Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash

Solaris 10 Installation Guide:
Solaris Flash Archives (Creation
and Installation)
Sun Microsystems, Inc.
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U.S.A.
Part No: 817–5668–11
December 2005
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051024@13215
Contents
Preface
1
11
Solaris Flash (Overview)
15
Solaris Flash Introduction
15
Installing Clone Systems With an Initial Installation
15
Updating Clone Systems With a Solaris Flash Differential Archive
2
Solaris Flash (Planning)
21
Planning Your Solaris Flash Installation
21
Designing an Initial Installation of the Master System
Planning the Creation of a Solaris Flash Archive
Planning the Installation of Solaris Flash Archives
3
17
Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
Task Map: Creating Solaris Flash Archives
Installing the Master System
21
24
29
31
31
32
▼ To Install the Master System for an Initial Installation
Creating Customization Scripts
33
33
▼ To Create a Precreation Script
34
Using a Precreation Script to Create a User-Defined Archive Section
▼ To Create a Predeployment Script
▼ To Create a Postdeployment Script
▼ To Create a Reboot Script
37
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive
38
35
36
36
▼ To Create a Solaris Flash Archive for an Initial Installation
38
3
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive (Examples)
39
▼ To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive With an Updated Master
Image
43
▼ To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive by Using Solaris Live
Upgrade
46
4
Installing and Administering Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
51
Installing a Solaris Flash Archive With the Solaris Installation Program
▼ Installing a Solaris Flash Archive
52
References to Procedures for Installing Solaris Flash Archives
Administering Solaris Flash Archives
53
Splitting a Solaris Flash Archive
54
Merging a Solaris Flash Archive
55
Extracting Information From an Archive
5
Solaris Flash (Reference)
General Keywords
59
60
User-Defined Section Keywords
63
Solaris Flash flar create Command
Glossary
Index
4
57
59
Identification Section Keywords
flar create
56
57
Solaris Flash Archive Section Descriptions
Solaris Flash Keywords
53
64
64
69
85
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
51
Tables
TABLE 2–1
Flash Archive Sections
28
TABLE 3–1
Task Map: Creating a Solaris Flash Archive to Install With an Initial
Installation
31
TABLE 3–2
Task Map: Creating a Solaris Flash Archive to Update a Clone System
32
TABLE 5–1
Flash Archive Sections
TABLE 5–2
Values for section_begin and section_end Keywords
TABLE 5–3
Identification Section Keywords: General Keywords
TABLE 5–4
Identification Section Keywords: Contents of Archive Files Section
60
TABLE 5–5
Identification Section Keywords: User Describes the Archive
TABLE 5–6
Identification Section Keywords: Software Describes the Archive
TABLE 5–7
Command-Line Options for flar create
57
59
60
61
63
64
5
6
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Figures
FIGURE 1–1
Solaris Flash Initial Installation
FIGURE 1–2
Solaris Flash Update
17
19
7
8
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Examples
EXAMPLE 3–1
Excerpts From a Precreation Script
34
EXAMPLE 3–2
Precreation Script
EXAMPLE 3–3
Predeployment Script
EXAMPLE 3–4
Postdeployment Script
EXAMPLE 3–5
Creating a reboot Script
EXAMPLE 3–6
Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive
35
36
37
37
39
EXAMPLE 3–7
Creating an Archive From an Alternate root (/) File System
EXAMPLE 3–8
Creating an Archive and Adding Keywords to Describe the Archive
40
40
EXAMPLE 3–9
Creating an Archive and Excluding and Including Files and Directories
41
EXAMPLE 3–10
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by
Using Lists
41
EXAMPLE 3–11
Creating an Archive Excluding Files and Directories by Using a List and
Restoring a Directory
42
EXAMPLE 3–12
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by
Using a List With the -z Option
42
EXAMPLE 3–13
Creating a Differential Archive With the New Master Image on the
Master System
45
EXAMPLE 3–14
Creating a Differential Archive With the Images Stored on an Inactive
Boot Environment
46
EXAMPLE 3–15
Creating a Differential Archive by Using Solaris Live Upgrade
EXAMPLE 4–1
Splitting an Archive
48
EXAMPLE 4–2
Merging a Solaris Flash Archive
EXAMPLE 4–3
Merging a Solaris Flash Archive and Adding a User-Defined Section
56
EXAMPLE 4–4
Listing Files in an Archive Section
54
56
56
9
10
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Preface
This book provides planning information and instructions for creating Solaris™ Flash
archives and using Solaris Flash archives to install the Solaris Operating System (OS)
on multiple systems.
This book does not include instructions about how to set up system hardware or other
peripherals.
Note – This Solaris release supports systems that use the SPARC® and x86 families of
processor architectures: UltraSPARC®, SPARC64, AMD64, Pentium, and Xeon EM64T.
The supported systems appear in the Solaris 10 Hardware Compatibility List at
http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl. This document cites any implementation
differences between the platform types.
In this document these x86 related terms mean the following:
■
“x86” refers to the larger family of 64-bit and 32-bit x86 compatible products.
■
“x64” points out specific 64-bit information about AMD64 or EM64T systems.
■
“32-bit x86” points out specific 32-bit information about x86 based systems.
For supported systems, see the Solaris 10 Hardware Compatibility List.
Who Should Use This Book
This book is intended for system administrators who are responsible for installing the
Solaris operating system. These procedures are advanced Solaris installation
information for enterprise system administrators who manage multiple Solaris
machines in a networked environment.
11
Related Books
Table P–1 lists related information that you might need when you install the Solaris
software.
TABLE P–1 Related Information
Information
Description
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
Describes a basic OS installation with a graphical user
interface (GUI).
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Network-Based
Installations
Describes how to perform a remote Solaris installation over a
local area network or a wide area network.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and
Advanced Installations
Describes how to create the files and directories necessary to
perform an unattended custom JumpStart™ installation. This
book also describes how to create RAID-1 volumes.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Provides planning information when using CD or DVD
Upgrade Planning
media to upgrade a system to the Solaris operating system.
This book also describes how to use Solaris Live Upgrade to
create and upgrade new boot environments.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives
(Creation and Installation)
Provides instructions for creating Solaris Flash archives and
using Solaris Flash archives to install the Solaris OS on
multiple systems.
Chapter 24, “Backing Up and Restoring File
Systems (Overview),” in System Administration
Guide: Devices and File Systems
Describes how to back up system files and other system
administration tasks.
Solaris Release Notes
Describes any bugs, known problems, software that is being
discontinued, and patches that are related to the Solaris
release.
SPARC: Solaris Sun Hardware Platform Guide
Contains information about supported hardware.
x86: Solaris Hardware Compatibility List
Contains supported hardware information and device
configuration.
Documentation, Support, and Training
The Sun web site provides information about the following additional resources:
■
■
12
Documentation (http://www.sun.com/documentation/)
Support (http://www.sun.com/support/)
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
■
Training (http://www.sun.com/training/)
Typographic Conventions
The following table describes the typographic conventions that are used in this book.
TABLE P–2 Typographic Conventions
Typeface
Meaning
Example
AaBbCc123
The names of commands, files, and
directories, and onscreen computer
output
Edit your .login file.
Use ls -a to list all files.
machine_name% you have
mail.
AaBbCc123
What you type, contrasted with onscreen
computer output
machine_name% su
Password:
aabbcc123
Placeholder: replace with a real name or
value
The command to remove a file
is rm filename.
AaBbCc123
Book titles, new terms, and terms to be
emphasized
Read Chapter 6 in the User’s
Guide.
A cache is a copy that is stored
locally.
Do not save the file.
Note: Some emphasized items
appear bold online.
Shell Prompts in Command Examples
The following table shows the default UNIX® system prompt and superuser prompt
for the C shell, Bourne shell, and Korn shell.
13
TABLE P–3 Shell Prompts
14
Shell
Prompt
C shell
machine_name%
C shell for superuser
machine_name#
Bourne shell and Korn shell
$
Bourne shell and Korn shell for superuser
#
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
CHAPTER
1
Solaris Flash (Overview)
This book provides instructions for creating Solaris Flash archives and using Solaris
Flash archives to install the Solaris OS on multiple systems.
Note – If you want an overview of all Solaris installation methods, see Part I, “Overall
Planning of Any Solaris Installation or Upgrade,” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide:
Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
Solaris Flash Introduction
The Solaris Flash installation feature enables you to use a single reference installation
of the Solaris OS on a system, which is called the master system. Then, you can
replicate that installation on a number of systems, which are called clone systems. You
can replicate clone systems with a Solaris Flash initial installation that overwrites all
files on the system or with a Solaris Flash update that only includes the differences
between two system images. A differential update changes only the files that are
specified and is restricted to systems that contain software consistent with the old
master image.
Installing Clone Systems With an Initial Installation
You can install a master system with a Solaris Flash archive for an initial installation
by using any installation method: Solaris installation program, custom JumpStart,
Solaris Live Upgrade, or WAN boot. All files are overwritten. The Solaris Flash
installation is a five-part process.
1. Install the master system. You select a system and use any of the Solaris installation
methods to install the Solaris OS and any other software.
15
2. (Optional) Prepare customization scripts to reconfigure or customize the clone
system before or after installation.
3. Create the Solaris Flash archive. The Solaris Flash archive contains a copy of all of
the files on the master system, unless you excluded some nonessential files.
4. Install the Solaris Flash archive on clone systems. The master system and the clone
system must have the same kernel architecture.
When you install the Solaris Flash archive on a system, all of the files in the archive
are copied to that system. The newly installed system now has the same
installation configuration as the original master system, thus the system is called a
clone system. Some customization is possible:
■
Scripts can be used for customization.
■
You can install extra packages with a Solaris Flash archive by using the custom
JumpStart installation method. The packages must be from outside the software
group being installed or a third-party package.
5. (Optional) Save a copy of the master image. If you plan to create a differential
archive, the master image must be available and identical to the image installed on
the clone systems.
For step-by-step instructions, see “Installing the Master System” on page 32.
Figure 1–1 shows an installation of clone systems with an initial installation. All files
are overwritten.
16
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Clone
systems
before
update
Media
Install
Master
System
flar
create
Clone
systems
after
update
Archive
Installing clone systems
A system running any operating environment
A system with no operating environment
A system with a different architecture
Update fails
FIGURE 1–1
Solaris Flash Initial Installation
Updating Clone Systems With a Solaris Flash
Differential Archive
If you have a clone system and want to update that system, you can create a
differential archive that contains only the differences between two images, the
unchanged master image and an updated master image. When you update a clone
system with a differential archive, only the files that are in the differential archive are
changed. You can choose to install a Solaris Flash differential archive with the custom
JumpStart installation method or Solaris Live Upgrade. An update is a five-part
process.
1. Prepare the master system with changes. Before changes are made, the master
system should be running a duplicate of the original archive.
Chapter 1 • Solaris Flash (Overview)
17
Note – If the master system is not running a duplicate of the original archive, the
differences between the two system images might result in a large differential
archive. Consequently, installing the differential archive could be time consuming.
Use an initial installation with a full archive in this case.
2. (Optional) Prepare customization scripts to reconfigure or customize the clone
system before or after installation.
3. Mount the directory of a copy of the saved-unchanged master image. This second
image is to be used to compare the two system images. Access the image by the
following methods.
■
■
■
Mounted from a Solaris Live Upgrade boot environment
Mounted from a clone system over NFS
Restored from backup by using the ufsrestore command
4. Create the differential archive with the -A option of the flar create command.
5. Install the differential archive on clone systems with custom JumpStart. Or, you can
use Solaris Live Upgrade to install the differential archive on an inactive boot
environment.
Figure 1–2 shows the creation and installation of a differential archive. A master image
is updated with some modifications. These modifications could be as simple as the
addition, reconfiguration, or deletion of a few files, or as complex as propagating
patches. The updated master image is compared to the unchanged master image. The
differences between the two images become the differential archive. The archive can be
used to update other clone systems that are currently using the unchanged master
image. If the clone system has already been modified or is not running the unchanged
master image, the update fails. If you have many changes to make on the clone
systems, you can do an initial installation at any time.
18
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Clone
systems
before
install
Clone
systems
after
install
Modifications
Master
System
Updated with
modifications
Old
Master
image
flar
create -A
Differential
archive
Install clone systems with modifications and
validate master and clone system images.
Exact duplicate of master
Duplicate of master but contains small changes
Duplicate of master but contains extra files
Duplicate of master but missing some files
Created from different master or installed separately
Update fails
FIGURE 1–2
Solaris Flash Update
Chapter 1 • Solaris Flash (Overview)
19
20
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
CHAPTER
2
Solaris Flash (Planning)
This chapter provides information necessary for planning a Solaris Flash installation in
your environment.
Planning Your Solaris Flash Installation
Before you create and install a Solaris Flash archive, you must make some decisions
about how you want to install the Solaris OS on your systems. The first time that you
install a system, you install with a full archive that is an initial installation. After a
system has been installed with an archive, the system can be updated with a
differential archive. The differential archive installs only the differences between two
archives.
Designing an Initial Installation of the Master
System
The first task in the Solaris Flash installation process is to install a system, the master
system, with the configuration that you want each of the clone systems to have. You
can use any of the Solaris installation methods to install an archive on the master
system. The installation can be a subset or a complete installation of the Solaris OS.
