FortiWAN Administration Guide

FortiWAN - Handbook
VERSION 4.3.0
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November 10, 2016
FortiWAN 4.3.0 Handbook Revision 1
38-430-395399-20161110
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Product Benefits
Key Concepts and Product Features
WAN load balancing (WLB)
Installation
Bidirectional load balancing
Auto Routing (Outbound Load Balancing)
Multihoming (Inbound Load Balancing)
Fall-back or Fail-over
Virtual Private Services (Tunnel Routing)
Virtual Servers (Server Load Balancing and High Availability)
Optimum Routing
Traffic Shaping (Bandwidth Management)
Firewall and Security
Scope
Installation
Functions
Monitoring
What's new
Document enhancements
How to set up your FortiWAN
Registering your FortiWAN
Planning the network topology
Glossary for FortiWAN network setting
WAN, LAN and DMZ
Network interfaces and port mapping
WAN link and WAN port
WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode
Near WAN
Public IP Pass-through (DMZ Transparent Mode)
Scenarios to deploy subnets
VLAN and port mapping
IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode
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Web UI and CLI Overview
Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI
Using the Web UI
Console Mode Commands
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Set DNS server to FortiWAN
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuring your WAN and DMZ
Routing-mode WAN link
Bridge-mode (multiple static IP) WAN link
Bridge-mode (one static IP) WAN link
Configurations for a WAN link in Brideg Mode: PPPoE
Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: DHCP
LAN Private Subnet
WAN/DMZ Private Subnet
Automatic addressing within a basic subnet
Deployment Scenarios for Various WAN Types
MIB fields for WAN links and VLANs
System Configurations
Summary
Optimum Route Detection
Port Speed/Duplex Settings
Backup Line Settings
IP Grouping
Service Grouping
Busyhour Settings
Diagnostic Tools
Setting the system time & date
Remote Assistance
Administration
Administrator and Monitor Password
RADIUS Authentication
Firmware Update
Configuration File
Maintenance
Web UI Port
License Control
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Load Balancing Algorithms
Round Robin (weighted)
By Connection
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By Downstream Traffic
By Upstream Traffic
By Total Traffic
By Optimum Route
By Response Time
By Static
By Fixed
Hash
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
Auto Routing Mechanism
Fault Tolerance Mechanism
Configurations
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
Multihoming
Introduction to DNS
SwiftDNS
How does SwiftDNS work?
Prerequisites for Multihoming
DNSSEC Support
Relay Mode
Enable Backup
Configurations
Scenarios
Tunnel Routing
How the Tunnel Routing Works
Tunnel Routing - Setting
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
Scenarios
Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing
WAN Link Health Detection
IPSec
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IPSec VPN Concepts
IPSec VPN overview
IPSec key exchange
How IPSec VPN Works
IPSec set up
About FortiWAN IPSec VPN
Limitation in the IPSec deployment
Planning your VPN
IPSec VPN in the Web UI
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Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN
Establish IPSec VPN with FortiGate
Optional Services
Firewall
NAT
Persistent Routing
Bandwidth Management
Inbound BM and Outbound BM
Managing Bandwidth for Tunnel Routing and IPsec
Scenarios
Connection Limit
Cache Redirect
Internal DNS
DNS Proxy
SNMP
IP MAC Mapping
Statistics
Traffic
Bandwidth
Persistent Routing
WAN Link Health Detection
Dynamic IP WAN Link
DHCP Lease Information
RIP & OSPF Status
Connection Limit
Virtual Server Status
FQDN
Tunnel Status
Tunnel Traffic
IPSec
Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec
Log
View
Log format
Log Control
Notification
Enable Reports
Reports
Create a Report
Export and Email
Device Status
Dashboard
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Bandwidth
CPU
Session
WAN Traffic
WAN Reliability
WAN Status
TR Reliability
TR Status
Bandwidth Usage
Inclass
Outclass
WAN
Services
Internal IP
Traffic Rate
Function Status
Connection Limit
Firewall
Virtual Server
Multihoming
Advanced Functions of Reports
Drill In
Custom Filter
Export
Report Email
Reports Database Tool
Reports Settings
Reports
IP Annotation
Dashboard Page Refresh Time
Email Server
Scheduled Emails
Disk Space Control
Database Data Utility
Appendix A: Default Values
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Introduction
Enterprises are increasingly relying on the internet for delivery of critical components for everyday business
operations. Any delays or interruptions in connectivity can easily result in reduced productivity, lost business
opportunities and a damaged reputation. Maintaining a reliable and efficient internet connection to ensure the
operation of critical applications is therefore key to the success of the enterprise.
FortiWAN is a separate and discrete hardware appliance with exclusive operating system, specifically designed to
intelligently balance internet and intranet traffic across multiple WAN connections, providing additional low-cost
incoming and outgoing bandwidth for the enterprise and substantially increased connection reliability. FortiWAN
is supported by a user-friendly UI and a flexible policy-based performance management system.
FortiWAN provides a unique solution that offers comprehensive multi-WAN management that keeps costs down
as well as keeping customers and users connected.
Product Benefits
FortiWAN is the most robust, cost-effective way to:
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Increase the performance of your:
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Internet access
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Public-to-Enterprise access
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Site-to-site private intranet
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Lower Operating Costs
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Increase your network reliability
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Enable Cloud / Web 2.0 Applications
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Monitor Network Performance
Increase Network Performance
FortiWAN increases network performance in three key areas:
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Access to Internet resources from the Enterprise
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Access to Enterprise resources from the Internet
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Creation of Enterprise Intranet connections between sites
FortiWAN intelligently aggregates multiple broadband and/or leased access lines to significantly increase Internet
access performance. FortiWAN makes reacting to network demands fast, flexible and inexpensive. FortiWAN
transforms underperforming networks into responsive, cost-effective and easy-to-manage business assets.
FortiWAN load balances Internet service requests from Enterprise users, optimally distributing traffic across all
available access links. FortiWAN’s 7 different Load Balancing algorithms provide the flexibility to maximize
productivity from any network scenario.
FortiWAN gives you high-performance inter-site connectivity without the need to lease expensive links such as T1
and T3. FortiWAN aggregates multiple low-cost Internet access links to create site-to-site Virtual Private Line
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Product Benefits
Introduction
(VPL) Tunnels for LAN-like performance between company locations. By using multiple carriers and media,
reliability of these VPL Tunnels can exceed that of traditional engineered carrier links.
Substantially Lower Operating Costs
Once bandwidth requirements exceed traditional asymmetrical Internet access services (like ADSL) there is a
very high jump in bandwidth cost to engineered, dedicated access facilities like DS-1/DS-3. Even Metro Ethernet
is a large cost increment where it is available. Adding shared Internet access links is substantially less expensive
and delivery is substantially faster.
Traditional point-to-point private lines for company intranets are still priced by distance and capacity. Replacing or
augmenting dedicated point-to-point services with Virtual Private Line Tunnels reduces costs substantially while
increasing available bandwidth and reliability.
FortiWAN makes low-cost network access links behave and perform like specially-engineered carrier services at a
fraction of the cost.
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Deploy DSL services and get DS-3/STM-1-like speed and reliability while waiting for the carrier to pull fiber.
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Add and remove bandwidth for seasonal requirements quickly and easily.
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Increase bandwidth to web servers and use multiple ISPs without BGP4 management issues.
Increase Network Reliability
Businesses can no longer afford Internet downtime. FortiWAN provides fault tolerance for both inbound and
outbound IP traffic to ensure a stable and dependable network. Even multiple link failures, while reducing
available bandwidth, will not stop traffic. By using diverse media (fiber, copper, wireless) and multiple ISPs
(Telco, Cableco, 4G), FortiWAN can deliver better than carrier-class “5-9’s” reliability.
FortiWAN can be deployed in High Availability mode with fully redundant hardware for increased reliability. Larger
FortiWAN models also feature redundant power supplies for further protection from hardware failures.
Enable Cloud / Web 2.0 Applications
Traditional WAN Optimization products expect that all users connect only to Headquarters servers and Internet
gateways over dedicated, symmetric leased lines, but that is already “yesterday’s” architecture. Today users want
to mix HQ connectivity with direct Cloud access to Web 2.0 applications like email, collaborative documentation,
ERP, CRM and online backup.
FortiWAN gives you the flexibility to customize your network, giving you complete control. Direct cloud-based
applications to links optimized for them and reduce the bandwidth demand on expensive dedicated circuits.
Combine access links and/or dedicated circuits into Virtual Private Line Tunnels that will support the fastest video
streaming or video conferencing servers that Headquarters can offer.
FortiWAN is designed for easy deployment and rapid integration into any existing network topology.
Monitor Network Performance
FortiWAN provides comprehensive monitoring and reporting tools to ensure your network is running at peak
efficiency. With the built-in storage and database, FortiWAN's Reports function provides historical detail and
reporting over longer periods of time, so that it not only allows management to react to network problems, but to
plan network capacity, avoiding unnecessary expense while improving network performance.
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Introduction
Key Concepts and Product Features
FortiWAN is managed via a powerful Web User Interface. Configuration changes are instantly stored without the
need to re-start the system. Configuration files can be backed-up and restored remotely. Traffic measurements,
alarms, logs and other management data are stored for trend analysis and management overview.
Key Concepts and Product Features
WAN load balancing (WLB)
General speaking, load balancing are mechanisms (methods) for managing (distributing) workload across
available resources, such as servers, computers, network links, CPU or disk storage. The FortiWAN’s WAN load
balancing aims to distribute (route) WAN traffic across multiple network links. The major purposes are optimizing
bandwidth usage, maximizing transmission throughput and avoiding overload of any single network link. When
we talk about WAN load balancing, it always implies automatic traffic distribution across multiple network links.
Different from general routing, WAN load balancing involves algorithms, calculations and monitoring to
dynamically determine the availability of network links for network traffic distribution.
Installation
FortiWAN is an edge device that typically connects an internal local area network (LAN) with an external wide
area network (WAN) or the Internet. The physical network ports on FortiWAN are divided into WAN ports, LAN
ports and DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) ports, which are used to connect to the WAN or the Internet, subnets in LAN,
and subnets in DMZ respectively. Please refer to FortiWAN QuickStart Guides for the ports mapping for various
models.
Bidirectional load balancing
Network date transmission passing through FortiWAN is bidirectional that are inbound and outbound. Network
data transmission contains session establish and packet transmission. An inbound session refers to the session
which is established from elsewhere (external) to the FortiWAN (internal), while an outbound session refers to the
session which is established from the FortiWAN (internal) to elsewhere (external). For example, a request from
the internal network to a HTTP server on the Internet means the first asking packet is outgoing to the external
server, which is an outbound session established. Inversely, a request from the external area to a HTTP server
behind FortiWAN means the first asking packet is incoming to the internal server, which is an inbound session
established. No matter which direction a session is established in, packets transmission might be bidirectional
(depends on the transmission protocol employed). FortiWAN is capable of balancing not only outbound but also
inbound sessions and packets across multiple network links.
Auto Routing (Outbound Load Balancing)
FortiWAN distributes traffic across as many as 50 WAN links, under control of load balancing algorithms.
FortiWAN’s many advanced load balancing algorithms let you easily fine-tune how traffic is distributed across the
available links. Each deployment can be fully customized with the most flexible assignment of application traffic
in the industry.
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Key Concepts and Product Features
Introduction
Multihoming (Inbound Load Balancing)
Many enterprises host servers for email, and other public access services. FortiWAN load balances incoming
requests and responses across multiple WAN Links to improve user response and network reliability. Load
balancing algorithms assure the enterprise that priority services are maintained and given appropriate upstream
bandwidth.
Fall-back or Fail-over
FortiWAN detects local access link failures and end-to-end failures in the network and can either fall-back to
remaining WAN links or fail-over to redundant WAN links, if needed. Fall-back and Fail-over behavior is under
complete control of the administrator, with flexible rule definitions to meet any situation likely to occur. Links and
routes are automatically recovered when performance returns to acceptable levels. Notifications will be sent
automatically to administrators when link or route problems occur.
Virtual Private Services (Tunnel Routing)
FortiWAN offers the most powerful and flexible multi-link VPN functionality in the industry. Inter-site Tunnels can
be created from fractional, full, multiple and fractions of multiple WAN links. Applications requiring large singlesession bandwidth such as VPN load balancing, video conferencing or WAN Optimization can use multiple links
to build the bandwidth needed. Multi-session traffic can share an appropriately-sized Tunnel. Tunnels have the
same functionality as single links, supporting Load Balancing, Fall-back, Failover and Health Detection within and
between Tunnels. Dynamic IP addresses and NAT pass through are supported for the VPL services deployments.
Virtual Servers (Server Load Balancing and High Availability)
FortiWAN supports simple server load balancing and server health detection for multiple servers offering the
same application. When service requests are distributed between servers, the servers that are slow or have failed
are avoided and/or recovered automatically. Performance parameters are controlled by the administrator.
Optimum Routing
FortiWAN continuously monitors the public Internet to select the shortest and fastest route for mission-critical
applications. Non-critical traffic can be routed away from the best links when prioritized traffic is present on the
links or traffic can be assigned permanently to different groups of WAN links.
Traffic Shaping (Bandwidth Management)
FortiWAN optimizes, guarantees performance or increase usable bandwidth for specified traffic by traffic
classification and rate limiting.
Firewall and Security
FortiWAN provides the stateful firewall, access control list and connection limit to protect FortiWAN unit, internal
network and services from malicious attacks.
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Introduction
Scope
Scope
This document describes how to set up your FortiWAN appliance. For first-time system deployment, the
suggested processes are:
Installation
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Register your FortiWAN appliance before you start the installation. Please refer to the topic: [Register your
FortiWAN] for further information.
Planning the network topology to introduce FortiWAN to current network. It requires a clear picture of your WAN link
types the ISP provides and how to use the available public IP addresses of a WAN link. The topic [Planning the
Network Topology] provides the sub-topics that are necessary concepts for planning your network topology.
Topic [Web UI Overview] and its sub-topics provide the instructions to connect and log into the Web management
interface. System time and account/password resetting might be performed for FortiWAN while the first-time login,
please refer to topics [Setting the System Time & Date] and [Administrator] for further information.
For implementation of the network topology you planned, topic [Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)]
and its sub-topics give the necessary information about the configurations of network deployments on Web UI.
FortiWAN's diagnostic tools is helpful for trouble shooting when configuring network, please refer to topic
[Diagnostic Tools] .
Functions
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After installing FortiWAN into your network, the next step is to configure the major features, load balancing and failover, on FortiWAN. Topic [Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance] and its sub-topics contain the information about
performing FortiWAN's load balancing and failover mechanisms for incoming and outgoing traffic, virtual servers
and single-session services.
Topic [Optional Services] gives the information about configurations of FortiWAN's optional services, such as
Bandwidth Management, Firewall, Connection Limit, NAT, SNMP, Cache Redirect, and etc.
Monitoring
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After FortiWAN works a while, related traffic logs, statistics and report analysis might be required for monitor or
trouble shooting purposes. Topics [Logs], [Statistics] and [Reports] provide the information how to use those logs,
statistics and reports to improve management policies on FortiWAN.
The following topics are covered elsewhere:
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Appliance installation—Refer to the quick start guide for your appliance model.
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Virtual appliance installation—Refer to the FortiWAN-VM Install Guide.
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Scope
What's new
What's new
The following features are new or changed since FortiWAN 4.0.0:
FortiWAN 4.3.0
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Tunnel Routing l
Supports large-scale Tunnel Routing network deployment with allowing a maximum of
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FWN-200B: 100 tunnel groups
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FWN-1000B: 400 tunnel groups
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FWN-3000B: 1000 tunnel groups
For all FortiWAN models, each tunnel group supports up to 16 enabled GRE tunnels, and a
maximum total of 2500 enabled GRE tunnels is supported. See Tunnel Routing Scale,
Tunnel Routing - Setting and How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing.
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A new measurement case is added to benchmark to evaluate transmission performance of a
tunnel group. Packets of a measurement session will be distributed and sent over all the tunnels
of the tunnel group, just like how Tunnel Routing generally works in real practice. This is a more
accurate way to evaluate your Tunnel Routing network. See Tunnel Routing - Benchmark.
IPSec - Supports Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2) for the establishments of Security
Association. Please note that a specific procedure will be required when you switch IKE version to an
existing IPSec VPN connectivity. See Specifications of FortiWAN's IPsec VPN and IKE Phase 1 Web UI
fields - Internet Key Exchange.
DHCP Relay - Supports up to two DHCP servers for a relay agent. Once two DHCP servers are
configured, the relay agent will forward a DHCP request to both of the DHCP servers. The first response
received by the relay agent will be first apply to the DHCP client, and the subsequent responses will be
ignored. See DHCP Relay.
Reports - Supports scheduled report email. According to the scheduling, system performs automatic
report email sending periodically (daily, weekly or monthly). See Report Email and Scheduled Emails.
CLI command - A new parameter PORT is added to command resetconfig for specifying port
mapping to LAN port while resetting configurations to factory default. See CLI Command - resetconfig.
DNS Proxy - It is acceptable to configure the Intranet Source field of a DNS Proxy policy with an IPv4
range or subnet. See DNS Proxy Setting Fields.
WAN link health detection - A new parameter that is used to indicate the number of continuously
successful detections for declaring a WAN link indeed available is added to WAN link health detection
policies. See WAN Link Health Detection.
Web UI account - The ability for Monitor accounts to reset their own password is removed. From this
release, Web UI page System > Administration is not available to Monitor accounts and only
Administrator accounts have the permission to reset passwords. Also the Apply button is greyed-out and
inactive for Monitor users. See Administrator and Monitor Password.
Multihoming - Supports SOA and NS records for the reverse lookup zones. See Global Settings:
IPv4/IPv6 PTR Record.
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What's new
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Scope
Web UI - New look and feel.
FortiWAN 4.2.7
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.2.7 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.2.6
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.2.6 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.2.5
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.2.5 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.2.4
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.2.4 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.2.3
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Tunnel Routing - Performance of transmission in a tunnel group can be greatly enhanced (increased)
by disabling Generic Receive Offload (GRO) mechanism on each of participated network interfaces on
both the participated FortiWAN units. A new parameter "generic-receive-offload" is added to CLI
command sysctl to enable/disable the GRO module. See How the Tunnel Routing Works, Tunnel
Routing - Setting and Console Mode Commands.
DHCP - Supports Vender Specific Information (Vender Encapsulated Options, option code: 43) and
TFTP Server Name (option code: 66). The two DHCP options are used by DHCP clients to request
vender specific information and TFTP server IP addresses from the DHCP server for device
configuration purposes. FortiWAN's DHCP server delivers the specified information to clients according
to the two option codes. See Automatic addressing within a basic subnet.
Bandwidth Management - A new field Input Port is added to Bandwidth Managment's outbound
IPv4/IPv6 filters to evaluate outbound traffic by the physical ports where it comes from. Corresponding
network ports (VLAN ports, redundant ports, aggregated ports and etc.) will be the options for setting
the field, if they are configured in Network Setting. See Bandwidth Management.
Port Mapping - The original configuration panels "Aggregated LAN Port" and "Aggregated DMZ Port"
are merged into one panel "Aggregated Port". Instead of mapping the member-ports to LAN/DMZ
before aggregating them, it requires creating the logical aggregated port with two non-mapping member
ports first, and then mapping LAN/DMZ or defining VLANs to the aggregated port. See Configurations
for VLAN and Port Mapping.
Multihoming l
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Supports wildcard characters for configuring the Host Name field of A/AAAA records. A single
wildcard character matches the DNS queries for any hostname that does not appear in any NS
record, primary name server, external subdomains and other A/AAAA records of a domain, and
so that the specified A/AAAA policy matches. Note that wildcard characters are not acceptable
to records (NS, MX, TXT and etc.) except A/AAAA. See Inbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Multihoming).
Supports configuring CName records for DKIM signing. It is acceptable to configure the Name
Server, Alias, Target, Host Name and Mail Server fields of NS, CName, DName, MX and TXT
records within dot characters. A dot character is still not acceptable to A/AAAA records. See
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming).
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Scope
What's new
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Auto Routing - All the WAN links (WAN parameters) of an Auto Routing policy were set to checked by
default when you create it on the Web UI for configuring. To programe it for the real networks, you might
to uncheck the unused WAN links one at a time. From this release, the WAN parameters of an AR policy
are checked by default only if the corresponding WAN links have been enabled via Network Setting. See
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing).
Statistics - Measurement of Round Trip Time (RTT) is added to Statistics > Tunnel Status for each
GRE tunnel of configured tunnel groups. See Tunnel Status.
FortiWAN 4.2.2
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.2.2 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.2.1
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.2.1 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.2.0
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IPSec VPN - Supports standard IPSec VPN which is based on the two-phase Internet Key Exchange
(IKE) protocol. FortiWAN's IPSec VPN provides two communication modes, tunnel mode and transport
mode. Tunnel mode is a common method used to establish IPSec VPN between two network sites.
FortiWAN IPSec tunnel mode transfers data traffic within single connection (single WAN link), therefore
bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance are not available to the VPN. On the other hand, FortiWAN's
transport mode is designed to provide protections to Tunnel Routing transmission on each of the TR
tunnels, so that the IPSec VPN with ability of bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance can be
implemented.
FortiWAN's IPSEC tunnel mode supports single-link connectivity between FortiWAN devices, FortiWAN
and FortiGate and FortiWAN and any appliance supporting standard IPSEC. FortiWAN's IPSEC
transport mode supports multi-link Tunnel Routing between FortiWAN devices. IPSEC Aggressive Mode
is not supported in this release. See "IPSec VPN".
Tunnel Routing - Supports IPSec encryption. With cooperation with FortiWAN's IPSec tunnel mode,
the Tunnel Routing communication can be protected by IPSec Security Association (IPSec SA), which
provides strict security negotiations, data privacy and authenticity. The VPN network implemented by
Tunnel Routing and IPSec transport mode has the advantages of high security level, bandwidth
aggregation and fault tolerance. See "Tunnel Routing".
Basic subnet- Supports DHCP Relay on every LAN port and DMZ port. FortiWAN forwards the DHCP
requests and responses between a LAN or DMZ subnet and the specified DHCP server (standalone), so
that centralized DHCP management can be implemented. With appropriate deployments of Tunnel
Routing (or Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode), the DHCP server of headquarters is capable to
manage IP allocation to regional sites through DHCP relay. FortiWAN's DHCP relay is for not only a
local network but also a Tunnel Routing VPN network. See "Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet".
DHCP - Supports static IP allocation by Client Identifier (Options code: 61).According to the client
identifier, FortiWAN's DHCP recognizes the user who asks for an IP lease, and assigns the specified IP
address to him. See "Automatic addressing within a basic subnet".
Bandwidth Management - Supports the visibility to Tunnel Routing traffic. In the previous version,
individual application encapsulated by Tunnel Routing was invisible to FortiWAN's Bandwidth
Management. Bandwidth Management is only capable of shaping the overall tunnel (GRE) traffic. From
this release, Bandwidth Management evaluates traffic before/after Tunnel Routing
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What's new
Scope
encapsulation/decapsulation, so that traffic of individual application in a Tunnel Routing transmission
can be controlled. See "Bandwidth Management".
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Administration - Ability of changing their own password for Monitor accounts is added. In the previous
version, password of accounts belonging to Monitor group can be changed by only administrators. From
this release, Monitor accounts can change their own password. See "Administration".
HA synchronization - After system configuration file is restored (System > Administration >
Configuration File), the master unit automatically synchronizes the configurations to slave unit. See
"Administration".
DNS Proxy - Supports wildcard character for configuration of Proxy Domains on Web UI. See "DNS
Proxy".
Account - The default account maintainer was removed from FortiWAN's authentication.
FortiWAN 4.1.3
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.1.3 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.1.2
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.1.2 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.1.1
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New CLI command shutdown - Use this command to shut FortiWAN system down. All the system
processes and services will be terminated normally. This command might not power the appliance off,
please turn on/off the power switch or plug/unplug the power adapter to power on/off the appliance. See
"Console Mode Commands".
Firmware upgrade - A License Key will no longer be required for upgrading system firmware to any
release.
FortiWAN 4.1.0
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The timezone of FortiWAN's hardware clock (RTC) is switched to UTC from localtime. The
system time might be incorrect after updating firmware from previous version to this version
due to mismatched timezone. Please reset system time and synchronize it to FortiWAN's
hardware clock (executing Synchronize Time in System > Date/Time via Web UI), so that the
hardware clock is kept in UTC.
New models - FortiWAN introduces two models, FortiWAN-VM02 and FortiWAN-VM04, for
deployment on VMware. FortiWAN V4.1.0 is the initial version of the two models. FortiWAN-VM02
supports the maximum of 2 virtual CPUs, and FortiWAN-VM04 supports the maximum of 4 virtual
CPUs. Both of the two models support 9 virtual network adapters. Each port can be programmed as
WAN, LAN or DMZ. Each of the two models. FortiWAN-VM supports the deployments on VMware
vSphere ESXi. Refer to "FortiWAN-VM Install Guide".
Bandwidth capability changes :
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FortiWAN 200B - The basic bandwidth is upgraded to 200Mbps from 60Mbps. With a bandwidth
license, system supports advanced bandwidth up to 400Mbps and 600Mbps.
FortiWAN 1000B - The basic bandwidth is upgraded to 1 Gbps from 500Mbps. With a bandwidth
license, system supports advanced bandwidth up to 2 Gbps.
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Scope
What's new
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Notification - Supports delivering event notifications via secure SMTP. See "Notification".
Connection Limit - Customers can manually abort the connections listed in Connection Limit's
Statistics. FortiWAN's Connection Limit stops subsequent connections from malicious IP addresses
when system is under attacks with high volumes of connections. However, system takes time to
normally terminate the existing malicious connections (connection time out). Connection Limit's
Statistics lists the existing connections; aborting these connections recovers system immediately from
memory occupied. See "Statistics > Connection Limit".
Multihoming - Supports specifying an IPv6 address in an A record and an IPv4 address in an AAAA
record to evaluate the source of a DNS request. See "Inbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Multihoming)".
Automatic default NAT rules - Supports for all the types of IPv6 WAN link. Previously, system
generates automatically the default NAT rules for any type of IPv4 WAN link and PPPoE IPv6 WAN link
after the WAN links are applied. From this release, all the types of IPv6 WAN links are supported. See
"NAT".
Firmware update under HA deployment - Simple one-instruction update to both master and slave
units. The master unit triggers firmware update to slave unit first, and then runs update itself. See
"FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode".
New Reports pages:
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Dashboard - This is a chart-based summary of FortiWAN's system information and hardware
states. See "Reports > Device Status > Dashboard".
Settings - This is used to manage FortiWAN Reports. See "Reports Settings".
Auto Routing - A new field Input Port is added to Auto Routing's rules to evaluate outbound traffic by
the physical ports where it comes from. Correspondent VLAN ports, redundant LAN ports, redundant
DMZ ports, aggregated LAN ports and aggregated DMZ ports are the options for setting the field, if they
are allocated. See "Using the Web UI".
New and enhanced CLI commands (See "Console Mode Commands"):
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FortiWAN 3000B - The basic bandwidth is upgraded to 3 Gbps from 1 Gbps. With a bandwidth
license, system supports advanced bandwidth up to 6 Gbps and 9 Gbps.
New command arp - Use this command to manipulate (add and delete entries) or display the
IPv4 network neighbor cache.
Enhanced command resetconfig - A new parameter is added to the CLI command
resetconfig to specify a static routing subnet to the default LAN port. With specifying a proper
private LAN subnet and static routing rule, users can connect to Web UI via the default LAN port
without modifications of their current network after system reboots from resetting system to
factory default.
Pagination - Paginate the output of a command if it is longer than screen can display.
Changes on FortiWAN Logins l
Fortinet default account/password (admin/null) is supported for FortiWAN's Web UI and CLI.
The old default accounts/passwords will be still accessible. See "Connecting to the Web UI and
the CLI".
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What's new
Scope
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FortiWAN CLI accepts logins of any customized account belongs to group Administrator. A
special account maintainer is provided to reset admin password to factory default via CLI for
case that no one with the password is available to login to the WEB UI and CLI. See
"Administration".
All the accounts belong to group Administrator are acceptable to login to FortiWAN over SSH.
Web UI Supports multiple sign-in. System accept the maximum of 20 concurrent logins. Note
that system does not provide concurrent executions of Tunnel Routing Benchmark for multiple
logins. See "Using the Web UI".
FortiWAN 4.0.6
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.0.6 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.0.5
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.0.5 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.0.4
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.0.4 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.0.3
FortiWAN 4.0.3 is the initial release for FortiWAN 3000B. For bug fixes, please refer to FortiWAN 4.0.3 Release
Notes.
FortiWAN 4.0.2
Bug fixes only. Please refer to FortiWAN 4.0.2 Release Notes.
FortiWAN 4.0.1
FortiWAN introduces new hardware platforms FortiWAN 1000B and FortiWAN 3000B, and new FortiWAN 4.0.1
firmware based on the AscenLink series of Link Load Balancing appliances already in the market. FortiWAN 4.0.1
is substantially similar to AscenLink V7.2.3 with the additions noted below.
To assess the impact of deploying FortiWAN 4.0.1 on your network and processes, review the following new and
enhanced features.
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FortiWAN 1000B supports 3 GE RJ45 ports and 4 GE SFP ports. Each port can be programmed
as WAN, LAN or DMZ. Redundant LAN and DMZ ports can be configured. 2-link LACP/LAG
LAN or DMZ ports can be configured. Default LAN port is Port 6 and default DMZ port is Port 7.
FortiWAN 3000B supports 8 GE RJ45 ports, 8 GE SFP ports and 8 10GE SFP+ ports. Each port
can be programmed as WAN, LAN or DMZ. Redundant LAN and DMZ ports can be configured.
2-link LACP/LAG LAN or DMZ ports can be configured. Default LAN port is Port 11 and default
DMZ port is Port 12.
HA Configuration Synchronization - Two FortiWAN appliances can be connected in active-passive
High Availability mode via an Ethernet cable between the systems' HA RJ-45 ports. HA will not
interoperate between AscenLink and FortiWAN and will not interoperate between different FortiWAN
models or the same model with different Throughput licenses. Model and Throughput must match.
HDD - FWN 1000B and FWN 3000B add internal 1TB HDDs for Reports data storage.
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Scope
What's new
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Hardware Support - FortiWAN 4.0.1 for FortiWAN supports FortiWAN 200B and FortiWAN 1000B.
AscenLink series models are not supported. Note that FortiWAN 4.0.1 does not support FortiWAN
3000B, please look forward to the sequential releases.
FortiWAN 4.0.0
FortiWAN introduces new hardware platform FortiWAN 200B and new FortiWAN 4.0.0 firmware based on the
AscenLink series of Link Load Balancing appliances already in the market. FortiWAN 4.0.0 is substantially similar
to AscenLink V7.2.2 with the additions noted below.
To assess the impact of deploying FortiWAN 4.0.0 on your network and processes, review the following new and
enhanced features.
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Data Port Changes - FortiWAN 200B supports 5 GE RJ45 ports. Each port can be programmed as
WAN, LAN or DMZ. Redundant LAN and DMZ ports can be configured. 2-link LACP/LAG LAN or DMZ
ports can be configured. Default LAN port is Port4 and default DMZ port is Port 5.
HA Port Change - FortiWAN supports one GE RJ45 HA Port. This port must be direct-cabled via
Ethernet cable, to a second FWN unit HA port for HA operation. HA will not interoperate between
AscenLink and FortiWAN and will not interoperate between different FortiWAN models.
HDD - FWN 200B adds an internal 500BG HDD for Reports data storage. See below for more
information on Reports.
HA Configuration Synchronization - Two FWN 200B appliances can be connected in active-passive
High Availability mode via an Ethernet cable between the systems' HA RJ-45 ports.
New Functionality - FortiWAN 4.0.0 has the same functionality as AscenLink V7.2.2 PLUS the
addition of built-in Reports which is the equivalent functionality to the external LinkReport for AscenLink.
Reports - Reports captures and stores data on traffic and applications across all WAN links in the
system. Reports include connections, link and aggregate bandwidth, link and VPN reliability, and data
on Multi-Homing requests, Virtual Server (SLB) requests, and more. Reports can be viewed on-screen,
exported to PDF or CSV files or emailed immediately in PDF or CSV format.
GUI - FWN 4.0.0 adopts the Fortinet "look and feel".
Hardware Support - FortiWAN 4.0.0 for FortiWAN supports FortiWAN 200B. AscenLink series models
are not supported.
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Document enhancements
Scope
Document enhancements
The following document content is enhanced or changed since FortiWAN 4.0.1:
FortiWAN 4.3.0
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Content of Tunnel Routing was updated for large-scale TR network support and the updated
benchmark. See Tunnel Routing Scale, Tunnel Routing - Setting, How to set up routing rules for Tunnel
Routing and Tunnel Routing - Benchmark.
Content of IPSec was updated for IKEv2 support. See Specifications of FortiWAN's IPsec VPN and IKE
Phase 1 Web UI fields.
Content of automatic IP addressing was updated for dual DHCP servers support in a DHCP relay. See
DHCP Relay.
Content of Report Email and Reports Settings was updated, and a new page Scheduled Emails was
added for the new Reports feature - scheduled report email.
Content of Reports Settings and Reports Database Tool was updated, andA new page Database Data
Utility was added for the new Reports feature - Web-based Rpeorts database management tool.
Content of CLI commands was updated for the new parameter PORT of resetconfig and the change
to init_reports_db. See CLI Command - resetconfig.
Content of DNS Proxy was updated for the changes to the Source configuration. See DNS Proxy Setting
Fields.
Content of WAN link health detection was updated for the new condition "Number of successful
detection" to declare a WAN link available. See WAN Link Health Detection.
Content of Administrator was updated for the changes to Monitor account. See Administrator and
Monitor Password.
Content of Multihoming was updated for the new configurations to support SOA and NS records for the
reverse lookup zones. See Global Settings: IPv4/IPv6 PTR Record.
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Diagrams related to Web UI were updated for the new look and feel.
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A glossary for FortiWAN network setting was added. See Glossary for FortiWAN network setting.
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Content about network deployment was enhanced: Configuring networks to FortiWAN, Configuring
Network Interface (Network Setting), Configuring your WAN and DMZ, Network interfaces and port
mapping, WAN, LAN and DMZ, WAN link and WAN port, WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode,
Public IP Pass-through (DMZ Transparent Mode), Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port
Mapping, Bridge-mode (one static IP) WAN link, Routing-mode WAN link and Bridge-mode (multiple
static IP) WAN link.
Description about default rule was added to Firewall section. See Firewall.
A note about accessing to WebUI through WAN ports was added, see Connecting to the Web UI and the
CLI.
FortiWAN 4.2.7
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FortiWAN 4.2.6
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None
FortiWAN 4.2.5
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Document enhancements
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Content of section Performance in How the Tunnel Routing Works was enhanced by adding two
subsections, Throughput of bidirectional TR transmission and Persistent Route in Tunnel Routing. A
description about configuring for better bidirectional TR transmission was added in Tunnel Routing Setting.
FortiWAN 4.2.4
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FortiWAN 4.2.3
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Content about how to enhance Tunnel Routing performance was added to section Performance in How
the Tunnel Routing Works and section Tunnel Group in Tunnel Routing - Setting.
Content about a new system parameter generic-receive-offload-<port> of CLI command
sysctlwas added in Console Mode Commands, and the other content of command sysctl was
enhanced.
Content about DHCP options 43 (Vender Specific Information) and 66 (TFTP Server Name) was added
to section DHCP in Automatic addressing within a basic subnet.
Content about the new filter item Input Port was added to section Inbound & Outbound IPv4/IPv6 Filter
in Bandwidth Management.
Content about aggregated port in Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping was updated, and the
other content was enhanced also.
Content about supporting wildcard for A/AAAA records and dot characters for other resource records was
added in Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming), and the other content was enhanced
also.
Content of Parameter of section Configurations in Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto
Routing) was updated.
Content about a new measure Round Trip Time (RTT) was added to section Tunnel Health Status in
Tunnel Status.
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Content of Load Balancing Algorithms was enhanced.
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Content of Optimum Route Detection was enhanced.
FortiWAN 4.2.2
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None
FortiWAN 4.2.1
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A garbage character R at the leftmost position of the topic line "Define routing policies for an IPSec
VPN" in page 198 was removed.
FortiWAN 4.2.0
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New page "Automatic addressing within a basic subnet" was added for the new features DHCP Relay
and static addressing by client identifier. Related pages "LAN Private Subnet", "Configurations for a
WAN link in Routing Mode" and "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP" were
enhanced.
New topic "IPSec" and new page "Statistics > IPSec" were added for new feature IPSec. Related pages
"Log > View", "Log > Log Control", "How the Tunnel Routing Works" and "Tunnel Routing - Setting" were
enhanced.
Content of "Bandwidth Management" was updated for a behavior change - visibility to Tunnel Routing
traffic. A new page "Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec" was added for this.
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Document enhancements
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Content of "Administration" was updated in sections "Administrator and Monitor Password" and
"Configuration File" for updated features - allowing change personal password by Monitor account and
performing synchronization to slave unit after configurations are restored on master unit.
The description of the account "maintainer" in "Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI" was removed.
Content of "Optimum Route Detection", "DNS Proxy", "Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping",
"Internal DNS", "Set DNS server for FortiWAN", "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode" and "Inbound
Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)" was enhanced.
FortiWAN 4.1.3
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A section describing log format was added in "Log > View".
FortiWAN 4.1.2
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Content of "Global Settings: IPv4 / IPv6 PTR Record" in "Inbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Multihoming)" was changed.
FortiWAN 4.1.1
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Content was added to "Console Mode Commands" for the new CLI command shutdown.
Requirement of License Key was removed from section Firmware Upgrade in "FortiWAN in HA (High
Availability) Mode" and "Administration".
Two deployment scenarios were added to "Tunnel Routing > Scenarios".
Correspondent MIB fields and OIDs were added to "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode",
"Summary", "Administration" and "Network Setting > MIB fields for WAN links and VLANs".
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Content of "SNMP" and "Notification" was enhanced.
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Content of "Statistics > WAN Link Health Detection" was enhanced.
FortiWAN 4.1.0
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Content of "Administration > License Control" was updated for new bandwidth capabilities that
FortiWAN supports.
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Content was added to "Notification" for the support to notify via secure SMTP.
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Content was added to "Statistics > Connection Limit" for the Abort function.
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Content was added to "Scope", "Default Port Mapping", "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode",
"Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI", "Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping" and "Summary"
for the new model FortiWAN-VM.
Content was added to "Multihoming" for the support to evaluate an A record query by its IPv6 source and
an AAAA record query by its IPv4 source.
Content of "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP" and "Configurations for a WAN
link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP" was updated for supporting IPv6 default NAT rule.
Content of "Administration > Firmware Update" and "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode" was
updated for the new firmware update mechanism under HA deployment.
For the new features that Reports supports, new topics "Dashboard", "Reports Settings", "Reports
Settings > Reports", "Reports Settings > IP Annotation", "Reports Settings > Dashboard Page Refresh
Time", "Reports Settings > Email Server" and "Reports Settings > Disk Space Control" were added , and
content of "Reports" and "Create a Report" was updated.
Content was added to "Using the Web UI" for the support to evaluate traffic by its Input Port.
For the new CLI command arp and enhanced command resetconfig, correspondent content was
added and updated to "Console Mode Commands".
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Scope
Document enhancements
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Content of "Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI", "Administration > Administrator and Monitor
Password" and "Appendix A: Default Values" for the updated local authentication mechanism.
Content was added to "Using the Web UI" for supporting concurrent multiple logins.
The parameters of CLI command sysctl were fixed from "sip_helper" and "h323_helper" to "siphelper" and "h323-helper" (See "Console Mode Commands").
FortiWAN 4.0.6
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FortiWAN 4.0.5
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None
FortiWAN 4.0.4
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Content was enhanced for Reports > Session (See "Reports > Session").
Content was enhanced for Virtual Server (See "Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance" and "Virtual Server" )
and Persistent Routing (See "Persistent Routing").
FortiWAN 4.0.3
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Topic "Web UI and CLI Overview" was reorganized and content was enhanced on connecting to
Web UI and CLI (See "Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI"), Web UI operations (See "Using
the web UI") and CLI commands (See "Console Mode Commands").
Content was enhanced on account management, RADIUS, and firmware update (See
"Administration").
Content was enhanced for NAT, NAT default rule in pages "NAT", "Configurations for a WAN
link in Routing Mode", "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP" and
"Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP".
Content was enhanced for the state of peer information in page "Summary".
A new topic "Reports Database Tool" was added, and Reports related topics are enhanced (See
"Reports Database Tool", "Reports", and "Enable Reports").
Revision 1
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Add a new page "Default port mappings" in section "How to set up your FortiWAN > Planning the
network topology".
Content was changed and enhanced for pages "Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping",
"WAN, LAN and DMZ", "WAN link and WAN port" and "Configuring your WAN".
Content was changed and enhanced for Tunnel Routing. New subsections were added "GRE
Tunnel", "Routing", "How the Tunnel Routing Works". Subsections were enhanced "Tunnel
Routing - Setting" and "Tunnel Routing - Benchmark".
FortiWAN 4.0.2
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A note about the restrictions on duplicate configurations of group tunnel was added in Tunnel Routing.
Content was enhanced for Multihoming in sections "Prerequisites for Multihoming", "DNSSEC Support",
"Enable Backup", "Configurations", "Relay Mode"and "External Subdomain Record".
Content was changed and enhanced for WAN Link Health Detection and FortiWAN in HA (High
Availability) Mode.
A typographical error in Introduction > Scope was fixed.
FortiWAN 4.0.1
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The default username to login to Command Line Interface (Console Mode) was fixed from
"administrator" to "Administrator" in Using the web UI and the CLI and Appendix A: Default Values.
The reference for information on console command in Administration > Maintenance was fixed from
"Appendix A: Default Values" to "Console Mode Commands".
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How to set up your FortiWAN
These topics describe the tasks you perform to initially introduce a FortiWAN appliance to your network. These
topics contain the necessary information and instructions to plan network topology, using Web UI and Configure
network interfaces on FortiWAN. These topics introduce some key concepts for deploying FortiWAN, but you are
assumed to have and be familiar with the fundamental concepts related networking knowledge.
Registering your FortiWAN
Before you begin, take a moment to register your Fortinet product at the Fortinet Technical Support web site:
https://support.fortinet.com
Many Fortinet customer services such as firmware updates, technical support, and FortiGuard
services require product registration.
For more information, see the Fortinet Knowledge Base article Registration Frequently Asked Questions.
Planning the network topology
FortiWAN is the appliance designed to perform load balancing and fault tolerance between different networks.
The network environment that a FortiWAN is introducing into might be various, especially with multiple WAN links
and various WAN type. A plan of network topology before adding FortiWAN recklessly into current network would
be suggested to avoid damages.
Glossary for FortiWAN network setting
This glossary gives definitions of the key terms and concepts that are frequently used in the following chapters. It
will be a great help for making a deployment plan, configuring and using the FortiWAN if you are clearly
understand the these terms and concepts.
The glossary contains the following terms and concepts:
WAN, LAN and DMZ
Network interfaces and port mapping
WAN link and WAN port
WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode
Near WAN
Public IP pass through (DMZ transparent mode)
VLAN and port mapping
IPv6/IPv4 dual stack
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Glossary for FortiWAN network setting
How to set up your FortiWAN
FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) mode
Scenarios to deploy subnets?
WAN, LAN and DMZ
According to the scale and purpose, a network can be defined as a Wide Area Network (WAN), Local Area
Network (LAN) and Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).
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Wide Area Network: WAN (Wide Area Network) is the network that geographically covers a large area which
consists of telecommunications networks. It can be simply considered the Internet as well. An internal user can
communicate with the Internet via a telecommunications (called Internet Service Provider as well) network
connected to FortiWAN’s WAN ports. The transmission lines can be classified as xDSL, leased line (T1, E1 and
etc.), ISDN, frame relay, cable modem, FTTB, FTTH and etc.
Local Area Network: LAN (Local Area Network) is the computer networks within a small geographical area without
leased telecommunication lines involved. In this document, a LAN is considered as an internal private network
which is a closed network to WAN.
Demilitarized Zone: DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) is a local subnetwork that is separated from LAN for security
issues. A DMZ is used to locate external-facing server farm which is accessible from an untrusted network (usually
the Internet), but inaccessible to LAN. FortiWAN provides physical ports for the DMZ purpose.
A network site generally consists of the three basic components, WAN, LAN and DMZ. As an edge device of a
network site, FortiWAN basically plays the role routing packets and provides services for communications among
LAN, WAN and DMZ. The FortiWAN connects those networks (WAN, LAN and DMZ) to its network interfaces
(called network ports as well) and so that the networks can communicate with each other appropriately. This
involves two configurations, defining the purpose of a network port (see Network interfaces and port mapping)
and correct network settings on the network port for the connected network (see Configuring Network Interface).
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How to set up your FortiWAN
Glossary for FortiWAN network setting
Network interfaces and port mapping
Physical network interfaces and the port mapping
The physical network ports (network interfaces) on the panel of a FortiWAN appliance are used to connect the
FortiWAN with WAN, LAN and DMZ networks, so that the networks can communicate with each other. Each of
the network ports can be mapped to one of the following types which differ in function:
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WAN port: is used to connect FortiWAN with a WAN network.
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LAN port: is used to connect FortiWAN with a LAN network.
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DMZ port: is used to connect FortiWAN with a DMZ network.
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HA port: is used to connect two FortiWAN units for HA deployment (See FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode).
The network port type indicates the network type (WAN, LAN or DMZ) that a network port is supposed to connect
to. Most of FortiWAN's functions, such as NAT, auto routing, firewall, bandwidth management, traffic statistics,
public IP pass-through and etc., are relative to the direction of traffic flow passing through FortiWAN. It strongly
requires correspondence between types of a network port and the connected network. FortiWAN might function
incorrectly if a network is not corrected to a corresponding network port, for example connecting a WAN network
(WAN link) to a LAN port. For the details of physical network interfaces, you can see FortiWAN Quick Start Guide.
The diagram above shows the port mapping of a FortiWAN that ports 1~3 are WAN ports, port 4 and port 5 are a
LAN port and a DMZ port respectively. Port mapping can be programmed from FortiWAN's Web UI, see
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping.
Note: To make a FortiWAN operate correctly with the connected networks, it requires not only the
correspondence between types of network ports and the connected networks, but also corresponding
configurations to the network port (see Configuring Network Interface).
Default port mappings
Except the HA port, each of the physical network ports can be programmed as WAN, LAN or DMZ via Web UI.
However, for the first time you access the Web UI (see Connecting to the web UI and the CLI), you probably need
to know the default port mapping so that you can access the correct network port for Web UI. All the network ports
on the panel of FortiWAN appliance are numbered, and the default mappings are as follows:
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Glossary for FortiWAN network setting
How to set up your FortiWAN
Model
Ports Supported
WAN Ports
LAN
Port
DMZ
Port
FWN 200B
5 GE RJ45 ports
Port 1 ~ Port 3
Port 4
Port 5
FWN 1000B
3 GE RJ45 ports and 4 GE SFP ports
Port 1 ~ Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
FWN 3000B
8 GE RJ45 ports, 8 GE SFP ports and 8 10GE SFP+
ports
Port 1 ~ Port 10
Port 11
Port 12
FWN VM
10 vNICs
vNIC 2
vNIC 3
vNIC 4
FortiWAN 3000B's Prot 13 ~ Port 24 and FortiWAN VM's vNIC 5 ~ vNIC 10 are undefined by default, they can be
defined via Web UI (see VLAN and Port Mapping). After logging onto the Web UI, you can also check and
program the network port mapping on System > Network Setting > VLAN and Port Mapping.
Logical network interfaces
For extension, aggregation and redundancy, you can create multiple VLAN ports on a physical network interface,
and an aggregated or a redundant port on any pair of the physical network interfaces. Each of the created logical
network interfaces can be programmed as WAN, LAN or DMZ port (whether a physical or a logical port, the port
type must be defined to connect the network port with a network). FortiWAN supports the IEEE 802.1Q for VLAN
tagging and the IEEE 802.3ad for port aggregation (see Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping).
WAN link and WAN port
A FortiWAN appliance has limited physical network interfaces (ports) depending on the models, but unlimited
logical network interfaces (ports) can be created on the physical ports. With correct port mappings, FortiWAN can
connect to more networks than the supported number of physical ports.
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How to set up your FortiWAN
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As previous description, whether a physical or a logical network interface, it requires the network interface
mapped to a port type (WAN, DMZ or LAN) for connecting to corresponding network type. A WAN port is a
physical or logical network port that is port mapped to the WAN type. A WAN link is a connectivity between a
FortiWAN and an ISP network. Actually, a WAN link connects a WAN port of FortiWAN with the remote device
(modem or ATU-R) of an ISP, so that the internal networks and the Internet can communicate to each other
through the WAN link. A WAN link requires corresponding settings on the WAN port. Configuration of a WAN port
contains the information provided by the ISP, such as the IP addresses, default gateway, network mask or
username/password, it depends on the WAN link type you apply to the ISP (See "WAN types: Routing mode and
Bridge mode"). You will see the two terms, WAN link and WAN port, frequently in this document.
For purposes of traffic load balancing and fault tolerance, you will need multiple WAN links to connect to the
Internet. In case that the WAN links demanded are more that the physical network ports of a FortiWAN appliance
in quantity, you can have enough WAN ports for the WAN links by creating multiple logical network ports (VLAN
ports) on a physical port (See "Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping"). Although you can create VLAN ports
on a physical port without limitation in quantity, FortiWAN supports limited WAN links. FortiWAN 200B supports
up to 25 WAN links, FortiWAN 1000B and 3000B support up to 50 WAN links, even if you create more than
50 VLAN ports. These WAN links are named with numbers, such as WAN 1, WAN 2 and WAN 3. You will see this
when you configure settings of a WAN port (See "Configuring your WAN").
The above diagram shows how to create N WAN ports (WAN 1 ~ WAN N) through the three physical network ports
of a FortiWAN. Two of the WAN ports use two of the physical network ports and the rest of the WAN ports use the
VLAN ports. The N WAN links connect the N WAN ports with N ISP networks. Traffic of WAN link 1 and 2 will be
transferred through physical port 2 and port 3 respectively, and traffic of the remaining WAN link (WAN link 3 ~
WAN link N) will be transferred through physical port 1.
See also
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
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WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode
Before configuring the settings of a WAN port (see WAN link and WAN port) on FortiWAN for a WAN link, you
need to know the connection type (we will call it WAN link type or WAN type in this document) that ISP provides
you to connect to it's network for accessing the Internet. An ISP provides the Internet access service for
customers with various connection types, such as static/dynamic IP address, one/multiple IP address and
routing/transparent mode. It depends on what you apply for. Different WAN types involve different mechanisms
for ISP and FortiWAN to deliver network connections. When you configure a WAN port for a WAN link, you have
to exactly indicate the type of the WAN link to FortiWAN so that it works in the correct way for the WAN link.
FortiWAN supports the following WAN types:
l
Routing Mode (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode")
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Bridge Mode: One Static IP (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP")
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Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP")
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Bridge Mode: PPPoE (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Brideg Mode: PPPoE")
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Bridge Mode: DHCP Client (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: DHCP")
This section shows you the way to recognize the WAN type of a WAN link that you apply to ISP for.
Dynamic-IP WAN link
PPPoE and DHCP are the most common ways (protocols) for ISP to assign dynamic IP addresses and provide the
Internet access service to customers. If you applied for a dynamic-IP WAN link, you can simply configure the
WAN port as Bridge Mode: PPPoE or Bridge Mode: DHCP Client for the WAN link. For the two WAN types, you
will not be aware of the IP address, netmask and gateway of the WAN link. ISP will provides the account and
password for accessing if it is PPPoE.
Static-IP WAN link
ISP will provides you one or multiple static public IP address if you apply for a static-IP WAN link. Generally,
static-IP WAN links between ISP's central offices and customers premises could be divided into routing mode and
bridge mode (transparent mode). Each involves different mechanisms. From general customer's viewpoint, it
might be not such important to distinguish between the two modes because it is a kind of back-end stuff. They
could access the Internet only if they have the correct IP addresses, netmask and gateway configured. However,
for FortiWAN users, it is necessary to exactly indicate the mode of the static-IP WAN link to FortiWAN so that it
can cooperate with ISP for the connectivity in the correct mechanism.
Routing mode
If you apply to ISP for a routing-mode WAN link, you will obtain an individual IP network (layer 3) which is
separated from any other networks of the ISP. In that case, the ATU-R at a customer premises plays the role of a
gateway to route packets between your network and the Internet. In the other words, the ATU-R connects your
network with the ISP central office in routing mode. The IP addresses, default gateway and netmask that the ISP
provides you can tell you whether a WAN link is routing mode or not. If the number of deducting 3 (network IP,
gateway IP and broadcast IP) from the IP range that the netmask determines matches the number of usable IP
addresses that ISP provides you, it means you are given a separate network, a routing-mode WAN link. For
example, the ISP gives you five usable IP addresses 203.69.118.10 - 203.69.118.14, default gateway
203.69.118.9 and netmask 255.255.255.248. The netmask 255.255.255.248 divides eight IP addresses which
contains five host addresses, one gateway address, one broadcast address and one address for the network ID. It
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just matches the number of the usable IP addresses the ISP provides. In that case you are strongly
recommended to configure the WAN link on FortiWAN as Routing Mode.
