Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based
Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System
M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh, V. R. Sanal Kumar
International Science Index, Computer and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
Abstract—In this paper, an attempt has been made for the design
of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on
the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of
freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The
authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed
robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM.
In this library issuance system, the previous potential readers’
authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for
recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the
issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We
have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management
system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also
produces quality readers.
Keywords—GPS based based robotic library,
management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library.
HE public and the research libraries are often facing
unexpected challenges for meeting the quick tracing and
lending of high-rated books to the potential readers due to
large collection of bound volumes. Despite digitization, the
bound collections continue to grow. Admittedly, in the present
scenario it takes too much time for finding out the required
book from the library. The available automatic library robot
systems are having the limitations and most of the times
consumers are in queue and significant time lag is reported for
the issuance of books. Therefore, a solution is desirable rather
inevitable for meeting the quick needs of the potential users.
The main aim of the Library Management Robot using RFID
tag is to take books from a library and return it with the help
of a robot. Therefore, we can collect and return the book from
library very easily. The users’ random requests, the retrieval of
books, and the delivery and return of the books are the four
sequences of events, which need more attention for reducing
the task time. In most of the existing automatic library
management systems when a library user requests a book
through the online card catalog, the catalog shares the request
with the dematic system, which pulls up a book's bin and
Sreejith is with the Department of Electronics Engineering, Matha College
of Technology, North Paravur, Eranakulam - 683511, Kerala, India, currently
with Continental Automotive India PVT Ltd., Bangalore–560 100, India (email:
Steffy Joy, M. Tech student is with the Department of Electronics and
communication Engineering, Rajagiri School of Engineering and Technology,
Eranakulam-682039, Kerala, India (e-mail:
Abhishesh Pal, Graduate Student and Beom-Sahng Ryuh Human,
Professor are with the Human Robot & Automation Lab, Chonbuk National
University, South Korea.
V. R.Sanal Kumar, Professor and Aerospace Scientist, is with the
Kumaraguru College of Technology, India.
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 9(12) 2015
compartment information along with the bin's current location
on the racks. Therefore, the design and development of Wi-Fi
based robotic library is the need of the day.
Literature review reveals that many leading libraries all
books can be requested online, then pulled up to the surface by
an automated retrieval system that keeps track of every
volume through barcodes [1]-[5]. The radio frequency
identification (RFID) is a new generation of auto identification
and data collection technology which helps to automate
business processes and allows identification of large number
of tagged objects like books, using radio waves. RFID based
Library Management system (LMS) would allow fast
transaction flow for the library and will prove immediate and
long term benefits to library in traceability and security. The
existing system is based on RFID readers, supported with
antennas at gate and transaction sections, and library cards
containing RFID-transponders which are able to electronically
store information that can be read or written even without the
physical contact with the help of radio medium [6]-[9].
In the existing system, manual methods are generally used
where the lists of library books are made and whenever the
books are taken it is registered in the record. This method is
not fast and large number of staff is also required for that.
Note that in certain sophisticated libraries barcodes are also
implemented. In this model, we are replacing it with RFID
tags. The RFID offers advantages over manual systems or use
of bar codes. The tag can be read if passed near a reader, even
if it is covered by the object or not visible. The tag can be read
inside a case, carton, box, or other container, and unlike
barcodes, RFID tags can be read hundreds at a time. Note that
barcodes are able to read one item at a time.
One should appreciate the fact that the RFID tag can be
affixed to an object and used to track and manage inventory,
assets, people, etc. For example, it can be affixed to cars,
computer equipment, books, mobile phones, etc. The RFID
technology is being implemented in a number of libraries
lucratively for the large volume of transactions. Further,
another non-library agency could potentially record the RFID
tags of every person leaving the library without the library
administrator’s knowledge or consent. One simple option is to
let the book transmit a code that has meaning only in
conjunction with the library’s database. Another specialty of
the existing system is that PIC microcontroller is used for
controlling the whole operations. It requires more supply
voltage and the operating speed is low. Therefore, through this
paper we are replacing it with most advanced ARM
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
microprocessor. The Robot is used for finding the books as
well as for recommendations for the users. Note that the robot
moves according to the GPS.
identifies the name of the book the corresponding robot will
get the signal and the robot will pick the book.
International Science Index, Computer and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
The system mainly consists of ARM (Advanced RISC
Machine) microprocessor (LPC2148), motor driver circuit
with 5 degree of freedom, RFID reader, Wi-Fi Router, and
user interface. The interfacing makes possible by the Wi-Fi
technology. The book rack design plays a major role in time
management in tracing and delivering books to the customer.