After you complete the installation, you can add or remove software or modify any
configuration files. Some limitations to installing the master system are the following:
■
The master system and the clone systems must have the same kernel architectures.
For example, you can only use an archive that was created from a master system
that has a sun4u architecture to install clones with a sun4u architecture.
■
You must install the master system with the exact configuration that you want on
each of the clone systems. The decisions that you make when you design the
installation of the master system depend on the following:
21
■
The software that you want to install on the clone systems
■
Peripheral devices that are connected to the master system and the clone
systems
■
The architecture of the master system and the clone systems
Note – If you already have installed clone systems and want to update these systems
with a new configuration, see “Planning to Create the Solaris Flash Differential
Archive for an Update” on page 25.
Customizing the Solaris Installation on the Master System
After you install the Solaris OS on the master system by using any of the Solaris
installation methods, you can add or delete software and modify system configuration
information as necessary. To customize the master system’s software, you can do the
following:
■
Delete software. You can remove software that you determine is not necessary to
install on the clone systems. To see a list of software that is installed on the master
system, use the Product Registry. For detailed instructions, refer to System
Administration Guide: Basic Administration.
■
Add software. You can install software that is included in the Solaris release. You
can also add software that is not delivered as part of the Solaris OS. All of the
software that you install on the master system is included in the Solaris Flash
archive and is installed on the clone systems.
■
Modify configuration files. You can alter configuration files on the master system.
For example, you can modify the /etc/inet/inetd.conf file to restrict the
daemons that the system runs. All of the modifications that you make are saved as
part of the Solaris Flash archive and are installed on the clone systems.
■
Further customization can be done when creating the archive. For example, you
can exclude large data files that you might not want in the archive. For an
overview, see “Customizing an Archive’s Files and Directories” on page 26.
Creating Archives for SPARC and x86 Systems
If you want to install Solaris software by using a Solaris Flash archive on both SPARC
and x86 systems, you must create a separate Solaris Flash archive for each platform.
Use the Solaris Flash archive that was created from the SPARC master system to install
SPARC systems. Use the Solaris Flash archive that was created from the x86 master
system to install x86 systems.
SPARC: Supporting Peripheral Devices Not Found on the
Master System
Choosing the drivers to install on the master system has the following dependencies.
22
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
■
The type of peripheral devices attached to both the master system and the clone
system.
■
The type of software group installed.
The Entire Plus OEM Software Group installs all drivers regardless of the hardware
that is present on the system. Other software groups provide limited support. If you
install another software group and the clone systems have different peripheral devices
than the master system, you need to install the appropriate drivers on the master
system before you create the archive.
How to Get the Support for Peripherals That You Need
You can install support for peripherals on clone systems that are different from the
master system in by installing the Entire Plus OEM Software Group or installing
selected packages.
Type of
Installation
Install the
Entire Plus
OEM Software
Group
Description
The Entire Plus OEM Software Group is the largest Software Group available.
This group contains every package that is found in the Solaris OS. The Entire
Plus OEM Software Group installs all drivers regardless of the hardware that
is present on the system. A Solaris Flash archive that is created with the Entire
Plus OEM Software Group works on any clone system that has peripheral
devices supported by the installed release of the Solaris OS.
Installing master systems with the Entire Plus OEM Software Group
guarantees compatibility with other peripheral configurations. However, the
Entire Plus OEM Software Group requires at least 2.9 Gbytes of disk space.
The clone systems might not have the space that is required to install the
Entire Plus OEM Software Group.
Install other
software
groups
If you install the master system with the following software groups, you are
limiting the support for peripherals. The master system supports only the
peripheral devices that are attached to the master system at the time of
installation.
■
Reduced Networking Software Group
■
Core Software Group
■
End User Software Group
■
Developer Software Group
■
Entire Software Group
Installing these software groups could result in your clone systems failing to
have all the drivers needed. For example, if you install the Entire Software
Group on a master system that has a GX CG6 frame buffer, only the GX CG6
frame buffer driver is installed. This situation is not a problem if all the clone
systems that you want to install have the GX CG6 frame buffer or no frame
buffer.
Chapter 2 • Solaris Flash (Planning)
23
Type of
Installation
Description
Install selected When you install the master system, you can install only the packages that
packages
you need for the master system and the clone systems. By selecting specific
packages, you can install only support for the peripherals that you know exist
on the master system or clone systems.
Planning the Creation of a Solaris Flash Archive
You can create an archive from the master system for an initial installation. Or, if you
have already installed an archive on clone systems, you can create a differential
archive from two system images. The differential archive installs only the differences
between the two images.
Planning to Create the Solaris Flash Archive for an Initial
Installation
After you install the master system, the next task in the Solaris Flash installation
process is to create a Solaris Flash archive. Files on the master system are copied to a
Solaris Flash archive along with various pieces of identification information. You can
create a Solaris Flash archive while the master system is running in multiuser mode or
single-user mode. You can also create a Solaris Flash archive after you boot from one
of the following:
■
■
■
Solaris Operating System DVD
Solaris Software - 1 CD
An image of the Solaris Software CDs and the Solaris Languages CD
Caution – A Solaris Flash archive cannot be properly created when a non-global zone is
installed. The Solaris Flash feature is not compatible with the Solaris Zones
partitioning technology. If you create a Solaris Flash archive, the resulting archive is
not installed properly when the archive is deployed under these conditions:
■
■
The archive is created in a non-global zone
The archive is created in a global zone that has non-global zones installed
Creating Solaris Flash Archives With RAID-1 Volumes
Starting in the Solaris 9 9/04 release, you can create and install Solaris Flash archives
created from a master system that has RAID-1 volumes configured. With the Solaris 9
12/03 and Solaris 9 4/04 release, you must install a patch. To get a the patch that fixes
CR 4838219, see sunsolve.sun.com.
You can create a Solaris Flash archive when you have Solaris Volume Manager RAID-1
volumes configured. The Solaris Flash creation software removes all RAID-1 volume
information from the archive to keep the integrity of the clone system. With custom
24
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
JumpStart you can rebuild the RAID-1 volumes by using a JumpStart profile. With
Solaris Live Upgrade, you create a boot environment with RAID-1 volumes configured
and install the archive. The Solaris installation program cannot be used to install
RAID-1 volumes with a Solaris Flash archive.
■
For examples of RAID-1 volumes in JumpStart profiles, see “Profile Examples” in
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
■
For examples of Solaris Live Upgrade boot environments configured with RAID-1
volumes, see “Creating a New Boot Environment” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide:
Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Note – Veritas VxVM stores configuration information in areas not available to Solaris
Flash. If Veritas VxVm file systems have been configured, you should not create a
Solaris Flash archive. Also, Solaris install, including JumpStart and Solaris Live
Upgrade do not support rebuilding VxVM volumes at installation time. Therefore, if
you are planning to deploy Veritas VxVM software using a Solaris Flash archive, the
archive must be created prior to configuring the VxVM file systems. The clone systems
must be then configured individually after the archive has been applied and the
system rebooted.
Planning to Create the Solaris Flash Differential Archive
for an Update
If you have a clone system that is already installed with an archive and want to update
it, you can create a differential archive that contains only the differences between two
images, the unchanged master image and an updated master image. The differences
between these two images is the differential archive.
■
One image is running on the master system that was the original software installed
on the clone system. This image might need be installed on the master system if it
was saved in a directory for future use.
■
Another image is to be accessed and used for comparison. This image contains the
new additions or deletions that will be installed on the clone systems.
After you update a clone system with a differential archive, only the files that are in
the differential archive are changed on the clone system. Scripts can be used to
customize the archive before or after installation, which is especially helpful for
reconfiguration.
You can install a Solaris Flash differential archive with the custom JumpStart
installation method. Or, you can use Solaris Live Upgrade to install a differential
archive on an inactive boot environment.
An unchanged master image should be saved after the initial installation so this image
can be accessed by any of the following methods.
Chapter 2 • Solaris Flash (Planning)
25
■
A Solaris Live Upgrade boot environment, mounted on some directory that uses
the lumount command. For a description of a Solaris Live Upgrade boot
environment, see Chapter 6, “Solaris Live Upgrade (Overview),” in Solaris 10
Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
■
A clone system that is mounted over Network File System (NFS) with root
permissions.
■
A system backup that can be restored with the ufsdump command.
For step-by-step instructions, see “To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive With
an Updated Master Image” on page 43.
Customizing an Archive’s Files and Directories
When you create a Solaris Flash archive, some files and directories that are to be
copied from the master system can be excluded. If you have excluded a directory, you
can also restore specified files or subdirectories under that directory. For example, you
could create an archive that excludes all files and directories in /a/aa/bb/c. The
content of the bb subdirectory could be included. The only content would then be in
the bb subdirectory.
Caution – Use the flar create file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude
some directories, others that you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as
system configuration files. The system would then be inconsistent and the installation
would not work. Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can easily
be removed without disrupting the system, such as large data files.
The following table lists the flar create command options that can exclude files
and directories and restore files and subdirectories.
How Specified?
Options That Exclude
Options That Include
Specify the name of the
directory or file
-x exclude_dir/filename
-y include_dir/filename
Use a file that contains a list
-X list_filename
-f list_filename
-z list_filename
-z list_filename
For descriptions of these options, see Table 5–7.
For examples of customizing an archive, see “Creating a Solaris Flash Archive and
Customizing Files (Examples)” on page 41.
26
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Customizing an Archive With Scripts
After the software is installed on the master system, special scripts can be run during
creation, installation, postinstallation and first reboot. These scripts enable you to do
the following:
■
Configure applications on clone systems. You can use a custom JumpStart script for
some uncomplicated configurations. For more complicated configurations, special
configuration-file processing might be necessary on the master system or before or
after installation on the clone system.
■
Protect local customizations on clone systems. Local preinstallation and
postinstallation scripts reside on the clone. These scripts protect local
customizations from being overwritten by the Solaris Flash software.
■
Identify nonclonable, host-dependent data that enables you to make the archive
host independent. Host independence is enabled by modifying such data or
excluding it from the archive. An example of host-dependent data is a log file.
■
Validate software integrity in the archive during creation.
■
Validate the installation on the clone system.
Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script
When creating scripts other than the reboot script, following these guidelines to assure
the script does not corrupt the OS or otherwise disrupt the system. These guidelines
enable the use of Solaris Live Upgrade, which creates a new boot environment for
installation of the OS. The new boot environment can be installed with an archive
while the current system is running.
Note – These guidelines are not for reboot scripts that are allowed to run daemons or
make other types of modification to the root (/) file system.
■
Scripts must not affect the currently running system. The currently running OS
might not be the one running when the Solaris Flash archive is installed.
■
Scripts must not start or stop any daemon processes.
■
Scripts must not depend on the output of commands such as ps, truss, or uname,
which are dependent on the OS. These commands report information about the
currently running system.
■
Scripts must not send any signals or otherwise affect any currently running
processes.
■
Scripts can use standard UNIX commands that facilitate shell scripting such as
expr, cp, and ls.
For an overview of Solaris Live Upgrade, see Chapter 6, “Solaris Live Upgrade
(Overview),” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Chapter 2 • Solaris Flash (Planning)
27
Solaris Flash Archive Sections
Solaris Flash archives contain the following sections. Some sections can be used by
you to identify and customize the archive and view status information on the
installation. For a further description of each section, see Chapter 5.
TABLE 2–1
Flash Archive Sections
Section Name
Informational
Only
Archive cookie
X
Description
The first section contains a cookie that identifies the file as a Solaris Flash
archive.
Archive identification
The second section contains keywords with values that provide
identification information about the archive. Some identification
information is supplied by the archive software. Other specific
identification information can be added by you by using options to the
flar create command.
User-defined
This section follows the identification section. You can define and insert
these sections to customize the archive. The Solaris Flash archive does not
process any sections that you insert. For example, a section could contain a
description of the archive or perhaps a script to check the integrity of an
application.
Manifest
X
This section is produced for a Solaris Flash differential archive and is used
for validating a clone system. The manifest section lists the files on a
system to be retained, added to, or deleted from the clone system. This
section is informational only, lists the files in an internal format, and
cannot be used for scripting.
Predeployment,
Postdeployment,
Reboot
X
This section contains internal information that the flash software uses
before and after installing an OS image. Any scripts that you have
provided are included in this section.
Summary
Archive files
This section contains messages about the archive creation. The section also
records the activities of predeployment and postdeployment scripts. You
can view the success of the installation in this section by writing a script to
send output to this section.
X
The archive files section contains the files that have been gathered from the
master system.
When to Create the Archive for an Initial Installation
Create the archive when the system is in as static a state as possible. Create the archive
after software is installed on the master system and before software is configured.
28
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Where to Store the Solaris Flash Archive
After you create the Solaris Flash archive, you can save the archive on the hard disk of
the master system or on a tape. After you save the archive, you can copy this archive
to any file system or media that you choose.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Network File System (NFS) server
HTTP or HTTPS server
FTP server
Tape
CD, DVD
Diskette
Local drive of clone system that you want to install
Compressing the Archive
When you create the Solaris Flash archive, you can specify that the archive be saved as
a compressed file by using the compress(1) utility. An archive that is compressed
requires less disk storage space and creates less congestion when you install the
archive over a network.