Bridge mode
Opposite to the routing mode, the ATU-R will play the role of a bridge to combine network segments (data link
layer, layer 2) of customer premises and the ISP central office, if the WAN link is in bridge-mode. In that case, ISP
allocates a block of IP addresses (or a network segment) of an IP network (layer 3) for you rather than a separate
IP network. It implies that you and other customers (other network segments) of the ISP that in the same IP
network use the same gateway, which is located at the ISP's central office.
You can identify a bridge-mode WAN link by the IP addresses, default gateway and netmask that the ISP
provides you. If the number of deducting 3 (network IP, gateway IP and broadcast IP) from the IP range that the
netmask divides is larger than the number of usable IP addresses that ISP provides you, it means you are given a
segment of a IP network, a bridge-mode WAN link. For example, the ISP gives you three usable IP addresses
61.88.100.1 - 61.88.100.3, default gateway 61.88.100.254 and netmask 255.255.255.0. The netmask
255.255.255.0 divides 256 IP addresses which contains 253 host addresses, one gateway address, one
broadcast address and one address for the network ID. The number of host addresses that the netmask divides
(253) is larger than number of IP addresses the ISP provides (3). You have to configure a WAN link to FortiWAN
as Bridge Mode: One Static IP if the WAN link is in bridge-mode and ISP allocates only one IP address for you, or
Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP if the WAN link is in bridge-mode and ISP allocates multiple IP addresses for you.
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Traffic going to or coming from the near WAN (see Near WAN) is treated by FortiWAN in two different ways for
routing-mode WAN link and bridge-mode WAN link. Configuring WAN links to FortiWAN as mismatched WAN
type results in unexpected behaviors to traffic.
See also
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Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode
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Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP
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Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP
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Configurations for a WAN link in Brideg Mode: PPPoE
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Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: DHCP
Near WAN
FortiWAN defines an area in WAN as near WAN, which traffic transferred in/from/to the area would not be
counted to the WAN links. That means traffic coming from or going to near WAN through a WAN port would not
be controlled by FortiWAN.
FortiWAN defines a near WAN for a WAN link in different ways between routing mode and bridge mode.
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In routing mode, the default gateway of a subnet deployed in WAN or in WAN and DMZ is near to FortiWAN.
Therefore, the area between the default gateway and FortiWAN is called near WAN. In the other words, FortiWAN
treats directly the subnet deployed on the WAN port as near WAN. The near WAN contains the default gateway.
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l
Glossary for FortiWAN network setting
In bridge mode, the default gateway is located at ISP’s COT and the IP addresses allocated on FortiWAN are just a
small part of a subnet shared with others. Therefore, only the IP addresses deployed in WAN are treated as near
WAN (not include the remote gateway).
This is the reason FortiWAN separates WAN link configuration into different type: routing mode and bridge mode
(See "WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode"). If you configure a bridge-mode WAN link that ISP provides
on FortiWAN as Routing Mode and the bridge-mode WAN link might belong to a shared class C subnet,
FortiWAN treats the whole class C network as near WAN, traffic goes to or comes from the class C network would
be ignored for FortiWAN’s balancing, management and statistics functions. That would be a big mistake.
See also
WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode
Public IP Pass-through (DMZ Transparent Mode)
As an intelligent router, FortiWAN is generally supposed to forwards packets between networks connected to its
network ports according to the specified IP routing table, and any IP broadcast packet, including the ARP request,
would not be forwarded. So that each of the connected network segments should be a separate layer 3 IP
network. However, this can be different for particular WAN link deployments - routing-mode WAN links and
multiple-static -IP bridge-mode WAN links. FortiWAN's Public IP Pass-through logically combines a WAN
port and a DMZ port to one localhost. By performing Proxy ARP (for IPv4) and ND Proxy (for IPv6) on the
combined localhost, the connected layer 1 segments are combined to a common layer 2 segment. An IP network
can be deployed and operate correctly over the two network segments. Public IP Pass-through minimizes the
adaptation to current network topology and requires no changes to configurations on existing servers while
introducing FortiWAN into the network. It is flexible to deploy some of the multiple public IPs that ISP provides for
the WAN link to DMZ for external-facing services. Note that Public IP Pass-through will be activated automatically
if a WAN link is configured as routing mode and deployed with "subnet in WAN and DMZ", or configured as
multiple-static -IP bridge mode with IP addresses being deployed in both WAN and DMZ segments. The following
diagram shows how an IP network 203.69.118.11/255.225.255.248 is deployed over a WAN port and a DMZ port.
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See also
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WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode
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Scenarios to deploy subnets
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Configuring your WAN
Scenarios to deploy subnets
No matter an available subnet (routing mode) or an IP range of a shared subnet you obtain from ISP, you will
need making a plan how to deploy the multiple IP addresses.
To deploy the available subnet that ISP provides (routing mode) on FortiWAN, there are four different scenarios
(be called subnet types as well) for your options:
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Subnet in WAN
:
Deploy the subnet in WAN.
Subnet in DMZ
:
Deploy the subnet in DMZ.
Subnet in WAN and DMZ
:
Deploy the subnet in both WAN and DMZ. FortiWAN’s Public IP Passthrough function makes the two Ethernet segments in WAN and in DMZ one
IP subnetwork (See "Public IP Pass-through").
Subnet on Localhost
:
Deploy the whole subnet on localhost.
For cases of obtaining an IP range (bridge mode), the IP addresses could be allocated to:
IP(s) on Localhost
:
Allocate the IP addresses on localhost.
IP(s) in WAN
:
Allocate the IP addresses in WAN.
IP(s) in DMZ
:
Allocate the IP addresses in DMZ.
Static Routing Subnet
If there are subnets, which are called static routing subnets, connected to a basic subnet, it’s necessary to
configure the static routing for external accessing to the static routing subnets.
See also
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WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode
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Public IP Pass-through
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Configuring your WAN
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LAN Private Subnet
VLAN and port mapping
Customers can assign every physical port (except the HA port) to be a WAN port, LAN port or a DMZ port on
demand, which is called Port Mapping as well. The WAN ports, LAN ports and DMZ ports are actually physical
ports on FortiWAN, they are just not at the fixed positions. The port mapping will be reflected in related
configurations. FortiWAN supports IEEE 802.1Q (also known as VLAN Tagging), but it does not support Cisco’s
ISL. Every physical port (except the HA port) can be divided into several VLAN with a VLAN switch, and those
virtual ports can be mapped to WAN port, LAN port or DMZ port as well.
See also
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
FortiWAN supports deployment of IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack in [Routing Mode], [Bridge Mode: One Static IP], [Bridge
Mode: Multiple Static IP] and [Bridge Mode: PPPoE]. For configuration of IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack, please select
appropriate WAN Type (See "WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode") for the WAN link according to the
IPv4 you are provided by ISP as mentioned previously, and configure for IPv4 and IPv6 at the WAN link together.
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Except a WAN IPv6 subnet used to deploy for a WAN link, ISP might provide an extra LAN IPv6 subnet for
deploying your LAN. Depending on the demand, the LAN IPv6 subnet can be deployed as basic subnet in DMZ as
well for the WAN link.
FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode
Installing FortiWAN in HA mode
When two FortiWAN units work together, they can be configured to HA (High Availability) double-device backup
mode. This setup allows two FortiWAN units to server as backup for each other. The master is the main
functioning unit, while the slave is the backup unit in standby. An FortiWAN unit alone already has built-in fault
tolerance mechanism. All its OS and control applications are stored in Flash Memory, so sudden loss of electricity
will not damage the system. But when the network must provide non-stop service for mission-critical applications,
the HA mode becomes a must. With HA, FortiWAN serves a significant solution to accomplish network fault
tolerance.
FortiWAN supports hot backup in HA by heartbeat mechanism. When both FortiWAN are on, one unit (the
master) performs operations, with the other (the slave) in standby. If the master fails for power failure or hardware
failure (including normal power off and system reboot), hot backup performs a switch-over to the slave (heartbeat
detection fails). This function logically promotes the slave to activate HA and to resume the role of the master.
The failed master unit will take the role of slave after it resumes from reboot. The HA hot-backup solution
significantly limits the downtime, and secures uninterrupted operation for critical applications.
Hot backup also implies data synchronization. FortiWAN HA performs system configurations synchronization
between the master and slave units. Applying configurations to the master unit from Web UI triggers a
synchronization to the slave unit. Besides, as long as the peer unit resumes as slave mode from system
rebooting, the master also synchronizes system configures with it. This mechanism guarantees the identical
system configurations for the two units.
In case that two units are inconsistent with firmware version, FortiWAN model and throughput license, only one
unit takes the role of master while the peer unit stay the booting status. A master unit cannot synchronize system
configurations with the unit that is in booting status. A message "Incompatible" is displayed for Peer Information
in the Summary page of the master's Web UI.
Setting Up HA
FortiWAN's double-device backup setup is easy to use. Simply connect the HA RJ-45 ports on both FortiWAN
units with a Ethernet cable. Note that HA deployment requires identical firmware version, model and throughput
license on the two units.
Activating HA Mode
1. Install the master FortiWAN.
2. Connect the slave FortiWAN to the master with a Ethernet cable.
3. Switch on the slave.
FortiWAN-VM uses the vNIC1 as the HA port. To deploy FortiWAN-VM appliances as HA mode, allocate the
vNIC1 of two appliances to the same virtual network (vSwitch). HA deployment is not supported for two
FortiWAN-VM appliances that both are 15-day trails. It requires one 60-day trial or a permanent license for the
two appliances (in DH mode) at least.
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After HA mode has been activated, the Master emits 4 beeps, and the Slave does 3. The status of the Slave is
displayed under [System] > [Summary] > [Peer Information] on the master's Web UI. Note that a slave's Web UI
is not available.
Once the master is down, the slave emits 1 beep and resumes the role of the master to keep network alive.
Switching on the two units together, then the unit with larger Up Time or Serial Number takes the role of master,
while the peer unit takes the role of slave.
Note: Ensure the cable is solidly plugged in both units. Otherwise, it may cause errors. After the master locates
the slave, system will activate HA mode.
Redundant LAN Port and/or redundant DMZ port: FortiWAN in HA mode
As illustrated in the topology below, two FortiWAN units work in HA mode, with one active and the other in
standby. Port1 and port2 acts as redundant LAN port for each other, putting the two units into hot backup mode.
This mode offers a significant solution against single point failure in LAN/DMZ (See "Configurations for VLAN and
Port Mapping").
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High Availability (HA) Scenarios
Firmware Update Procedure in HA Deployment
Firmware update on both master and slave units under HA deployment can be completed at once (one firmware
update instruction). The firmware update procedure in HA deployment is similar to the non-HA (single unit)
procedure:
1. Log onto the master unit as Administrator, go to [System]→[Summary], double check and make sure the peer
device is under normal condition (See "Summary").
2. Execute the firmware update with uploading the firmware file (See "Administrator"). Please wait as this may take a
while.
The master unit starts with verifying the uploaded firmware file for master and slave units (system can not be
uploaded with a firmware file that is earlier than the version system is running on). The slave unit then receives a
duplicate of firmware file from master unit, and starts to update firmware. The master unit holds on updating
itself until the update on slave unit completes. Once slave completes its update, the master unit starts updating
itself then, while slave gets into reboot procedure. The whole update procedure will complete after the two units
recover from system reboot. The asynchronous update procedure on the two units causes the peer unit
recovering from reboot earlier than local unit, and the master-slave relationship will switch therefore.
The whole firmware update will be aborted if any abnormality happens during updating on slave. The master unit
will not get updating itself without updating successfully on slave unit. Abnormal termination of firmware update
does not trigger system reboot, and therefore the master-slave relationship will not switch.
During the firmware update, the heartbeat mechanism over master and slave units stops temporarily until the
firmware update succeeds or is terminated by abnormality.
After the firmware update is complete, the firmware version number displayed in fields [System Information] and
[Peer Information] on Web UI page [System > Summary] should be updated and identical. The information
displayed in field [Peer Information] gives reference to judge the update.
Version = Updated version number, State = Slave: Firmware update succeeds on both units.
Version = Non-updated version number, State = Slave: Firmware update is aborted by abnormalities. Both
units fail to update. Please perform the HA firmware update again (with [Update Slave] being checked).
Version = Updated version number, State = Incompatible: The peer unit succeeds in updating, but the
local unit fails. Please perform the single unit firmware update (without [Update Slave] being checked).
Version = Non-updated version number, State = Incompatible: The local unit succeeds in updating, but
the peer unit fails. Please reboot local unit to switch the master-slave relationship of the two units. Reconnect and
login to Web UI, and perform the single unit firmware update (without [Update Slave] being checked).
Note: If there are abnormal behaviors in the DMZ or public IP servers, go to [System] → [Diagnostic Tools] →
[ARP Enforcement] and execute [Enforce] for troubleshooting. Also notice that if the Ethernet cable for HA
between the master and slave is removed or disconnected.
If abnormal behaviors appear consistently, please remove the network and HA cable, and perform the firmware
update procedure again to both system individually.Then reconnect them to the network as well as the HA
deployment.
If repetitive errors occur during the firmware update process, DO NOT ever switch off the device and contact your
dealer for technical support.
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HA Fallback to Single Unit Deployment
The steps to fallback to single unit deployment from HA are:
1. Log onto Web UI via Administrator account. Go to [System] → [Summary]and double check and make sure the
peer device is under normal condition (See "Summary").
2. Turn the Master off if the Master is to be removed. The Slave will take over the network immediately without
impacting services. If the Slave is to be removed, then simply turn the Slave off.
3. Remove the device and the associated cables.
Steps of the Slave Take Over are:
1. In the HA setup, the Master unit is in an active state and serving the network at the meanwhile the Slave unit is
monitoring the Master.
2. In the case of unit failover (Hardware failure, Power failure, HA cable failure, etc), the Slave takes over the network
and beeps once when the switchover is completed. The switchover requires 15 seconds or so since negotiations
for states.
3. The switched Master unit becomes the Slave unit in the HA deployment even it is repaired from failures. You can
power cycle the Master unit to have another switchover to the units.
Long-distance HA deployment
Sometimes the two FortiWAN appliances used to establish HA deployment are apart from each other
geographically. It requires several Ethernet switches or bridges to connect the two appliances across areas or
buildings. Since FortiWAN is designed to join a HA deployment by directly connecting the two RJ-45 ports (HA
ports) with a Ethernet cable, it is supposed that there is not any non-HA Ethernet frames broadcasted between
the two appliances. The HA messages interchanged for availability detection are raw Ethernet frames of
EtherType 0x88B6 (LOCAL2), not 0x0800 (IPv4); and the mechanism of FortiWAN's HA deployment is very
sensitive to non-HA Ethernet frames. For this reason, it requires STP and ARP being disabled on the switch
(connecting the two FortiWAN units) to avoid misleading the judgment on HA takeover. Besides, please create a
port base VLAN on the switch to isolate the HA connectivity from other subnets if necessary.
Get HA information via SNMP and event notifications via SNMP trap
You can use SNMP manager to get slave unit information and receive notifications when the slave unit fails,
recovers and take over the master unit. Configure SNMP for your FortiWAN unit (See "SNMP") to get the
information in a MIB field via SNMP manager. Configure the SNMP manager on your FortiWAN and enable the
event types "HA slave failure and recovery" and "HA takeover" to notify (See "Notification"), then notifications will
be delivered to your SNMP manager for the events. The correspondent MIB fields and OIDs are listed as
following:
SNMP field names and OIDs
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MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnSysHAMode
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.1
Boolean values used to indicate if the
FortiWAN unit supports HA deployment.
fwnSysSlaveVersion
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.2
Firmware version of the slave unit deployed
with this local unit in HA mode.
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MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnSysSlaveSerialNumber
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.3
Serial number of the slave unit deployed with
this local unit in HA mode.
fwnSysSlaveUptime
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.4
Uptime of the slave unit deployed with this local
unit in HA mode.
fwnSysSlaveState
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.5
State of the slave unit deployed with this local
unit in HA mode.
fwnEventHASlaveState
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.3.1
Send event notification when the slave unit
deployed with the local (master) unit in HA
mode fails or recovers from a failure: recovery
(1), failure(2).
fwnEventHATakeover
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.3.2
Send event notification when the master (local)
unit in HA deployment is took over by its slave
unit: true(1), false(2).
See also
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Summary
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Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
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Administrator
Web UI and CLI Overview
FortiWAN provides the Web User Interface (Web UI) which is the primary interface for network deployments,
administration, configurations and traffic statistics and analysis. FortiWAN's Command Line interface (CLI)
provides basic commands for trouble shooting and system recovery. This section starts with the steps to connect
to FortiWAN's Web UI and CLI while the first time using FortiWAN product. Afterward a basic and common
concept about using Web UI is introduced.
Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI
Be aware that the position of LAN port may vary depending on models. FortiWAN-200B, for example, has five
network interfaces, with its fourth interface as LAN port and fifth as DMZ port (see Network interfaces and port
mapping).
Before setting up FortiWAN in your network, ensure the following are taken care of:
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Check network environment and make sure the following are ready before FortiWAN installation and setup: wellstructured network architecture, and proper IP allocation.
Use cross-over to connect PC to FortiWAN LAN port instead of straight-through.
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Default LAN port
FortiWAN's LAN port (see Network interfaces and port mapping) is used to connect to a private LAN subnet and
provides the access to the Web UI. The default subnet configured on LAN port is 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 and
the localhost IP address is 192.168.0.1, which means you can connect to LAN port (192.168.0.1) from a
management computer in the subnet 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 without changing network setting on LAN port.
For example, connect directly a management computer that IP address/netmask is 192.168.0.10/255.255.255.0
to the LAN port.
For the first time accessing to the Web UI, you can get the connection via a computer matching with the default
LAN subnet (See the section "Access via a computer that matches the default LAN IP address" below). However,
the default subnet configured on LAN port might conflict with or be unreachable from your existing network,
especially for the deployments of FortiWAN-VM. If you want to have the connection to LAN port from a subnet
that does not match the default LAN IP address, such as an existing subnet 10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0, you have
to change the network setting of LAN port via CLI to match the subnet (See the section "Access via a computer
that does not match the default LAN IP address" below).
To connect to the Web UI
The default IP address of LAN port is 192.168.0.1 and the netmask is 255.255.255.0. For the first time accessing
the Web UI, you can get the access via a computer connected directly to FortiWAN, or via a computer in a
existing LAN subnet connected to FortiWAN.
Requires: Microsoft Internet Explorer 6, Mozilla Firefox 2.0, or Google Chrome 2.0 or newer.
Access via a computer that matches the default LAN IP address
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Using the Ethernet cable, connect LAN port of the appliance to your computer. For a FortiWAN-VM appliance,
connect your computer to the virtual network (vSwitch) of the LAN port of FortiWAN-VM appliance.
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Switch on FortiWAN. It will emit 3 beeps, indicating the system is initialized and activated. Meanwhile, the LAN port
LED blinks, indicating a proper connection.
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By default, the LAN IP address is 192.168.0.1. Configure your computer to match the appliance’s default LAN
subnet. For example, on Windows 7, click the Start (Windows logo) menu to open it, and then click Control Panel.
Click Network and Sharing Center, Local Area Connection, and then the Properties button. Select Internet Protocol
Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), then click its Properties button. Select Use the following IP address, then change your
computer’s settings to:
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IP address: 192.168.0.2 (or 192.168.0.X)
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Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
To connect to FortiWAN’s web UI, start a web browser and go to https://192.168.0.1. (Remember to include the “s”
in https://.)
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Login to web UI with the default username,admin, and leave the password field blank (case sensitive).
Access via a computer that does not match the default LAN IP address
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Connect to the CLI (See the section "To connect to the CLI" below).
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Configure the network setting of LAN port to match the existing LAN subnet (See the section "Change network
setting to LAN port via CLI" below).
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After system reboots, connect the subnet to the LAN port of FortiWAN appliance.
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To connect to FortiWAN’s web UI, start a web browser on a computer in the subnet and go to
https://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the IP address assigned to LAN port. (Remember to include the “s”
in https://.)
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Login to web UI with the default username,admin, and leave the password field blank (case sensitive).
Note:
1. Make sure the proxy settings of the web browser are disabled. For example, open Internet Explorer and select
"Internet Option" on "Tools" menu. Click the "Connection" tab, "LAN settings" and open "Local Area Network
Settings" dialog box, then disable "Proxy server".
2. Default account admin has the Administrator permission (See "Administration/Administrator and Monitor
Password"). It is strong recommended to reset the passwords ASAP, and take good care of it.
3. Web UI supports concurrent multiple sign-in (See "Using the Web UI/Multi-user Login").
4. The default Username/Password, Administrator/1234 and Monitor/5678, used for V4.0.x remain in
this version, but will be removed in next version.
5. FortiWAN supports Web UI access from the Internet by connecting to the WAN ports. For example, start the web
browser and go to https://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the IP address assigned to a WAN port (see
Configuring Network Interface). However, FortiWAN's Firewall denies any access to FortiWAN's localhost coming
from the Internet (WAN) by default (see Firewall). Therefore, LAN port is the only way for your first time Web UI
accessing. Then it is your option to configure network setting to a WAN link (WAN port) and modify the firewall
rules to accept localhost accessing from the Internet.
To connect to the CLI
Requires: Terminal emulator such as HyperTerminal, PuTTY, Tera Term, or a terminal server
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Using the console cable, connect the appliance’s console port to your terminal server or computer. On your
computer or terminal server, start the terminal emulator
Use these settings:
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Bits per second: 9600
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Data bits: 8
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Parity: None
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Stop bits: 1
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Flow control: None
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Press Enter on your keyboard to connect to the CLI
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Login with the default username, admin, and leave the password field blank (case sensitive)
FortiWAN maintains a common local authentication database for its Web UI and CLI. Accounts defined as group
Administrator are able to CLI with its username and password.
Note: FortiWAN CLI has limited functionality and cannot fully configure the system. Normal configuration
changes should be done via the WebUI.
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Web UI and CLI Overview
Change network setting to LAN port via CLI
1. Connect and log into the CLI (See the section "To connect to the CLI" above).
2. Configure the IP address and netmask of LAN pot via command resetconfig. Also configure a static route with
a default gateway if it's necessary. Type:
resetconfig <ip_address/netmask>
resetconfig <ip_address/netmask> <network_ip/netmask@gateway_ip>
where:
<ip_address/netmask> is the IPv4 address and netmask assigned to the LAN port. It must correspond to the
subnet you would like to connect to. For example, type resetconfig 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0, if
10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0 is the subnet connected to the LAN port. Then IP address of LAN port is changed to
10.10.10.1 from the default.
<network_ip/netmask@gateway_ip> is the routing rule assigned to the LAN port, so that packets can be
routed to the subnet via the gateway. For example, type resetconfig 192.168.2.254/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0@192.168.2.1, if 192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0 is the subnet connected
directly to the LAN port and 192.168.2.1 is the gateway to route packets to subnet 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
Then IP address of LAN port is changed to 192.168.2.254 from the default.
See "Console Mode Commands" for details.
3. System reboots for applying the configurations.
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Using the Web UI
Web UI Overview
Once you log in, you will see the operating page that is divided into three parts, the header is locate the upper
side of the screen, the navigation menu is located on the left side of the screen, and the content pane is
located on the center of the screen.
Header contains information and items which is unrelated to FortiWAN's functions.
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Current login account: Display the account you login as and the IP address you login from.
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System Time: Display the FortiWAN's system time.
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Current operating page: Display the path (Main category > Page name) of the operating page displayed in
Content Pane.
Apply: The button for applying configurations. Pages for only displaying information or statistics contains no Apply
button.
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Reload: The button for reloading current operating page.
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Help: The button for getting the Help information of current operating page.
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Logout: The button for logging out Web UI.
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[System/Summary] shown above indicates page contents are displayed of [System] > [Summary], and
[Administrator@125.227.251.80] indicates Administrator account log in from IP 125.227.251.80. Note that do
not use your browser’s Back button to navigate, pages may not operate correctly.
Navigation Menu consists of six main categories: System, Service, Statistics, Log, Reports and
Language. Each category contains sub-menu of individual functions. To expand a category, simply click it.To
display the operating page of a function from a sub-menu, click the name of the function and it will display on the
content pane.
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System: Contains necessary items to maintain the FortiWAN; they are Summary, Network Setting, WAN Link
Health Detection, Optimum Route Detection, Port Speed/Duplex Setting, Backup Line Setting, IP Grouping,
Service Grouping, Busyhour Setting, Diagnostic Tools, Date/Time, Remote Assistance and Administration (See
"System Configurations" and "Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)"). Administration is not available to
Monitor permission, it is invisible on the menu to a Monitor account.
Service: Contains the services the FortiWAN provides; they are Firewall, NAT, Persistent Routing, Auto Routing,
Virtual Server, Bandwidth Management, Connection Limit, Cache Redirect, Multihoming, Internal DNS, DNS
Proxy, SNMP, IP-MAC Mapping and Tunnel Routing (See "Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance" & "Optional
Services").
Statistics: Contains basic statistics of FortiWAN's system, services and traffic; they are Traffic, BM, Persistent
Routing, WAN Link Health Detection, Dynamic IP WAN Link, DHCP Lease Information, RIP & OSPF Status,
Connection Limit, Virtual Server Status, FQDN, Tunnel Status and Tunnel Traffic (See "Statistics").
Log: Contains managements of system logs; they are View, Control, Notification and Reports (See "Log").
Reports: Contain the advanced analysis and long-term statistics of FortiWAN's system, services and traffic; they
are Bandwidth, CPU, Session, WAN Traffic, WAN Reliability, WAN Status, TR Reliability, TR Status, In Class, Out
Class, WAN, Service, Internal IP, Traffic Rate, Connection Limit, Firewall, Virtual Server, Multihoming, Dashboard
and Settings (See "Reports").
Language: Support English, Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese for options to display Web UI in multiple
languages,
Content Pane displays related items of a function specified from the left menu.
Multi-user Login
FortiWAN's Web UI supports multiple sign-in. The maximum limit for users can log-in concurrently is 20 users,
account permission (See "Administration\Administrator and Monitor Password") insensitive. An user get failed to
log-in if there have been 20 users in the Web UI concurrently. FortiWAN Web UI does not accept multiple login
from the same host and the same browser. Users that attempt to login to Web UI via the same host and browser
(different tabs or windows) will be logged out (including the one who is already in Web UI).
Configurations to FortiWAN applied concurrently via Web UI by the multiple users are arranged and processed in
order (one by one). It takes time for system to complete every single configuration applying; therefore, when
multiple configurations are in the queue to be applied, it might take a little extra time to wait for system getting
previous applications complete for the users after clicking the Apply button. Configurations to different functions
are queued up together to be applied. For example, an configuration to Auto Routing (made by user A) will be
queued if a configuration to Multihoming (made earlier by user B) has being processed.
FortiWAN does not provide multi-thread to run concurrent Tunnel Routing Benchmark (See "Tunnel Routing Benchmark"). An alert displays to the users who try to start Tunnel Routing Benchmark Client\Server via WebUI if
the Benchmark Client\Server is already running (started earlier by one user).
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Basic concept to configure via Web UI
FortiWAN's services (load balancing, fault tolerance and other optional services) are based on Policy and Filter.
Policies (or called Classes as well) are specified items indicating different actions for a service. Policies are
applied to different objects classified by the predefined filters. Basically, a object is classified by the combinations
of When, Source, Destination and TCP/UDP/ICMP Service. A filter contains the settings of those items When,
Source, Destination and Service, and also an associated Policy. Traffic that matches the filter will be applied to
the specified policy.
The common operation buttons
FortiWAN manages most of its rules/filters/policies with top-down evaluation method where the rules are
prioritized in descending order.
Click this button, to add a new rule below the current rule.
Click this button, to delete the rule.
Click this button, to move the rule up a row.
Click this button, to move the rule down a row.
Write a note for this rule.
The function is disabled.
The function is enabled.
This symbol indicates a default policy, rule or filter, which is unmodifiable and indelible.
Configuration on When
This is for filtering traffic by different time period which is predefined in "Busyhour Settings".
Configuration on Source and Destination
This is for filtering the established sessions from/to specified source/destination. The options are:
IPv4/IPv6 Address
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to a single IPv4/IPv6 address. e.g.
192.168.1.4.
IPv4/IPv6 Range
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to a continuous range of IP addresses.
e.g. 192.168.1.10-192.168.1.20.
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IPv4/IPv6 Subnet
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to a subnet.
e.g.192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
WAN
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to WAN.
LAN
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to LAN.
DMZ
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to DMZ.
Localhost
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to FortiWAN.
Any Address
:
Matches all sessions regardless of its source or destination.
FQDN
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to FQDN.
IP Grouping Name
:
Matches sessions coming from or going to the IP addresses that predefined in IP
groups (See "IP Grouping").
Configuration on Input Port
This is for filtering the traffic coming from specified physical ports. Input Port are the item used to evaluate
outbound traffic for only Auto Routing (See "Auto Routing") so far. Ports (normal ports, VLAN ports, redundant
LAN\DMZ ports and aggregated LAN\DMZ ports) defined in [Network Setting > VLAN and Port Mapping] (See
"Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping") are listed for options:
Port X
:
Matches sessions coming from the specified normal port.
Port X.[VLAN Tag]
:
Matches sessions coming from the specified VLAN port.
LAN Bridge: [Lable]
:
Matches sessions coming from the specified redundant LAN port.
DMZ Bridge: [Lable]
:
Matches sessions coming from the specified redundant DMZ port.
LAN Bonding: [Lable]
:
Matches sessions coming from the specified aggregated LAN port.
DMZ Bonding: [Lable]
:
Matches sessions coming from the specified aggregated DMZ port.
Configuration on Service
This is for filtering the established sessions running specified service. It contains some well-known services for
options and user-defined services (TCP@, UDP@ and Protocol#):
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FTP (21)
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SSH (22)
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TELNET (23)
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SMTP (25)
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DNS (53)
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GOPHER (70)
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FINGER (79)
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HTTP (80)
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POP3 (110)
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NNTP (119)
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NTP (123)
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IMAP (143)
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SNMP (161)
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BGP (179)
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WAIS (210)
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LDAP (389)
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HTTPS (443)
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IKE (500)
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RLOGIN (513)
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SYSLOG (514)
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RIP (520)
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UUCP (540)
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H323 (1720)
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RADIUS (1812)
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RADIUS-ACCT (1813)
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pcAnywhere-D (5631)
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pcAnywhere-S (5632)
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X-Windows (6000-6063)
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GRE
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ESP
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AH
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ICMP
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TCP@
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UDP@
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Protocol#
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Console Mode Commands
This section provides further details on the Console mode commands. Before logging onto serial console via
HyperTerminal, please ensure the following settings are in place: Bits per second: 9600; Data bits: 8; Parity:
None; Stop bits: 1; Flow control: None (See "Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI").
Note that for some standard utilities such as tcpdump or traceroute, the options that are not listed here are
not supported by FortiWAN.
help: Displays the help menu
help [COMMAND]
Show a list of console commands.
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arp: Manipulate (add and delete entries) or display the IPv4 network neighbor cache.
arp
arp
arp
arp
[-i <port>] -a [<hostname>]
[-i <port>] -e
-i <port> -s <hostname> <hw_addr>
-i <port> -d <hostname>
-a [<hostname>]: Display the entries of the specified hostname. All the entries will be displayed if no
hostname is specified. Hostnames will be displayed in alternate BSD style output format.
-e : Display entries in default (Linux) style.
-s <hostname> <hw_addr> : Manually create an ARP entry mapping for the host hostname with the
hardware address hw_addr. This requires specifying a port via -i port.
-d <hostname>: Remove the entries for the specified host hostname. This requires specifying a port via -i
port.
-i <port> : Specify an network interface (port) of FortiWAN to display, create or remove entries.
<port> : Specify an network interface (port) of FortiWAN in format port#, e.g. port1, port2 and etc.
<hostname>: Specify the target IP address or domain name.
<hw_addr> : Specify the MAC address.
Note: If domain name is to be used in the hostname parameter, the DNS Server must be set in the Web UI
[System]->[Network Settings]->[DNS Server].
arping: Discover and prob hosts on a network by sending ARP requests
arping <hostname> <link> <index>
Send an ARP request to ask the MAC address of an IP address and display the result.
<hostname>: Specify the target IP address or domain name (MAC address is not supported). Note that domain
name is valid only if parameter <link> is specified as "wan".
<link> : Specify the link or ports that the ARP request is sent through. The valid values are "wan", "dmz" and
"lan".
<index> : Specify the index of a WAN link if <link> is specified as "wan". The valid values are 1, 2, 3, ...,etc.
Example:
arping 192.168.2.100 lan will send an ARP request through LAN ports to ask the MAC address of host
192.168.2.100.
arping 10.10.10.10 wan 1 will send an ARP request through WAN link 1 to ask the MAC address of host
10.10.10.10.
Note: If domain name is to be used in the hostname parameter, the DNS Server must be set in the Web UI
[System]->[Network Settings]->[DNS Server].
diagnose: Get diagnostic information of FortiWAN hardware
diagnose
diagnose
diagnose
diagnose
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hardware
hardware
hardware
hardware
deviceinfo
deviceinfo
deviceinfo
deviceinfo
cpu
disk
mem
nic
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Get information of FortiWAN's CPU, disk, memory and network interface controllers (NICs).
diagnose hardware ethtool
Display and change parameters of the network interface controllers (NICs) of FortiWAN by the standard Linux
utility ethtool (V3.7). Execute diagnose hardware ethtool -h to get a short help message.
diagnose hardware lspci
Get information about PCI buses in FortiWAN system and the devices connected to them.
diagnose hardware smartctl
Control and monitor the storage system of FortiWAN by the standard utility smartctl (V6.3). Execute diagnose
hardware smartctl -h to get a help message or refer to https://www.smartmontools.org for details.
disablefw: Disable all the firewall rules
disablefw
Disable all the configured firewall rules to allow any traffic accessing or passing through FortiWAN. This
command rescues Web UI accessing from being inadvertently locked by incorrect firewall rules deployment.
System will re-confirm, press [y] to proceed or [n] to cancel.
enforcearp: Force FortiWAN's surrounding machines to update their ARP tables
enforcearp
Sytem will send gratuitous ARP packets to update their ARP tables. This is for cases where after the initial
installation of FortiWAN, machines or servers sitting in the DMZ are unable to be able to connect to the internet.
export: Display configurations of NAT, Multihoming and Virtual Server
export <config_name>
Display the configurations of FortiWAN's NAT, Multihoming and Virtual Server in the command line interface. You
can export the configurations by copying the displayed content to a text file.
<config_name>: Specify the configuration to be displayed. Values of the parameter are nat, multihoming
and virtual-server for options.
get: Get the version and serial number information of a FortiWAN apparatus
get sys status
Display the firmware version, serial number and BIOS version of the FortiWAN apparatus.
httpctl: Control the web server that Web UI is running on
httpctl restart
httpctl showport
httpctl setport <port>
System will restart the web server running on FortiWAN for the Web UI, or display the port number occupied by
the web server, or specify port number to the web server.
restart : Restart the web server.
showport : Display the port number that web server is listening.
setport : Set the port number for the web server with indicating parameter port.
<port> : Specify the port number for setport.
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import: Import the configurations of NAT, Multihoming and Virtual Server
import
Type import [Enter] to import the configurations of NAT, Multihoming and Virtual Server to FortiWAN. You have
to manually input the configuration in text after the command prompt “import>” line by line.
Example:
> import
Please enter configuration. terminate with a line constaining exactly:
1) 'apply' to apply, or
2) 'abort' to abort.
import> nat {
import> wan-array {
import> wan@1 {
import> rule-array {
import> rule { #1
import> source 10.10.10.55-10.10.10.77
import> destination 10.12.10.55-10.12.10.70
import> translated 10.12.104.232
import> }
import> }
import> }
import> }
import> }
import> apply
Start to apply configuration of nat...
Settings are applied for page Service -> Nat
>
Type abort in command prompt import> to leave the prompt any time. Please refer to the exported
configurations (displayed by command export or saved via Web UI. See "Configuration File" in "Administration")
for the import format.
init_reports_db: Set Reports database to factory default
init_reports_db
Set FortiWAN's Reports database to factory default. All the report data will be deleted. Please make sure the
database is backed up if it is necessary (See Reports Database Tool and Database Data Utility). Note that
executing this command will bring system an automatic reboot.
jframe: Enable jumbo frames to support specified MTU size for FortiWAN's LAN ports
jframe show
Get the port number and the MTU size of FortiWAN's LAN ports
jframe set <port> <mtu>
Enable jumbo frames on the LAN port by specifying a MTU size that is larger than 1500.
<port> : The port# of LAN port, such as port1, port2...and etc.
<mtu> : The MTU size.
Note that applying for Network Setting resets the MTU on LAN ports to 1500.
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logout: Exit Console mode
logout
Exit the Console mode. The system will re-confirm, press [y] to proceed or [n] to cancel.
ping: Test network connectivity
ping <hostname> <link> <index>
Ping a HOST machine to detect the current WAN link status. HOST is the machine/device to be pinged. The LINK
parameter can be WAN, LAN or DMZ. If the LINK is WAN then also specify the WAN port number.
<hostname>: The parameter in specifying the target IP address or domain name. Note that domain name is
valid only if parameter <link> is specified as "wan".
<link> : The parameter in specifying the link or ports that the ICMP PING REQUEST packets are sent through.
The valid values are "wan", "dmz" and "lan".
<index> : The parameter in specifying the index of a WAN link if <link> is specified as "wan". The valid values
are 1, 2, 3, ...,etc. (0 for private subnet).
Example:
ping www.hinet.net wan 1 to ping www.hinet.net via WAN #1.
Note: If domain name is used in the hostname parameter, DNS Server must be set in the Web UI [System]->
[Network Settings]->[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
For more on ICMP related error messages please refer to other ICMP/PING materials.
reactivate: Reactivate the FortiWAN apparatus
reactivate
Reactivating the FortiWAN apparatus will:
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Reset all system configurations to factory default (See "Appendix A: Default Values" for the details)
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Return the system to base-bandwidth (See "License Control" in "Administration")
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Reset Reports database to factory default. All the report data will be deleted.
Using this command will result in all system data being deleted as well as all bandwidth licenses. Before you
attempt a reactivation, please make sure the following are complete:.
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Backup any configuration data (See "Configuration File" in "Administration").
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Backup Reports database (See "Reports Database Tool").
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Locate your Bandwidth Upgrade Key if your system is not at base bandwidth, so that the bandwidth license the
system had before can be activated by reentering the key.
Note that if your system is not at base bandwidth and you do not have your Bandwidth Upgrade Keys, please
contact Fortinet CSS before attempting a reactivation.
reboot: Restart FortiWAN
reboot [-t <second>]
Restart FortiWAN immediately or restart it after a time period.
-t : Reboot FortiWAN after seconds. Parameter second is for this.
<second> : The parameter in specifying the time period (in second) system waits for to reboot.
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Example:
reboot -t 5 to restart the system after 5 seconds.
resetconfig: Reset system configurations to factory defaults
resetconfig
resetconfig <ip_address/netmask<@port>>
resetconfig <ip_address/netmask<@port>> <network_ip/netmask@gateway_ip>
Reset system configurations to factory default. This will delete all system settings including accounts of Web UI,
network settings and all the other system settings and service settings (See "Appendix A: Default Values" for the
details). Please backup all the configurations (See "Configuration File" in "Administration") before executing this
command. This command makes no changes to Reports database and bandwidth license, as opposed to
command reactivate.
Since command resetconfig will return IP address of LAN and WAN ports to the default values such as
192.168.0.1/255.255.255.0, 192.168.1.1/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.2.1/255.255.255.0, users might need to
change the IP address of their local computer to reconnect to the Web UI via the LAN or WAN port (See
"Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI"). Note that resetconfig resets the port mappings to factory default,
please connect to the correct network port (LAN or WAN) for accessing to Web UI (see Network interfaces and
port mapping).
resetconfig provides two optional parameters, ip_address/netmask and @port, to specify a LAN port
address and a LAN port mapping (map the LAN port to the specified physical port) while resetting the
configurations. All the configurations will be reset to factory default and the LAN settings will be configured to the
specified value, so that users can reconnect to Web UI via this port without changing network topology.
Furthermore, a static routing entry can be specified to the FortiWAN appliance, so that you can access Web UI
across subnets.
System will re-confirm, press [y] to proceed or [n] to cancel.
<ip_address/netmask<@port>>: The parameter in specifying the network configuration ip_
address/netmask to network port @port. The network configuration will be assigned to LAN port by default if
parameter @port is not specified.
<network_ip/networkmask@gateway_ip> : The parameter in specifying the static routing entry.
Example:
Considering that the LAN port of a FortiWAN 200B appliance is mapped to the first physical port (port1), IP
address 192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0 is assigned to the LAN port and a static routing rule is created to route
packets destined to 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0 to 192.168.100.254. Administrators in
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0 can access Web UI via the LAN port. Here are
the usages of command resetconfig in different ways:
Type “resetconfig [IP address/Netmask]” to specify IP configuration to LAN port from resetting system to factory
default.
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resetconfigresets all the configurations to factory default including LAN settings. In the default port mapping,
port1 is mapped to WAN and port4 is mapped to LAN. IP address of the LAN port returns to
192.168.0.1/255.255.255.0. Administrators in 192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0
can not access to Web UI until appropriate changes to cable installation and network topology are done manually.
resetconfig 192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0 resets system to factory default, but set
192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0 to LAN port. However, without a specifying, port1 is mapped to WAN and port4 is
mapped to LAN by default. Besides, the static routing rule for responding access requests coming from
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192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0 is deleted as well. Therefore, it still requires manual changes to cable installation
and network topology for administrators in 192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0 can
access the Web UI.
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resetconfig 192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0@port1 resets system to factory default, but map port1 to
LAN and set 192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0 to the LAN port. Administrators in 192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0 can
access Web UI via the LAN port without any change, but administrators in 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0 can not
access the Web UI until a correct routing rule is created.
resetconfig 192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0@port1
192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0@192.168.100.254 resets system to factory default, but map port1 to
LAN, set 192.168.100.1/255.255.255.0 to the LAN port and create a routing rule for packets destined to
192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0, where 192.168.100.254 is the router connecting subnets
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0. Administrators in 192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
and 192.168.200.0/255.255.255.0 so that can access Web UI via the LAN port without any change to network
deployment.
Note that executing resetconfig without specifying the LAN port settings will reset port mapping to factory
default, which implies the WAN links assigned to the default WAN ports are enabled. However, except the LAN
port, there will be not port mappings set for WAN and DMZ if resetconfig is executed with specifying any
parameter. In the case, there will be not default WAN and DMZ ports available (no default WAN links neither)
after resetconfig, administrators have to re-login to Web UI via the LAN port to set the port mappings (see
Connecting to the Web UI ).
resetpasswd: Reset FortiWAN's Administrator and Monitor passwords to factory default
resetpasswd
System will re-confirm, press [y] to proceed or [n] to cancel.
setupport: Configure the transmission mode for all the FortiWAN port(s)
setupport show
setupport change <port> auto
setupport change <port> <speed> <mode>
show : Show the current transmission modes for all the network ports.
change : Change the transmission mode of the specified port to AUTO or specified speed and mode.
<port> : The parameter in specifying the port number. The valid values are 1, 2, 3, ...,etc.
<speed> : The parameter in specifying the transmission speed. The valid values are 10, 100 and 1000.
<mode> : The parameter in specifying the transmission mode. The valid values are half and full.
Example:
setupport show
setupport change 1 auto
setupport change 2 100 full
Note:
Not all network devices support full 100M speed.
This command has no effect on fiber interface.
The port is the port number of the FortiWAN port interface; exact number varies according to product models.
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shownetwork: Show the current status of all the WAN links available
shownetwork
Display WAN Type, Bandwidth, IP(s) on Local/WAN/DMZ, Netmask, Gateway, and WAN/DMZ Port.
Note: This Console command can only show the current network status. This setting can be changed in the Web
UI under “Network Settings” (See "Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)").
showtrstat: Display tunnel status
showtrstat [TR GROUP NAME]
Display the status of specified tunnel group.
shutdown: Shut the FortiWAN system down
shutdown
This is command is used to shut FortiWAN system down, all the system processes and services will be
terminated normally. Note that this command might not power the appliance off, please turn on/off the power
switch or plug/unplug the power adapter to power on/off the appliance.
sslcert: Set or unset SSL certificate for FortiWAN WebUI
sslcert show | sslcert set
Type sslcert show to display current SSL certificate that FortiWAN WebUI is working with. The RSA private
key will not be displayed here for security issue.
Type sslcert set to set new SSL certificate for working with FortiWAN WebUI. You have to manually input
the SSL private key and its correspondent certificate in text after the command prompt sslcert> line by line.
The content inputted for the private key and certificate must start with “-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----” and “----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----”, and end with “-----END CERTIFICATE-----” and “----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----”.
Example:
> sslcert set
Please enter the certificate. It should starts with
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----and end with
-----END CERTIFICATE----To abort please enter an empty line:
sslcert> -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----sslcert> ...(data encoded in base64)...
sslcert> -----END CERTIFICATE----Please enter the private key. It should starts with
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----and end with
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY----To abort please enter an empty line:
sslcert> -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----sslcert> ...(data encoded in base64)...
sslcert> -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY---->
Type sslcert reset to reset to factory default, the self-signed certificate.
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sysctl: Controls the system parameters
sysctl
Display the values of the system parameters.
sysctl <parameter>=<value|default>
Set the system parameter with the specified value. The system parameters are as followings:
VoIP Related - [sip-helper] and [h323-helper]
sip-helper
h323-helper
sysctl sip-helper=<0|1|default>
sysctl h323-helper=<0|1|default>
sip-helper : to enable [1] or disable [0] SIP application gateway modules. Type default to set it default,
which is disabled.
h323-helper : to enable [1] or disable [0] H323 application gateway modules. Type default to set it default,
which is disabled.
Example:
sysctl sip-helper=0 disables the SIP application gateway modules.
sysctl sip-helper=default set the SIP application gateway modules to default, which is disabled.
Note: SIP and H323 application gateway modules execute NAT transparent for SIP and H323. For some SIP and
H323 devices that NAT transparent is a built-in function, it is suggested to disable the SIP or H323 gateway
module in FortiWAN.
ICMP Timeout Related - [icmp-timeout] and [icmpv6-timeout]
icmp-timeout
icmpv6-timeout
sysctl icmp-timeout=<value|default>
Set ICMP timeout, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default to set the timeout to default
value, which is 3 seconds.
sysctl icmpv6-timeout=<value|default>
Set ICMPv6 timeout, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default to set the timeout to default
value, which is 3 seconds.
TCP Timeout Related tcp-timeout-close
tcp-timeout-close-wait
tcp-timeout-established
tcp-timeout-fin-wait
tcp-timeout-last-ack
tcp-timeout-max-retrans
tcp-timeout-syn-recv
tcp-timeout-syn-sent
tcp-timeout-time-wait
tcp-timeout-unacknowledged
sysctl tcp-timeout-close=<value|default>
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Set timeout for TCP connections in CLOSING state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default
to set the timeout to default value, which is 10 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-close-wait=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in CLOSE WAIT state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type
default to set the timeout to default value, which is 60 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-established=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in ESTABLISHED state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type
default to set the timeout to default value, which is 43200 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-fin-wait=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in FIN WAIT state where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default
to set the timeout to default value, which is 120 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-last-ack=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in LAST ACK state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default
to set the timeout to default value, which is 30 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-max-retrans=<value|default>
Set timeout for the TCP connections that reach three retransmission without receiving an acceptable ACK from
destinations, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default to set the timeout to default value,
which is 300 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-syn-recv=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in SYN RECV state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default
to set the timeout to default value, which is 60 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-syn-sent=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in SYN SENT state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default
to set the timeout to default value, which is 120 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-time-wait=<value|default>
Set timeout for TCP connections in TIME WAIT state, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type
default to set the timeout to default value, which is 60 seconds.
sysctl tcp-timeout-unacknowledged=<value|default>
Set timeout for the segments that receive no acceptable ACKs from destinations, where <value> is the timeout
in seconds. Type default to set the timeout to default value, which is 300 seconds.
UDP Timeout Related
udp-timeout
udp-timeout-stream
sysctl udp-timeout=<value|default>
Set UDP timeout, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default to set the timeout to default value,
which is 30 seconds.
sysctl udp-timeout-stream=<value|default>
Set UDP stream timeout, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default to set the timeout to default
value, which is 180 seconds.
Other Timeout
frag6-timeout
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sysctl frag6-timeout=<value|default>
Set timeout to keep an IPv6 fragment in memory, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type default to
set the timeout to default value, which is 60 seconds
sysctl generic-timeout=<value|default>
Set generic timeout for layer 4 unknown/unsupported protocols, where <value> is the timeout in seconds. Type
default to set the timeout to default value, which is 600 seconds.
Tunnel Routing Related - [generic-receive-offload-<port>]
generic-receive-offload-<port>
sysctl generic-receive-offload-<port>=<0|1|default>
Disabling GRO (General Receive Offload) mechanism on the corresponding LAN ports and/or DMZ ports of a
Tunnel Routing network can enhance the Tunnel Routing transmission performance (see How the Tunnel
Routing Works and How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing).
generic-receive-offload-<port>: Enable [1] or disable [0] GRO (General Receive Offload) mechanism
on the specified physical network interface <port>, where <port> is a variable. Type default to set the GRO
on <port> to default, which is enabled.
<port> : Specify an network interface (port) of FortiWAN in format port#, e.g. port1, port2 and etc.
Example:
sysctl generic-receive-offload-port1=0 disables GRO mechanism on network interface port1.
sysctl generic-receive-offload-port2=default set GRO mechanism on network interface port2
to default, which is enabled.
Note that disabling GRO module on a network port can enhance the Tunnel Routing transmission performance
on the port, but it also results in slight impact to non-Tunnel-Routing transmission on the port when the system is
under heavy loading (there might be a slight decrease in transmission performance of non-Tunnel-Routing traffic
through the network port). We suggest keeping GRO modules enabled on the network ports that does not
participate in the Tunnel Routing transmission.
sysinfo: Display usage FortiWAN's CPU, memory and disk
sysinfo
Get the usage of FortiWAN’s CPU, memory and disk space in percentage.
tcpdump: Dump network traffic
tcpdump [-aAdDeflLnNOpqRStuUvxX] [-c count] [-E algo:secret] [-i PORT] [-s snaplen] [-T
type] [-y datalinktype] [expression]
<port> : The parameter in specifying an network interface (port) of FortiWAN in format port#, e.g. port1, port2
and etc.
For details of the options and parameters, please refer to http://www.tcpdump.org/tcpdump_man.html. Note that
options not listed here are not supported by FortiWAN.
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Web UI and CLI Overview
traceroute: Shows the packet routes between FortiWAN's port to a specified destination
traceroute <hostname> <link> <index>
Show the packet routes between FortiWAN's ports to the hostname.
<hostname>: The parameter in specifying the target IP address or domain name. Note that domain name is
valid only if parameter <link> is specified as "wan".
<link> : The parameter in specifying the link or ports that the traceroute packets start from. The valid values are
"wan", "dmz" and "lan".
<index> : The parameter in specifying the index of a WAN link if <link> is specified as "wan". The valid values
are 1, 2, 3, ...,etc.
Example:
traceroute www.hinet.net wan 1 showes the trace routes from WAN link1 to www.hinet.net.
Note: If domain name is to be used in the hostname parameter, the DNS Server must be set in the Web UI
[System]->[Network Settings]->[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
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Set DNS server to FortiWAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
As an edge router of a network site, FortiWAN is supposed to operate with connected networks, the WAN, LAN
and DMZ networks. FortiWAN must guarantee general communication among the connected networks (routing),
and so that can provide the advanced load balancing and fault tolerance functions. To establish connectivity
between FortiWAN and the networks, you need to complete the following basic network settings:
1. Decide a FortiWAN's network port for connecting the FortiWAN with the network. This network port can be a
physical port, an aggregated, redundant or VLAN port. Whether it is a physical or logical port, you have to
program it as what the type that the connected network is (WAN, LAN or DMZ). VLAN and Port Mapping
is the configuration that you can create logical network ports (aggregated, redundant and VLAN ports) and
define the port mapping to the physical and logical ports (see Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping).
2. Configure the basic IP network setting and static routing information to the network port for the connected
network. The settings here are necessary for FortiWAN to guarantee basic communication among the
connected networks, packets can be routed correctly between the networks. According to the type of
connected network, settings are divided into:
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WAN Setting (DMZ setting is included): WAN Settings is the major part to deploy FortiWAN
in various types of WAN links (see Configuring your WAN).
l
l
WAN/DMZ Private Subnet: This includes settings for deploying private subnets to
WAN/DMZ port (see WAN/DMZ Private Subnet).
LAN Private Subnet: This includes settings for deploying private subnets to LAN port (see
LAN Private Subnet).
Generally speaking, a network site consists of a WAN link and a private LAN network at least. WAN Setting
and LAN Private Subnet are the necessary configurations for FortiWAN to connect the internal and external
networks.
Some of FortiWAN's functions, such as system time synchronization, log push, ping and trace commands, require
cooperating with external servers. When FortiWAN itself (localhost) communicates with those external servers,
such as NTP, FTP, SMTP servers, an appropriate DNS server is required for domain name resolving.
Configuration of DNS Server is part of the basic network setting (see Set DNS server for FortiWAN).
Briefly, network setting of a FortiWAN contains the configurations of:
1. DNS for FortiWAN's localhost (DNS Server, see Set DNS server for FortiWAN)
2. Network port programing (VLAN and Port Mapping, see Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping)
3. Individual network connected to FortiWAN and the relative routing information (WAN Setting, WAN/DMZ Private
Subnet and LAN Private Subnet, see Configuring your WAN and DMZ, WAN/DMZ Private Subnet and LAN Private
Subnet)
Set DNS server to FortiWAN
As an edge router, FortiWAN connects the external and internal networks to provide necessary valuable functions
for incoming and outgoing service accesses. Among the functions, domain name resolution plays an important
role for service accesses. The following is an overview about the DNS deployment on FortiWAN, according to
source of the DNS query.
