Client is running
and connected. After you add the USB device to the virtual machine, a message on the client computer states
that the device is disconnected. The device remains disconnected from the client computer until you
disconnect it from the virtual machine.
Fault Tolerance is not supported with USB passthrough from a client computer to a virtual machine.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that a USB device is connected to the client computer.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered on.
n
Verify that a USB controller is present.
n
Verify that the vSphere Web Client has access to the ESXi host on which the virtual machines are
running.
n
Required Privilege: Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to a virtual machine.
2
Launch the VMware Remote Console application.
Note You cannot connect a USB device to a virtual machine if you use the HTML5 console in the
vSphere Web Client.
3
In the VMware Remote Console toolbar, click VMRC > Removable Devices and find the USB device.
4
Click Connect (Disconnect from menu).
The USB device is connected to the virtual machine.
Remove USB Devices That Are Connected Through a Client Computer in the
vSphere Web Client
You can remove USB devices from a virtual machine if the devices are no longer needed. When you
disconnect a USB device from a virtual machine, the device is released from the virtual machine and is given
back to the client computer, which starts using it.
Prerequisites
n
To minimize the risk of data loss, follow the instructions to safely unmount or eject hardware for your
operating system. Safely removing hardware allows accumulated data to be transmitted to a file.
Windows operating systems typically include a Remove Hardware icon located in the System Tray.
Linux operating systems use the umount command.
Note You might need to use the sync command instead of or in addition to the umount command, for
example after you run a dd command on Linux or other UNIX operating systems.
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n
Required Privilege: Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device
Procedure
1
Unmount or eject the USB device from the guest operating system.
2
On the virtual machine Summary tab, click the disconnect icon on the right side of the USB device
entry.
3
Select a device to disconnect from the drop-down menu.
A Disconnecting label and a spinner appear, indicating that a disconnection is in progress. When the
device is disconnected, after a slight delay, the Summary tab refreshes and the device is removed from
the virtual machine configuration.
The device reconnects to the client computer and is available to add to another virtual machine. In some
cases, Windows Explorer detects the device and opens a dialog box on the client computer. You can close
this dialog box.
Remove a USB Controller from a Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client
You can remove a USB controller from the virtual machine if you do not want to connect to USB devices.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that all USB devices are disconnected from the virtual machine.
n
Required Privilege: Virtual Machine.Configuration.Add or Remove Device
Procedure
1
Navigate to a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, host, or vApp, and click the Related Options tab
and click Virtual Machines.
2
Select a virtual machine, click it again, and click the Summary tab.
3
Select Virtual Hardware and expand the USB controller menu.
4
Click Remove.
5
Click OK to save your changes and close the dialog box.
The controller is no longer connected to the virtual machine, but remains available to add at a later time.
Remove USB Devices from a Client Computer
You can remove USB devices from a client computer if you do not want those devices to be available to
virtual machines.
When you detach a USB device from the remote client, the device disconnects from the virtual machine.
Ensure that data transfer is not taking place before you remove the device.
Prerequisites
Verify that the devices are not in use.
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Procedure
u
To minimize the risk of data loss, follow the instructions to safely unmount or eject hardware for your
operating system. Safely removing hardware allows accumulated data to be transmitted to a file.
Windows operating systems typically include a Remove Hardware icon located in the System Tray.
Linux operating systems use the umount command.
You might need to use the sync command instead of or in addition to the umount command, for example
after you issue a dd command on Linux or other UNIX operating systems.
When you remove the device from the client computer, it is no longer available to virtual machines.
Add a Shared Smart Card Reader to Virtual Machines
You can configure multiple virtual machines to use a virtual shared smart card reader for smart card
authentication. The smart card reader must be connected to a client computer on which the
vSphere Web Client runs. All smart card readers are treated as USB devices.
A license is required for the shared smart card feature. See vCenter Server and Host Management.
When you log out of Windows XP guest operating systems, to log back in, you must remove the smart card
from the smart card reader and re-add it. You can also disconnect the shared smart card reader and
reconnect it.
If the vSphere Web Client disconnects from the vCenter Server or host, or if the client computer is restarted
or shut down, the smart card connection breaks. For this reason, it is best to have a dedicated client
computer for smart card use.
To connect a USB smart card reader that is not shared, see “USB Configuration from a Client Computer to a
Virtual Machine,” on page 146.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the smart card reader is connected to the client computer.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered on.
n
Verify that a USB controller is present.
n
Required Privilege: Virtual machine.Configuration.Add or remove device
Procedure
1
Navigate to a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, host, or vApp, and click the Related Options tab
and click Virtual Machines.
2
Select a virtual machine, click it again, and click the Summary tab.
3
Click the USB icon on the right side of USB Devices under VM Hardware, and select an available
shared smart card reader from the drop down menu.
Select a device that appears as Shared the model name of your smart card reader followed by a number.
A Connecting label and a spinner appear showing that a connection is in progress. When the device has
successfully connected and the Summary tab refreshes, the device is connected and the device name
appears next to USB Devices.
You can now use smart card authentication to log in to virtual machines in the vSphere Web Client
inventory.
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Configuring Virtual Machine Options
6
You can set or change virtual machine options to run VMware Tools scripts, control user access to the
remote console, configure startup behavior, and more. The virtual machine options define a range of virtual
machine properties, such as the virtual machine name and the virtual machine behavior with the guest
operating system and VMware Tools.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Virtual Machine Option Overview,” on page 153
n
“Change the Virtual Machine Name,” on page 154
n
“View the Virtual Machine Configuration and Working File Location,” on page 155
n
“Change the Configured Guest Operating System,” on page 155
n
“Configuring User Mappings on Guest Operating Systems,” on page 155
n
“Change the Virtual Machine Console Options for Remote Users,” on page 157
n
“Configure the Virtual Machine Power States,” on page 157
n
“Manage Power Management Settings for a Virtual Machine,” on page 158
n
“Enable or Disable UEFI Secure Boot for a Virtual Machine,” on page 159
n
“Delay the Boot Sequence,” on page 160
n
“Disable Virtual Machine Acceleration,” on page 161
n
“Enable Virtual Machine Logging,” on page 161
n
“Configure Virtual Machine Debugging and Statistics,” on page 161
n
“Change the Swap File Location,” on page 162
n
“Edit Configuration File Parameters,” on page 162
n
“Configure Fibre Channel NPIV Settings,” on page 163
Virtual Machine Option Overview
You can view or change virtual machine settings from the vSphere Web Client. Not all options are available
to every virtual machine and some options rarely need to change from their defaults.
The host that the virtual machine runs on and the guest operating system must support any configurations
that you make.
When you select Edit Settings from a virtual machine right-button menu and click VM Options, you can
select one of the following options.
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Table 6‑1. Virtual Machine Options
Options
Description
General Options
Virtual machine name and location of the virtual machine configuration file and virtual
machine working location. View or change the type and version of the guest operating
system.
VMware Remote Console
Options
Locking behavior and settings for simultaneous connections,
VMware Tools
Power Controls behavior, VMware Tools scripts, automatic upgrades, and time
synchronization between the guest and host.
Power Management
Virtual machine Suspend behavior and wake on LAN.
Boot Options
Virtual machine boot options. Add a delay before booting, force entry into the BIOS or
EFI setup screen, or set reboot options.
Advanced
Advanced virtual machine options. See the table below.
Fibre Channel NPIV
Virtual node and port World Wide Names (WWNs).
When you select Edit Settings from a virtual machine right-button menu, click VM Options, and click
Advanced, you can select one of the following options.
Table 6‑2. Advanced Virtual Machine Options
Advanced Options
Description
Settings
Specify acceleration and logging settings.
Debugging and statistic
Specify the level of debugging information that is being collected.
Swap file location
Specify the swap file location.
Configuration Parameters
View, modify, or add configuration parameters.
Latency Sensitivity
Set a value for latency sensitivity.
Change the Virtual Machine Name
If you move a virtual machine to a different datastore folder or move the virtual machine to a host that has
an existing virtual machine of the same name, you can change the virtual machine's name to keep it unique.
When you change the name of a virtual machine, you change the name used to identify the virtual machine
in the vCenter Server inventory. This action does not change the name used as the computer name by the
guest operating system.
The virtual machine name also determines the name of the virtual machine files and folder on the disk. For
example, if you name the virtual machine win8, the virtual machine files are named win8.vmx, win8.vmdk,
win8.nvram, and so on. If you change the virtual machine name, the names of the files on the datastore do
not change.
Note Migration with Storage vMotion changes the virtual machine file names on the destination datastore
to match the inventory name of the virtual machine. The migration renames all virtual disk, configuration,
snapshot, and .nvram files. If the new names exceed the maximum filename length, the migration does not
succeed.
Procedure
154
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand General Options.
3
Delete the existing name and type a new name for the virtual machine in the VM Name text box.
4
Click OK.
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View the Virtual Machine Configuration and Working File Location
You can view the location of the virtual machine configuration and working files. You can use this
information when you configure backup systems.
Prerequisites
Verify that the virtual machine is powered off.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click VM Options tab and expand General Options.
The path to the location of the virtual machine configuration file appears in the VM Config File text
box. The path to the virtual machine working location appears in the VM Working Location text box.
Change the Configured Guest Operating System
When you change the guest operating system type in the virtual machine settings, you change the setting for
the guest operating system in the virtual machine's configuration file. To change the guest operating system
itself, you must install the new operating system in the virtual machine.
You might change the guest operating system, for example, if you are upgrading the guest operating system
installed in the virtual machine.
When you set the guest operating system type for a new virtual machine, vCenter Server chooses
configuration defaults based on the guest type. Changing the guest operating system type after the virtual
machine is created does not retroactively change those settings. It affects the recommendations and setting
ranges offered after the change.
Prerequisites
Power off the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand General Options.
3
Select the guest operating system family from the Guest OS drop-down menu.
4
Select the guest operating system version.
5
If you select Other for the guest operating system family and Other (32-bit) or Other (64-bit) for the
version, type a name for the operating system in the text box.
6
Click OK.
Configuring User Mappings on Guest Operating Systems
As a vSphere administrator, you can enable guest OS access on certain SSO accounts.
Enabling SSO accounts to login to guest OS provides users with additional capabilities to perform
administrative tasks on guest virtual machines, such as, installing or upgrading the VMware Tools or
configuring apps.
Functionality to allow vSphere administrators to configure a guest operating system to use vgauth
authentication. The vSphere administrator will need to know the guest administrator password for the
enrollment process.
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In order to enroll SSO users to guest user account, you should enroll SSO users to accounts in guest
operating systems. The enrollment process will map a vSphere user to a particular account in the guest
through the use of SSO certificates. Subsequent guest management requests can then use a SSO SAML token
to log into the guest
You should configure VMs to accept X.509 certificates so that vSphere administrators in your data center can
use SAM tokens issued by single sign-on service to access guest OSs.
View Existing SSO User Mappings
You can view the existing guest user mappings for guest operating systems on the selected virtual machine.
You need to authenticate your credentials to view guest mappings.
Procedure
1
Select the virtual machine where you want to view the list of user mappings.
2
Click Configure > Settings > Guest User Mappings.
3
Specify your user name and password.
4
Click OK.
The existing in-guest user mappings are displayed.
Add SSO users to Guest Operating Systems
You can map a new SSO user to a guest user account by creating a new user map. Mapping can be
established for any type of SSO users, such as solution as well as regular users.
Prerequisites
Power on the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
In the View Guest User Mappings window, click Add new user mappings.
2
Select the SSO user from the list that you want to map.
3
Specify a guest OS user name.
4
Click OK.
The SSO user is mapped to a guest user account. A new guest user account is added to the list of Guest
User Mappings.
Remove SSO Users from Guest Operating Systems
You can remove an existing SSO account from guest user mappings.
Prerequisites
Power on your virtual machine.
Procedure
1
In the View Guest User Mappings window, select the SSO user from the list that you want to remove.
2
Click remove user mappings.
3
Click Yes to confirm.
The mapping between the selected SSO user account and guest OS account has been removed.
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Change the Virtual Machine Console Options for Remote Users
To control access to the virtual machine, you can limit the number of simultaneous connections to a virtual
machine and lock the guest operating system when the last remote user disconnects from the virtual
machine console.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that VMware Tools is installed and running.
n
To use the Guest OS lock option, verify that you have a Windows XP or later guest operating system.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab, and expand VMware Remote Console Options.
3
(Optional) Select Guest OS lock to lock the guest operating system when the last remote user
disconnects.
4
(Optional) Select Maximum number of sessions to limit the number of simultaneous connections to
this virtual machine, and enter a number.
5
Click OK.
Configure the Virtual Machine Power States
Changing virtual machine power states is useful when you do maintenance on the host. You can use the
system default settings for the virtual machine power controls, or you can configure the controls to interact
with the guest operating system. For example, you can configure the Power off control to power off the
virtual machine or shut down the guest operating system.
You can modify many virtual machine configurations while the virtual machine is running, but you might
need to change the virtual machine power state for some configurations.
You cannot configure A Power on (
) action. This action powers on a virtual machine when a virtual
machine is stopped, or resumes the virtual machine and runs a script when it is suspended and VMware
Tools is installed and available. If VMware Tools is not installed, it resumes the virtual machine and does not
run a script.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that you have privileges to perform the intended power operation on the virtual machine.
n
To set optional power functions, install VMware Tools in the virtual machine.
n
Power off the virtual machine before editing the VMware Tools options.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand VMware Tools.
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3
4
5
6
Select an option for the virtual machine Power Off (
) control from the drop-down menu.
Option
Description
Shut Down Guest
Uses VMware Tools to initiate an orderly system shut down of the virtual
machine. Soft power operations are possible only if the tools are installed
in the guest operating system.
Power Off
Immediately stops the virtual machine. A Power Off action shuts down the
guest operating system or powers off the virtual machine. A message
indicates that the guest operating system might not shut down properly.
Use this power off option only when necessary.
Default
Follows system settings. The current value of the system settings appears
in parentheses.
Select an option for the Suspend (
) control from the drop-down menu.
Option
Description
Suspend
Pauses all virtual machine activity. When VMware Tools is installed and
available, a suspend action runs a script and suspends the virtual machine.
If VMware Tools is not installed, a Suspend action suspends the virtual
machine without running a script.
System Default
Follows system settings. The current value of the system setting appears in
parentheses.
Select an option for the Reset (
) control from the drop-down menu.
Option
Description
Restart Guest
Uses VMware Tools to initiate an orderly restart. Soft power operations are
possible only if the tools are installed in the guest operating system.
Reset
Shuts down and restarts the guest operating system without powering off
the virtual machine. If VMWare Tools is not installed, a Reset action resets
the virtual machine.
System Default
Follows system settings. The current value of the system setting appears in
parentheses.
Click OK to save your changes.
Manage Power Management Settings for a Virtual Machine
You can set the power options so that a virtual machine is suspended or remains powered on if the guest
operating system is placed on standby. Some desktop-based guests, such as Windows 7, have standby
enabled by default, so that the guest goes into standby after a predetermined time.
The following conditions apply:
158
n
Power Management options are not available on every guest operating system.
n
Wake on LAN supports only Windows guest operating systems and is not available on Vlance NICs or
when a Flexible NIC is operating in Vlance mode. That is, the current VMware Tools are not installed
on the guest operating system.
n
Wake on LAN can resume virtual machines that are in an S1 sleep state only. It cannot resume
suspended, hibernated, or powered off virtual machines.
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n
NICs that support Wake on LAN include Flexible (VMware Tools required), vmxnet, Enhanced vmxnet,
and vmxnet 3.
Note To avoid having the guest operating system go into standby mode unintentionally, verify the settings
before you deploy the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand Power Management.
3
Select a power option.
4
Option
Description
Suspend the virtual machine
Stops all processes, which saves resources, and copies the contents of the
virtual machine's memory to the virtual machine's .vmss file. Writing the
memory to the .vmss file is useful if you need to copy the file to help with
a troubleshooting scenario.
Put the guest operating system in
standby mode and leave the virtual
machine powered on
All processes stop running, but virtual devices remain connected.
(Optional) Select Wake on LAN for virtual machine traffic on and select the virtual NICs to trigger this
action.
Unsupported NICs might be listed, but are unavailable to connect.
5
Click OK to save your changes.
Enable or Disable UEFI Secure Boot for a Virtual Machine
UEFI Secure Boot is a security standard that helps ensure that your PC boots using only software that is
trusted by the PC manufacturer. For certain virtual machine hardware versions and operating systems, you
can enable secure boot just as you can for a physical machine.