Planning the Installation of Solaris Flash Archives
The final task in the Solaris Flash installation process is to install Solaris Flash archives
on clone systems. You can use any of the Solaris installation methods to install Solaris
Flash archives on clone systems.
Installation Program
Archives Storable on This Media
For Step-by-Step Instructions
Solaris installation
program
■
NFS server
HTTP server
FTP server
Local tape
Local device, including DVD or CD
Local file
“Installing a Solaris Flash Archive With the
Solaris Installation Program” on page 51
NFS server
HTTP or HTTPS server
FTP server
Local tape
Local device, including DVD or CD
Local file
“To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash
Archive With a Custom JumpStart
Installation” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide:
Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations
■
■
■
■
■
Custom JumpStart
installation program
■
■
■
■
■
■
Chapter 2 • Solaris Flash (Planning)
29
Installation Program
Archives Storable on This Media
For Step-by-Step Instructions
Solaris Live Upgrade
■
“Installing Solaris Flash Archives on a Boot
Environment” in Solaris 10 Installation
Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade
Planning
■
■
■
■
■
30
NFS server
HTTP server
FTP server
Local tape
Local device, including DVD or CD
Local file
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
CHAPTER
3
Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
This chapter provides the procedures for creating a Solaris Flash archive. These
procedures include installing a master system and then creating a Solaris Flash archive
from that master system. You can also create a differential archive if you have
previously installed an archive on a clone system. When the differential archive is
created, two images are compared: the unchanged master image and an updated
image. The differential archive installs only the differences between the two images.
Also, procedures to create scripts are provided to reconfigure or otherwise customize
the archive.
■
■
■
■
“Task Map: Creating Solaris Flash Archives” on page 31
“Installing the Master System” on page 32
“Creating Customization Scripts” on page 33
“Creating a Solaris Flash Archive” on page 38
Task Map: Creating Solaris Flash
Archives
TABLE 3–1
Task Map: Creating a Solaris Flash Archive to Install With an Initial Installation
Task
Description
For Instructions
Install your chosen software
configuration on the master system
Determine the configuration that
“To Install the Master System for an
meets your needs and use any of the Initial Installation” on page 33
Solaris installation methods to install
the master system.
31
TABLE 3–1
Task Map: Creating a Solaris Flash Archive to Install With an Initial Installation
(Continued)
Task
Description
For Instructions
(Optional) Create customization
scripts
Determine if you need to create
scripts to do the following:
■
Customize or reconfigure the
archive
■
Protect local changes on clone
systems
“Creating Customization Scripts”
on page 33
Create the Solaris Flash archive
Use the flar create command to
create an archive.
“To Create a Solaris Flash Archive
for an Initial Installation” on page 38
(Optional) Save a copy of the archive Keep a copy of the archive for future “To Create a Solaris Flash Archive
comparison to update a clone
for an Initial Installation” on page 38
system with a differential archive.
TABLE 3–2
Task Map: Creating a Solaris Flash Archive to Update a Clone System
Task
Description
For Instructions
Prepare master image
Make changes to the unchanged
master image such as adding or
deleting packages or installing
patches.
“Installing the Master System”
on page 32
(Optional) Create customization
scripts
Determine if you need to create
scripts to do the following:
■
Customize or reconfigure the
archive
■
Protect local changes on clone
systems
“Creating Customization Scripts”
on page 33
Create the Solaris Flash differential
archive
“To Create a Solaris Flash
1. Mount the unchanged master
Differential Archive With an
image.
Updated Master Image” on page 43
2. Use the flar create
command to compare the two
images and create the differential
archive.
Installing the Master System
You install the master system with the software configuration that you want other
systems to have. You can install clone systems with an initial installation that
overwrites all files on the system or with an update that only includes the differences
between two images. For an initial installation, use any of the Solaris installation
methods to install the Solaris OS on the master system.
32
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
If you have previously installed an archive on a clone system, you can update that
system with changes by using a differential archive. The changes are made to the
original image such as installing patches, or adding and removing packages. The
differential archive overwrites only the files specified in the archive. For the procedure
that is for updating the original master image and creating a differential archive, see
“To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive With an Updated Master Image”
on page 43.
▼
Steps
To Install the Master System for an Initial
Installation
1. Identify the system configuration that you want to install.
2. With the use of the Solaris installation programs, install the Solaris OS on the
master system. For a discussion of the different installation program , refer to
“Choosing a Solaris Installation Method” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom
JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
3. Customize your Solaris installation in any of the following ways:
■
■
■
■
Delete software.
Add software.
Modify configuration files.
Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.
You can create custom scripts or use the flar create command to create the
archive.
■
■
To create custom scripts, see “Creating Customization Scripts” on page 33.
To create the archive, see “Creating a Solaris Flash Archive” on page 38.
Creating Customization Scripts
Scripts can customize the archive. Use these scripts for the following purposes:
■
A precreation script validates the archive at creation time and prepares the archive
for later customization, especially differential archives. This script also can create a
user-defined section in the archive.
■
A predeployment script validates the archive during installation and prepares the
archive for later customization.
■
A postdeployment script reconfigures a new system image on a clone system.
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
33
■
A reboot script processes a final reconfiguration after the system is rebooted.
For guidelines about creating scripts, see “Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script”
on page 27.
▼
To Create a Precreation Script
This script runs during archive creation. The script has various uses.
Steps
■
Validates the contents and the integrity of the software. The script fails the archive
creation if the integrity is broken.
■
Prepares products for later customization on clone system.
■
Registers other installation scripts dynamically during archive creation.
■
Adds a message to the flash-creation summary file. The message must be short and
record only that scripts were started and finished and the results. You can view the
results in the summary section.
1. Create the precreation script. Follow the guidelines that are described in
“Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script” on page 27.
2. Store the script in the /etc/flash/precreation directory.
Example 3–1
Excerpts From a Precreation Script
The following examples are excerpts from a precreation script.
■
To log the start time in the summary section, use the following example:
echo "MyApp precreation script started">> $FLASHDIR/summary
■
To check the software integrity, use the flcheck command. This command cannot
be used at the command line. The syntax for this command is as follows:
flcheck software component files and directories ...| -
For example, to validate the files and directories, use the following example:
flcheck software component files and directories
If Not in selection - refuse creation
echo "Myapp Integrity Damage">>$FLASHDIR/summary
Or, to keep new files and directories that are unexpected and not fail the archive
creation, use the following example:
flcheck software component files and directories
If Not in selection include by force
flinclude software component
■
34
To register deployment scripts and data, use the following example:
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
■
Copy the script to the following directory:
cp predeployment script /etc/flash/predeployment
■
Or, to register the script dynamically during archive creation, copy the script to
the following directory.
cp predeployment script $FLASHDIR/predeployment
■
To see application-specific data in a user-defined section, use the following
example:
cp custom section $FLASHDIR/custom_sections/MyApp
■
To log the success of the installation in the summary section, use the following
example:
echo "product one flash preparation started." >>$FLASH_DIR/summary
...
echo "product one flash preparation finished successfully">>$FLASH_DIR/summary
Example 3–2
Precreation Script
#!/bin/sh
echo "Test precreation script started" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
cat /opt/TestApp/critical_file_list | flcheck if [ $? != 0 ]; then
echo "Test precreation script failure" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
exit 1
if
echo "Test precreation script started" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
/opt/TestApplication/license_cloning
$FLASH_DIR/predeployment/.TestApplicationLicenceTransfer \
$FLASH_DIR/custom_sections/TestApplicationLicenceCounter
echo "Test precreation script finished" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
exit 0
Using a Precreation Script to Create a User-Defined
Archive Section
A precreation script can create a user-defined section in the archive to provide specific
application information. This section is intended for archive maintenance. The script
must be put in the $FLASH_DIR/sections directory. The Solaris Flash archive does
not process a user-defined section. For example, a section could contain a description
of the archive or perhaps a script to check the integrity of an application.
A user-defined section requires the following format.
■
■
■
■
Must be line oriented
Must terminate with newline (ASCII 0x0a) characters
Can have unlimited length of individual lines
Must encode binary data by using base64 or a similar algorithm
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
35
▼
To Create a Predeployment Script
This script is run before the installation of the archive. If the script is meant to validate
the archive, it is kept in the archive. If the script is meant to preserve local
configurations on the clone system, it is kept on the clone system. This script also can
analyze and collect local data necessary for later customization. For example,
client-specific information can be saved before being overwitten by files about to be
extracted. This information can then be used in the final stage after extraction.
Steps
1. Create the predeployment script. Follow the guidelines that are described in
“Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script” on page 27.
2. Store the script in one of the following directories.
Example 3–3
■
For archive validation, store in the /etc/flash/predeployment directory.
■
If you are referencing with a precreation script, store in the
$FLASH_DIR/preinstall directory.
■
If you are preserving configurations on a clone system, provide the path to the
script that is stored on the clone system with the local_customization
keyword in the JumpStart profile.
Predeployment Script
#!/bin/sh
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/check_hardware
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
echo Unsupported hardware
exit 1
fi
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/check_licence_key
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
echo No license for this host
exit 1
fi
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/deploy_license_key \
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/.TestApplicationLicenceTransfer
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/save_data_files $FLASH_DIR/flash
exit 0
▼
To Create a Postdeployment Script
This script is kept in the archive or stored in a local directory on the clone system and
runs after installation. The script reconfigures a new system image on a clone system.
If the script is stored in the archive, the changes affect all the clone systems. If the
script is stored in a local directory on the clone system, the changes affect only the
clone system. For example, client-specific information that is saved by a
predeployment script can be applied to the clone environment, completing the
installation.
36
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Postdeployment scripts can also be used to clean up files after the archive is installed.
For example, log files such as those files in /var/adm can be cleaned out.
Note – Not all log files need a script for cleanup. Log files in /var/tmp can be
excluded when the archive is created.
Steps
1. Create the postdeployment script. Follow the guidelines that are described in
“Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script” on page 27.
2. Store the script in one of the following directories.
Example 3–4
■
To affect all clone systems, store the script in the
/etc/flash/postdeployment directory.
■
To affect only a local clone system, provide the path to the script that is stored
on the clone system with the local_customization keyword in the
JumpStart profile.
Postdeployment Script
#!/bin/sh
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/clone_reconfiguration
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/restore_data $FLASH_DIR/flash
▼
To Create a Reboot Script
This script is kept in the archive and runs after the system is rebooted. The script does
any final configuration after system reconfiguration.
After you install the Solaris Flash archive on a clone system, some host-specific files
are deleted and are re-created for the clone machine. The installation program uses the
sys-unconfig(1M) command and the sysidtool(1M) programs to delete and
re-create host-specific network configuration files. The files that are re-created include,
for example, /etc/hosts, /etc/defaultrouter, and /etc/defaultdomain.
You can use the reboot script for any final reconfiguration.
Steps
1. Create the reboot script.
2. Store the script in the /etc/flash/reboot directory.
Example 3–5
Creating a reboot Script
#!/bin/sh
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/finalize_license
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
37
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive
You can create an archive with an initial installation that overwrites all the files on the
clone system, or you can create a differential archive that only overwrites the changes
that are specified. For an overview of a differential archive, see “Planning to Create the
Solaris Flash Differential Archive for an Update” on page 25.
Caution – A Solaris Flash archive cannot be properly created when a non-global zone is
installed. The Solaris Flash feature is not compatible with the Solaris Zones
partitioning technology. If you create a Solaris Flash archive, the resulting archive is
not installed properly when the archive is deployed under these conditions:
■
■
▼
The archive is created in a non-global zone
The archive is created in a global zone that has non-global zones installed
To Create a Solaris Flash Archive for an Initial
Installation
After you install the master system, create a Solaris Flash archive to use to install other
systems.
Steps
1. Boot the master system and run it in as inactive a state as possible.
When possible, run the system in single-user mode. If that is not possible, shut
down any applications that you want to archive and any applications that require
extensive operating system resources.
You can create a Solaris Flash archive while the master system is running in
multiuser mode, single-user mode, or while booted from one of the following:
■
Solaris Operating System DVD.
■
Solaris Software - 1 CD.
■
An image of the Solaris Software. If you are using CD media, the image could
include the Solaris Languages CD if needed.
2. To create the archive, use the flar create command.
# flar create -n name options path/filename
38
name
The name that you give the archive. The name you specify is the value
of the content_name keyword.
options
For a description of options, see “flar create” on page 64.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
path
The path to the directory in which you want to save the archive file. If
you do not specify a path, flar create saves the archive file in the
current directory.
filename
The name of the archive file.
■
If the archive creation is successful, the flar create command returns an exit
code of 0.
■
If the archive creation fails, the flar create command returns a nonzero exit
code.
3. Make a copy of the archive and save it. The copy can be used in the future to
update a clone system with a differential archive.
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive (Examples)
File systems can be copied exactly or can be customized by excluding some directories
or files. You can achieve the same results by using different options. Use the options
that best suit your environment.
The file systems in the following examples have been greatly simplified for
clarification. Rather than use file system names such as /var, /usr, or /opt, the
master system file structure for these examples is the following:
/aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
/aaa/bbb/fff
/aaa/eee
/ggg
Caution – Use the flar create file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude
some directories, others that you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as
system configuration files. The system would then be inconsistent and the installation
would not work. Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can easily
be removed without disrupting the system, such as large data files.