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Set DNS server to FortiWAN
For external users who want to access your domain
If you provide network services (such as HTTP, FTP or SMTP) to Internet, no matter how you deploy the servers
(deploy them in DMZ or LAN) you will need also provide the resolution of your domain name to users who want to
access your services from Internet. You may manage your domain simply by a DNS hosting or FortiWAN's
Multihoming (See "Multihoming"). Multihoming is basically a DNS server providing standard name resolution to
Internet users, moreover it provides load balancing and fail over to inbound traffic.
For internal users who want to access internal or external servers
It requires a DNS server for any user to resolve a external domain he want to access through Internet. Usually,
this DNS server could be a ISP's DNS server or any registered public DNS server. An user can configure the
setting of DNS server on its own computer manually or automatically be allocated by DHCP. This DNS server is
also necessary to FortiWAN itself for some operations. Several FortiWAN's functions, such as sending logs and
notifications, ping and traceroute commands, require DNS resolution if the target is a FQDN (fully qualified
domain name). Through Web UI System > Network Setting > DNS Server, you can manually set the DNS
server to FortiWAN. FortiWAN's DHCP (also SLAAC and DHCPv6, see "Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet") allocate the DNS servers set here to users in LAN or DMZ subnet if the users' computers are set to
automatically get DNS by DHCP.
On the other hand, if you want to maintain an internal DNS server in your site, FortiWAN provides Internal DNS
(see "Internal DNS") for managing your domain to internal users (the users in LAN or DMZ subnet). An user in
LAN or DMZ subnet need to manually configure the DNS server on his computer for using the FortiWAN's Internal
DNS (set DNS server as IP address of the gateway he connects to). It is unable to automatically allocate
FortiWAN's internal DNS to users by FortiWAN's DHCP. The Internal DNS is recursive, which allows users to
resolve other people's domains (external domains). The DNS servers set here (System > Network Setting > DNS
Server) will be asked by Internal DNS while it recursively resolve an unknown domain. Of cause that you can also
set up a standalone internal DNS server to manage your domain for internal users, but this is the category of
FortiWAN.
The last feature about DNS that FortiWAN provides is DNS Proxy, which is a mechanism to redirect outgoing
DNS queries to other DNS servers according to WAN links loading. This is not the well-known DNS proxy, but is a
solution for ISP peering issue (See "DNS Proxy" and "Optimum Route Detect").
Back to System > Network Setting > DNS Server, it enables administrators to define the host name the
FortiWAN in the network, the IPv4/IPv6 address of domain name servers used by FortiWAN, and the suffix of the
domain name. The following is the list of FortiWAN's functions that might require the DNS servers set here.
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System > Diagnostic Tools
Ping and Trace (See "Diagnostic Tools")
System > Date/Time
Synchronize system time through NTP server (See "Setting the system time &
date")
Service > Internal DNS
Recursively resolve an unknown domain (see "Internal DNS")
Log > Control
SMTP and FTP Server Settings (See "Log Control")
Log > Notification
SMTP Server Settings (See "Log Notification")
CLI
Ping and Traceroute Commands (See "Console Mode Commands")
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FQDN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Maintain the FQDN mapping in system for supporting FQDN in management
policies (See "Basic concept to configure via Web UI" in "Using the Web UI").
Configure the setting
Hostname
Name for this FortiWAN appliance.
IPv4 Domain Name Server
IPv4 DNS servers for this FortiWAN itself to resolve unknown domains. The
maximum of three IPv4 addresses is allowed. The DNS servers set here will be
used in a top-down order, if the DNS request timed out.
IPv6 Domain Name Server
IPv6 DNS servers for this FortiWAN itself to resolve unknown domains. The
maximum of three IPv6 addresses is allowed. The DNS servers set here will be
used in a top-down order, if the DNS request timed out.
Domain Name Suffix
Primary domain suffix of this FortiWAN appliance.
Note: Incomplete DNS server configurations will not influence the performance of the functions listed above. Only
IP address is necessary instead of the FQDN.
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Go to System > Network Setting from the Web UI, click the label VLAN and Port Mapping in the upper-right
corner to expand the configuration panel. This is a configuration that you can create logical network ports and
define the port mapping to the physical and logical ports. The VLAN and Port Mapping panel consists of four
tables, VLAN and Port Mapping, Redundant LAN Port, Redundant DMZ Port and Aggregated Port,
which are described as followings:
VLAN and Port Mapping
As the previous description, FortiWAN's physical network ports can be further programed as an aggregated port, a
redundant port or several VLAN ports, which are generally called logical ports (see Network interfaces and port
mapping). A network ports must function as a WAN, LAN or DMZ port and be connected with a corresponding
network (a WAN, LAN or DMZ network), so that the FortiWAN can work correctly for the connected network.
Although each of FortiWAN's physical ports is mapped to a port type by default, the default mapping can be
changed (even logical ports can be created) according to how you deploy your network site. For example, a
FortiWAN 200B's Port 1 could be programed as a LAN port, Port 2 could be programed as a DMZ port, and Port 3
~ Port 5 could be programed as WAN ports, while Port 1 ~ Port 3 are WAN ports, Port 4 is a LAN port and Port 5 is
a DMZ port by default. VLAN and Port Mapping is the configuration table for defining the port mapping and
creating VLAN IDs on the ports. It consists of three elements; Port, VLAN Tag and Mapping:
Port
In the VLAN and Port Mapping table, each of the FortiWAN's physical ports is listed in the Port column
(indicated as Port1, Port2, Port3 ..., corresponding to the numbers presented on the front panel of the FortiWAN
device), so that port mapping can be programed and VLAN tags can be created on it. Moreover, the created
aggregated ports (an logical port that is created by aggregating two physical ports, see Aggregated Port below for
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more details) will also be listed here for defining mappings and VLAN tags to them. As for a FortiWAN-VM
appliance, the ports listed in Port column are indicated as vNIC2, vNIC3, vNIC4 ..., mapping of the ports and the
vNICs is as bellow (vNIC 1 is used for HA port and can not be changed):
Ports
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
Port 8
Port 9
vNICs
vNIC 2
vNIC 3
vNIC 4
vNIC 5
vNIC 6
vNIC 7
vNIC 8
vNIC 9
vNIC 10
Mapping
For the ports listed in the table, there are four options available for mapping them to a function (click the pulldown menus of Mapping column):
WAN
Specify a physical port or a VLAN port as a WAN port. This option is
not available for an aggregated port.
LAN
Specify a physical port, a VLAN port or an aggregated port as a LAN
port.
DNZ
Specify a physical port, a VLAN port or an aggregated port as a DMZ
port.
None
Specify any port for non-purpose. To aggregate two physical ports, it
requires to map the two ports to None first (see Aggregated Port
below).
Whether a physical port or a logical port (aggregated, redundant or VLAN port) is, it must be programed as one of
the port types (WAN, LAN and DMZ) first to be used by other services. A port that is programmed as a WAN, LAN
or DMZ port will become an option to setting items of some configurations:
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Port that is programed as a WAN port will be listed in the pull-down menus:
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[WAN Port] of WAN Setting for configuring and deploying a WAN subnet to the ports (see Configuring your
WAN).
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[Input Port] of Auto Routing's IPv4/IPv6 Filters for creating a filter rule to evaluate packets by the port
receiving the packets (see Outbound Load Balancing and Failover).
[Input Port] of Bandwidth Management's IPv4/IPv6 Filters of Outbound BM for creating a filter rule to
evaluate packets by the port receiving the packets (see Bandwidth Management).
Port that is programed as a DMZ port will be listed in the pull-down menus:
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[DMZ Port] of WAN Setting for configuring and deploying a DMZ subnet to the ports (see Configuring your
WAN).
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[WAN Port] of WAN/DMZ Private Subnet for configuring and deploying a private WAN subnet to the ports
(see WAN/DMZ Private Subnet).
[DMZ Port] of WAN/DMZ Private Subnet for configuring and deploying a private DMZ subnet to the ports
(see WAN/DMZ Private Subnet).
[Input Port] of Auto Routing's IPv4/IPv6 Filters for creating a filter rule to evaluate packets by the port
receiving the packets (see Outbound Load Balancing and Failover).
[Input Port] of Bandwidth Management's IPv4/IPv6 Filters of Outbound BM for creating a filter rule to
evaluate packets by the port receiving the packets (see Bandwidth Management).
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Port that is programed as a LAN port will be listed in the pull-down menus:
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[LAN Port] of LAN Private Subnet for configuring and deploying a LAN subnet to the ports (see
Configuring your WAN).
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[Input Port] of Auto Routing's IPv4/IPv6 Filters for creating a filter rule to evaluate packets by the port
receiving the packets (see Outbound Load Balancing and Failover).
[Input Port] of Bandwidth Management's IPv4/IPv6 Filters of Outbound BM for creating a filter rule to
evaluate packets by the port receiving the packets (see Bandwidth Management).
Changes to port mappings here will be updated immediately to the corresponding pull-down menus. If a port has
been configured and deployed with a network, or been associated with a filter rule, a change to mapping of the
port will fail the original deployments and settings. Please remember to reconfigure relative settings if a port
mapping is changed.
VLAN Tag
FortiWAN supports IEEE 802.1Q, which is also known as VLAN Tagging (Cisco’s ISL is not supported). A
FortiWAN's physical port can be mapped to several VLAN ports. In a large-scale network that is segmented into
smaller groups of subnets by a VLAN switch, FortiWAN allows data being exchanged between these subnets.
Moreover, the VLAN switch ports can be programmed as DMZ, WAN or LAN ports. To introduce a VLAN Switch
into the network working with FortiWAN, here is a example:
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Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
FortiWAN's Port 1 is connected with the VLAN switch, and appropriate VLAN settings have been configured on
the VLAN switch. Now, it requires to have VLAN tagging configured on FortiWAN to get the VLAN deployment
workable. The steps are:
1. In the VLAN and Port Mapping table, click the Add button in the VLAN Tag field of Port 1 to create a new VLAN
tag. A VLAN tag input will then available to replace the original string "no VLAN Tag".
2. Enter the VLAN tag into the input field to define a VLAN to Port1.
3. This VLAN tage can be edited, deleted, moved up/down by buttons aside it.
4. Map the VLAN tag to WAN, LAN or DMZ in Mapping column.
5. Define the next VLAN to Port1 by the same processes.
Port
VLAN Tag
Mapping
Port 1
101
WAN
102
WAN
103
LAN
104
DMZ
After the configuration is applied, FortiWAN's port 1 will no longer accept untagged VLAN packets. Through the
VLAN switch, both Port 1.101 and port 1.102 are connected with a WAN link (Port 1.101 and Port 1.102 will be
listed in the WAN Port pull-down menu for WAN Setting), while port 1.103 is connected the LAN subnet
(Port 1.103 will be listed in the LAN Port pull-down menu for Private LAN Subnet setting) and port
1.104 is connected with the DMZ subnet (Port 1.104 will be listed in the DMZ Port pull-down menu for
DMZ Setting). You can also define VLAN tags to an aggregated port from the table (it requires to create an
aggregated port first for defining VLAN tags to it).
Note: This field (VRID) is only available when VRRP mode is enabled in LAN Private Subnet settings. The VRID
indicates the virtual router identifier for every VR.
Redundant LAN/DMZ Port
A logical redundant port pairs an active and a standby physical network port. It means a logical redundant LAN
port consists of two physical LAN ports, and a logical redundant DMZ port consists of two physical DMZ port.
Under normal usage, the active port passes traffic and the standby port is just backup. Once the active port goes
down (or unavailable), the standby port takes over the active role and starts passing traffic. Why a redundant LAN
port and a redundant DMZ port are necessary? Because without the redundant ports, even if FortiWAN is working
in HA mode, single point failure can still occur over connectivities between LAN/DMZ subnets and FortiWAN's
LAN/DMZ ports. Redundant ports increase the reliability of connectivity of FortiWAN's LAN and DMZ. FortiWAN's
redundant port supports the Spanning Tree algorithm and sets the highest 0xffff as bridge priority. The
configurations thus manage to avoid network failure caused by the possible packet looping.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Label
Name of the logical redundant LAN/DMZ port. Only the ASCII characters “09 a-z A-Z” are acceptable for a label and the first character must be nonnumeric. After applying the settings, the specified label, in the format
Bridge: label name, will become one of the port options in corresponding
pull-down menus used for configurations of LAN setting (see LAN Private
Subnet), DMZ setting (see Configuring your WAN), Auto Routing and
Bandwidth Management (FortiWAN's Auto Routing and Bandwidth
Management support managing outbound traffic by input ports where the
traffic received on, see Auto Routing and Bandwidth Management). All the
configurations refer to the logical redundant port instead of its member
physical ports.
Mapping
There are two menus in the Mapping field for selecting the two memberports under a LAN/DMZ redundant port. All the physical ports and VLAN tags
mapped to LAN/DMZ in the VLAN and Port Mapping table are listed here
for options. It requires at least two are mapped to LAN/DMZ in VLAN and
Port Mapping first for creating a LAN/DMZ redundant port, or there will be
no items here for options.
Select a LAN/DMZ port from each of the two pull-down menus to add the
member-ports to the redundant port. By default, the first configured
member-port becomes the active one for the redundant port, while the
second one is in hot standby state.
Note that the physical member ports that are redundant to each other must
be equal in port speed and duplex (See "Port Speed/Duplex Settings").
Notices to create a redundant port
Before creating a redundant port, you need to know:
l
l
l
The two member-ports of a redundant port can be two physical network ports, two VLAN tages, or a pair of one
physical port and a VLAN tag.
It requires to exactly map two member-ports to LAN or DMZ in VLAN and Port Mapping table before pairing the two
ports to a logical LAN/DMZ redundant port.
VLAN tags can not be defined to an redundant port.
Creating an redundant LAN/DMZ port
To configure an redundant LAN port or redundant DMZ port, perform the following steps:
Step 1 Map two ports (two physical port, two VLAN ports, or a pair of one physical port and one VLAN port) to
LAN or DMZ in VLAN and Port Mapping table.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Step 2 Create a new redundant port configuration by clicking the add button on Redundant LAN Port or
Redundant DMZ Port table.
Step 3 Assign the redundant port a name by entering it in Label filed.
Step 4 Select a member-port from each of the two pull-down menus in Mapping field (the ports mapped to LAN
or DMZ in VLAN and Port Mapping table are listed here for options).
Step 5 Apply the settings by clicking Apply.
Aggregated Port
FortiWAM's port aggregation is implementation of IEEE 802.3ad active mode, which bundles two physical ports
into a single logical aggregated port to provide the aggregated bandwidth of the two physical links. If single point
failure occurs on connectivity of one of the physical member ports under an aggregated port, traffic will be carried
within the remaining port channel. The related parameters of IEEE 802.3ad active mode are sat as follows:
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Parameter
Value
Note
ad_select
stable
as default
all_slave_active
0
as default
downdelay
0
as default
lacp_rate
slow
as default
max_bonds
1
as default
miimon
100
as recommended
min_links
0
as default
updelay
0
as default
use_carrier
1
as default
xmit_hash_policy
layer2
as default
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Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Label
Name of the logical aggregated port. Only the ASCII characters “0-9 a-z A-Z”
are acceptable for a label and the first character must be non-numeric. After
entering a label here, this label will be listed in VLAN and Port Mapping
table at the same time so that the logical aggregated port can be mapped to
LAN or DMZ, or have VLAN tags defined on it. After applying the settings,
the specified label will become one of the port options in corresponding pulldown menus, in the format Bonding: label name, used for configurations
of LAN setting (see LAN Private Subnet), DMZ setting (see Configuring your
WAN), Auto Routing and Bandwidth Management (FortiWAN's Auto Routing
and Bandwidth Management support managing outbound traffic by input
ports where the traffic received on, see Auto Routing and Bandwidth
Management). All the configurations refer to the logical aggregated port
instead of its member physical ports.
Mapping
There are two menus in the Mapping field for selecting the two memberports under a aggregated port. All the physical ports and VLAN tags mapped
to None in the VLAN and Port Mapping table are listed here for options. It
requires at least two are mapped to None in VLAN and Port Mapping first
for creating an aggregated port, or there will be no items here for options.
Select a port from each of the two pull-down menus to add the member-ports
to the aggregated port. After this, you need to enable the aggregated port by
mapping it to LAN/DMZ or defining VLAN tags on it from VLAN and Port
Mapping table, or the aggregated port is mapped to None by default.
Note that the physical member ports that are aggregated must be equal in
port speed and duplex (See "Port Speed/Duplex Settings").
Notices to create a redundant port
Before creating a redundant port, you need to know:
l
l
The two member-ports of an aggregated port can be two physical network ports, two VLAN tages, or a pair of one
physical port and a VLAN tag.
A logical aggregated port requires two purposeless member-ports (both are mapped to None in VLAN and Port
Mapping table).
l
An aggregated port can only be mapped to a DMZ or LAN port.
l
VLAN tags can be defined to an aggregated port.
Creating an aggregated port
To configure an aggregated port, perform the following steps:
Step 1 Disable two ports (two physical port, two VLAN ports, or a pair of one physical port and one VLAN port) by
mapping them to None in VLAN and Port Mapping table.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Step 2 Create a new port aggregation configuration by clicking the add button on Aggregated Port table.
Step 3 Assign the aggregated port a name by entering it in Label filed.
Step 4 Select a member-port from each of the two pull-down menus in Mapping field (the disabled ports in VLAN
and Port Mapping table are listed here for options).
Step 5 The label name of the aggregated port will be listed in VLAN and Port Mapping table. Map the logical
aggregated port to LAN or DMZ by selecting it from the pull-down menu in Mapping field. You can also define
VLAN tags to the aggregated port in VLAN Tag field and Mapping field.
Step 6 Apply the settings by clicking Apply.
Scenarios
As illustrated in the topology below, FortiWAN port1 are mapped to WAN port. Port2 and port3 are paired to a
logical redundant LAN port which is connected to Switch1, port4 and port5 are paired to a logical aggregated
DMZ port which is connected to Switch2.
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Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Step 1 To configure the settings for the deployment, you need to map Port1, Port2, Port3, Port4 and Port5 to
WAN, LAN, LAN, None and None respectively in VLAN and Port Mapping table.
Port
VLAN Tag
Mapping
Port1
no VLAN Tag
WAN
Port2
no VLAN Tag
LAN
Port3
no VLAN Tag
LAN
Port4
no VLAN Tag
None
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Port
VLAN Tag
Mapping
Port5
no VLAN Tag
None
Step 2 Create a new redundant LAN port labeled lan23 and mapped it to Port2 and Port3 in Redundant LAN Port
table.
Label
Mapping
lan23
Port 2
Port 3
Step 3 Create a new aggregated port labeled dmz45 and mapped it to Port4 and Port5 in Aggregated Port table.
Label
Mapping
dmz45
Port 4
Port 5
Step 4 Map the created logical aggregated port dmz45 to DMZ in VLAN and Port Mapping table.
Port
VLAN Tag
Mapping
Port1
no VLAN Tag
WAN
Port2
no VLAN Tag
LAN
Port3
no VLAN Tag
LAN
Port4
no VLAN Tag
None
Port5
no VLAN Tag
None
dmz45
no VLAN Tag
DMZ
After the configurations are applied, labels "Bridge: lan23" and "Bonding: dmz45" will be listed respectively in LAN
Port and DMZ Port pull-down menus of LAN and DMZ subnets settings (see LAN Private Subnet and Configuring
your WAN) for options. Moreover, the two labels will be also listed in Input Port pull-down menu of Auto Routing
and Bandwidth Management (see Auto Routing and Bandwidth Management) for your options.
You can also have the deployment configured in an advanced way. First, if you need the LAN ports being defined
with several VLAN tags and also having them in redundant pairs; second, if you need the aggregated port being
mapped to one LAN and one DMZ by defining it with VLAN tags, the configurations will be the following steps:
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Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Step 1 To configure the settings for the deployment, you need to define Port2 and Port3 with VLAN tags and map
all of them to LAN in VLAN and Port Mapping table. Leaving Port4 and Port5 being mapped to None as previous.
Port
VLAN Tag
Mapping
Port1
no VLAN Tag
WAN
Port2
01
LAN
02
LAN
01
LAN
02
LAN
Port4
no VLAN Tag
None
Port5
no VLAN Tag
None
Port3
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping
Step 2 Create a new redundant LAN port labeled lan23tag01 and mapped it to Port2.01 and Port3.01 in
Redundant LAN Port table.
Label
Mapping
lan23tag01
Port 2.01
Port 3.01
Step 3 Create another new redundant LAN port labeled lan23tag02 and mapped it to Port2.02 and Port3.02 in
Redundant LAN Port table.
Label
Mapping
lan23tag02
Port 2.02
Port 3.02
Step 4 Create a new aggregated port labeled agg45 and mapped it to Port4 and Port5 in Aggregated Port table.
Label
Mapping
agg45
Port 4
Port 5
Step 5 In VLAN and Port Mapping table, map the created logical aggregated port agg45 to a LAN and a DMZ by
defining it with VLAN tags.
Port
VLAN Tag
Mapping
Port1
no VLAN Tag
WAN
Port2
01
LAN
02
LAN
01
LAN
02
LAN
Port4
no VLAN Tag
None
Port5
no VLAN Tag
None
agg45
01
LAN
02
DMZ
Port3
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
As the previous description, FortiWAN is an intelligent WAN load balancing device providing services to increase
connection efficiency and reliability between the internal and external networks, but basically as an router it is
fundamental to route IP packets among the connected networks. According to different purpose and functionality,
a connected network could be one of the three types: WAN, LAN and DMZ networks. When you configure setting
of a network to a FortiWAN, you are registering the network to the FortiWAN (majorly adding related routing
information about the network to the FortiWAN), so that the FortiWAN can find the path to correctly route packets
destined to the network. Network settings establish the necessary routing rules to FortiWAN so that the
connected WAN, LAN and DMZ networks can communicate to each other. Besides setting routing rules, network
setting requires other necessary information used to guarantee a well-cooperation between the connected
network and FortiWAN. No matter what types those connected networks are, there are some common concepts
among the settings:
Static route: basic subnets & static routing subnets
Within a network site, FortiWAN routes communication among the connected WAN (near WAN actually, see
WAN, LAN and DMZ and Near WAN), LAN and DMZ networks according to established static routing entries,
without WAN load balancing and fail-over being involved. Those static routing entries of connected networks are
manually added to FortiWAN by network settings. A connected network can contain several subnets. Basically,
FortiWAN defines two types of subnets to a connected network for it static route, basic subnet and static routing
subnet:
Basic subnet: Any subnet connected directly to FortiWAN's network port is called a basic subnet. Setting for a
basic subnet tells FortiWAN the network IP, netmask of the subnet and the connected port, so that FortiWAN is
aware of the network port used to directly deliver the packets destined to the subnet.
Static routing subnet: Any subnet connected directly or indirectly to a FortiWAN's basic subnet is called a static
routing subnet. Setting for a static routing subnet tells FortiWAN the network IP, netmask of the subnet and the
gateway, so that FortiWAN can fine the next hop to forward packets destined to the subnet, although the static
routing subnet does not connect directly to the FortiWAN.
Basically, all the network configurations in WAN Setting (see Configuring your WAN and DMZ), WAN/DMZ
Private Subnet (see WAN/DMZ Private Subnet) and LAN Private Subnet (see LAN Private Subnet) contain
settings of basic subnet and static routing subnet, except IPv4-based bridge-mode WAN links. FortiWAN's basic
subnets and static routing subnets are static routes, therefore, any physical change to deployment of the subnets
requires corresponding modifications to the routing entries. The basic static route is supposed to be suitable for
simple topologies. When you have a large-scale network with complex topologies, dynamic routing would be
much suitable for it. FortiWAN supports RIP (v1 and v2), OSPF and VRRP on its LAN ports.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
IPv4/IPv6 dual stack
FortiWAN supports IPv4/IPv6 dual stack, which means a FortiWAN can be configured with both IPv4 and IPv6
connectivity capabilities (FortiWAN does not support a pure IPv6 based network). None of IPv4 network and IPv6
network is dispensable for configuring a dual stack network to FortiWAN. Therefore, the required static routing
information for configuring a dual stack network to a WAN, LAN or DMZ port will include IPv4 basic subnet, IPv4
static routing subnet, IPv6 basic subnet and IPv6 static routing subnet.
Auto addressing
FortiWAN supports auto addressing on each of the WAN, LAN and DMZ ports, so that hosts in any of the
connected basic subnet can be automatically assigned IP addresses and relative information. FortiWAN provides
the addressing mechanisms including DHCP, DHCP relay, DHCPv6 and SLAAC (see Automatic addressing within
a basic subnet).
Configuring your WAN and DMZ
In this section we will talk about the configurations for WAN and DMZ network deployments. To have a FortiWAN
accessing to the Internet, it requires an ISP network connected to the FortiWAN. The connectivity between a
FortiWAN's WAN port and an ISP network is called a WAN link, which is the necessary medium for accessing the
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Internet. FortiWAN's DMZ is designed to be associated with a WAN link, therefore, configuration of a DMZ must
be included in a WAN link.
Compared with a LAN network, there are more concerns need to be taken care of for a WAN link and its DMZ.
Besides port mapping for the WAN ports on a FortiWAN, you need to decide the WAN types and the subsequent
subnet deployments for a WAN link as well. Generally, ISP provides a connectivity in various ways. Here is a table
telling what you will have from ISP for a connectivity in different types:
FortiWAN supports WAN links in both routing mode and bridge mode (See WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge
mode).
Internet connectivity
type
IP type
No. of IP Network scale
Modem type
Routing Mode
Static
Multiple
An IP subnet (number of
available IP matches the
netmask)
A gateway (router)
Bridge Mode: One
Static IP
Static
Single
One IP of a large-scale
subnet (less number of
available IP than the
netmask)
A bridge, not a
gateway
Bridge Mode: Multiple
Static IP
Static
Multiple
An IP range of a large-scale
subnet (less number of
available IP than the
netmask)
A bridge, not a
gateway
Bridge Mode: PPPoE
Dynamic
Single
One IP of a large-scale
subnet
A bridge, not a
gateway
Bridge Mode: DHCP
Client
Dynamic
Single
One IP of a large-scale
subnet
A bridge, not a
gateway
Since ISP provides the available IP addresses in different ways for the above Internet connectivity, FortiWAN has
equal mechanisms to identify the near WAN areas and define the static route. Before continuing on the topic, let
us review what a near WAN is to FortiWAN first. As previous descriptions, FortiWAN defines the area that is
between a FortiWAN's WAN port and the ISP's modem as a near WAN of the WAN link. Individual IP addresses,
segments and subnets deployed within this area are considered the near WAN of a WAN link. Opposite to the
WAN area (the Internet), although near WAN is located on the WAN side, it can be considered as a part of your
network site, just like the LAN and DMZ areas. Within the network site, FortiWAN delivers packets among the
near WAN, DMZ and LAN according to the static routes. Services of load balancing, fail-over, traffic shaping and
statistics (Auto Routing, Bandwidth Management and NAT) will not be applied to those packets. Only packets
that are destined to somewhere not defined in the routing table (the traffic communicating with hosts out of the
site) will be handled by Bandwidth Management, Auto Routing and NAT, and forwarded to the gateway (the
Internet). Note that traffic within near WAN and traffic communicating with near WAN will not be counted in
outbound and inbound traffic of the WAN link, but they do occupy part of bandwidth of the WAN link. You should
be careful about usage of your near WAN. A lot of near WAN traffic impacts on FortiWAN's WAN load-balancing
and traffic shaping.
Configurations of WAN links are mainly about setting the static routing information to FortiWAN for the near WAN
(and DMZ). Comparing with a LAN, setting the static route for near WAN and DMZ of a WAN link is more complex
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
and variable. According to the distinguishing characteristics of different WAN types, FortiWAN identifies the near
WAN and DMZ areas of a WAN link in different ways. Configuring a WAN link as a unsuitable type on FortiWAN
will result in a mistake for near WAN identification; miscalculation and misjudgment then happen when
performing traffic statistics, traffic shaping and load-balancing. The followings are the mechanisms FortiWAN
uses for different WAN types:
Routing-mode WAN link
l
l
l
l
l
Bridge-mode WAN link with
multiple static IP
l
l
l
l
Bridge-mode WAN link with
one static IP
l
l
PPPoE bridge-mode WAN link
DHCP bridge-mode WAN link
l
77
It requires at least one IPv4 network being configured for a IPv4-based Internet
connectivity, or a pair of IPv4 and IPv6 networks for a dual-stack connectivity.
Any IP address of the network is considered either in near WAN or DMZ (except
the IP used by localhost).
The whole IPv4/IPv6 network (indicated by the specified netmask) is considered
belonging to your site, either in form of a near WAN or a combination of near
WAN and DMZ.
A near WAN is considered an IPv4/IPv6 network and the gateway of the WAN
link is counted in the near WAN.
Traffic that matches routing entries of the network will bypass Bandwidth
Management and Auto Routing. If a bridge-mode Internet connectivity is
incorrectly configured as a routing-mode WAN link on FortiWAN, all the IP
addresses of the network (usually a large-scale network such as a class C) will
be considered belonging to your site. However, the problem is that most of the
IP addresses do not actually belong to your site (they are outside of your site,
over the Internet); WAN load-balancing, fail-over and traffic shaping should not
be bypassed for those traffic.
It requires exactly specifying the individual IPv4/IPv6 address or IPv4/IPv6
ranges to deploy near WAN and/or DMZ for a IPv4-based or dual-stack WAN
link.
Only the specified IPv4/IPv6 addresses are considered belonging to your site
(located in near WAN or DMZ). Unspecified IP addresses are considered the
outside of your site, belonging to the Internet.
A near WAN is considered a segment of an IPv4/IPv6 network. The gateway of
the WAN link will not be count in the near WAN.
Incorrectly configuring a routing-mode Internet connectivity as a bridge-mode
WAN link on FortiWAN will result in abnormal behaviors to traffic
communicating with the gateway and unspecified IP addresses.
Near WAN and DMZ are not supported for this WAN type on FortiWAN.
Only the IPv6/IPv4 address assigned to localhost of the WAN link is considered
belonging to your site. All the other IP addresses (including the gateway) within
the same network (indicated by the specified netmask) are considered the
outside of your site.
Incorrectly configuring a routing-mode Internet connectivity as a bridge-mode
WAN link on FortiWAN will result in abnormal behaviors to traffic
communicating with the gateway and unspecified IP addresses.
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
You have to figure out the type of your link, so that you can correctly configure it to FortiWAN. The netmask and
number of IP addresses indicate whether you have an complete IP subnet (routing mode) or just some IP
addresses of a large-scale subnet (bridge mode). If you have ISP links belonging to Routing Mode and Bridge
Mode: Multiple Static IP, you will have more than one IP address to use. The localhost of a WAN port will require
one IP address, and the rest of the IP addresses are available to hosts connected to the WAN port and a DMZ
port. Deploying IP addresses to WAN and DMZ are so that included in configurations of Routing Mode and
Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP. As for links belonging to Bridge Mode: One Static IP, Bridge Mode: PPPoE and
Bridge Mode: DHCP Client, the only IP address must be used by the localhost of the WAN port and there will be
no more IP addresses available to other hosts in WAN and DMZ.
[WAN Settings] is the major part to deploy FortiWAN in various types of WAN links. If your network has several
WAN links, you have to configure one after another. Select any link from [WAN link] and check [Enable] to start a
configuration of the WAN connection (See "WAN link and WAN port"). A configuration of WAN link is divided into
three parts: Basic Settings, Basic Subnet and Static Routing Subnet. Before starting configuration, here are
several important concepts you should know.
Configuration of a WAN link, no matter what the WAN type it is, contains the following parts:
Basic setting
The basic setting will require you to set the maximum upload/download bandwidth of a WAN link,
upload/download threshold and the MTU for transmission between FortiWAN and ISP's network. These settings
are necessary for FortiWAN Bandwidth Management (see Bandwidth Management), Auto Routing (see Auto
Routing) and Multihoming (Multihoming) refer to process the real WAN traffic that is between FortiWAN and the
Internet (traffic between FortiWAN and its near WAN is not included).
For bridge-mode WAN links, the basic setting also contains extra fields:
Bridge Mode: One Static IP
Allocating the only IPv4/IPv6 address to localhost of the WAN port.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP
Allocating the one IPv4/IPv6 address to localhost of the WAN port, and arrange others to network segments in
WAN and/or DMZ if necessary. Opposite to routing-mode WAN links, ISP provides you a range of IP addresses of
a large-scale network for the bridge-mode WAN link, not a network subnet. These IP addresses can be deployed
in WAN and/or DMZ, and the corresponding static roue will be established as well, but it is just not a basic subnet
(in routing-mode, IP addresses of a WAN link in WAN and/or DMZ are treated as )
Bridge Mode: PPPoE
The username and password for PPPoE accessing.
IPv4/IPv6 basic subnet & IPv4/IPv6 static routing subnet
As previous description, FortiWAN need the static rout to find path for traffic among LAN, DMZ and near WAN.
When you configure a routing-mode WAN link or an IPv4/IPv6 dual stack link, settings of basic subnet and static
routing subnet are the route to FortiWAN for IPv4/IPv6 networks connecting to WAN ports and/or DMZ ports.
Routing mode and Bridge mode: multiple static IP
Routing mode and bridge mode (multiple static IP) deploy IP addresses in WAN and DMZ in different ways. The
following table lists the difference between the two modes for the WAN link deployments.
Form of given IPs and
netmask
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Routing mode
Bridge mode: Multiple static IP
An IP subnet (Number of IP
matches scale of the netmask)
A range of IPs (Number of IP is
less than scale of the netmask)
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Routing mode
Bridge mode: Multiple static IP
Gateway
Located on customer premises
Located on ISP's central office
Modem type
Functions as a router (the gateway)
Functions as a bridge
Deployment of near WAN
and/or DMZ
Supports
Supports
Static routing subnets in
near WAN and/or DMZ
Supports
Not supports
Configuration for near WAN
and/or DMZ
In Basic Subnet and Static Routing
Subnet
In Basic Setting
Start to configure a WAN link
To deploy a WAN link on FortiWAN, go to System > Network Setting and expand WAN Setting panel on the
Web UI. Configurations of all the WAN links start from a common setting block in the panel:
WAN Link
Select the WAN link that you are configuring to FortiWAN from the drop-down menu.
Depending on the model, FortiWAN supports up to 25 or 50 WAN links. All the WAN links
are numbered from 1 to 25 or 50, such as WAN link 1, WAN link 2, ... and WAN link 50.
Each number indicates a WAN link. The number is nothing about the WAN port that the
WAN link is installed to. For example, you can install WAN link 1 to WAN Port 3, or WAN
link 3 to WAN Port 1.
Number of WAN links that a FortiWAN supports is always more than its physical network
port. For example, FortiWAN 200B supports 25 WAN links, but 5 physical network ports
are provided only. You will need to create VLAN ports on FortiWAN's ports to install more
than 4 WAN links.
In configurations of most of FortiWAN's services, such as Auto Routing, Multihoming ,
Bandwidth Management, Virtual Server, NAT and etc., these WAN links appear as options
for associating policies and rules to a WAN link. They are also the options used to switch
among WAN links for statistics.
Enable
Check/uncheck to enable/disable the WAN link. Enabling/disabling of a WAN link does not
represent the connectivity status of the WAN link. Connectivity statuses of the enabled WAN
links will be listed in in WAN Link State panel on Web UI page System > Summary.
Note
Text descriptions for the WAN link. You can see the notes of the enabled WAN link in WAN
Link State panel on Web UI page System > Summary.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
WAN Type
The first step to start a WAN link configuration is deciding the WAN type (See "WAN types: Routing mode and
Bridge mode"). Configuration varies on [WAN Type] in [Basic Settings]. The [WAN Type] could be one of:
l
Routing Mode (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode")
l
Bridge Mode: One Static IP (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP")
l
Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP")
l
Bridge Mode: PPPoE (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Brideg Mode: PPPoE")
l
Bridge Mode: DHCP Client (See "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: DHCP")
See also
l
WAN link and WAN port
l
Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode
l
Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP
l
Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP
l
Configurations for a WAN link in Brideg Mode: PPPoE
l
Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: DHCP
Routing-mode WAN link
Configuration of a routing-mode WAN link starts from selecting and enabling the WAN link on Web UI (see Start
to configure a WAN link in Configuring your WAN and DMZ), and select Routing Mode from the WAN Type dropdown menu in Basic Setting panel. After that, you start configuring the following settings:
IPv4-based routing-mode WAN link
l
l
Basic setting and at least one IPv4 basic subnet are necessary.
IPv4 static routing subnet is for your option.
IPv4/IPv6 Dual-stack routing-mode WAN link
l
l
Basic setting, one IPv4 basic subnet and one IPv6 basic subnet are necessary.
IPv4/IPv6 static routing subnets are for your options.
Basic Setting
Besides the WAN Type, the rest setting fields of Basic Setting of a routing-mode WAN link are as followings:
WAN Port
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A FortiWAN's network port used to connect the WAN link with the FortiWAN (you
need to physically install the network cable to this port for the WAN link). All the
physical and VLAN ports that are mapped to WAN (see Aggregated, Redundant,
VLAN Ports and Port Mapping) are listed here for your options. The WAN link
field is unrelated to the WAN port. For example, you can install WAN link 1 to
WAN Port3, or WAN link 3 to WAN Port 1. (See WAN link and WAN port).
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Down/Up Stream
The WAN link's transfer speed at which you can download/upload data from/to
the Internet. Please input the value in Kbps, e.g. 10240Kbps/640Kbps.
FortiWAN Bandwidth Management's default inbound and outbound classes use
the two values actively to limit the download and upload rates on the WAN link
(see Bandwidth Management).
Down/Up Stream Threshold
Specify upstream/downstream (Kbps) threshold to the WAN link. WAN links
with traffic exceeding the thresholds will be considered as failed.
FortiWAN’s Auto Routing and Multihoming will ignore the WAN links failed
by exceeding traffic while distributing traffic over WAN links, if the
Threshold function is enabled in their load-balancing policies (See
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing) and Inbound Load
Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)).
Leave it blank or zero if you do not apply threshold to the WAN link.
MTU
(Maximum Transmission unit) refers to the size of the largest packet or frame
that a given layer of a communications protocol can pass onwards on the WAN
port. It allows dividing the packet into pieces, each small enough to pass over a
single link. It is set to 1500 by default.
IPv4 Gateway
IPv4 address of the default gateway of the WAN link. This field is mandatory.
IPv6 Gateway
IPv6 address of the default gateway of the WAN link. This field is optional.
Ignore it for IPv4-based links or configure it for IPv4/IPv6 dual stack links.
Static routing information
As mentioned previously, FortiWAN requires the correct routing information to deliver packets among the
connected near WAN, DMZ and LAN networks. Configurations of basic subnets and static routing subnets of a
WAN link are the routing information for the FortiWAN.
A routing-mode WAN link is attached with an IP network which should be deployed as a basic subnet to the WAN
link. Since localhost of the WAN port is a part of the subnet, at least one basic subnet is necessary for configuring
a routing-mode WAN link. For the reason, IP(s) on Localhost and Netmask fields of a routing-mode WAN link are
contained in configuration of Basic Subnet, rather than Basic Setting.
IPv4/IPv6 Basic Subnet
Basic subnets are the subnets connecting directly to FortiWAN. A DMZ must be associated with a WAN link,
therefore, basic subnet of a WAN link can be divided into four types according to combination of WAN and DMZ:
l
l
l
Subnet in WAN: A subnet deployed in WAN. This type requires at least one IP for localhost of the WAN port, and
the rest of the subnet can be used for hosts in WAN (near WAN).
Subnet in DMZ: A subnet deployed in DMZ. This type requires at least one IP for localhost of the DMZ port, and
the rest of the subnet can be used for hosts in DMZ.
Subnet in WAN and DMZ: A subnet deployed in two segments, WAN and DMZ. Proxy ARP combines the two
segments into a logic segment for the IP subnet (see ). Proxy ARP logically combines the specified WAN port and
DMZ port into a logical port. This type requires at least one IP for localhost of the WAN port, and the rest of the
subnet can be used for hosts in WAN (near WAN) and DMZ.
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Subnet on Localhost: A subnet deployed on the localhost of a WAN port (This is not supported for IPv6 basci
subnets). All the IP addresses of the subnet will be deployed on the WAN port.
A subnet in WAN and DMZ might be the most practical deployment for a routing-mode WAN link. If the ISP
provides only one network with your IPv4 WAN link (this is the most general case for a routing-mode link), you can
deploy it as any of the subnet types but a subnet in DMZ. Remember, at least one IP address must be assigned
to localhost of a WAN port for the IPv4 link, therefore, at least one subnet must be associated with the WAN port.
If you get more than one network from the ISP with the IPv4 link, you still have to deploy at least one of them as a
subnet in WAN, a subnet in WAN and DMZ or a subnet on localhost, but there is not limitation to the rest
networks. Briefly, if you are given only one network for the WAN link, you can not deploy it as a subnet in DMZ. As
for configuring a dual stack link, similarly, it requires at least one IPv4 network and one IPv6 network get deployed
individually as a subnet in WAN, a subnet in WAN and DMZ or a subnet on localhost. Next comes the
configuration of basic subnet for each type:
[IPv4/IPv6 Basic Subnet]: Subnet in WAN
Click the add button on the IPv4 Basic Subnet panel or IPv6 Basic Subnet panel to add a configuration, and select
Subnet in WAN from the Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest configuration fields to deploy a IPv4/IPv6
network as a subnet in WAN are as followings:
IP(s) on Localhost
The IP address(es) that you want to assign to localhost of the specified WAN
port (the WAN port that is specified in Basic Setting panel) for the WAN link. At
least one IP address is required here. You can type a range of IP addresses
here in format "IPstart-IPend" or click the add button to individually add more IP
addresses to the localhost.
Note that the rest IP addresses of the network that are not assigned to the
localhost here will be automatically considered as being located in WAN area.
Netmask/Prefix Length
Netmask/Prefix Length of the IPv4/IPv6 network that you are deploying to the WAN
link as a subnet in WAN.
This topology is frequently used for where cluster hosts being deployed in WAN.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
In the this diagram, we have a WAN link attached with a given network that netmask is 255.255.255.248,
gateway is 203.69.118.9 and the available IP addresses are 203.69.118.10 – 203.69.118.14. The WAN link is
connected to FortiWAN's Port2 (mapped to a WAN port) with IP address 203.69.118.10 being assigned to the
localhost. In this case, FortiWAN will consider that the rest IP addresses 203.69.118.11 – 203.69.118.14 are
located in the WAN area (actually, the near WAN) of the WAN link. The following is the configuration for this case:
Basic Setting
WAN Port
Port2
IPv4 Gateway
203.69.118.9
IPv4 Basic Subnet
Subnet Type
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IP(s) on localhost
203.69.118.10
Netmask
255.255.255.248
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuration of the settings implies a route to FortiWAN that any packet destined to 203.69.118.9 –
203.69.118.14 will be directly forwarded through this WAN port, without Auto Routing and Bandwidth
Management processes. In this case, subnet 203.69.118.8/29 (203.69.118.9 – 203.69.118.14) is the near WAN
of the link.
[IPv4/IPv6 Basic Subnet]: Subnet in DMZ
Click the add button on the IPv4 Basic Subnet panel or IPv6 Basic Subnet panel to add a configuration, and select
Subnet in DMZ from the Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest configuration fields are as followings:
IP(s) on Localhost
The IP address(es) of the IPv4/IPv6 network that you want to assign to
localhost of the specified DMZ port (the DMZ port that is specified below) of
the WAN link. At least one IP address is required here. You can type a range of
IP addresses here in format "IPstart-IPend" or click the add button to
individually add more IP addresses to the localhost.
Note that the rest IP addresses of the network that are not assigned to the
localhost here will be automatically considered as being located in DMZ area.
Netmask/Prefix Length
Netmask/Prefix Length of the IPv4/IPv6 network that is being deployed as a subnet
in DMZ and associated with the WAN link.
DMZ Port
A FortiWAN's network port used to connect a subnet of the WAN link with the
FortiWAN as a DMZ subnet (you need to physically install the network cable to this
port for the DMZ subnet). All the physical, logical and VLAN ports that are mapped
to DMZ (see Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping) are listed here
for your options.
Enable DHCP/DHCP
Relay/SLAAC/DHCPv6
Service
Click to enable automatic addressing on the specified DMZ port for hosts in the
connected IPv4/IPv6 DMZ subnet (see Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet for configuration details).
Note that only the IP addresses of the IPv4/IPv6 basic subnet defined here are
the candidates for related IP pools of automatic addressing.
This topology is frequently used for where a cluster of hosts being deployed in DMZ. The following example for a
subnet in DMZ is based on the above example that a WAN link with a subnet being deployed in WAN. Please click
the [+] button on IPv4/IPv6 Basic Subnet panel to add a subnet to the WAN link. Remember a subnet in DMZ
must coexist with a subnet in WAN, a subnet in WAN and DMZ or a subnet on localhost.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
As described in the topology, since the cluster of hosts are deployed in DMZ. FortiWAN port5 has to be mapped
to DMZ with IP address 140.112.8.9. Thus the hosts in the subnet take the default gateway as 140.112.8.9. In
this case, IP addresses 203.69.118.9 – 203.69.118.14 are treated as in near WAN, while IP addresses
140.112.8.9 – 140.112.8.14 in DMZ do not belong to near WAN. Check [Enable DHCP] if hosts in the subnet in
DMZ require DHCP service. And enter the starting and ending address in [DHCP Range]. If any host in the subnet
uses static IP address, then in [Static Mapping], enter its IP and MAC address. Similarly, if ISP provides another
LAN IPv6 subnet, you can deploy it in DMZ. The SLAAC and DHCPv6 in FortiWAN are designed to work together,
which SLAAC responses router advertisement (including default gateway and DNS server) to a host and DHCPv6
responses the host an appropriate IPv6 address. Note: FortiWAN assumes that IP addresses that are unlisted in
[IP(s) on Localhost] can be used for hosts in the subnet.
In the this diagram, we have another network that ISP provides to the WAN link, which the netmask is
255.255.255.248, gateway is 140.112.8.9 and the available IP addresses are 140.112.8.10 – 140.112.8.14. This
network is connected to FortiWAN's Port5 (mapped to a DMZ port) with IP address 203.69.118.10 being assigned
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to the localhost. In this case, FortiWAN will consider that the rest IP addresses 203.69.118.11 – 203.69.118.14
are located in the WAN area (actually, the near WAN) of the WAN link. The following is the configuration for this
case:
Basic Setting
WAN Port
Port2
IPv4 Gateway
203.69.118.9
IPv4 Basic Subnet 1
Subnet Type
Subnet in WAN
IP(s) on localhost
203.69.118.10
Netmask
255.255.255.248
IPv4 Basic Subnet 2
Subnet Type
Subnet in DMZ
IP(s) on localhost
140.112.8.9
Netmask
255.255.255.248
DMZ Port
Port5
For the details about DHCP, DHCP Relay, SLAAC and DHCPv6, see "Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet".
[IPv4/IPv6 Basic Subnet]: Subnet in WAN and DMZ
Click the add button on the IPv4 Basic Subnet panel or IPv6 Basic Subnet panel to add a configuration, and select
Subnet in WAN and DMZ from the Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest configuration fields are as
followings:
IP(s) on Localhost
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The IP address(es) of the IPv4/IPv6 network that you want to assign to
localhost of the specified WAN port (the WAN port that is specified in Basic
Setting panel) and DMZ port (the DMZ port that is specified below) of the WAN
link. The WAN port and DMZ port will be logically combined for Public IP Passthrough. At least one IP address is required here. You can type a range of IP
addresses here in format "IPstart-IPend" or click the add button to individually
add more IP addresses to the localhost.
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IP(s) in WAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
The IP address(es) of the IPv4/IPv6 network that you want to assign to the
WAN area (near WAN) of the WAN link. You can leave it blank, type one IP
address or a range of IP addresses (in format "IPstart-IPend" ) here. You can
also click the add button to individually add more IP addresses to the near
WAN.
Note that the rest IP address(es) of the network that are not assigned to the
localhost (above) and WAN (here) will be automatically considered as being
located in DMZ. Therefore, no matter how you deploy IP addresses in WAN
area, at least one IP address, IP address of gateway of the WAN link (what you
set in Basic Setting for IPv4 Gateway and/or IPv6 Gateway), must be
contained in this field.
Netmask/Prefix Length
Netmask/Prefix Length of the IPv4/IPv6 network that you are deploying to the WAN
link as a subnet in WAN.
DMZ Port
A FortiWAN's network port used to connect a part of the subnet to the WAN link as
segment in DMZ (you need to physically install the network cable to this port for the
DMZ subnet). All the physical, logical and VLAN ports that are mapped to DMZ (see
Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping) are listed here for your
options.
Enable DHCP/DHCP
Relay/SLAAC/DHCPv6
Service
Click to enable automatic addressing on the specified DMZ port for hosts in the
connected IPv4/IPv6 DMZ segment (see Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet for configuration details).
Note that only the IP addresses assigned to the DMZ part of the defined basic
subnet are the candidates for related IP pools of automatic addressing.
This topology is frequently found where a cluster of hosts in one subnet are deployed in both WAN side and DMZ
side.
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As described in the topology, port2 and port5 are connected in dotted line, indicating an IP range in the same
subnet 203.69.118.8/29 spreads across WAN (port2) and DMZ (port5). FortiWAN employs Proxy ARP to connect
those hosts becoming in the same network segment (See "Public IP pass through (DMZ Transparent Mode)").
Note that although IP address 203.69.118.9 has been configured as default gateway in Basic Setting table, you
are still required to add it in the field [IP(s) in WAN]. When you select [Subnet in WAN and DMZ] from [Subnet
Type], FortiWAN will assume the IP addresses that are unlisted in [IP(s) on Localhost] and [IP(s) in WAN] are all
in DMZ. Thus, in this example, except 203.69.118.10, 203.69.118.9 and 203.69.118.11-203.69.118.12, the rest
IP addresses of subnet 203.69.118.8/29 are assigned to DMZ for Public IP Pass-through. In this case, IP
addresses 203.69.118.9 – 203.69.118.12 in WAN side are treated as in near WAN, while IP addresses
203.69.118.13 – 203.69.118.14 in DMZ side do not belong to near WAN.
Check [Enable DHCP] if hosts in the subnet in DMZ require DHCP service. And enter the starting and ending
address in [DHCP Range]. If any host in the subnet uses static IP address, then in [Static Mapping], enter its IP
and MAC address. Similarly, the configuration to deploy an IPv6 public subnet in WAN and DMZ.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Basic Setting
WAN Port
Port2
IPv4 Gateway
203.69.118.9
IPv4 Basic Subnet
Subnet Type
Subnet in WAN and DMZ
IP(s) on localhost
203.69.118.10
IP(s) in WAN
203.69.118.11-203.69.118.12
Netmask
255.255.255.248
DMZ Port
Port5
For the details about DHCP, DHCP Relay, SLAAC and DHCPv6, see "Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet".
[IPv4/IPv6 Basic Subnet]: Subnet on Localhost
Click the add button on the IPv4 Basic Subnet panel (this subnet type is not supported for IPv6 basic subnets) to
add a configuration, and select Subnet on Localhost from the Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest
configuration fields are as followings:
Network IP
The network IP of the subnet that you want to assign to localhost of the
specified WAN port (the WAN port that is specified in Basic Setting panel).
Netmask
Netmask of the IPv4 subnet that you are deploying to the WAN link as a subnet
on localhost.
This topology is found where subnet is designated on FortiWAN to better use Virtual Server.
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This deployment is much simpler than other subnet types. Except the gateway, all the IP addresses of the subnet
are assigned to the WAN port of the WAN link; there is no IP addresses available for deployment in WAN and/or
DMZ areas. All of the IP addresses will indicate the associated WAN link to services NAT, Multihoming and
Virtual Server. For this example, the configuration just requires 203.69.118.8 and 255.255.255.248 being entered
in [Network IP] and [Netmask] respectively.
Basic Setting
WAN Port
Port2
IPv4 Gateway
203.69.118.9
IPv4 Basic Subnet
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Subnet Type
Subnet on Localhost
Network IP
203.69.118.8
Netmask
255.255.255.248
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Note that, for all of the subnet types described above, the IP addresses (IPv4 or IPv6) specified to field [IP(s) on
Localhost] can be used for NAT to transfer the source IP address of packets to. The first IP address on the list of
[IP(s) on Localhost] will be used for the NAT default rules of the WAN link. System generates NAT default rules
automatically for a WAN link so that a host with private IP address in LAN can access Internet without setting
NAT rules manually. For FortiWAN V4.0.x, system does not generate NAT default rules for IPv6 WAN
links, setting NAT rules manually is required (See "NAT").
IPv4/IPv6 Static Routing Subnets
A WAN link's static routing subnets are the subnets connected to the WAN link's basic subnets via routers or L3
switches. The same as those basic subnets, FortiWAN needs the corresponding static route (dynamic routing
protocols are not supported for WAN links' networks), so that FortiWAN can find the path to forward packets to the
static routing subnets. Configuring a static routing subnet to a WAN link here implies adding the routing
information to FortiWAN. A routing-mode WAN link supports both IPv4 and IPv6 static routing subnets for pure
IPv4-based WAN link and IPv4/IPv6 dual stack WAN link. According to the area a subnet deployed in, the static
routing subnets of a WAN link are divided into:
l
l
Subnet in WAN: A static routing subnet deployed in WAN, connected to a basic subnet in WAN or basic subnet in
WAN and DMZ.