In an operating system that supports UEFI secure boot, each piece of boot software is signed, including the
bootloader, the operating system kernel, and operating system drivers. The virtual machine's default
configuration includes several code signing certificates.
n
A Microsoft certificate that is used only for booting Windows.
n
A Microsoft certificate that is used for third-party code that is signed by Microsoft, such as Linux
bootloaders.
n
A VMware certificate that is used only for booting ESXi inside a virtual machine.
The virtual machine's default configuration includes one certificate for authenticating requests to modify the
secure boot configuration, including the secure boot revocation list, from inside the virtual machine, which
is a Microsoft KEK (Key Exchange Key) certificate.
In almost all cases, it is not necessary to replace the existing certificates. If you do want to replace the
certificates, see the VMware Knowledge Base system.
VMware Tools version 10.1 or later is required for virtual machines that use UEFI secure boot. You can
upgrade those virtual machines to a later version of VMware Tools when it becomes available.
For Linux virtual machines, VMware Host-Guest Filesystem is not supported in secure boot mode. Remove
VMware Host-Guest Filesystem from VMware Tools before you enable secure boot.
Note If you turn on secure boot for a virtual machine, you can load only signed drivers into that virtual
machine.
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Prerequisites
You can enable secure boot only if all prerequisites are met. If prerequisites are not met, the check box is not
visible in the vSphere Web Client.
n
Verify that the virtual machine operating system and firmware support UEFI boot.
n
EFI firmware
n
Virtual hardware version 13 or later.
n
Operating system that supports UEFI secure boot. See the VMware Compatibility Guide for up-todate information.
Note You cannot upgrade a virtual machine that uses BIOS boot to a virtual machine that uses UEFI
boot. If you upgrade a virtual machine that already uses UEFI boot to an operating system that
supports UEFI secure boot, you can enable secure boot for that virtual machine.
n
Turn off the virtual machine. If the virtual machine is running, the check box is dimmed.
You need VirtualMachine.Config.Settings privileges to enable or disable UEFI secure boot for the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Log in to the vSphere Web Client and select the virtual machine.
2
In the Edit Settings dialog, open Boot Options, and ensure that firmware is set to EFI.
3
Click the Enable secure boot check box and click OK.
4
If you later want to disable secure boot, you can click the check box again.
When the virtual machine boots, only components with valid signatures are allowed. The boot process stops
with an error if it encounters a component with a missing or invalid signature.
Delay the Boot Sequence
Delaying the boot operation is useful when you change BIOS or EFI settings such as the boot order. For
example, you can change the BIOS or EFI settings to force a virtual machine to boot from a CD-ROM.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that vSphere Web Client is logged in to a vCenter Server.
n
Verify that you have access to at least one virtual machine in the inventory.
n
Verify that you have privileges to edit boot options for the virtual machine.
Procedure
160
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click VM Options tab and expand Boot Options.
3
Select the time in milliseconds to delay the boot operation.
4
(Optional) Select whether to force entry into the BIOS or EFI setup screen the next time the virtual
machine boots.
5
(Optional) Select whether to try to reboot after a boot failure.
6
Click OK.
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Chapter 6 Configuring Virtual Machine Options
Disable Virtual Machine Acceleration
You might find that when you install or run software in a virtual machine, the virtual machine appears to
stop responding. The problem occurs early in the program’s execution. You can get past the problem by
temporarily disabling acceleration in the virtual machine.
This setting slows down virtual machine performance, so use it only for getting past the problem with
running the program. After the program stops encountering problems, deselect Disable acceleration. You
might be able to run the program with acceleration.
You can enable and disable acceleration when the virtual machine is running.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand Advanced.
3
Click VM Options and expand Advanced.
4
Select Disable acceleration.
5
Click OK.
You should be able to install or run the software successfully.
Enable Virtual Machine Logging
You can enable logging to collect log files to help troubleshoot problems with your virtual machine.
ESXi hosts store virtual machine log files in the same directory as the virtual machine's configuration files.
By default, the log file name is vmware.log. Archived log files are stored as vmware-n.log, where n is a
number in sequential order beginning with 1.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Virtual machine.Configuration.Settings
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand Advanced.
3
In the Settings row, select Enable logging and click OK.
You can view and compare log files in the same storage location as the virtual machine configuration files.
Configure Virtual Machine Debugging and Statistics
You can run a virtual machine so that it collects additional debugging information that is helpful to VMware
technical support in resolving issues.
Prerequisites
Power off the virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand Advanced.
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3
Select a debugging and statistics option from the drop-down menu.
n
Run normally
n
Record Debugging Information
n
Record Statistics
n
Record Statistics and Debugging Information
The number of debugging and statistics options available depends on the host software type and
version. On some hosts, some options are not available.
4
Click OK.
Change the Swap File Location
When a virtual machine is powered on, the system creates a VMkernel swap file to serve as a backing store
for the virtual machine's RAM contents. You can accept the default swap file location or save the file to a
different location. By default, the swap file is stored in the same location as the virtual machine's
configuration file.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand Advanced.
3
Select a swap file location option.
4
Option
Description
Default
Stores the virtual machine swap file at the default location defined by the
host or cluster swap file settings.
Always store with the virtual
machine
Stores the virtual machine swap file in the same folder as the virtual
machine configuration file.
Store in the host's swapfile
datastore
If the host or cluster settings define a location for the swap file, this
location is used. Otherwise, the swap file is stored with the virtual
machine.
Click OK.
Edit Configuration File Parameters
You can change or add virtual machine configuration parameters when instructed by a VMware technical
support representative, or if you see VMware documentation that instructs you to add or change a
parameter to fix a problem with your system.
Important Changing or adding parameters when a system does not have problems might lead to
decreased system performance and instability.
The following conditions apply:
n
To change a parameter, you change the existing value for the keyword/value pair. For example, if you
start with the keyword/value pair, keyword/value, and change it to keyword/value2, the result is
keyword=value2.
n
You cannot delete a configuration parameter entry.
Caution You must assign a value to configuration parameter keywords. If you do not assign a value, the
keyword can return a value of 0, false, or disable, which can result in a virtual machine that cannot power
on.
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Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the VM Options tab and expand Advanced.
3
Click Edit Configuration.
4
(Optional) To add a parameter, click Add Row and type a name and value for the parameter.
5
(Optional) To change a parameter, type a new value in the Value text box for that parameter.
6
Click OK.
Configure Fibre Channel NPIV Settings
N-port ID virtualization (NPIV) provides the ability to share a single physical Fibre Channel HBA port
among multiple virtual ports, each with unique identifiers. This capability lets you control virtual machine
access to LUNs on a per-virtual machine basis.
Each virtual port is identified by a pair of world wide names (WWNs): a world wide port name (WWPN)
and a world wide node name (WWNN). These WWNs are assigned by vCenter Server.
For detailed information on how to configure NPIV for a virtual machine, see vSphere Storage.
NPIV support is subject to the following limitations:
n
NPIV must be enabled on the SAN switch. Contact the switch vendor for information about enabling
NPIV on their devices.
n
NPIV is supported only for virtual machines with RDM disks. Virtual machines with regular virtual
disks continue to use the WWNs of the host’s physical HBAs.
n
The physical HBAs on the ESXi host must have access to a LUN using its WWNs in order for any
virtual machines on that host to have access to that LUN using their NPIV WWNs. Ensure that access is
provided to both the host and the virtual machines.
n
The physical HBAs on the ESXi host must support NPIV. If the physical HBAs do not support NPIV, the
virtual machines running on that host will fall back to using the WWNs of the host’s physical HBAs for
LUN access.
n
Each virtual machine can have up to 4 virtual ports. NPIV-enabled virtual machines are assigned
exactly 4 NPIV-related WWNs, which are used to communicate with physical HBAs through virtual
ports. Therefore, virtual machines can utilize up to 4 physical HBAs for NPIV purposes.
Prerequisites
n
To edit the virtual machine’s WWNs, power off the virtual machine.
n
Verify that the virtual machine has a datastore containing a LUN that is available to the host.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click VM Options tab and expand Fibre Channel NPIV.
3
(Optional) Select the Temporarily Disable NPIV for this virtual machine check box.
4
Select an option for assigning WWNs.
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n
To leave WWNs unchanged, select Leave unchanged.
n
To have vCenter Server or the ESXi host generate new WWNs, select Generate New WWNs.
n
To remove the current WWN assignments, select Remove WWN assignment.
Click OK.
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Managing Multi-Tiered Applications
with vSphere vApp
7
A vSphere vApp allows packaging of multiple interoperating virtual machines and software applications
that you can manage as a unit and distribute in OVF format.
A vApp can contain one or more virtual machines, but any operation carried out on the vApp, such as clone
or power off, affects all virtual machines in the vApp container,
From the vSphere Web Client, you can access the vApp summary page with the current status of the vApp,
and you can manage the vApp.
Note Because the vApp metadata resides in the vCenter Server database, a vApp can be distributed across
multiple ESXi hosts. This information can be lost if the vCenter Server database is cleared or if a standalone
ESXi host that contains a vApp is removed from vCenter Server. Back up your vApps to an OVF package to
avoid losing metadata.
vApp metadata for virtual machines within a vApp do not follow the snapshots semantics for virtual
machine configuration. vApp properties that are deleted, modified, or defined after a snapshot is taken
remain intact (deleted, modified, or defined) after the virtual machine reverts to that snapshot or any prior
snapshots.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Create a vApp,” on page 165
n
“Create a Virtual Machine, Resource Pool, or Child vApp Inside a vApp,” on page 167
n
“Add Virtual Machine or Child vApp to a vApp,” on page 167
n
“Edit vApp Settings,” on page 167
n
“Clone a vApp,” on page 172
n
“Perform vApp Power Operations,” on page 173
n
“Edit vApp Notes,” on page 174
n
“Add a Network Protocol Profile,” on page 174
n
“Virtual Machine vApp Options,” on page 178
Create a vApp
A vApp allows you to perform resource management and certain other management activities such as
power operations for multiple virtual machines at the same time. You can think of the vApp as the container
for the virtual machines, and you can perform the operations on the container.
When you create a vApp, you can add it to a folder, standalone host, resource pool, cluster enabled for DRS,
or another vApp.
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Prerequisites
Verify that one of those objects is available in your datacenter.
n
A standalone host that is running ESX 4.0 or greater.
n
A cluster that is enabled for DRS.
Procedure
1
Navigate to an object that supports vApp creation and select the Create New vApp icon (
2
Select Create a new vApp and click Next.
3
In the vApp Name text box, type a name for the vApp.
4
Select the location or resource and click Next.
5
6
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).
n
If you start the action from a folder or vApp, you are prompted for a host, cluster, or resource pool.
n
If you start the action from a resource pool, host, or cluster, you are prompted for a folder or data
center.
In the Deployment section, click CPU resources to allocate CPU resources to this vApp.
Option
Description
Shares
CPU shares for this vApp with respect to the parent’s total. Sibling vApps
share resources according to their relative share values bounded by the
reservation and limit. Select Low, Normal, or High, which specify share
values respectively in a 1:2:4 ratio. Select Custom to give each vApp a
specific number of shares, which express a proportional weight.
Reservation
Guaranteed CPU allocation for this vApp.
Reservation Type
Select the Expandable check box to make the reservation expandable.
When the vApp is powered on, if the combined reservations of its virtual
machines are larger than the reservation of the vApp, the vApp can use
resources from its parent or ancestors.
Limit
Upper limit for this vApp's CPU allocation. Select Unlimited to specify no
upper limit.
In the Deployment section, click Memory resources to allocate memory resources to this vApp.
Option
Description
Shares
Memory shares for this vApp with respect to the parent’s total. Sibling
vApps share resources according to their relative share values bounded by
the reservation and limit. Select Low, Normal, or High, which specify
share values respectively in a 1:2:4 ratio. Select Custom to give each vApp
a specific number of shares, which express a proportional weight.
Reservation
Guaranteed memory allocation for this vApp.
Reservation Type
Select the Expandable check box to make the reservation expandable.
When the vApp is powered on, if the combined reservations of its virtual
machines are larger than the reservation of the vApp, the vApp can use
resources from its parent or ancestors.
Limit
Upper limit for this vApp's memory allocation. Select Unlimited to specify
no upper limit.
7
Click Next.
8
Review the vApp settings and click Finish.
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Chapter 7 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp
Create a Virtual Machine, Resource Pool, or Child vApp Inside a vApp
You can create a virtual machine, resource pool, or child vApp within a vApp.
Procedure
1
Navigate to the vApp in which you want to create the object.
2
Click the vApp and select Actions.
3
Select an action from the submenu.
You can create a virtual machine, a resource pool, or a child vApp. You can also deploy an OVF
template to add the corresponding virtual machine or vApp to the selected vApp.
The new object appears as part of the vApp in the vApp inventory.
Add Virtual Machine or Child vApp to a vApp
You can add an object, such as a virtual machine or another vApp, to an existing vApp.
An existing virtual machine or another vApp that is not already contained inside the vApp can be moved
into the currently selected vApp.
Procedure
1
Display the object in the inventory.
2
Click and drag the object to the target object.
If the move is not permitted, red x icon appears, and the object is not moved.
3
Release the mouse button.
Edit vApp Settings
You can edit and configure several vApp settings, including startup order, resources, and custom properties.
Procedure
1
Configure vApp Properties on page 168
If you define a property in the Authoring section of the Edit vApp Settings dialog, you can assign a
value to that property when you edit the vApp settings the next time. If you deployed the vApp from
an OVF, and properties were predefined in that OVF, you might be able to edit those properties as
well.
2
Configure vApp CPU and Memory Resources on page 169
You can configure the CPU and memory resource allocation for the vApp.
3
View Unrecognized OVF Sections on page 169
If your vApp is based on an OVF file that was not created in the vSphere Web Client, it might include
some configuration information that is not recognized by vCenter Server. You can view the
information in the Edit vApp Settings dialog.
4
Configure vApp IP Allocation Policy on page 170
If your vApp is set up to allow it, and if you have the required privileges, you can edit how IP
addresses are allocated for the vApp.
5
Configure vApp Startup and Shutdown Options on page 170
You can change the order in which virtual machines and nested vApps within a vApp start up and
shut down. You can also specify delays and actions performed at startup and shutdown.
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6
Configure vApp Product Properties on page 171
You can configure product and vendor information for a vApp.
7
View vApp License Agreement on page 172
You can view the license agreement for the vApp that you are editing.
Procedure
u
Navigate to a vApp and click Edit vApp Settings.
Expand the areas of the vApp configuration that you want to edit.
Area
Description
Application Properties
Displays non-editable product informaion such as name, vendor, and
version, and allows specifying values for vApp custom properties.
Deployment
Allows you to specify CPU and memory resources and configure IP
allocation. The available allocation schemes and protocols depend on the
vApp configuration. You can modify the configuration in the Authoring
section.
Authoring
Allows you to specify the vApp product information and controls the
configurable options that are available in the Deployment and Application
Properties sections. You can modify the supported IP allocation schemes
and protocols, set the VM start order, and add or reconfigure custom
properties.
Configure vApp Properties
If you define a property in the Authoring section of the Edit vApp Settings dialog, you can assign a value to
that property when you edit the vApp settings the next time. If you deployed the vApp from an OVF, and
properties were predefined in that OVF, you might be able to edit those properties as well.
In the Application properties section you can view product information and assign values to custom
properties.
n
View information that was specified in the Authoring section's Product field of the current vApp or in
the OVF package from which the vApp was deployed, you can view that information in the
Application properties section.
n
Assign values to a custom property that was defined in the Authoring section's Properties field of the
current vApp or in an OVF from which the vApp was deployed, you can assign values to those
properties.
Section 9.5 of the OVF 1.1 specification explains which product metadata can be contained in an
OVF.vCenter Server supports those metadata.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.vApp application configuration on the vApp.
Procedure
168
1
Navigate to a vApp in the inventory and click Edit vApp Settings.
2
If application properties are predefined for your vApp, click the Application Properties triangle to
expand the vApp properties.
3
Edit the vApp properties.
4
Click OK.
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Chapter 7 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp
Configure vApp CPU and Memory Resources
You can configure the CPU and memory resource allocation for the vApp.
Reservations on vApps and all their child resource pools, child vApps, and child virtual machines count
against the parent resources only if those objects are powered on.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.vApp resource configuration on the vApp.
Procedure
1
Navigate to a vApp in the inventory and click Edit vApp Settings.
2
In the Deployment section, click CPU resources to allocate CPU resources to this vApp.