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive (Various Examples)
EXAMPLE 3–6
Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive
In this example, the archive is named archive1. This archive is copied exactly from
the master system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the
master system and is stored in archive1.flar.
# flar create -n archive1 -c archive1.flar
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
39
EXAMPLE 3–6
Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive
(Continued)
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following.
# flar info -l archive1.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb/fff
aaa/eee
aaa/eee
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–7
Creating an Archive From an Alternate root (/) File System
In this example, the archive is named archive4. This archive is copied exactly from
the master system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the
master system and is stored in archive4.flar. The -R option is used to create the
archive from another directory tree.
# flar create -n archive4 -c -R /x/yy/zz archive4.flar
EXAMPLE 3–8
Creating an Archive and Adding Keywords to Describe the Archive
In this example, the archive is named archive3. This archive is copied exactly from
the master system and then compressed. Options add descriptions to the archive
identification section, which can help you to identify the archive later. For information
about keywords, their values, and formats, see “Solaris Flash Keywords” on page 59.
# flar create -n archive3 -i 20000131221409 -m pumbaa \
-e "Solaris 8 Print Server" -a "Mighty Matt" -U "Internal Finance" \
-T server archive3.flar
After the archive is created, you can access the identification section that contains the
detailed description. An example of an identification section follows.
section_begin=identification
files_archived_method=cpio
files_compressed_method=compress
files_archived_size=259323342
files_unarchived_size=591238111
creation_date=20000131221409
creation_master=pumbaa
content_name=Finance Print Server
content_type=server
content_description=Solaris 8 Print Server
content_author=Mighty Matt
content_architectures=sun4u
creation_node=pumbaa
creation_hardware_class=sun4u
creation_platform=SUNW,Sun-Fire
40
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
EXAMPLE 3–8
(Continued)
Creating an Archive and Adding Keywords to Describe the Archive
creation_processor=sparc
creation_release=5.9
creation_os_name=SunOS
creation_os_version=s81_49
x-department=Internal Finance
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive and Customizing Files
(Examples)
EXAMPLE 3–9
Creating an Archive and Excluding and Including Files and Directories
In this example, the archive is named archive2. This archive is copied from the
master system but is not an exact copy. The content under the /aaa directory is
excluded, but the content in /aaa/bbb/ccc remains.
# flar create -n archive2 -x /aaa -y /aaa/bbb/ccc
archive2.flar
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories
that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.
# flar info -l aaa
aaa
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–10
Lists
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using
In this example, the archive is named archive5. This archive is copied from the
master system but is not an exact copy.
The exclude file contains the following list:
/aaa
The include file contains the following list:
/aaa/bbb/ccc
The content under the /aaa directory is excluded, but the content in /aaa/bbb/ccc
remains.
# flar create -n archive5 -X exclude -f include
archive5.flar
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
41
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using
(Continued)
EXAMPLE 3–10
Lists
To check about the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded
directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain
data.
# flar info -l archive5.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–11 Creating an Archive Excluding Files and Directories by Using a List and
Restoring a Directory
You can combine options -x, -y, -X and -f. In this example, options -X and -y are
combined. The archive is named archive5. This archive is copied from the master
system but is not an exact copy.
The exclude file contains the following list:
/aaa
The -y option restores the /aaa/bbb/ccc directory. The following command
produces the archive.
# flar create -n archive5 -X exclude -y /aaa/bbb/ccc
archive5.flar
To check about the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded
directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain
data.
# flar info -l archive5.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–12 Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using a
List With the -z Option
In this example, the archive is named archive3. It is copied from the master system
but is not an exact copy. The files and directories to be selected are included in
filter1 file. Within the files, the directories are marked with a minus (-) or a plus (+)
to indicate which files to exclude and restore. In this example, the directory /aaa is
excluded with a minus and the subdirectory /aaa/bbb/ccc is restored with a plus.
The filter1 file contains the following list.
42
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
EXAMPLE 3–12 Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using a
List With the -z Option
(Continued)
- /aaa
+ /aaa/bbb/ccc
The following command produces the archive.
# flar create -n archive3 -z filter1 archive3.flar
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following command. The excluded
directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain
data.
# flar info -l archive3.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
ggg
▼
To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive With
an Updated Master Image
Before creating a differential archive, you need two images to compare: an unchanged
master image and an updated master image. One image is the unchanged master
image that has been kept unchanged. This image was stored and needs to be accessed.
The second image is the unchanged master image that is updated with minor changes.
The root (/) file system is the default for the new image, but you can access this image
if it has been stored elsewhere. After you have the two images, you can create a
differential archive, which contains only the differences between the two images. The
differential archive can then be installed on clones that were installed previously with
the unchanged master image.
Steps
1. Prepare the master system with changes. Before changes are made, the master
system should be running a duplicate of the original archive.
Note – A copy of the unchanged master image must be kept protected from
changes and available for mounting later.
2. Update the unchanged master image with any of the following changes.
■
■
■
Delete packages.
Add packages or patches.
Modify configuration files.
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
43
■
Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.
3. (Optional) Create custom scripts. See “Creating Customization Scripts” on page
33.
4. Deliver the unchanged master image in a mount point.
■
If the unchanged master image is stored on an inactive boot environment,
retrieve it by using the lumount command.
# lumount BE_name mountpoint
BE_name
Specifies the boot environment name where the unchanged
master image is stored
mountpoint
Specifies a root (/) file system where the image is stored
In the following example, the inactive boot environment is named
unchanged_master1. The mount point is the directory /a on the master
system.
# lumount
■
unchanged_master1 /a
If the image is stored on a clone, mount the clone by using NFS.
a. On the master system, share the clone’s root (/) file system and give the
master root permissions on the clone system.
# share -F nfs -o rw,root=master_system "/"
master_system is the name of the master system.
b. On the master system, mount the clone.
# mount -F nfs clone_system:/ master_dir
■
clone_system
Specifies the name of the system to be mounted
master_dir
Specifies the directory where the unchanged master image
is stored
If you saved the image with the ufsdump command, use the ufsrestore
command to retrieve a copy. For information about how to use these
commands, see Chapter 28, “UFS Backup and Restore Commands (Reference),”
in System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems.
5. Create the differential archive.
# flar create -n archive_name -A unchanged_master_image_dir \
options path/filename
archive_name
44
Specifies the name that you give the archive.
The archive_name you specify is the value of the
content_name keyword. The name is listed in
the archive identification section.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
-A unchanged_master_image_dir
Creates a differential archive by comparing a
new system image with the image that is
specified by the unchanged_master_image_dir
argument. By default, the new system image is
root (/). You can change the default with the -R
option. unchanged_master_image_dir is a
directory where the unchanged system image is
stored or mounted through UFS, NFS, or the
lumount command.
You can include and exclude some files by using
the options for contents selection. For a list of
options, see “flar create” on page 64.
options
For a description of options, see “flar
create” on page 64.
path
Specifies the path to the directory in which you
want to save the archive file. If you do not
specify a path, flar create saves the archive
file in the current directory.
filename
Specifies the name of the archive file.
■
If the differential archive creation is successful, the flar create command
returns an exit code of 0.
■
If the differential archive creation fails, the flar create command returns a
nonzero exit code.
For procedures about installing an archive, see “To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash
Archive With a Custom JumpStart Installation” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide:
Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
Example 3–13
Creating a Differential Archive With the New Master Image on the
Master System
In this example, the directory for unchanged master image is named
unchanged_master1. The new master image that contains changes is the root (/)
directory. The new master image is compared to the unchanged master image and the
resulting differential archive is then compressed. The differential archive is stored in
diffarchive1.flar file. The archive contains files that are to be deleted, changed,
or added when installed.
# flar create -n diffarchive1 -A /a/unchanged_master1 -c diffarchive1.flar
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
45
Example 3–14
Creating a Differential Archive With the Images Stored on an
Inactive Boot Environment
In this example, the unchanged master image, unchanged_master1, is stored on an
inactive boot environment and is accessed by mounting the boot environment. The
new master image is the root (/) directory. The new master image is compared to the
unchanged master and the resulting differential archive is then compressed. The
archive is stored in diffarchive4.flar. The archive contains files that are to be
deleted, changed, or added when installed.
# lumount unchanged_master1 /a
# flar create -n diffarchive4 -A /a -c
▼
diffarchive4.flar
To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive by
Using Solaris Live Upgrade
To manage system updates, you can use Solaris Live Upgrade to copy the OS, which
creates a new boot environment. This copy can be compared to the master system that
has been updated with minor changes. The resulting Solaris Flash differential archive
can then be installed on clone systems.
For more information about Solaris Live Upgrade, see Chapter 6, “Solaris Live
Upgrade (Overview),” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade
Planning.
Steps
1. From the unchanged master system, create a new boot environment by using the
lucreate command.
This new boot environment is an exact copy of the master system and can be used
to create the differential archive.
2. Check the status of the two boot environments.
# lustatus copy_BE
boot environment
Is
Active Active
Can
Copy
Name
Complete Now
OnReboot
Delete
Status
-----------------------------------------------------------------------master_BE
yes
yes
yes
no
copy_BE
yes
no
no
yes
-
3. Update the master image with any of the following changes.
■
■
■
■
46
Delete packages.
Add packages or patches.
Modify configuration files.
Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
4. (Optional) Create custom scripts. See “Creating Customization Scripts” on page
33.
5. Create the differential archive.
a. Mount the newly created boot environment.
# lumount BE_name /a
b. Create the differential archive by comparing the master system to the boot
environment.
# flar create -n archive_name -A new_BE_dir\
options path/filename
archive_name
Specifies the name that you give the archive.
-A new_BE_dir
Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system
image with the image that is specified by the new BE_dir
argument.
options
For a list of options, see “flar create” on page 64.
path
Specifies the path to the directory in which you want to save
the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flar create
saves the archive file in the current directory.
filename
Specifies the name of the archive file.
c. Unmount the new boot environment.
# luumount copy_BE
The flar create command returns an exit code.
■
■
If the creation is successful, an exit code of 0 is returned.
If a failure occurs, a nonzero exit code is returned.
6. Install the Solaris Flash differential archive by using a JumpStart profile.
The clone systems that are to be installed must be a duplicate of the original master
system or the installation fails.
The following example profile installs a differential archive, test.diff, on the
device c1t1d0s0.
JumpStart profile
----------------------install_type flash_update
archive_location http server /rw/test.diff
root_device c1t1d0s0
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
47
Example 3–15
Creating a Differential Archive by Using Solaris Live Upgrade
master_BE is the name of the current boot environment. copy_BE is the name of the
new boot environment. The file systems root (/) and /usr are placed on s0 and s3.
The lustatus command reports that the new boot environment copy is complete.
The SUNWman package is added to the master system. After the master system is
updated by adding the SUNWman package, the flar create command creates a
differential archive by comparing the changed master and the unchanged new boot
environment.
# lucreate -c master_BE -m /:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0:ufs \
-m /usr:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s3:ufs -n copy_BE
# lustatus
# pkgadd SUNWman
# lumount copy_BE /a
# flar create -n test.diff -c -A /a /net/server/export/test.diff
# luumount copy_BE
Install the differential archive on clone systems. For procedures about installing an
archive, see “To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash Archive With a Custom JumpStart
Installation” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
The following image shows the creation of the new boot environment by using the
lucreate command.
48
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Original Master System
2 Physical Disks
c0t0d0
c0t1d0
root (/)
/swap
Master System After
New Boot Environment Creation
c0t0d0
root (/)
/swap
c0t1d0
Copy
Share
root (/)
/swap
Command: # lucreate
-m /:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0:ufs \
-n second_disk
Chapter 3 • Creating Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
49
50
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
CHAPTER
4
Installing and Administering Solaris
Flash Archives (Tasks)
This chapter provides step-by-step procedures for installing a Solaris Flash archive by
using the Solaris installation program. This chapter also provides references to
procedures for installing Solaris Flash archives when using other installation
programs. Also, step-by-step procedures for administering an archive are provided.
Caution – When installing the Solaris OS with a Solaris Flash archive, the archive and
the installation media must contain identical operating system versions. For example,
if the archive is a Solaris 10 operating system and you are using DVD media, then you
must use Solaris 10 DVD media to install the archive. If the operating systems versions
do not match, the installation on the target system fails.
■
If you want to use the Solaris installation program, see “Installing a Solaris Flash
Archive With the Solaris Installation Program” on page 51.
■
If you want to use the custom JumpStart installation method or Solaris Live
Upgrade, see “References to Procedures for Installing Solaris Flash Archives”
on page 53.
■
To split or merge an archive, see “Administering Solaris Flash Archives” on page
53.
Installing a Solaris Flash Archive With
the Solaris Installation Program
To use the Solaris installation program to install a Solaris Flash archive, use the
following procedure.
51
▼
Steps
Installing a Solaris Flash Archive
1. Begin the Solaris installation program and proceed through the panels until you
reach the Specify Media panel. Continue with Solaris Flash installation.
For the step-by-step procedures, see either of the following procedures.
■
SPARC: “Performing an Installation or Upgrade With the Solaris Installation
Program” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
■
x86: “Performing an Installation or Upgrade With the Solaris Installation
Program” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
2. Specify the media you are using to install.
a. Type the information that you are prompted to enter.
Media Selected
Prompt
DVD or CD
Insert the disc where the Solaris Flash archive is located.