Subnet in DMZ: A static routing subnet deployed in DMZ, connected to a basic subnet in DMZ or basic subnet in
WAN and DMZ.
Next comes a few examples to further illustrate configurations in [Basic Subnet] and [Static Routing Subnet].
[IPv4/IPv6 Static Routing Subnet]: Subnet in WAN
Click the add button on the IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel or IPv6 Static Routing Subnet panel to add a
configuration, and select Subnet in WAN from the Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest configuration fields
are as followings:
Network IP
The network IP of the IPv4 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in (near)
WAN area of the WAN link. This field is in IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel.
Netmask
Netmask of the IPv4 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in (near) WAN
area of the WAN link. This field is in IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel.
Subnet
The IPv6 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in (near) WAN area of the
WAN link in format such as 2000::123f:0:0:1/32. This field is in IPv6 Static Routing
Subnet panel.
Gateway
IPv4/IPv6 address of the gateway (router) connecting a basic subnet with the static
routing subnet. This IP address is the path that FortiWAN uses to forward packets
destined to the static routing subnet to. This field is in both IPv4 and IPv6 Static
Routing Subnet panels.
Proxy ARP
Check to enable Proxy ARP on FortiWAN for the static routing subnet; FortiWAN will
answer the ARP queries for a network address that is in the static routing subnet. This
field is in IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel.
This topology is rarely seen in actual network where static routing subnet is located on the WAN. In other words,
the subnet in WAN does not connect to FortiWAN directly, but needs a router instead to transfer packets. In this
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example, a subnet 202.3.1.8/29 located on the WAN connects to the basic subnet 203.69.118.8/29 via a router
(202.3.1.9 and 203.69.118.10). Subnet 202.3.1.8/29 is so that a static routing subnet of the WAN link.
Configuration of the static routing subnet indicates the route to FortiWAN for packets destined to subnet
202.3.1.8/29.
As described in the UI, FortiWAN transfers packets to the gateway 203.69.118.10 to deliver them to subnet
202.3.1.8/255.255.255.248.
Basic Setting
WAN Port
Port2
IPv4 Gateway
203.69.118.9
IPv4 Basic Subnet
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Subnet Type
Subnet in WAN
IP(s) on localhost
203.69.118.10
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Netmask
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
255.255.255.248
IPv4 Static Routing Subnet
Subnet Type
Subnet in WAN
Network IP
202.3.1.8
Netmask
255.255.255.248
Gateway
203.69.118.10
[IPv4/IPv6 Static Routing Subnet]: Subnet in DMZ
Click the add button on the IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel or IPv6 Static Routing Subnet panel to add a
configuration, and select Subnet in DMZ from the Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest configuration fields
are as followings:
Network IP
The network IP of the IPv4 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in DMZ
area of the WAN link. This field is in IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel.
Netmask
Netmask of the IPv4 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in DMZ area
of the WAN link. This field is in IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel.
Subnet
The IPv6 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in DMZ area of the WAN link in
format such as 2000::123f:0:0:1/32. This field is in IPv6 Static Routing Subnet panel.
Gateway
IPv4/IPv6 address of the gateway (router) connecting a basic subnet with the static
routing subnet. This IP address is the path that FortiWAN uses to forward packets
destined to the static routing subnet to. This field is in both IPv4 and IPv6 Static
Routing Subnet panels.
Proxy ARP
Check to enable Proxy ARP on FortiWAN for the static routing subnet; FortiWAN will
answer the ARP queries for a network address that is in the static routing subnet. This
field is in IPv4 Static Routing Subnet panel.
This topology is very similar with the Static Routing Subnet: Subnet in WAN in last example. The only difference
is, the subnet is in DMZ area.
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As described in the UI, FortiWAN transfers packets to the gateway 203.69.118.14 to deliver them to subnet
139.3.1.8/255.255.255.248
Basic Setting
WAN Port
Port2
IPv4 Gateway
203.69.118.9
IPv4 Basic Subnet
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Subnet Type
Subnet in WAN and DMZ
IP(s) on localhost
203.69.118.10
IP(s) in WAN
203.69.118.11-203.69.118.13
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Netmask
255.255.255.248
DMZ Port
Port5
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
IPv4 Static Routing Subnet
Subnet Type
Subnet in WAN
Network IP
202.3.1.8
Netmask
255.255.255.248
Gateway
203.69.118.14
See also
l
WAN link and WAN port
l
VLAN and port mapping
l
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
l
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
l
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
l
Scenarios to deploy subnets
l
Public IP pass through (DMZ Transparent Mode)
l
IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
Bridge-mode (multiple static IP) WAN link
Configuration of a multiple-static-IP bridge-mode WAN link starts from selecting and enabling the WAN link on
Web UI (see Start to configure a WAN link in Configuring your WAN and DMZ), and select Bridge Mode: Multiple
Static IP from the WAN Type drop-down menu in Basic Setting panel. After that, you start configuring the
following settings:
IPv4-based bridge-mode WAN link
l
Only Basic setting is necessary.
l
IPv4 basic subnets and IPv4 static routing subnets are not supported here.
IPv4/IPv6 Dual-stack bridge-mode WAN link
l
l
Only Basic setting is necessary.
IPv4 basic subnets and IPv4 static routing subnets are not supported here; IPv6 basic subnets and IPv6 static
routing subnets are optional.
Different from routing mode, configuration of static routing is contained in Basic Setting for a bridge-mode WAN
link. Similar to routing mode, FortiWAN uses ProxyARP to combine the WAN area and DMZ area as one logical
network segment.
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Basic Setting
Besides the WAN Type, the rest setting fields of Basic Setting of a multiple-static-IP bridge-mode WAN link are as
followings:
WAN Port
A FortiWAN's network port used to connect the WAN link with the FortiWAN (you
need to physically install the network cable to this port for the WAN link). All the
physical and VLAN ports that are mapped to WAN (see Aggregated, Redundant,
VLAN Ports and Port Mapping) are listed here for your options. The WAN link
field is unrelated to the WAN port. For example, you can install WAN link 1 to
WAN Port3, or WAN link 3 to WAN Port 1. (See WAN link and WAN port).
Up/Down Stream
The WAN link's transfer speed at which you can download/upload data from/to
the Internet. Please input the value in Kbps, e.g. 10240Kbps/640Kbps. FortiWAN
Bandwidth Management's default inbound and outbound classes use the two
values actively to limit the download and upload rates on the WAN link (see
Bandwidth Management).
Up/Down Stream Threshold
Specify upstream/downstream (Kbps) threshold to the WAN link. WAN links
with traffic exceeding the thresholds will be considered as failed.
FortiWAN’s Auto Routing and Multihoming will ignore the WAN links failed
by exceeding traffic while distributing traffic over WAN links, if the Threshold
function is enabled in their load-balancing policies (See Outbound Load
Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing) and Inbound Load Balancing and
Failover (Multihoming)).
Leave it blank or zero if you do not apply threshold to the WAN link.
MTU
(Maximum Transmission unit) refers to the size of the largest packet or frame
that a given layer of a communications protocol can pass onwards on the WAN
port. It allows dividing the packet into pieces, each small enough to pass over a
single link. It is set to 1500 by default.
IPv4 IP(s) on Localhost
The IPv4 addresses that are deployed on localhost (See "Scenarios to deploy
subnets"). IP addresses specified here can be used for NAT to transfer the source
IP address of packets to. The first IP address listed here will be used to generate
the NAT default rules of the WAN link (See "NAT").
IPv4 IP(s) in WAN
The IPv4 addresses that are deployed in WAN.
IPv4 IP(s) in DMZ
The IPv4 addresses that are deployed in DMZ.
Different from configuration of Routing mode's basic subnets, it requires exactly specifying IPs to fields IP(s) in WAN
and IP(s) in DMZ for a Bridge mode WAN link if you want to deploy those IP addresses in the WAN and DMZ areas.
FortiWAN would not automatically classifies the rest IPs of a subnet as IPs in WAN or IPs in DMZ for bridge-mode
WAN links (FortiWAN does it for a routing-mode WAN link), since the bridge mode is supposed to work with certain
IPs of a large-scale network (see WAN types: Routing mode and Bridge mode) and FortiWAN is not aware of what
the IPs are that an ISP provides you for the WAN link (the remaining IPs of the large-scale subnet are not valid to be
deployed in your network).
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IPv4 Netmask
The IPv4 netmask that ISP provides.
IPv4 Gateway
The IPv4 address of the default gateway.
IPv6 IP(s) on Localhost
The IPv6 addresses that are deployed on localhost (See "Scenarios to deploy
subnets"). IP addresses specified here can be used for NAT to transfer the source
IP address of packets to. The first IP address listed here will be used to generate
the NAT default rules of the WAN link. For FortiWAN V4.0.x, system does
not generate NAT default rules for IPv6 WAN links, setting NAT rules
manually is required (See "NAT").
IPv6 IP(s) in WAN
The IPv6 addresses that are deployed in WAN.
IPv6 IP(s) in DMZ
The IPv6 addresses that are deployed in DMZ.
IPv6 Prefix
The IPv6 prefix that ISP provides.
IPv6 Gateway
The IPv6 address of the default gateway.
Subnet
The IPv6 subnet deployed on the WAN link.
DMZ Port
The network port of FortiWAN used to connect the DMZ area. All the physical
and logical ports that are mapped to DMZ (see Configurations for VLAN and Port
Mapping) are listed here for options. Hosts deployed in the DMZ are required to
connected to this port. Public IP pass-through (see Public IP Pass-through) is
supported to combine the selected WAN port and DMZ port.
Enable DHCP/DHCP
Relay/SLAAC/DHCPv6
Service
Click to enable automatic addressing on the specified DMZ port for hosts in
the connected IPv4/IPv6 DMZ segment (see Automatic addressing within a
basic subnet for configuration details).
Note that only the IP addresses defined in fields IPv4 IP(s) in DMZ and
IPv6 IP(s) in DMZ are the candidates for related IP pools of automatic
addressing.
The SLAAC and DHCPv6 in FortiWAN are designed to work together, which the SLAAC responses router
advertisement (including default gateway and DNS server) to a host and DHCPv6 responses the host an
appropriate IPv6 address.
This topology can be seen where a group of valid IP addresses ranging 211.21.40.32~211.21.40.34 have been
given by ISP and assigned to port1 on FortiWAN. And their default gateway is 211.21.40.254 given by ISP as
well. If there are other hosts deployed on the WAN, then configure their IP addresses in [IP(s) in WAN]. And if
there are hosts deployed on the DMZ, then configure their IP addresses in [IP(s) in DMZ].
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Basic Setting
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WAN Port
Port1
IPv4 IP(s) on Localhost
211.21.40.32
IPv4 IP(s) in WAN
211.21.40.33
IPv4 IP(s) in DMZ
211.21.40.34
IPv4 Netmask
255.255.255.0
IPv4 Gateway
211.21.40.254
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DMZ Port
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Port5
Static routing information
FortiWAN assumes that the near WAN and DMZ areas of a bridge-mode WAN link (both of IPv4-based and dualstack) are parts of a large-scale network, not a complete network, with the exception of extra IPv6 subnets being
available for dual-stack WAN links. Static routing information is set to FortiWAN by assigning individual IP in
Basic Setting, rather than specifying a network in Basic Subnet. FortiWAN's bridge-mode accepts complete IPv6
networks to be deployed to the DMZ. In case that ISP provides multiple IPv6 subnets for a dual-stack
connectivity, it is an option for you to use. Configurations of IPv6 basic subnets and IPv6 static routing subnets
are so that the routing information for the FortiWAN.
[IPv6 Basic Subnet]: Subnet in DMZ
This is the only type that FortiWAN provides for basic subnets of a bridge-mode WAN link. Click the add button on
the IPv6 Basic Subnet panel to add a configuration, and select Subnet in DMZ from the Subnet Type drop-down
menu. The rest configuration fields are as followings:
IP(s) on Localhost
The IP address(es) of the IPv6 network that you want to assign to localhost of
the specified DMZ port (the DMZ port that is specified below) of the WAN link.
At least one IP address is required here. You can type a range of IP addresses
here in format "IPstart-IPend" or click the add button to individually add more IP
addresses to the localhost.
Note that the rest IP addresses of the network that are not assigned to the
localhost here will be automatically considered as being located in DMZ area.
Prefix Length
Prefix Length of the IPv6 network that is being deployed as a subnet in DMZ and
associated with the WAN link.
DMZ Port
A FortiWAN's network port used to connect a subnet of the WAN link with the
FortiWAN as a DMZ subnet (you need to physically install the network cable to this
port for the DMZ subnet). All the physical, logical and VLAN ports that are mapped to
DMZ (see Aggregated, Redundant, VLAN Ports and Port Mapping) are listed here for
your options.
Enable SLAAC/DHCPv6
Service
Click to enable automatic addressing on the specified DMZ port for hosts in the
connected IPv6 DMZ subnet (see Automatic addressing within a basic subnet
for configuration details).
Note that only the IP addresses of the IPv6 basic subnet defined here are the
candidates for related IP pools of automatic addressing.
[IPv6 Static Routing Subnet]: Subnet in DMZ
This is the only type that FortiWAN provides for static routing subnets of a bridge-mode WAN link. Click the add
button on the IPv6 Static Routing Subnet panel to add a configuration, and select Subnet in DMZ from the
Subnet Type drop-down menu. The rest configuration fields are as followings:
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Subnet
The IPv6 static routing subnet that you want to deploy in DMZ area of the WAN link in
format such as 2000::123f:0:0:1/32.
Gateway
IPv6 address of the gateway (router) connecting a basic subnet with the static routing
subnet. This IP address is the path that FortiWAN uses to forward packets destined
to the static routing subnet to.
See also
l
WAN link and WAN port
l
VLAN and port mapping
l
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
l
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
l
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
l
Scenarios to deploy subnets
l
Public IP pass through (DMZ Transparent Mode)
l
IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
Bridge-mode (one static IP) WAN link
Configuration of a one-static-IP bridge-mode WAN link starts from selecting and enabling the WAN link on Web
UI (see Start to configure a WAN link in Configuring your WAN and DMZ), and select Bridge Mode: One Static IP
from the WAN Type drop-down menu in Basic Setting panel. After that, you start configuring the following
settings:
IPv4-based bridge-mode WAN link
l
Only Basic setting is necessary.
l
IPv4 basic subnets and IPv4 static routing subnets are not supported here.
IPv4/IPv6 Dual-stack bridge-mode WAN link
l
l
Only Basic setting is necessary.
IPv4 basic subnets and IPv4 static routing subnets are not supported here; IPv6 basic subnets and IPv6 static
routing subnets are optional.
Different from routing mode, configuration of static routing is contained in Basic Setting for a bridge-mode WAN
link.
Basic Setting
Besides the WAN Type, the rest setting fields of Basic Setting of a one-static-IP bridge-mode WAN link are as
followings:
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
WAN Port
A FortiWAN's network port used to connect the WAN link with the FortiWAN (you
need to physically install the network cable to this port for the WAN link). All the
physical and VLAN ports that are mapped to WAN (see Aggregated, Redundant,
VLAN Ports and Port Mapping) are listed here for your options. The WAN link field
is unrelated to the WAN port. For example, you can install WAN link 1 to WAN
Port3, or WAN link 3 to WAN Port 1. (See WAN link and WAN port).
Up/Down Stream
The WAN link's transfer speed at which you can download/upload data from/to the
Internet. Please input the value in Kbps, e.g. 10240Kbps/640Kbps. FortiWAN
Bandwidth Management's default inbound and outbound classes use the two
values actively to limit the download and upload rates on the WAN link (see
Bandwidth Management).
Up/Down Stream Threshold
Specify upstream/downstream (Kbps) threshold to the WAN link. WAN links
with traffic exceeding the thresholds will be considered as failed.
FortiWAN’s Auto Routing and Multihoming will ignore the WAN links failed by
exceeding traffic while distributing traffic over WAN links, if the Threshold
function is enabled in their load-balancing policies (See Outbound Load
Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing) and Inbound Load Balancing and
Failover (Multihoming)).
Leave it blank or zero if you do not apply threshold to the WAN link.
MTU
(Maximum Transmission unit) refers to the size of the largest packet or frame that
a given layer of a communications protocol can pass onwards on the WAN port. It
allows dividing the packet into pieces, each small enough to pass over a single
link. It is set to 1500 by default.
IPv4 Localhost IP
The IPv4 address that ISP provides (See "Scenarios to deploy subnets"). IP
addresses specified here can be used for NAT to transfer the source IP address of
packets to, and will be used to generate the NAT default rules of the WAN link
(See "NAT").
IPv4 Netmask
The IPv4 netmask that ISP provides.
IPv4 Gateway
The IPv4 address of the default gateway.
IPv6 Localhost IP
The IPv6 address that ISP provides (See "Scenarios to deploy subnets"). IP
addresses specified here can be used for NAT to transfer the source IP address of
packets to, and will be used to generate the NAT default rules of the WAN link.
For FortiWAN V4.0.x, system does not generate NAT default rules for
IPv6 WAN links, setting NAT rules manually is required (See "NAT").
IPv6 Prefix
The IPv6 prefix that ISP provides.
IPv6 Gateway
The IPv6 address of the default gateway.
[Bridge Mode: One Static IP] is used when ISP gives one static IPv4 address to a user. Usually, the IPv4 address
a user obtained is one IP address of a C class IPv4 network; it is indicated by the netmask 255.255.255.0. The
default gateway that ISP assigned is located at ISP’s network, while the ATU-R works in bridge mode.
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FortiWAN’s Bridge Mode: One Static IP is suggested to apply for this case. IPv6/IPv4 dual static is supported for
FortiWAN’s Bridge Mode: One Static IP. In the dual static similar as previous case, ISP might provide you a WAN
IPv6 subnet and a LAN IPv6 subnet. You can deploy the LAN IPv6 subnet as a basic subnet in DMZ. Although the
deployment is under FortiWAN’s Bridge Mode, FortiWAN routes packets between WAN and DMZ for the IPv6
subnets. Basic subnets are not supported for IPv4 network deployed in Bridge Mode. The following topology is
widely seen where a user gets one static IP from ISP.
See also
l
WAN link and WAN port
l
VLAN and port mapping
l
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
l
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
l
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
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l
Scenarios to deploy subnets
l
IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configurations for a WAN link in Brideg Mode: PPPoE
[Bridge Mode: PPPoE] is used for PPPoE WAN link (ISP provides dynamic or static IP addresses via PPPoE). In
[Basic Settings], you shall configure upstream and downstream, user name, password and service name given by
ISP. Left [IP Address] blank if you are assigned an dynamic IP address; otherwise, enter your static IP address.
Select an FortiWAN WAN port to which PPPoE ADSL Modem is connected, e.g. port1. Checks [Redial Enable] to
enable redial. As some ISPs automatically reconnect to the network within a certain time interval, [Redial Enable]
will avoid simultaneous redialing of WAN links, which properly staggers WAN redial time. In case of connecting
several DHCP/PPPoE WAN links to the same ISP, the connections might fail if they are deployed on the same
physical WAN port via VLAN because the same MAC address. Via [Clone MAC Enable] you can configure MAC
address clone on FortiWAN for this deployment.
Basic Setting
WAN Port
The physical port (network interface) on FortiWAN used to connect the WAN link.
For the deployment of multiple WAN links on one WAN port, set this field with the
same value for those WAN links. For example, select Port1 for configurations of
WAN link1, WAN link2 and WAN link3 for deploying the three WAN links on WAN
port1. Note: The port has to be mapped to [WAN] beforehand in [VLAN and Port
Mapping] (See "WAN link and WAN port", "VLAN and port mapping" and
"Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping").
Up/Down Stream
The WAN link's transfer speed at which you can upload/download data to/from the
Internet e.g. 512Kbps.
Up/Down Stream Threshold
Specify upstream/downstream (Kbps) threshold for the WAN link. WAN link with
traffic that exceeds the threshold values will be considered as failed. FortiWAN’s
Auto Routing and Multihoming (See "Outbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Auto Routing)" and "Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)") use
the value while balancing traffic between WAN links if the Threshold function is
enabled. Leave it blank or zero if you do not apply threshold to the WAN link.
MTU
(Maximum Transmission unit) refers to the size of the largest packet or frame that
a given layer of a communications protocol can pass onwards. It allows dividing
the packet into pieces, each small enough to pass over a single link.
User Name
Fill in the Username provided by ISP.
Password
Fill in Password provided by ISP.
Service Name
Fill in service name provided by ISP. Left it blank if ISPs do not require it.
IPv4 Address
Fill in the IPv4 address provided by ISP. Left it blank if ISPs do not require it.
IPv6 Enable
Check to enable IPv6 over PPPoE.
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Redial Enable
Since some ISPs tend to turn off PPPoE connection at a certain schedule,
FortiWAN will automatically re-establish every disconnected PPPoE link when
detected. In order to prevent simultaneous re-connection of multiple links,
different re-connection schedules can be configured for different WAN links to
avoid conjunction. After reconnection schedule is configured (HH:MM), the
system will perform PPPoE reconnection as scheduled daily.
Clone MAC Enable
Configure MAC address clone.
See also
l
WAN link and WAN port
l
VLAN and port mapping
l
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
l
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
l
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: DHCP
[Bridge Mode: DHCP Client] is used when FortiWAN WAN port gets a dynamic IP address from DHCP host. IPv6
is not supported in this WAN type.
Basic Setting
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WAN Port
The physical port (network interface) on FortiWAN used to connect the WAN link.
For the deployment of multiple WAN links on one WAN port, set this field with the
same value for those WAN links. For example, select Port1 for configurations of
WAN link1, WAN link2 and WAN link3 for deploying the three WAN links on WAN
port1. Note: The port has to be mapped to [WAN] beforehand in [VLAN and Port
Mapping]. (See "WAN link and WAN port", "VLAN and port mapping" and
"Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping")
Up/Down Stream
The WAN link's transfer speed at which you can upload/download data to/from the
Internet e.g. 512Kbps
Up/Down Stream Threshold
Specify upstream/downstream (Kbps) threshold for the WAN link. WAN link with
traffic that exceeds the threshold values will be considered as failed. FortiWAN’s
Auto Routing and Multihoming (See "Outbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Auto Routing)" and "Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)") use
the value while balancing traffic between WAN links if the Threshold function is
enabled. Leave it blank or zero if you do not apply threshold to the WAN link.
MTU
(Maximum Transmission unit) refers to the size of the largest packet or frame that
a given layer of a communications protocol can pass onwards. It allows dividing
the packet into pieces, each small enough to pass over a single link.
Clone MAC Enable
Configure MAC address clone.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
See also
l
WAN link and WAN port
l
VLAN and port mapping
l
Configurations for VLAN and Port Mapping
l
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
l
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
LAN Private Subnet
[LAN Private Subnet] is the second most important part for deploying FortiWAN in your network. In contrast with
configurations on WAN Settings to active the WAN link transmission from FortiWAN to Internet (external
network), LAN Private Subnet is the configuration for deploying the internal network on FortiWAN’s LAN ports.
There are two parts for setting LAN private subnet: Basic Subnet and Static Routing Subnet, which
respectively are the subnets connected directly to FortiWAN’s LAN ports and the subnets connected indirectly to
FortiWAN via a router. (See "Scenarios to deploy subnets")
Basic Subnet
Here is a simple example to demonstrate a configuration for the basic subnet in the typical LAN environment.
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As the illustration, FortiWAN port3 has been mapped to LAN port via [System / Network Setting / VLAN and Port
Mapping] (See "VLAN and Port Mapping"), and is assigned with private IP 192.168.34.254. Enter this IP address
in the field [IP(s) on Localhost]. For hosts in LAN, port3 (192.168.34.254) serves as gateway as well. Enter the
netmask (255.255.255.0) for the subnet in the field [Netmask]. Select the LAN port.
IPv4 Basic Subnet
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IP(s) on Localhost
192.168.34.254
Netmask
255.255.255.0
LAN Port
Port3
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Check the field in [Enable DHCP], to allocate IP address (any of 192.168.34.175~192.168.34.199) dynamically
via DHCP to PCs in LAN. If any host in LAN requires static IP addresses, then enter in [Static Mapping] the IP
addresses to designate, and MAC addresses of the PCs as well. Check the field in [NAT Subnet for VS], which is
an optional choice. When users in LAN or DMZ access the WAN IP of virtual server, their packets may bypass
FortiWAN and flow to internal server directly. This function can translate the source IP address of the users'
packets into IP address of FortiWAN, to ensure the packets flow through FortiWAN. If no check is made, the
system will determine which IP address it may translate into by itself. Similarly, to deploy an IPv6 private LAN on
FortiWAN port4 which has been mapped to LAN port, with IPv6 address 2001:a:b:cd08::1 served as gateway for
PCs in LAN. Check the field in [Enable SLAAC] or [Enable DHCPv6 Service] to allocate IP addresses dynamically
to PCs in LAN. [NAT Subnet for VS] is not supported in IPv6 private LAN. The SLAAC and DHCPv6 in FortiWAN
are designed to work together, which the SLAAC responses router advertisement (including default gateway and
DNS server) to a host and DHCPv6 responses the host an appropriate IPv6 address.
For the details about DHCP, DHCP Relay, SLAAC and DHCPv6, see "Automatic addressing within a basic
subnet".
Static Routing Subnet
[Static Routing Subnet] is useful when in LAN a router .is used to cut out a separate subnet which does not
connect to FortiWAN directly. The topology is similar to [Static Routing Subnet: Subnet in DMZ] mentioned
previously, and the only difference is this example is set in LAN rather than in DMZ. In this topology below, a
subnet 192.168.99.x is located in the LAN and connects to router 192.168.34.50, while another subnet
192.168.34.x is located on the LAN port as well, but connects to FortiWAN directly. The configurations here
indicate how FortiWAN to route packets to subnet 192.168.99.x.
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IPv4 Static Routing Subnet
Network IP
192.168.99.0
Netmask
255.255.255.0
Gateway
192.168.34.50
RIP
FortiWAN supports the Routing Information Protocol (RIP v1, v2), RIP employs hot count as the metric, and uses
timer broadcast to update the router. As RIP features configuration simplicity and operation convenience, it has
been widely used across all fields. RIP version 1 (v1)1 was designed to suit the dynamic routing needs of LAN
technology-based IP internetworks, and to address some problems associated with RIP v1, a refined RIP, RIP
version 2 (v2) was defined. RIP v2 supports sending RIP announcements to the IP multicast address and
supports the use of authentication mechanisms to verify the origin of incoming RIP announcements.
Check the field in [RIP] if you have enabled RIP on your private subnet router. Check the field in [RIP v1] if you
have enabled RIP v1 on your private subnet router behind FortiWAN. Thus, FortiWAN can forward packets from
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
the RIP v1-enabled private subnet. Otherwise, check the field in [RIP v2] if you have enabled RIP v2 on your
private subnet router. Thus, FortiWAN can forward RIP v2 packets. Moreover, if you have enabled RIP v2
authentication, type the password in [Password]. Otherwise, keep [Password] blank.
OSPF
Apart from RIP, FortiWAN also supports OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), to assign LAN port router with given
preference. Like RIP, OSPF is designated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as one of several
Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs). Rather than simply counting the number of hops, OSPF bases its path
descriptions on "link states" that take into account additional network information. Using OSPF, a host that
obtains a change to a routing table or detects a change in the network immediately multicasts the information to
all other hosts in the network so that all will have the same routing table information.
OSPF Interface
Displays the LAN port in the network. Check the box to enable OSPF over the
port.
Area Setting
Network is logically divided into a number of areas based on subnets.
Administrators can configure area ID, which accepts numbers or IPs only.
Authentication Setting
Routers in different areas require authentication to communicate with each other.
Authentication types: Null, Simple Text Password, MD5.
Router Priority
Set router priority. Router that sends the highest OSPF priority becomes DR
(Designated Router). The value of the OSPF Router Priority can be a number
between 0 and 255.
Hello Interval
Set the interval, in seconds, to instruct the router to send out OSPF keepalive
packets to inform the other routers.
Dead Interval
Set the length of time, in seconds, that OSPF neighbors will wait without
receiving an OSPF keepalive packet from a neighbor before declaring the
neighbor router is down.
Retransmit Interval
Set the interval, in seconds, between retransmissions of Link ups. When routers
fail to transmit hello packets, it will retransmit packets in the defined interval.
Authentication Type
This specifies whether the router will perform authentication of data passing the
LAN. Choices are: Null, Simple Text Password, MD5.
FortiWAN provides statistics for the RIP & OSPF service, see "RIP & OSPF Status".
VRRP
VRRP is a Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol that runs on a LAN port. A system can switch between VRRP or
HA mode; when switched, the system will reboot first for changes to take effect. When VRRP mode is enabled,
the HA mode will be automatically disabled, and also a VRID field will appear available for input in [VLAN and
Port Mapping] setting page (See "VLAN and Port Mapping"). In general, VRRP is faster in detecting the master
unit compared to HA mode. Although FortiWAN's VRRP implementation is based on VRRP version 3, some
restrictions may apply:
l
Always in non-preempt mode.
l
Always in non-accept mode.
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l
IPv6 is not supported.
l
Active-active mode is not supported.
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
When FortiWAN switches to master mode, it automatically starts WAN link health detection. When it switches to
backup mode, it automatically stops WAN link health detection and sets WAN status to "failed".
In addition, DHCP servers in LAN and DMZ should let clients use FortiWAN virtual IP and the default gateway (as
FortiWAN's DHCP service does). If RIP and OSPF is used in LAN, FortiWAN uses real IP at OSPF and virtual IP
at RIP to exchange route information. Clone-MAC settings will be ignored if VRRP function is enabled. FortiWAN
doesn't exchange NAT table with VRRP peers. When VRRP master changes, existing connection might break.
Local Priority
The priority field specifies the sending VRRP router's priority for the virtual router.
Select a number from 1 to 254 as the priority for the VR.
Advertisement Interval
Set the time interval in centi-seconds between advertisements. (Default is 100)
Virtual address
Enter a virtual IP address for the virtual router.
Double-check Link
Click the checkbox to enable. When enabled, the backup router will check
whether the master is responding ARP on the specified WAN port.
See also
l
Scenarios to deploy subnets
l
VLAN and Port Mapping
l
Summary
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RIP & OSPF Status
WAN/DMZ Private Subnet
After having gone through public subnet configurations, let's move to private subnet settings. This section lists a
few typical topology structures for private subnet. Similarly, FortiWAN supports two different types of private
subnet according to the deployment, direct or indirect connecting to FortiWAN.The two settings are configured
from [Basic Subnet] and [Static Routing Subnet]. FortiWAN supports both IPv4 and IPv6 for the two private
subnet types.
On its UI, [IPv4 Basic Subnet] and [IPv6 Basic Subnet] could be one of:
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Subnet in DMZ
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Subnet in WAN and DMZ
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Subnet on Localhost (Not support in [IPv6 Basci Subnet])
And [IPv4 Static Routing Subnet] and [IPv6 Static Routing Subnet] could be one of:
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Subnet in DMZ
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
[Basic Subnet]: Subnet in WAN
This topology is frequently found where cluster hosts in the IPv4 private subnet are located on the WAN. In this
example, FortiWAN port2 has been mapped to WAN port, with IP 192.168.3.1. Select [Subnet in WAN] from
[Subnet Type] in [Basic Subnet]. Then enter 192.168.3.1 in [IP(s) on Localhost] and the netmask offered by ISP
in [Netmask].
Note: FortiWAN assumes that IP addresses that are unlisted in [IP(s) on Localhost] are all in WAN.
[Basic Subnet]: Subnet in DMZ
This topology is frequently found where cluster hosts in IPv4 private subnet are located on the DMZ. In this
example, FortiWAN port5 has been mapped to DMZ port, with private IP 192.168.4.254. And subnet 192.168.4.X
is located on the DMZ as a whole. From UI, select [Subnet in DMZ] from [Subnet Type] in [Basic Subnet].
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Check [Enable DHCP] if hosts in the subnet in DMZ require DHCP service. And enter the starting and ending
address in [DHCP Range]. If any host in the subnet uses static IP address, then in [Static Mapping], enter its IP
and MAC address. Note: FortiWAN assumes IP addresses that are unlisted in [IP(s) on Localhost] are all in DMZ.
Thus there is no need to configure them.
[Basic Subnet]: Subnet in WAN and DMZ
This topology is found where cluster hosts in IPv4 private subnet are located in both WAN and DMZ. FortiWAN
hereby assumes IP addresses that are unlisted in [IP(s) on Localhost] and [IP(s) in WAN] are all in the DMZ. Port2
and port5 are connected in dotted line, indicating the subnet spreads across WAN (port2) and DMZ (port5).
FortiWAN employs Proxy ARP to connet the whole subnet togther. In this example, more than one IP addresses
are needed for FortiWAN in bridging. These IP addresses therefore have to be on the same network segment.
Enter 192.168.5.20-192.168.5.30 in [IP(s) on Localhost], and 192.168.5.10-192.168.5.19 in [IP(s) in WAN].
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
[Basic Subnet]: Subnet on Localhost
This topology is found where a whole IPv4 private subnet is designated on FortiWAN. And the IP addresses in this
subnet can be utilized by Virtual Server. An IPv6 private subnet is not supported for this subnet type.
[Static Routing Subnet]: Subnet in WAN
This topology is found where IPv4 private static routing subnet is located on the WAN. In other words, the private
subnet on the WAN does not connect to FortiWAN directly. Instead, it connects to a router which helps to transfer
its packets.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Hence, in [Static Routing Subnet], [Gateway] IP address is that of the router.
[Static Routing Subnet]: Subnet in DMZ
In this topology, in DMZ you create an IPv4 private subnet using one router (its IP, say, 192.168.34.50). But the
subnet (its IP 192.168.99.0/24) does not connect to FortiWAN directly. Configure the subnet on FortiWAN to
process its packets.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Automatic addressing within a basic subnet
FortiWAN functions for various network topologies which consists of connectivity of multiple subnets (basic
subnet). Deployments of basic subnets varies for purposes, but they can be simply divided, according to the
location, into three basic types: WAN-sided subnet, DMZ-sided subnet and LAN-sided subnet, which are
supposed to connect to the WAN port, DMZ port and LAN port of FortiWAN. FortiWAN so that services the hosts
in the subnets. For this reason, mechanisms to automatically address the hosts in those basic subnets are
provided. FortiWAN's automatic addressing is designed to serve the hosts in DMZ-sided and LAN-sided subnets.
Hosts in WAN-sided subnets can only be addressed manually. DMZ-sided subnets are divided further into
Subnet-in-DMZ, and Subnet-in-WAN-and-DMZ. FortiWAN's automatic addressing is designed according to IPv4
network and IPv6 network, which is described as follows:
IPv4 Automatic addressing
FortiWAN provides standard DHCP and DHCP Relay to allocate IPv4 addresses to or relay DHCP messages for
hosts in the following subnets or IP range:
DMZ Side
LAN Side
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Routing Mode, IPv4 Basic Subnet: Subnet in DMZ
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Routing Mode, IPv4 Basic Subnet: Subnet in WAN and DMZ
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DHCP
FortiWAN acts a DHCP server on the specified LAN port or DMZ port if checkbox Enable DHCP is checked.
FortiWAN receives DHCP requests and responds related information from/to hosts (DHCP clients) in the subnets
connect to the LAN or DMZ ports.
Domain Name Server
The DNS that FortiWAN responds to the DHCP clients within the
DHCP OFFER messages if the clients are sat to automatically get
DNS information through DHCP.
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Single DNS server: the DNS servers defined in System > Network
Setting > DNS Server > IPv4 Domain Name Server are listed here
for your options.
ALL: answer the DHCP clients with all the defined DNS servers
information.
None: answer the DHCP clients without containing any DNS server
information.
This option is only available for LAN private subnet. For the DMZsided subnets (hosts in the two subnets are supposed to be
deployed with public IP addresses), system behaves answering the
DHCP clients with all the defined DNZ servers information.
Domain Name Suffix
The domain name suffix that FortiWAN responds to the DHCP
clients within the DHCP OFFER messages if the clients are sat to
automatically get DNS information from DHCP.
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Single domain name suffix: the domain name suffixes defined in
System > Network Setting > DNS Server > Domain Name Suffix
are listed here for your options.
ALL: answer the DHCP clients with all the defined domain name
suffixes.
None: answer the DHCP clients without containing any domain name
suffixes.
This option is only available for LAN private subnet.
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TFTP Server Name
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
This option is used to deliver a TFTP server name to DHCP clients.
When the DHCP server see the request in a DHCP discover from a
DHCP client, it returns the TFTP server name in its DHCP offer to
the client as DHCP option 66. Usually, option 66 is used for IP
phone auto-provisioning. You will need to refer to a vender's
documentation to configure this option.
Specify the IP address or the hostname of a TFTP server directly
here according to what the device vender provides. FortiWAN
DHCP will directly return what is specified here to requests without
any encoding/decoding. The DHCP server will ignore the request
for option 66 from a DHCP client if this field is leaved blank. Note
that FortiWAN does not support DHCP option 67 (Bootfile Name)
and option 150 (TFTP Server Address).
Vendor Encapsulated
Options
This option is used to transmit Vender Specific Information
between the DHCP server and clients. Usually, the information
could be the configuration data to the DHCP clients. For example
an IP address of a WLAN controller or a DLS (Deployment Service)
server, or an identifier if the DHCP clients are wireless APs, IP
phones or other devices. When the DHCP server see the request in
a DHCP discover (option 43 or number 43 included in option 55)
from a DHCP client, it returns the vender specific information in its
DHCP offer to the client as DHCP option 43.
The vender encapsulated option ca contain either a single venderspecific value or multiple vender-specific sub-options. The RFC
allows a vender to define its own sub-option codes. All the suboptions are included in the DHCP offer as Type-Length-Value
blocks embedded within the option 43. You will need to refer to a
vender's documentation to form the options to their specification.
Specify the information directly here in hexadecimal numbering
format according to what the device vender provides. FortiWAN
DHCP will directly return what is specified here to requests without
any encoding/decoding. The DHCP server will ignore the request
for option 43 from a DHCP client if this field is leaved blank. Note
that FortiWAN does not support DHCP option 60 (Vender Class
Identifier), DHCP server will not return option 43 based on option
60.
DHCP Range
The address pools that DHCP server assigns and manages IP
addresses from. Define the IP ranges by specifying IPv4 Starting
Address and IPv4 Ending Address.
Static Mapping
DHCP server assigns and manages IP addresses according to clients'
MAC addresses. An IP address that is mapped to a MAC address is only
available to the client with the MAC address. It will not be assigned to
other client even it is idle. Define the mapping by specifying MAC
Address and the correspondent IPv4 Address.
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Client ID Mapping
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DHCP server assigns and manages IP addresses according to the client
ID of DHCP client (the Client Identifier, options code 61, in the options
field of DHCP request). An IP address that is mapped to a client ID here
is only available to this client. It will not be assigned to other clients even
it is idle. Define the mapping by specifying Client ID and the
correspondent IPv4 Address. Corresponding setting of client ID on a
DHCP client is required.
Note that IP addresses defined in DHCP Range, Static Mapping or Client ID Mapping must be also defined
in filed IPv4 IP(s) in DMZ for a bridge-mode (multiple static IP) WAN link, the DMZ side of basic subnets
(subnet in WAN and DMZ, and subnet in DMZ) for a routing-mode WAN link and the basic subnets of private
LAN subnets.
DHCP Relay
DHCP relay is a proxy forwarding DHCP requests and responses between hosts and DHCP server across different
subnets. A router called DHCP relay agent acts the proxy receiving DHCP requests from hosts in the same subnet
and resending them to the DHCP server located in another subnet. The DHCP relay agent then delivers the
DHCP messages responded by the DHCP server to the hosts in the subnet, so that the hosts are assigned the IP
addresses and related information.
FortiWAN is the DHCP relay agent in the network once the DHCP Relay function is enable. Address allocation for
multiple subnets (subnet in LAN, subnet in DMZ, subnet in WAN and DMZ and IPs in DMZ) can be managed by a
centralized DHCP server. As the example below, FortiWAN relays the DHCP messages between the connected
subnets and the standalone DHCP server, so that one DHCP server manages the address allocation for the three
subnets, LAN 1, LAN 2 and a DMZ 1. As for subnet LAN 3, it employs FortiWAN's DHCP server on LAN port 3.
The enabled DHCP server on LAN port 3, which is independent from the standalone DHCP server, serves only
subent LAN 3. Note that you can only enable either DHCP or DHCP Relay for a subnet.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
To implement the deployment, you need to enable DHCP Relay for each of the subnets (enable DHCP Relay on
each of the ports). In the example above, DHCP Relay is enabled on ports of LAN 1, LAN 2 and subnet in DMZ 1,
and all the DHCP requests received on the ports will be forwarded to the DHCP server in the subnet DMZ 2. A
LAN port or DMZ port with DHCP Relay being enabled on will forward the DHCP requests it received (coming
from the subnet it connects to) to the DHCP server.
FortiWAN supports up to two DHCP servers in a DHCP relay deployment. Once two DHCP servers are
configured, the relay agent will forward a DHCP request to both of the DHCP servers. The first response received
by the relay agent will be first apply to the DHCP client, and the subsequent responses will be ignored then.
DHCP Relay Server 1
IP address of the first standalone DHCP server.
DHCP Relay Server 2
IP address of the second standalone DHCP server. Leave it blank if only
one DHCP server is required for the DHCP relay deployment.
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DHCP Relay Agent IP
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
The IP address of the DHCP Relay agent on the port. It indicates
the source of a relayed DHCP request to the DHCP server. This IP
will be contained in a relayed DHCP message, so that the DHCP
server could recognize the relay agent that the relayed DHCP
request came from and respond the corresponding IP address to the
DHCP client (according to this DHCP Relay Agent IP and the
addressing policy).
The DHCP Relay Agent IP must be an IP address deployed on the
localhost of the LAN port or DMZ port. You might deploy multiple IP
addresses to a LAN port or a DMZ port (the field IP(s) on
Localhost of a LAN subnet, a subnet in DMZ or a subnet in WAN
and DMZ), then any of them could be took as the DHCP Relay
Agent IP.
Next are the configurations of DHCP Relay on the LAN 1, LAN 2 and DMZ ports in the example above.
LAN 1 subnet
From the example above, we have configured the localhost of LAN 2 port with three IP addresses 192.168.10.1,
192.168.10.2 and 192.168.10.3 for subnet 192.168.10.0/24. To enable DHCP Relay on this port, you need to
check the check-box "Enable DHCP Relay" on the Web UI and configure the settings as follows:
DHCP Relay Server 1
10.10.10.10
DHCP Relay Agent IP
192.168.10.1, 192.168.10.2 or 192.168.10.3
The DHCP server (10.10.10.10) recognizes the relay agent (the LAN 1 port) that relayed the DHCP message
through the "DHCP Relay Agent IP" contained in the relayed message. Then according to the DHCP addressing
policy, it selects an IP belongs to 192.168.10.x from its IP pool and responds to the relay agent on LAN 1 port.
LAN 2 subnet
From the example above, we have configured the localhost of LAN 1 port with three IP addresses
192.168.11.254 and 192.168.11.253 for subnet 192.168.11.0/24. To enable DHCP Relay on this port, you need
to check the check-box "Enable DHCP Relay" on the Web UI and configure the settings as follows:
DHCP Relay Server 1
10.10.10.10
DHCP Relay Agent IP
192.168.11.254 or 192.168.11.253
The DHCP server (10.10.10.10) recognizes the relay agent (the LAN 2 port) that relayed the DHCP message
through the "DHCP Relay Agent IP" contained in the relayed message. Then according to the DHCP addressing
policy, it selects an IP belongs to subnet 192.168.11.x from its IP pool and responds to the relay agent on LAN 2
port.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
DMZ 1
As the previous description, DHCP relay agent enabled on a DMZ port forwards the DHCP messages between
DMZ and a DHCP server. In FortiWAN, a DMZ can be deployed according the following WAN types:
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Bridge Mode - Multiple Static IP: IPv4 IP(s) in DMZ
No matter which WAN type a DMZ is deployed, it is necessary to configure the "IP(s) on Localhost" field to the
DMZ port via Web UI. From the example above, we have configured the localhost of DMZ 1 port with three IP
addresses 20.20.20.1 and 20.20.20.2. To enable DHCP Relay on this port, you need to check the check-box
"Enable DHCP Relay" on the Web UI and configure the settings as follows:
DHCP Relay Server 1
10.10.10.10
DHCP Relay Agent IP
20.20.20.1 or 20.20.20.2
The DHCP server (10.10.10.10) recognizes the relay agent (the DMZ 1 port) that relayed the DHCP message
through the "DHCP Relay Agent IP" contained in the relayed message. Then according to the DHCP addressing
policy, it selects an IP belongs to subnet 20.20.20.x from its IP pool and responds to the relay agent on DMZ 1
port.
Note that the DHCP server working with FortiWAN's DHCP Replay must be a standalone server.
FortiWAN's DHCP function is not supported to work with DHCP Relay; a port with DHCP being enabled can not
cooperate with the ports that DHCP Relay is enabled on. The centralized DHCP server working in a DHCP Relay
deployment must be well-configured in the IP pools for the multiple IP subnets it is managing.
DHCP Relay over FortiWAN Tunnel Routing network
FortiWAN's DHCP Relay is capable of forwarding DHCP messages through Tunnel Routing (See "Tunnel
Routing") so that the centralized IP addressing over a FortiWAN Tunnel Routing network can be implemented.
This is useful for the application that a headquarters centrally manages IP allocation to its regional branches. The
following shows the example that a DHCP server located in the headquarters site (deployed in the LAN subnet)
manages the IP addressing to its branches through Internet.
With Tunnel Routing connectivity, a VPN network is established among networks of the two sites. DHCP relay in
the VPN network serves for the subnets just as normal. FortiWAN A (the branch) delivers the relayed DHCP
requests from its private subnet 192.168.10.0/24 to the DHCP server located in remote private subnet
192.168.100.0/24 over Internet; conversely, FortiWAN B (the headquarters) delivers the DHCP responses to the
branch site over Internet and FortiWAN A will forward the response to its LAN to allocate a host the IP address.
DHCP messages are delivered by Tunnel Routing encapsulation and decapsulation, just like normal Tunnel
Routing transmission. The localhost of LAN port on FortWAN A is configured to 192.168.10.254. Configuration of
IP pool for subnet 192.168.10.0/24 is required on the DHCP server. The related configurations on the two
FortiWAN units are as follows:
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Configurations on FortiWAN A
Go to Network Setting > LAN Private Subnet > IPv4 Basic Subnetand select the subnet 192.168.10.0/24
to configure.
Check the checkbox Enable DHCP Relay and configure the setting below.
DHCP Relay Server 1
192.168.100.100
DHCP Relay Agent IP
192.168.10.254
Go to Service > Tunnel Routing and define a Tunnel Group with the two tunnels below:
Local IP
Remote IP
10.10.10.10
11.11.11.11
20.20.20.20
21.21.21.21
Define the Routing Rule.
Source
Destination
Service
Group
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
Any
Group Name
Configurations on FortiWAN B
Go to Service > Tunnel Routing and define a Tunnel Group with the two tunnels below:
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Local IP
Remote IP
11.11.11.11
10.10.10.10
21.21.21.21
20.20.20.20
Define the Routing Rule.
Source
Destination
Service
Group
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
Any
Group Name
Note that the DHCP Relay can only work with Tunnel Routing or Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport Mode. It
does not support relaying DHCP requests through IPSec Tunnel Mode (See "IPSec VPN").
IPv6 Automatic Addressing
FortiWAN provides stateless and stateful mechanisms to allocate IPv6 addresses to hosts in the following
subnets or IP range:
DMZ Side
LAN Side
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LAN Private Subnet
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) is a standard mechanism to equip hosts with IPv6 addresses
and related routing information through the IPv6 router advertisements (RA). SLAAC has two properties:
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SLAAC is a stateless mechanism which is short of the IP management. SLAAC is incapable of controlling the
mapping between a host and an IPv6 address.
DNS information is absent from the traditional Router Advertisement messages. SLAAC with options of RDNSS
and DNSSL included in RA messages (what is called SLAAC RDNSS) can convey information about DNS recursive
servers and DNS Search Lists.
Comparing with SLAAC, DHCPv6 takes the advantage of IP management, so that is called stateful. By
specifying the IP pool and static IP mapping, administrators are able to control how the IPv6 addresses be
allocated via DHCPv6. FortiWAN provides both SLAAC RDNSS and DHCPv6 for the stateless and stateful IPv6
automatic addressing
Stateless IPv6 addressing: SLAAC
Enabling the stateless IPv6 addressing for the "IPv6 Basic Subnets" or "IPv6 (IPs) in DMZ" by checking the checkbox Enable SLAAC .
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DNS Server
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
The recursive DNS servers used to serve the IPv6 subnet you are
configuring (the Subnet field below). FortiWAN conveys it through
router advertisement (RA) messages. Depending on the subnet
type (DMZ-sided or LAN-sided), this could be the DNS server
serving the global IPv6 subnets (public) that your ISP provides or the
DNS server for the unique local IPv6 subnet (private).
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Single DNS server: the IPv6 addresses defined in System > Network
Setting > DNS Server > IPv6 Domain Name Server are listed here for
your options
ALL: answer the hosts with all the defined IPv6 DNS servers information.
None: answer the hosts without containing any IPv6 DNS server
information.
This option is only available for IPv6 LAN private subnet. For the
DMZ-sided subnets (hosts in the subnets are supposed to be
deployed with IPv6 global addresses), system behaves answering
the hosts with all the defined DNZ servers information.
Subnet
The subnet deployed on the port (LAN port or DMZ port) you are
configuring. SLAAC services the subnet. The subnet is used by
SLAAC to allocate the prefix information to the hosts, so that an
IPv6 address can be determined (with the Host ID) on a host.
Depending on the subnet type, it could be a global IPv6 subnet or a
unique local IPv6 subnet.
DNS Search List
A search list to be used when trying to resolve a name by means of
the DNS. This option is only available for IPv6 LAN private subnet.
Stateful IPv6 addressing: DHCPv6
To enable the stateful IPv6 addressing for the "IPv6 Basic Subnets" or "IPv6 (IPs) in DMZ", you are required to
enable and configure both SLAAC and DHCPv6 on Web UI. FortiWAN will not respond for any Router
Advertisement (RA) if it SLAAC is disabled. The stateful IPv6 addressing via DHCPv6 requires RA to discover the
default gateway for hosts, and therefor hosts fail to get default gateway if SLAAC is disabled. Please enable and
configure the SLAAC as the introduction above if DHCPv6 is enable and make sure the network interface of a
host is sat to automatically get the IPv6 address through DHCPv6.
FortiWAN acts a DHCPv6 server on the specified LAN port or DMZ port if checkbox Enable DHCPv6 Service is
checked. All the hosts running as DHCPv6 client could gain the routing and DNS information from DHCPv6
server. DHCPv6 provides configuring and management to the IPv6 addresses to be assigned, which is a shortage
of SLAAC.
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DNS Server
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
The DNS DNS servers used to serve the IPv6 subnet you are
configuring (the Subnet field below). FortiWAN responds to the
DHCPv6 clients within the DHCPv6 messages if the clients are sat
to automatically get DNS information through DHCPv6. Depending
on the subnet type (DMZ-sided or LAN-sided), this could be the
DNS server serving the global IPv6 subnets (public) that your ISP
provides or the DNS server for the unique local IPv6 subnet
(private).
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Single DNS server: the IPv6 addresses defined in System > Network
Setting > DNS Server > IPv6 Domain Name Server are listed here
for your options.
ALL: answer the hosts with all the defined IPv6 DNS servers information.
None: answer the hosts without containing any IPv6 DNS server
information.
This option is only available for IPv6 LAN private subnet. For subnet
in DMZ and subnet in WAN and DMZ (hosts in the subnets are
supposed to be IPv6 global address deployment), system behaves
answering the hosts with all the defined DNZ servers information.
DHCP Range
The address pools that DHCPv6 server assigns and manages IPv6
addresses from. Define the DHCP ranges by specifying IPv6 Starting
Address and IPv6 Ending Address.
Static Mapping
DHCPv6 server assigns and manages IPv6 addresses according to client
IDs. An IPv6 address that is mapped to a client ID is only available to this
client. It will not be assigned to other clients even it is idle. Define the
mapping by specifying Client ID and the correspondent IPv6 Address.
DNS Search List
A search list to be used when trying to resolve a name by means of the
DNS. This option is only available for IPv6 LAN private subnet.
Note that IPv6 addresses defined in DHCP Range and Static Mapping must be also defined in filed IPv6 IP(s)
in DMZ for a bridge-mode (multiple static IP) WAN link, the DMZ side of IPv6 basic subnets (subnet in
WAN and DMZ, and subnet in DMZ) for a routing-mode WAN link and the IPv6 basic subnets of private LAN
subnets.
Deployment Scenarios for Various WAN Types
This Section provides various network scenarios for the different WAN types and explains how FortiWAN can
easily be integrated into any existing networks.
WAN Type: Bridge Mode with a Single Static IP
Single Static IP is a common and simple WAN network scenario, where the ISP provides a single public static
(fixed) IP for the WAN link. Note: ISP often provides ATU-R, sometimes known as ADSL Modems with bridge
model.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
Configuring networks to FortiWAN
In this example it is assumed that WAN port 1 is connected to the bridge-mode ATU-R.
Please refer to the ATU-R User manual provided by your ISP to connect the ATU-R to FortiWAN’s WAN #1.
Connect LAN to FortiWAN’s LAN port via a switch or hub. In this example, FortiWAN’s Port2 is treated as LAN
port. Please map FortiWAN’s LAN port to the Port2 in [System] → [Network Setting] → [VLAN and Port
Mapping]. Note: FortiWAN is treated as a normal PC when connecting to other networking equipments.