3
4
Option
Description
Shares
CPU shares for this vApp with respect to the parent’s total. Sibling vApps
share resources according to their relative share values bounded by the
reservation and limit. Select Low, Normal, or High, which specify share
values respectively in a 1:2:4 ratio. Select Custom to give each vApp a
specific number of shares, which express a proportional weight.
Reservation
Guaranteed CPU allocation for this vApp.
Reservation Type
Select the Expandable check box to make the reservation expandable.
When the vApp is powered on, if the combined reservations of its virtual
machines are larger than the reservation of the vApp, the vApp can use
resources from its parent or ancestors.
Limit
Upper limit for this vApp's CPU allocation. Select Unlimited to specify no
upper limit.
In the Deployment section, click Memory resources to allocate memory resources to this vApp.
Option
Description
Shares
Memory shares for this vApp with respect to the parent’s total. Sibling
vApps share resources according to their relative share values bounded by
the reservation and limit. Select Low, Normal, or High, which specify
share values respectively in a 1:2:4 ratio. Select Custom to give each vApp
a specific number of shares, which express a proportional weight.
Reservation
Guaranteed memory allocation for this vApp.
Reservation Type
Select the Expandable check box to make the reservation expandable.
When the vApp is powered on, if the combined reservations of its virtual
machines are larger than the reservation of the vApp, the vApp can use
resources from its parent or ancestors.
Limit
Upper limit for this vApp's memory allocation. Select Unlimited to specify
no upper limit.
Click OK.
View Unrecognized OVF Sections
If your vApp is based on an OVF file that was not created in the vSphere Web Client, it might include some
configuration information that is not recognized by vCenter Server. You can view the information in the Edit
vApp Settings dialog.
Procedure
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Navigate to a vApp in the inventory and click Edit vApp Settings.
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2
Click Unrecognized OVF Sections in the Deployment section.
3
Click OK.
Configure vApp IP Allocation Policy
If your vApp is set up to allow it, and if you have the required privileges, you can edit how IP addresses are
allocated for the vApp.
By default, you cannot edit the IP application policy in the Deployment section when you create a vApp in
the vSphere Web Client. Change the IP allocation scheme to the protocol of your choice before you
configure the IP allocation policy. If deployed an OVF template to create the vApp, IP allocation policy
might be editable.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.vApp instance configuration
Procedure
1
Navigate to a vApp in the inventory and click Edit vApp Settings.
2
Click the IP Allocation triangle to expand the IP allocation options.
3
Select an IP allocation option.
Option
Description
Static - Manual
IP addresses are manually configured. No automatic allocation is
performed.
Transient - IP Pool
IP addresses are automatically allocated using IP pools from a specified
range when the vApp is powered on. The IP addresses are released when
the appliance is powered off.
DHCP
A DHCP server is used to allocate the IP addresses. The addresses
assigned by the DHCP server are visible in the OVF environments of
virtual machines started in the vApp.
Static - IP Pool
IP addresses are automatically allocated from the managed IP network
range of vCenter Server at power-on, and remain allocated at power-off.
Static - IP Pool and Transient - IP Pool have in common that IP allocation is done through the range
managed by the vSphere platform as specified by the IP pool range in a network protocol profile. The
difference is that for a static IP Pool, the IP addresses are allocated at first power-on and remain
allocated, while for a transient IP Pool, the IP addresses are allocated when needed, typically at poweron, but released during power-off.
4
Click OK.
Configure vApp Startup and Shutdown Options
You can change the order in which virtual machines and nested vApps within a vApp start up and shut
down. You can also specify delays and actions performed at startup and shutdown.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.vApp application configuration on the vApp.
Procedure
170
1
Navigate to a vApp in the inventory and click Edit vApp Settings.
2
Click the Start Order triangle to expand the start order options.
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Chapter 7 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp
3
Select a virtual machine and click the up or down arrow to move the virtual machine in the startup
order; the reverse order is used for shutdown.
Virtual machines and vApps in the same group are started before the objects in the next group.
4
(Optional) For each virtual machine, select the startup action for the virtual machine.
The default is Power On. Select None to power on the virtual machine manually.
5
6
(Optional) Specify when the startup action is to happen
n
Enter a time delay in seconds for the startup action.
n
Select VMware Tools are ready to perform the startup action when VMware Tools has started.
(Optional) For each virtual machine, select the shutdown action for the virtual machine.
The default is Power Off. You can also select Guest Shutdown to shut down the guest and leave the
virtual machine running, Suspend, or None.
7
(Optional) Enter a time delay in seconds for the shutdown action.
8
Click OK.
Configure vApp Product Properties
You can configure product and vendor information for a vApp.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.vApp application configuration on the vApp.
Procedure
1
Navigate to a vApp in the inventory and click Edit vApp Settings.
2
In the Authoring section, click the Product triangle to expand the product options.
3
Set and configure the settings that appear on the summary page of the virtual machine.
vApp Setting
Description
Product Name
Product Name.
Version
vApp version.
Full Version
Full version of the vApp.
Product URL
If you enter a product URL, a user can click the product name on the
virtual machine summary page and go to the product's web page.
Vendor URL
If you enter a vendor URL, a user can click the vendor name on the virtual
machine summary page and go to the vendor's web page.
Application URL
The vApp Summary page you can view in the vSphere Web Clientincludes
a Status pane that includes information about vApp status, for example
Running or Stopped. If you enter a valid application URL, the virtual
machine Status pane displays Available instead of Running. The Available
text is also a link to the application URL.
if you configure the virtual machine to use the property called webserver_ip and the virtual machine has
a web server at the address represented by the property, you can enter http://${webserver_ip}/ as the
Application URL.
4
(Optional) Click View to test the Product URL and Vendor URL.
5
Click OK.
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View vApp License Agreement
You can view the license agreement for the vApp that you are editing.
Note This option is available only if the vApp was imported from an OVF that includes a license
agreement.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.vApp application configuration on the vApp.
Procedure
1
On the Summary page of the vApp, click Edit Settings.
2
Click View License Agreement in the Options list.
3
Click OK.
Clone a vApp
Cloning a vApp is similar to cloning a virtual machine. When you clone a vApp, you clone all virtual
machines and vApps in the vApp.
Prerequisites
When you clone a vApp, you can add the clone to a folder, standalone host, resource pool, cluster enabled
for DRS, or another vApp.
Verify that one of those objects is available in your datacenter.
n
A standalone host that is running ESX 3.0 or greater.
n
A cluster enabled for DRS is selected.
Procedure
172
1
Navigate to a DRS-enabled cluster and click the Create a new vApp icon (
2
Select Clone an existing vApp.
3
Expand the inventory, select an existing vApp to clone, and click Next.
4
Select a valid host, vApp, or resource pool in which to run the vApp, and click Next
5
In the vApp Name text box, type a name for the vApp.
6
Select the datacenter or folder in which to deploy the vApp and click Next.
7
Select the virtual disk format and the target datastore and click Next.
8
Select the network for the cloned vApp and click Next.
9
Review the vApp settings and click Finish.
).
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Chapter 7 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp
Perform vApp Power Operations
One of the advantages of a vApp is that you can perform power operations on all virtual machines it
contains at the same time.
Power on a vApp
You can power on a vApp to power on all its virtual machines and child vApps. Virtual machines are
powered on according to the startup order configuration.
When powering on a vApp within a DRS cluster in manual mode, no DRS recommendations are generated
for virtual machine placements. The power-on operation performs as if DRS is run in a semiautomatic or
automatic mode for the initial placements of the virtual machines. This does not affect vMotion
recommendations. Recommendations for individual powering on and powering off of virtual machines are
also generated for vApps that are running.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.Power On on the vApp.
Procedure
1
Navigate to the vApp you want to power on.
2
Right-click the vApp and select Power On.
If a delay is set in the startup settings of a virtual machine in the vApp, the vApp waits for the set
length of time before powering on that virtual machine.
In the Summary tab, the Status indicates when the vApp has started and is available.
Power Off a vApp
You can power off a vApp to power off all its virtual machines and child vApps. Virtual machines are
powered off in reverse startup order.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.Power Off on the vApp.
Procedure
1
Navigate to the vApp you want to power off.
2
Right-click the vApp and select Power Off.
If a delay is set in the shutdown settings of a virtual machine in the vApp, the vApp waits for the set
length of time before powering off that virtual machine.
Suspend a vApp
You can suspend a vApp to suspend all its virtual machines and child vApps. Virtual machines are
suspended in the reverse order of the specified startup order.
All virtual machines are suspended regardless of the Suspend behavior you specified in the Power
Management VM Option for the virtual machine.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: vApp.Suspend on the vApp.
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Procedure
1
Navigate to the vApp you want to suspend.
2
Right-click the vApp and select Suspend.
Resume a vApp
You can resume a vApp to resume all its virtual machines and child vApps. Virtual machines are resumed
according to their startup order configuration.
Procedure
1
Navigate to the vApp you want to resume.
2
Right-click the virtual machine and select Power On.
Edit vApp Notes
You can add or edit notes for a particular vApp.
Procedure
1
Select the vApp in the inventory.
2
Select All Actions > Edit Notes.
3
Type your comments in the Edit Notes window.
4
Click OK.
Your comments appear in the Summary tab for the vApp.
Add a Network Protocol Profile
A network protocol profile contains a pool of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. vCenter Server assigns those
resources to vApps or to virtual machines with vApp functionality that are connected to port groups
associated with the profile.
Network protocol profiles also contain settings for the IP subnet, DNS, and HTTP proxy server.
Note If you move a vApp or a virtual machine that retrieves its network settings from a protocol profile to
another data center, to power on the vApp or virtual machine you must assign a protocol profile to the
connected port group on the destination data center.
Procedure
1
Select the Network Protocol Profile Name and Network on page 175
Name the network protocol profile and select the network that should use it.
2
Specify Network Protocol Profile IPv4 Configuration on page 175
A network protocol profile contains a pool of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for use by vApps. When you
create a network protocol profile, you set up its IPv4 configuration.
3
Specify Network Protocol Profile IPv6 Configuration on page 176
A network protocol profile contains a pool of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for use by vApps. When you
create a network protocol profile, you set up its IPv6 configuration.
4
Specify Network Protocol Profile DNS and Other Configuration on page 176
When you create a network protocol profile, you can specify the DNS domain, DNS search path, a host
prefix, and HTTP proxy.
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5
Complete the Network Protocol Profile Creation on page 177
6
Associate a Port Group with a Network Protocol Profile on page 177
To apply the range of IP addresses from a network protocol profile to a virtual machine that is a part of
a vApp or has vApp functionality enabled, associate the profile with a port group that controls the
networking of the virtual machine.
7
Configure a Virtual Machine or vApp to Use a Network Protocol Profile on page 177
After you associate a protocol profile to a port group of a standard switch or a distributed switch,
enable the usage of profile on a virtual machine that is connected to the port group and is associated
with a vApp or has the vApp options enabled.
Procedure
1
Navigate to a data center that is associated with the vApp and click the Configure tab.
2
Click Network Protocol Profiles
Existing network protocol profiles are listed.
3
Click the Add icon ( ) to add a new network protocol profile.
Select the Network Protocol Profile Name and Network
Name the network protocol profile and select the network that should use it.
Procedure
1
Type the name of the network protocol profile.
2
Select the networks that use this network protocol profile.
A network can be associated with one network protocol profile at a time.
3
Click Next.
Specify Network Protocol Profile IPv4 Configuration
A network protocol profile contains a pool of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for use by vApps. When you create a
network protocol profile, you set up its IPv4 configuration.
You can configure network protocol profile ranges for IPv4, IPv6, or both. vCenter Server uses these ranges
to dynamically allocate IP addresses to virtual machines when a vApp is set up to use transient IP
allocation.
Procedure
1
Enter the IP Subnet and Gateway in their respective fields.
2
Select DHCP Present to indicate that the DHCP server is available on this network.
3
Enter the DNS server information.
Specify the servers by IP addresses separated by a comma, semicolon, or space.
4
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Select the Enable IP Pool check box to specify an IP pool range.
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5
If you enable IP Pools, enter a comma-separated list of host address ranges in the IP pool range field.
A range consists of an IP address, a pound sign (#), and a number indicating the length of the range.
The gateway and the ranges must be within the subnet. The ranges that you enter in the IP pool range
field cannot include the gateway address.
For example, 10.20.60.4#10, 10.20.61.0#2 indicates that the IPv4 addresses can range from 10.20.60.4
to 10.20.60.13 and 10.20.61.0 to 10.20.61.1.
6
Click Next.
Specify Network Protocol Profile IPv6 Configuration
A network protocol profile contains a pool of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for use by vApps. When you create a
network protocol profile, you set up its IPv6 configuration.
You can configure network protocol profile ranges for IPv4, IPv6, or both.vCenter Server uses these ranges
to dynamically allocate IP addresses to virtual machines when a vApp is set up to use transient IP
allocation.
Procedure
1
Enter the IP Subnet and Gateway in their respective fields.
2
Select DHCP Present to indicate that the DHCP server is available on this network.
3
Enter the DNS server information.
Specify the servers by IP addresses separated by a comma, semicolon, or space.
4
Select the Enable IP Pool check box to specify an IP pool range.
5
If you enable IP Pools, enter a comma-separated list of host address ranges in the IP pool range field.
A range consists of an IP address, a pound sign (#), and a number indicating the length of the range. For
example. assume that you specify the following IP pool range:
fe80:0:0:0:2bff:fe59:5a:2b#10,fe80:0:0:0:2bff:fe59:5f:b1#2
Then the addresses are in this range:
fe80:0:0:0:2bff:fe59:5a:2b - fe80:0:0:0:2bff:fe59:5a:34
and
fe80:0:0:0:2bff:fe59:5f:b1 - fe80:0:0:0:2bff:fe59:5f:b2
The gateway and the ranges must be within the subnet. The ranges that you enter in the IP pool range
field cannot include the gateway address.
6
Click Next.
Specify Network Protocol Profile DNS and Other Configuration
When you create a network protocol profile, you can specify the DNS domain, DNS search path, a host
prefix, and HTTP proxy.
Procedure
1
Enter the DNS domain.
2
Enter the host prefix.
3
Enter the DNS search path.
The search paths are specified as a list of DNS domains separated by commas, semi-colons, or spaces.
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4
Enter the server name and port number for the proxy server.
The server name can optionally include a colon and a port number.
For example, web-proxy:3912 is a valid proxy server.
5
Click Next.
Complete the Network Protocol Profile Creation
Procedure
u
Review the settings and click Finish to complete adding the network protocol profile.
Associate a Port Group with a Network Protocol Profile
To apply the range of IP addresses from a network protocol profile to a virtual machine that is a part of a
vApp or has vApp functionality enabled, associate the profile with a port group that controls the
networking of the virtual machine.
You can associate a port group of a standard switch or a distributed port group of a distributed switch with
a network protocol profile by using the settings of the group.
Procedure
1
Navigate to a distributed port group of a vSphere Distributed Switch or to a port group of a vSphere
Standard Switch in the Networking view of the vSphere Web Client.
The port groups of standard switches are under the data center. The vSphere Web Client displays
distributed port groups under the parent distributed switch object.
2
On the Configure tab, expand More and click Network Protocol Profiles.
3
Click Associate a network protocol profile with the selected network button in the upper right corner.
4
On the Set association type page of the Associate Network Protocol Profile wizard, select Use an
existing network protocol profile and click Next.
If the existing network protocol profiles do not contain settings suitable for the vApp virtual machines
in the port group, you must create a new profile.
5
Select the network protocol profile and click Next.
6
Examine the association and settings of the network protocol profile, and click Finish.
Configure a Virtual Machine or vApp to Use a Network Protocol Profile
After you associate a protocol profile to a port group of a standard switch or a distributed switch, enable the
usage of profile on a virtual machine that is connected to the port group and is associated with a vApp or
has the vApp options enabled.
Prerequisites
Verify that the virtual machine is connected to a port group that is associated with the network protocol
profile.
Procedure
1
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In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to the virtual machine or the vApp.
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2
Open the settings of the vApp or the vApp Options tab of the virtual machine.
n
Right-click a vApp and select Edit settings.
n
Right-click a virtual machine, select Edit settings, and in the Edit Settings dialog box, click the
vApp Options tab.
3
Click Enable vApp options.
4
Under Authoring, expand IP allocation and set the IP allocation scheme to OVF environment.
5
Under Deployment, expand IP allocation and set IP allocation to Transient - IP Pool or Static - IP
Pool.