Network File System
Specify the path to the network file system where the
Solaris Flash archive is located. You can also specify the
archive file name.
HTTP
Specify the URL and proxy information that is needed to
access the Solaris Flash archive.
FTP
Specify the FTP server and the path to the Solaris Flash
archive. Specify the user and password information that
allows you access to the FTP server. Specify any proxy
information that is needed to access the FTP server.
Local tape
Specify the local tape device and the position on the tape
where the Solaris Flash archive is located.
If you selected to install an archive from a DVD, CD, or from an NFS server, the
Select Flash Archives panel is displayed.
b. For archives that are stored on a disc or an NFS server, on the Select Flash
Archives panel, select one or more Solaris Flash archives to install.
c. On the Flash Archives Summary panel, confirm the selected archives and
click Next.
d. On the Additional Flash Archives panel, you can install an additional Solaris
Flash archive by specifying the media where the other archive is located. If
you do not want to install additional archives, select None.
3. Click Next to continue the installation. Follow the steps to complete the
installation.
52
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
References to Procedures for Installing
Solaris Flash Archives
You can use any of the Solaris installation methods to install Solaris Flash archives for
an initial installation. You must use custom JumpStart or Solaris Live Upgrade to
install a Solaris Flash differential archive.
Type of
Installation
An initial
installation to
install a Solaris
Flash archive
Reference
■
■
■
■
An update with
a Solaris Flash
differential
archive
■
■
Solaris installation program – See the previous procedure “Installing a
Solaris Flash Archive With the Solaris Installation Program” on page 51
Solaris Live Upgrade – See “Installing Solaris Flash Archives on a Boot
Environment” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and
Upgrade Planning.
Custom JumpStart installation program – See “Creating a Profile” in
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations
and “To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash Archive With a Custom
JumpStart Installation” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart
and Advanced Installations.
WAN boot installation method – See Chapter 11, “WAN Boot
(Overview),” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Network-Based Installations.
Custom JumpStart installation program – See “Creating a Profile” in
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations
and “To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash Archive With a Custom
JumpStart Installation” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart
and Advanced Installations.
Solaris Live Upgrade – See “To Install a Solaris Flash Archive With a
Profile (Command-Line Interface)” in Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris
Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Administering Solaris Flash Archives
The flar command enables you to administer archives. You can split an archive into
sections. Those sections can be modified, added to, or deleted, and then merged to
create an archive. You can also obtain information about the archive.
Chapter 4 • Installing and Administering Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
53
Caution – Do not modify the Archive Files section or you compromise the integrity of
the archive.
Splitting a Solaris Flash Archive
You can split an archive into sections, which enables you to modify some sections, add
new sections, or delete sections. After you have modified the sections, you need to
merge the sections to create an new archive. For example, you might want to add a
User-Defined section or modify the Archive Identification section. Do not modify the
Archive Files section or you compromise the integrity of the archive.
The flar split command splits a Solaris Flash archive into sections. The flar
command copies each section into a separate file in the current directory or specified
directory. The files are named after the sections, for example, the archive cookie is
saved in a file that is named cookie. You can specify that the flar split command
save only one section. The syntax of the command is as follows:
flar split[-d dir] [-u section] [-f archive] [-S section] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]]
filename
-d dir
Retrieves the sections to copy from dir, rather
than from the current directory.
-u section
■
■
If you use this option, flar copies the
Cookie, Identification, Archive, and section
sections. You can specify a single section
name or a space-separated list of section
names.
If you do not use this option, flar copies
the Cookie, Identification, and Archive
sections only.
-f archive
Extracts the Archive section into a directory
that is named archive, rather than placing it
in a file with the name archive.
-S section
Only copies the section that is named section
from the archive. This section is user defined.
EXAMPLE 4–1
Splitting an Archive
In the following example, archive1.flar is split into three files:
■
54
cookie – The first line of the archive, which identifies the version of the archive
format. Do not change this identifier.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
EXAMPLE 4–1
Splitting an Archive
(Continued)
■
identification – A copy of the Archive Identification section with all
keyword-value pairs.
■
archive – The cpio archive itself. This file can be compressed.
# flar split archive1.flar
After the archive is split, you can modify the Archive Identification section or add a
User-Defined section. The sections can then be merged to re-create the archive.
Merging a Solaris Flash Archive
After you have split an archive into sections, you can combine the sections to create a
new archive.
The flar combine command creates a Solaris Flash archive from individual sections.
Each section is assumed to be in a separate file, the names of which are the section
names. At a minimum, these three files must be present:
■
■
■
Archive Cookie (cookie)
Archive Identification (identification)
Archive Files (archive)
When combining sections, remember the following points:
■
If archive is a directory, flar uses cpio to archive the directory before including
it in the combined archive.
■
If the Archive Identification section specifies to compress the archive, flar
compresses the contents of the newly combined archive.
■
No validation is performed on any of the sections. In particular, no fields in the
Archive Identification section are validated or updated.
flar combine [-d dir] [-u section] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]] filename
-d dir
Retrieves the sections to combine from dir, rather than from the current
directory.
-u section
■
■
If you use this option, flar copies the Cookie, Identification,
Archive, and section sections. You can specify a single section name
or a space-separated list of section names.
If you do not use this option, flar copies the Cookie, Identification,
and Archive sections only.
Chapter 4 • Installing and Administering Solaris Flash Archives (Tasks)
55
EXAMPLE 4–2
Merging a Solaris Flash Archive
In this example, an Archive Cookie section, an Archive Identification section, and an
Archive Files section are combined to become a complete archive. The archive is
named newarchive.flar.
# flar combine newarchive.flar
EXAMPLE 4–3
Merging a Solaris Flash Archive and Adding a User-Defined Section
In this example, an Archive Cookie section, an Archive Identification section, an
Archive Files section, and a User-Defined section are combined to become a complete
archive. The archive is named newarchive.flar. The User-Defined section content
is in the file that is named user-defined, which is in the current directory.
# flar combine -u user_defined newarchive.flar
Extracting Information From an Archive
Use the flar info command to get information about archives you have already
created. The syntax of the command is as follows:
flar info [-l] [-k keyword] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]] filename
-k keyword
Returns only the value of the keyword keyword.
-l
Lists all the files in the archive section.
EXAMPLE 4–4
Listing Files in an Archive Section
In this example, the command checks the file structure of the archive named
archive3.flar.
# flar info -l archive3.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/eee
56
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
CHAPTER
5
Solaris Flash (Reference)
This chapter provides a description of Solaris Flash sections, keywords, and keyword
values. Also, the chapter describes the flar create command options.
■
■
■
“Solaris Flash Archive Section Descriptions” on page 57
“Solaris Flash Keywords” on page 59
“Solaris Flash flar create Command” on page 64
Solaris Flash Archive Section
Descriptions
Each Solaris Flash archive is grouped into sections. Some sections are generated by the
Solaris Flash software and need no input from you. Some sections require input or
optionally allow you to add information. The following table describes each section.
TABLE 5–1
Flash Archive Sections
Section Name
Description
Archive cookie
The first section contains a cookie that identifies the file as a
Solaris Flash archive. The deployment code uses the cookie for
identification and validation purposes. The cookie must be
present for an archive to be valid.
Required by
Archive?
Requires
Input From
User?
Yes
No
57
TABLE 5–1
Flash Archive Sections
Section Name
(Continued)
Description
Required by
Archive?
Archive identification The second section contains keywords with values that provide Yes
identification information about the archive. The software
generates some information such as the following:
■
The archive ID number
■
The method of archival such as cpio
■
The creation date by default
Requires
Input From
User?
Content is
generated
by both
user and
the
software
You are required to specify a name for the Solaris Flash archive.
Other information that you can specify about the archive
includes the following:
■
The author of the archive
■
The date that the archive was created
■
The name of the master system that you used to create the
archive
For a list of keywords that describe the archive, see
“Identification Section Keywords” on page 60.
Manifest
A section of a Solaris Flash archive that is used to validate a
clone system. The manifest section lists the files on a system to
be retained, added to, or deleted from the clone system. The
installation fails if the files do not match the expected file set.
This section is informational only. The section lists the files in
an internal format and cannot be used for scripting.
No
No
You can exclude this section by creating the differential archive
with the flar create -M option. Because no validation of the
archive occurs, excluding this section is not recommended.
Predeployment,
Postdeployment,
Reboot
This section contains internal information that the flash
software uses before and after installing an OS image. Any
customization scripts that you have provided are stored in this
section.
Yes
No
Summary
This section contains messages about the archive creation and
records the activities of predeployment scripts.
Yes
Content is
generated
by both
user and
the
software
User-defined
This section follows the archive identification section. The
No
archive can contain zero or more user-defined sections. These
sections are not processed by the archive extraction code. These
sections are retrieved separately and can be used for content
descriptions.
58
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Yes
TABLE 5–1
Flash Archive Sections
(Continued)
Section Name
Description
Archive files
The archive files section contains the files that have been
gathered from the master system in binary data. This section
begins with section_begin=archive, but it does not have
an ending section boundary.
Required by
Archive?
Requires
Input From
User?
Yes
No
Solaris Flash Keywords
Solaris Flash keywords are like custom JumpStart keywords. They define elements of
the installation. Each keyword is a command that controls one aspect of how the
Solaris Flash software installs the software on a clone system.
Use the following guidelines to format keywords and values:
■
Keywords and values are separated by a single equal sign with only one pair per
line
■
Keywords are case insensitive
■
Individual lines can be any length
General Keywords
Each Solaris Flash archive section is defined by the section_begin and
section_end keywords. For example, the archive files section includes a
section_begin keyword, though with a different value. User-defined archive
sections are delimited by section_begin and section_end keywords, with values
appropriate to each section. The values for the section_begin and section_end
keywords are described in the following table.
TABLE 5–2
Values for section_begin and section_end Keywords
Archive Section
Value for section_begin and section_end keywords
Archive cookie
cookie – This section is not delimited by the
section_begin and section_end keywords.
Archive identification
identification
User-defined sections
section_name – An example of a section_name
keyword is X-user_section_1.
Chapter 5 • Solaris Flash (Reference)
59
TABLE 5–2
Values for section_begin and section_end Keywords
(Continued)
Archive Section
Value for section_begin and section_end keywords
Archive files
archive
Identification Section Keywords
The following tables describe the keywords for use in the Archive Identification
section and the values you can define for them.
Every section uses the keywords in Table 5–3 to delimit each section.
TABLE 5–3
Identification Section Keywords: General Keywords
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
section_begin
These keywords are used to delimit sections in the
archive and are not limited exclusively to the
identification section. For a description of these
keywords, see “General Keywords” on page 59.
Text
Yes
section_end
The following keywords, used in the archive identification section, describe the
contents of the archive files section.
TABLE 5–4
Identification Section Keywords: Contents of Archive Files Section
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
archive_id (optional)
This keyword uniquely describes the contents of the
Text
archive. This value is used by the installation software only
to validate the contents of the archive during archive
installation. If the keyword is not present, no integrity
check is performed.
Required
No
For example, the archive_id keyword might be
FlAsH-ARcHive-2.0.
files_archived_method
This keyword describes the archive method that is used in
the files section.
■
If the keyword is present, it has the value of cpio.
■
If this keyword is not present, the files section is
assumed to be in cpio format with ASCII headers.
This format is the cpio -c option.
Text
If the files_compressed_method is present, the
compression method is applied to the archive file that is
created by the archive method.
60
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
No
TABLE 5–4
Identification Section Keywords: Contents of Archive Files Section
(Continued)
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
files_archived_size
This keyword value is the size of the archived files section
in bytes.
Numeric
No
files_compress_method
This keyword describes the compression algorithm that is
used on the files section.
■
If the keyword is present, it can have one of the
following values.
■
none – The archive file section is not compressed.
■
compress – The file section is compressed by
using the compress command.
■
If this keyword is not present, the archive files section
is assumed to be uncompressed.
Text
No
Numeric
No
The compression method that is indicated by this keyword
is applied to the archive file created by the archive method
indicated by the files_archived_method keyword.
files_unarchived_size
This keyword defines the cumulative size in bytes of the
extracted archive. The value is used for file-system size
verification.
The following keywords provide descriptive information about the entire archive.
These keywords are generally used to assist you in archive selection and to aid in
archive management. These keywords are all optional and are used to help you to
distinguish between individual archives. You use options for the flar create
command to include these keywords. For an example, see Example 3–8.
TABLE 5–5
Identification Section Keywords: User Describes the Archive
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
creation_date
This keyword value is a textual timestamp that
represents the time that you created the archive.
■
You can use the flar create command with
the -i option to create the date.
■
If you do not specify a creation date with the
flar create command, the default date is set
in Greenwich mean time (GMT).
■
The value must be in ISO-8601 complete basic
calendar format without the time designator
(ISO-8601,§5.4.1(a)). The format is
CCYYMMDDhhmmss. For example,
20000131221409 represents January 31, 2000,
10:14:09 p.m.
Text
No
Chapter 5 • Solaris Flash (Reference)
61
TABLE 5–5
Identification Section Keywords: User Describes the Archive
(Continued)
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
creation_master
This keyword value is the name of the master system Text
you used to create the archive. You can use the flar
create -m option to create this value. If you do not
specify a value, the value is taken from the uname
-n command.