The proposed block diagram of the library management robot
is shown in Fig. 1. In this model, a small rectangular shaped
book shelf has been selected for books storage and effective
customer-specific algorithms have been built-in for quick
automatic delivery of the books [5]. The typical window of a
user interface system is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 The initial window of a user interface system
Fig. 1 Block Diagram of Library Management Robot
If a user wants to take a book from the library, the user will
enter the username and password in the touch screen at the
library entrance. For each book, a RFID code is stored in the
system. After the credentials details it will show a screen
which will have the details of the books which one has already
been taken. The user can select the return tab which will be
there with each book. If the user wants to renew the same
book then it can be done with a corresponding option. The
system will have an option ‘New’ in which one can see a huge
collection of books. The user can select the category first and
subsequently the name of the book for transaction. The
corresponding RFID number will be passed to the robot which
is placed in the particular category through Wi-Fi.
Note that an option of ‘Recommend books’ will be invoked
once the user entered the specific topic title and/or unknown
about the book titles. Here the system sends a particular signal
to every robot which is placed in each category to send the top
rated books name. The robots have an intelligence mechanism
such that it will send the books name according to the other
user’s ratings and also filter out read and un-read books. The
algorithm for this sort out is done already in each robot. The
user will get the books name in every category. When the user
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 9(12) 2015
The each rack is in a rectangular type, which can
accommodate one book. Note that the robots are assigned to
pick up any book within its specified range at one book at a
time. The robot will place the book in a cart within itself. This
will be useful if the same user requests more books within the
range. Also, note that the robot will not be carried out
simultaneous operations of multiple users at the same time. In
this proposed design the robot with a motor driver circuit will
facilitate it to reach the coordinate where it can pick the
identified book(s) from the rectangular shelves. The robot will
confirm the book by reading the RFID tag placed on the book.
This is to confirm that the books are not misplaced. In case of
any misplace of books happened then the robot will give a
false alarm, which will send false signal to the user interface
system through Wi-Fi. This ensures the robot to work error
freely. Then the robot will walk to the user’s side. Note that
the GPS is controlling the route of the robot by sending the
signal through Wi-Fi. The robots are having a processor
equipped with GPS module. The GPS module will control the
path. The obstacle avoidance mechanism also provided in this
robot. It will help the robots to walk without much delay. If
the two robots are walking in the same path then the robot
having high priority task will walk first, which are
programmed accordingly. If the return book is within the same
category, the same robot will pick the book from the user. The
book is confirmed by reading the RFID tag. Then robot will
return the same section and place that book in the specified
A. RFID Module
The radio-frequency identification is the use of a wire-less
non-contact radio system to transfer data from a tag attached
to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and
tracking. Note that a certain class of tags requires no battery
and it is powered by the radio waves. Other classes use a local
power source. The tag contains electronically stored
information which can be read up to several meters away.
International Science Index, Computer and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
Unlike the barcode, the tag does not need to be within the line
of sight. The use of RFID reduces the amount of time required
to perform circulation operations. The most significant time
savings are attributable to the facts that information can be
read from RFID tags much faster than from barcodes and that
several items in a stack can be read at the same time. A radiofrequency identification system uses tags, also known as
labels, which are attached to the objects to be identified. The
two-way radio transmitter-receivers readers send out a signal
to the tag and read its response. The tag’s information is stored
electronically in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag
includes a small RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader
transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag. The
tag receives the message and responds with its identification
information. This may be only a unique tag serial number, or
may be product-related information such as a stock number,
lot or batch number, production date, or other specific
When an RFID tag passes through the field of the scanning
antenna, it detects the activation signal from the antenna. That
wakes up the RFID chip, and it transmits the information on
its microchip to be picked up by the scanning antenna. In
addition, the RFID tag may be of one of two types. Active
RFID tags have their own power source; the advantage of
these tags is that the reader can be much farther away and still
get the signal. Even though some of these devices are built to
have up to a 10 year life span, they have limited life spans.
Passive RFID tags, however, do not require batteries, and can
be much smaller and have a virtually unlimited life span.
RFID tags can be read in a wide variety of circumstances,
where barcodes or other optically read technologies are
useless. Note that the books on the rack are recognized by an
RFID reader. Here a database is made in the system relating
the name of the books, the shelf number, and RFID tag
number. This is send via Wi-Fi module to the ARM processor
and the robot moves forward towards the shelf which is
provided by the stored information in the user interface
system. Then RFID number of the book is compared with the
send tag number and if a match occurs the robot picks up the
book, then returns back to librarian.