Both the Static - IP Pool and Transient - IP Pool options allocate an IP address from the range in the
network protocol profile that is associated with the port group. If you select Static - IP Pool, the IP
address is assigned the first time the virtual machine or vApp is powered on and the address persists
across restarts. If you select Transient - IP Pool, an IP address is assigned every time the virtual
machine or vApp is powered on.
6
Click OK.
When the virtual machine is powered on, the adapters connected to the port group receive IP addresses
from the range in the protocol profile. When the virtual machine is powered off, the IP addresses are
released.
Virtual Machine vApp Options
When you edit the settings for a virtual machine, you can enable vApp options. When vApp options are
enabled, you can configure OVF properties, use the OVF environment, and specify IP allocation and product
information for the virtual machine.
Enable Virtual Machine vApp Options
You can configure vApp options in a virtual machine. Those options are saved when you export the virtual
machine as an OVF template, and used when the OVF is deployed.
If you enable vApp options and export a virtual machine to OVF, the virtual machine receives an OVF
Environment XML descriptor at boot time. The OVF descriptor might include values for custom properties
including network configuration and IP addresses.
The OVF environment can be transported to the guest in two ways:
n
As a CD-ROM that contains the XML document. The CD-ROM is mounted on the CD-ROM drive.
n
Through VMware Tools. The guest OS environment variable guestinfo.ovfEnv contains the XML
document.
Procedure
178
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the vApp Options tab.
3
Select Enable vApp options.
4
Click OK.
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Chapter 7 Managing Multi-Tiered Applications with vSphere vApp
Edit Application Properties and OVF Deployment Options for a Virtual Machine
If a virtual machine is a deployed OVF, you can view application properties and OVF Deployment options
that are defined in the OVF. Deployment options include unrecognized OVF section and the IP allocation
policy
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the vApp Options tab.
3
If the OVF template included editable application properties, make changes if necessary.
4
If the OFV template includes information that vCenter Server cannot process, you can view that
information under Unrecognized OVF Sections.
5
If the OVF template included editable IP allocation options, make changes if necessary.
Option
Description
Static - Manual
IP addresses are manually configured. No automatic allocation is
performed.
Transient - IP Pool
IP addresses are automatically allocated using IP pools from a specified
range when the vApp is powered on. The IP addresses are released when
the appliance is powered off.
DHCP
A DHCP server is used to allocate the IP addresses. The addresses
assigned by the DHCP server are visible in the OVF environments of
virtual machines started in the vApp.
Static - IP Pool
IP addresses are automatically allocated from the managed IP network
range of vCenter Server at power-on, and remain allocated at power-off.
Static - IP Pool and Transient - IP Pool have in common that IP allocation is done through the range
managed by the vSphere platform as specified by the IP pool range in a network protocol profile. The
difference is that for a static IP Pool, the IP addresses are allocated at first power-on and remain
allocated, while for a transient IP Pool, the IP addresses are allocated when needed, typically at poweron, but released during power-off.
Edit OVF Authoring Options for a Virtual Machine
You can use the OVF Authoring options that are included in a virtual machine's vApp options to specify
custom information that is included when you export the virtual machine as an OVF template.
vApp properties are a central concept of vApp deployment and self configuration; they can turn a general
OVF package into a running vApp instance with a custom configuration.
The set of properties associated to a running vApp is determined by the OVF package from which the vApp
was deployed.
n
When an OVF package is created the author adds the set of properties necessary for the vApp to
function in an unknown environment. This could for instance be properties containing network
configuration, a property containing the email address of the system administrator or a property
containing the number of expected users of the vApp.
n
Some property values are entered by the user when the vApp is deployed, while other property values
are configured by vCenter Server when the vApp is powered on. How this is handled depends on the
property type and vCenter Server configuration.
When vCenter Server powers on a vApp, it creates an XML document that contains all properties and their
values. This document is made available to each virtual machine in the vApp, and allows the virtual
machines to apply the properties to their own environment.
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1
Edit vApp Product Information for a Virtual Machine on page 180
If you want to export a virtual machine as an OVF, you can prespecify product properties. Those
properties become available when you deploy the OVF as a virtual machine.
2
Manage vApp Custom Properties for a Virtual Machine on page 181
You can manage and define custom properties that are stored in the OVF template when you export a
virtual machine or vApp and are used by vCenter Server when you deploy the OVF template. OVF
templates support static properties, which are often configured by the user, and dynamic properties,
which are always set by vCenter Server.
3
Edit vApp IP Allocation Policy for a Virtual Machine on page 181
You can edit the IP allocation policy through the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box.
4
Edit OVF Settings for a Virtual Machine on page 182
A virtual machine's OVF settings allow you to customize the OVF environment, OVF transport, and
boot behavior after OVF deployment. You can edit and configure settings that affect the OVF
environment in the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box.
Edit vApp Product Information for a Virtual Machine
If you want to export a virtual machine as an OVF, you can prespecify product properties. Those properties
become available when you deploy the OVF as a virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the vApp Options tab.
3
In the Authoring section select Product.
4
Set and configure the settings that appear on the summary page of the virtual machine.
vApp Setting
Description
Product Name
Product Name.
Version
vApp version.
Full Version
Full version of the vApp.
Product URL
If you enter a product URL, a user can click the product name on the
virtual machine summary page and go to the product's web page.
Vendor URL
If you enter a vendor URL, a user can click the vendor name on the virtual
machine summary page and go to the vendor's web page.
Application URL
The vApp Summary page you can view in the vSphere Web Clientincludes
a Status pane that includes information about vApp status, for example
Running or Stopped. If you enter a valid application URL, the virtual
machine Status pane displays Available instead of Running. The Available
text is also a link to the application URL.
if you configure the virtual machine to use the property called webserver_ip and the virtual machine has
a web server at the address represented by the property, you can enter http://${webserver_ip}/ as the
Application URL.
5
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Click OK.
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Manage vApp Custom Properties for a Virtual Machine
You can manage and define custom properties that are stored in the OVF template when you export a
virtual machine or vApp and are used by vCenter Server when you deploy the OVF template. OVF
templates support static properties, which are often configured by the user, and dynamic properties, which
are always set by vCenter Server.
Perform these tasks to customize your virtual machine or vApp with properties:
1
Define the OVF properties, for example a DNS address or gateway, in the virtual machine or vApp.
2
If you or planning to export to OVF:
a
Set up the OVF environment transport to carry the settings into the virtual machine. See “Edit OVF
Settings for a Virtual Machine,” on page 182.
b
Write some glue code to access and apply the information to the virtual machine.
See the VMware vApp Developer blog topic Self-Configuration and the OVF Environment for a discussion,
sample code, and a video.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the vApp Options tab.
3
In the Authoring section, click Properties.
You can select and edit or delete an existing property, or create a new custom property.
4
To create a property, click New.
5
Specify property fields.
6
Click OK.
Edit vApp IP Allocation Policy for a Virtual Machine
You can edit the IP allocation policy through the Virtual Machine Properties dialog box.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the vApp Options tab.
3
In the Authoring section, select IP allocation.
The information you specify will be used if you export the virtual machine to OVF and deploy the OVF.
4
Select a network configuration scheme.
Option
Description
OVF environment
Determined by the environment in which you deploy the OVF template.
DHCP
The IP addresses are allocated using DHCP when the virtual machine is
powered on.
5
Choose the IP protocol that this vApp supports: IPv4, IPv6, or both.
6
Click OK.
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Edit OVF Settings for a Virtual Machine
A virtual machine's OVF settings allow you to customize the OVF environment, OVF transport, and boot
behavior after OVF deployment. You can edit and configure settings that affect the OVF environment in the
Virtual Machine Properties dialog box.
Prerequisites
vApp options must be enabled in order to access these options.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
Click the vApp Options tab.
3
In the Authoring section, click OVF Settings.
4
View and specify the settings.
Option
Description
OVF environment
Click View to display the OVF environment settings in XML format. The
settings are not available when the virtual machine is powered off.
OVF environment transport
n
If you select ISO image, an ISO image that contains the OVF template
information is mounted in the CD-ROM drive.
n
If you select VMware Tools, the VMware Tools guestInfo.ovfEnv
variable is initialized with the OVF environment document.
Installation boot
5
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If you click Enable, the virtual machine is reboots after OVF deployment
completes. You can select the amount of time before the virtual machine
starts the reboot operation.
Click OK.
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Monitoring Solutions with the
vCenter Solutions Manager
8
In the vSphere Web Client, you can view an inventory of installed solutions, view detailed information
about the solutions, and monitor the solution health status. A solution is an extension of vCenter Server that
adds new functions to a vCenter Server instance.
VMware products that integrate with vCenter Server are also considered solutions. For example, vSphere
ESX Agent Manager is a solution provided by VMware to let you manage host agents that add new
capabilities to ESX/ESXi hosts.
You can install a solution to add functionality from third-party technologies to the standard functions of
vCenter Server. Solutions typically are delivered as OVF packages. You can install and deploy solutions
from the vSphere Web Client. You can integrate solutions into the vCenter Solutions Manager, which
provides a view in the vSphere Web Client that lists all solutions.
If a virtual machine or vApp is running a solution, a custom icon represents it in the inventory of the
vSphere Web Client. Each solution registers a unique icon to identify that the virtual machine or vApp is
being managed by that solution. The icons show the power states (powered on, paused, or powered off).
The solutions display more than one type of icon if they manage more than one type of virtual machine or
vApp.
When you power on or power off a virtual machine or vApp, you are notified that you are performing this
operation on an entity that is managed by the Solutions Manager. When you attempt an operation on a
virtual machine or a vApp that is managed by a solution, an informational warning message appears.
For more information, see the Developing and Deploying vSphere Solutions, vServices, and ESX Agents
documentation.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Viewing Solutions,” on page 183
n
“Monitoring Agents,” on page 184
Viewing Solutions
You can deploy, monitor, and interact with solutions that are installed in a vCenter Server instance with the
vCenter Solutions Manager. The Solutions Manager displays information about the health of a solution.
You can navigate to the Solutions Manager from the home page of the vSphere Web Client. The Solutions
Manager view displays information about the solution:
n
Solution name
n
Solution health
n
vService providers
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Procedure
1
From the vSphere Web Client home page, navigate to the Solutions Manager by selecting
Administration > Solutions > vCenter Server Extensions.
2
Navigate through the tabs in the Solutions Manager.
3
n
Summary tab. Lists the number of installed solutions and a brief health overview for each of the
solutions.
n
Solutions tab. Lists each managed solution.
n
Health tab. Provides the health status of the vCenter services. It also shows alerts or warnings for
each of the services.
In the Solutions Manager inventory, click one of the solutions.
n
Summary tab. Lists information about the solution, including a link to the product and vendor
Web sites, a link to launch the management UI in a separate window, and a link to the virtual
machine or vApp running this solution.
Selecting the vendor Web site link takes you to the Summary page of the virtual machine or vApp.
A link under "Managed by" returns you to the solution.
n
Virtual Machines tab. Lists all the virtual machines belonging to the solution
n
vServices Providers tab.
n
Management tab or any other tabs the solution specified.
Monitoring Agents
The vCenter Solutions Manager displays the vSphere ESX Agent Manager agents that you use to deploy and
manage related agents on ESX/ESXi hosts.
You can use the Solutions Manager to keep track of whether the agents of a solution are working as
expected. Outstanding issues are reflected by the solution's ESX Agent Manager status and a list of issues.
When the status of a solution changes, the Solutions Manager updates the ESX Agent Manager summary
status and state. Administrators use this status to track whether the goal state is reached.
The agent health status is indicated by a specific color.
Table 8‑1. ESX Agent Manager health status
184
Status
Description
Red
The solution must intervene for the ESX Agent Manager to
proceed. For example, if a virtual machine agent is
powered off manually on a compute resource and the ESX
Agent Manager does not attempt to power on the agent.
The ESX Agent Manager reports this action to the solution,
and the solution alerts the administrator to power on the
agent.
Yellow
The ESX Agent Manager is actively working to reach a goal
state. The goal state can be enabled, disabled, or
uninstalled. For example, when a solution is registered, its
status is yellow until the ESX Agent Manager deploys the
solutions agents to all the specified compute resources. A
solution does not need to intervene when the ESX Agent
Manager reports its ESX Agent Manager health status as
yellow.
Green
A solution and all its agents have reached the goal state.
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Managing Virtual Machines
9
You can manage individual virtual machines or a group of virtual machines that belongs to a host or cluster.
From virtual machine's the console, you can change the guest operating system settings, use applications,
browse the file system, monitor system performance, and so on. Use snapshots to capture the state of the
virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot.
To migrate virtual machines using cold or hot migration, including vMotion, vMotion in environments
without shared storage, and Storage vMotion, see the vCenter Server and Host Management documentation.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Edit Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown Settings,” on page 185
n
“Install the VMware Enhanced Authentication Plug-in,” on page 187
n
“Using a Virtual Machine Remote Console,” on page 187
n
“Open the HTML 5 Remote Console,” on page 188
n
“Install the VMware Remote Console Application,” on page 188
n
“Using the VMware Remote Console Application,” on page 188
n
“Answer Virtual Machine Questions,” on page 189
n
“Adding and Removing Virtual Machines,” on page 189
n
“Change the Template Name,” on page 191
n
“Deleting Templates,” on page 191
n
“Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual Machines,” on page 192
Edit Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown Settings
You can configure virtual machines running on an ESXi host to start up and shut down with the host or after
a delay. You can also set the default timing and startup order for virtual machines. This way, the operating
system has enough time to save data when the host enters maintenance mode or is being powered off for
another reason.
The Virtual Machine Startup and Shutdown (automatic startup) setting is disabled for all virtual machines
residing on hosts that are in a vSphere HA cluster. Automatic startup is not supported with vSphere HA.
Note You can also create a scheduled task to change the power settings for a virtual machine. See vCenter
Server and Host Management.
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Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to the host where the virtual machine is located.
2
Select Configure.
3
Under Virtual Machines, select VM Startup/Shutdown and click Edit.
The Edit VM Startup and Shutdown dialog box opens.
4
Select Automatically start and stop the virtual machines with the system.
5
(Optional) In the Default VM Settings pane, configure the default startup and shutdown behavior for all
virtual machines on the host.
6
Setting
Description
Startup Delay
After you start the ESXi host, it starts powering on the virtual machines
that are configured for automatic startup. After the ESXi host powers on
the first virtual machine, the host waits for the specified delay time and
then powers on the next virtual machine. The virtual machines are
powered on in the startup order specified in the Per-VM Overrides pane.
Continue immediately if VMware
Tools starts
Shortens the startup delay of the virtual machine. If VMware Tools starts
before the specified delay time passes, the ESXi host powers on the next
virtual machine without waiting for the delay time to pass.
Shutdown Delay
When you power off the ESXi host, it starts powering off the virtual
machines that run on it. The order in which virtual machines are powered
off is the reverse of their startup order. After the ESXi host powers off the
first virtual machine, the host waits for the specified shutdown delay time
and then powers off the next virtual machine. The ESXi host shuts down
only after all virtual machines are powered off.
Shutdown Action
Select a shutdown action that is applicable to the virtual machines on the
host when the host shuts down.
n Guest Shutdown
n Power Off
n Suspend
n None
(Optional) In the Per-VM Overrides pane, configure the startup order and behavior for individual
virtual machines.
Use this option when you need the delay of the virtual machine to be different than the default delay
for all machines. The settings that you configure for individual virtual machines override the default
settings for all machines.
a
To change the startup order of virtual machines, select one from the Manual Startup category and
use the up arrow to move it up to Automatic Startup or Any Order.
Use the up and down arrows to change the startup order for virtual machines in the Automatic
Startup category. During shutdown, the virtual machines shut down in the reverse order.
b
Click Startup Behavior, select Custom, and configure the startup delay before the next virtual
machine in the sequence is powered on.
c
Click VMware Tools, and select whether the ESXi host waits for the delay to pass when VMware
Tools is already installed on the virtual machine.
If you select the Continue if VMware Tools is installed the ESXi host powers on the next virtual
machine without waiting for the delay to pass. If you select the Do not continue if VMware Tools
is installed the ESXi host waits for the delay to pass.
d
7
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Click Shutdown Behavior, select Custom, and configure the shutdown action and delay.
Click OK to close the dialog box and save your settings.
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Chapter 9 Managing Virtual Machines
Install the VMware Enhanced Authentication Plug-in
The VMware Enhanced Authentication Plug-in provides Integrated Windows Authentication and
Windows-based smart card functionality.