WAN configuration:
1. Enter FortiWAN's Web-based UI.
2. Go to [System] → [Network Setting] → [WAN Settings].
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3. In the WAN LINK scroll menu, select "1", and choose "Enable" in the Basic Settings.
4. In the WAN type scroll menu, select [Bridge Mode: One static IP].
5. Select [Port 1] in the WAN Port field.
6. Enter the up/down stream bandwidth associated with this WAN link. Example: If the ADSL Line on WAN1 is
512/64, then enter [64] and [512] in the Up Stream and Down Stream fields respectively. Note: The up/down
stream values entered will ONLY affect the BM and statistics reporting. Bandwidth will not increase if the values
are greater than the actual bandwidth.
7. Enter [211.100.3.35] in the Localhost IP field.
8. Enter [255.255.255.0] in the Netmask field.
9. Enter [211.100.3.254] in the Default Gateway IP field.
10. Apply the bridge mode configuration.
11. If the configuration above has been correctly established, in the [System] →[Summary] page, the status color on
the WAN Link State for WAN Link #1 will turn green.
LAN configuration:
1. Go to [System] → [Network Setting] → [LAN Private Subnet].
2. Enter [192.168.1.254] in the IP(s) on Localhost field.
3. Enter [255.255.255.0] in the Netmask field.
4. Select [Port2] in the LAN Port field.
5. Check NAT Subnet for VS.
6. Configuration complete.
Virtual Server Configuration:
Assume an SMTP server with IP 192.168.1.1 provides SMTP services to the outside via the virtual server.
FortiWAN will perform NAT on this machine so that the outside clients can get SMTP services via FortiWAN’s
public IP on WAN1. The settings for this are in [Service] → [Virtual Server].
1. Click [+] to create a new rule.
2. Check [E] to enable this rule.
3. Select [All-Time] in the "When" field.
4. Enter [211.100.3.35] in the WAN IP field.
5. Select [SMTP(25)] in the Service field.
6. Select [Round-Robin] in the Algorithm field.
7. Click [+] to create a new server in Server Pool.
8. Enter [192.168.1.1] in the Server IP field.
9. Select [SMTP(25)] in the Service field.
10. Enter [1] in the Weight field.
11. Selection of the L field is optional. (If an Administrator wishes to log Virtual Server activities, please select "L").
12. Configuration complete.
Administrators can set up different types of services inside the LAN and use the Virtual Server to make these
services available to public once the configurations are completed.
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WAN Type: Routing Mode Example 1
This is a typical example where ISP provides a network segment (a class C segment for example) to the user.
Under such a condition, FortiWAN use one or more IP addresses, while the rest of the public IP addresses (from
the assigned segment) will be under DMZ.
Servers with public IP addresses can be deployed in two places in the network (as illustrated in the figure below).
It can be deployed either between the ATU-R and FortiWAN, i.e., behind the ATU-R but in front FortiWAN or
inside the FortiWAN DMZ segment.
In this example, the router is assumed to be connected to FortiWAN’s WAN port1.
Network Information from ISP:
Client side IP segment is 211.102.30.0/24, Gateway (i.e. the IP for the router) is 211.102.30.254, while the
netmask is 255.255.255.0.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
FortiWAN's IP is assumed as 211.102.30.253.
Servers in between ATU-R and FortiWAN occupy the IP range between 211.102.30.70-100.102.30.99.
WAN port is on port #1.
DMZ port is on port #2.
ISP supplies the router.
Hardware Configuration:
Connect the router with FortiWAN in WAN1 by referring to router's user manual. Note: FortiWAN is viewed as a
normal PC when connected to other network equipment.
Configuration Steps:
1. Log onto the FortiWAN Web UI.
2. Go to [System] → [Network Settings] → [WAN Settings].
3. Under the WAN Link menu, select "1" and select "Enable" in Basic Settings.
4. In the WAN Type scroll menu, select [Routing Mode].
5. Set WAN port to port #1.
6. Enter the corresponding up/down stream bandwidth. For example, if the type of ADSL connection is 512/64K,
then enter [64] and [512] in the Up Stream and Down Stream parameter fields respectively. Note: The Up and
Down Stream parameters will not affect the physical bandwidth provided by the ISP. It will only affect the BM and
Statistical pages.
7. Set the IPv4 Gateway to 211.21.30.254.
8. In the IPv4 Basic Subnet section select the Subnet Type as “Subnet in WAN and DMZ”, as follows:
l
For IP(s) on Localhost field, enter [211.102.30.253].
l
For IP(s) in WAN field, enter [211.102.30.70-211.102.30.99].
l
In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
l
In the DMZ Port field, enter [Port 2].
9. Configuration complete.
Note: This example shows all addresses are in DMZ (211.102.30.1-211.102.30.69, 211.102.30.100211.102.30.252), except those specified in the “IP(s) in WAN” .
WAN Type: Routing Mode Example 2
This example shows the scenario where a private subnet between the WAN router and FortiWAN. In addition, the
public IP subnet inside the FortiWAN DMZ port requires a router.
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Sample Configuration:
l
Assume the private IP subnet (192.168.0.0/24) is between the WAN link router and FortiWAN WAN port.
l
FortiWAN's port 1 IP (192.168.0.253) is connected to the WAN link router (192.168.0.254).
l
FortiWAN's Port 3 is DMZ with a public IP subnet (211.20.103.254/24).
l
The LAN part behind FortiWAN has another public IP subnet (211.20.104.0/24 behind a router (211.20.103.253).
Configuration Steps:
1. In the UI: [System] → [Network Settings] → [WAN Settings] sub-function.
2. Select "1" on the WAN Link menu and select [Enable].
3. In the WAN Type scroll menu, select [Routing Mode].
4. In the WAN Port field, enter [Port 1].
5. Enter the corresponding up and down stream bandwidths.
6. In the IPv4 Gateway field, enter [192.168.0.254].
7. In the IPv4 Basic Subnet function, use [+] to create new rules, and select [subnet in DMZ] in the Subnet Type
field.
8. In the IP(s) on Localhost field, enter [211.20.103.254].
9. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
10. In the DMZ Port field, enter [Port 3].
11. In the IPv4 Static Routing Subnet field, use [+] to add new rules with Subnet Type as [Subnet in DMZ]. In this
example, there is a router in the DMZ port for the public IP subnet and the subnet does not connect to the
FortiWAN directly. Therefore the subnet info should be filled in the "Static Routing Subnet" field.
12. In the Network IP field, enter [211.20.104.0].
13. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
14. In the Gateway field, enter [211.20.103.253].
15. Go to [WAN/DMZ Private Subnet] sub-function page and select [+] in the IPv4 Basic Subnet and add the following
rules:
16. Set the Subnet Type as "Subnet in WAN".
17. In the IP(s) on Localhost field, enter [192.168.0.253].
18. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
19. In the WAN Port field, select [Port 1], and the configuration is complete.
WAN Type: Routing Mode Example 3
In this example, both WAN links have its own routers and FortiWAN is connected to these routers using private IP
addresses, as illustrated below. In addition, FortiWAN Port 3 has been assigned another private IP connecting to
the LAN Core Switch (L3 switch), therefore there is a public IP subnet connected behind the Core Switch inside
the LAN.
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Configuration Example:
1. FortiWAN Port 1 (192.168.0.253) is connected to WAN1's router (192.168.0.254/24).
2. FortiWAN Port 2 (192.168.1.253) is connected to WAN2's router (192.168.1.254/24).
3. FortiWAN Port 3 (192.168.2.253) is connected to the LAN Core Switch (192.168.2.254/24).
4. WAN1's Public IP subnet is placed behind the Core Switch as (211.70.3.0/24).
5. WAN2's Public IP subnet is also placed behind the Core Switch as (53.244.43.0/24).
Configuration Steps:
1. Go to FortiWAN Web UI: [System] → [Network Settings] → [WAN Settings] management page.
2. Select [1] in the WAN Link menu.
3. Click Enable to activate the WAN link.
4. Select [Routing Mode] in the WAN Type menu.
5. Select [Port 1] in the WAN Port field.
6. Enter the corresponding up/down-stream bandwidth.
7. In the IPv4 Gateway field, enter [192.168.0.254].
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
8. In the Static Routing Subnet field, use [+] to add a new rule with Subnet Type as "Subnet in DMZ". In this
example, there is a Core Switch in the DMZ port for the public IP subnet and the subnet does not connect to the
FortiWAN directly. Therefore the subnet info should be filled in the "Static Routing Subnet" field.
9. In the Network IP field, enter [211.70.3.0].
10. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
11. In the IPv4 Gateway field, enter [192.168.2.254].
12. In the WAN Link menu, select 2 to switch to WAN2.
13. Click on Basic Settings to enable the WAN link.
14. In the WAN type menu, select [Routing Mode].
15. In the WAN Port field select [Port 2].
16. Enter the corresponding up and down stream bandwidth parameters.
17. In the IPv4 Gateway field, enter [192.168.1.254].
18. In the Static Routing Subnet field, use [+] to add a new rule with the Subnet Type field as "Subnet in DMZ".
19. In the Network IP field, enter [53.244.43.0].
20. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
21. In the Gateway IP field, enter [192.168.2.254].
22. WAN/DMZ Private Subnet Management Page
23. In the WAN and DMZ ports, all three subnets should be completed as below:
24. In the IPv4 Basic Subnet field, click on [+] to add a new rule with 192.168.0.0/24 as the IP, and select "Subnet in
WAN" under Subnet Type.
25. In the IP(s) on Localhost field, enter [192.168.0.253].
26. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
27. In the WAN port field, select [Port 1].
28. WAN Port 1 settings are complete; proceed onto WAN Port 2.
29. In the IPv4 Basic Subnet field, click on [+] to add a new rule with 192.168.1.0/24 as the subnet IP address, and
select "Subnet in WAN" under Subnet Type.
30. In the IP(s) on Localhost field, enter [192.168.1.253].
31. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
32. In the WAN port field, select [Port 2].
33. The WAN Port2 settings are complete, proceed onto the DMZ port.
34. In the IPv4 Basic Subnet field, click on [+] to add a new rule. Select "Subnet in DMZ" under Subnet Type.
35. In the IP(s) on Localhost field, enter [192.168.2.253].
36. In the Netmask field, enter [255.255.255.0].
37. In the DMZ Port field, select [Port3].
38. Configuration is complete.
The example above illustrates a common FortiWAN deployment scenario where a private IP subnet is placed
inside a WAN and DMZ, and a public IP subnet is connected to FortiWAN DMZ via a Core Switch.
MIB fields for WAN links and VLANs
You can use SNMP manager to get information of defined WAN links and VLANs and receive notifications when a
WAN link fails or recovers. Configure SNMP for your FortiWAN unit (See "SNMP") to get the information in a MIB
field via SNMP manager. Configure the SNMP manager on your FortiWAN and enable the event types "" and "" to
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notify (See "Notification"), then notifications will be delivered to your SNMP manager for the events. The
correspondent MIB fields and OIDs are listed as following:
SNMP field names and OIDs for WAN link
135
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnWanNumber
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.1
Maximum of WAN links that the
system supports.
fwnWanTable
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2
This is a table containing one
element of object fwnWanEntry
used to describe the properties and
management information of every
WAN link deployed on the system
fwnWanEntry
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1
An object used to describe the
properties and management
information of every WAN link
deployed on the system: Index,
Descr, Status, IP, HealthReq,
HealthRep, UpLimit, DownLimit,
ConnTime, InOctets, OutOctets,
TotalOctets, InOctets64,
OutOctets64 and TotalOctets64.
fwnWanIndex
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.1
Index (unique positive integer) of
every WAN link.
fwnWanDescr
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.2
Label of every WAN link, such as
WAN1, WAN2, WAN3, ect.
fwnWanStatus
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.3
State of every WAN link: ok(1),
failed(2), disabled(3), backup(4)
and unkown(5).
fwnWanIP
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.4
First one of the IP addresses
deployed on the WAN port
(localhost) of every WAN link.
fwnWanHealthReq
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.7
Number of health detection (ping
packets or TCP connect requests)
sent out for every WAN link.
fwnWanHealthRep
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.8
Number of acknowledgements
replied to every WAN link for the
health detection.
fwnWanUpLimit
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.9
Maximum upload speed (in kbps)
of every WAN link.
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Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnWanDownLimit
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.10
Maximum download speed (in
kbps) of every WAN link.
fwnWanConnTime
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.12
The time period that a WAN link
has been available since the last
recovery from failure or disability.
fwnWanInOctets
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.5
Number (32bit unsigned integer) of
octets received on the interface
(RX) of every WAN link during
system's uptime.
fwnWanOutOctets
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.6
Number (32bit unsigned integer) of
octets transmitted from the
interface (TX) of every WAN link
during system's uptime.
fwnWanTotalOctets
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.11
Sum (32bit unsigned integer) of
octets received and transmitted
on/from the interface (RX and TX)
of every WAN link during system's
uptime.
fwnWanInOctets64
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.13
Number (64bit unsigned integer) of
octets received on the interface
(RX) of every WAN link during
system's uptime.
fwnWanOutOctets64
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.14
Number (64bit unsigned integer) of
octets transmitted from the (TX)
interface of every WAN link during
system's uptime.
fwnWanTotalOctets64
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.15
Sum (64bit unsigned integer) of
octets received and transmitted
on/from the interface (RX and TX)
of every WAN link during system's
uptime.
fwnEventWanLinkRecovery
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.1
Index of a WAN link will be sent as
an event notification when the
WAN link recovers from a failure.
fwnEventWanLinkFailure
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.2
Index of a WAN link will be sent as
an event notification when the
WAN link fails.
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SNMP field names and OIDs for VLAN
137
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnVlanNumber
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.1
Number of VLAN defined on the
system.
fwnVlanTable
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2
This is a table containing one element
of object fwnVlanEntry used to
describe the properties and
management information of every
VLAN defined on the system
fwnVlanEntry
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1
An object used to describe the
properties and management
information of every VLAN defined on
the system
fwnVlanDescr
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.1
Label of every VLAN. It consists of the
port that the VLAN is defined on and
the VLAN tag, such as port1.101,
port1.102, port2.203, ect.
fwnVlanInOctets
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.2
Number (32bit unsigned integer) of
octets received on the interface (RX)
of every VLAN during system's
uptime.
fwnVlanOutOctets
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.3
Number (32bit unsigned integer) of
octets transmitted from th interface
(TX) of every VLAN during system's
uptime.
fwnVlanTotalOctets
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.4
Sum (32bit unsigned integer) of octets
received and transmitted on/from the
interface (RX and TX) of every VLAN
during system's uptime.
fwnVlanInOctets64
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.5
Number (64bit unsigned integer) of
octets received on the interface (RX)
of every VLAN during system's
uptime.
fwnVlanOutOctets64
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.6
Number (64bit unsigned integer) of
octets transmitted from the interface
(TX) of every VLAN during system's
uptime.
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Configuring networks to FortiWAN
Configuring Network Interface (Network Setting)
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnVlanTotalOctets64
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.7
Sum (64bit unsigned integer) of octets
received and transmitted on/from the
interface (RX and TX) of every VLAN
during system's uptime.
fwnVlanIndex
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.2.2.1.8
Index (unique positive integer) of
every VLAN.
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System Configurations
Summary
System Configurations
This topic elaborates on [System] and its submenus. Simple examples are given to illustrate how to configure
[system] settings.
Summary
As soon as you log in to the web UI, you will see the [System/Summary].It shows you basic information on the
system, including [System Information], [Peer Information],and [WAN Link State]. [Peer Information] is
populated as soon as HA mode becomes active. As is mentioned in "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode",
HA (High Availability) is hot backup. In HA mode, one FortiWAN is the primary system while the other is the
backup system.
System Information / Peer Information
System Information
Version
:
The firmware version of the device.
Model/Max Bandwidth (Total RAM)
:
The model of the device and the bandwidth capability that the model
supports. You can purchase a license for higher bandwidth capability
from your Fortinet channel partner (See subsection "License Control" in
"Administration"). For deployment of FortiWAN-VM, the Total RAM is
displayed here rather than Max Bandwidth.
:
The serial number of the device.
Uptime
:
The time the device has been up and running.
Connections
:
The number of connections.
CPU Usage %
:
The CPU usage in percentage.
Packets/Second
:
The number of the packets that are processed per second.
VRRP State
:
The state of VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) - whether it is
enabled. Note: When VRRP is enabled, HA will be disabled, and vice
versa. (See "LAN Private Subnet")
Hard Disk
:
FortiWAN's hard disk for Reports is being consumed by increasing report
database. Once the disk space is used up, Reports will fail to continue
log processing. This field monitors the disk space status of Reports by
displaying the total space and consumed space. (See "Reports")
Serial Number
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Summary
System Configurations
License Status
:
This field is visible only when the model is FortiWAN-VM. This
field displays the status of a FortiWAN-VM license as follows:
Trial License is in use. (Expire in x days x hours x mins): This is
a trail or evaluation license.
Valid: This is a permanent license.
Expired: This license is expired.
Click Update button and upload your FortiWAN-VM license
file to update your FortiWAN-VM appliance. You can request a
evaluation or trial license from Fortinet Customer Support or
you can purchase a permanent license from your Fortinet
channel partner.
Peer Information
Version
:
The firmware version of the slave.
Model/Max Bandwidth
:
The model of the slave and the bandwidth capability that the model
supports. For deployment of FortiWAN-VM, only the model of the slave
is displayed here, no Max Bandwidth and Total RAM.
:
The serial number of the slave.
Uptime
:
The time the slave has been up and running.
State
:
Serial Number
Normally, this field displays “Slave”.
During the procedure of reboot, this field displays
"Rebooting".
System panic happens, this field displays "Panic".
Peer unit is lost (power-off or Ethernet cable disconnected),
this field displays "None".
Firmware version, FortiWAN model or throughput license is
inconsistent with the local unit, this field displays
"Incompatible".
Note1: Connections may exceed 100 when FortiWAN is started, but will return to normal in a while. This happens
because FortiWAN sends out ICMP packets to test the network.
Note2: Once HA becomes active, settings of master unit will be synchronized to slave unit automatically.
WAN Link State
[WAN Link State] shows you the number of WAN links enabled and their current status. The number of WAN links
available for each FortiWAN may vary depending on models. In [WAN Link State], each WAN link is color-coded
to indicate its status. See the color-coding scheme below:
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System Configurations
Summary
l
Green: Active WAN link
l
Blue: Backup WAN link
l
Red: Failed WAN link
WAN Link State
WAN
:
Enabled WAN Link.
State
:
Current connection status.
:
The IPv4 or IPv6 address of the WAN port (See "Configuring your WAN").
IPv4 / IPv6 Address
Note
The notes for the WAN link (See "Configuring your WAN").
Get system information, peer information and WAN link state via SNMP
You can use SNMP manager to get the system information, HA peer information and WAN link state. Configure
SNMP for your FortiWAN unit (See "SNMP") and you can get the information in a MIB field via SNMP manager.
The correspondent MIB fields and OIDs are listed as following:
SNMP field names and OIDs
141
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnSysSlaveVersion
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.2
Firmware version of the slave unit
deployed with this local unit in HA
mode.
fwnSysSlaveSerialNumber
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.3
Serial number of the slave unit
deployed with this local unit in HA
mode.
fwnSysSlaveUptime
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.4
Uptime of the slave unit deployed
with this local unit in HA mode.
fwnSysSlaveState
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.5
State of the slave unit deployed
with this local unit in HA mode.
fwnSysConnections
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.6
Number of connections that are
being processed in the system.
fwnSysCpuLoad
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.7
Current CPU load (in percentage) of
the system.
fwnSysUsers
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.8
Number of IP addresses connecting
to the FortiWAN unit from the LAN
and DMZ subnets.
fwnSysPktPerSec
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.9
Number of packets transferred via
the system every second.
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Optimum Route Detection
System Configurations
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnSysConnectionRates
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.1.10
Number of connections that are
established with the FortiWAN unit
every second.
fwnWanStatus
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.3
State of every WAN link: ok(1),
failed(2), disabled(3), backup(4)
and unkown(5).
fwnWanIP
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.2.1.2.1.4
First one of the IP addresses
deployed on the WAN port
(localhost) of every WAN link.
See also
l
FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode
l
LAN Private Subnet
l
Configuring your WAN
l
Reports
Optimum Route Detection
FortiWAN's Optimum Route is a particular load balancing algorithm which determines the best WAN link for Auto
Routing and Multihoming by involving real Internet conditions in calculation, while the other algorithms, such as
By Round-Robin, By Connection and By Upstream/Downstream/Total Traffic, only focus on the loading between
the FortiWAN device and ISP's gateways. Optimum Route is used mainly to avoid the inefficient transmission
due to bad peering between ISPs. Peering between two ISPs is an interconnection of administratively separated
Internet networks (belonging to the two ISPs individually) for the purpose of exchanging traffic between the users
in each network. It allows the two ISP to directly hand off the traffic between each other's customers, which might
be the most efficient way to communicate between two networks if it is settlement-free. However, two situations
might cause the transmission between two ISP networks inefficient;
l
l
If there is no agreement by the two ISP networks to peer, the transit service, which is a method to carry that traffic
across one or more third-party networks (a few exchange points), will be required.
An ISP restricts the bandwidth for peering with another ISP on the purpose of competition in business. The peering
point thus becomes a bottleneck and might make the transmission extremely slow between each other's customers.
Although the other balancing algorithms determine a good WAN link among multiple WAN links (multiple ISP
networks) for inbound and outbound traffic, they are not aware of the real situations between those ISPs. For
example, two WAN links of a FortiWAN device are connected to ISP-A and ISP-B networks and the peering
between each other is bad. Those non-optimum-route balancing algorithms might determine ISP-B WAN link for
Auto Routing to transfer the traffic which is destined to a server located in ISP-A network (see Auto Routing). If
the bad peering between ISP-A and ISP-B is the only exchange point, which is the bottleneck, for delivering the
traffic, the transmission will become slow. Conversely, those balancing algorithms may also determine the IP of
ISP-B WAN link for Multihoming (see Multihoming) to answer DNS queries coming from ISP-A network. Then the
users in ISP-A network suffer the bad peering when accessing services on FortiWAN through ISP-B network.
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Optimum Route Detection
Algorithm Optimum Route is just the opposite of those algorithms. It determines the optimum WAN link by going
deep into the real Internet conditions in two modes: static IP table and dynamic detect.
l
l
Static IP table: A static IP table is a set of the IP addresses of an ISP network. Optimum Route evaluates the
destination IP of out-going sessions against the IP tables for Auto Routing, and evaluates the source IP of DNS
queries against the IP tables for Multihoming. If the evaluated IP matches the IP table of an ISP, which implies the
ISP network that the evaluated IP belongs to is recognized, this ISP WAN link will be the optimum routing.
Conceptually, it directly asks traffic being delivered directly through a WAN link connected to the ISP network that
traffic source or destination belong to, so that traffic will not suffer a peering. This can be also implemented by
specifying the source or destination filter with IP groups (See "IP Grouping") in Multihoming or Auto Routing rules.
Dynamic detect: It dynamically evaluates WAN links according to the detected round-trip time (RTT) and the
bandwidth loading. Bad peering brings bad RTT value.
The following configurations define how Optimum Route detect to determine an optimum WAN link. To use the
Optimum Route algorithm in Auto Routing and Multihoming, it requires specifying the algorithm "By Optimum
Route" for a Auto Routing policy and A/AAAA Record policy, and applying the policy to corresponding filter rules
and A/AAAA records. Without this, Optimum Route would never work even if the detection is configured.
FortiWAN provides DNS Proxy to cooperate with Optimum Route to resolve an advanced issue caused by bad
peering (See "DNS Proxy").
Optimum Route Policy
Options for optimum route detection
Static IP Table
Uses static IP table only.
Dynamic Detect
Uses dynamic detection only.
Static, Dynamic
Uses static detection first, then switches over to dynamic detection if static
detection fails. [Static, Dynamic] is the default detection method.
Dynamic, Static
Uses dynamic detection first, then switches over to static detection if dynamic
detection fails.
Static IP-ISP Table
Enables to match the IP address entries in the table to work out the optimum route. Administrators can add,
delete or inquire the desirable IP entry in the table.
The static IP-ISP tables are the reference for Optimum Route to recognize the ISP network that the source or
destination IP of traffic belongs to and so that point the traffic to corresponding WAN link, which is the optimum
routing. A static IP-ISP table contains the IP subnets of an ISP network. You have to maintain these IP subnets in
a text file for creating an IP-ISP table. Each line of the text file indicates a IP subnet in format Network
IP/Prefix, for example:
3.0.0.0/8
211.1.0.0/16
Note that it is strongly suggested that an IP file contains the IP subnets of only ISP, or Optimum Route might not
run as expected. Please prepare the IP files for the IP-ISP tables. Another component of static IP-ISP table is the
WAN parameter, which indicates the FortiWAN's WAN links connecting to the ISP's network. Once traffic
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matches the IP subnets of an IP-ISP table, Optimum Route determines a WAN link from the candidates. It is not
such strictly limited that an ISP's IP subnets can only be recorded in one IP-ISP record (just make sure an IP-ISP
table contains only one ISP). The IP subnets of an ISP can be separated into multiple IP-ISP tables, just
remember Optimum Route evaluates traffic against the tables top down by first match, and it picks up one of the
corresponding WAN links if a table is matched.
Table Name
Name for the IP-ISP Table, such as an ISP's name.
Setting
Set the IP subnets of an ISP to the table.
Upload
Upload the IP file of a ISP to save the ISP's IP subnets to the static IPISP table. Click "Browse" to locate the IP file and click "Upload" to
upload the file. You are required to upload an IP file (click "Upload")
first, then apply (click "Apply") the settings of the IP-ISP table. Note that
an IP table file is necessary to create a static IP-ISP table.
After saving the IP subnets to the table, you might continue maintaining
(add or remove) the IP subnets of the ISP. You can make it by editing
the subnets in the following field Rule Setting or manually editing the IP
file and re-upload it to the table. IP file re-uploading overwrites the
original IP subnets of the table.
Rule Setting
After uploading the IP file to the table, you can manually edit it by
adding/removing subnets to/from the IP table if necessary. Without
uploading an IP file to the table first, it is ineffective to add/remove IP
subnets to/from the table.
Subnet Address
Specify a subnet address to add/remove to/from the
table. The acceptable format is [network
address/netmask] or [network address/prefix], such as
202.99.0.0/255.255.255.0 or 202.99.0.0/24. A single
IP or an unusual subnet mask like "/255.255.255.255"
or "/32" is unacceptable.
Action
Select the action for the specified subnet.
Add to: Add the specified subnet to the static IPISP table.
Remove from: Remove the specified subnet
from the static IP-ISP table.
Parameter
Select the WAN links that are connected to the ISP network that this IP-ISP table indicates.
Check the field of WAN link to select it. Multiple selection is allowed if more than one WAN link is
connected to the same ISP network. Be ensure that the selected WAN links are exactly
connected to the ISP network that the table indicates, or the Optimum Route might not run as
excepted.
IP Query
Inquire if a single IP address is in the static IP table.
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Optimum Route Detection
When the source or destination IP of a packet matches an static IP-ISP table, Optimum Route determines a WAN
link from the intersections of the WAN parameters here and the corresponding WAN parameters of a Auto
Routing policy or Multihoming A/AAAA record policy, according to the traffic loading on the WAN ports. For
example:
Auto Routing policy: Label=By_OR, Algorithm=By Optimum Route, Parameter=1,2,3
(checked)
The matched IP-ISP table: Table Name=ISP_A, Parameter=2,3,4 (checked)
Traffic matches a Auto Routing filter rule is processed by Auto Routing according to the corresponding policy "By_
OR". Optimum Rout is set to detect network by static IP-ISP table. Packet destination IP of the traffic matches
the ISP's network of IP-ISP table "ISP_A", which WAN links 2, 3 and 4 are connected to the ISP network.
Optimum Route determines a WAN link for Auto Routing from WAN link 2 and WAN link3, which are the
intersections of WAN links 1, 2, 3 (WAN parameters set in the AR policy) and WAN links 2, 3, 4 (WAN parameters
set in the IP-ISP table). If traffic loading on WAN port 2 is currently heavier than WAN port 3, WAN link 3 will be
the optimum link that Optimum Route decides for Auto Routing. The traffic will then be transferred through WAN
link 3 by Auto Routing. For Multihoming with algorithm By Optimum Rout, the process is similar.
Here are the situations cause Optimum Route by IP-ISP table detection returning nothing to Auto Routing and
Multihoming:
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l
Optimum Route returns nothing when the evaluated packet source and destination IP does not match any of the IPISP tables. This might because of incomplete collection of IP subnets of ISP networks. You can make the IP-ISP
tables more complete by continuing IP subnets collecting and adding them to the tables. The more complete the IP
subnets are, the better effect Optimum Route brings.
Even if traffic matches an IP-ISP table, Optimum Route returns nothing when there is no intersection of Optimum
Route's WAN parameters and Auto Routing (or Multihoming) policy's WAN parameters. Please make sure at least
one intersected WAN link between the policies.
The traffic will be processes by Auto Routing according to the specified fail-over policy (see Auto Routing), if
Optimum Route returns nothing to Auto Routing for the traffic. Multihoming will answer the IP address defined to
the first WAN link in the A/AAAA record policy (see Multihoming), if Optimum Route returns nothing to
Multihoming for the query.
Dynamic Detect
Optimum Route's dynamic detection detects the round-trip time (RTT) of traffic targets and involves it to a
dynamic calculation to determine the optimum WAN link for Auto Routing and Multihoming. Optimum Route
spreads detection packets to a target through all the enabled WAN links to collect the transmission latency
between the FortiWAN device and the target via each WAN link (ISP). In Optimum Route, this RTT will also
represent the latency for data transmission through each WAN link between the FortiWAN device and the class C
that the detection target belongs to. Fort example, if Optimum Route detects 20 ms, 30 ms and 40 ms RTTs
between FortiWAN and a target 211.21.1.100 through WAN link 1, 2 and 3, a reference table as follow will be
maintained and cached for a wile:
Subnet=211.21.1.0/24, WAN1=20ms, WAN2=30ms, WAN3=40ms
During the cache period, Optimum Route uses the values directly to calculate the optimum WAN link for any
subsequent traffic that the target belongs to subnet 211.21.1.0/24. As for the target we are talking about,
Optimum Route takes the destination IPs of out-going session packets as the targets if they matches the relevant
Auto Routing policies, and takes the source IPs of DNS queries as the targets if they matches the relevant
Multihoming A/AAAA record policies.
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To determine an optimum WAN link, Optimum Route evaluates on availability of the candidates by calculating
the weight of each WAN link. The calculation of weight involves the detected RTT and current traffic loading,
which are combined in specified ratio. It seems making sense that the less the RTT is the optimum the WAN link
is, but practically it is not necessarily that data transmission to a target through a WAN link with less RTT but
serious traffic congestion on the WAN port is better than through a WAN link with higher RTT but the WAN port is
in full-availability.
To enable dynamic detection for Optimum Route, it requires to have the following settings configured. It contains
three parts:
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The protocol and procedure used for detecting RTT.
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The time period for caching detected RTT.
l
The ratio of RTT and traffic loading for availability evaluation.
Detection Protocol
ICMP and TCP are the protocols used to detect the RTT (Default:
ICMP). ICMP (ping) or TCP (TCP connect request) packets are sent
to a target through each of the enabled WAN links. So that system
gets RTTs from the responses. Here are the options for the
detection protocol:
ICMP: Using ICMP for detections.
TCP: Using TCP for detections
ICMP, TCP: Using ICMP for detections first. System will try TCP
detection if the ICMP detections are declared failed.
TCP, ICMP: Using TCP for detections first. System will try ICMP
detection if the TCP detections are declared failed.
Detection Period, in Seconds
The time interval between retries if there is no response received for
current detection. (Default: 3 seconds).
Number of Retries
The times that system will retry if detections continue receiving no
responses (Default: 3 retries). Retry will stop as long as a response is
received, or system will declare the RTT detection is failed if all the retries
receive no responses.
Cache Aging Period, in Minutes
The time period to cache the detected results (Default: 2880mins, ie.
2days). After the cache is cleaned, system will re-trigger detections for
the same request.
Weight of Round Trip Time :
Weight of Load
A parameter used to calculate the optimum route. It shows how much
round trip time (RTT) and link load account for in calculating the optimum
route. Note: The smaller the field value is, the less it accounts for in
optimum route calculation.
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System Configurations
Port Speed/Duplex Settings
Port Speed/Duplex Settings
[Port Speed/Duplex Settings] enables to configure port speed and duplex transfer mode. Generally it is set to
auto-detect by default which works properly in most cases. Manual speed/duplex mode configuration is still
necessary in event that some old devices are either not supporting auto-detect, or incompatible with FortiWAN.
Port Name
:
The list of all physical ports on FortiWAN.
Status
:
The physical connection status of the port. It shows whether the port has been connected
to other detectable network devices e.g. a hub.
Speed
:
The current speed of the port. It can be a value either manually set or auto-detected.
Duplex
:
The current duplex of the port. It can be a value either manually set or auto-detected.
Settings
:
You can opt for desirable settings, which can be manually set or auto-detected.
:
The MAC address of the port.
:
Click to enable HA (switch between master and slave units) based on the status of
network ports. While HA is enabled in FortiWAN, the port status of both master and slave
FortiWAN units will be compared to determine which unit should be selected as master.
Once the number of functioning network ports on the master unit becomes lower than that
on the slave unit, the slave unit will then be switched as master instead. (Only the status
of selected network ports will be compared.) Note: This field is not available if VRRP has
been enabled in [Networking Setting > LAN Private Subnet] setting page.
MAC Address
HA
Backup Line Settings
In the deployment of multiple links, a link might serve as backup line which is inactive unless it matches the
enabling criteria. The choice of backup lines mostly depends on cost, especially in areas where charges are based
on data traffic. Backup lines in standby do not cost a cent, thus only basic fees are charged. Contrary to backup
lines, main lines are lines commonly in use. The concept is to be used below.
FortiWAN provides log mechanism to the Backup Line service, see "Log".
Threshold Parameters
Backup Line Enable Time
:
The interval to enable backup lines after main lines have broken down.
Backup Line Disable Time
:
The interval to disable backup line after main lines have returned to normal.
Backup Line Rules table
Field Purpose / Description
Main Line
147
:
Select main lines, which can be multiple links.
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System Configurations
Backup Line
:
Algorithm
:
Select backup lines.
5 options to activate backup lines:
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All fail: when all lines defined in [Main line] are down
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One fails: when one of the lines defined in [Main line] is down
Inbound bandwidth usage reached: when the inbound bandwidth
consumption of all lines defined in [Main Line] reaches the defined level
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Outbound bandwidth usage reached: when the outbound bandwidth
consumption of all lines defined in [Main Line] reaches the defined level
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Total traffic reached: when the total bandwidth consumption of all lines
defined in [Main Line] reaches the defined level
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Parameter
:
When the latter 3 options are chosen in [Algorithm], you can define here the
bandwidth usage of the main lines over which backup lines are to be enabled.
IP Grouping
[IP Grouping] lets you create and manage IP groups exclusively and efficiently. These predefined IP groups are
available and easy to use in the drop-down list of the fields of [Source] and [Destination] on such [Service]
submenus as [Firewall], [NAT], [Persistent Routing], [Auto Routing], [Inbound BM], [Outbound BM], [Connection
Limit], and [Cache Redirect]. This section walks you through the steps to create an IP group.
IP Grouping Table:
Group Name
:
Assign a name to an IP group. The name will show in the drop-down list of
[Source] and [Destination] in [Service] submenus mentioned previously.
Enable
:
Check the field to enable an IP group. Once the IP group has been enabled,
it will show in the drop-down list of [Source] and [Destination] in [Service]
submenus mentioned previously.
Show/Hide IPv4/IPv6 Detail
:
Click the button to show or hide the IPv4/IPv6 table details. After Hide
Detail has been clicked, the table only shows the name of the IP group and
whether it has been enabled.
After you have clicked [Show IPv4/IPv6 Detail], [IPv4/IPv6 Rules Settings] table displays. You can click [Hide
IPv4/IPv6 Details] to close the table.
IPv4/IPv6 Rule Settings Table:
E
:
Check the field to add the list of IP addresses to the current IP group.
IP Address
:
Enter a single IPv4/IPv6 address, IPv4/IPv6 range, IPv4/IPv6 subnet or
FQDN.
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Service Grouping
Action
:
Two options, to belong and not to belong, to determines whether an IP
address defined in [IP Address] belongs to the IP group. For exceptions in
an IP range or subnet that belongs to the IP group, the action of not to
belong makes the configuration easier than separating an IP range or
subnet into several groups.
Service Grouping
[Service Grouping] lets you create and manage service groups exclusively and efficiently. You can group an
ICMP, a TCP/UDP Port, and a group of TCP/UDP Ports, particular applications and server ports. These
predefined service groups are available and easy to use in the drop-down list of the fields of [Source] and
[Destination] on such [Service] submenus as [Firewall], [NAT], [Virtual Server], [Auto Routing], [Inbound BM],
[Outbound BM].
Group Name
:
Assign a name to a service group e.g. MSN File Transfer. The name will
appear in the drop-down list of [Source] and [Destination] in [Service]
submenus mentioned previously.
Enable
:
Check the field to enable a service group. Once the service group has been
enabled, it will show in the drop-down list of [Source] and [Destination] in
[Service] submenus mentioned previously.
:
Click the button to show or hide the table details. After Hide Detail has been
clicked, the table only shows the name of the service group and whether it
has been enabled.
E
:
Check the field to add the list of services to the current service group.
Service
:
Enter a single or a set of ICMP / ICMPv6 or TCP / UDP ports. Single port
follows the the format: port (xxx). A set of ports follow the format: xxx-yyy e.g.
6891-6900.
Action
:
Two options, to belong and not to belong, to determines whether service port
defined in [Service] belongs to the service group. For exceptions in a set of
service ports that belongs to the service group, the action of not to belong
makes the configuration easier than separating the set of service ports into
several groups.
Show/Hide IPv4/IPv6 Detail
IPv4/IPv6 Rule Settings Table:
Here is an example to elaborate on how to configure [Service Grouping]. Create a service group "MSN File
Transfer", which uses TCP 6891-6900. Then enter TCP@6891-6900 in the [Service] field.
Busyhour Settings
[Busyhour Settings] plays a crucial role in managing bandwidth. .Generally opening hours Mon-Fri: 09h00 to
18h00 is configured to be busy hours, for this period sees the advent of bandwidth-intensive applications in both
intranet and extranet.
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Default Type
:
Time segment unspecified in [Rules] below fall into this Default type either as idle or
busy hours.
Rules
:
Defines time segment. The time segments are matched in sequence on a first-match
basis. If none of the rules match, the default type is used. If time segment in [Default
Type] is defined as idle hours, then unspecified time segment in this [Rules] is taken
as idle hours as well.
E
:
Check the field box to add time segments in this list to [Rules].
:
Select a day of the week.
From
:
Start time.
To
:
End time.
Type
:
Defines the time segment, either busy or idle hours.
Day of Week
For the case that time period 09:00-18:00 from Monday to Saturday belongs to busy hour and only Sunday
belongs to idle hour, set an idle rule for 00:00-00:00 on Sunday beyond a busy rule for Any day 09:00-18:00. The
rule would be first matched from the top down.
As is shown in the figure, Sunday and hours beyond Mon-Sat: 09h00-18h00 are set to be idle hours. Remaining
hours of the week belong to busy hours.
Diagnostic Tools
Click the tabs [IPv4] and [IPv6] on the upper side to choice diagnostic tools for IPv4 and IPv6.
IPv4
IPv4 ARP
Enforcement [ARP Enforcement] forces FortiWAN's attached PCs and other devices to update ARP table. Click
[Enforce] and system will send out ARP packets force ARP updates throughout the attached devices. Generally
the function is used only when certain devices in DMZ cannot access the Internet after FortiWAN has been
installed initially.
IP Conflict Test
[IP Conflict Test] checks if any PC's IP address runs into conflict with that in WAN or DMZ settings in [Network
Settings].
Click [Test] to start testing. And IP conflict message may be one of:
l
l
l
Test completed, no IP conflict has been found.
There is an IP conflict with a PC in DMZ, a public IP which has been assigned to WAN in [Network Settings] is now
used in DMZ, for example. And the MAC address of this IP is also listed in the message.
There is an IP conflict with a PC in WAN; a public IP has been assigned to DMZ in [Network Settings] is now used in
WAN, for example. And the MAC address of this IP is also listed in the message.
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Diagnostic Tools
Clean IPv4 Session Table (Only Non-TCP Sessions)
The function is used to clean up non-TCP session tables in FortiWAN. In FortiWAN, protocols are managed with
a session timer. Old sessions may be continuously retried by users that they keep unexpired. These old sessions,
are always being valid and active instead of new ones. Hence, new sessions will not get into use unless session
tables are cleaned up.
IPv4 Ping & Trace Route
Ping
[Ping] is used to detect network status. Enter an IP address or host name of target device. Select a port (WAN,
LAN, or DMZ). If WAN port is selected, specify the WAN link number index. Details of ICMP error message and
ping are outside the scope of this manual. Please refer to other documents for more information.
Note: If you ping a domain name, ensure DNS server have been specified in [System]->[Network Settings]->[DNS
Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
Trace
[Trace] is used to trace the route path of a packet from a specific port to destination host. Enter an IP address or
host name of target device in [Target]. Select a link port (WAN, LAN, or DMZ). If WAN port is selected, specify
the WAN link number index. [Host] can be an IP address or domain name of the target device.
Note: If you trace route with a domain name, ensure DNS server has been specified in [System]->[Network
Settings]->[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
Arping
[Arping] is used to detect the MAC address of a PC. Enter an IP address or host name of target device. Select a
port (WAN, LAN, or DMZ). If WAN port has been selected, specify the WAN link number index. Details of ARP
and error message are out of the scope of this manual; please refer to other documents for more information.
Note: If you arping with a domain name, ensure DNS server has been specified in [System]->[Network Settings]->
[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
IPv4 ARP Table Show & Clear
[IPv4 ARP Table Show & Clear] is used to display or clear the ARP information of certain port. Select a [port] and
click [Show], to display the ARP information of this port. Or select a [port], click [Clear] to clean up the ARP
information of this port, and confirm the message to clear. After this, a message shows that ARP table has been
cleared successfully.
Nslookup Tool
[Nslookup Tool] is used to inquire domain name of hosts. Enter a host in Target Domain. Select a host type from
optical [Type] list: Any, A, AAAA, CNAME, DNAME, HINFO, MX, NS, PTR, SOA, SRV, TXT; and select a server
from optical [Server] list: Internal DNS, Multihoming, etc. Click [Nslookup] to start the inquiring session, and the
domain name of target host will show in the field. Click [Stop] to halt the session.
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IPv6
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Enforcement
When IPv6 Neighbor Discovery is enforced, FortiWAN will send out a “neighbor discovery” packet to neighbor
servers or network devices within the same network to request for a reply of IPv6 and MAC address of devices
found.
Clean IPv6 Session Table (Only Non-TCP Sessions)
The function is used to clean up non-TCP session tables in FortiWAN. In FortiWAN, protocols are managed with
a session timer. Old sessions may be continuously retried by users that they keep unexpired. These old sessions,
are always being valid and active instead of new ones. Hence, new sessions will not get into use unless session
tables are cleaned up.
IPv6 Ping & Trace Route
Ping
[Ping] is used to detect network status. Enter an IP address or host name of target device. Select a port (WAN,
LAN, or DMZ). If WAN port is selected, specify the WAN link number index. Details of ICMP error message and
ping are outside the scope of this manual. Please refer to other documents for more information.
Note: If you ping a domain name, ensure DNS server have been specified in [System]->[Network Settings]->[DNS
Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
Trace
[Trace] is used to trace the route path of a packet from a specific port to destination host. Enter an IP address or
host name of target device in [Target]. Select a link port (WAN, LAN, or DMZ). If WAN port is selected, specify
the WAN link number index. [Host] can be an IP address or domain name of the target device.
Note: If you trace route with a domain name, ensure DNS server has been specified in [System]->[Network
Settings]->[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
Arping
[Arping] is used to detect the MAC address of a PC. Enter an IP address or host name of target device. Select a
port (WAN, LAN, or DMZ). If WAN port has been selected, specify the WAN link number index. Details of ARP
and error message are out of the scope of this manual; please refer to other documents for more information.
Note: If you arping with a domain name, ensure DNS server has been specified in [System]->[Network Settings]->
[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
IPv6 Neighbor Table Show & Clear
[IPv6 Neighbor Table Show & Clear] is used to display or clear the IPv6 and MAC address of neighbor servers or
devices. Select a [port] and click [Show], to display the neighbor information of this port. Or select a [port], click
[Clear] to clean up the neighbor information of this port, and confirm the message to clear. After this, a message
shows that neighbor table has been cleared successfully.
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System Configurations
Setting the system time & date
Nslookup Tool
[Nslookup Tool] is used to inquire domain name of hosts. Enter a host in Target Domain. Select a host type from
optical [Type] list: Any, A, AAAA, CNAME, DNAME, HINFO, MX, NS, PTR, SOA, SRV, TXT; and select a server
from optical [Server] list: Internal DNS, Multihoming, etc. Click [Nslookup] to start the inquiring session, and the
domain name of target host will show in the field. Click [Stop] to halt the session.
Tcpdump
Interface
:
Tcpdump can capture FortiWAN data packets and download captured packets to local host for
analysis and debug. Firstly, select an interface from [Interface] to capture packets. In its dropdown list, tunnel will display if Tunnel Routing has been configured. Option [Any] enables all
interfaces to capture packets.
Timeout
:
Set [Timeout] value. Once time is over, capture will stop. Lastly, click [Start] to start capturing and
download intercepted packets to local host. It should be noted that FortiWAN does not store the
Tcpdump packets. Click [Stop] to stop capturing.
Setting the system time & date
[Date/Time] lets you configure time, date, and time zone. [Date] follows the year/month/day date format, and
[Time] uses 24-hour time system in the hour:minute:second format. [Time Zone] is represented by continent and
city, [America] and [New York], for example. FortiWAN uses NTP time server for accurate time synchronization,
simply by clicking the [Synchronize Time] button. And other time servers are also included in the drop-down list
which can be added or deleted at your preference.
Remote Assistance
Enabling this function allows Fortinet's technical support specialist to enter your system for further
troubleshooting when assistance is needed. FortiWAN allows technical support specialist to access the Web UI
and backend system remotely, so as to assist users promptly upon the occurrence of problems. Remote
assistance opens both TCP ports 443 for web UI and 23 for SSH debug.
Note: To enter the backend system via SSH login, a debug patch file is required.
Enable
:
Click the checkbox to enable Remote Assistance.
Server
:
Enter the server IP address given by Fortinet's technical support specialist.
:
Displays the security code required for remote logins. This security code is automatically
generated after clicking Apply to complete Remote Assistance settings, and is updated
after every system reboot.
Security Code
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Administration
Go to System > Administration, Administration lets you perform administrative tasks, including changing
passwords of Administrator and Monitor. Every FortiWAN is shipped with the same default passwords. For
security concerns, it is thus strongly recommended that the passwords shall be changed.
By default, FortiWAN uses 443 as the Web UI login port. And it allows administrators to change the port, to avoid
possible port conflict caused for virtual server services.
Update/downgrade section enables to update or downgrade firmwares once new firmwares are available (from
our website or dealers). Simply click the Update/Downgrade button and follow exactly the on-screen instructions.
Configuration Files gives you the ability to back up configuration files, by clicking the [Save] button. Or you can
click [Restore] to reload the previous backup files to FortiWAN. System configurations can be recovered from
failures via the backup configuration files.
In Maintenance, you can restore factory default configurations and reboot FortiWAN. Due to the limitation of
HTML syntax, no hint displays after reboot has been completed. Thus you have to wait about two minutes before
navigating to Web UI in browser.
Administrator and Monitor Password
FortiWAN maintains a common local authentication database for its Web UI, CLI and SSH login (See
"Connecting to the Web UI and the CLI"). Accounts for authentication are classified into two groups,
Administrator and Monitor, with different permissions. Accounts belonging to Administrator have the permission
to monitor and modify system parameters via Web UI, CLI and SSH login, while limited operations are allowed
(monitor system information and traffic statistics via Web UI ONLY) to accounts belonging to Monitor.
Configurations applying, system administrations (managements introduced in this topic), Tunnel Routing
Benchmark, CLI access and SSH login are invalid for Monitor group. Note that page System > Administration
is not available to Monitor accounts.
Default account/password
While the first time you login to Web UI, you see the default accounts here. "Administrator" and "admin" are the
default accounts of group Administrator, and "Monitor" is the default account of group Monitor. Passwords of
accounts "Administrator" and "Monitor" are "1234" and "5678" respectively; password of account "admin" is null
(See "Appendix A: Default Values"). All the accounts (default and customized) of group Administrator are able to
log into Web UI, CLI and SSH login. All the accounts are case sensitive.
Create, modify and delete the account and password for Administrators or Monitors.
Select Account
New Account
New Password
Password
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You can select and configure an account (old or new). If you select the current login
account, [Add Account] button will change to [Set Account].
Allows you to add a new account. Enter the new account ID here.
Enter the new password after you have added or modified an account.
Verification Confirm the new password.
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Event notifications via SNMP trap
You can receive notification via SNMP trap for any modification of the FortiWAN's account. Configure the SNMP
manager on your FortiWAN and enable the event type "Account change" to notify (See "Notification"), then
notification will be delivered to your SNMP manager for the events. The correspondent MIB fields and OIDs are
listed as following:
SNMP field names and OIDs
MIB Field
OID
Description
fwnEventAdminAccountPwChanged
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.1.1
Send event notification when
the password of an account
in Administrator group is
changed.
fwnEventAdminAccountAdded
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.1.2
Send event notification when
an account is added into
Administrator group.
fwnEventAdminAccountRemoved
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.1.3
Send event notification when
an account is removed from
Administrator group.
fwnEventMonitorAccountPwChanged
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.1.4
Send event notification when
the password of an account
in Monitor group is changed.
fwnEventMonitorAccountAdded
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.1.5
Send event notification when
an account is added into
Monitor group.
fwnEventMonitorAccountRemoved
1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.118.3.1.1.6
Send event notification when
an account is removed from
Monitor group.
RADIUS Authentication
Except FortiWAN's local authentication database described above, FortiWAN supports RADIUS authentication
for Web UI login. Please make sure the following settings are complete on the RADIUS server working with
FortiWAN.
Add Fortinet's Vender Specific Attribute (VSA) to /etc/raddb/dictionary:
VENDOR Fortinet 12356
BEGIN‐VENDOR Fortinet
...
ATTRIBUTE Fortinet‐FWN‐AVPair 26 string
...
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END‐VENDOR Fortinet
"12356" is Fortinet's vender ID, "Fortinet-FWN-AVPair" is the attribute used for working with FortiWAN and
"26" is the attribute ID. If the RADIUS server serves with other Fortinet products, please add the correspondent
attributes between BEGIN‐VENDOR Fortinet and END‐VENDOR Fortinet.
Construct user database on RADIUS server for authentication. For example, we have accounts
"Administrator/1234" and "admin/(null)" belong to Administrator group, and "Monitor/5678" belongs to Monitor
group.
Add the followings to /etc/raddb/users:
Administrator User‐Password := "1234"
Fortinet‐FWN‐AVPair := "user‐group=Administrator"
admin User‐Password := ""
Fortinet‐FWN‐AVPair := "user‐group=Administrator"
Monitor User‐Password := "5678"
Fortinet‐FWN‐AVPair := "user‐group=Monitor"
Please make sure "user-group" is specified for every account, or FortiWAN denies the login even the account
and password are authorized by RADIUS server.
To enable FortiWAN's RADIUS authentication, please click the checkbox and complete the configuration below.
Priority
Determines priority to the two authentications:
RADIUS, Local Database: Authorize a login via RADIUS first, then try local
database if the authentication failed in RADIUS.
Local Database, RADIUS: Authorize a login via local database first, then try
RADIUS if the authentication failed in local database.
Server IP
Server Port
Secret
NAS IP
NAS Port
Apply
IP address of the RADIUS server.
UDP port number of the RADIUS server (The standard port is 1812, but it might be
1645 for earlier RADIUS).
The secret (password) shared with the RADIUS server.
Enter the correspondent NAS-IP-Address attribute for Request/Response
Authenticator if it is necessary, or leave it blank. See RFC2865 for details.
Enter the correspondent NAS-Port attribute for Request/Response Authenticator if it is
necessary, or leave it blank. See RFC2865 for details.
Click to apply the configuration.
Firmware Update
Click [ Update] or [ Downgrade] and follow the on-screen instructions to perform firmware update/downgrade.
Note that firmware downgrade will reset current configurations to factory default, please backup current
configurations in advance. Firmware update and downgrade support jump directly to a version from current
version without applying all the updates or downgrades that have been released between the versions.
Updating the FortiWAN Firmware:
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Before proceeding with the firmware update, ALWAYS backup system configurations.
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Obtain the latest firmware upgrade pack from https://support.fortinet.com.
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Log onto the Web UI with administrator account and go to [System]→ [Administration].
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Click on "Update".
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Use [ Browse...] to select the path of the new firmware image.
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Administration
For High Availability (HA) deployment (See "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability) Mode"), check [ Update Slave]
to perform firmware update on the slave unit at the same time. Please double check and make sure the peer device
is under normal condition (from page [System > Summary]) before HA firmware update.
Click [ Upload File] to start updating.