No
content_name
This keyword identifies the archive. The value is
generated from the flar create -n option. Follow
these guidelines when you create this value:
■
The descriptive name can be no longer than 256
characters.
■
The description should contain the function and
purpose of the archive.
Text
Yes
content_type
This keyword value specifies a category for the
archive. You use the flar create -T option to
generate the value.
Text
No
content_description
The keyword value describes the contents of the
archive. The value of this keyword has no length
limit. You use the flar create -E option to create
this value.
Text
No
content_author
This keyword value identifies the creator of the
archive. You use the flar create-a option to
create this value. Suggested values include the full
name of the creator and the creator’s email address.
Text
No
content_architectures
This keyword value is a comma-separated list of the
kernel architectures that the archive supports.
■
If the keyword is present, the installation
software validates the kernel architecture of the
clone system against the list of architectures that
the archive supports. The installation fails if the
archive does not support the kernel architecture
of the clone system.
■
If the keyword is not present, the installation
software does not validate the architecture of the
clone system.
Text list
No
The following keywords also describe the entire archive. By default, the values are
filled in by uname when the flash archive is created. If you create a flash archive in
which the root directory is not /, the archive software inserts the string UNKNOWN
for the keywords. The exceptions are the creation_node, creation_release, and
creation_os_name keywords.
■
62
For creation_node, the software uses the contents of the nodename file.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
■
For creation_release and creation_os_name, the software attempts to use
the contents of root directory /var/sadm/system/admin/INST_RELEASE. If
the software is unsuccessful in reading this file, it assigns the value UNKNOWN.
Regardless of their sources, you cannot override the values of these keywords.
TABLE 5–6
Identification Section Keywords: Software Describes the Archive
Keyword
Value
creation_node
The return from uname -n
creation_hardware_class
The return from uname -m
creation_platform
The return from uname -i
creation_processor
The return from uname -p
creation_release
The return fromuname -r
creation_os_name
The return from uname -s
creation_os_version
The return from uname -v
User-Defined Section Keywords
In addition to the keywords that are defined by the Solaris Flash archive, you can
define other keywords. The Solaris Flash archive ignores user-defined keywords, but
you can provide scripts or programs that process the identification section and use
user-defined keywords. Use the following format when creating user-defined
keywords:
■
Begin the keyword name with an X.
■
Create the keyword with any characters other than linefeeds, equal signs, and null
characters.
■
Suggested naming conventions for user-defined keywords include the
underscore-delimited descriptive method used for the predefined keywords.
Another convention is a federated convention similar to the naming of Java
packages.
For example, X-department is a valid name for a user-defined keyword.
For an example of using options to include user-defined keywords in the identification
section, see Example 3–8.
Chapter 5 • Solaris Flash (Reference)
63
Solaris Flash flar create Command
Use the Solaris Flash flar create command to create a Solaris Flash archive.
flar create
Use the flar create command to create a Solaris Flash archive from a master
system. You can use this command when the master system is running in multiuser
mode or single-user mode. You can also use flar create when the master system is
booted from the following media.
■
■
■
Solaris Operating System DVD
Solaris Software - 1 CD
An image of the Solaris Software CDs and Solaris Languages CD
The master system should be in as stable a state as possible when you create a Solaris
Flash archive. The syntax of the command is as follows:
flar create -n archive_name [-R root] [-A unchanged_master_image_dir] [-S]
[-M] [-H] [-I] [-c] [-x exclude_dir/filename] [-y include_dir/filename] [-z
list_filename] [-X list_filename] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize] [-i date] [-m
master] [-u section ... [-d dir]] [-f [list_filename| -] [-F]] [-U key=val
...] [-a author] [-e descr|-E descr_file] [-T type] path/filename
In this command line, path is the directory in which you want the archive file to be
saved. filename is the name of the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flar
create saves the archive file in the current directory.
TABLE 5–7
Command-Line Options for flar create
Option
Description
Required Options
-n archive_name
The value of this flag is the name of the archive. The archive_name
you specify is the value of the content_name keyword.
Option for Compression
-c
Compresses the archive by using compress(1).
Options for Directories and Sizes
-R root
64
Creates the archive from the file system tree that is rooted at root. If
you do not specify this option, flar create creates an archive
from a file system that is rooted at /.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
TABLE 5–7
Command-Line Options for flar create
(Continued)
Option
Description
-S
Omits sizing information in the archive.
-H
Does not generate the hash identifier.
Options for Creating a Differential Archive
-A
Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system image
unchanged_master_image_dir with the image that is specified by the unchanged_master_image_dir
argument. By default, the new system image is root (/). You can
change the default with the -R option. unchanged_master_image_dir
is a directory where the unchanged master system image is stored
or mounted through UFS, NFS, or lumount.
You can modify the effects of file selection for a differential archive
by using the options for contents selection described in the next
section of the table.
-M
Excludes the manifest file. When you use this option, no validation
occurs on the differential archive. When creating a differential
archive, flar create creates a long list of the files in the system
that are unchanged, are changed, and are to be deleted from the
archive. This list is stored in the manifest section of the archive.
When the differential archive is deployed, the software uses this
list to perform a file-by-file check, ensuring the integrity of the
clone system. Use of this option avoids such a check and saves the
space that is used by the manifest section in a differential archive.
However, you must consider the savings in time and disk space
against the loss of an integrity check upon installation. Because no
validation occurs, avoid using this option.
Options for Contents Selection
Caution – Use the flar create file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude some
directories, others that you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as system
configuration files. The system would then be inconsistent and the installation would not
work. Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can easily be removed without
disrupting the system, such as large data files.
-y include_dir/filename
Adds to the archive those files and directories that are specified on
the command line. This option is used when you have excluded a
directory, but want to restore individual subdirectories or files.
include_dir/filename is the name of the subdirectory or file to be
included.
Chapter 5 • Solaris Flash (Reference)
65
TABLE 5–7
Command-Line Options for flar create
(Continued)
Option
Description
-f list_filename
Adds files and directories from a list to the archive.
list_filename is the full path to a file that contains a list. The contents
of the file are added to the file list unless -F is specified.
■
The list_filename file must contain one file per line.
■
If you specify a file system with -R root, the path to each file
must be relative to the alternate root directory or an absolute
path.
■
If filename is “-”, flar create reads standard input as the list
of files. When you use the value “-”, the archive size is not
calculated.
-F
Uses only the files in -f list_filename to create the archive. This
option makes the -f list_filename the absolute list, rather than a list
that is appended to the normal file list.
-x exclude_dir/filename
Excludes files and directories from the archive. These files and
directories are specified at the command line. You can use multiple
instances of this option to exclude more than one file or directory.
exclude_dir/filename is the name of the directory or file to be
excluded.
-X list_filename
Excludes a list of files or directories from the archive.
list_filename is the full path to a file that contains the list.
■
The list_filename file must contain one file per line.
■
If you specify a file system with -R root, the path to each file
must be relative to the alternate root directory or an absolute
path.
■
If list_filename is “-”, flar create reads standard input as the
list of files. When you use the value “-”, the archive size is not
calculated.
-z list_filename
Excludes or includes a list of files or directories from the archive.
Each file or directory in the list is noted with a plus “+” or minus
“-”. A plus indicates an included file or directory and the minus
indicates an excluded file or directory.
list_filename is the full path to a file that contains the list.
■
The list_filename file must contain one file per line.
■
If you specify a file system with -R root, the path to each file
must be relative to the alternate root directory or an absolute
path.
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Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
TABLE 5–7
Command-Line Options for flar create
(Continued)
Option
Description
-I
Override the integrity check. To prevent you from excluding
important system files from an archive, flar create runs an
integrity check. This check examines all files that are registered in a
system package database and stops archive creation if any of them
are excluded. Use of this option overrides this integrity check.
Therefore, avoid the use of the -I option.
Options Used With User-Defined Sections
-u section
Includes section as a user-defined section. To include more than one
user-defined section, section must be a space-separated list of
section names.
-d dir
Retrieves the section file that is specified with -u from dir.
Options Used With Tape Archives
-t
Creates an archive on a tape device. The filename argument is the
name of the tape device.
-p posn
Use only with the -t option. Specifies the position on the tape
device for flar create to store the archive. If you do not use this
option, flar create places the archive at the current position of
the tape.
-b blocksize
Specifies the block size flar create uses when creating the
archive. If you do not specify a block size, flar create uses the
default block size of 64 KB.
Options for Archive Identification
These keywords and values appear in the identification section of the archive.
-U key=val
Includes user-defined keywords and values in the Archive
Identification section.
-i date
Uses date as the value for the creation_date keyword. If you do
not specify a date, flar create uses the current system time and
date.
-m master
Uses master as the name of the master system on which you
created the archive. master is the value for the creation_master
keyword. If you do not specify master, flar create uses the
system name that is reported by uname -n.
-e descr
Uses descr for the value of the content_description keyword.
You cannot use this option when you use the -E option.
-E descr_file
Retrieves the value for the content_description keyword
from the descr_file file. You cannot use this option when you use
the -e option.
Chapter 5 • Solaris Flash (Reference)
67
TABLE 5–7
68
Command-Line Options for flar create
(Continued)
Option
Description
-a author
Uses author as the author name in the Archive Identification
section. author is the value for the content_author keyword. If
you do not specify an author, flar create does not include the
content_author keyword in the Archive Identification section.
-T type
Uses type as the value for the content_type keyword. type is
user defined. If you do not specify a type, flar create does not
include the content_type keyword.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
Glossary
3DES
([Triple DES] Triple-Data Encryption Standard). A symmetric-key
encryption method that provides a key length of 168 bits.
AES
(Advanced Encryption Standard) A symmetric 128-bit block data
encryption technique. The U.S. government adopted the Rijndael
variant of the algorithm as its encryption standard in October 2000.
AES replaces DES encryption as the government standard.
archive
A file that contains a collection of files that were copied from a master
system. The file also contains identification information about the
archive, such as a name and the date that you created the archive.
After you install an archive on a system, the system contains the exact
configuration of the master system.
An archive could be a differential archive which is a Solaris Flash
archive that contains only the differences between two system images,
an unchanged master image and an updated master image. The
differential archive contains files to be retained, modified, or deleted
from the clone system. A differential update changes only the files
specified and is restricted to systems that contain software consistent
with the unchanged master image.
arrow keys
One of the four directional keys on the numeric keypad.
begin script
A user-defined Bourne shell script, specified within the rules file, that
performs tasks before the Solaris software is installed on the system.
You can use begin scripts only with custom JumpStart installations.
boot
To load the system software into memory and start it.
boot archive
x86 only: A boot archive is a collection of critical files that is used to
boot the Solaris OS. These files are needed during system startup
before the root (/) file system is mounted. Two boot archives are
maintained on a system:
69
boot environment
■
The boot archive that is used to boot the Solaris OS on a system.
This boot archive is sometimes called the primary boot archive.
■
The boot archive that is used for recovery when the primary boot
archive is damaged. This boot archive starts the system without
mounting the root (/) file system. On the GRUB menu, this boot
archive is called failsafe. The archive’s essential purpose is to
regenerate the primary boot archive, which is usually used to boot
the system.
A collection of mandatory file systems (disk slices and mount points)
that are critical to the operation of the Solaris OS. These disk slices
might be on the same disk or distributed across multiple disks.
The active boot environment is the one that is currently booted.
Exactly one active boot environment can be booted. An inactive boot
environment is not currently booted, but can be in a state of waiting
for activation on the next reboot.
70
boot loader
x86 only: The boot loader is the first software program that runs after
you turn on a system. This program begins the booting process.
bootlog-cgi
The CGI program that enables a web server to collect and store remote
client-booting and installation console messages during a WAN boot
installation.
boot server
A server system that provides client systems on the same network
subnet with the programs and information that they need to start. A
boot server is required to install over the network if the install server is
on a different subnet than the systems on which Solaris software is to
be installed.
certificate authority
(CA) A trusted third-party organization or company that issues digital
certificates that are used to create digital signatures and public-private
key pairs. The CA guarantees that the individual who is granted the
unique certificate is who she or he claims to be.
certstore
A file that contains a digital certificate for a specific client system.
During an SSL negotiation, the client might be asked to provide the
certificate file to the server. The server uses this file to verify the
identity of the client.
CGI
(Common Gateway Interface) An interface by which external
programs communicate with the HTTP server. Programs that are
written to use CGI are called CGI programs or CGI scripts. CGI
programs handle forms or parse output the server does not normally
handle or parse.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
checksum
The result of adding a group of data items that are used for checking
the group. The data items can be either numerals or other character
strings that are treated as numerals during the checksum calculation.
The checksum value verifies that communication between two devices
is successful.
client
In the client-server model for communications, the client is a process
that remotely accesses resources of a compute server, such as compute
power and large memory capacity.
clone system
A system that you installed by using a Solaris Flash archive. The clone
system has the same installation configuration as the master system.
cluster
A logical collection of packages (software modules). The Solaris
software is divided into software groups, which are each composed of
clusters and packages.
command line
A string of characters that begins with a command, often followed by
arguments, including options, file names, and other expressions, and
terminated by the end-of-line character.
concatenation
A RAID-0 volume. If slices are concatenated, the data is written to the
first available slice until that slice is full. When that slice is full, the
data is written to the next slice, serially. A concatenation provides no
data redundancy unless it is contained in a mirror. See also RAID-0
volume.