In this vSphere 6.5 release, the VMware Enhanced Authentication Plug-in replaces the Client Integration
Plug-in from vSphere 6.0 releases and earlier. The Enhanced Authentication Plug-in provides Integrated
Windows Authentication and Windows-based smart card functionality, which are the only two features
carried over from the previous Client Integration Plug-in. The Enhanced Authentication Plug-in can
function seamlessly if you already have the Client Integration Plug-in installed on your system from a
vSphere release prior to 6.5. There are no conflicts if both plug-ins are installed.
Install the plug-in only once to enable all the functionality the plug-in delivers.
If you install the plug-in from an Internet Explorer browser, you must first disable Protected Mode and
enable pop-up windows on your Web browser. Internet Explorer identifies the plug-in as being on the
Internet instead of on the local intranet. In such cases, the plug-in is not installed correctly because Protected
Mode is enabled for the Internet.
For information about supported browsers and operating systems, see the vSphere Installation and Setup
documentation.
Prerequisites
If you use Microsoft Internet Explorer, disable Protected Mode.
Procedure
1
Open a Web browser and type the URL for the vSphere Web Client.
2
At the bottom of the vSphere Web Client login page, click Download Enhanced Authentication Plugin.
3
If the browser blocks the installation either by issuing certificate errors or by running a pop-up blocker,
follow the Help instructions for your browser to resolve the problem.
4
Save the plug-in to your computer, and run the executable.
5
Step through the installation wizard for both the VMware Enhanced Authentication Plug-in and the
VMware Plug-in Service which are run in succession.
6
When the installations are complete, refresh your browser.
7
On the External Protocol Request dialog, click Launch Application to run the Enhanced Authentication
Plug-in.
The link to download the plug-in disappears from the login page.
Using a Virtual Machine Remote Console
With the vSphere Web Client, you can access a virtual machine's desktop by launching a remote console to
the virtual machine.
From the virtual machine remote console, you can perform tasks in the virtual machine such as installing an
operating system, configuring the operating system settings, running applications, monitoring performance,
and so on. In the vSphere Web Client there are two different virtual machine remote consoles.
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The VMware Remote Console (VMRC) standalone application for Windows that opens in a separate
window. The VMware Remote Console standalone application has extended functionality that enables you
to connect to client devices and launch virtual machine consoles on remote hosts.
The HTML 5 remote console opens in a browser tab. Some functions might not be available when you use
the HTML 5 remote console.
Open the HTML 5 Remote Console
With the vSphere Web Client, you can access a virtual machine's desktop by launching the HTML 5 remote
console to the virtual machine. From the HTML 5 remote console, you can perform tasks in the virtual
machine such as installing an operating system, configuring the operating system settings, running
applications, monitoring performance, and so on.
Prerequisites
n
Verify that the virtual machine has a guest operating system and that VMware Tools is installed.
n
Verify that the virtual machine is powered on.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to a virtual machine in the inventory.
2
Right-click the virtual machine and select Open Console.
The HTML 5 remote console opens in a new tab of the Web browser.
3
Click anywhere inside the console window to start using your mouse, keyboard, and other input
devices in the console.
4
(Optional) Click Send Ctrl-Alt-Delete to send the Ctrl+Alt+Delete keystroke combination to the guest
operating system.
5
(Optional) Press Ctrl+Alt to release the cursor from the console window and work outside the console
window
6
(Optional) Click Full Screen to view the console in full screen mode.
7
(Optional) Press Ctrl+Alt+Enter to enter or exit full screen mode.
Install the VMware Remote Console Application
The VMware Remote Console (VMRC) is a standalone console application for Windows that enables you to
connect to client devices and launch virtual machine consoles on remote hosts.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to a virtual machine in the inventory.
2
Click the Summary tab, and click Download Remote Console link.
3
Download the VMRC installer from the VMware Web site at
http://www.vmware.com/go/download-vmrc .
Using the VMware Remote Console Application
You can use the standalone VMRC to connect to client devices.
With VMRC, you can access the mouse and keyboard connected to remote virtual machines. To perform
administrative tasks, make sure that you log in to the VMRC as an administrator.
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Prerequisites
Verify that the VMRC is installed on your local system. You can download the VMRC installer for Windows
from the VMware Web site at http://www.vmware.com/go/download-vmrc.
Procedure
1
In the vSphere Web Client, navigate to a virtual machine in the inventory.
2
Click the Summary tab, and click the Launch Remote Console link.
3
Click Allow to confirm.
The VMRC opens as a standalone application for the selected virtual machine. You can also launch
more than one console to access several remote virtual machines at the same time.
Answer Virtual Machine Questions
The virtual machine questions are messages that are generated on the vCenter Server. The virtual machine
questions appear whenever the virtual machine needs a user intervention to continue its operation. In most
cases, the virtual machine questions appear when you power on a virtual machine .
You can answer the virtual machine questions from the vSphere Web Client. To save time and ensure the
consistency of your virtual environment, you can apply the same answer to other or all virtual machines in
your vCenter Server inventory that have the same pending question.
Prerequisites
Verify that the virtual machine hardware version is 11 or higher.
Procedure
1
In the Answer Question dialog box, click Show virtual machines.
2
Select all the virtual machines that you want to apply this answer to.
3
Click OK.
Adding and Removing Virtual Machines
You add virtual machines to the vCenter Server inventory through their managed hosts. You can remove
virtual machines from vCenter Server, from their managed host’s storage, or from both.
Adding Existing Virtual Machines to vCenter Server
When you add a host to vCenter Server, it discovers all the virtual machines on that managed host and adds
them to the vCenter Server inventory.
If a managed host is disconnected, the already discovered virtual machines continue to be listed in the
inventory.
If a managed host is disconnected and reconnected, any changes to the virtual machines on that managed
host are identified, and the vSphere Web Client updates the list of virtual machines. For example, if node3 is
removed and node4 is added, the new list of virtual machines adds node4 and shows node3 as orphaned.
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Remove Virtual Machines from vCenter Server
When you remove a virtual machine from the inventory, you unregister it from the host and vCenter Server,
but you do not delete it from the datastore. Virtual machine files remain at the same storage location and
you can re-registered the virtual machine by using the datastore browser at a later time. This capability is
useful if you need to unregister a virtual machine to edit the virtual machine's configuration file. The ability
to remove a virtual machine and maintain its files is useful when you have reached the maximum number of
virtual machines that your license or hardware allows.
Prerequisites
Verify that the virtual machine is turned off.
Procedure
1
Right-click the virtual machine, and select Remove From Inventory.
2
To confirm that you want to remove the virtual machine from the inventory, click OK.
vCenter Server removes references to the virtual machine and no longer tracks its condition.
Remove Virtual Machines from the Datastore
If you no longer need a virtual machine and want to free up space on the datastore, you can remove the
virtual machine from vCenter Server and delete all virtual machine files from the datastore, including the
configuration file and virtual disk files.
Prerequisites
n
Power off the virtual machine.
n
Ensure that another virtual machine is not sharing the disk. If two virtual machines are sharing the
same disk, the disk files are not deleted.
Procedure
1
Right-click the virtual machine and select All vCenter Actions > Delete from Disk.
2
Click OK.
vCenter Server deletes the virtual machine from its datastore. Disks that are shared with other virtual
machines are not deleted.
Register a Virtual Machine with vCenter Server
If you removed a virtual machine from vCenter Server but did not remove it from the managed host's
datastore, you can return it to the vCenter Server inventory by registering it with the vCenter Server.
Procedure
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1
In the vSphere Web Client inventory, right-click the datastore on which the virtual machine
configuration file is stored and select All vCenter Actions > Register VM.
2
Browse to and select the virtual machine configuration (.vmx) file and click OK.
3
Use the existing virtual machine name or type a new name, and select a datacenter or folder location for
the virtual machine.
4
Click Next.
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5
Select a host or cluster on which to run the new virtual machine.
Option
Action
Run the virtual machine on a
standalone host.
Select the host and click Next.
Run the virtual machine in a cluster
with DRS automatic placement.
Select the cluster and click Next.
Run the virtual machine in a cluster
without DRS automatic placement.
a
b
Select the cluster and click Next.
Select a host within the cluster and click Next.
6
Select a resource pool in which to run the virtual machine and click Next.
7
Review your selections and click Finish.
The virtual machine is added to the vCenter Server inventory.
Change the Template Name
If you move a template to another host or datacenter folder, you can change the template name to make it
unique in that folder.
Procedure
1
Right-click the template and select Rename.
2
Enter a new name and click OK.
Deleting Templates
You can delete a template by removing it from the inventory or deleting the template from the disk. If you
remove the template from the inventory, it remains on the disk and can be reregistered with vCenter Server
to restore it to the inventory.
Remove Templates from the Inventory
If a template has become outdated and you no longer use it in your environment, you can remove it from
the inventory. Removing a template unregisters it from the vCenter Server inventory, but it is not removed
from the datastore. The template remains at the same storage location, and you can use the datastore
browser to re-registered the template at a later time. You can later decide to update the template rather than
create one.
Procedure
1
Click the template and select Remove from Inventory.
2
Click Yes to confirm removing the template from the vCenter Server database.
The template is unregistered from the vCenter Server inventory.
Delete a Template from the Disk
If you no longer need a template or need to free up disk space, you can remove it from the disk. Templates
that you delete are permanently removed from the system.
You cannot recover a template that you delete from the disk.
Procedure
1
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2
Click Yes to confirm removing the template from the datastore.
Reregister Templates
Templates can become unregistered from vCenter Server if they are removed from the inventory or if the
hosts with which they are associated are removed from vCenter Server and then readded.
Procedure
1
Browse to or search for the datastore that contains the template.
2
Click the Configure tab and click Files.
3
Browse to locate the template and click it to display the template files.
The hard disk and configuration and other files appear in the Name column.
4
Click the template to display the template files.
5
Locate and right-click the .vmtx file and select Register VM.
The Register Virtual Machine wizard appears.
6
Maintain the original template name or enter a new name in the Name text box.
7
Select a location for the template and click Next.
8
Select a host or cluster on which to store the template and click Next.
9
Review your selections and click Finish.
10
To verify that the template is reregistered, check the host or cluster inventory.
Inventory
Description
Host
Browse to the host. Click VM Templates.
Cluster
Browse to the cluster. In the inventory view, select VM Templates to
display the list of templates.
The template is registered to the host. You can view the template by clicking on the host's VM Templates .
Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual Machines
Snapshots preserve the state and data of a virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot. When you take
a snapshot of a virtual machine, the virtual machine is not affected and only an image of the virtual machine
in a given state is copied and stored. Snapshots are useful when you must revert repeatedly to the same
virtual machine state, but you do not want to create multiple virtual machines.
You can take multiple snapshots of a virtual machine to create restoration positions in a linear process. With
multiple snapshots, you can save many positions to be able to perform many types of work processes.
Snapshots operate on individual virtual machines. Taking snapshots of multiple virtual machines, for
example, taking snapshots for all members of a team, requires that you take a separate snapshot of each
team member's virtual machine.
Snapshots are useful as a short term solution for testing software with unknown or potentially harmful
effects. For example, you can use a snapshot as a restoration point during a linear or iterative process, such
as installing update packages, or during a branching process, such as installing different versions of a
program. Using snapshots ensures that each installation begins from an identical baseline.
With snapshots, you can preserve a baseline before making changes to a virtual machine in the snapshot
tree.
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Several operations for creating and managing virtual machine snapshots and snapshot trees are available in
the Snapshot Manager of the VMware Host Client. These operations enable you to create snapshots, restore
any snapshot in the snapshot hierarchy, delete snapshots, and more. You can create extensive snapshot trees
that you can use to save the state of a virtual machine at any specific time and restore the virtual machine
state later. Each branch in a snapshot tree can have up to 32 snapshots.
A snapshot preserves the following information:
n
Virtual machine settings. The virtual machine directory, which includes the disks added or changed
after you take the snapshot.
n
Power state. The virtual machine can be powered on, powered off, or suspended.
n
Disk state. State of all the virtual machine's virtual disks.
n
(Optional) Memory state. The contents of the virtual machine's memory.
The Snapshot Hierarchy
The Snapshot Manager presents the snapshot hierarchy as a tree with one or more branches. Snapshots in
the hierarchy have parent to child relationships. In linear processes, each snapshot has one parent snapshot
and one child snapshot, except for the last snapshot, which has no child snapshot. Each parent snapshot can
have more than one child. You can revert to the current parent snapshot or restore any parent or child
snapshot in the snapshot tree and create more snapshots from that snapshot. Each time you restore a
snapshot and take another snapshot, a branch, or child snapshot, is created.
Parent Snapshots
The first virtual machine snapshot that you create is the base parent
snapshot. The parent snapshot is the most recently saved version of the
current state of the virtual machine. Taking a snapshot creates a delta disk
file for each disk attached to the virtual machine and optionally, a memory
file. The delta disk files and memory file are stored with the base .vmdk file.
The parent snapshot is always the snapshot that appears immediately above
the You are here icon in the Snapshot Manager. If you revert or restore a
snapshot, that snapshot becomes the parent of the You are here current state.
Note The parent snapshot is not always the snapshot that you took most
recently.
Child Snapshots
A snapshot of a virtual machine taken after the parent snapshot. Each child
snapshot contains delta files for each attached virtual disk, and optionally a
memory file that points from the present state of the virtual disk (You are
here). Each child snapshot's delta files merge with each previous child
snapshot until reaching the parent disks. A child disk can later be a parent
disk for future child disks.
The relationship of parent and child snapshots can change if you have multiple branches in the snapshot
tree. A parent snapshot can have more than one child. Many snapshots have no children.
Important Do not manually manipulate individual child disks or any of the snapshot configuration files
because doing so can compromise the snapshot tree and result in data loss. This restriction includes disk
resizing and making modifications to the base parent disk by using vmkfstools.
Snapshot Behavior
Taking a snapshot preserves the disk state at a specific time by creating a series of delta disks for each
attached virtual disk or virtual RDM and optionally preserves the memory and power state by creating a
memory file. Taking a snapshot creates a snapshot object in the Snapshot Manager that represents the virtual
machine state and settings.
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Each snapshot creates an additional delta .vmdk disk file. When you take a snapshot, the snapshot
mechanism prevents the guest operating system from writing to the base .vmdk file and instead directs all
writes to the delta disk file. The delta disk represents the difference between the current state of the virtual
disk and the state that existed at the time that you took the previous snapshot. If more than one snapshot
exists, delta disks can represent the difference between each snapshot. Delta disk files can expand quickly
and become as large as the entire virtual disk if the guest operating system writes to every block of the
virtual disk.
Snapshot Files
When you take a snapshot, you capture the state of the virtual machine settings and the virtual disk. If you
are taking a memory snapshot, you also capture the memory state of the virtual machine. These states are
saved to files that reside with the virtual machine's base files.
Snapshot Files
A snapshot consists of files that are stored on a supported storage device. A Take Snapshot operation
creates .vmdk, -delta.vmdk, .vmsd, and .vmsn files. By default, the first and all delta disks are stored with the
base .vmdk file. The .vmsd and .vmsn files are stored in the virtual machine directory.
Delta disk files
A .vmdk file to which the guest operating system can write. The delta disk
represents the difference between the current state of the virtual disk and the
state that existed at the time that the previous snapshot was taken. When you
take a snapshot, the state of the virtual disk is preserved, which prevents the
guest operating system from writing to it, and a delta or child disk is created.
A delta disk has two files, including a descriptor file that is small and
contains information about the virtual disk, such as geometry and childparent relationship information, and a corresponding file that contains the
raw data.
The files that make up the delta disk are referred to as child disks or redo
logs.
Flat file
A -flat.vmdk file that is one of two files that comprises the base disk. The flat
disk contains the raw data for the base disk. This file does not appear as a
separate file in the Datastore Browser.
Database file
A .vmsd file that contains the virtual machine's snapshot information and is
the primary source of information for the Snapshot Manager. This file
contains line entries, which define the relationships between snapshots and
between child disks for each snapshot.
Memory file
A .vmsn file that includes the active state of the virtual machine. Capturing
the memory state of the virtual machine lets you revert to a turned on virtual
machine state. With nonmemory snapshots, you can only revert to a turned
off virtual machine state. Memory snapshots take longer to create than
nonmemory snapshots. The time the ESXi host takes to write the memory
onto the disk is relative to the amount of memory the virtual machine is
configured to use.
A Take Snapshot operation creates .vmdk, -delta.vmdk, vmsd, and vmsn files.