The firmware update will take a while, so please be patient. During the update process, be sure NOT to turn off the
system or unplug the power adapter. DO NOT click on the [Upload] button more than once.
Update is completed when the "Update succeeded" message appears. FortiWAN unit(s) will reboot automatically
then.
Errors that occur during the update can be caused by any reason below:
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General error – Please contact your dealer if this happens repeatedly.
Invalid update file – The file uploaded for firmware update is invalid, please make sure the uploaded file is
correct.
MD5 checksum error – Image file is damaged. Please reload and try again.
Incompatible version/build – Firmware version incompatible. System requires a higher version firmware for
update and a lower version firmware for downgrade.Check with your dealer for the correct firmware version.
Incompatible model/feature – Firmware image does not match the FortiWAN system. Check with your dealer for
the correct model and version.
Incompatible platform – Firmware image does not match the current FortiWAN platform. Check with your dealer
for the correct model and version.
Update error – If this error message appears during firmware update, please do not turn off the device and contact
your dealer immediately.
Unknown error – Contact your dealer.
When a firmware update has being processed in system, users (multi-account login, see "Using the Web UI") are
unable to perform concurrent firmware updates at the same time.
Configuration File
Click [Save] to back up the current configurations of all functions in one binary file on your PC. Click [Show] to
display a binary configuration file (.cfg) as readable content. Click [Restore] to recover whole system with the
backed up configurations. Note that Restore will apply the configurations to system and then perform
synchronization to the slave unit if HA mode is deployed. After this, system automatically reboot. The
configuration file here is in binary format and should NOT be edited outside of FortiWAN tools and systems. The
configuration file here contains all the configurations of FortiWAN’s functions. You can have individual
configuration file of every single function via the export function in every function page. Do NOT to turn off the
power while restoring the configuration file, or repetitively clicking on the [Restore] button.
Configuration File for individual function Export and Import:
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Log on to FortiWAN as administrator. On every single function page of Web UI, click [Export Configuration] to back
up the configuration in an editable text file.
To import the previously saved configuration file, click [Browse] on the function page of Web UI to select the
configuration file previously saved, and then click [Import Configuration] to import previous configurations. The
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Administration
System Configurations
imported configuration will be displayed on the Web UI, but not be applied to system. Click [Apply] button to apply it
to system.
During the configuration file restoration process, if an error occurs, it is most likely the result of one of the
following:
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The total WAN bandwidth setting in the restored configuration file exceeds the max bandwidth defined for the
current system. The bandwidth can be either upload stream and download stream.
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The restored configuration file contains port numbers exceeding the port numbers defined by the system.
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The restored configuration file contains VLAN parameters not supported by the machine.
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The total number of WAN links in the restored configuration file exceeds the current system definition.
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Incompatible versions and/or systems.
Note:
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FortiWAN does not guarantee full compatibility of configuration files for different models.
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After the firmware upgrade, it is encouraged to backup the configuration file.
Configuration file backup and restore are available in the following function page:
Function Page
File Name
[System > Network]
network.txt
[System > WAN Link Health
Detection]
wan-link-health-detection.txt
[System > Optimum Route Detection]
optimum-route.txt
[System > Port Speed / Duplex
Setting]
port-speed.txt
[System > Backup Line Setting]
backup-line.txt
[System > IP Grouping]
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[System > Service Grouping]
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Click [Import] & [Export], you may backup and restore
configurations of ip list in a file named ip-list.txt.
Click [Import Configuration] & [Export Configuration],
you may backup and restore configurations of IP
Grouping saved in ip-group.txt.
Click [Import] & [Export], you may backup and restore
configurations of service list in a file named service_
list.txt.
Click [Import Configuration] & [Export Configuration],
you may backup and restore configurations of Service
Grouping saved in service-group.txt.
[System > Busyhour Setting]
busy-hour.txt
[Service > Firewall]
firewall.txt
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Function Page
File Name
[Service > NAT]
nat.txt
[Service > Persistent Routing]
persistent-routing.txt
[Service > Auto Routing]
auto-routing.txt
[Service > Virtual Server]
virtual-server.txt
[Service > Bandwidth Management]
bandwidth-management.txt
[Service > Connection Limit]
connection-limit.txt
[Service > Cache Redirect]
cache-redirect.txt
[Service > Multihoming]
multihoming.txt
[Service > Internal DNS]
Internal-nameserver.txt
[Service > SNMP]
snmp.txt
[Service > IP-MAC Mapping]
ip-mac-mapping.txt
[Service > DNS Proxy]
dnsproxy.txt
[Service > Tunnel Routing]
tunnel-routing.txt
[Log > Control]
log-control.txt (This file includes Mail/FTP passwords.)
[Log > Notification]
notification.txt (This file includes email/password)
[Log > Link Report]
link-report.txt
Maintenance
Click [Factory Default] to reset configurations to factory default. Or you can perform “resetconfig” command in
console. Click [Reboot] to reboot FortiWAN. For information on console command, please refer to Console Mode
Commands.
Web UI Port
Type the port number in [New Port] and then click [Setport]. Enter the new port number when you log in again into
Web UI. Additionally, the new port shall avoid conflict with FortiWAN reserved ports when configuring the port.
Otherwise, FortiWAN will display error message of port settings failure and resume to the correct port number
that was configured last time.
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Port
Service
Port
Service
Port
Service
1
tcpmux
102
iso-tsap
530
courier
7
echo
103
gppitnp
531
Chat
9
discard
104
acr-nema
532
netnews
11
systat
109
pop2
540
uucp
13
daytime
110
pop3
556
remotefs
15
netstat
111
sunrpc
563
nntp+ssl
17
qotd
113
auth
587
19
chargen
115
sftp
601
20
ftp-data
117
uucp-path
636
ldap+ssl
21
ftp-cntl
119
nntp
993
imap+ssl
22
ssh
123
NTP
995
pop3+ssl
23
telnet
135
loc-srv/epmap
1111
FortiWAN
reserved
25
smtp
139
netbios
1900
FortiWAN
reserved
37
time
143
imap2
2005
FortiWAN
reserved
42
name
179
BGP
2049
nfs
43
nicname
389
ldap
2223
FortiWAN
reserved
53
domain
465
smtp+ssl
2251
FortiWAN
reserved
77
priv-rjs
512
print/exec
3535
FortiWAN
reserved
79
finger
513
login
3636
FortiWAN
reserved
87
ttylink
514
shell
4045
Lockd
95
supdup
515
printer
6000
x11
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Port
Service
Port
Service
Port
Service
101
hostriame
526
tempo
49152
FortiWAN
reserved
License Control
License Control provides users with all the License Key configurations, including:
Bandwidth Upgrade License:
FortiWAN provides various bandwidth capabilities for individual model. Bandwidth upgrade on models is
supported via a license key. You could ask your distributor for bandwidth upgrade license keys.
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FortiWAN 200B provides 200 Mbps, 400 Mbps and 600 Mbps bandwidth capability.
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FortiWAN 1000B provides 1 Gbps, and 2 Gbps.
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FortiWAN 3000B provides 3 Gbps, 6 Gbps, and 9 Gbps bandwidth capability.
Product Model Bandwidth Capability
Product Model
Bandwidth Capability
FortiWAN 200B
200 Mbps / 400 Mbps / 600 Mbps
FortiWAN 1000B
1 Gbps / 2 Gbps
FortiWAN 3000B
3 Gbps / 6 Gbps / 9 Gbps
Note: Conditional bandwidth upgrade is provided for old models. Please contact customer support to gain further
information.
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Load Balancing Algorithms
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
With the rapid proliferation and decreasing prices of broadband solutions, more and more small and medium
enterprises are opting for the use of multiple WAN links from various ISPs. The benefits include:
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Single link failure does not result in a total loss of internet connectivity, thus WAN reliability increases.
Traffic can be evenly dispersed across multiple WAN links, resulting in increased efficiency and improved
performance of bandwidth.
Multiple WAN links for fault tolerance and load balancing has two advantages:
The outbound traffic, i.e. traffic originating from LAN traveling outwards, can be load-balanced across multiple
WAN links. This is Auto Routing.
Traffic from the WAN, i.e. traffic originating from WAN traveling towards the LAN, can be load-balanced across
multiple WAN links. This is Multihoming.
Load Balancing Algorithms
Load balancing algorithm is one of the important components for achieving purpose of traffic load balancing via
FortiWAN's various services, such as Auto Routing, Multihoming, Tunnel Routing, Virtual Server and DNS Proxy.
These services distribute inbound or outbound traffic over multiple resources (WAN links or internal servers)
according to predefined policies, which consist of a load balancing algorithm and the participating resources. A
Load balancing algorithm dynamically evaluates on the availability of the participants against factors such as
weight, connections or traffic, and picks an appropriate one for the load balancing services assign traffic to. When
traffic (sessions or packets) matches a filter rule or policy of a load balancing service, the corresponding algorithm
(specified to the policy) determines the appropriate one from the specified resources for the service to handle the
traffic. All the load balancing services detect and label the unavailable resources by their own mechanism, such
as WAN link health detection (see WAN Link Health Detection). The algorithms will ignore the failed resources
and work with the available ones.
The followings are the algorithms that FortiWAN provides for services Auto Routing, Multihoming, Tunnel
Routing, Virtual Server and DNS Proxy.
Auto Routing
Multihoming
Tunnel Routing
Virtual Server
Proxy DNS
Round-Robin
O
O
O
O
O
By Connection
O
By Upstream
O
O
By Downstream
O
O
O
By Total Traffic
O
O
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O
O
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Load Balancing Algorithms
Auto Routing
Multihoming
O
O
By Optimum Route
By Response Time
Virtual Server
Proxy DNS
O
By Static
By Fixed
Tunnel Routing
O
O
Hash
O
See also
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
Tunnel Routing
Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing
DNS Proxy
Round Robin (weighted)
Weight Round Robin picks one of the participating resources in circular order according to the specified weights.
Round Robin works without considering resource's ability such as processing connections, available bandwidth
and response time. In FortiWAN, algorithm Round Robin serves for Auto Routing, Multihoming, Tunnel Routing,
Virtual Server and DNS Proxy (it is called By Weight in DNS Proxy). To create a load balancing policy with Round
Robin, you need specify the participants (WAN links or internal servers) and assign the weight to each of them.
For example, if three WAN links (WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3) are defined in an Auto Routing policy with weight
3:1:2, Round Robin returns one of the three WAN links to Auto Routing in the order of WAN1, WAN1, WAN1,
WAN2, WAN3, WAN3. So that Auto Routing can distribute sessions to WAN links in the order. If some of the
participants get failed, Round Robin will ignore them and work with the rest participants. For example, if WAN2
goes to failure, then Round Robin return the WAN link to Auto Routing in the order of WAN1, WAN1, WAN1,
WAN3, WAN3.
Round Robin works similarly for Multihoming, Tunnel Routing, Virtual Server and DNS Proxy. For the details of
configuring a policy of a service, see the section relevant to each of them.
By Connection
By connection picks one of the participating resource (WAN links or internal servers) for Auto Routing and Virtual
Server, but the processes that By Connection works for Auto Routing and Virtual Server are totally different. For
Auto Routing, an idea of weighted Round Robin is involved in the By Connection algorithm. The goal of Auto
Routing's By Connection is to guarantee the number of connections being processed by each participating WAN
link in a fixed weight. By Connection counts the number of connections running on each participating WAN link
and picks one for a new-coming connection to keep the ration of connections running on the WAN links closely
fixed after adding the new connection to the picked one. For example, there are three WAN links (WAN1, WAN2
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Load Balancing Algorithms
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and WAN3) are defined in an Auto Routing policy with weight 1:1:2. By Connection will respectively return WAN1,
WAN2 and WAN3 to Auto Routing for the first three connections, if all the three WAN links are idle. So far, the
count of connections running on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 goes to 1:1:1. To match the specified weight 1:1:2 of
the policy, By Connection will return WAN3 for the forth connection. Next, By Connection returns WAN1 and
WAN2 respectively for the fifth and sixth connections and so the count goes to 2:2:2. Obviously, By Connection
will return WAN3 for the next two (seventh and eighth) connections, so that the count will be 2:2:4 which is in the
ratio 1:1:2. Considering the two connections on WAN2 are closed (the counts become 2:0:4), By Connection
must return WAN2 for the next two connections to keep the counts be in ratio 1:1:2. If some of the participants
get failed, By Connection will ignore them and work with the rest participants. For example, if WAN2 goes to
failure, By Connection will work by keeping the connection count on WAN1 and WAN3 in weight 1:2.
WAN1
WAN2
WAN3
Weight
1
1
2
Connection 1
V
Connection 2
V
Connection 3
V
Connection 4
V
Connection counts
1
Connection 5
V
Connection 6
1
2
V
Connection 7
V
Connection 8
V
Connection counts
2
2
4
0
4
The two connections on WAN2 are closed.
Connection counts
2
Connection 9
V
Connection 10
V
Connection counts
2
Connection 11
V
Connection counts
3
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4
2
4
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Load Balancing Algorithms
WAN1
WAN2
WAN3
One of the connections on WAN2 and one of the connections on WAN4 are
cloased.
Connection counts
3
1
Connection 12
V
Connection 13
V
3
Connection 14
V
Connection 15
V
Connection 16
V
Connection counts
3
3
6
As for Virtual Server, By connection treats service requests coming from the same source IP address as the same
connection. The algorithm determine an internal server from server pool for incoming requests of a connection by
hashing source IP address of the connection. The hash mechanism that By connection uses is the same as
algorithm Hash (see section Hash later). Every internal server in the server pool has the same weight for By
connection's hash mechanism.
By Downstream Traffic
By Downstream Traffic picks one of the participating resources (WAN links) according to the weight mainly
relevant to their data downloading availability. Each of the participating WAN links is weighted every three
seconds by summing 80% available inbound bandwidth and 20% available outbound bandwidth up. For example,
there is an Auto Routing policy with participants WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3. If, at some time, the available
inbound bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is 4Mbps, 10Mbps and 6Mbps, and the available outbound
bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is 8Mbps, 5Mbps and 20Mbps, the weight of each WAN link is so that
calculated as:
WAN1: 0.8*(4/10) + 0.2*(8/20) = 0.4
WAN2: 0.8*(10/10) + 0.2*(5/20) = 0.85
WAN3: 0.8*(6/10) + 0.2*(20/20) = 0.68
Before the weights are updated next time , By Downstream Traffic returns one of the three WAN links for the load
balancing policy in circular order with weight 40:85:68. Weights will be updated by calculating with real-time
available bandwidth every three seconds. By Downstream Traffic serves for Auto Routing, Multihoming and DNS
Proxy.
By Upstream Traffic
By Upstream Traffic serves Auto Routing, Multihoming, Tunnel Routing and DNS Proxy. However, the process
that By Upstream Traffic works for Tunnel Routing is different from Auto Routing, Multihoming and DNS Proxy.
For working with Auto Routing, Multihoming and DNS Proxy, By Upstream Traffic picks one of the participating
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resources (WAN links) according to the weight mainly relevant to their data uploading availability. Each of the
participating WAN links is weighted every three seconds by summing 80% available outbound bandwidth and
20% available inbound bandwidth up. For the same example, there is an Auto Routing policy with participants
WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3. If, at some time, the available inbound bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is
4Mbps, 10Mbps and 6Mbps, and the available outbound bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is 8Mbps,
5Mbps and 20Mbps, the weight of each WAN link is so that calculated as:
WAN1: 0.8*(8/20) + 0.2*(4/10) = 0.4
WAN2: 0.8*(5/20) + 0.2*(10/10) = 0.4
WAN3: 0.8*(20/20) + 0.2*(6/10) = 0.92
Before the weights are updated next time , By Upstream Traffic returns one of the three WAN links for the load
balancing policy in circular order with weight 40:40:92. Weights will be updated by calculating with real-time
available bandwidth every three seconds.
As for working with Tunnel Routing, By Upstream Traffic divides the available uploading bandwidth of each
participating WAN link by the number of GRE tunnel deployed on the WAN link, and picks one with the most
available uploading bandwidth. For example, there is a Tunnel Routing Group consisting of three GRE tunnels
deployed on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 respectively. Other Tunnel Routing Groups deploy 2 GRE tunnels on
WAN1, 3 GRE tunnels on WAN2 and 1 GRE tunnel on WAN3. Totally, there are 3 tunnels on WAN1, 4 tunnels on
WAN2 and 2 tunnels on WAN3. If, at a time, the available uploading bandwidth of WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is
6Mbps, 20Mbps and 12Mbps, By Upstream Traffic will picks WAN3 for transferring packets matching this Tunnel
Routing Group because:
WAN1: 6Mbps/3 = 2Mbps
WAN2: 20Mbps/4 = 5Mbps
WAN3: 12Mbps/2 = 6Mbps
By Upstream Traffic for Tunnel Routing is not a Round-Robin based algorithm, it always picks the resource with
most available uploading bandwidth.
By Total Traffic
By Total Traffic serves Auto Routing, Multihoming and DNS Proxy. By Total Traffic picks one of the participating
resources (WAN links) according to the weight evenly relevant to their data downloading and uploading
availability. Each of the participating WAN links is weighted every three seconds by summing 50% available
inbound bandwidth and 50% available outbound bandwidth up. For example, there is an Auto Routing policy with
participants WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3. If, at some time, the available inbound bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and
WAN3 is 4Mbps, 10Mbps and 6Mbps, and the available outbound bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is
8Mbps, 5Mbps and 20Mbps, the weight of each WAN link is so that calculated as:
WAN1: 0.5*(4/10) + 0.5*(8/20) = 0.4
WAN2: 0.5*(10/10) + 0.5*(5/20) = 0.625
WAN3: 0.5*(6/10) + 0.5*(20/20) = 0.8
Before the weights are updated next time , By Total Traffic returns one of the three WAN links for the load
balancing policy in circular order with weight 400:625:800. Weights will be updated by calculating with real-time
available bandwidth every three seconds.
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Notices of By Upstream Traffic, By Downstream Traffic and By Total Traffic
What the available bandwidth that algorithms By Upstream, Downstream and Total Traffic using for Auto Routing
and Multihoming will depend on how Bandwidth Management (see Bandwidth Management) is configured.
Considering that a Bandwidth Management class limits the usage of maximum downloading and uploading
bandwidth of a 20Mbps/10Mbps WAN link to 6Mbps and 3Mbps respectively. For traffic classified to this BM
class, the available downloading and uploading bandwidth for algorithms By Upstream, Downstream and Total
Traffic to evaluate this WAN link will never exceed the bandwidth limits 6Mbps/3Mbps, even if the WAN link is
wholly idle.
Algorithms By Upstream, Downstream and Total Traffic measure the transmission ability of a WAN link only
between the FortiWAN device and the gateway of its ISP network (last mile). The available bandwidth of a WAN
link is measured on the network interface of the WAN link. Algorithms By Upstream, Downstream and Total
Traffic do not guarantee transmission ability between the ISP network and destinations.
By Optimum Route
Relative to algorithms By Upstream, Downstream and Total Traffic , By Optimum Route evaluates a WAN link
with not only its traffic loading but also the round-trip time (RTT) between FortiWAN and the destinations. The
evaluation involves bandwidth usage of a WAN link and the RTT, which responses the network conditions closer
to reality. For example a WAN link with the most available bandwidth might not be the best choice for data
transferring to a destination, if it has the worst RTT. Conversely, the WAN link with fewer available bandwidth
might be picked by Optimum Route if the RTT is good. By Optimum Route works for Auto Routing and
Multihoming to mainly avoid the peering issue between ISP networks. Optimum Route works via various
detections and measures. It requires to have the details configured first to make sure it works appropriately (See
Optimum Route Detection).
By Response Time
By Response Time is only used by Virtual Server (see Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing) for distribute
incoming service requests to internal servers to achieve server load balancing. By Response Time measures the
response time of each internal server by sending a detection packets, and picks one server with the lowest
response time for Virtual Server routes the matched requests to it.
By Static
By Static is only used by Multihoming for responding fixed IP addresses to DNS requests for an A/AAAA record
without considering the traffic loading and connectivity state of each WAN link. By Static deprives Multihoming of
inbound load balancing and WAN link failover; retrogrades it back to general DNS service. Note that the external
clients will access to the responded IP addresses, and the accesses might be stuck or failed if the WAN link is
congested or unavailable.
By Fixed
By Fixed is only used by Auto Routing for routing outbound traffic to a fixed WAN link without considering the
traffic loading on the WAN link. Different from Multihoming's By Static, By Fixed will not return the WAN link to
Auto Routing if it is unavailable. It requires a fail-over policy (configured in a filter rule) to achieve WAN link
failover when the fixed WAN link is failed. By Fixed deprives Auto Routing of outbound load balancing.
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Hash
Hash is only used by Virtual Server for distribute incoming service requests to weighted internal servers to achieve
server load balancing. The source IP addresses of a service request will be translated from dot-decimal address
to a decimal value first. This value is then hashed by calculating the reminder of the division of the value by the
sum of weights (modulo operation), and the reminder indicates the internal server that the service request should
be directed to. For example, if there are three servers (serv1, serv2 and serv3) weighted with 1:2:3 in the server
pool, requests that their IP addresses are congruent modulo 6 (sum of the servers' weight:1+2+3) will be assigned
to the same server according to the weights (reminder 0 indicates serv1, reminders 1 and 2 indicate serv2,
reminders 3, 4 and 5 indicate serv3). The following table lists the examples how the hash function works for
Virtual Server:
Source IP of request
Decimal value
Hash value (mod 6)
Assigned server
172.16.254.1
2886794753
5
serv3
172.16.254.2
2886794754
0
serv1
172.16.254.3
2886794755
1
serv2
172.16.254.4
2886794756
2
serv2
172.16.254.5
2886794757
3
serv3
172.16.254.6
2886794758
4
serv3
125.227.251.80
2112093008
2
serv2
125.227.251.88
2112093016
4
serv3
125.227.251.96
2112093024
0
serv1
Outbound Load Balancing and Failover (Auto Routing)
Auto Routing Mechanism
Auto Routing load-balances the outbound traffic across multiple WAN links according to a pre-defined routing
policies. During WAN link failures, auto routing will also adjust the routing methods to distribute the outbound
traffic ONLY among the WAN links in fit and working conditions, thus avoiding the failed link(s).
The traditional method of backing up WAN links by having a secondary WAN link taking over the failed link.
Basically having a main line and a second line as backup, aided by any standard router’s backup policy, minimum
fault tolerance can be achieved. This kind of approach means certain lines remain idle for most of the time and it
is a waste of resources. In addition, the router configurations can be tedious.
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Another approach for multiple WAN links backup is by dividing the LAN into multiple segments, each doing its
own thing as they are all independent WAN links. Under standard conditions, each segment has its own way
using separate routers. When one of the WAN links fails, the administrator has to change the router configuration
to bypass the failed link. The obvious drawback to this approach is the unnecessary workload for administrators.
Whenever WAN link status changes, the LAN environment settings (such as gateway, netmask, router policies,
proxy settings, etc) all need to be adjusted.
Fault Tolerance Mechanism
As previously stated, without WAN load-balancer such as FortiWAN, the traditional way of using multiple WAN
links always involves human intervention.
FortiWAN has an internal “Virtual Trunk” circuit, which is essentially a combination of the multiple WAN links.
Auto routing is capable of adjusting the ‘Virtual Trunk” to include only the WAN links that are functioning normally
and to direct outbound traffic through the “Virtual Trunk circuit” without human intervention. Network users will
therefore not be able to notice any change of status in WAN links (See "WAN Link Health Detection").
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The figure above illustrates auto routing securing uninterrupted connection to the internet even during WAN link
failures. Compared to the traditional multiple WAN link usage, auto routing can effectively use all available WAN
links to balance outbound traffic even when all the WAN links are in perfect working condition. Auto routing
cannot prevent data loss on a WAN link when it fails, but all subsequent sessions will be automatically routed to
other working links.
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FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Auto Routing service, see
"Log", "Statistics: Traffic", "Statistics: Bandwidth" and "Reports".
Configurations
It allows administrators to determine the way traffic is routed to WAN links. Multiple WAN links have a variety of
ideal auto-routing methods for any network environment. Auto routing is configured in 2 steps: Policies and
Filters.
Policy
An Auto Routing policy defines how to dynamically distribute outbound traffic (sessions) over multiple WAN links
according to traffic loading of the WAN links, which achieve the outbound load balancing. The basic items to
define a policy are the load balancing algorithm and the related WAN parameters. By associating an Auto Routing
filter rule with a policy, Auto Routing can determine a good WAN link among the candidates and route the outgoing sessions that match the filter rule to the WAN link.
Label
Enter a name to the auto routing policy. The label (policy name) will be listed in
the Routing Policy drop-menu later for assigning a policy to a filter.
T
Check to enable threshold function to the policy.
Administrators can configure the downstream and upstream threshold of
each WAN link on the configuration page of WAN Setting (See "Configuring
your WAN"). WAN links with traffic that exceeds the threshold values will be
considered as failed to Auto Routing, and traffic flow will be re-directed to
other WAN links based on the selected algorithm.
Algorithm
Select an load balancing algorithm from the drop-down menu for this routing
policy. System distributes sessions that match this policy among WAN links
according to the algorithm. The algorithms for options are:
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Fixed
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Round-Robin
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By Connection
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By Downstream Traffic
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By Upstream Traffic
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By Total Traffic
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By Optimum Route
See Load Balancing Algorithms for the details.
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Parameter
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Select the WAN links from the WAN parameters for this routing policy to
distribute sessions among. Numbering schemes indicate the WAN links.
According to the algorithm, system dynamically routes each matched
session to one of the participating WAN links. The WAN parameters varies
from the chosen algorithm:
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For algorithms Fixed, By Upstream Traffic, By Downstream Traffic, By
Total Traffic and By Optimum Route, check the check-box under a number
scheme to apply the WAN link to this policy. Selecting multiple WAN links is
allowed and it implies traffic is balanced among the selected WAN links.
When you create a new policy by click the add button for configuring it, the
WAN parameters are checked by default if the corresponding WAN links have
been enabled (see Configuring your WAN). Uncheck the check-box of a WAN
link to remove it from this routing policy.
For algorithms Round-Robin and By Connection, apply a WAN link to this
policy by defining the weight (or ratio) on the input box under a number
scheme. Selecting multiple WAN links is allowed and it implies traffic is
balanced among the selected WAN links. When you create a new policy by
click the add button for configuring it, weights are defined as 1 to the WAN
parameters by default if the corresponding WAN links have been enabled (see
Configuring your WAN). Change the weight of a WAN link to 0 (zero) to
remove it from this routing policy.
Filter
Auto Routing filters are used to evaluate against the outbound sessions (sessions from LAN and DMZ to the
Internet through the FortiWAN). The routing policy and fail-over of a matching filter rule are applied to the
evaluated sessions. Base on the specified policies, Auto Routing determines which WAN port to use for
forwarding packets of the sessions. A filter rule consists of a set of filter terms (When, Input Port, Source,
Destination and Service) and the related policies (Routing policy and Fail-over policy) for action.
E
Check to enable the rule.
When
Select a time period for this filter term to evaluate the outbound sessions by
the receiving time, or leave it as All-Time. See Busyhour Settings for details.
Input Port
Select a interface that packets are received on for this filter term to evaluate
the outbound sessions, or leave it as Any Port. See Using the web UI for
details.
Source
Define the source that packets come from for this filter term to evaluate the
outbound sessions, or leave it as Any Address. See Using the web UI for details.
Destination
Define the destination that packets are destined to for this filter term to evaluate
the outbound sessions, or leave it as WAN. See Using the web UI for details.
Service
Define the service that the packets belong to for this filter term to evaluate the
outbound sessions, or leave it as Any. See Using the web UI for details.
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Routing Policy
Specify a routing policy for sessions that match this filter rule, or leave it as
Default Policy. A matched session will be dynamically routed to a WAN link
according to the policy. All the predefined routing policies are list here for options.
Fail-over Policy
Once all the WAN links defined to a routing policy get failed, the fail-over
policy will take effect. The fail-over policy could be one of the following
options:
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Predefined routing policy - Select another predefined routing policy as
fail-over policy. The backup routing policy takes over to determine a WAN link
for this session if the original routing policy fails.
Tunnel: TUNNEL_GROUP_NAME - This option is available only when
Tunnel Routing is enabled. Select a predefined tunnel group as the fail-over
policy. Once the fail-over policy takes over the original routing policy, packets
of the session will be delivered to the remote FortiWAN device through
Tunnel Routing. With defining appropriate Auto Routing policy and filter rule
on the remote FortiWAN, packets of the session can be transferred through a
WAN link of the remote FortiWAN. See Tunnel Routing for details.
NEXT-MATCH - When NEXT-MATCH takes over original routing policy,
system continues evaluating the subsequent filter rules against the session
and move on to the next matched policy where packets fall into. At least, it
matches the default filter rule and goes to the default policy.
NO-ACTION - Take no actions when the original routing policy get failed,
and packets of the session will be dropped.
Check to enable logging. Whenever the rule is matched, system will record the
event to log file.
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Example 1
The auto routing policies to be established accordingly:
1. Always route connections through WAN#1, which is an ADSL WAN link with 512k downstream/512k upstream.
2. Always route connections through WAN#2, which is an ADSL WAN link with 1.5M downstream/384k upstream.
3. Route connections with algorithm "Optimum Route".
4. Route connections based on the current downstream traffic of WAN links.
5. Route connections based on the total traffic of each WAN link.
Policy table will look like:
Label
Algorithm
Parameter
WAN1 (512/512)
Fixed
Check WAN#1
WAN2 (1536/384)
Fixed
Check WAN#2
By Optimum Route
By Optimum Route
Check both WAN #1 and WAN
#2
By Downstream
By Downstream Traffic
Check both WAN #1 and WAN
#2
By Total
By Total Traffic
Check both WAN #1 and WAN
#2
Note: Labeling the policies alone does not mean the policy has been set up. Configuring WAN link bandwidth
must be done under [System] -> [Network Settings].
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Defining filters for the following:
1. When LAN users access web server on the internet, use policy "By Optimum Route" to route connections to the
best-conditioned link.
2. When LAN users access the FTP server on the internet, use policy "WAN1(512/512)" to route connections. If
WAN#1 fails, the connections will be routed "By Optimum Route". Note: In this case, "By Optimum Route" will only
route connections through WAN#2 as WAN #1 has failed.
3. The connections from 211.21.48.195 in DMZ to SMTP server on the internet will be routed by policy "WAN1
(512/512)". If WAN#1 fails, it will be routed by "WAN2 (1536/384)".
4. The connections from 211.21.48.195 in DMZ to POP3 server on the internet will be routed by "WAN1 (512/512)".
If WAN#1 fails, no action will be taken. Note: When WAN #1 fails, connection to the external POP server will also
fail.
Example 2
The auto routing policies to be established accordingly:
1. Always route connections through WAN#1 (fixed algorithm).
2. Always route connections through WAN#2 (fixed algorithm).
3. Always route connections through WAN#3 (fixed algorithm).
4. Route connections evenly among the three WAN links with "Round-Robin".
5. Route connections through the three WAN links by "Round-Robin" with weight ratio WAN#1:WAN#2:WAN#3 =
1:2:3. Note: if there are six connections to be established, the first connection will be routed through WAN#1, the
second and third through WAN#2, and the last three through WAN#3.
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6. Route connections through WAN#1 and WAN#2 depending on the bandwidth left in the downstream traffic of
each WAN link.
7. Route connections through WAN#2 and WAN#3 depending on the bandwidth left in the total traffic of each WAN
link.
Label
Algorithm
Parameter
WAN1
Fixed
Check WAN #1
WAN2
Fixed
Check WAN #2
WAN3
Fixed
Check WAN #3
Round-Robin 1:1:1
Round-Robin
Enter “1” for WAN #1, WAN #2, and
WAN #3
Round-Robin 1:2:3
Round-Robin
Enter “1” for WAN #1, “2” for WAN
#2, "3" for WAN #3
By Downstream
By Downstream
Check both WAN #1 and WAN #2
By Total
By Total Traffic
Check both WAN #2 and WAN #3
Defining filters for the following:
1. The connections from 192.168.0.100 to FTP 210.10.10.11 are routed by the policy "WAN3". If WAN #3 fails, they
will be routed by policy "by Downstream".
2. The connections from sub-network 192.168.10.0/24 to web servers on the internet are routed by the policy
"Round-Robin1:1:1".
3. The connections from 192.168.0.100~192.168.0.200 to sub-network 192.192.0.0/24 on TCP port 8000 are routed
by the policy "WAN2". If WAN #2 fails, they will be routed by the policy "WAN3".
4. The connections from the LAN to the Internet are routed by the policy "by Downstream". If both WAN #1 and WAN
#2 fail, they will be routed by "WAN3".
5. The connections from 211.21.48.196 to FTP 210.10.10.11 are routed by policy "Round-Robin1:2:3".
6. The connections from 211.21.48.195 to any SMTP server on the internet are routed by policy "WAN3". If WAN #3
fails, they will be routed by "WAN3". Note: In this case, the host at 211.21.48.195 will not be able to establish
connections to any SMTP server on the internet when WAN #3 fails, even though some other WAN links still keep
alive. For more details, refer to “Fail-over” policy.
7. The connections from DMZ to the internet are routed by policy "By Downstream". If both WAN #1 and WAN #2 fail,
it will be routed by "By Total". Note: Usually, when both WAN #1 and WAN #2 fail, fail-over policy will take effect.
Somehow in the case above when both WAN links fail, then all traffic will be routed to WAN #3.
8. The connections from an arbitrary host to the hosts at 60.200.10.1~60.200.10.10 will be routed by policy "WAN2".
If WAN #2 fails, they will be routed by "WAN1".
9. The connections from an arbitrary host to any host on the Internet will be routed by the policy "by Downstream".
See also
l
WAN Link Health Detection
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Configuring your WAN
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Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
Inbound Load Balancing and Failover (Multihoming)
Multihoming
Multihoming is a technique when external users request any server’s IP address; Multihoming promptly returns
DNS response according to the link quality. This provides unmatched availability of bandwidth and load-balances
incoming traffic across the multiple ISP lines.
Simultaneously using multiple IP address provided by the ISP connections can result in problems with inbound
traffic. For example, if the network is currently using an IP provided by ISP1, and a problem occurs with this ISP,
then the inbound query will not be received because the external traffic only knows the IP address provided by
ISP1. Also, by using the IP provided ISP1, ISP2 cannot manage the inbound traffic of ISP1. Therefore the
concern with multiple ISP links is how to effectively display IP address to the external environment.
Multihoming uses DNS fault-tolerance technique to resolve this problems with the simultaneous use of multiple
ISP connections. For example, if the web server for external traffic uses a single ISP connection, then any
problems with that connection will affect the network. However, if the DNS periodically assigns different IP
addresses provided by different ISP connections, then the external traffic will always have a valid IP to connect to.
The actual implementation is assigning a name of different IP, and any query to this name will receive an IP
address. As a result, different users can access the web server through different IPs, which is the purpose of
Multihoming.
Assuming, there are three WAN links (therefore three different IPs) for the web site of www.example.com, the
DNS record has three entries:
www IN A 211.21.10.3
www IN A 63.98.110.123
www IN A 192.136.1.243
All DNS requests to www.example.com will be sent to FortiWAN. Multihoming will constantly measure the health
conditions as well as the state of each WAN link and compute the optimal return answer to the DNS queries,
defined as the SwiftDNS technology. The SwiftDNS technology will not only ensure fault tolerance for inbound
traffic, it also supports powerful and flexible load balancing algorithms as in the Auto Routing mechanism to
enable users with heavy web presence to maximize the reliability and efficiency of their web services.
The SwiftDNS Multihoming mechanism requires network administrators to understand the details of the system
behavior. The fundamental concept of the DNS mechanism is shown in the next section. A step by step
deployment tutorial will also be provided.
Introduction to DNS
DNS server differs from the host file based on name resolution. Host file contains information of IP address
mapping information. It is only useful for intranet where the information of host machines is relatively static.
Name resolution by DNS server is dynamic because it can adapt to changes easily. The way it works is based on
DNS server hierarchy on the Internet. If a DNS server cannot resolve a name (the information is not in its cache),
it will ask other DNS servers. There is a protocol on how and where to ask other DNS servers.
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A name resolution request may go through a number of DNS servers. When an answer is found, it will be saved in
cache so that the same request can be answered immediately without asking other DNS servers again. Each
name resolution result saved in cache has a TTL (Time To Live). After the period of TTL, it will be discarded in
order to avoid stale information.
The whole internet has a large DNS hierarchy. The top of the hierarchy is called Root. It consists of a set of Root
DNS servers coordinated by ICANN. The next level below Root is Top Level Domain (TLD). TLD registration
database contains information about top level domains such as CA, COM, EDU, GOV, NET, etc. The next level
below TLD is Second Level Domain (such as whitehouse.gov, Microsoft.com, inforamp.net, etc.) followed by
Third Level Domain, and so on.
You can apply for domains for your organization. First, go to the Internet’s Network Information Center (InterNIC)
to find out if the domain has been registered already. You can also consult the ICANN-accredited registrar
database. Second, register the domain with a registrar. You have to provide at least two DNS servers to serve
DNS requests. If your registration has been approved, then any DNS request to your domain will be forwarded to
the DNS servers you are registered with. For example, xtera.com is registered and InterNIC has put the name
“xtera” into the COM DNS servers.
Once the domain is registered, sub-domains can be created. Example: a part or the network can be named
“sales.xtera.com”. InterNIC’s approval is not required for creating sub-domains. However, it is important to put
DNS information about sales.xtera.com into the DNS servers of xtera.com.
Here is an example of how DNS hierarchy works. A user at a university sees a link to sales.xtera.com on a web
page and clicks it. The browser will ask the local DNS server dns.utexas.edu about sales.xtera.com. Suppose it is
not in the cache of dns.utexas.edu. The DNS server goes to a Root DNS server to find the DNS server for COM
TLD. The DNS server for COM TLD tells dns.utexas.edu to go to dns1.xtera.com. Finally dns.utexas.edu is given
the IP address of sales.xtera.com by dns1.xtera.com.
SwiftDNS
One of the problems with traditional DNS servers are facing is TTL. A long TTL means a long update time when
IPs have been changed. Before the update time is up (i.e. TTL is expired), DNS requests may be answered with
incorrect information. FortiWAN employs SwiftDNS for multihoming based on the health state of the link and a
traffic re-directing algorithm. SwiftDNS dynamically answers DNS requests to prevent broken or congested links.
In order to solve the TTL issue stated above, SwiftDNS maintains a very short TTL and actively sends out
updates to internal DNS in case of link status changes.
How does SwiftDNS work?
Here is an example to illustrate how SwiftDNS works. When Multihoming is enabled, SwiftDNS becomes active.
In this case, the upper level DNS server for example.com has two NS records and they are for Primary DNS server
at 210.58.100.1 and Secondary DNS server at 210.59.100.1. Both of them are pointing to FortiWAN.
In this case, a web site at 192.168.100.1 in LAN is exposed to these two IPs. When both ISP links are working
properly, FortiWAN replies to DNS requests for www.example.com with 210.58.100.1 and 215.59.100.1 at ratio
of 1:2 (weight ratio).
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Assuming ISP1 is down and a DNS request for www.example.com comes in, it would not be able to go through
210.58.100.1 but it will be able to reach 215.59.100.1. Multihoming detects the link status of WAN1 and answer
the request with 215.59.100.1.
Prerequisites for Multihoming
In order to multihome properly, review the requirements below.
Prerequisites for Multihoming:
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Multiple WAN links (minimum of 2).
Registered domain names for public servers. Please make sure DNS requests for the domains can be delivered to
FortiWAN.
Public servers must be configured as virtual servers, or have public IPs
Besides, Multihoming is a non-recursive name server which is an authoritative DNS service that allows others to
find your domain only. Multihoming does not answer for unknown domains.
DNSSEC Support
The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a specification that adds data authentications and integrity to
standard DNS. To resist tampering with DNS responses, DNSSEC introduces PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) to
sign and authenticate DNS resource record sets within the zone. A signed zone includes a collection of new
resource records: RRSIG, DNSKEY and DS.
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RRSIG contains the DNSSEC signature for the corresponded DNS records (A, AAAA, MX, CNAME and etc.) within
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DNSKEY contains the public key corresponded to the private key used to generate RRSIG records. A DNS resolver
uses it to verify DNSSEC signatures in RRSIG.
DS (Delegation Signer) references to the public key used to verify the RRSIG in your zone. Every DS record should
be signed by your parent zone and stored in the parent zone to establish trust chain between DNS zones.
Multihoming supports basic DNSSEC which employs only one key pair KSK (Key Sign Key) to generate DNSKEY
and RRSIG records for the zone (NSEC is not supported). The supported algorithm and key size are only
RSASHA512 and 2048 bits. Note that Multihoming’s DNSSEC is not supported for Relay Mode.
Remember that you have to configure DS records with your domain registrar after you complete configurations for
DNSSEC. Please contact your domain registrar for further details about managing DS records.
Relay Mode
For the case that a DNS server already exists in you network, Relay Mode is the way to combine the existing DNS
servers with Multihoming's inbound load balance and fault tolerance. With Relay Mode enabled, FortiWAN will
forward all the DNS requests it receives to the specified name servers, in stead of processing the requests
directly. Answer of the DNS request will be responded to FortiWAN from the name server. FortiWAN's
Multihoming then reprocess the answer with appropriate IP address according to the AAAA/A records and AAAA/A
policies (load balancing algorithm). The DNS answer that contains appropriate IP address will finally responded to
client, so that the inbound access could connect via the appropriate WAN link.
Enable Backup
FortiWAN Multihoming employs Backup mechanism to provide disaster recovery approach for network across
various regions. Under this mechanism, the same backup service is set up across different regions. Therefore,
when master site is down, backup site will immediately take over to resume the service.
To deploy Multihoming Backup between two FortiWAN units for one domain, at least one of the WAN links'
localhost IPv4 addresses of each FortiWAN unit must be registered with the parent domain (so that a DNS
request for the domain can be delivered to the two FortiWAN units). Check "Enable Backup" on the Slave
FortiWAN Web UI and specify the IPv4 addresses (which are registered with parent domain) of the Master
FortiWAN in "Remote Master Servers". Configurations for Multihoming Backup deployment is only necessary on
the Slave unit, please do not check "Enable Backup" on the Master unit.
Then the Slave unit will detect the state of the Master unit periodically with its built-in Dig tool. The detect packets
will be delivered to Master unit via the IP addresses specified on the Slave unit. When the Master's Multihoming
works properly, the Slave's Multihoming will get into non-active mode (Unit that is in non-active mode will not
answer to any DNS request); when the Master's Multihoming is down, the Slave will get into active mode and take
over to resume Multihoming. After takeover, the Slave will continuously detect Master's state. Once the Master
recovers, the Slave will return Multihoming service back to Master and get into non-active mode. This is how the
Backup mechanism offers disaster recovery function. DNS database synchronization is not provided for
Multihoming Backup deployment, so that DNS database can be maintained individually on the two units for local
and remote-backup services. In case that multiple IP addresses of FortiWAN are registered with parent domain
(to avoid single WAN links failure), those IP addresses should be configured into the "Server IPv4 Address" field
on the Slave unit.
Configurations
Auto-routing is a trunking technology that provides load balancing and fault tolerance for all outbound requests,
but it does not apply to inbound requests. These are handled by a unique technology called SwiftDNS, a
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multihoming service which includes load balancing and fault tolerance for inbound requests. The minimum
requirements for multihoming are networks must have multiple WAN links and registered domain names for
publicly accessible servers. Note that a DNS request from client is delivered to FortiWAN via a fixed WAN link,
whose the IP address is registered with parent domain. It would be better to have multiple IP addresses
registered to avoid single WAN link failure.
When FortiWAN receives a DNS query, it replies with a public IP assigned to one of the WAN links based on the
settings of the answering policies. Therefore, subsequent requests to server will be sent to a public IP of the WAN
link based on FortiWAN’s previous response. The policies are based on weight for each WAN link and are
definable. Multihoming is also capable of automatically detecting the best links by “Optimum Route”, and if WAN
link failure occurs, the public IP assigned to that failed link will not be returned even though the servers are still
reachable via other links.
FortiWAN offers two options for Multihoming: Non Relay Mode and Relay Mode. The details of will be explained
in this section.
The section explains how to configure Multihoming. First, check the box to enable Multihoming in "Enable
Multihoming". Multihoming supports Backup mechanism. To enable this function, check “Enable Backup” and
enter the IP addresses of the backup server.
FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Multihoming service, see
"Log", "Statistics: Traffic", "Statistics: Bandwidth" and "Reports".
Non-Relay Mode
To enable Multihoming in non-relay mode, go to Service > Multihoming on the Web UI, check the box Enable
Multihoming, and uncheck the box Enable Relay. FortiWAN will performs DNS analysis on local host if the
relay mode is disabled. It contains three blocks to get non-relay mode Multihoming configured: Global Settings,
Policy Settings and Domain Name Settings.
Global Settings: IPv4/IPv6 PTR Record
PTR (Pointer Record) is used to resolve the IPv4/IPv6 address to a domain or hostname.
TTL
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Set the TTL for the PTR record. TTL (Time To Live) Specifies the amount of time that the
record will stay in cache on systems requesting the record (other resolving nameservers,
applications, browsers and etc.).
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Set the reverse lookup zone (domain) of the hosts for the PTR record. Click the add
button to create new tables for configuring other zones.
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Zone Name
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The reverse lookup zone name. For hosts in IPv4 subnet 1.2.3.0/24
(such as 1.2.3.4, 1.2.3.5 and etc.), the reverse lookup zone for its
PTR records is 3.2.1.in-addr.arpa. Thus, this field should be filled in
with "3.2.1". For host with IPv6 2001:470:0:64::2 (/64), the reverse
lookup zone is 4.6.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.7.4.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa and this
field should be filled in with "4.6.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.7.4.0.1.0.0.2".
Click Hide Details / Show Details to collapse or expand the SOA
configurations of the reverse lookup zone.
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SOA (Start of Authority) record of the reverse lookup zone.
Primary Name
Server
The primary name server for the reverse lookup
zone or the first name server in the name server
list below.
Host Email
The responsible party for the reverse lookup
zone.
Serial Number
A timestamp that changes whenever you
update the reverse lookup zone.
Refresh Time
The number of seconds before the reverse
lookup zone should be refreshed.
Retry Time
The number of seconds before a failed refresh
should be retried.
Expire Time
The upper limit in seconds before the reverse
lookup zone is considered no longer
authoritative.
Minimum TTL
The negative result TTL.
NS1
NS record. The primary name server for the reverse lookup zone.
NS2
NS record. The secondary name server for the reverse lookup zone.
Entries
Set the PTR entries in the reverse lookup zone. Click the add button to
create multiple PTRs.
IP Number
The last octet of the host IP address for
resolving in the reverse lookup zone. For a IPv4
host 1.2.3.4 in the reverse lookup zone
"3.2.1.in-addr.arpa", this field should be filled in
with "4". For host with IPv6 2001:470:0:64::2
(/64), this field should be filled in with
"2.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0".
Host Name
The FQDN of the host that that Multihoming
will response to the request for resolving IPv4
address 1.2.3.4 or IPv6 address
2001:470:0:64::2, such as
"www.example.com".
Policy Settings: A/AAAA Record Policy
An A/AAAA record policy defines how to dynamically answer to the requests for an A/AAAA record according to
traffic loading of WAN links, which achieve the inbound load balancing. The basic items to define a policy are the
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load balancing algorithm and the related WAN parameters. By associating an A/AAAA record with a policy,
Multihoming can determine a good WAN link among the candidates and answer the WAN port IP to the requests
for the A/AAAA record. Click the add button to create a new policy and get the following settings configured.
Policy Name
Enter a name to the A/AAAA record policy. The policy name will be listed in the To
Policy drop-menu of an A/AAAA configuration for assigning a policy to an A/AAAA
record.
T
Check to enable threshold function to the policy.
Administrators can configure the downstream and upstream threshold of each
WAN link on the configuration page of WAN Setting (See "Configuring your
WAN"). WAN links with traffic that exceeds the threshold values will be
considered as failed to Multihoming, and the other WAN links will be replied
according to the configured A / AAAA Record Policy.
Algorithm
Select an load balancing algorithm from the drop-down menu for this A/AAAA
policy. Multihoming determines a WAN link among the candidates according
to the selected algorithm and replies its IP to requests for a A/AAAA record.
The algorithms for options are:
l
By Weight: selects a WAN link by weighted round-robin.
l
By Downstream: selects a WAN link with the lightest downstream traffic load.
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By Upstream: selects a WAN link with the lightest upstream traffic load.
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By Total Traffic: selects a WAN link with the lightest total traffic load.
l
l
By Optimum Route: selects the best WAN link according to “Optimum Route
Detection”.
By Static: answers to queries with the specified static IP addresses.
See Load Balancing Algorithms for the details.
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Set the WAN parameters to the selected algorithm for this policy. By clicking the
add button aside the WAN Link field, you add one or more WAN links to the policy
for the select algorithm. The algorithm selects one of them for Multihoming to reply
a DNS query. For algorithm By Static, only the IP addresses are required, no WAN
link is involved. Click the add button to add one or more static IPs for it. The
followings are the WAN parameters need to be configured.
Show/Hide Details
Click to expand or collapse the settings.
WAN Link
Select the WAN link to be a candidate for the
selected algorithm.
This field is not available for algorithm By Static,
since Multihoming answers the static IPs to
requests without evaluating traffic loading of WAN
links.
IPv4/IPv6 Address
Specify an IP address for Multihoming to answer to
resolving requests when the defined WAN link is
chosen by the algorithm.
By default, the first IP deployed on the localhost of
the selected WAN link (see Configuring your WAN)
is listed on the drop-down menu for an option, or
you can specify another IP manually if multiple IPs
are deployed on the WAN link. If the host is
deployed in LAN (see Virtual Server), the IP
address that Multihoming replies to requests of
resolving the host must be an IP deployed on the
WAN's localhost. If the host is deployed in DMZ of
a WAN link, then you can directly specify the IP (an
IP of the DMZ subnet) of the host here.
For algorithm By Static, there is no default IP listed
for options. Specify it manually.
Weight
Specify the weight to the WAN link. This is only
available for algorithm By Weight. Weighted round-robin
determines a WAN link from the candidates according to
the weight of each WAN link.
Domain Settings
Non-relay mode Multihoming not only performs the inbound load balancing, but also manages domains and
resolves hostnames. Thus, Multihoming supports the resource records, NS, A/AAAA, CName, DName, SRV, MX
and TXT, for a managed domain. Among the records, A/AAAA records are required to associate with predefined
policies to achieve the idea of inbound load balancing. It contains the following settings to get a domain
configured to Multihoming: basic domain information, DNSSEC, related resource records and external subdomain of the domain.
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The table below configures Domain Settings: multihoming domain names, DNS servers names (for querying
domain), and answering policies to be applied when being given a prefix of the domain name.
Basic domain information
It usually requires to assign a DNS/Host Server Name and the corresponding IP address to a domain when you
register it to a domain name registrar. It tells the registrar that the domain is delegated to the specific name
server. Let's assume that a domain example.com is registered to a registrar with specifying "DNS Server
Name=ns1.example.com" and "IP address=10.10.10.10". ns1.example.com is the name server responsible
(authoritative) for the domain example.com and its IP is 10.10.10.10. This is what for the TLD authorities to
place NS records in the TLD name servers to point to the domain, and so that the recursive name servers can
work out who is really in charge of this domain. For non-relay mode Multihoming, the FortiWAN device would be
the name server authoritative for this domain. The DNS Server Name (name server) you used to register the
domain can be named without restrictions (such as ns1 in the example), but the IP address (10.10.10.10) must
be an IP that is deployed on one of the WAN links of the FortiWAN, so that requests for the domain can be finally
delivered to FortiWAN's Multihoming.
The following settings is actually for the SOA record of the domain in Multihoming.
Domain Name
Enter the registered domain name, such as example.com.
TTL
Set the TTL (Time to Live) for the domain information.
Responsible Mail
Enter an administrator's email for this domain. Note that the @ symbol is not
acceptable to Multihoming. You are required to replace the symbol @ of the email
address with a dot ".", such as admin.mail.example.com.
Primary Name Server
Enter the hostname of name server authoritative for this domain. Usually, it
is the prefix of DNS Server Name that you specified for registering the
domain, such as ns1 for ns1.example.com. Dot characters within a
hostname is acceptable, such as abc.ns1 for abc.ns1.example.com or
abc.d.ns1 for abc.d.ns1.example.com. The domain name specified above
is appended automatically to this hostname in Multihoming system backend.
A hostname ends with a dot character, such as ns1. is not acceptable.
Note that after applying the configurations, this primary name server and the
corresponding IP addresses (set in the following fields) for the domain will be
automatically added to the NS and A/AAAA records.
IPv4 Address
The IPv4 address that you specified for registering the domain, such as
10.10.10.10 in the above example.
IPv6 Address
The IPv6 address that you specified for registering the domain if it is necessary.
DNSSEC
As the previous descriptions, Multihoming supposes the DNSSEC to protect the DNS resource records in the
domain. To enable it, the followings are the settings need to get configured.
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Enable
Check to enable DNSSEC.
Private Key
Click the [+] button to generate DNSSEC private key used to sign the domain. This
private key information will be listed. DNSKEY record and RRSIG record set for this
domain are generated while applying the domain configuration. (For multiple keys,
use the [+] key)
Signing
States for the key, Active or Standby for options. Keys in the active state are those that
are in use. Keys in standby state are not introduced into the zone.
Algorithm
Only RSASHA512 is supported. This field is visible only for Administrator permission.
Key Size
Only 2048 bits is supported. This field is visible only for Administrator permission.