Timers: Two 32-bit
A/D Converter: 10-bit Fourteen Channels
DAC: 10-bit
Real-Time Clock (RTC): Independent Power and
Dedicated 32kHz Input
I²C: Two Modules with Master or Slave Operation
SPI: Full Duplex Serial Operation
64-pin High-Performance ARM Microcontroller
UART: Two Modules
USB: 2.0B Fully Compliant Controller with RAM
External Oscillator: up to 25MHz with integrated PLL for
60MHz Operation
C. Wi-Fi Module
Wireless Fidelity, more known by its short form Wi-Fi, is a
digital communications protocol, through which gadgets can
communicate with each other in a unicast or a broadcasting
manner without using any wires. The idea of fast speed
wireless LAN originated when the United States Federal
Communications Council, a communication agency of the US
government, decided in the year 1985 to utilize a few bands of
wireless spectrum without subjecting them to a license fee.
Following this, the IEEE committee for 802 standards which
manages networking protocols among electronic devices,
formed an extension 802.11 which would work on the wireless
mode. Being a wireless protocol, Wi-Fi standard uses the ISM
(Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) band of frequency which
are free to use and require no licensing. Launched in 2.4GHz
with transmission rates of 1-2mbps, Wi-Fi now works at
5GHz frequency also with astounding data transmission rates
reaching up to 54mbps at both frequencies. In this system WiFi plays an important role of sending the RFID information as
well as guiding the robot with correct path with the help of
B. ARM Microprocessor (LPC2148)
ARM means Advanced RISC Machine. It is the most
widely used microprocessor. It has various series like ARM5,
ARM7, ARM9, ARM11 etc.:-.Here we are using ARM 7
versions. It has three stage pipelining and Von Neumann
architecture. ARM7 is a generation of ARM processor
designs. It controls the motor movement of arm and the
wheels and also the opening and closing of the arm. Here the
information transferred from the PC via Wi-Fi is collected
using serial communication pins and then comparison is done.
It requires only 3.3 v for its operation.
D. Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide radionavigation system formed from a constellation of
24 satellites and their ground stations. GPS uses satellite
ranging to triangulate your position. In other words, the GPS
unit simply measures the travel time of the signals transmitted
from the satellites, then multiplies them by the speed of light
to determine exactly how far the unit is from every satellite it's
sampling. GPS uses a constellation of 24 satellites in precise
orbits approximately 11,000 miles above the earth. The
satellites transmit data via high frequency radio waves back to
Earth and, by locking onto these signals; a GPS receiver can
process this data to triangulate its precise location on the
globe. In this system, the whole robot movement is controlled
by the GPS with the help of Wi-Fi. Each robot placed in
different categories will have a separate IP address.
Commands and data can be sent through this technology.
1. Features of LPC 2148
Flash Program Memory: 512 kbytes
SRAM Data Memory: 32 kbytes
I/O Pins: 45
E. Power Supply
The 5 volt power supply is provided for all motors. Power
should also be provided to ARM microprocessor, ZIGBEE
module, RFID antenna, and Wi-Fi Router.
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 9(12) 2015
International Science Index, Computer and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
F. Motor Driver Section
Whenever a robotics hobbyist talks about making a robot,
the first thing comes to his mind is making the robot move on
the ground. And there are always two options in front of the
designer whether to use a DC motor or a stepper motor. When
it comes to speed, weight, size, cost, DC motors are always
preferred over stepper motors. There are many things which
one can do with the DC motor when interfaced with a
microcontroller. For example, one can control the speed of
motor and the direction of rotation. Usually H bridge is
preferred way of interfacing a DC motor. These days many IC
manufacturers have H bridge motor driver available in the
market like L293D is most used H Bridge driver IC. H bridge
can also be made with the help of transistors and MOSFETs
etc. rather of being cheap; they only increase the size of the
design board, which is sometimes not required so using a
small 16 pin IC is preferred for this purpose. By using two
motors, we can move our robot in any direction. This steering
mechanism of robotics called as differential drive. L293D is a
dual H Bridge motor driver, so with one IC we can interface
two DC motors. Note that such system can be controlled in
both clockwise and counter clockwise direction using a motor
with fix direction of motion. You can make use of all the four
I/Os to connect up to four DC motors. L293D has output
current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per
channel. Moreover, for protection of circuit from back EMF
output diodes are included within the IC. The output supply
(VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V, which has made
L293D a best choice for DC motor driver. Here we use 5
degrees of freedom for the robot. So that the robot can move
much fast compared to usual forward to backward movement.