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File
Description
vmname-number.vmdk and vmnamenumber-delta.vmdk
Snapshot file that represents the difference between the current state of the virtual
disk and the state that existed at the time the previous snapshot was taken.
The filename uses the following syntax, S1vm-000001.vmdk where S1vm is the
name of the virtual machine and the six-digit number, 000001, is based on the
files that already exist in the directory. The number does not consider the number
of disks that are attached to the virtual machine.
vmname.vmsd
Database of the virtual machine's snapshot information and the primary source of
information for the Snapshot Manager.
vmname.Snapshotnumber.vmsn
Memory state of the virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot. The file
name uses the following syntax, S1vm.snapshot1.vmsn, where S1vm is the
virtual machine name, and snapshot1 is the first snapshot.
Note A .vmsn file is created each time you take a snapshot, regardless of the
memory selection. A .vmsn file without memory is much smaller than one with
memory.
Snapshot Limitations
Snapshots can affect virtual machine performance and do not support some disk types or virtual machines
configured with bus sharing. Snapshots are useful as short-term solutions for capturing point-in-time virtual
machine states and are not appropriate for long-term virtual machine backups.
n
VMware does not support snapshots of raw disks, RDM physical mode disks, or guest operating
systems that use an iSCSI initiator in the guest.
n
Virtual machines with independent disks must be powered off before you take a snapshot. Snapshots of
powered-on or suspended virtual machines with independent disks are not supported.
n
Snapshots are not supported with PCI vSphere Direct Path I/O devices.
n
VMware does not support snapshots of virtual machines configured for bus sharing. If you require bus
sharing, consider running backup software in your guest operating system as an alternative solution. If
your virtual machine currently has snapshots that prevent you from configuring bus sharing, delete
(consolidate) the snapshots.
n
Snapshots provide a point-in-time image of the disk that backup solutions can use, but Snapshots are
not meant to be a robust method of backup and recovery. If the files containing a virtual machine are
lost, its snapshot files are also lost. Also, large numbers of snapshots are difficult to manage, consume
large amounts of disk space, and are not protected in the case of hardware failure.
n
Snapshots can negatively affect the performance of a virtual machine. Performance degradation is based
on how long the snapshot or snapshot tree is in place, the depth of the tree, and how much the virtual
machine and its guest operating system have changed from the time you took the snapshot. Also, you
might see a delay in the amount of time it takes the virtual machine to power-on. Do not run production
virtual machines from snapshots on a permanent basis.
n
If a virtual machine has virtual hard disks larger than 2TBs, snapshot operations can take significantly
longer to finish.
Managing Snapshots
You can review all snapshots for the active virtual machine and act on them by using the Snapshot Manager.
After you take a snapshot, you can use the Revert to Latest Snapshot command from the virtual machine’s
right-click menu to restore that snapshot at any time. If you have a series of snapshots, you can use the
Revert to command in the Snapshot Manager to restore any parent or child snapshot. Subsequent child
snapshots that you take from the restored snapshot create a branch in the snapshot tree. You can delete a
snapshot from the tree in the Snapshot Manager.
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The Snapshot Manager window contains the following areas: Snapshot tree, Details region, command
buttons, Navigation region, and a You are here icon.
Snapshot tree
Displays all snapshots for the virtual machine.
You are here icon
Represents the current and active state of the virtual machine. The You are
here icon is always selected and visible when you open the Snapshot
Manager.
You can select the You are here state to see how much space the node is
using. Revert to, Delete, and Delete all are disabled for the You are here
state.
Revert to, Delete, and
Delete All
Snapshot options.
Details
Shows the snapshot name and description, the date you created the
snapshot, and the disk space. The Console shows the power state of the
virtual machine when a snapshot was taken. The Name, Description, and
Created text boxes are blank if you do not select a snapshot.
Navigation
Contains buttons for navigating out of the dialog box.
n
Close the Snapshot Manager.
n
The question mark icon opens the help system.
Taking Snapshots of a Virtual Machine
You can take one or more snapshots of a virtual machine to capture the settings state, disk state, and
memory state at different specific times. When you take a snapshot, you can also quiesce the virtual machine
files and exclude the virtual machine disks from snapshots.
When you take a snapshot, other activity that is occurring in the virtual machine might affect the snapshot
process when you revert to that snapshot. The best time to take a snapshot from a storage perspective, is
when you are not incurring a large I/O load. The best time to take a snapshot from a service perspective is
when no applications in the virtual machine are communicating with other computers. The potential for
problems is greatest if the virtual machine is communicating with another computer, especially in a
production environment. For example, if you take a snapshot while the virtual machine is downloading a
file from a server on the network, the virtual machine continues downloading the file and communicating its
progress to the server. If you revert to the snapshot, communications between the virtual machine and the
server are confused and the file transfer fails. Depending on the task that you are performing, you can create
a memory snapshot or you can quiesce the file system in the virtual machine.
Memory Snapshots
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The default selection for taking snapshots. When you capture the virtual
machine's memory state, the snapshot retains the live state of the virtual
machine. Memory snapshots create a snapshot at a precise time, for example,
to upgrade software that is still working. If you take a memory snapshot and
the upgrade does not complete as expected, or the software does not meet
your expectations, you can revert the virtual machine to its previous state.
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When you capture the memory state, the virtual machine's files do not
require quiescing. If you do not capture the memory state, the snapshot does
not save the live state of the virtual machine and the disks are crash
consistent unless you quiesce them.
Quiesced Snapshots
When you quiesce a virtual machine, VMware Tools quiesces the file system
of the virtual machine. A quiesce operation ensures that a snapshot disk
represents a consistent state of the guest file systems. Quiesced snapshots are
appropriate for automated or periodic backups. For example, if you are
unaware of the virtual machine's activity, but want several recent backups to
revert to, you can quiesce the files.
If the virtual machine is powered off or VMware Tools is not available, the
Quiesce parameter is not available. You cannot quiesce virtual machines that
have large capacity disks.
Important Do not use snapshots as your only backup solution or as a long-term backup solution.
Change Disk Mode to Exclude Virtual Disks from Snapshots
You can set a virtual disk to independent mode to exclude the disk from any snapshots taken of its virtual
machine.
Prerequisites
Power off the virtual machine and delete any existing snapshots before you change the disk mode. Deleting
a snapshot involves committing the existing data on the snapshot disk to the parent disk.
Required privileges:
n
Virtual machine .Snapshot management.Remove Snapshot
n
Virtual machine.Configuration.Modify device settings
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory and select Edit Settings.
2
On the Virtual Hardware tab, expand Hard disk, and select an independent disk mode option.
3
Option
Description
Independent - Persistent
Disks in persistent mode behave like conventional disks on your physical
computer. All data written to a disk in persistent mode are written
permanently to the disk.
Independent - Nonpersistent
Changes to disks in nonpersistent mode are discarded when you power off
or reset the virtual machine. With nonpersistent mode, you can restart the
virtual machine with a virtual disk in the same state every time. Changes
to the disk are written to and read from a redo log file that is deleted when
you power off or reset.
Click OK.
Taking a Snapshot
Snapshots capture the entire state of the virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot. You can take a
snapshot when a virtual machine is powered on, powered off, or suspended. If you are suspending a virtual
machine, wait until the suspend operation finishes before you take a snapshot.
When you create a memory snapshot, the snapshot captures the state of the virtual machine's memory and
the virtual machine power settings. When you capture the virtual machine's memory state, the snapshot
operation takes longer to complete. You might also see a momentary lapse in response over the network.
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When you quiesce a virtual machine, VMware Tools quiesces the file system in the virtual machine. The
quiesce operation pauses or alters the state of running processes on the virtual machine, especially processes
that might modify information stored on the disk during a restore operation.
Application-consistent quiescing is not supported for virtual machines with IDE or SATA disks.
Note If you take a snapshot of a Dynamic Disk (Microsoft specific disk type), the snapshot technology
preserves the quiesce state of the file system, but does not preserve the quiesce state of the application.
Prerequisites
n
If you are taking a memory snapshot of a virtual machine that has multiple disks in different disk
modes, verify that the virtual machine is powered off. For example, if you have a special purpose
configuration that requires you to use an independent disk, you must power off the virtual machine
before taking a snapshot.
n
To capture the memory state of the virtual machine, verify that the virtual machine is powered on.
n
To quiesce the virtual machine files, verify that the virtual machine is powered on and that VMware
Tools is installed.
n
Verify that you have the Virtual machine .Snapshot management. Create snapshot privilege on the
virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click the virtual machine the inventory and select Snapshots > Take Snapshot.
a
To locate a virtual machine, select a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, host, or vApp.
b
Click the VMs tab and click Virtual Machines.
2
Type a name for the snapshot.
3
(Optional) Type a description for the snapshot.
4
(Optional) Select the Snapshot the virtual machine’s memory check box to capture the memory of the
virtual machine.
5
(Optional) Deselect Snapshot the virtual machine's memory and select the Quiesce guest file system
(Needs VMware Tools installed) check box to pause running processes on the guest operating system
so that file system contents are in a known consistent state when you take the snapshot.
Quiesce the virtual machine files only when the virtual machine is powered on and you do not want to
capture the virtual machine's memory.
6
Click OK.
Restoring Snapshots
To return a virtual machine to its original state, or to return to another snapshot in the snapshot hierarchy,
you can restore a snapshot.
When you restore a snapshot, you return the virtual machine's memory, settings, and the state of the virtual
machine disks to the state they were in at the time you took the snapshot. If you want the virtual machine to
be suspended, powered on, or powered off when you start it, make sure that it is in the correct state when
you take the snapshot.
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You can restore snapshots in the following ways:
Revert to Latest
Snapshot
Restores the parent snapshot, one level up in the hierarchy from the You are
Here position. Revert to Latest Snapshot activates the parent snapshot of the
current state of the virtual machine.
Revert To
Lets you restore any snapshot in the snapshot tree and makes that snapshot
the parent snapshot of the current state of the virtual machine. Subsequent
snapshots from this point create a new branch of the snapshot tree.
Restoring snapshots has the following effects:
n
The current disk and memory states are discarded, and the virtual machine reverts to the disk and
memory states of the parent snapshot.
n
Existing snapshots are not removed. You can restore those snapshots at any time.
n
If the snapshot includes the memory state, the virtual machine will be in the same power state as when
you created the snapshot.
Table 9‑1. Virtual Machine Power State After Restoring a Snapshot
Virtual Machine State When Parent Snapshot Is
Taken
Virtual Machine State After Restoration
Powered on (includes memory)
Reverts to the parent snapshot, and the virtual machine is
powered on and running.
Powered on (does not include memory)
Reverts to the parent snapshot and the virtual machine is
powered off.
Powered off (does not include memory)
Reverts to the parent snapshot and the virtual machine is
powered off.
Virtual machines running certain kinds of workloads can take several minutes to resume responsiveness
after reverting from a snapshot.
Note vApp metadata for virtual machines in vApps does not follow the snapshot semantics for virtual
machine configuration. vApp properties that are deleted, modified, or defined after a snapshot is taken
remain intact (deleted, modified, or defined) after the virtual machine reverts to that snapshot or any
previous snapshots.
Revert to the Latest Snapshot
When you revert to the latest snapshot, you immediately restore the parent snapshot of the virtual machine.
When you revert to a snapshot, disks that you added or changed after the snapshot was taken are reverted
to the snapshot point. For example, when you take a snapshot of a virtual machine, add a disk, and revert
the snapshot, the added disk is removed.
Independent disks are also removed when you revert to a snapshot that was taken before the disk was
added. If the latest snapshot includes an independent disk, its contents do not change when you revert to
that snapshot.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Virtual machine .Snapshot management.Revert to snapshot privilege on the
virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click a virtual machine in the inventory, and select Revert to Latest Snapshot.
2
When prompted, click Yes.
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The virtual machine power and data states are returned to the states they were in at the time you took the
parent snapshot. If the parent snapshot is a memory snapshot, the virtual machine is restored to an on
power state.
Revert to a Snapshot
Revert to a snapshot to restore the virtual machine to the state of that snapshot.
Prerequisites
Verify that you have the Virtual machine .Snapshot management.Revert to snapshot privilege on the
virtual machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click the virtual machine and select Manage Snapshots.
2
In the Snapshot Manager, click a snapshot to select it.
3
Click Revert to to restore the virtual machine to the snapshot.
The Revert to command lets you restore the state of any snapshot.
4
Click Yes in the confirmation dialog box.
5
Click Close to exit the Snapshot Manager.
Deleting Snapshots
Deleting a snapshot removes the snapshot from the Snapshot Manager. The snapshot files are consolidated
and written to the parent snapshot disk and merge with the virtual machine base disk.
Deleting a snapshot leaves the current state of the virtual machine or any other snapshot untouched.
Deleting a snapshot consolidates the changes between snapshots and previous disk states and writes to the
parent disk all data from the delta disk that contains the information about the deleted snapshot. When you
delete the base parent snapshot, all changes merge with the base virtual machine disk.
Deleting snapshots involves large amounts of disk reads and writes, which can reduce virtual machine
performance until consolidation is complete. Consolidating snapshots removes redundant disks, which
improves virtual machine performance and saves storage space. The time it takes to delete snapshots and
consolidate the snapshot files depends on the volume of data that the guest operating system wrote to the
virtual disks after you took the last snapshot. The required time is proportional to the amount of data the
virtual machine is writing during consolidation if the virtual machine is powered on.
If disk consolidation fails when you delete a snapshot or delete all snapshots and you notice a degradation
in virtual machine performance, you can view a list of virtual machines to determine if any files require
consolidation, and if so, run a separate consolidation operation. For information about locating and viewing
the consolidation state of multiple virtual machines and running a separate consolidation operation, see
“Consolidate Snapshots,” on page 201.
Delete
Use the Delete option to remove a single parent or child snapshot from the
snapshot tree. Delete writes disk changes between the snapshot and the
previous delta disk state to the parent snapshot.
You can also use the Delete option to remove a corrupt snapshot and its files
from an abandoned branch of the snapshot tree without merging them with
the parent snapshot.
Delete All
200
Use the Delete All option to delete all snapshots from the Snapshot Manager.
Delete all consolidates and writes changes between snapshots and previous
delta disk states to the base parent disk and merges them with the base
virtual machine disk.
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Chapter 9 Managing Virtual Machines
To prevent snapshot files from merging with the parent snapshot, for example in cases of failed updates or
installations, first use the Go to command to restore to a previous snapshot. This action invalidates the
snapshot delta disks and deletes the memory file. You can then use the Delete option to remove the
snapshot and any associated files.
Delete a Snapshot in the vSphere Web Client
You can use the Snapshot Manager to delete a single snapshot or all snapshots in a snapshot tree.
Use care when you delete snapshots. You cannot restore a deleted snapshot. For example, you might want to
install several browsers, a, b, and c, and capture the virtual machine state after you install each browser. The
first, or base snapshot, captures the virtual machine with browser a and the second snapshot captures
browser b. If you restore the base snapshot that includes browser a and take a third snapshot to capture
browser c and delete the snapshot that contains browser b, you cannot return to the virtual machine state
that includes browser b.
Prerequisites
n
Ensure that you are familiar with the Delete and Delete all actions and how they might affect virtual
machine performance. See “Deleting Snapshots,” on page 200.
n
Required Privilege: Virtual machine .Snapshot management.Remove Snapshot on the virtual
machine.
Procedure
1
Right-click the virtual machine and select Manage Snapshots.
a
To locate a virtual machine, select a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, host, or vApp.
b
Click the VMs tab and click Virtual Machines.
2
In the Snapshot Manager, click a snapshot to select it.
3
Select whether to delete a single snapshot or all snapshots.
Option
Description
Delete
Consolidates the snapshot data to the parent snapshot and removes the
selected snapshot from the Snapshot Manager and virtual machine.
Delete All
Consolidates all of the immediate snapshots before the You are here
current state to the base parent disk and removes all existing snapshots
from the Snapshot Manager and virtual machine.
4
Click Yes in the confirmation dialog box.
5
Click Close to exit the Snapshot Manager.
Consolidate Snapshots
The presence of redundant delta disks can adversely affect virtual machine performance. You can combine
such disks without violating a data dependency. After consolidation, redundant disks are removed, which
improves virtual machine performance and saves storage space.
Snapshot consolidation is useful when snapshot disks fail to compress after a Delete or Delete all operation.
This might happen, for example, if you delete a snapshot but its associated disk does not commit back to the
base disk.
The Needs Consolidation column in the vSphere Web Client shows the virtual machines to consolidate.