Key Tag
Key ID.
Hash
Hash of the public key. Send the hash value to parent zone to generate a DS record.
Modulus
Public modulus for the keypair. This field is visible only for Administrator permission.
PublicExponent
Exponent for the public key. This field is visible for only Administrator permission.
PrivateExponent
Exponent for the private key. This field is visible for only Administrator permission.
Prime1
Prime number 1 for the keypair. This field is visible for only Administrator permission.
Prime2
Prime number 2 for the keypair. This field is visible for only Administrator permission.
Notice:
1. You can generate multiple key pairs in batches from the configuration panel. Generally one key pair is in Active
state for using while the other key pairs are in Standby state for manually key rollover at the appropriate time as
determined by your key management policy.
2. In case of replacement keys, it is strongly suggested to keep both new and old keys in Active state for at least one
TTL value. When the caching of records using the old keys in external name servers has expired, the old keys can
be deleted.
3. Before deleting DNSSEC keys from your domain, you have to delete the corresponded DS record from the parent
zone. Be careful that any mistake in the process of key replacement or delete might cause DNS queries to your
domain failure.
NS Record
Name Server (NS) records identify the name servers that are authoritative for a DNS domain. It requires at least
one NS record for a domain to tell other name servers who to ask for resolving the domain name. For
Multihoming, after the previous settings Domain Name, Primary Name Server and IPv4 Address are configured,
the values will be automatically set to a NS record and an A/AAAA record for the domain. For example:
example.com. 86400 IN NS ns1.example.com
ns1.example.com 86400 IN A 10.10.10.10
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You do not need to manually add a NS record and an A/AAAA record for the primary name server through the
Web UI.
You can have multiple NS records in a domain, if there are multiple name servers authoritative for the domain for
redundancy purpose. So that if the primary name server is unavailable, the domain will still be accessible.
Configure the following settings to add the redundant NS records.
Name Server
The other name server authoritative for the domain, except the primary name
server. This field can be configured in two formats: a hostname (prefix) or a
FQDN.
Hostname (prefix)
Text string (dot characters within is acceptable) specified here that does not end
with a dot character is regarded as a hostname (prefix) of the name server, and
the base domain specified previously will be appended automatically to this
hostname in Multihoming system backend. For example entering "ns2", "abc.ns2"
or "abc.d.ns2" here, if the name server’s FQDN is ns2.example.com,
abc.ns2.example.com or abc.d.ns2.example.com. The corresponding NS record
in backend will be:
example.com. 86400 IN NS ns2.example.com
or
example.com. 86400 IN NS abc.ns2.example.com
or
example.com. 86400 IN NS abc.d.ns2.example.com
FQDN
On the contrary, text string (dot characters within is acceptable) specified here that
ends with a dot character is regarded as a FQDN of the name server, and the base
domain specified previously will not be appended to it in backend. For example
entering "ns2.example.com.", "abc.ns2.example.com." or "ns.otherdomain.com."
here, if the name server’s FQDN is ns2.example.com, abc.ns2.example.com or
ns.otherdomain.com. The corresponding NS record in backend will be:
example.com. 86400 IN NS ns2.example.com
or
example.com. 86400 IN NS abc.ns2.example.com
or
example.com. 86400 IN NS ns.otherdomain.com
IPv4 Address
IPv4 address of the name server.
IPv6 Address
IPv6 address of the name server.
A NA record configuration entry implies a NS record and an A/AAAA record in the domain. For example:
example.com. 86400 IN NS ns2.example.com
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ns2.example.com 86400 IN A 20.20.20.20
You do not need to manually add an A/AAAA record for the NS record through the Web UI.
A/AAAA Record
A/AAAA record (Address Record) points a FQDN (fully qualified domain name) to an IP address, so that a host
(such as www.example.com) can be found. A traditional A/AAAA record is configured with a specific host and a
fixed IP for connecting to the host. However, Multihoming dynamically determines the IP according predefined
policies. Thus, the settings of an A/AAAA record will associate a host with a policy (please get the A/AAAA record
policies configured first).
Host Name
Hostname (prefix) of a computer or server within the domain. Enter "www" if the FQDN
to be resolved is www.example.com, or enter the wildcard character * (see Wildcard
Support below). Dot characters within the hostname here is not acceptable.
When
Select a time period for this filter term to evaluate the DNS queries by the receiving
time, or leave it as All-Time. See Busyhour Settings for details.
Source
Define the source IPv6/IPv4 address for this filter term to evaluate DNS queries by
where they come from, or leave it as Any Address. This could be a single IP, a range of
IPs or an IP subnet.
To Policy
Select a predefined A/AAAA record policy used for the domain settings. Specify an
A/AAAA policy for DNS queries that match filter items: Host Name, When and Source.
According to the policy, Multihoming determines an IP for answering the matched
query. All the predefined A/AAAA record policies are list here for options.
TTL
Set the TTL (Time to Live) for the A/AAAA record.
You can associate a hostname with multiple policy by the filter items When and Source. Multihoming resolves the
same domain name with different policies by the receiving time and source of the DNS queries. For example:
Host Name=www, When=Idel, Source=Any Address, To Policy=Policy_A
Host Name=www, When=Busy, Source=8.8.8.8, To Policy=Policy_B
Wildcard Support
A wildcard character is supported by Multihoming's A records and AAAA records for resolving domain names.
However, the wildcard character * can only be used without other character being involved. Mixture of a wildcard
character and other ASCII characters, such as "*abc", "abc*", "a*bc" and "*.abc", will not be accepted by
Multihoming. A wildcard character matches the DNS queries for any hostname that is not stated in any NS record,
primary name server, external subdomains and other A/AAAA records of a domain, and so that the specified
A/AAAA policy matches.
For example, we have a domain example.com and its resource records as followings:
Primary name server=ns1, IPv4 Address=10.10.10.1
NS Record: Name Server=ns2, IPv4 Address=10.10.10.2
A Record: Host Name=www, To Policy=policy_www
A Record: Host Name=ftp, To Policy=policy_ftp
A Record: Host Name=*, To Policy=policy_wildcard
External Sudomain Record: Subdomain Name=subdomain1
NS Record of the subdomain: Name Server=ns3, IPv4 Address=20.20.20.1
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Any DNS query for hostnames and subdomain excepting "www", "ftp", "ns1", "ns2", "subdomain1" and
"ns3.subdomain1" will match the wildcard A record and be answered according to the wildcard policy policy_
wildcard.
l
Request for ns1.example.com will be answered with 10.10.10.1.
l
Request for ns2.example.com will be answered with 10.10.10.2.
l
Request for ns3.subdomain1.example.com will be answered with 20.20.20.1.
l
Request for ftp.example.com will be answered by policy_ftp.
l
Request for www.example.com will be answered by policy_www .
l
Requests for FQDNs such as abc.example.com, abc.d.example.com and abc.d.e.example will be answered by
policy_wildcard.
Note that wildcard character is not acceptable to records (NS, MX, TXT and etc.) except A/AAAA.
CName Record
CName (Canonical Name) records are used to alias one hostname to another, so that a host can be known by
more than one hostname. The hostname of a host that is stated in an A/AAAA record is called the canonical
name of the host. It always require an A/AAAA record for the host first to point an alias to the canonical name in a
CName record then. An host can have multiple alias name, but an alias can only be assigned to one host.
Alias
Alias name for a host. This field can be configured in two formats: a hostname
(prefix) or a FQDN.
Hostname (prefix)
Text string (dot characters within is acceptable) specified here that does not end
with a dot character is regarded as a prefix of the alias name, and the base
domain specified previously will be appended automatically to this prefix in
Multihoming system backend. For example entering "www" or "www.abc" here, if
you want to alias a target host1.example.com to www.example.com or
www.abc.example.
FQDN
On the contrary, text string (dot characters within is acceptable) specified here that
ends with a dot character is regarded as a FQDN of the alias name, and the base
domain specified previously will not be appended to it in backend. For example
entering "www.example.com." or "www.abc.example.com." here, if you want to
alias a target host1.example.com to www.example.com or www.abc.example.
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Canonical name (the real name) of the host that you want to alias. This field can
be configured in two formats: a hostname (prefix) or a FQDN.
Hostname (prefix)
Text string specified here that does not contain a dot character is regarded as a
hostname (prefix) of the target, and the base domain specified previously will be
appended automatically to this hostname in Multihoming system backend. For
example entering "host1" here if you want to alias host1.example.com to
www.example.com. In this case, this name must be stated in an A/AAAA record
first.
FQDN
Text string specified here that contains dot characters is regarded as a FQDN of
the target (but text string that ends with a dot character is not acceptable), and the
base domain specified previously will not be appended automatically to it in
backend. For example entering "host1.example.com" here if you want to alias
host1.example.com to www.example.com, or entering "host.otherdomain.com"
here if you want to alias an external target host.otherdomain.com to
www.example.com. This can be used to configure a CName record for DKIM
signing.
TTL
Set the TTL (Time to Live) for the CName record.
CName record is a better way to manage alias for a real host than creating multiple A/AAAA records for it, but all
the name resolving via CName records will be redirected to the only one A/AAAA record, which is applied to the
one A/AAAA record policy. If a host is aliased through multiple A/AAAA records, different A/AAAA records might
be applied to each of them.
DName Record
DName (Delegation Name) records are used to alias an entire subtree of a domain to another. An domain can
have multiple alias, but an alias can only be assigned to one domain.
Alias
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Alias name for a domain. Note that domain name of the domain you are setting
for will be appended to the value you specify here, to become the final alias name.
For example, specifying the Alias field here with "another" in base domain
example.com means you alias a domain (the domain you are required to set in
Target field) to another.example.com.
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Target domain that you want to alias.
For in-zone redirection, you should enter "example.com" for the target if you are
setting the DName records in the base domain example.com. For example,
queries for www.another.example.com will be redirected to www.example.com.
For out-zone redirection, you could enter another domain name here such as
"another.com" or others. Queries for www.another.example.com will be
redirected to www.another.com then. Of cause, domain another.com must be
delegated first.
TTL
Set the TTL (Time to Live) for the DName record.
SRV Record
Service
Specify the symbolic name prepended with an underscore, for example, _http, _ftp or
_imap.
Protocol
Specify the protocol name prepended with an underscore, for example, _tcp or _udp.
Priority
Specify the relative priority of this service (0 - 65535). Lowest is highest priority.
Weight
Specify the weight of this service. Weight is used when more than one service has the
same priority. The highest is most frequently delivered. Leave is blank or zero if no
weight should be applied.
Port
Specify the port number of the service.
Target
The hostname of the machine providing this service.
TTL
Set the TTL (Time to Live) for the SRV record.
MX Record
MX (Mail Exchanger) record specifies a mail server responsible for accepting recipient email messages for your
domain.
TTL
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Host Name
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The domain name that the mail servers are responsible for. This field can be
configured in two formats: a hostname (prefix) or a FQDN.
Hostname (prefix)
Text string (dot characters within is acceptable) specified here that does not end
with a dot character is regarded as a prefix of the domain, and the base domain
specified previously will be appended automatically to this prefix in Multihoming
system backend. For example, if a mail server is responsible for the recipient
emails such as user@mail.example.com, enter “mail” here. If the mail server is
responsible for the recipient emails such as user@example.com, leave this field
blank.
FQDN
Text string (dot characters within is acceptable) specified here that ends with a dot
character is regarded as a FQDN of the domain, and the base domain specified
previously will not be appended to it in backend. For example, if a mail server is
responsible for the recipient emails such as user@mail.example.com, enter
“mail.example.com.” here. If the mail server is responsible for the recipient emails
such as user@example.com, enter “example.com.” here.
Priority
The priority of the mail servers. This value is used to prioritize mail delivery if multiple
mail servers for a domain are available (Note that each mail server requires a
corresponding MX record).The higher the priority is, the lower the number is.
Mail Server
The host name of the mail server responsible for the domain specify in Host Name
field. The host must be manually predefined in an A/AAAA record or a CName
record. This field can be configured in two formats: a hostname (prefix) or a
FQDN.
Hostname (prefix)
Text string specified here that does not contain a dot character is regarded as a
hostname (prefix) of the mail server, and the base domain specified previously will
be appended automatically to this hostname in Multihoming system backend. For
example entering "ms1" here if ms1.example.com is the mail sever responsible
for domain mail.example.com or example.com. In this case, this name must be
stated in an A/AAAA record first.
FQDN
Text string specified here that contains dot characters is regarded as a FQDN of
the mail server (but text string that ends with a dot character is not acceptable),
and the base domain specified previously will not be appended automatically to it
in backend. For example entering "ms1.example.com." here if ms1.example.com
is the mail sever responsible for domain mail.example.com or example.com, or
entering an external mail server "ms.otherdomain.com" here if it is responsible for
domain mail.example.com or example.com.
For example, to route emails for recipient user@mail.example.com to a mail server mail1.example.com, it
requires the following A/AAAA record and MX record:
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A/AAAA record: Host Name=mail1, When=All-Time, Source IP=Any Address, To
Policy=Policy_A
MX record: Host Name=mail, Priority=10, Mail Server=mail1
If you want to route emails for recipient user@example.com to mail servers mail1.example.com and
mail2.example.com, it requires the following A/AAAA record and MX record:
l
l
A/AAAA record: Host Name=mail1, When=All-Time, Source IP=Any Address, To
Policy=Policy_A
A/AAAA record: Host Name=mail2, When=All-Time, Source IP=Any Address, To
Policy=Policy_B
l
MX record: Host Name=[blank], Priority=10, Mail Server=mail1
l
MX record: Host Name=[blank], Priority=20, Mail Server=mail2
Mail server mail1.example.com has higher priority and is the more preferred for recipient emails
user@example.com.
TXT Record (multiple TXT records on one hostname is allowed)
TXT (Text) record provides text information a host. The text can be used for a variety of purposes depending on
what you're using the TXT record for. For example, Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is one of the most common
uses for TXT records. TXT records can also be used to describe a server, network, data center, and other
accounting information by containing human readable information.
TTL
Set the TTL (Time to Live) for the TXT record.
Host Name
The prefix of a domain name that the TXT record is used for. This field can be
configured in two formats: a hostname (prefix) or a FQDN.
Hostname (prefix)
Text string specified here that does not contain a dot character is regarded as a
hostname (prefix) of the domain, and the base domain will be appended
automatically to this hostname in Multihoming system backend. For example, if
this TXT record is used for a domain mail.example.com, enter “mail” here. If the
TXT record is used for base domain example.com, leave this field blank.
FQDN
Text string specified here that contains dot characters is regarded as a FQDN of
the domain, and the base domain will not be appended automatically to this it in
backend. For example, if this TXT record is used for a domain mail.example.com,
enter “mail.example.com” here. If the TXT record is used for base domain
example.com, enter “example.com” here.
TXT
195
Free form text data of any type or information in format <attribute name>=<attribute
value> for specific purposes. For example using a TXT record for SPF to fight spam,
you could specify "v=spf1 a:mail ip4:10.16.130.2/24 ~all" here, which means emails
sent from domain IP 10.16.130.2/24 are effective, while emails sent from other IPs are
assumed as spams.
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External Subdomain Record (available only in non-relay mode)
External subdomain records are used to delegate the responsibility for subdomains to other name servers, which
means the responsibility for the administration of a subdomain (such as child) of the base domain (such as
example.com) will be delegated to another management group (such as child.example.com). Multihoming (the
name server of base domain example.com) is responsible for redirecting all the queries which end with
child.example.com to the subdomain name servers.
Subdomain Name
The prefix of the delegated subdomain. For example, if the delegated subdomain is
child.example.com, enter child here. Note that this name can not be a duplicate of what
is specified to the A/AAAA, NS, CName, DName or MX record in the base domain.
NS Record
Specify the external name servers that the subdomain is delegated to. The NS records
here will point the subdomain to the responsible name servers. Note that Multihoming
only answers the IP addresses of external name servers authoritative for the subdomain to
the queries for anything in the subdomain. So please have the external name servers
(another machines) configured and online first. If the name servers authoritative for the
subdomain is not a FortiWAN running Multihoming, inbound load balancing is not
available for the subdomain.
Name Server
Hostname (prefix) or FQDN of the external name server authoritative
for the subdomain. Enter “ns1” or "ns1.child.example.com.", if the
name server’s FQDN is "ns1.child.example.com" for example. See
section NS Record above for details.
IPv4 Address
IPv4 address of the name server.
IPv6 Address
IPv6 address of the name server.
Relay Mode
To enable Multihoming in relay mode, go to Service > Multihoming on the Web UI, check the boxes Enable
Multihoming and Enable Relay.
When Relay is enabled, FortiWAN will relay the DNS requests it receives to a specified name servers, and
reprocess the answer with appropriate IP address according to the AAAA/A record policies. The necessary
configurations for Multihoming in Relay Mode are AAAA/A Record Policy and Domain Settings. The name server
the Multihoming Relay Mode forward a DNS request to must be configured in field "Domain Settings". Only if the
AAAA/A record of the request answer that the name serve responds to FortiWAN matches Multihoming's AAAA/A
Record, the request answer will be reprocesses with appropriate IP address according to the AAAA/A record
policies, otherwise, Multihoming will simply forward the DNS answer to client without any changing. Please
make sure the same configuration of AAAA/A record on both FortiWAN Multihoming and the
specified name server working with Multihoming Relay Mode.
Note that it's necessary to update the registrations on your parent domain with FortiWAN's localhost IP
addresses, so that a request for your domain can be delivered to FortiWAN and forwarded to the specified name
server.
For other query type such as MX and TXT, Multihoming's Relay Mode will simply forward the answer from the
specified name server to clients.
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Policy Settings: A/AAAA Record Policy
Please refer to Policy Settings: A/AAAA Record Policy in Non-relay mode.
Domain Settings
Domain Name
Domain Name
The registered domain name that Multihoming relays the queries for, such as
example.com.
Name Server
IPv4 Address
Specify the IPv4 addresses of the name servers authoritative for the domain and
Multihoming relays the queries to.
IPv6 Address
Specify the IPv6 addresses of the name servers authoritative for the domain and
Multihoming relays the queries to.
A/AAAA Record
Please refer to A/AAAA Record in Non-relay mode.
Scenarios
Example 1
Here is a typical usage to balance inbound traffic load by Multihoming (non-relay mode). Thinking about the
inbound traffic to access a virtual server on FortiWAN, Multihoming distributes the accesses over Multiple WAN
links by dynamically answering the best WAN link IP to DNS queries for www.domainname.com (domain name
of the virtual server). The followings are the related configurations.
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An internal web server (192.168.0.100 on HTTP 80) is installed in LAN and virtual server on FortiWAN is
associated with it by the following settings on Web UI: Service > Virtual Server (See Virtual Server for details):
WAN IP
Service
Algorithm
Server Pool
Server IP
Service
211.21.33.186
HTTP (80)
Round-Robin
192.168.0.100
HTTP(80)
61.64.195.150
HTTP (80)
Round-Robin
192.168.0.100
HTTP(80)
This web server is bound to the two WAN ports. Accesses on 211.21.33.186 and 61.64.195.150 for HTTP 80 will
be translated to the real server 192.168.0.100 in LAN. To get details about WAN configurations, see Configuring
your WAN.
To make accesses distributed among the two WAN links according their upstream load, you need to have
Multihoming configured as followings. Go to Service > Multihoming on Web UI, enable Multihoming (disable
Relay) and have the following basic settings configured.
A Record Policy Settings
Policy Name
web
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By Upstream
Policy Advance Setting
WAN Link
IPv4 Address
1
211.21.33.186
2
61.64.195.150
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Domain Settings
You need to register the domain domainname.com, the responsible name server ns1.domainname.com and its
IP address 211.21.33.186 to a registrar.
Domain Name
TTL
Responsible Mail
Primary Name IPv4 Address
Server
domainname.com
30
admin.domainname.com
ns1
211.21.33.186
A/AAAA Record
Host Name
When
Source IP
To Policy
TTL
www
All-Time
Any
web
30
Multihoming answers to queries for www.domainname.com with IP address (211.21.33.186 or 61.64.195.150)
of the better one of the two WAN links according the their upstream load, so that external users can always
access the virtual server through an efficient WAN link.
Example 2
Here is another similar usage for Multihoming and an internal SMTP server. Multiple will answer the mail server
responsible for accepting recipient email for domain domainname.com, for example user@domainname.com.
An internal mail server (192.168.0.200 on SMTP 25) is installed in LAN and virtual server on FortiWAN is
associated with it by the following settings on Web UI: Service > Virtual Server (See Virtual Server for details):
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WAN IP
Service
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Algorithm
Server Pool
Server IP
Service
211.21.33.186
SMTP(25)
Round-Robin
192.168.0.200
SMTP(25)
61.64.195.150
SMTP(25)
Round-Robin
192.168.0.200
SMTP(25)
To make accesses distributed among the two WAN links by weighted round-robin, you need to have Multihoming
configured as followings. Go to Service > Multihoming on Web UI, enable Multihoming (disable Relay) and have
the following basic settings configured.
A Record Policy Settings
Policy Name
Algorithm Policy Advance Setting
smtp
By Weight
WAN Link
IPv4 Address Weight
1
211.21.33.186
1
2
61.64.195.150
1
Domain Settings
You need to register the domain domainname.com, the responsible name server ns1.domainname.com and its
IP address 211.21.33.186 to a registrar.
Domain Name
TTL
Responsible Mail
Primary Name IPv4 Address
Server
domainname.com
30
admin.domainname.com
ns1
211.21.33.186
A/AAAA Record
Host Name
When
Source IP
To Policy
TTL
mail1
All-Time
Any
smtp
30
MX Record
TTL
Host Name
Priority
Mail Server
30
[Leave it blank]
1
mail1
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Tunnel Routing
Tunneling is a technique to perform data transmission for a foreign protocol over a incompatible network; such
as running IPv6 over IPv4, and the transmission of data for use within a private, corporate network through a
public network. Tunneling is done by encapsulating and decapsulating data and information of the particular
protocol within the incompatible transmission units symmetrically.
Traditional tunneling is established over single WAN link which is a lack of load balancing and fault tolerance.
FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing (TR) is a technique that builds a special connection between two FortiWAN units to
deliver link aggregation and fault tolerance over multiple WAN links ideally tailored for multinational intranet
systems. Different to Auto Routing distributing sessions over WAN links, Tunnel Routing breaks further a session
down to packets over multiple WAN links and allows data to be prioritized during transfer while boosting the
performance of critical services such as VPN and live video streaming while avoiding delays and data loss.
Basically, FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing implies routing packets of a session over tunnels (WAN links), which
contains the two elements - Tunnels and Routing.
GRE Tunnel
FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing sets up proprietary tunnels between symmetric FortiWAN sites (local and remote)
with GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) protocol. GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) Protocol packs the
Payload (Original Packet) with Delivery Header and GRE Encapsulation Header. Physically, a point-to-point GRE
tunnel for Tunnel Routing is the transimission of GRE packets via a pair of WAN links predefined on the
symmetric FortiWAN sites (a WAN link on the local FortiWAN, and another one on the remote FortiWAN) (See
"Tunnel Group" and "Group Tunnel" in "Tunnel Routing - Setting").
Routing
With the multiple WAN links on each FortiWAN, Tunnel Routing distributes (routes) GRE packets of a session
over the GRE tunnels (a tunnel group) according the balancing algorithms and tunnel status detection. This is
what the load balancing and fault tolerance Tunnel Routing provides for tunneling. Moreover, with proper policy
setting, Tunnel Routing can route GRE packets over multiple sites (more than two sites) without full-mesh
connections between the sites (See "Default Rule", "Routing Rule" and "Persistent Rules" in "How to set up
routing rules for Tunnel Routing"). Briefly, it performs routing of GRE packets over multiple tunnels and multiple
sites.
Next we introduce Tunnel Routing in the following topics:
How the Tunnel Routing Works
Tunnel Routing - Setting
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
Scenarios
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How the Tunnel Routing Works
Here is an example to explain the processes that how Tunnel Routing delivers packets to remote private internal
network via Internet. Here are two FortiWAN sites (FWN-A and FWN-B) connected to Internet with two WAN links
respectively. Two private LAN networks: 192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.20.0/255.255.255.0 are
connected to FWN-A and FWN-B respectively. Now host 192.168.10.100 would like to communicate with host
192.168.20.100 which is located at remote private LAN. Here are the steps:
1. Host 19.168.10.100 sends the first original packet to FWN-A, source IP and destination IP of the packet are
indicated as 192.168.10.100 and 192.168.20.100.
2. FWN-A's Tunnel Routing takes charge of transferring the packet because it matches a tunnel routing rule (A
routing rule is predefined for packets from 192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0 to 192.168.20.0/255.255.255.0).
3. According the specified balancing algorithm (determining a WAN link for transferring), FWN-A encapsulates the
original packet with GRE and Delivery headers which the source IP and destination IP are indicated as public
addresses 1.1.1.1 (FWN-A's WAN 1) and 3.3.3.3 (FWN-B's WAN 1) respectively.
4. The GRE packet is then transferred via Tunnel 1 (from FWN-A's WAN 1 to FWN-B's WAN 1 via Internet).
5. FWN-B receives this GRE packet and decapsulates it to recover the original packet.
6. The original packet then is forwarded to host 192.168.20.100 in the private LAN network.
7. The subsequent packets (for example the packet 2 in the figure below) of the session from host 192.168.10.100
are transferred in the same way except the different tunnels that balancing algorithm determines.
After the basic concept how Tunnel Routing transfers packets, several topics related to Tunnel Routing are
explained in detail.
Priority over Auto Routing and NAT
Tunnel Routing rules are in higher priority than Auto Routing rules and NAT rules for FortiWAN matching packets
with. Predefine a Tunnel Routing rule, a Auto Routing rule (See "Auto Routing") and a NAT rule (See "NAT") with
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the same source and destination, packets that are indicated the source and destination will be first matched to
the Tunnel Routing rule and transferred by Tunnel Routing, without be processed by FortiWAN's Auto Routing
and NAT.
Healthy detection for tunnels
Tunnel Routing maintains a unique mechanism of healthy detection for tunnels, which is different from
FortiWAN's WLHD (See "WAN Link Health Detection"). Symmetric FortiWAN sites continue sending GRE
encapsulated detection packets to each other via the defined tunnels. The detection receiver on each FortiWAN
site decides the status of a tunnel (OK or Fails) by monitoring if the detection packets arrive continuously. Tunnel
Routing's balancing algorithms distribute packets only over those healthy tunnels, so that the network connection
and the data transfer reliability are guaranteed. Tunnel Routing's healthy detection contains the whole connection
between two FortiWAN sites (from the WAN link one side to the WAN link another side via Internet), while WLHD
only detects the status of connections to Internet. Therefore, the two mechanisms might show different detection
result. For example, the Web UI reports a WAN link is OK but a tunnel established with the WAN link is failed.
This might be the failed WAN link on the opposite site of the tunnel. For another example, the Web UI reports a
WAN link is failed but a tunnel established with the WAN link is OK. This might because a incorrect configuration
to WLHD results in incorrect detection.
Dynamic IP addresses and NAT pass through
FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing supports dynamic IP addresses and NAT pass through. Only one static public IP
address (No NAT employed to the static IP address) is required for tunnel routing deployment between the
symmetric FortiWAN sites. A negotiation will be dynamically performed via the only one static public IP address
to synchronize the dynamic IP addresses and the IP addresses of NAT device to each other. Therefore, changes
on dynamic IP addresses or IP addresses NAT device causes no damage to tunnel connections. Note that NAT
pass through for Tunnel Routing here is not the NAT function of FortiWAN, FortiWAN will never perform NAT
translation for tunnel packets. The NAT pass through here is for the application that another NAT device in front
of FortiWAN. Usually, this happens when a ISP provides WAN links with private IP addresses and does NAT
translation for the private WAN links on the ISP side.
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IPSec Support
Although Tunnel Routing provides itself a simple data protection by encrypting the data payload of original
packets, it is not secure enough as standard IPSec's protection. IPSec defines rigorous procedures on security
parameters negotiation, key exchange and authentication to prevent any compromise. Various encryption and
authentication algorithms, and key strengths are contained in IPSec, so that various security levels are provided.
With IPSec protection, a standard virtual private network (VPN) can be implemented.
Although Tunnel Routing connects two incompatible networks (private networks) by tunneling through Internet, it
is seriously not a standard VPN since it is short on security. FortiWAN IPSec (Transport mode) is capable of
protecting Tunnel Routing tunnels, so that Tunnel Routing becomes qualified to the standard VPN. With IPSec
protection, Tunnel Routing not only functions in a securer way, but also keeps the advantage of bandwidth
aggregation and fault tolerance between tunnels. The only sacrifice is dynamic IP addresses and NAT pass
through are not supported for Tunnel Routing over IPSec. Besides, deployments of Tunnel Routing over IPSec is
limited. For more information about Tunnel Routing over IPSec, please refer to "IPSec - About FortiWAN IPSec
VPN", "Limitation in the IPSec deployment" and "IPSec - Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN".
Performance
Tunnel Routing spreads packets of a session over multiple tunnels and arranges the packets in correct order at
the opposite site, then forwards the well-ordered packets to the destinations. Different quality of tunnels (Round
Trip Time between the two ends of a tunnel) causes different latency to packets arriving, which is the major factor
for data transmission performance. Bad quality of a tunnel or greatly difference of quality between tunnels will
cause packet loss and retransmission in higher possibility, which results in terrible decrease in Tunnel Routing
transmission performance.
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Throughput of a tunnel
As the previous description, a logical tunnel is established by two FortiWAN units via two physical WAN links
(such as WAN1 of FWN-A and WAN2 of FWN-B in the above diagram). Throughput of the tunnel is bounded by
one of the two WAN links with the worst throughput. For example, if throughput of the two WAN links are 30Mbps
and 50Mbps respectively, packets can not be transferred via the tunnel at speed higher than 30Mbps. We can
roughly say that throughput of the tunnel is 30Mbps.
Latency that a tunnel group
Ideally, we expect Tunnel Routing to transfer packets of a session at the speed aggregated with the throughput of
the tunnels (packets of the session are transferred via the two tunnels). For example, you might expect a speed
close to 100 Mbps if both the two tunnels are 50Mbps. However, realistic network latency and transport layer
protocols make it impossible to aggregate the bandwidth in such perfect way. We tried to figure out the factors
affecting Tunnel Routing performance, and network latency is surely the major one. If packets of a session is
transferred via a group of tunnels (packets are distributed among the tunnels, the concept of tunnel group will be
introduced in Tunnel Routing - Setting), performance of the transmission will be mainly influenced by the highest
latency of the participating tunnels. For example, if connection latency of two tunnels (such as Tunnel1 and
Tunnel2 in above diagram) are 10ms and 30ms respectively, a transmission via the two tunnels will suffer from
30ms delays. We can roughly say that the latency that the tunnel group is experiencing is 30ms.
Evaluation of your tunnels
The throughput and quality of WAN links so that are the important factors in your plan for deploying a Tunnel
Routing network. Basically, WAN links with better quality (lower latency) bring better performance for Tunnel
Routing transmission. Measuring the latency of all the pairs of WAN links between two FortiWAN units in advance
helps you to determine the WAN links for the Tunnel Routing network. For example, two FortiWAN units have
three WAN links individually, and the latency of all the pairs of WAN links between the two units is as followings:
FWN-A-WAN1
FWN-A-WAN2
FWN-A-WAN3
FWN-B-WAN1
45ms
50ms
15ms
FWN-B-WAN2
30ms
55ms
65ms
FWN-B-WAN3
55ms
20ms
52ms
According the above measure, pairs of FWN-A's WAN1 and FWN-B's WAN2, FWN-A's WAN2 and FWN-B's
WAN3, and FWN-A's WAN3 and FWN-B's WAN1 are the better connections among all the pairs. It seems that the
three WAN link pairs are qualified to be used for establishing tunnels in your Tunnel Routing network. You can
pick two or three of them and combine them into a tunnel group. FortiWAN provides a benchmark (See "Tunnel
Routing - Benchmark") to measure the latency (RTT) and evaluate the tunnels , which is helpful to plan a Tunnel
Routing network.
Now let's see how the latency influence Tunnel Routing performance. If the WAN link pairs of FWN-A's WAN1
and FWN-B's WAN2, and FWN-A's WAN3 and FWN-B's WAN1 are used to establish tunnels for a tunnel group,
the throughput of the WAN links and the two tunnels are as following:
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Tunnel 1
Throughput/WAN link
Tunnel 2
FWN-A-WAN1
FWN-B-WAN2
FWN-A-WAN3
FWN-B-WAN1
50Mbps
60Mbps
100Mbps
50Mbps
Throughput/tunnel
50Mbps
50Mbps
As the previous discussion that throughput of a tunnel is bounded to the worse WAN link, throughput of the two
tunnels is bounded to 50Mbps. Similar according previous definition, transmission through the tunnel group
consisting of the two tunnels suffers from 30ms delay, which is the higher latency of the two tunnels. However,
according to measure, this Tunnel Routing deployment (two 50Mbps tunnels with 30ms latency) results in
69Mbps performance, which is 69% usages of the two tunnels (69Mbps/50Mbps+50Mbps). In the measurement
of tunnel performance and latency, bandwidth of the participating WAN links is wholly available for the Tunnel
Routing transmission; there is no other traffic occupied the bandwidth.
Tunnel Group
Tunnel 1
Tunnel 2
30ms
15ms
Latency/tunnel
30ms
Latency/tunnel group
Throughput/tunnel
50Mbps
50Mbps
69Mbps
Throughput/tunnel group
69%
Bandwidth Usage
With the same latency of a tunnel group, the higher throughput of each the participating tunnel brings lower
aggregation percentage, which means the higher throughput the tunnels the lower latency is required to remain
the aggregation percentage at the same level. For example, the following measurement shows how the
aggregation percentage of tunnels performance is varied by single tunnel's throughput under the same latency.
Tunnel Group
Tunnel 1
Tunnel 2
Throughput/tunnel group
Bandwidth Usage
Tunnel 1
Tunnel 2
Tunnel Group
Tunnel 1
Tunnel 2
250Mbps
250Mbps
30ms
Latency/tunnel group
Throughput/tunnel
Tunnel Group
50Mbps
50Mbps
100Mbps
100Mbps
69Mbps
70Mbps
92Mbps
69%
35%
18%
With the same conditions, packets of a session are transferred through the tunnel group consisting of two
100Mbps tunnels at a maximum of 70Mbps. Bandwidth usages of the two tunnels is down to 35%. It might
require latency less than 5ms to bring bandwidth usage of the two 100Mbps tunnels close to 60%.
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The above measurement gives basic concept that how the performance of a Tunnel Routing transmission is
influenced. Both the throughput (bandwidth) of single WAN link and its connection latency deeply influence the
performance, and these factors greatly concern the plan you deploy the Tunnel Routing network. The above data
is for your reference, some variations in details are possible.
Disabling GRO (Generic Receive Offload) module
Besides network latency, different implements of transport layer protocols running on users' computers that
communicate to each other via a tunnel group also greatly influence the transmission performance. For example,
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is differently implemented in Windows OS and Linux OS in fields such as
TCP window size and packet retransmission mechanism. Communication via Tunnel Routing between Windows
OS computers suffers from higher possibility of packet retransmission in particular condition than Linux OS, which
results in bad Tunnel Routing transmission performance between Windows OS users. Generic Receive Offload
(GRO) module is a technique used to increase inbound throughput of network connections by reducing CPU
overhead for processing arrived packets. The GRO mechanism involves reassembling multiple incoming packets
into larger buffers. Tunnel Routing transmission between Windows OS users is sensitive to the packets
reassembling , which result in high-frequent packets retransmission and bad transmission performance. It is
strongly recommended to disable GRO modules (via a CLI command, see Console Mode Commands) on the
network ports that are receiving outgoing packets (the LAN ports and/or DMZ ports) of the Tunnel Routing
transmission for this case (Windows users). For example, if hosts in LAN and DMZ subnets behind two FortiWAN
units communicate to each other through a Tunnel Routing network (the LAN/DMZ port interfaces receive the
packets and forward them to multiple tunnels), disabling GRO modules on the LAN and DMZ ports of the two
FortiWAN units avoids a worse performance.
Note that disabling GRO module on a network port can enhance the Tunnel Routing transmission performance,
but it also results in slight impact to non-Tunnel-Routing transmission on the port when the system is under heavy
loading (there might be a slight decrease in transmission performance of non-Tunnel-Routing traffic through the
network port). We suggest keeping GRO modules enabled on the network ports that does not participate in the
Tunnel Routing transmission.
Throughput of bidirectional TR transmission
For one-way TR transmission, although either download or upload bandwidth of tunnels is consumed by the
transferred data packets, bandwidth (in the opposite direction) is available to get relative TCP control packets
responded in acceptable latency and correct order. Both the download and upload bandwidth will be consumed if
the tunnels are loaded with bidirectional connections. Respondent TCP control packets of a connection and data
packets of another connection will scramble for limited bandwidth. In the meantime, distributing TCP control
packets of a connection over tunnels must bring higher latency and out-of-order delivery and result in poor
transmission performance. To guarantee expected throughput for bidirectional TR transmission, FortiWAN
Tunnel Routing fixes TCP control packets (packets without data payloads) of all connections running on a TR
group to a single tunnel (rather than distributing them over tunnels), which will significantly reduce latency and
out-of-order delivery. This specific tunnel is not reserved for only TCP control packets, parts of data packets of
connections will also be assigned to this tunnel according to the specified balancing algorithm. Therefore, this
specific tunnel is supposed to be the most stable (largest bandwidth, best quality) one in the tunnel (refer to the
above description for how to evaluate a tunnel). This mechanism requires no extra configurations, but needs posit
the tunnels on the configuration GUI in a appropriate ordering , see Tunnel Routing - Setting.
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Persistent Route in Tunnel Routing
As the above description, Tunnel Routing could hardly 100% aggregate bandwidth of multiple tunnels for TCP
connections. TCP is intrinsically such sensitive to factors, such as latency, packet out-of-order delivery, TCP
window size, quality of the links and etc., so that there will always be a bottleneck to the transmission
performance, as long as packets of each connection are distributed over multiple tunnels. However, on the other
hand, higher bandwidth usage (almost 100%) of multiple tunnels could be achieved if Tunnel Routing just
persistently transfers packets of each connection via a single tunnel rather than distributing them over multiple
tunnels. Like the cooperation of Persistent Routing and Auto Routing (see Outbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Auto Routing) and Persistent Routing), Tunnel Routing supposes the Persistent Routing as well. Although a
persistently-routed TR connection will be bounded in performance by the maximum throughput of the tunnel that
TR fixes it to (conversely, a packet-distributed TR connection can use aggregated bandwidth of tunnels, even if it
is about a maximum of 70% aggregation), in real practice, Tunnel Routing will not serve only one connection at a
time; there will always be various connections existing concurrently between two sites and tunnels are full of their
traffic. In that case, each connection need compete with others for available bandwidth and it is hard to tell
whether a packet-distributed connection or a persistently-routed connection runs in better throughput, but it
certainly gives higher usage of overall bandwidth if all the connection in tunnels are persistently-routed.
Here is the comparison between packet-distributed TR connection and persistently-routed TR connection.
Packet-distributed TR connection
l
Bandwidth of multiple tunnels are aggregated for a connection.
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There is no impact to a connection when single tunnel fails.
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A connection is sensitive to TCP parameters of all the participating tunnels.
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A connection can hardly use more that 70% aggregated bandwidth.
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The overall connections running on the tunnels can hardly use more that 70% aggregated bandwidth.
Persistently-routed TR connection
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Bandwidth aggregation is not available for a connection.
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Single tunnel failure impacts the connection.
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Only TCP parameters of the specified tunnel effects the connection.
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Performance of a connection is bounded by throughput of the specified tunnel.
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The overall connections running on the tunnels can use almost 100% aggregated bandwidth (number of
connections must be larger than number of participating tunnels).
You might have various non-critical traffic and critical applications between sites in the Tunnel Routing (intranet)
network. Packet-distributed Tunnel Routing is suggested for critical application requiring higher level of loadbalancing and fault-tolerance, such as remote database backup, while persistently-routing Tunnel Routing might
be more suitable to non-critical traffic for better overall TR transmission performance. Tunnel Routing
performance is a complex topic, so that you need to take a deliberation on this before configuration. See section
Persistent Rules in How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing for configuring it.
Default rule
If your TR network deployment requires more than 100 TR routing rules, replacing the TR routing rules with TR
default rules will be suggested for better performance (see How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing).
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Tunnel Routing
Bandwidth Management
Tunnel Routing is designed to be transparent to FortiWAN's Bandwidth Management (See "Bandwidth
Management"). The way to allocate or limit bandwidth to traffic of Tunnel Routing is to drill it down to the original
packets, control the traffic by individual service, source or destination. In other words, the traffic of individual
service transferred through Tunnel Routing can be controlled. Guaranteeing proper bandwidth to individual traffic
helps for the performance of Tunnel Routing transmission. Packets encapsulated by Tunnel Routing becomes
invisible to Bandwidth Management; controlling the overall Tunnel Routing traffic by service GRE will go to
failure.
Scale
For large-scale Tunnel Routing network deployment, FortiWAN supports up to 100 tunnel groups for FWN-200B,
400 tunnel groups for FWN-1000B and 1000 tunnel groups for FWN-3000B. All of the three models have a default
maximum total allowed enable amount of 2500 GRE tunnels (total amount of enabled GRE tunnels of all the
tunnel groups).
FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Tunnel Routing service, see
"Log", "Statistics: Tunnel Status", "Statistics: Tunnel Traffic", "Report: TR Status" and "Report: TR Reliability".
See also
Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Setting
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
Scenarios
Tunnel Routing - Setting
There are two major steps to set up Tunnel Routing, define the association of tunnels (see the tables: Basic
Setting and Tunnel Group) and set up the routing rules (see the tables: Default Rules, Routing Rules
and Persistent Rules). Tunnel Routing works in symmetric FortiWAN sites, when the unit we are talking about
or configuring to is called local host (or local site), the opposite unit is then called remote host (or remote site).
Basic Setting
The basic settings are located here: enabling or disabling Tunnel Route logging, define names and entering
tunnel routing activation key (if the encryption function is enabled for a tunnel group).
Tunnel Route Log
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Enable or disable logging. FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on
events refer to the Tunnel Routing service, see "Log", "Statistics: Tunnel Status", "Statistics:
Tunnel Traffic", "Report: TR Status" and "Report: TR Reliability".
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Local Host ID
Assign a unique host name for this unit. Tunnels are established between two FortiWAN
units. Host ID is used for Tunnel Routing to recognize the units running TR transmission.
Symmetrically, this field is required to the opposite unit.
Key
Decide a secret key for tunnel encryption and enter it here, if the encryption function is
enabled for a tunnel group. Tunnel Routing encryption employs only one secret key for all
tunnel transmissions, therefore, please set the decided key to all the tunnel routing hosts.
This key is used for the data encryption built in Tunnel Routing, not for encryption of IPSec.
For an IPSec protection on Tunnel Routing, please refer to "IPSec".
Confirm
Confirm the key above.
Tunnel Group
Consider the symmetric FortiWAN sites with multiple WAN links on each side, a tunnel between the two units are
the connection with one WAN link of local unit and one WAN link of remote unit. A tunnel group contains
multiple tunnels which might be various combinations of WAN links between the two FortiWAN units. A tunnel
group is the basic unit to be used for a Tunnel Routing transmission. Packets of a session transferred via tunnel
routing between units would be distributed (according to the balancing algorithms) to the multiple tunnels defined
in the tunnel group. Therefore, a tunnel group is logically a big tunnel that multiple WAN links are integrated to.
The figure below is an example to illustrate tunnels and tunnel groups. Tunnel Group 1 contains two tunnels
which tunnel 1 is established with FWN-A's WAN 1 and FWN-B's WAN 1, and tunnel 2 is established with FWNA's WAN 2 and FWN-B's WAN 2. A transmission via Tunnel Group 1 will be distributed over tunnel 1 and tunnel 2.
Tunnel Group 2 also contains two tunnels which tunnel 3 is established with FWN-A's WAN 3 and FWN-B's WAN
4, and tunnel 4 is established with FWN-A's WAN 4 and FWN-B's WAN 3. Containing only one tunnel in a tunnel
group, which is a degenerate case, is allowed.
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Tunnel Routing
Tunnel group is the basic unit to be employed for tunnel routing transmission. Therefore, balancing algorithms,
encryption, the opposite site, tunnels in the group and even quality of the WAN links are the necessary
associations for a tunnel group transmission. To set up a tunnel group, here is the necessary information:
l
Which opposite FortiWAN unit the tunnel group is established with: Remote host ID
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What are the tunnels included in the tunnel group: Local IP and Remote IP for a tunnel
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How to distribute packets over the tunnels: Algorithm
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Does the transmission keep in secret:Encryption
Note that every tunnel group must contain at least one tunnel which is configured with one static
public IP address. FortiWAN supports up to 100 tunnel groups for FWN-200B, 400 tunnel groups for FWN1000B and 1000 tunnel groups for FWN-3000B. All of the three models have a default maximum total allowed
enable amount of 2500 GRE tunnels.
In this configuration table, tunnels are configured for a tunnel group with IP addresses of WAN links of local and
remote FortiWAN units and the routing algorithm used to rout packets over tunnels.
Add
Click the Add button to add a new Tunnel Group setting panel.
Note that the default maximum allowed to add is:
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100 tunnel groups for FortiWAN 200B
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400 tunnel groups for FortiWAN 1000B
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1000 tunnel groups for FortiWAN 3000B
Group Name
Assign a group name to the tunnel group.
Remote Host ID
Enter the Host ID of the Remote unit the Tunnel Group connects to.
Algorithm
l
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Round-Robin: Route the connections in every tunnel by weight. Note: Please specify the
weight value of “Group Tunnels” when selecting “Round-Robin” (See Load Balancing
Algorithms).
By Upstream Traffic: Route the connections to the tunnel with the lightest upstream traffic
flow (See Load Balancing Algorithms).
Group Tunnels
Click the add button on the Group Tunnels panel, then a configuration block pops up for adding a GRE tunnel in
the tunnel group. Move the cursor over an existing tunnel (it will be highlighted) and click it, the configuration
block pops up also for editing it.
Enable
Check to enable/disable this GRE tunnel.
Note that the default maximum allowed to enable for a tunnel group is 16 GRE tunnels.
For all the configured tunnel groups, a maximum total of 2500 enabled GRE tunnels is
allowed.
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Tunnel Routing
Local IP
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Configure local IP address for tunnels in the tunnel group. The local IP addresses here are the
localhost IP defined on the WAN links of local FortiWAN. According to the WAN type defined on
WAN links, here are several types of Local IP for options.
l
Static-IP WAN link without NAT on local side: If the WAN link of local FortiWAN
you want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a static public IP address and there
will be no NAT translation to this IP address, please select “IPv4 Address” and configure
it with the static public IP address of the WAN link.
l
l
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Static-IP WAN link with NAT on local side: If the WAN link of local FortiWAN you
want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a static IP address and there is a NAT
translation to this IP address, please select “(NAT) IP Address” and configure it with the
static IP address of the WAN link.
Dynamic-IP WAN link without NAT on local side: If the WAN link of local
FortiWAN you want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a dynamic IP address
(Bridge Mode: PPPoE or DHCP for the WAN type) and there will be no NAT translation
to the dynamic IP address, please select “Dynamic WANx” for the configuration.
Dynamic-IP WAN link with NAT on local side: If the WAN link of local FortiWAN
you want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a dynamic IP address (Bridge
Mode: PPPoE or DHCP for the WAN type) and there is a NAT translation to the
dynamic IP address, please select “(NAT) Dynamic WANx” for the configuration.
According your WAN Setting, “Dynamic WAN x” and “(NAT) Dynamic WAN x” are listed in
pair in the drop-down menu to correspond all the dynamic WAN links (Bridge Mode:
PPPoE and Bridge Mode: DHCP). To avoid a TR transmission failure, please select
corresponding types for the deployments which involve NAT translating within.
If the IP addresses that ISP provides is private IP addresses (no matter they are static or
dynamic), the ISP might perform NAT translations to the private IP addresses. Please
contact with the ISP for further information.
For options "Static-IP WAN link without NAT" and "Static-IP WAN link with NAT", if a
change on the IP address of the WAN link is made (from Network Setting) on the local
FortiWAN unit, a corresponding update to the setting here is necessary (manually).
For deployment of Tunnel Routing over IPSec, make sure Local IP here is equal to the
Local IP configured to correspondent IPSec Phase 1 (See "IPSec - Define routing policies
for an IPSec VPN").
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Remote IP
Tunnel Routing
Configure remote IP address for tunnels in the tunnel group. The remote IP addresses here are
the localhost IP defined on the WAN links of remote FortiWAN. According to the WAN type
defined on WAN links, here are several types of Remote IP for options.
l
Static-IP WAN link without NAT on remote side: If the WAN link of remote
FortiWAN you want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a static IP and there will
be no NAT translation to the IP address, please select “IPv4 Address” and configure it
with the static IP address of the WAN link.
l
l
Dynamic-IP WAN link without NAT on remote side: If the WAN link of remote
FortiWAN you want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a dynamic IP and there
will be no NAT translation to the IP address, please select “Dynamic IP” for the
configuration.
WAN link with NAT on remote side: No matter the WAN link of remote FortiWAN
you want to employ for the tunnel is configured with a static or dynamic IP address,
please select “(NAT) Dynamic IP” for the configuration if there is a NAT translation to
the IP address.
To avoid a TR transmission failure, please select corresponding types for the deployments
which involve NAT translating within.
For option "Static-IP WAN link without NAT", if a change on the IP address of the WAN link
is made (from Network Setting) on the remote FortiWAN unit, a corresponding update to
the setting here is necessary (manually).
For deployment of Tunnel Routing over IPSec, make sure Remote IP here is equal to the
Remote IP configured to correspondent IPSec Phase 1 (See "IPSec - Define routing
policies for an IPSec VPN").
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Weight
The weight/priority of the tunnel for the Round-Robin balancing algorithm. This field is
displayed only if Round-Robin is selected for Algorithm.
Encrypt
Check to enable/disable encryption for packets transferred via this tunnel. Remember to set the
secret key for encryption. This is a simple encryption built in Tunnel Routing, which employs
AES in ECB mode. If a higher and stricter security is required, please perform Tunnel Routing
under protection of IPSec Transport mode (See "IPSec").
DSCP
DSCP(Differentiated Services Code Point) provides simple mechanism for quality of service
(QoS) on IP networks. DSCP uses the differentiated services code in IP header to indicated
different traffic QoS classification. If your ISP provides DSCP service, please contact them for
the values. In the field, specify the value to the tunnel. Leave it blank if you do not apply DSCP
to the tunnel. Note that only the tunnels established with static local and remote IP addresses
support DSCP. This will primarily be used for tunnels over MPLS networks.
Add (button)
Click to add configuration of the tunnel into Group Tunnels panel. After clicking, this tunnel is
listed on the panel. Note that clicking the Apply button is still required to save the whole
configurations to system back-end for Tunnel Routing.
Save (button)
This button appears while you are editing an existing tunnel. Click to save the editing back to
Group Tunnels panel. Note that clicking the Apply button is still required to save the whole
configurations to system back-end for Tunnel Routing.
Cancel (button)
Click to close the configuration block.
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
As previous description, for the performance of bidirectional transmission, Tunnel Routing will automatically fix
any TCP control packet (packet without data payload) to the first available tunnel listed on the Group Tunnel
block in bottom-up order. Not only the control packets but also data packets will be assigned to this specific
tunnel, therefore, the more bandwidth this tunnel is capable of, the more smoothly the control packets can be
delivered. You are suggested to arrange the tunnels (by clicking the Move Down and Move Up buttons) in a order
that the higher throughput the lower position on the list.
Note that one group tunnel configuration cannot be duplicates (group tunnels with the same configuration on
fields Local IP and Remote IP) for multiple tunnel groups. One group tunnel configured with a static local IP
address and a static remote IP address can only be used for one tunnel group between one pair of local host and
remote host. One group tunnel configured with a static IP address and a dynamic WAN link can be duplicates in
the tunnel groups which is used with different remote host, but cannot be duplicates in the tunnel groups which is
used with the same remote host.
Beside the GRE tunnels, configuration of a tunnel group includes setting for Default Rule, which is an option. If
your TR network deployment requires more than 100 TR routing rules, replacing the TR routing rules with TR
default rules will be suggested for better performance. Default Rule is introduced in How to set up routing rules
for Tunnel Routing.
See also
Tunnel Routing
How the Tunnel Routing Works
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
Scenarios
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
To perform Tunnel Routing, symmetric FortiWAN deployment is a basic requirement. Therefore, symmetric
routing rules are also required for two-way data transmission. A routing rule here contains three basic elements
that are
What is the traffic to be transferred by Tunnel Routing? Tunnel Routing filter traffic by Source,
Destination and Service.
Which Tunnel Group is employed to transfer the traffic? Apply a predefined tunnel group to the specified
traffic, then it will be transferred according to the how the tunnel group is defined; the balancing algorithm, the
tunnels, the weight, the encryption and DSCP.
What to do if the Tunnel Group fails? A failed tunnel group means all the tunnels defined in the tunnel group
are disconnected (detected by Tunnel Routing's tunnel healthy detection mechanism). Therefore, it is necessary
to specify another way for the traffic. Note that as long as one tunnel in a tunnel group remains connected,
Tunnel Routing keeps employing the tunnel group for transmission.
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Tunnel Routing
Next we introduce the two ways, Routing Rule and Default Rule, to establish the routing rules for Tunnel
Routing.