G. Design
The robotic automatic library needs a special type of design
compared to other libraries. The primary requirement is the
book shelf design. The shelf will accommodate one book in
each portion. The gap of each shelf will be in such a way that
two robots can move and cross each other at the same time.
Note that the proposed robot will be having a height that of the
book shelves on the order of 5 feet. This will enable the robot
to pick any book within its range. Since the path of the robot is
depend on the signal from GPS, the signal strength should be
strong in the entire region of the library. To ensure the
required signal strength the Wi-Fi router is placed in every
robot. Note that suitable algorithm can be invoked for the
design of the robotic path with collision avoidance.
Fig. 3 shows the different movements of the robotic arm.
Note that the current system also uses these types of
movements for the robotic arm. It consists of three rotations at
the shoulder, one at the elbow, and three rotations at the wrist.
Since the shelf of the proposed system is in rectangular shape
the high rate of accuracy in the mechanical design of robotic
arm is expected. A suitable size cart is provided with the robot
for keeping the books already picked up from the shelves. This
will allow the robot to move freely after picking the books.
Note that at the user end again the specially designed robotic
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 9(12) 2015
arm will pick the book of any size and shape and give to the
user ergonomically.
Fig. 3 Library Robotic arm’s degree of freedom
In this paper, we introduced a user interface system having
login id and password for the robotic library users. This
system introduces the robot having an intelligence capability
that can suggest books as well as pick up the books according
to user’s preference. At the user interface system, there are
three main options viz., the return, the renewal, the issuance.
The Wi-Fi enabled robot will be there in every category of the
books. The books are arranged in a separate shelf having
rectangle shape. For each book, the separate shelf will be
allocated and the database is stored in robot systems. The user
will select the book from the touch screen and the same
information is passed to the corresponding robot by the Wi-Fi
enabled technology. If the users are not particular about the
books, which need to be taken by them, then the robot will
recommend a book according to other potential readers’
feedback rating. Accordingly, the logic of solution has been
generated and an attempt has been made, however not
reported in this paper, for developing an algorithm for
invoking the robot intelligence to recommending a particular
book or periodical to the users who are in need of such
assistance. Note that after getting the confirmation from the
users, the robot will pick the books and issue the same to the
intended user. Also note that the issuance, the renewal and the
return of the books are done by robots with the help of RFID
for saving time. The advantage of this system is that lender
need not be checked each book manually when the user placed
a request. Instead, the robot will take book from the
corresponding shelf using RFID so that we can save the time
of checking each book separately. Since the Wi-Fi has better
range compared to Zigbee and other communication protocol
one can cover a wide range of libraries for clustering it by
implementing this method. Note that the GPS is helping the
robot to control the path.
In this paper, a new model for the library management robot
system has been proposed for meeting the conflicting needs of
the customers. In this library, the robot is picking up the books
according to the user’s requirements and recommending the
best available books to the deserving users. This option is
invoked based on the authentic review reports of the previous
International Science Index, Computer and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol:9, No:12, 2015
potential readers. The robot will be picked up the books after
getting the required information from the user. The algorithm
is generated by the developer such that robot will use the
ratings from potential readers only. The ratings are given by
the users at the time of returning the books. The user interface
will ask the ratings from the user at the time of pressing the
return button. Further, an attempt has been made, however not
reported in this paper, for developing an algorithm for an
efficient automatic robotic library operation such that the
average time taken by the user is reduced. This reduction in
time is apparent because it involves no physical presence of
the user to pick up the book from the shelves. The library
managers are interested in finding the most economical way of
getting book issue list, which minimizes the costs involved in
terms of travel distance or travel time of the robot arm. In this
model, the user will be selecting the book from the touch
screen and the same information will be passing to the
corresponding robot by Wi-Fi technology. Additionally, the
robot uses its intelligence to recommending the books to the
deserving users based on the potential readers’ previous
rating; and after getting the confirmation from the users the
robot will pick the books and deliver to the user using RFID.
We concluded that our proposed model reduces the business
operating costs and the user’s operating time. Note that this
study is a pointer towards for developing a fully automated
user-friendly library for creating win-win situations to the
library managers and the users for getting more profitable and
intellectual output for meeting the global challenges.
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