Prerequisites
Required privilege: Virtual machine .Snapshot management.Remove Snapshot
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Procedure
1
Show the Needs Consolidation column.
a
Select a vCenter Server instance, a host, or a cluster and click the VMs tab and click Virtual
Machines.
b
Right-click the menu bar for any virtual machine column and select Show/Hide Columns > Needs
Consolidation.
A Yes status indicates that the snapshot files for the virtual machine should be consolidated, and that
the virtual machine's Tasks and Events tab shows a configuration problem. A No status indicates that
the files are OK.
2
To consolidate the files, right-click the virtual machine and select Snapshots > Consolidate.
3
Check the Needs Consolidation column to verify that the task succeeded.
If the task succeeded, a Not Required value appears in the Needs Consolidation column.
4
If the task failed, check the event log for failed conditions, such as running out of disk space.
5
Correct the error, and retry the consolidation task.
The configuration problem is resolved, and the Needs Consolidation value is Not Required.
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Upgrading Virtual Machines
10
After you perform an ESX/ESXi upgrade, you can upgrade all of the virtual machines that reside on the host
to take advantage of new features.
To determine whether your virtual machines are compatible with the new version of ESXi, see “Virtual
Machine Compatibility,” on page 87. For a list of hardware features available to virtual machines with each
ESXi compatibility setting, see “Hardware Features Available with Virtual Machine Compatibility Settings,”
on page 91.
The first step in upgrading virtual machines is to upgrade VMware Tools. Installing VMware Tools is part of
the process of creating a new virtual machine. If you are installing VMware Tools in multiple virtual
machines with Windows guest operating systems, you can automate its installation and specify options for
the components to include or exclude. For information about installing, upgrading, and configuring
VMware Tools, see the VMware Tools User Guide.
If the virtual machines do not have VMware Tools installed, you can use the VMware Tools upgrade
procedure to install VMware Tools. After you install or upgrade VMware Tools, upgrade the virtual
machine compatibility.
Note Do not use vmware-vmupgrade.exe to upgrade virtual machines.
VMware offers the following tools for upgrading virtual machines:
vSphere Web Client
Requires you to perform the virtual machine upgrade one step at a time, but
does not require vSphere Update Manager.
vSphere Update
Manager
Automates the process of upgrading and patching virtual machines,
ensuring that the steps occur in the correct order. You can use Update
Manager to directly upgrade virtual machine hardware, VMware Tools, and
virtual appliances. You can also patch and update third-party software
running on the virtual machines and virtual appliances. See the Installing and
Administering VMware vSphere Update Manager documentation.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n
“Planning Downtime for Virtual Machines,” on page 204
n
“Downtime for Upgrading Virtual Machines,” on page 204
n
“Upgrade the Compatibility for Virtual Machines,” on page 205
n
“Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for Virtual Machines,” on page 206
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Planning Downtime for Virtual Machines
Plan downtime for each virtual machine during the upgrade process. Typically, this downtime occurs
during the virtual machine upgrade and the VMware Tools upgrade. Depending on your upgrade plan,
some virtual machine downtime might be required during the ESX upgrade.
If an ESX/ESXi host is not managed by vCenter Server, you cannot use vMotion to move virtual machines.
The virtual machines must have some downtime when the ESX/ESXi host reboots after upgrade.
You might not have to shut down more than a single virtual machine at any given time. You can stagger
virtual machine downtimes to accommodate a schedule convenient to you and your customers.
For example:
n
If your virtual machine users are located in diverse time zones, you can prepare by migrating virtual
machines to specific hosts to serve a given time zone. This way you can arrange host upgrades so that
virtual machine downtime occurs transparently outside business hours for that time zone.
n
If your virtual machine users operate around the clock, you can delay downtime for their virtual
machines to normally scheduled maintenance periods. You do not need to upgrade any stage within a
certain time period. You can take as long as needed at any stage.
Downtime for Upgrading Virtual Machines
When you upgrade virtual machines, the required downtime depends on the guest operating system and
the type of upgrade you are performing.
When you upgrade VMware Tools, expect the following downtime:
n
No downtime is required for vCenter Server.
n
No downtime is required for ESXi hosts.
n
For Windows guest operating systems, you must restart the virtual machines at the end of the upgrade
procedure, or later, for the upgrade take effect. You must always restart the virtual machine after you
upgrade VMware Tools and after you upgrade the virtual machine compatibility.
n
For Linux guest operating systems, you must restart the virtual machine to load the new versions of the
VMXNET, VMXNET3, and PVSCSI drivers. You can also manually reload the drivers. To verify that the
drivers are configured in the Linux kernel and that the virtual hardware is available, see Knowledge
Base article, http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2050364. Note that manual restart is not required for the Linux
guest operating system using kernel version 3.10.
n
For BSD, NetWare, Solaris, and Mac OS X guest operating systems, no restart is required at the end of
the procedure.
During the virtual machine compatibility upgrade, you must shut down the virtual machine for all guest
operating systems.
Table 10‑1. Virtual Machine Downtime by Guest Operating System
204
Guest Operating System
Upgrade VMware Tools
Upgrade Virtual Machine Compatibility
Microsoft Windows
Downtime to restart the guest
operating system.
Downtime to shut down and power on the
virtual machine.
Linux
Downtime to restart the guest
operating system is required to load
drivers.
Downtime to shut down and power on the
virtual machine.
NetWare
No downtime.
Downtime to shut down and power on the
virtual machine.
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Chapter 10 Upgrading Virtual Machines
Table 10‑1. Virtual Machine Downtime by Guest Operating System (Continued)
Guest Operating System
Upgrade VMware Tools
Upgrade Virtual Machine Compatibility
Solaris
No downtime.
Downtime to shut down and power on the
virtual machine.
FreeBSD
No downtime.
Downtime to shut down and power on the
virtual machine.
Mac OS X
No downtime.
Downtime to shut down and power on the
virtual machine.
Upgrade the Compatibility for Virtual Machines
The virtual machine compatibility determines the virtual hardware available to the virtual machine, which
corresponds to the physical hardware available on the host machine. You can upgrade the compatibility
level to make a virtual machine compatible with the latest version of ESXi running on the host.
This procedure upgrades one or more virtual machines to the latest supported virtual hardware version
immediately. To schedule an upgrade for the next virtual machine reboot, and choose from all supported
virtual hardware upgrade versions, see “Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for Virtual Machines,” on
page 206.
For information about virtual machine hardware versions and compatibility, see “Virtual Machine
Compatibility,” on page 87.
Prerequisites
n
Create a backup or snapshot of the virtual machines. See “Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual
Machines,” on page 192.
n
Upgrade VMware Tools. On Microsoft Windows virtual machines, if you upgrade the compatibility
before you upgrade VMware Tools, the virtual machine might automatically lose its network settings.
n
Verify that all virtual machines and their .vmdk files are stored on storage connected to the ESXi host or
the host cluster.
n
Verify that the compatibility settings for the virtual machines are not the latest supported version.
n
Determine the ESXi versions that you want the virtual machines to be compatible with. See “Virtual
Machine Compatibility,” on page 87.
Procedure
1
Log in to the vCenter Server from the vSphere Web Client.
2
Select the virtual machines.
a
Select a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host.
b
Click the VMs tab, and click Virtual Machines.
3
Power off the selected virtual machines.
4
Select Actions > Compatibility > Upgrade VM Compatibility....
5
Click Yes to confirm the upgrade.
6
Select the ESXi versions for the virtual machines to be compatible with.
7
Click OK.
The selected virtual machines are upgraded to the corresponding hardware version for the Compatibility
setting that you chose, and the new hardware version is updated in the Summary tab of the virtual machine.
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What to do next
Power on the virtual machines.
Schedule a Compatibility Upgrade for Virtual Machines
The virtual machine compatibility determines the virtual hardware available to the virtual machine, which
corresponds to the physical hardware available on the host. You can schedule a compatibility upgrade to
make a virtual machine compatible with newer versions of ESXi.
Use this procedure to schedule an upgrade of one or more virtual machines at the next reboot of the virtual
machine, and choose from all supported compatibility level upgrades. To upgrade virtual machines
immediately to the latest supported compatibility, see “Upgrade the Compatibility for Virtual Machines,” on
page 205.
For information about virtual machine hardware versions and compatibility, see “Virtual Machine
Compatibility,” on page 87.
Prerequisites
n
Create a backup or snapshot of the virtual machines. See “Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual
Machines,” on page 192.
n
Upgrade to the latest version of VMware Tools. If you upgrade the compatibility before you upgrade
VMware Tools, the virtual machine might lose its network settings.
n
Verify that all .vmdk files are available to the ESX/ESXi host on a VMFS3, VMFS5, or NFS datastore.
n
Verify that the virtual machines are stored on VMFS3, VMFS5 or NFS datastores.
n
Verify that the compatibility settings for the virtual machines are not the latest supported version.
n
Determine the ESXi versions that you want the virtual machines to be compatible with. See “Virtual
Machine Compatibility,” on page 87.
Procedure
1
Log in to the vCenter Server from the vSphere Web Client.
2
Select the virtual machines.
a
Select a datacenter, folder, cluster, resource pool, or host.
b
Click the VMs tab and click Virtual Machines.
3
Power off the selected virtual machines.
4
Select Actions > Compatibility > Schedule VM Compatibility Upgrade....
5
Click Yes to confirm the upgrade.
6
Select the ESXi versions for the virtual machines to be compatible with.
7
(Optional) Select Only upgrade after normal guest OS shutdown.
This prevents the scheduled upgrade from occurring unless the guest operating system of the virtual
machine is shut down or restarted normally.
Each of the selected virtual machines is upgraded to the compatibility that you chose at the next reboot of
the virtual machine, and the Compatibility setting is updated in the Summary tab of the virtual machine.
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Required Privileges for Common
Tasks
11
Many tasks require permissions on more than one object in the inventory. You can review the privileges that
are required to perform the tasks and, where applicable, the appropriate sample roles.
The table below lists common tasks that require more than one privilege. You can add permissions to
inventory objects by pairing a user with one of the predefined roles, or you can create custom roles with the
set of privileges that you expect to use multiple times.
If the task that you want to perform is not in this table, the following rules can help you determine where
you must assign permissions to allow particular operations:
n
Any operation that consumes storage space, such as creating a virtual disk or taking a snapshot,
requires the Datastore.Allocate Space privilege on the target datastore, as well as the privilege to
perform the operation itself.
n
Moving an object in the inventory hierarchy requires appropriate privileges on the object itself, the
source parent object (such as a folder or cluster), and the destination parent object.
n
Each host and cluster has its own implicit resource pool that contains all the resources of that host or
cluster. Deploying a virtual machine directly to a host or cluster requires the Resource.Assign Virtual
Machine to Resource Pool privilege.
Table 11‑1. Required Privileges for Common Tasks
Task
Required Privileges
Applicable Role
Create a virtual machine
On the destination folder or data center:
n Virtual machine .Inventory.Create new
n Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk (if creating a new
virtual disk)
n Virtual machine.Configuration.Add existing disk (if using an
existing virtual disk)
n Virtual machine.Configuration.Raw device (if using an RDM or
SCSI pass-through device)
Administrator
On the destination host, cluster, or resource pool:
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool
Resource pool
administrator or
Administrator
On the destination datastore or folder containing a datastore:
Datastore.Allocate space
Datastore
Consumer or
Administrator
On the network that the virtual machine will be assigned to:
Network.Assign network
Network
Consumer or
Administrator
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Table 11‑1. Required Privileges for Common Tasks (Continued)
Task
Required Privileges
Applicable Role
Deploy a virtual machine
from a template
On the destination folder or data center:
n Virtual machine .Inventory.Create from existing
n Virtual machine.Configuration.Add new disk
Administrator
On a template or folder of templates:
Virtual machine .Provisioning.Deploy template
Administrator
On the destination host, cluster or resource pool:
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool
Administrator
On the destination datastore or folder of datastores:
Datastore.Allocate space
Datastore
Consumer or
Administrator
On the network that the virtual machine will be assigned to:
Network.Assign network
Network
Consumer or
Administrator
Take a virtual machine
snapshot
On the virtual machine or a folder of virtual machines:
Virtual machine .Snapshot management. Create snapshot
Virtual Machine
Power User or
Administrator
Move a virtual machine into
a resource pool
On the virtual machine or folder of virtual machines:
n Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool
n Virtual machine .Inventory.Move
Administrator
On the destination resource pool:
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool
Administrator
On the virtual machine or folder of virtual machines:
Virtual machine.Interaction .Answer question
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Console interaction
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Device connection
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Power Off
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Power On
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Reset
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Configure CD media (if installing
from a CD)
n Virtual machine .Interaction .Configure floppy media (if
installing from a floppy disk)
n Virtual machine .Interaction .VMware Tools install
Virtual Machine
Power User or
Administrator
On a datastore containing the installation media ISO image:
Datastore.Browse datastore (if installing from an ISO image on a
datastore)
On the datastore to which you upload the installation media ISO
image:
Virtual Machine
Power User or
Administrator
Install a guest operating
system on a virtual machine
n
n
n
Migrate a virtual machine
with vMotion
208
Datastore.Browse datastore
Datastore.Low level file operations
n
On the virtual machine or folder of virtual machines:
Resource.Migrate powered on virtual machine
n Resource.Assign Virtual Machine to Resource Pool (if
destination is a different resource pool from the source)
Resource Pool
Administrator or
Administrator
On the destination host, cluster, or resource pool (if different from the
source):
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool
Resource Pool
Administrator or
Administrator
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Chapter 11 Required Privileges for Common Tasks
Table 11‑1. Required Privileges for Common Tasks (Continued)
Task
Required Privileges
Applicable Role
Cold migrate (relocate) a
virtual machine
On the virtual machine or folder of virtual machines:
n Resource.Migrate powered off virtual machine
n Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool (if destination
is a different resource pool from the source)
Resource Pool
Administrator or
Administrator
On the destination host, cluster, or resource pool (if different from the
source):
Resource.Assign virtual machine to resource pool
Resource Pool
Administrator or
Administrator
On the destination datastore (if different from the source):
Datastore.Allocate space
Datastore
Consumer or
Administrator
On the virtual machine or folder of virtual machines:
Resource.Migrate powered on virtual machine
Resource Pool
Administrator or
Administrator
On the destination datastore:
Datastore.Allocate space
Datastore
Consumer or
Administrator
On the host:
Host.Inventory.Add host to cluster
Administrator
On the destination cluster:
Host.Inventory.Add host to cluster
Administrator
Migrate a virtual machine
with Storage vMotion
Move a host into a cluster
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Index
Numerics
3D graphics
drivers for 135
enabling 137
rendering options 135
requirements 135
selecting renderer 137
vendors 135
A
acceleration, disabling 161
adapters, See storage controllers
add Guest OS specification 54
Add SSO Users 156
adding
floppy drives 133
network adapters 104
NVMe controllers 126
NVMe devices 126
PCI devices 135
SATA controllers 124
SCSI controllers 125
SCSI devices 134
USB devices to client computers 148
agent manager 184
AHCI SATA controller, See storage controllers
AMD override mask 97
apply Guest OS specification to a virtual
machine 54
Authoring options, OVF 179
autoconnect feature, for USB passthrough 140
B
boot sequence, delaying 160
C
CD drives
adding 131
client devices 131
host devices 130
cloning
datastore considerations 41, 44
existing virtual machines 30, 36
templates to templates 42
virtual machine to template in content