Core Software Group
A software group that contains the minimum software that is required
to boot and run the Solaris OS on a system. Core includes some
networking software and the drivers that are required to run the
Common Desktop Environment (CDE) desktop. Core does not include
the CDE software.
critical file systems
File systems that are required by the Solaris OS. When you use Solaris
Live Upgrade, these file systems are separate mount points in the
vfstab of the active and inactive boot environments. Example file
systems are root (/), /usr, /var, and /opt. These file systems are
always copied from the source to the inactive boot environment.
custom JumpStart
A type of installation in which the Solaris software is automatically
installed on a system that is based on a user-defined profile. You can
create customized profiles for different types of users and systems. A
custom JumpStart installation is a JumpStart installation you create.
custom probes file
A file, which must be located in the same JumpStart directory as the
rules file, that is a Bourne shell script that contains two types of
functions: probe and comparison. Probe functions gather the
information you want or do the actual work and set a corresponding
SI_ environment variable you define. Probe functions become probe
keywords. Comparison functions call a corresponding probe function,
71
compare the output of the probe function, and return 0 if the keyword
matches or 1 if the keyword doesn’t match. Comparison functions
become rule keywords. See also rules file.
decryption
The process of converting coded data to plain text. See also encryption.
derived profile
A profile that is dynamically created by a begin script during a custom
JumpStart installation.
DES
(Data Encryption Standard) A symmetric-key encryption method that
was developed in 1975 and standardized by ANSI in 1981 as ANSI
X.3.92. DES uses a 56-bit key.
Developer Solaris
Software Group
A software group that contains the End User Solaris Software Group
plus the libraries, include files, man pages, and programming tools for
developing software.
DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) An application-layer protocol.
Enables individual computers, or clients, on a TCP/IP network to
extract an IP address and other network configuration information
from a designated and centrally maintained DHCP server or servers.
This facility reduces the overhead of maintaining and administering a
large IP network.
differential archive
A Solaris Flash archive that contains only the differences between two
system images, an unchanged master image and an updated master
image. The differential archive contains files to be retained, modified,
or deleted from the clone system. A differential update changes only
the files that are specified and is restricted to systems that contain
software consistent with the unchanged master image.
digital certificate
A nontransferable, nonforgeable, digital file issued from a third party
that both communicating parties already trust.
disc
An optical disc, as opposed to a magnetic disk, which recognizes the
common spelling that is used in the compact disc (CD) market. For
example, a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM is an optical disc.
disk
A round platter, or set of platters, of a magnetized medium that is
organized into concentric tracks and sectors for storing data such as
files. See also disc.
disk configuration file
A file that represents a structure of a disk (for example, bytes/sector,
flags, slices). Disk configuration files enable you to use pfinstall
from a single system to test profiles on different–size disks.
diskless client
A client on a network that relies on a server for all of its disk storage.
document root directory The root of a hierarchy on a web server machine that contains the files,
images, and data you want to present to users who are accessing the
web server.
72
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
domain
A part of the Internet naming hierarchy. A domain represents a group
of systems on a local network that share administrative files.
domain name
The name that is assigned to a group of systems on a local network
that share administrative files. The domain name is required for the
Network Information Service (NIS) database to work properly. A
domain name consists of a sequence of component names that are
separated by periods (for example: tundra.mpk.ca.us). As you read
a domain name from left to right, the component names identify more
general (and usually remote) areas of administrative authority.
encryption
The process of protecting information from unauthorized use by
making the information unintelligible. Encryption is based on a code,
called a key, which is used to decrypt the information. See also
decryption.
End User Solaris
Software Group
A software group that contains the Core Software Group plus the
recommended software for an end user, including the Common
Desktop Environment (CDE) and DeskSet software.
Entire Solaris Software
Group
A software group that contains the entire Solaris 10 release.
Entire Solaris Software
Group Plus OEM
Support
A software group that contains the entire Solaris 10 release, plus
additional hardware support for OEMs. This software group is
recommended when installing Solaris software on SPARC based
servers.
/etc
A directory that contains critical system configuration files and
maintenance commands.
/etc/netboot
directory
The directory on a WAN boot server that contains the client
configuration information and security data that are required for a
WAN boot installation.
/export
A file system on an OS server that is shared with other systems on a
network. For example, the /export file system can contain the root
(/) file system and swap space for diskless clients and the home
directories for users on the network. Diskless clients rely on the
/export file system on an OS server to boot and run.
failsafe boot archive
x86 only: A boot archive that is used for recovery when the primary
boot archive is damaged. This boot archive brings the system up
without mounting the root (/) file system. This boot archive is called
failsafe on the GRUB menu. The archive’s essential purpose is to
regenerate the primary boot archive, which is usually used to boot the
system. See boot archive.
fallback
A reversion to the environment that ran previously. Use fallback when
you are activating an environment and the boot environment that is
designated for booting fails or shows some undesirable behavior.
73
74
fdisk partition
A logical partition of a disk drive that is dedicated to a particular
operating system on x86 based systems. To install the Solaris software,
you must set up at least one Solaris fdisk partition on an x86 based
system. x86 based systems allow up to four different fdisk partitions
on a disk. These partitions can be used to hold individual operating
systems. Each operating system must be located on a unique fdisk
partition. A system can only have one Solaris fdisk partition per disk.
file server
A server that provides the software and file storage for systems on a
network.
file system
In the SunOS™ operating system, a tree-structured network of files
and directories that you can access.
finish script
A user-defined Bourne shell script, specified within the rules file, that
performs tasks after the Solaris software is installed on the system, but
before the system reboots. You use finish scripts with custom
JumpStart installations.
format
To put data into a structure or divide a disk into sectors for receiving
data.
function key
One of the 10 or more keyboard keys that are labeled F1, F2, F3, and so
on that are mapped to particular tasks.
global zone
In Solaris Zones, the global zone is both the default zone for the
system and the zone used for system-wide administrative control. The
global zone is the only zone from which a non-global zone can be
configured, installed, managed, or uninstalled. Administration of the
system infrastructure, such as physical devices, routing, or dynamic
reconfiguration (DR), is only possible in the global zone. Appropriately
privileged processes running in the global zone can access objects
associated with other zones. See also Solaris Zones and non-global
zone.
GRUB
x86 only: GNU GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) is an open source
boot loader with a simple menu interface. The menu displays a list of
operating systems that are installed on a system. GRUB enables you to
easily boot these various operating systems, such as the Solaris OS,
Linux, or Microsoft Windows.
GRUB main menu
x86 only: A boot menu that lists the operating systems that are
installed on a system. From this menu, you can easily boot an
operating system without modifying the BIOS or fdisk partition
settings.
GRUB edit menu
x86 only: A boot menu that is a submenu of the GRUB main menu.
GRUB commands are displayed on this menu. These commands can
be edited to change boot behavior.
hard link
A directory entry that references a file on disk. More than one such
directory entry can reference the same physical file.
Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • December 2005
hash
A number that is produced by taking some input and generating a
number that is significantly shorter than the input. The same output
value is always generated for identical inputs. Hash functions can be
used in table search algorithms, in error detection, and in tamper
detection. When used for tamper detection, hash functions are chosen
such that it is difficult to find two inputs that yield the same hash
result. MD5 and SHA-1 are examples of one-way hash functions. For
example, a message digest takes a variable-length input such as a disk
file and reduces it to a small value.
hashing
The process of changing a string of characters into a value or key that
represents the original string.
HMAC
Keyed hashing method for message authentication. HMAC is used
with an iterative cryptographic hash function, such as MD5 or SHA-1,
in combination with a secret shared key. The cryptographic strength of
HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function.
host name
The name by which a system is known to other systems on a network.
This name must be unique among all the systems within a particular
domain (usually, this means within any single organization). A host
name can be any combination of letters, numbers, and minus signs (-),
but it cannot begin or end with a minus sign.
HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) (n.) The Internet protocol that fetches
hypertext objects from remote hosts. This protocol is based on TCP/IP.
HTTPS
A secure version of HTTP, implemented by using the Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL).
initial installation
An installation that overwrites the currently running software or
initializes a blank disk.
An initial installation of the Solaris OS overwrites the system’s disk or
disks with the new version of the Solaris OS. If your system is not
running the Solaris OS, you must perform an initial installation. If
your system is running an upgradable version of the Solaris OS, an
initial installation overwrites the disk and does not preserve the OS or
local modifications.
install server
A server that provides the Solaris DVD or CD images from which
other systems on a network can install Solaris (also known as a media
server). You can create an install server by copying the Solaris DVD or
CD images to the server’s hard disk.
IP address
(Internet protocol address) In TCP/IP, a unique 32-bit number that
identifies each host in a network. An IP address consists of four
numbers that are separated by periods (192.168.0.0, for example). Most
often, each part of the IP address is a number between 0 and 225.
However, the first number must be less than 224 and the last number
cannot be 0.
75
IP addresses are logically divided into two parts: the network (similar
to a telephone area code), and the local system on the network (similar
to a phone number). The numbers in a Class A IP address, for example,
represent “network.local.local.local” and the numbers in a
Class C IP address represent “network.network.network.local.”
IPv6
Class
Range (xxx is a number 0 to 255)
Number of Available IP
Addresses
Class A
1.xxx.xxx.xxx - 126.xxx.xxx.xxx
Over 16 million
Class B
128.0.xxx.xxx - 191.255.xxx.xxx
Over 65,000
Class C
192.0.0.xxx - 223.255.255.xxx
256
IPv6 is a version (version 6) of Internet Protocol (IP) that is designed to
be an evolutionary step from the current version, IPv4 (version 4).
Deploying IPv6, by using defined transition mechanisms, does not
disrupt current operations. In addition, IPv6 provides a platform for
new Internet functionality.
IPv6 is described in more detail in Part I, “Introducing System
Administration: IP Services,” in System Administration Guide: IP
Services.
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job
A user-defined task to be completed by a computer system.
JumpStart directory
When you use a profile diskette for custom JumpStart installations, the
JumpStart directory is the root directory on the diskette that contains
all the essential custom JumpStart files. When you use a profile server
for custom JumpStart installations, the JumpStart directory is a
directory on the server that contains all the essential custom JumpStart
files.
JumpStart installation
A type of installation in which the Solaris software is automatically
installed on a system by using the factory-installed JumpStart
software.
Kerberos
A network authentication protocol that uses strong, secret-key
cryptography to enable a client and server to identify themselves to
each other over an insecure network connection.
key
The code for encrypting or decrypting data. See also encryption.
keystore
A file that contains keys shared by a client and server. During a WAN
boot installation, the client system uses the keys to verify the integrity
of, or decrypt the data and files transmitted from, the server.
LAN
(local area network) A group of computer systems in close proximity
that can communicate by way of some connecting hardware and
software.
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LDAP
(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) A standard, extensible
directory access protocol that is used by LDAP naming service clients
and servers to communicate with each other.
locale
A geographic or political region or community that shares the same
language, customs, or cultural conventions (English for the U.S. is
en_US, and English for the U.K. is en_UK).
logical device
A group of physical slices on one or more disks that appear to the
system as a single device. A logical device is called a volume in Solaris
Volume Manager. A volume is functionally identical to a physical disk
in the view of an application or file system.
manifest section
A section of a Solaris Flash archive that is used to validate a clone
system. The manifest section lists the files on a system to be retained,
added to, or deleted from the clone system. This section is
informational only. The section lists the files in an internal format and
cannot be used for scripting.
master system
A system that you use to create a Solaris Flash archive. The system
configuration is saved in the archive.
MD5
(Message Digest 5) An iterative cryptographic hash function that is
used for message authentication, including digital signatures. The
function was developed in 1991 by Rivest.
media server
See install server.
menu.lst file
x86 only: A file that lists all the operating systems that are installed on
a system. The contents of this file dictate the list of operating systems
that is displayed on the GRUB menu. From the GRUB menu, you can
easily boot an operating system without modifying the BIOS or fdisk
partition settings.
metadevice
See volume.
miniroot
The smallest possible bootable Solaris root (/) file system. A miniroot
contains a kernel and just enough software to install the Solaris
environment on a hard disk. The miniroot is the file system that is
copied to a machine in the initial installation.
mirror
See RAID-1 volume.
mount
The process of accessing a directory from a disk that is attached to a
machine that is making the mount request or a remote disk on a
network. To mount a file system, you need a mount point on the local
system and the name of the file system to be mounted (for example,
/usr).
mount point
A workstation directory to which you mount a file system that exists
on a remote machine.
name server
A server that provides a name service to systems on a network.
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name service
A distributed network database that contains key system information
about all the systems on a network so that the systems can
communicate with each other. With a name service, the system
information can be maintained, managed, and accessed on a
network-wide basis. Without a name service, each system has to
maintain its own copy of the system information in the local /etc
files. Sun supports the following name services: LDAP, NIS, and NIS+.
networked systems
A group of systems (called hosts) that are connected through hardware
and software so that they can communicate and share information.
Referred to as a local area network (LAN). One or more servers are
usually needed when systems are networked.
network installation
A way to install software over the network—from a system with a
CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive to a system without a CD-ROM or
DVD-ROM drive. Network installations require a name server and an
install server.
NIS
The SunOS 4.0 (minimum) Network Information Service. A distributed
network database that contains key information about the systems and
the users on the network. The NIS database is stored on the master
server and all the slave servers.