library 79
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virtual machines to templates 38, 39
virtual machines 19, 32, 34
VM template to template in content library 79
compatibility
and hardware features 91
schedule upgrade for single virtual
machine 90
schedule upgrade for virtual machines 206
setting virtual machine default 89
upgrading virtual machine 90
upgrading virtual machines 205
virtual machines 23, 87
compatibility, virtual machine 90
computer names, generating with a script 48
configuration files, virtual machines 155, 162
configuration parameters, virtual machines 162
configuring
Flash Read Cache 121
floppy drives 132
parallel ports 112
SCSI devices 134
serial ports 107
video cards 137
VM network adapters 103
VM NICs 103
Configuring Guest User Mappings Guest User
Mappings 155
consoles, viewing virtual machine 188
consolidation 12
content library
administrator 77
clone items between libraries 80
clone objects 77
clone templates between libraries 80
clone vApp to vApp template 79
cloning library items between libraries 80
create vApp on a cluster 84
create vApp on a host 84
create virtual machine from VM template 84
create virtual machine on a cluster 84
create virtual machine on a host 84
creating vApps 84
creating VMs 84
delete 74
deploy virtual machine 84
211
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
description 69
edit settings 73
export item 82
how to use 69
import file 78
import items 78
import OVF 78
import item 77
import item from local file on your system 78
import item from URL 78
import item from Web server 78
ISO file 130
ISO image 130
overview 69
permissions 75
updating item 82
updating file 82
updating VM templates 79
URL 73
user roles 77
users 77
content library ISO file 130
controllers, See storage controllers
converting
in smaller IT environments 19
physical systems 19
templates to virtual machines 45, 46
CPU performance counters, enabling 98
CPU configuration, virtual machines 95
CPUs
configuring 95
defined 93
disabling security 97
enabling CPU/MMU Virtualization 99
enabling hardware assisted virtualization 98
enabling virtual performance counters 98
hot plug 95
identification mask 97
limitations 94
limits 96
parameters 93
performance with hyperthreaded hosts 94
reservation 96
resources 96
scheduling affinity 96
shares 96
create
vApp from vApp template in a library to a host
or a cluster 84
vApp from a vApp template in library 84
212
virtual machine from VM template in library 84
virtual machine from content library to a host
or a cluster 84
creating
content library 71
datastore considerations 22
vApps 165
virtual machines 20
custom sysprep answer file 59
customization
changing specifications 60
copying specifications 61
creating Linux specifications 55
creating Windows specification 59
creating Windows specifications 56
exporting specifications 61
guest operating system requirements 47
importing specifications 61
Linux 47
user settings 31, 37
Windows 47
customization specifications, user settings 31,
37
D
data centers 12
datastores
ISO file 129
leaving sufficient disk space 22, 29, 35, 41, 44
roll in data center 12
selecting 22, 29, 35, 41, 44
selecting storage policy 29, 35, 41, 44
sparse file behavior 29, 35, 41, 44
thin provisioning considerations 29, 35, 41, 44
uploading ISO image files 26
debugging mode, for virtual machine 161
default compatibility, setting for virtual
machines 89
delaying, boot sequence 160
deleting
snapshots 201
templates 191
deploy, virtual machine from VM template in a
library 84
deploying
datastore considerations 29, 35
OVF templates 63, 64
virtual machines from templates 30, 36
disabling, acceleration 161
disk formats
thick provisioned 113
thin provisioned 113
virtual machines 122
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Index
disks
format 122
limits 121
shares 121
See also virtual disks
downtime
during compatibility upgrade 204
during VMware Tools upgrade 204
DVD drives
adding 131
client devices 131
host devices 130
E
edit settings, subscribed library 74
editing, vApp properties 167, 168
Enhanced Authentication Plug-in 187
ESX Agent Manager 184
ESXi, managing single host 12
exporting
OVF templates 63, 68
virtual machines 68
F
Fibre Channel NPIV settings 163
Flash Read Cache 113, 121
floppy drives
adding 133
configuring 132
G
graphics, See 3D graphics
guest customization
changing specifications 60
copying specifications 61
creating Linux specifications 55
creating Windows specifications 56, 59
exporting specifications 61
importing specifications 61
Linux customization during cloning or
deployment 52
removing specifications 60
requirements 47
scripts 48
specifications 54
Windows customization during cloning or
deployment 49
guest operating systems
configuring 155
customization requirements 47
customizing 31, 37
installing 24, 25
selecting 23
Guest User Mappings 156
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H
hard disks
adding 115, 116
adding boot disk 115
adding SCSI controllers for 115
adding to a virtual machine 118
SCSI device node options 115
hardware, virtual machine 13, 87
hardware devices
SATA controllers 124
SCSI controllers 125
hardware assisted virtualization, enabling 98
host devices
CD drives 130
DVD drives 130
hosts, viable for migration 97
hot add enablement 95, 101
HTML 5 188
HTML 5 remote console 187, 188
I
image files, ISO 128, 129
importing items to a library 78
install, VMware Tools 203
installation media, uploading 26
installing
guest operating systems from media 25
guest operating systems over PXE 24
Virtual Machine Remote Console Plug-in 188
inventory folders 12
IP allocation, vApp 181
IP address configuration 175, 176
IP addresses, generating with a script 48
ISO file 130
ISO image 130
ISO image files, uploading to datastore 26
L
legacy virtual machines, NICs 103
library
add content 77
administrator 77
clone items between libraries 80
clone templates between libraries 80
clone vApp to vApp template 79
cloning library items between libraries 80
create virtual machine from VM template 84
create vApp on a cluster 84
create vApp on a host 84
create virtual machine on a cluster 84
create virtual machine on a host 84
creating 71
deploy vApp on a cluster 84
213
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
deploy vApp on a host 84
deploy virtual machine 84
edit settings 73
export item 82
import files 77
import items 78
import OVF 78
import item from local file on your system 78
import item from URL 78
import item from Web server 78
items 81
methods to add content 77
permissions 75
populate with contents 77
synchronize 72
upload file 78
URL 73
user roles 77
users 77
library item
delete 83
delete content 83
delete the content of an item 83
synchronize 81
updating 82
library items 81
licensing, for resources, options, and
hardware 12
Linux
customizing during cloning or deployment 52
guest operating system customization 47
requirements for customization 47
logging, enabling 161
LUNs 113
M
mask values 97
memory, hot adding 101
memory resources, allocating 100
migration
cold 185
cross-host Storage vMotion 113
hot 185
storage 113
migration with vMotion, conditions for USB
passthrough 141
multicore CPUs 94
N
name-ip-generator 48
names, virtual machines 154
214
network adapters
adding 104
supported types 102
network association settings 175
network protocol profile
associating with a port group 177
configuring vApp 177
configuring virtual machine 177
networks, IP address configuration 175, 176
NIC, See network adapters
NICs
adding 104
legacy virtual machines 103
NVMe controllers 126
NVMe devices 126
NX flag 97
O
Open Virtual Machine Format, See also OVF
operating systems, guest 24
options
vApps 178
virtual machine 153
OVA, selecting, See also OVF
OVF
browsing virtual appliance marketplace 67
deploying
accept license agreements 65
configure networks 66
configure vService dependency 67
customize template 67
deployment configuration 65
review details 65
select resource 65
select source 64
select storage 66
specify name and location 64
deploying templates 63
exporting templates 63, 68
folder location for files 68
settings 182
OVF Authoring options 179
P
parallel ports
adding 112
configuring 112
paravirtualized SCSI adapters 128
PCI devices, adding 135
PCI device 138
ports
adding parallel 112
VMware, Inc.
Index
parallel 106
serial 106
power off
vApps 173
virtual machines 157
power on
vApps 173
virtual machines 157
power states, virtual machine 157
preboot execution environment 24
preface 7
privileges, required
for cloning virtual machines to templates 38
for cloning templates to templates 42
for cloning virtual machines 32
for common tasks 207
for converting templates to virtual
machines 45
for creating virtual machines 20
for deploying virtual machines from
templates 26
provisioning, virtual machines 17
published library
creating 71
published library, optimize for syncing
over HTTP 71
PXE 24
R
raw device mappings 113, 119
RDMs, adding to a virtual machine 119
Reduce Memory overhead 139
registering, virtual machines 190
remote console 187
Remove SSO Users 156
required privileges
for cloning templates to templates 42
for cloning virtual machines to templates 38
for converting templates to virtual
machines 45
for adding SCSI controllers 125
for changing SCSI controller type 127
for cloning virtual machines 32
for common tasks 207
for creating virtual machines 20
for deploying virtual machines from
templates 26
resetting virtual machines 157
resource pools, selecting 22, 29, 35, 46
resources, virtual machine 13
resources, virtual machine 15
restart settings, for virtual machines 157
VMware, Inc.
resume
vApps 174
virtual machines 157
S
SAN LUNs 113
SATA controllers
adding 124
default behavior 123
guest operating system support 124
maximum number of 123
node assignment 123
See also storage controllers
scheduling affinity 96
SCSI, bus sharing 126
SCSI controllers
adding 123, 125
and virtual device nodes 123
changing type 127
default virtual hard disk assignments 123
maximum number of 123
types 123
SCSI adapters, paravirtualized 128
SCSI devices
adding 134
configuring 134
secure boot 159
selecting
datastores 22, 29, 35, 41, 44
templates 28
serial ports
adding 110
adding Firewall rule set 107
authentication parameters 109
conditions for network connections 107
conditions for physical connections 106
configuring 107
connection types 106
URI for network connection 109
services, VMware Tools 203
shutdown, settings for virtual machines 157
shutdown, settings, for virtual machines 185
single host management 12
smart card reader
adding to virtual machines 152
shared 152
snapshot, delta disks 194
snapshots
about 192
avoiding use as virtual machine backups 195
behavior 192
bus-sharing limitation 195
child 192
consolidating 201
215
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
copy-on-write 194
Delete all option 200
Delete option 200
deleting 200, 201
delta disks 192
files 194
for virtual machines with large capacity
disks 195
hierarchy 192
limitations 195
manage 195
memory 196
memory files 194
parent 192
performance impact of 195
quiescing 197
quiescing virtual machine files 196
restoring 198
reverting to 198–200
Snapshot Manager 195
sparse disks 194
taking 196, 197
unsupported disk types 195
virtual machine activity 196
solutions, monitor 183
solutions,viewing 183
standby settings, for virtual machines 157
startup settings, for virtual machines 185
statistics, virtual machines 161
storage 113
storage controllers
adding SATA 124
adding SCSI 125
AHCI SATA 123
and snapshots 123
BusLogic Parallel 123
changing type 127
compatibility 123
IDE 123
limitations for VMware Paravirtual SCSI 127
limitations of 123
LSI Logic SAS 123
maximum number of 123
required privileges for changing type 127
SCSI 123
VMware Paravirtual SCSI 123, 127
Storage vMotion, file name behavior 154
subscribed library
create 71
edit settings 74
synchronize 72
subscribed library item, synchronize 81
216
suspending
vApps 173
virtual machines 157
swap files, virtual machines 162
synchronize an item in a library 81
Sysprep Answer Files
custom 59
sysprep.inf 59
sysprep.xml 59
T
taking, snapshots 197
templates
cloning to templates 43
converting to virtual machines 45, 46
creating 19
customizing guest operating systems 31, 37
deleting 191
deploying from 26
deploying virtual machines 28
finishing creation 42, 45
OVF 68
providing name and location 40, 43
removing from inventory 191
renaming 191
returning to inventory 192
returning to vCenter Server 190
selecting 28
selecting resource for 40, 44
selecting template to clone 43
unregistering 191
thin provisioned disks 122
U
UEFI secure boot, virtual machines 159
updated information 9
updating, VM templates 79
upgrade, VMware Tools 203
uploading files to datastore 26
USB passthrough
arbitrator for 139
autoconnect feature 140
avoiding data loss 142, 146
configuring from a client computer to a
VM 146
configuring from a host to a virtual
machine 139
controllers for 139, 146
devices, See also USB devices
DRS requirements 141
features supported with 141
VMware, Inc.
Index
USB controllers
adding to virtual machine 143, 148
removing from virtual machine 151
USB devices
adding from client computer to VM in the
vSphere Web Client 150
adding to client computers 148
adding to hosts 143
cascading hubs 142
compound 142
configuring for vMotion 141
connecting to a client computer 147
device limits for Mac OS X guests 146
ejecting from guest OS 145
removing client computer device from VM 150
removing from host 146
removing from remote client 151
removing host device from virtual
machine 145
setting up on host 142
USB passthrough devices 145
using, Virtual Machine Remote Console 188
using library items 81
utilities, VMware Tools 203
V
vApp
clone to template in library 79
custom properties 181
deploy from vApp template in a library 84
IP allocation 181
network protocol profile 177
vApp options, advanced 180
vApp power operations 173
vApp properties 179
vApp templates in content libraries 81
vApps
adding objects to 167
cloning 172
configuring IPv4 175
configuring IPv6 176
configuring networks 170
creating 165
creating objects inside 167
editing annotations 174
editing properties 167, 168
editing resources 169
managing 165
options 178
power off settings 173
power on settings 173
product properties 171
VMware, Inc.
resuming 174
selecting network associations 175
shutdown options 170
startup options 170
suspending 173
viewing license agreement 172
viewing OVF Sections 169
vCenter Server 12
vCenter Solutions Manager 183
video cards, configuring 137
virtual devices
adding USB controller 143, 148
CPU limitations 94
See also virtual hardware
virtual disks
configuration 115
configuring 113
disk mode 197
formats 113
greater than 2TB 114
high capacity 114
limitations for high capacity 114
requirements for high capacity 114
requirements for guest operating system
customization 47
sparse 113
thick format 122
thin provisioning 113
thin format 122
virtual hard disks, adding 115, 116
virtual hardware
adding USB devices 150
CPU advanced settings 96
CPU/MMU enablement 99
hot add enablement 95
licenses for 12
multicore CPUs 94
parallel ports 112
serial ports 110
upgrading 203
video cards 137
virtual hardware upgrade, downtime 204
virtual infrastructure 12
virtual machine
cloning to VM template in library 79
customization specification 54
Guest OS 54
network protocol profile 177
virtual machine compatibility
determining on host, cluster, or datacenter 90
determining on virtual machine 90
hardware features available with 91
selecting for virtual machine creation 87
217
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
setting default 87
upgrading 87
virtual machine console
installing 188
using 188
virtual machine hardware
virtual disks 115
See also virtual machines compatibility
virtual machine options 153
virtual machine questions, answer 189
Virtual Machine Communication Interface
firewall 107
virtual machine files 11
virtual machine options overview 153
virtual machine remote console 187
Virtual Machine Remote Console
installing 188
using 188
virtual machine resources 13
virtual machine templates
finishing creation 42, 45
renaming 191
selecting template to clone 43
virtual machines
add existing 189
adding 189
adding hard disks 115, 116, 118
adding raw device mappings 119
answering questions 189
boot sequence 160
CD drives 131
changing name of 154
cloning 19, 32, 34
cloning existing 30, 36
cloning to template 39, 40
compatibility 23, 87, 90, 91
components 13
configuration files 155, 162
configuration parameters 162
configuring 87
configuring 3D graphics 137
configuring devices 128
configuring guest operating systems 155
console options 157
CPU configuration 95
CPU resources 93
creating 19–21
creating and deploying 13
creating templates 19
customizing hardware 24, 32, 38
debugging information 161
defined 11
218
deploy and export 19
deploying 19
deploying from templates 26, 28, 46
disk formats 122
downtime during upgrade 204
DVD drives 131
enabling logging 161
exporting 68
features 91
files 11
finishing creation 24, 32, 38, 47
Flash Read Cache 121
floppy drives 132
guest operating system 24
hardware 13, 87
hardware version, See virtual
machines,compatibility
hardware versions 13
hot add enablement 101
introduction to 11
lifecycle 13
managing 185
memory 99
memory resources 100
names 154
naming 22, 29, 35
network adapters 104
network configuration 102
options and resources 15
parallel ports 112
performance with hyperthreaded hosts 94
power management settings 158
power states 157
privileges required for cloning 32
provisioning 17, 19
registering 190
remove from the datastore 190
remove from vCenter Server 190
removing 189
returning to vCenter Server 190
schedule compatibility upgrade 206
secure boot 159
selecting 34, 40
selecting folders 22, 29, 35
selecting guest operating systems 23
serial ports 107
setting default compatibility 89
shutdown settings 185
snapshots 192
startup settings 185
statistics 161
VMware, Inc.
Index
swap files 162
upgrading compatibility 205
upgrading Compatibility 90
viewing consoles 188
working file location 155
See also templates, clones
See also virtual hardware
virtual memory
allocation 99
configuring 99
Virtual Serial Port Concentrator 106, 110
VM NICs, configuring 103
VM network adapters, configuring 103
VM templates, cloning to library 79
VM templates in content libraries 81
VMFS volume 113
vMotion
compatibility 97
limitations for USB passthrough 141
Storage vMotion file name behavior 154
without shared storage 185
VMRC 187
VMware Tools
defined 13
install and upgrade 203
installing and configuring 25
requirement for customization 47
VMware Compatibility Guide, accessing 47
VMware Paravirtual SCSI controllers 127
VMware Tools upgrade, downtime 204
vSPC 106, 110
vSphere Client 17
W
web access, vSphere Web Client 16
Windows
customizing during cloning or deployment 49
guest operating system customization 47
requirements for customization 47
working with library items 81
VMware, Inc.
219
vSphere Virtual Machine Administration
220
VMware, Inc.