NIS+
The SunOS 5.0 (minimum) Network Information Service. NIS+
replaces NIS, the SunOS 4.0 (minimum) Network Information Service.
non-global zone
A virtualized operating system environment created within a single
instance of the Solaris Operating System. One or more applications can
run in a non-global zone without interacting with the rest of the
system. Non-global zones are also called zones. See also Solaris Zones
and global zone.
nonnetworked systems
Systems that are not connected to a network or do not rely on other
systems.
/opt
A file system that contains the mount points for third-party and
unbundled software.
OS server
A system that provides services to systems on a network. To serve
diskless clients, an OS server must have disk space set aside for each
diskless client’s root (/) file system and swap space (/export/root,
/export/swap).
package
A collection of software that is grouped into a single entity for
modular installation. The Solaris software is divided into software
groups, which are each composed of clusters and packages.
panel
A container for organizing the contents of a window, a dialog box, or
applet. The panel might collect and confirm user input. Panels might
be used by wizards and follow an ordered sequence to fulfill a
designated task.
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patch analyzer
A script that you can run manually or as part of the Solaris installation
program. The patch analyzer performs an analysis on your system to
determine which (if any) patches will be removed by upgrading to a
Solaris update.
platform group
A vendor-defined grouping of hardware platforms for the purpose of
distributing specific software. Examples of valid platform groups are
i86pc and sun4u.
platform name
The output of the uname -i command. For example, the platform
name for the Ultra 60 is SUNW,Ultra-60.
Power Management
Software that automatically saves the state of a system and turns it off
after it is idle for 30 minutes. When you install the Solaris software on
a system that complies with Version 2 of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency’s Energy Star guidelines—a sun4u SPARC system,
for example—the Power Management software is installed by default.
After a subsequent reboot, you are prompted to enable or disable the
Power Management software.
Energy Star guidelines require that systems or monitors automatically
enter a “sleep state” (consume 30 watts or less) after the system or
monitor becomes inactive.
primary boot archive
A boot archive that is used to boot the Solaris OS on a system. This
boot archive is sometimes called the primary boot archive. See boot
archive.
probe keyword
A syntactical element that extracts attribute information about a
system when using the custom JumpStart method to install. A probe
keyword does not require you to set up a matching condition and run
a profile as required for a rule. See also rule.
profile
A text file that defines how to install the Solaris software when using
the custom JumpStart method. For example, a profile defines which
software group to install. Every rule specifies a profile that defines
how a system is to be installed when the rule is matched. You usually
create a different profile for every rule. However, the same profile can
be used in more than one rule. See also rules file.
profile diskette
A diskette that contains all the essential custom JumpStart files in its
root directory (JumpStart directory).
profile server
A server that contains all the essential custom JumpStart files in a
JumpStart directory.
private key
The decryption key used in public-key encryption.
public key
The encryption key used in public-key encryption.
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public-key cryptography A cryptographic system that uses two keys: a public key known to
everyone, and a private key known only to the recipient of the
message.
RAID-1 volume
A class of volume that replicates data by maintaining multiple copies.
A RAID-1 volume is composed of one or more RAID-0 volumes called
submirrors. A RAID-1 volume is sometimes called a mirror.
RAID-0 volume
A class of volume that can be a stripe or a concatenation. These
components are also called submirrors. A stripe or concatenation is the
basic building block for mirrors.
Reduced Network
A software group that contains the minimum code that is required to
Support Software Group boot and run a Solaris system with limited network service support.
The Reduced Networking Software Group provides a multiuser
text-based console and system administration utilities. This software
group also enables the system to recognize network interfaces, but
does not activate network services.
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root
The top level of a hierarchy of items. Root is the one item from which
all other items are descended. See root directory or root (/) file system.
root directory
The top-level directory from which all other directories stem.
root (/) file system
The top-level file system from which all other file systems stem. The
root (/) file system is the base on which all other file systems are
mounted, and is never dismounted. The root (/) file system contains
the directories and files critical for system operation, such as the
kernel, device drivers, and the programs that are used to start (boot) a
system.
rule
A series of values that assigns one or more system attributes to a
profile. A rule is used in a custom JumpStart installation.
rules file
A text file that contains a rule for each group of systems or single
systems that you want to install automatically. Each rule distinguishes
a group of systems, based on one or more system attributes. The
rules file links each group to a profile, which is a text file that defines
how the Solaris software is to be installed on each system in the group.
A rules file is used in a custom JumpStart installation. See also profile.
rules.ok file
A generated version of the rules file. The rules.ok file is required
by the custom JumpStart installation software to match a system to a
profile. You must use the check script to create the rules.ok file.
Secure Sockets Layer
(SSL) A software library establishing a secure connection between two
parties (client and server) used to implement HTTPS, the secure
version of HTTP.
server
A network device that manages resources and supplies services to a
client.
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SHA1
(Secure Hashing Algorithm) The algorithm that operates on any input
length less than 264 to produce a message digest.
shareable file systems
File systems that are user-defined files such as /export/home and
/swap. These file systems are shared between the active and inactive
boot environment when you use Solaris Live Upgrade. Shareable file
systems contain the same mount point in the vfstab in both the
active and inactive boot environments. Updating shared files in the
active boot environment also updates data in the inactive boot
environment. Shareable file systems are shared by default, but you can
specify a destination slice, and then the file systems are copied.
slice
The unit into which the disk space is divided by the software.
software group
A logical grouping of the Solaris software (clusters and packages).
During a Solaris installation, you can install one of the following
software groups: Core, End User Solaris Software, Developer Solaris
Software, or Entire Solaris Software, and for SPARC systems only,
Entire Solaris Software Group Plus OEM Support.
Solaris DVD or CD
images
The Solaris software that is installed on a system, which you can access
on the Solaris DVDs or CDs or an install server’s hard disk to which
you have copied the Solaris DVD or CD images.
Solaris Flash
A Solaris installation feature that enables you to create an archive of
the files on a system, known as the master system. You can then use
the archive to install other systems, making the other systems identical
in their configuration to the master system. See also archive.
Solaris installation
program
A graphical user interface (GUI) or command–line interface (CLI)
installation program that uses wizard panels to guide you step-by-step
through installing the Solaris software and third-party software.
Solaris Live Upgrade
An upgrade method that enables a duplicate boot environment to be
upgraded while the active boot environment is still running, thus
eliminating downtime of the production environment.
Solaris Zones
A software partitioning technology used to virtualize operating system
services and provide an isolated and secure environment for running
applications. When you create a non-global zone, you produce an
application execution environment in which processes are isolated
from the all other zones. This isolation prevents processes that are
running in a zone from monitoring or affecting processes that are
running in any other zones. See also global zone and non-global zone.
standalone
A computer that does not require support from any other machine.
state database
A database that stores information about disk about the state of your
Solaris Volume Manager configuration. The state database is a
collection of multiple, replicated database copies. Each copy is referred
to as a state database replica. The state database tracks the location and
status of all known state database replicas.
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state database replica
A copy of a state database. The replica ensures that the data in the
database is valid.
submirror
See RAID-0 volume.
subnet
A working scheme that divides a single logical network into smaller
physical networks to simplify routing.
subnet mask
A bit mask that is used to select bits from an Internet address for
subnet addressing. The mask is 32 bits long and selects the network
portion of the Internet address and 1 or more bits of the local portion.
superuser
A special user who has privileges to perform all administrative tasks
on the system. The superuser has the ability to read and write to any
file, run all programs, and send kill signals to any process.
swap space
A slice or file that temporarily holds the contents of a memory area till
it can be loaded back into memory. Also called the /swap or swap file
system.
sysidcfg file
A file in which you specify a set of special system configuration
keywords that preconfigure a system.
system configuration file (system.conf) A text file in which you specify the locations of the
sysidcfg file and the custom JumpStart files you want to use in a
WAN boot installation.
time zone
Any of the 24 longitudinal divisions of the earth’s surface for which a
standard time is kept.
truststore
A file that contains one or more digital certificates. During a WAN boot
installation, the client system verifies the identity of the server that is
trying to perform the installation by consulting the data in the
truststore file.
unmount
The process of removing access to a directory on a disk that is attached
to a machine or to a remote disk on a network.
update
An installation, or to perform an installation, on a system that changes
software that is of the same type. Unlike an upgrade, an update might
downgrade the system. Unlike an initial installation, software of the
same type that is being installed must be present before an update can
occur.
upgrade
An installation that merges files with existing files and saves
modifications where possible.
An upgrade of the Solaris OS merges the new version of the Solaris OS
with the existing files on the system’s disk or disks. An upgrade saves
as many modifications as possible that you have made to the previous
version of the Solaris OS.
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upgrade option
An option that is presented by the Solaris installation program
program. The upgrade procedure merges the new version of Solaris
with existing files on your disk or disks. An upgrade also saves as
many local modifications as possible since the last time Solaris was
installed.
URL
(Uniform Resource Locator) The addressing system used by the server
and the client to request documents. A URL is often called a location.
The format of a URL is protocol://machine:port/document.
A sample URL is http://www.example.com/index.html.
/usr
A file system on a standalone system or server that contains many of
the standard UNIX programs. Sharing the large /usr file system with
a server rather than maintaining a local copy minimizes the overall
disk space that is required to install and run the Solaris software on a
system.
utility
A standard program, usually furnished at no charge with the purchase
of a computer, that does the computer’s housekeeping.
/var
A file system or directory (on standalone systems) that contains system
files that are likely to change or grow over the life of the system. These
files include system logs, vi files, mail files, and uucp files.
volume
A group of physical slices or other volumes that appear to the system
as a single logical device. A volume is functionally identical to a
physical disk in the view of an application or file system.
In some command-line utilities, a volume is called a metadevice.
Volume is also called pseudo device or virtual device in standard
UNIX terms.
Volume Manager
A program that provides a mechanism to administer and obtain access
to the data on DVD-ROMs, CD-ROMs, and diskettes.
WAN
(wide area network) A network that connects multiple local area
networks (LANs) or systems at different geographical sites by using
telephone, fiber-optic, or satellite links.
WAN boot installation
A type of installation that enables you to boot and install software over
a wide area network (WAN) by using HTTP or HTTPS. The WAN boot
installation method enables you to transmit an encrypted Solaris Flash
archive over a public network and perform a custom JumpStart
installation on a remote client.
WAN boot miniroot
A miniroot that has been modified to perform a WAN boot installation.
The WAN boot miniroot contains a subset of the software in the Solaris
miniroot. See also miniroot.
WAN boot server
A web server that provides the configuration and security files that are
used during a WAN boot installation.
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wanboot program
The second-level boot program that loads the WAN boot miniroot,
client configuration files, and installation files that are required to
perform a WAN boot installation. For WAN boot installations, the
wanboot binary performs tasks similar to the ufsboot or inetboot
second-level boot programs.
wanboot-cgi program
The CGI program that retrieves and transmits the data and files that
are used in a WAN boot installation.
wanboot.conf file
A text file in which you specify the configuration information and
security settings that are required to perform a WAN boot installation.
zone
See non-global zone
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Index
A
administering, Solaris Flash archives, 53
archive
See also scripts
administering, 53
compressing, 29
creating an archive, 38
examples, 39
requirements for platforms, 22
customizing
description, 26
with scripts, 27
description of process, 15-19
flar create command, 64-68
getting information, 56
installing
description, 15-19
how to install, 51-56
installation programs, 29-30
Solaris installation program, SPARC, 52
installing non-global zones, 38
keywords
description, 59
identification section, 60-63
section_begin and
section_end, 59-60
user-defined, 63
planning
creating a differential archive, 25
creating an archive, 24
installing an archive, 29-30
master system, 21-24
archive (Continued)
sections
archive cookie, description, 57
archive identification, description, 58
archives files, description, 59
description, 28, 57-59
manifest, description, 58
summary, description, 58
user-defined, description, 58
task map, 31-32
updating a clone
description, 17
C
clone systems
See also archive
description, 15-19
creating
Solaris Flash archives
customizing, 26
initial installation, procedure, 38
planning, 24
requirements for platforms, 22
task map, 31-32
update, procedure, 43, 46
customizing Solaris Flash archives
master system, 22
with scripts, 27
85
D
P
differential archive
See also archive
description, 17
planning, 25
planning, for a Solaris Flash archive
installation, 21
predeployment script, description, 58
S
F
flar create command, 64-68
Flash, See archive
I
installation, Solaris Flash archives,
description, 15-19
installing
Solaris Flash archives
how to install, 51-56
references to procedures, 53
with Solaris installation program, 51
installing clone systems
initial installation, 15
updating, 17
installing master systems, 32
scripts
Solaris Flash archives
creating, 33
customizing, 27
guidelines, 27
Solaris Flash archives, See archive
Solaris Live Upgrade
differential archive creation, example, 48
differential archive creation, procedure, 46
Solaris Zones partitioning technology, installing
with a Solaris Flash archive, 38
splitting a Solaris Flash archive, 54
U
updating a clone system, description, 17
K
keywords, Solaris Flash archives, 59
M
master system
See also archive
customizing an installation of, 22
description, 21-24
peripheral devices, 22-24
merging a Solaris Flash archive, 55
N
non-global zone, installing with a Solaris Flash
archive, 38
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