Routing Rules
This is the general way to set routing rules for Tunnel Routing. A routing rule contains the three basic elements
above, which evaluates traffic by Source, Destination, Service, (Tunnel) Group and Fail-Over. Note that a routing
rule sat on a FortiWAN site is required symmetrically for the opposite FortiWAN site, so that the bidirectional
transmission is achieved.
Add
Click the Add button to add a new rule.
Source
The source of the connection (See "Using the web UI").
IPv4 Address, IPv4 Range and IPv4 Subnet: To filter out the traffic coming from the
specified IPv4 Address, IPv4 Range or IPv4 Subnet.
LAN: To filter out the traffic coming from LAN area.
DMZ: To filter out the traffic coming from DMZ area.
Any Address: To filter out the traffic coming from any IP address
As mentioned previously, we recommend you to disable the GRO mechanism on
corresponding network interfaces (LAN or DMZ port) of the local FortiWAN device that the
IP address you configured here is associated with for better performance.
Destination
The destination of the connection (See "Using the web UI").
IPv4 Address, IPv4 Range and IPv4 Subnet: To filter out the traffic going to the
specified IPv4 Address, IPv4 Range or IPv4 Subnet.
WAN: To filter out the traffic going to WAN area.
As mentioned previously, we recommend you to disable the GRO mechanism on
corresponding network interfaces (LAN or DMZ port) of remote FortiWAN device that the
IP address you configured here is associated with for better performance.
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Service
The TCP/UDP service type to be matched. The default is "Any". Administrators can select from
the publicly known service types (e.g. FTP), or can choose the port number in TCP/UDP
packet. To specify a range of port numbers, type starting port number plus hyphen "-" and then
end port number. e.g. "TCP@123-234" (See "Using the web UI").
Group
The tunnel group used to transfer the specified traffic (filtered by Source, Destination and
Service). The balancing algorithm and tunnels for distributing the traffic are defined in the
tunnel group.
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Tunnel Routing
Fail-Over
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
This field defines the fail-over policy for situation that all the WAN links (tunnels) of the
specified tunnel group in the routing rule fail. Possible options are:
NO-ACTION: Traffic will not be diverted when the tunnel group get failed, and
transmission will get failed.
Auto Routing: Traffic will be re-evaluated against Auto Routing's rules and transferred
according to the Auto Routing policies. Transmission gets failed if there is no rule
matches.
Tunnel: [Group Name]: All the defined tunnel groups are listed for options. Traffic will
be diverted to the specified tunnel group here, however, the diverted traffic will not be
diverted again if the beck-up tunnel group is also failed. Note: it takes the same action as
"NO-ACTION" if a tunnel group that is the same as what specified in field "Group" is
selected as back-up for fail-over here.
If your TR network deployment requires more than 100 TR routing rules, replacing the TR routing rules with TR
default rules will be suggested for better performance.
Default Rule
Default Rule provides a semiautomatic way to establish symmetric routing rules, while Routing Rule is a fullymanual way. Default Rule is a simple and efficient way to configure symmetric routing rules for tunnel
transmission between FortiWANs. Although Default Rule is a simplified way to set routing rules up, it still
contains the three basic elements that we introduced above. Default Rule filters traffic by Source and Destination
while ignoring the Service (Service = Any). To set the default rules up, only the source IP addresses need to be
specified on both FortiWAN units that a tunnel group connects. Then the symmetric FortiWAN units
automatically negotiate for the destinations; One’s source in a default rule will become to the destination in the
default rule on the opposite unit. In other words, Default Rule is the fully-connected association established by
specified sources on local and remote units.
A Default Rule is attached to a Tunnel Group. The configurations of a tunnel group contains items for its default
rules, so that traffic filtered out by the default rule would be transferred via this tunnel group, which is the second
element for a tunnel routing rule we introduced above.Every default rule contains fail-over policy for transmission
when the tunnel group fails; this is the third element for a tunnel routing rule.
Add
Click the Add button to add a new rule.
E
Check to enable the rule.
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Source
Tunnel Routing
The source of the connection (See "Using the web UI").
IPv4 Address, IPv4 Range and IPv4 Subnet: Specify the IPv4 Address, IPv4 Range or
IPv4 Subnet that the traffic comes from to be filtered by this rule.
LAN: To filter out the traffic that comes from LAN area.
DMZ: To filter out the traffic that comes from DMZ area.
As mentioned previously, we recommend you to disable the GRO mechanism on
corresponding network interfaces (LAN or DMZ port) of the local FortiWAN device that the
IP address you configured here is associated with for better performance.
Fail-Over
Select a policy from the list. Once the tunnel group get failed (every single tunnel in the
tunnel group fails), traffic will be diverted based on Fail-Over policies.
NO-ACTION: Traffic will not be diverted when the tunnel group get failed, and
transmission will get failed.
Auto Routing: Traffic will be re-evaluated against Auto Routing's rules and transferred
according to the Auto Routing policies. Transmission gets failed if there is no rule
matches.
Tunnel: [Group Name]: All the defined tunnel groups are listed for options. Traffic will
be diverted to the specified tunnel group here, however, the diverted traffic will not be
diverted again if the beck-up tunnel group is also failed. Note that it takes the same action
as "NO-ACTION" if a tunnel group that is the same as what this default rule attached to is
selected as back-up for fail-over here.
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Considering the illustration above, a tunnel group (Tunnel Group AB) containing two tunnels (Tunnel 1 and
Tunnel 2) connects two FortiWAN units (FWN-A and FWN-B) that two internal networks connect respectively to.
Configurations of default rules on two sites are as follow:
Default rules sat on FWN-A
Source
Fail-Over
192.168.1.10
NO-ACTION
192.168.1.11
Auto Routing
192.168.1.12
Tunnel: BackupGroup
Default rules sat on FWN-B
Source
Fail-Over
192.168.2.10
Tunnel: BackupGroup
192.168.2.11
NO-ACTION
192.168.2.12
Auto Routing
The sources sat on FWN-B's default rules, which are treated as destinations for FWN-A, are sent to FWN-A via
the automatic negotiation. FWN-A then generates logically the following routing rules in system back-end.
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.1.10
192.168.2.10
Any
Tunnel Group AB
NO-ACTION
192.168.1.10
192.168.2.11
Any
Tunnel Group AB
NO-ACTION
192.168.1.10
192.168.2.12
Any
Tunnel Group AB
NO-ACTION
192.168.1.11
192.168.2.10
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Auto Routing
192.168.1.11
192.168.2.11
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Auto Routing
192.168.1.11
192.168.2.12
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Auto Routing
192.168.1.12
192.168.2.10
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Tunnel:
BackupGroup
192.168.1.12
192.168.2.11
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Tunnel:
BackupGroup
192.168.1.12
192.168.2.12
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Tunnel:
BackupGroup
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Tunnel Routing
The sources sat on FWN-A's default rules, which are treated as destinations for FWN-B, are sent to FWN-B via
the automatic negotiation. FWN-B then generates logically the following routing rules in system back-end.
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.2.10
192.168.1.10
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Tunnel:
BackupGroup
192.168.2.10
192.168.1.11
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Tunnel:
BackupGroup
192.168.2.10
192.168.1.12
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Tunnel:
BackupGroup
192.168.2.11
192.168.1.10
Any
Tunnel Group AB
NO-ACTION
192.168.2.11
192.168.1.11
Any
Tunnel Group AB
NO-ACTION
192.168.2.11
192.168.1.12
Any
Tunnel Group AB
NO-ACTION
192.168.2.12
192.168.1.10
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Auto Routing
192.168.2.12
192.168.1.11
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Auto Routing
192.168.2.12
192.168.1.12
Any
Tunnel Group AB
Auto Routing
In the example above, Source of every default rule is specified with single IPv4 address. It is a easier way that set
up default rules by specifying Source with a IPv4 range, IPv4 subnet, LAN or DMZ.
Default Rule gives a great help to establish fully-connected routing rules while constructing an Intranet on many
branch sites via Tunnel Routing. Consider an Intranet deployment over three branch sites, only three default rules
(each one on a branch site) are required to establish the fully connection over the three sites, which requires six
routing rules without using Default Rule.
Default Rule refers the configurations of LAN and DMZ in Network Setting to negotiate the routing rules if the
Source is specified as LAN or DMZ for a default rule. It is necessary to re-apply the configurations of Default Rule
to trigger the negotiation and update the default rules if any change to LAN or DMZ networks setting.
Disabling GRO
Tunnel Routing rules define what the hosts behind FortiWAN units are communicating to each other through a
Tunnel Routing network and how the communication packets are distributed over multiple tunnels. As the
previous description, you are suggested to disable the GRO (General Receive Offload) mechanism on the
network interfaces (LAN ports and/or DMZ ports) that the internal hosts connecting to for better Tunnel Routing
transmission performance (see Performance in How the Tunnel Routing Works). The source and destination
fields of routing rules indicate the network port that the hosts are connecting to. For example, there is a routing
rule:
Source = 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0, Destination = 192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0,
Service = Any, Group = TRGroup1, Fail-Over = NO-ACTION
192.168.1.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24 are the subnets connecting to the LAN port of each FortiWAN unit on two
ends of the Tunnel Routing network. Communication packets from the subnets are received by the connected
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LAN ports (for example, the port 5 of each FortiWAN is programmed as LAN port), evaluated against the TR
routing rule and delivered to the destination through TR network if rule is matched. Disabling the GRO (General
Receive Offload) mechanism on the connected LAN port interfaces through a sysctl command (see Console
Mode Commands) can enhance performance of Tunnel Routing transmission between the two sites.
sysctl generic-receive-offload-port5=0
Persistent Rules
Traffic that a persistent rule matches is transferred via a fixed tunnel (WAN link). Tunnel Routing transfers the
first packet of a session through a tunnel according to the specified balancing algorithm. Persistent routing then
marks this tunnel for the session, so that the subsequent packets of the session will be transferred directly via the
same tunnel (GRE encapsulated directly with the source and destination of the tunnel) without evaluation against
routing rules and balancing algorithms until this session disconnects or timeout. For any new session that a
persistent rule matches, only the first packet of the session will be processed with routing rules and balancing
algorithms. Persistent routing makes Tunnel Routing degenerate into traditional tunnel transmission (transfer
every single session via one WAN link), which provides no load balancing and fault tolerance to single session;
even so, multiple sessions (not packets) are still distributed over multiple WAN links (similar concept as Auto
Routing). Note that setting of the filed "Fail-Over" of a routing rule (or a default rule) is invalid for sessions that are
routed persistently to fixed tunnels.
Source
The source of the connection (See "Using the web UI").
Destination
The destination of the connection (See "Using the web UI").
Service
The TCP/UDP service type to be matched. The default is "Any". Administrators can select from
the publicly known service types (e.g. FTP), or can choose the port number in TCP/UDP
packet. To specify a range of port numbers, type starting port number plus hyphen "-" and then
end port number. e.g. "TCP@123-234" (See "Using the web UI").
So far, Routing Rules, Default Rule and Persistent Rules are introduced. Any packet for Tunnel Routing will be
first evaluated against Persistent Rules. Once a persistent rule matches and a tunnel that the previous packet are
transferred through is marked for the session, this packet will be transferred directly via the tunnel without
evaluation against Default Rule and Routing Rules. Packets that no persistent rules match or no tunnel is market
for transferring directly will be evaluated against Default Rule first and Routing Rules then, the rule that matches
first is applied.
See also
Tunnel Routing
How the Tunnel Routing Works
Tunnel Routing - Setting
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
Scenarios
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Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
To guarantee a performance aggregation transferring TR packets, FortiWAN requires equal quality for the WAN
links employed in a tunnel group. The Benchmark here provides evaluation of WAN link quality for every single
tunnel. Tunnels are judged in run trip time, packet loss and bandwidth. It is not suggested to employ a WAN link
that is worse than others in a tunnel group.
Tunnel Routing's Benchmark works as Client/Server mode. Test traffic is sent from the client site to the server
site via every single configured tunnel, and then the benchmark results are reported at client site. Two steps to
start Tunnel Routing's Benchmark between two FortiWAN appliances (make sure the Tunnel Routing network is
established between the two FortiWANs),
1. Specify one of the FortiWANs to be the benchmark server.
2. Start benchmark traffic from the benchmark client, the ForiWAN opposite to the benchmark server.
Start a benchmark server
From the WeB UI, the Tunnel Routing page, all the configured tunnel groups are listed in the Benchmark panel.
To start the benchmark server on a FortiWAN for a tunnel group, you need:
1. Specify the port number on the Test Port field for sending/receiving the testing traffic. Note that the port number
on both benchmark sites (Client/Server) must be identical. It will fail to receive testing packets if unequal port
numbers are used by the two sites.
2. Click the button Start Test Server of the tunnel group that you want to test from the list (in Test Client Status
block). This button will be switched to Stop Test Server while benchmark server is running; click it to stop the
server.
While the benchmark server is running, a message Test server is running. Please do not change to another page
or close browser will display and occupy the main page of Web UI. For all the administrator accounts, it become
unable to apply new configurations to Tunnel Routing (the Apply button on Web UI becomes ineffective) during
benchmark server is running. Web UI will allow apply configurations to other functions during benchmark server is
running, but we suggest not to do this since changes to some functions such as Network Setting, Firewall or
IPSec might interrupt benchmark server. During benchmark server running, you can switch Web UI main page to
other functions, but a message Test server is running. Please stop it first displays when you turn the main page
back to Tunnel Routing. This message reminds you the benchmark server is still running, and the Apply button of
Tunnel Routing remains ineffective until you stop the server. Note that the benchmark server can work for only
one tunnel group anytime; stop the server on one tunnel group to start it for another.
Start testing traffic from the benchmark client
For the symmetric FortiWAN sites of a tunnel routing network, benchmark client, the site that is opposite to the
benchmark server, triggers the testing traffic. Similarly, all the configured tunnel groups are listed in Benchmark
panel. To start benchmark traffic on the site you need:
1. Specify the port number on the Test Port field for sending/receiving the test traffic. Note that the port number on
both benchmark sites (Client/Server) must be identical. It will fail to receive testing packets if unequal port
numbers are used by the two sites.
2. Click the button Test of the same tunnel group that the opposite benchmark server is working for. You will be
direct to a management panel to start benchmark testing. For a disable tunnel group, a error message This group
is not enabled displays.
3. In the testing management panel, you see all the tunnels of the tunnel group listed (IP addresses of the two
endpoints of a tunnel), and two test cases provided:
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1. Single tunnel test: Click the Test button of a tunnel, testing traffic will be generated and sent to the
opposite (the server side) of the tunnel. All the packets of the testing session will be sent through only the
specified tunnel. This will bring out a testing result for evaluating performance of the specified tunnel.
2. Tunnel group test: Click the Test button of the last item All Tunnels in Group (at the bottom of the
table), testing traffic will be generated and sent to the opposite (the server side) of the tunnel group. All
the packets of the testing session will be distributed over the tunnels of the tunnel group according to the
configured algorithm of the tunnel group. This will bring out a testing result for evaluating performance of
the tunnel group.
4. On the upper right corner of the table, there is a button Test All used to perform every Single Tunnel Testing and
the Tunnel Group Testing one by one in a top-down order.
5. You can click Close to stop and leave the benchmark management panel.
Tunnel group information
In Test Client Status panel, all the configured tunnel groups are listed in the table. Information of tunnel groups
is also listed in the table, it includes the group name, remote host ID, algorithm, enable and the group tunnels of
a tunnel group. Click Show/Hide Details to expand or collapse information of the tunnel group. Note that
information of tunnel groups listed in the table cannot be changed for benchmark, and testing cannot be
performed for a disable (the checkbox "Enable" is unchecked) tunnel group. Buttons to trigger benchmark testing
and display test result are also listed together with every tunnel group in the table.
Measurement
All the benchmark testing cases (single tunnel testing and tunnel group testing) contain two parts, testing
without traffic and testing with traffic. In the first 20 seconds, benchmark client continues to send ping ICMP
echo requests to the benchmark server without sending other testing traffic together. In the next 20 seconds then,
benchmark client continues to creates TCP data streams together with ping ICMP echo requests to measure the
throughput of the tunnel (WAN links). The testing traffic between benchmark client and server is encapsulated
with GRE header, so that it simulates real tunnel transmission for performance measurement. Benchmark server
responses client for the testing traffic via the same tunnel, and the measurement result can be generated by
benchmark client and displays in the table. The measurement result contains
Tunnel
WAN links employed by the tunnel between the symmetric sites.
Without Traffic - RTT
Round-Trip Time of the ping ICMP packets in average (without other tunnel traffic).
Without Traffic - Packet
Loss
Packet loss of the ping ICMP packets in percentage (without other tunnel traffic).
With Traffic - Bandwidth
Throughput of the tunnel.
With Traffic - RTT
Round-Trip Time of the ping ICMP packets in average (with the traffic of throughput
measurement).
With Traffic - Packet Loss
Packet loss of the ping ICMP packets in percentage (with the traffic of throughput
measurement).
To evaluate the quality of a tunnel (two WAN links) exactly, we suggest to stop any general-purpose traffic
passing through the WAN links while a measurement is running on a tunnel.
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Tunnel Routing
See also
Tunnel Routing
How the Tunnel Routing Works
Tunnel Routing - Setting
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
Scenarios
Scenarios
Example 1
A company’s headquarters and two branch offices are located in different cities. Each office has a LAN, multiple
WAN links and a DMZ with VPN gateway:
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Headquarters
Branch 1
Branch 2
WAN1
1.1.1.1
2.2.2.2
6.6.6.6
WAN2
3.3.3.3
4.4.4.4
8.8.8.8
WAN3
Dynamic IP
N/A
10.10.10.10
LAN
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
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Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
The settings for the headquarters:
Set the field Local Host ID as HQ.
Local Host ID: HQ
Tunnel Group
Group Name
HQ-Branch1
HQ-Branch1
Backup
HQ-Branch2
HQ-Branch2
Backup
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
B1
Round-Robin
B1
Round-Robin
B2
Round-Robin
B2
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
1.1.1.1
2.2.2.2
1
1.1.1.1
4.4.4.4
1
3.3.3.3
2.2.2.2
1
3.3.3.3
4.4.4.4
1
1.1.1.1
6.6.6.6
1
3.3.3.3
8.8.8.8
1
Dynamic WAN
10.10.10.10
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.1.1-192168.1.10
192.168.2.1-192.168.2.10
Any
HQ-Branch1
HQ-Branch1
Backup
192.168.1.1-192.168.1.10
192.168.3.1-192.168.3.10
Any
HQ-Branch2
HQ-Branch2
Backup
1.1.1.11
2.2.2.22
Any
HQ-Branch1
AR
1.1.1.11
6.6.6.66
Any
HQ-Branch2
No-Action
The settings for the branch1
Set the field Local Host ID as B1
Local Host ID: B1
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Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch1-HQ
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
2.2.2.2
1.1.1.1
1
2.2.2.2
3.3.3.3
1
4.4.4.4
1.1.1.1
1
4.4.4.4
3.3.3.3
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.2.1-192168.2.10
192.168.1.1-192.168.1.10
Any
Branch1- HQ
No-Action
2.2.2.22
1.1.1.11
Any
Branch1- HQ
AR
The settings for the branch2
Set the field Local Host ID as B2
Local Host ID: B2
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch2-HQ
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
6.6.6.6
1.1.1.1
1
6.6.6.6
3.3.3.3
1
8.8.8.8
1.1.1.1
1
8.8.8.8
3.3.3.3
1
10.10.10.10
Dynamic IP
1
Routing Rules
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Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.3.1-192168.3.10
192.168.1.1-192.168.1.10
Any
Branch2- HQ
No-Action
6.6.6.66
1.1.1.11
Any
Branch2- HQ
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
According to example 1, any data sent from 1.1.1.11 (or 192.168.1.1-192.168.1.10) to 2.2.2.22 will be wrapped
and sent as a GRE packet. If 1.1.1.1 experiences a WAN link failure, the packet will still be sent from 3.3.3.3 to
continue the transfer.
NOTE: When using tunnel routing in FortiWAN, the settings must correspond to each other or else tunnel routing
will not perform its function. For example, if FortiWAN in Taipei has removed the values 2.2.2.2 to 3.3.3.3 in their
routing rule settings, then the FortiWAN in Taichung will not be operational.
Example 2: Tunnel Routing with Dynamic IP
A company operates a branch office oversea. In the headquarters, two WAN links are deployed: a fixed IP WAN
and a dynamic IP WAN; in the branch, two dynamic IP WAN.
Requirements
As illustrated in the diagram below, a tunnel is established between LAN1 and LAN2. Packets are transferred via
two WAN links evenly.
Summary of the Network
Headquarters
Branch
WAN1
211.21.33.186
Dynamic IP
WAN2
Dynamic IP
Dynamic IP
LAN
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
The settings for the headquarters:
Set the field Local Host ID as "HQ".
Local Host ID: HQ
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Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Group
Group Name
HQ-Branch
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
Branch
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
211.21.33.186
Dynamic IP at
WAN1
1
Dynamic IP at
WAN2
Dynamic IP at
WAN2
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
Any
HQ-Branch
No-Action
The settings for the branch1
Set the field Local Host ID as Branch
Local Host ID: Branch
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch-HQ
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
Dynamic IP at
WAN1
211.21.33.186
1
Dynamic IP at
WAN2
Dynamic IP at
WAN2
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
Any
Branch-HQ
No-Action
Example 3 Forwarding of Tunnel Routing
A company operates two branch offices oversea. Each office deploys a public line to access Internet. Each branch
office sets up an individual tunnel with the headquarters to access the corporate Intranet.
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Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Requirements
The LAN links in branch 1 and branch 2 can communicate with each other via the tunnel established with the
headquarter.
Summary of the Network
Headquarters
Branch 1
Branch 2
WAN 1
No
1.1.1.1
No
WAN 2
No
No
2.2.2.2
WAN 3
3.3.3.3
No
No
LAN
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
The settings for the headquarters:
Set the field Local Host ID as "HQ".
Local Host ID: HQ
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Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ-Branch1
Branch1
HQ-Branch2
Branch2
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
Round-Robin
3.3.3.3
1.1.1.1
1
Round-Robin
3.3.3.3
2.2.2.2
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
Any
HQ-Branch2
No-Action
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
Any
HQ-Branch1
No-Action
The settings for the branch1
Set the field Local Host ID as Branch1
Local Host ID: Branch1
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch1-HQ
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
1.1.1.1
3.3.3.3
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
Any
Branch1-HQ
No-Action
The settings for the branch2
Set the field Local Host ID as Branch2
Local Host ID: Branch2
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch2-HQ
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Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
2.2.2.2
3.3.3.3
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
Any
Branch2-HQ
No-Action
Example 4: Central Routing of Tunnel Routing
A company operates two branch offices oversea. Intranet is established throughout the three locations, but the
branch 1 does not have any public links to the internet and uses tunnel routing to connect to the internet via the
WAN in the headquarters. The branch 2 uses a public WAN link for internet. In the event of WAN link failure, the
tunnel between branch 2 and headquarters office will be the backup line for internet connection.
Summary of the Network
Headquarters
Branch 1
Branch 2
WAN 1
No
1.1.1.1
No
WAN 2
No
No
2.2.2.2
WAN 3
3.3.3.3
No
No
WAN 4
4.4.4.4
No
No
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Tunnel Routing
Headquarters
Branch 1
Branch 2
WAN 5
No
No
5.5.5.5
LAN
No
192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
The settings for the headquarters:
Set the field Local Host ID as "HQ".
Local Host ID: HQ
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ-Branch1
Branch1
HQ-Branch2
Branch2
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
Round-Robin
3.3.3.3
1.1.1.1
1
Round-Robin
3.3.3.3
2.2.2.2
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
Any Address
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
Any
HQ-Branch2
No-Action
Any Address
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
Any
HQ-Branch1
No-Action
Auto Routing Settings
Policies
Label
Algorithm
Parameter
WAN4
Fixed
Tick the check box "4"
Default Policy
By Downstream Traffic
Tick the check boxes "1", "2", "3", "4" ...
Filters
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Source
Destination
Service
Routing Policy
Fail-Over
Tunnel
WAN
Any
WAN4
No-Action
Any Address
WAN
Any
Default Policy
No-Action
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Tunnel Routing
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
The settings for the branch1
Set the field Local Host ID as Branch1
Local Host ID: Branch1
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch1-HQ
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
1.1.1.1
3.3.3.3
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
Any Address
WAN
Any
Branch1-HQ
No-Action
The settings for the branch2
Set the field Local Host ID as Branch2
Local Host ID: Branch2
Tunnel Group
Group Name
Branch2-HQ
Remote Host
ID
Algorithm
HQ
Round-Robin
Tunnels
Local IP
Remote IP
Weight
2.2.2.2
3.3.3.3
1
Routing Rules
Source
Destination
Service
Group
Fail-Over
192.168.2.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
Any
Branch2-HQ
No-Action
Auto Routing Settings
Policies
Label
Algorithm
Parameter
WAN5
Fixed
Tick the check box "5"
Default Policy
By Downstream Traffic
Tick the check boxes "1", "2", "3", "4" ...
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Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing
Filters
Source
Destination
Service
Routing Policy
Fail-Over
Any Address
WAN
Any
WAN5
Tunnel:
Branch2-HQ
Any Address
WAN
Any
Default Policy
No-Action
See also
Tunnel Routing
How the Tunnel Routing Works
Tunnel Routing - Setting
How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing
Tunnel Routing - Benchmark
Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing
Virtual Server is a method for single gateway machine to act as multiple servers while the real servers sit inside
corporate network to process requests passed in from the gateway machine. Inbound traffic does not have to
know where the real servers are, or whether there are just one or many servers. This method prevents direct
access by users and therefore increases security and flexibility.
FortiWAN has built in virtual server and is capable of supporting various virtual server mapping methods. For
example, different public IP addresses can be mapped to various real servers in LAN or DMZ. Or ports can be
mapped to public IP address on different servers.
Virtual server are configured by designating and adjusting virtual server rules. Each rule specifies a mapping
condition. It maps WAN IP address and a service (port or ports) to an internal server IP. The order of virtual server
rules is like any other rule tables in FortiWAN as it also uses the “first match scheme”, viz. the first rule of request
matched is the rule to take effect.
For example, a public IP address 211.21.48.196 and wants a web server on 192.168.123.16 to handle all the web
page requests coming to this public IP address. To do this, a virtual server rule must be created with
211.21.48.196 to be its WAN IP, 192.168.123.16 to be its Server IP, and HTTP(80) to be its Service.
Virtual Server makes intranet (LAN) servers accessible for the internet (WAN). The private IP addresses assigned
to intranet servers will become invisible to the external environment, making services accessible for users outside
the network. Then FortiWAN is available to redirect these external requests to the servers in LAN or DMZ.
Whenever an external request arrives, FortiWAN will consult the Virtual Server table and redirect the packet to the
corresponding server in LAN or DMZ. The rules of Virtual Server tables are prioritized top down. If one rule is
similar to another in the table, only the higher ranked one will be applied, and the rest will be ignored. In addition,
Virtual Server enables to balance load on multiple servers, which is to distribute traffic over a group of servers
(server cluster), making services highly accessible.
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FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Virtual Server service, see
"Log", "Statistics: Virtual Server Status" and "Report: Virtual Server".
IPv4 Virtual Server
E
Check the box to enable the rule
When
Options: Busy hour, Idle hour, and All-Time (See "Busyhour Settings").
WAN IP
For external internet users, the virtual server is presented as a public IP (IPv4) on WAN port.
This WAN IP is the "visible" IP for the virtual server in external environment. Select a public IP,
and in "Routing Mode", either enter the IP manually or select the IP obtained from WAN link; In
"Bridge Mode One Static IP", insert WAN IP and the public IP assigned by ISP; Or choose
"dynamic IP at WAN#", if WAN type is none of the above.
Service
The type of TCP/UDP service to be matched. Select matching criteria from publicly known
service types, or choose port number from TCP/UDP packets. To specify a range of port
numbers, type starting port number plus hyphen “-“ and ending port number, e.g. “TCP@123234” (See "Using the web UI").
Algorithm
l
Algorithms for server load balancing (See Load Balancing Algorithms)
Round-Robin
l
By Connection
l
By Response Time
l
Hash
Keep Session
Server Pool
Check the box to keep session after a connection has been established. If the session is to be
stored, then enter a time period. Default value is 30s
l
l
l
l
L
Server IP: The real IP (IPv4) of the server, most likely in LAN or DMZ.
Detect: Choose the protocol for detecting server status: ICMP, TCP@, and No-Detect. Note:
port number must be specified for “TCP@”.
Service: The type of TCP/UDP service to be matched. Select matching criteria from publicly
known service types (e.g. FTP), or choose port number from TCP/UDP packet. To specify a
range of port numbers, enter starting port number plus hyphen “-“ and ending port number, e.g.
“TCP@123-234” (See "Using the web UI").
Weight: Weight determines which server responds to the incoming requests. The higher the
weight, the greater the chance is for the corresponding server to be used.
Check to enable logging: Whenever the rule is matched, system will record the event to log
file.
IPv6 Virtual Server
E
Check the box to enable the rule.
When
Options: Busy hour, Idle hour, and All-Time (See "Busyhour Settings").
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Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing
WAN IP
For external internet users, the virtual server is presented as a public IP (IPv6) on WAN port.
This WAN IP is the "visible" IP for the virtual server in external environment. Select a public IP,
and in "Routing Mode", either enter the IP manually or select the IP obtained from WAN link; In
"Bridge Mode One Static IP", insert WAN IP and the public IP assigned by ISP; Or choose
"dynamic IP at WAN#", if WAN type is none of the above.
Service
The type of TCP/UDP service to be matched. Select matching criteria from publicly known
service types, or choose port number from TCP/UDP packets. To specify a range of port
numbers, type starting port number plus hyphen “-“ and ending port number, e.g. “TCP@123234” (See "Using the web UI").
Server IP
The real IP (IPv6) of the server, most likely in LAN or DMZ.
L
Check to enable logging: Whenever the rule is matched, system will record the event to log file.
Example 1
The settings for virtual servers look like:
l
l
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Assign IP address 211.21.48.194 to WAN1. Refer to [System] -> [Network Settings] -> [WAN Settings] for more
regarding WAN IP configurations.
Assign IP address 211.21.33.186 to WAN2.
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l
l
l
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Forward all HTTP requests (port 80) through WAN1 or WAN2 to the two HTTP servers 192.168.0.100 and
192.168.0.101 in LAN.
Forward all FTP requests (port 21) through WAN1 or WAN2 to two FTP servers 192.168.0.200 and 192.168.0.201
in LAN.
Assign 211.21.48.195 and 211.21.33.189 to WAN 1 and WAN2. Forward all requests to 211.21.48.195 or
211.21.33.189 to two SMTP servers 192.168.0.200 and 192.168.0.201 in LAN.
Forward all requests from 211.21.48.197 to 192.168.0.15 in LAN.
Note:
1. FortiWAN can auto-detect both active and passive FTP servers.
2. All public IPs must be assigned to WAN 1. To configure these IPs, go to "IP(s) on Localhost of the Basic Subnet"
table in [System] -> [Network Settings] -> [WAN Settings] -> [WAN Link 1].
3. 211.21.48.197 does not belong to any physical host, and it must be assigned to WAN port.
Virtual server table for the above settings:
WAN IP
211.21.48.194
211.21.33.186
211.21.48.194
211.21.33.186
211.21.48.195
211.21.33.189
211.21.48.197
Service
HTTP (80)
HTTP (80)
FTP (21)
FTP (21)
SMTP (25)
SMTP (25)
Any
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Server Pool
Server IP
Detect
Service
Weight
192.168.0.100
ICMP
HTTP (80)
1
192.168.0.101
TCP@80
HTTP (80)
1
192.168.0.100
ICMP
HTTP (80)
1
192.168.0.101
TCP@80
HTTP (80)
1
192.168.0.200
ICMP
FTP (21)
1
192.168.0.201
TCP@21
FTP (21)
1
192.168.0.200
ICMP
FTP (21)
1
192.168.0.201
TCP@21
FTP (21)
1
192.168.0.200
ICMP
SMTP (25)
1
192.168.0.201
TCP@25
SMTP (25)
1
192.168.0.200
ICMP
SMTP (25)
1
192.168.0.201
TCP@25
SMTP (25)
1
192.168.0.15
ICMP
Any
1
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Example 2
The settings for virtual servers look like:
l
l
Forward all the TCP port 1999 requests established between external network and public IP 211.21.48.194 to FTP
Server@ TCP port 1999 at 192.168.0.100 in LAN.
Note: Due to the nature of ftp protocol, in port style ftp-data connection, when ftp-control is used in port 1999, port
1998 will be taken by ftp-data.
l
Enable external users to access WAN IP 211.21.33.186, and connect PcAnywhere to .LAN hosts.
l
Note: PcAnywhere uses TCP port 5631 and UDP port 5632. Refer to PcAnywhere software manual for more details.
l
Enable external users to access WAN IP 211.21.48.194, and forward packets of TCP/UDP range 2000-3000 to host
192.168.0.15.
Note: Port range redirecting is supported as well.
Virtual server table for the settings above:
WAN IP
211.21.48.194
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Service
TCP@1999
Server Pool
Server IP
Detect
Service
Weight
192.168.0.100
ICMP
TCP@1999
1
192.168.0.101
TCP@1999
TCP@1999
1
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WAN Link Health Detection
WAN IP
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
Service
Server Pool
Server IP
Detect
Service
211.21.33.186
TCP@5631
192.168.0.15
ICMP
TCP@5631
211.21.33.186
TCP@5632
192.168.0.15
TCP@5632
TCP@5632
211.21.48.194
TCP@20003000
192.168.0.15
ICMP
TCP@20003000
211.21.48.194
UDP@20003000
192.168.0.15
ICMP
UDP@20003000
Weight
WAN Link Health Detection
[WAN Link Health Detection] offers you insight into the health status of WAN links. It allows you to set up specific
health detection criteria against each individual WAN link in network of multiple links. FortiWAN detects the
connection status of the WAN link by sending out ICMP and TCP packets to targets, and determines the
connection quality with data that reports back. [WAN Link Detection] lists a few fields to fulfill. Concerning about
detection packets flooding, FortiWAN determines a WAN link alive without sending detection packets if inbound
traffic on the WAN link is detected. The ICMP and TCP detection packets are sent only if no inbound traffic is
detected.
For a single detection via ICMP / TCP packets, FortiWAN sends a ICMP or TCP packet (defineded in "Detection
Protocol") individually to multiple targets (defined in "Ping List / TCP Connect List" and "Number of Hosts Picked
out per Detection") via a WAN link (defined in "WAN Link"). FortiWAN determines the WAN link alive if receiving
response from at least one of those targets in a time period (defined in "Detection timeout in milliseconds"),
otherwise this detection is consider failed (FortiWAN will not judge whether a WAN link is down by just one
detection failure). No matter whether a single detection succeed, FortiWAN continues the detection after seconds
(defined in "Detection Period in Second"). The WAN link is determined as down only if multiple detections fail
continually (defined in "Number of Retries"). WAN link health detection monitors the WAN links status which
FortiWAN's Summary, Auto Routing, Multihoming and Statistics will refer to.
Ignore Inbound Traffic
Enable [Ignore Inbound Traffic], FortiWAN will determine WAN link
status only by sending ICMP and TCP packets to targets, regardless of
inbound traffic on the WAN link. Disable [Ignore Inbound Traffic],
FortiWAN monitors WAN links status via the mixture of inbound traffic
and ICMP / TCP packets.
Detection timeout in milliseconds
This indicates the timeout period for every single detection in
milliseconds. If no response packets are detected during this period, the
system will consider the detection failed.
WAN Link
The WAN link to be configured health detection criteria to. Configure the
WAN links individually by selecting them from the list.
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Detection Protocol
WAN Link Health Detection
Two protocols used to perform WAN link detection are available: ICMP
and TCP.
Detection period, in seconds
The time interval between ICMP or TCP packets sending for detection.
The unit is second. A shorter interval configuration can detect connection
condition earlier, but it consumes more bandwidth resource.
Number of hosts picked per
detection
The number of hosts that is picked out from Ping List or TCP Connection
List for detection. When FortiWAN starts checking the link health, it will
send out ICMP and TCP packets to the IP address of the hosts that has
been picked out. Detection will not be performed if setting the value to
zero.
Number of retries
Number of successful detection
The number of times FortiWAN retries if a detection being indicated
failed. Once all the retries in the number of times fail, FortiWAN claims
the WAN connection fails.
The number of continuously successful detections that is required
for declaring a WAN link indeed available.
If this field is set to 5 and detection period is set to 3 seconds, it will
require at least 15 seconds to detect an available WAN link. If Ignore
Inbound Traffic is disabled, inbound traffic being detected on a WAN
link will be counted to one successful detection.
In ICMP packet detection, the optional list is:
Ping List: Lists the data of hosts (Destination IP: IPv4 or IPv6) available to ping detection. Each
detection sends one ping packet to the IP address of a host that has been picked out randomly from
the list. The TTL (Time to Live) of the ping packet is determined by Hops and generally defined as "3".
FortiWAN takes the TTL expired message as a legal response for a ICMP detection, even the
detection packet is not delivered to the destination.
Note that always employ real external IP addresses (hosts in Internet) for the Ping List, gateway and
hosts in near WAN are not appropriate destinations for the detection.
In TCP packet detection, the optional list is:
TCP Connect List: Lists the data of hosts (Destination IP: IPv4 or IPv6) available to TCP connect
detection. Each detection performs TCP connect test for a host that has been picked out randomly
from the list, and assigns a value to the TCP port.
A WAN link is determined alive if:
l
A single detection succeeds.
l
Value of field "Number of hosts picked per detection" is sat to zero or "Ping List / TCP Connect List" is leaved blank.
l
"Ignore Inbound Traffic" is disable and inbound traffic on the WAN link is detected.
A WAN link is determined down if:
l
All the detection retries fail.
l
No carrier signal detected (failures on cables or physical ports).
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l
The WAN link is disable or a sleeping backup line.
l
A PPPoE or DHCP WAN link which fails to get a dynamic IP address.
Load Balancing & Fault Tolerance
FortiWAN provides statistics to the WAN Link Health Detection service, see "Statistics: WAN Link Health
Detection".
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IPSec
IPSec VPN Concepts
IPSec
FortiWAN's IPSec VPN is based on the standard two-phase Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol, and two
communication modes: tunnel mode and transport mode. IPSec is one of the popular standards for establishing a
site-to-site VPN network. It contains the tunneling technology and strict security mechanisms. Different from the
tunneling of IPSec VPN, FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing has the advantages of bandwidth aggregation and fault
tolerance. By integrating IPSec and Tunnel Routing, FortiWAN is fit for the requirement that an IPSec VPN with
ability of bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance.
We start the topic with IPSec VPN Concepts, which includes the descriptions of IPSec VPN overview, IPSec key
exchange and How IPSec VPN works. The next topic describes how to set up FortiWAN IPSec VPN, see IPSec
set up. IPSec VPN installation is divided into the stages as follows:
l
The specifications of FortiWAN IPSec, see About FortiWAN IPSec VPN.
l
Concern of planning a VPN deployment, see Planning your VPN.
l
Operations and configurations on Web UI, see IPSec VPN in the Web UI.
l
Necessary routing policies for the VPN (with scenarios), see Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN.
l
Basic setting for establishing IPSec VPN with FortiGate, see Establish IPSec VPN with FortiGate.
If you already have Tunnel Routing running and desire IPSec protection (IPSec Transport mode) on it, you could
refer to the descriptions in IPSec VPN in the Web UI and the examples in Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN
directly.
IPSec VPN Concepts
As we know, a private network (deployment of private IP addresses) is invisible, closed to public network (usually
the Internet). Two private networks in geographically different location can not directly access each other through
Internet. Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a concept that connects local and remote private networks over Internet
to logically become one private network. An user in a local private network is capable to have accesses to
resource in remote private network in a secure way through Internet, such as the access to remote private
network of the headquarters office from (branch) local private network. Users of the two private networks access
to each other without being aware of the VPN transmissions, just like they are physically in the same network.
The VPN concept implies two critical elements, a tunnel connecting two private networks over an intermediate
network and a secure way transferring data through the tunnel (over an untrusted network), which make the
virtual private network matches the properties of a physical private network, accesses among private IP address
and invisibility to public network (data privacy). IPSec is just the technology designed to implement the two
properties of VPN concept. A VPN network established by IPSec can be called IPSec VPN. It not only gives the
tunneling implementation for connectivity of two incompatible networks, but also put emphasis on the strict
security definitions.
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IPSec VPN overview
VPN Tunnels
Tunneling is a technique to perform data transmission for a foreign protocol over a incompatible network; such as
running IPv6 over IPv4, and the transmission of data for use within a private, corporate network through a public
network. Tunneling is done by encapsulating and decapsulating data and information of the particular protocol
within the incompatible transmission units symmetrically. IPSec protocol sets define the processes, which is the
Tunnel Mode we will introduce later (See Modes of IPSec VPN data transmission), to deliver encryption protected
data between incompatible networks by tunneling through an intermediate network. IPSec offers another option
to deliver protected data end-to-end without tunneling, which is called Transport Mode (See Modes of IPSec VPN
data transmission). It provides the flexibility to integrate other tunneling protocols with IPSec to establish a VPN
network.
Secure data transmission
IPSec employs encryption and authentication of data packets for VPN transmission to ensures that any third-party
from public network who intercepts the packets can not access the data and impersonate each endpoint. It
protects the communications between two endpoints against malicious attacks from intermediate, untrusted
network, so that privacy and authenticity are guaranteed to the communications. However, it is concerned that
how the two endpoints securely share the encryption and authentication methods, and the correspondent secret
key without compromising them to others. This is the major object that IPSec functions for. Once these security
parameters are shared securely between the two entities, which is called a establishment of Security Association
(See IPSec key exchange), the privacy and authentication of data transmission are guaranteed.
Basic IPSec VPN scenario
To connect two incompatible networks within an IPSec VPN network over an intermediate network, an IPSec VPN
device is required to be deployed in front of each the network. The IPSec VPN devices (the FortiWAN units)
establish an IPSec VPN tunnel with each other. Each of the IPSec VPN devices performs the processes to encrypt
and encapsulate, or decapsulate and decrypt the incoming packets (from the network behind it or the opposite
IPSec VPN device), and then forwards the packets to the destination (the opposite IPSec VPN device or the
network behind it). The two incompatible networks, therefore, have the secure access to each other through the
two IPSec VPN devices (the IPSec VPN tunnel established between the two devices). A host in the network
communicates with a opposite host (in the opposite network) without running any IPSec VPN software; what they
do is like performing a communication in the same network as usual. All the processes and details for a IPSec
VPN communication are taken by the two IPSec VPN devices; hosts are not aware of this. The IPSec VPN
devices are so-called IPSec VPN gateways, and this is the typical site-to-site VPN.
VPN tunnel between two private networks
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IPSec VPN Concepts
The above diagram shows an IPSec VPN connection between two private networks, which two FortiWAN units
(two endpoints of the VPN tunnel) functions as the IPSec VPN gateways for. The IPSec VPN tunnel is established
through public IP addresses (for example 1.1.1.1 and 2.2.2.2) of FortiWAN's WAN interfaces. FortiWAN A
receives packets from site A network (192.168.1.0/24) with source IP 192.168.1.10 and destination IP
192.168.2.10 (site B network), and then performs:
l
encrypt packets with shared security parameters (algorithms and secret keys)
l
encapsulate packets with a new IP header that source IP is 1.1.1.1 and destination IP is 2.2.2.2.
l
forward packets to the site B network (FortiWAN B)
FortiWAN B receives the packets and performs:
l
recover the encrypted packets by decapsulation
l
recover the original data and IP header by decryption
l
forward packets to host 192.168.2.10
Processes for traffic in the opposite direction are the same. From the standpoint of FortiWAN A, FortiWAN A is
local unit and FortiWAN B is the remote unit, vice versa.
IPSec key exchange
After the basic concept of IPSec VPN introduced above, here comes the details of IPSec's key exchange
processes which is the major part to configure an IPSec VPN. As the previous discussion, IPSec performs data
encryption and authentication for the VPN communications. The way to securely distribute a common secret key
to each endpoint is essential to make the secure data transmission complete. After all, a encrypted data is no
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longer secure if its secret key is not safe or compromised. Before we take look into IPSec's key exchange, a basic
concept of encryption and authentication is introduced first.
Encryption
Encryption mathematically transforms data to meaningless random numbers. The original data is called plaintext
and the encrypted data is called ciphertext. The opposite process, called decryption, performs the inverse
operation to recover the original plaintext from the ciphertext. The process by which the plaintext is transformed
to ciphertext and back again is called an algorithm. All algorithms use a small piece of information, a key, in the
arithmetic process of converted plaintext to ciphertext, or vice-versa. IPSec uses symmetrical algorithms, which
the same key is used for both encrypt and decrypt the data. The length of the key is one of the factors
determining the security of an encryption algorithm. FortiWAN IPsec VPNs offer the following encryption
algorithms, in descending order of security:
AES256
A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
AES192
A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
AES128
A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
3DES
Triple-DES, in which plain text is DES-encrypted three times by three keys.
DES
Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses a 56-bit key.
Authentication
In Information Security (or Cryptography), Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or
something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be. In authentication, one has to prove its identity to the remote
one, and the identity will be verified by the remote one. A typical providing proof can be a certificate or username
and password. In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC) is a short piece of information used to
authenticate a message—in other words, to provide integrity and authenticity assurances on the message.
Integrity assurances detect accidental and intentional message changes, while authenticity assurances affirm the
message's origin. A MAC algorithm, sometimes called a keyed (cryptographic) hash function (however,
cryptographic hash function is only one of the possible ways to generate MACs), accepts as input a secret key and
an arbitrary-length message to be authenticated, and outputs a MAC (sometimes known as a tag). The MAC
value protects both a message's data integrity as well as its authenticity, by allowing verifiers (who also possess
the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content. As with any MAC, it may be used to
simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authentication of a message. FortiWAN IPsec VPNs offer the
following MAC algorithms, in descending order of security:
hmac-sha512
A SHA512-based MAC algorithm with 512-bit hash output.
hmac-sha384
A SHA384-based MAC algorithm with 384-bit hash output.
hmac-sha256
A SHA256-based MAC algorithm with 256-bit hash output.
hmac-sha1
A SHA1-based MAC algorithm with 160-bit hash output.
hmac-md5
A MD5-based MAC algorithm with 128-bit hash output.
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Security Association
To support secure communications (data encryption and authentication) between two VPN gateways, the
common security attributes must be shared in advance, which are the cryptographic and authentication
algorithms, encryption secret key and other necessary parameters. A common set of the security attributes
maintained by two IPSec VPN gateways for an IPSec VPN tunnel is what called Security Association (SA), which
is used to provide a secure channel and protect the communications between the two site networks. Each of the
two IPSec VPN gateways encrypts/decrypts data according to the established Security Association. The process
to establish a Security Association involves sharing and negotiation of the security attributes.
IKE key exchange
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is the protocol used to establish a Security Association (SA), which is included in the
IPSec protocol suite. The purposes of IKE are to
l
Negotiate an encrypt algorithm and an authentication algorithm
l
Generate a shared secret key to encrypt/decrypt IPSec VPN communications (data transmission).
Both are used by IPSec VPN to provide secure communications between two endpoints.
IKE consists of two phases, Phase 1 and Phase 2. The purpose of IKE Phase 1 is to establish a secure and
authenticated channel, which is actually a Security Association (called ISAKMP SA as well), between two entities
for further IKE Phase 2 negotiations. With the protection of ISAKMP SA, Phase 2 will then be performed to
establish the final Security Association (called IPSec SA as well) used to protect the VPN communications (data
transmission) between two sites. In other words, before users' VPN communication starts (data packet being
transferred to each other), the corresponding IKE Phase 1 and Phase 2 must be done to establish the SAs
between the two VPN gateways. With the established SA between two VPN gateways, privacy and authenticity
are so that guaranteed to the VPN communications (by encryption and authentication). Basically, IKE Phase 1
authenticates a remote peer and sets up a secure channel for going forward Phase 2 negotiations to establish the
IPSec SA.
IKE Phase 1
Before we talk about the details of IKE Phase 1, let us have an overview on Phase 1's Identity Verification
(Authentication). The endpoint who begins the IKE Phase1 negotiation makes a declaration of who it is to the
opposite endpoint, and the opposite endpoint verifies the identity. FortiWAN's IPSec employs a pre-shared key
to achieve the identity verification. The pre-shared key is a common key (similar to a password) pre-shared
between the two entities who join in the Phase 1 negotiations. This pre-shared key is used for verification of the
declared identity in a cryptographic system (MAC calculation of the identity). This mechanism is on the premise
that the pre-shared key is never compromised to the third-party. Although it looks like a password, the pre-shared
key, also known as a shared secret, is never sent by either endpoint during the processes of authentication.
Actually, the pre-shared key is involved in the calculations of encryption keys, which is actually used for the
authentication, at each endpoint.Unmatched pre-shared keys result in unmatched encryption keys, and indirectly
cause the authentication in IKE Phase 1 failed.
Now back to the IKE Phase 1. Phase 1 achieves the following objectives to establish ISAKMP Security
Association:
IKE Proposals negotiation
An IKE proposal is a set of necessary parameters for negotiations to establish a Security Association. The
negotiation initiator offers opposite endpoint the proposals of the suggested encryption and authentication
algorithms, the time-period that keys should remain active, and the strength of the keys used in Diffie-Hellman
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key exchange process. The opposite endpoint chooses an appropriate proposal and responds it to the initiator, so
that the algorithms and other parameters used to protect data transmission between two endpoints are
determined.
Generate the secret key for encryption
A secret key is necessary for the established ISAKMP Security Association to work with the determined encryption
and authentication protocols. Therefore, except the negotiations of IKE proposals, a secret key must be
determined and shared between the two entities during IKE Phase 1 negotiations. However, it is insecure to send
a secret key directly to the opposite endpoint over the public network (no SA protection is offered during Phase 1
negotiations). Diffie-Hellman key exchange, which is a method used to securely exchange cryptographic keys
over a public channel, is introduced to IKE to generate the secret key. The two entities running a Diffie-Hellman
key exchange will start by exchanging key materials, which are public to third-party, via the public network. With
the key materials, calculation of Diffie-Hellman key exchange performed on each of the endpoints derives a
common value, which is a seed to generate the secret key we need. With the private and common seed, the two
endpoints further calculate the common secret key, and so that the secret key is securely shared. Actually, the
pre-shared key used for identity authentication is involved in the final calculations generating the secret key.
Authentication
Identity protection
The two endpoints running the Phase 1 processes declare its identity to each other. A pre-shared key between the
two entities is used to verify the declared identity and thus prevent malicious attacks from counterfeit identity.
With cryptographic method and the pre-shared key, one can prove its identity to the opposite end. Although it
looks like a password, the pre-shared key, also known as a shared secret, is never sent by either gateway.
Actually, it is involved in the generation of encryption secret key.
Message integrity
A message authentication code (MAC) not only verifies identity but also provides integrity and authenticity
assurances on the exchanged messages. The MAC value protects both a message's data integrity as well as its
authenticity against man-in-the-middle attacks or tampering.
Main mode and Aggressive mode
Phase 1 parameters are exchanged in either Main mode or Aggressive mode:
In Main mode, the processes of IKE Phase 1 consists of six message exchanges. An IKE Phase 1 session begins
with IKE proposals negotiations between initiator and responder (as the previous description). In the next two
message exchanges, the necessary keying materials are exchanged to calculate the common secret key at both
ends. For the last two exchanges, encrypted authentication information is exchanged to verify the identity and
message integrity on each end.
In Aggressive mode, the processes of IKE Phase 1 is squeezed into three message exchanges. All data required
for IKE proposal negotiation and Diffie-Hellman key exchange passed by the initiator and responder in the first
two message exchanges. Unencrypted authentication information for sessions passed in the second and third
message exchanges. Comparing with main mode, aggressive mode might not be such secure (weak identity
protection and risk of pre-shared key crack), the advantage to aggressive mode is that it is faster than Main mode
however. FortiWAN's IPSec, however, does not support IKE Phase 1 in Aggressive mode, only Main mode is
available.
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IPSec VPN Concepts
The successful outcome of Phase 1 negotiations (either aggressive mode or main mode) establishes the ISAKMP
Security Association, and the Phase 2 negotiation begins immediately. Phase 2 negotiations will be protected
(encryption) within the ISAKMP Security Association.
IKE Phase 2
Under the protection of ISAKMP Security Association, IKE Phase 2 performs parameters negotiations to establish
the IPsec Security Association which protects the subsequent IPSec VPN communications. IKE Phase 2 is
processed in one mode called Quick Mode (New Group Mode is not supported by FortiWAN). Similar to Phase 1,
in IKE Phase 2, another proposal of encryption and authentication algorithms is negotiated, shared secret keys
are derived, and the negotiation sessions are authenticated. The negotiated encryption and authentication
algorithms, derived secret keys and other necessary parameters, which are the successful outcome of IKE Phase
2, constitute the IPSec Security Association. So that the security association between two IPSec VPN gateways is
established, and the VPN communications are so that protected.
Perfect Forward Secrecy, PFS
Perfect Forward Secrecy is a property of communication security that past session keys can not be compromised
by the compromise of long-term keys if a session key is associated to the long-term key in some way. Actually,
the shared secret key we introduced in IKE Phase 2 is derived by calculation with the secret key derived in IKE
Phase 1 and some insecure (is public to any third-party) parameters (a Diffie-Hellman exchange is not involved in
the calculation), if PFS is not enabled for IKE Phase 2. Once the secret key of IKE Phase 1 is compromised to an
attacker, all the secret session keys derived in IKE Phase 2 might become compromised. With enabling PFS, the
calculation of secret keys involves a new Diffie-Hellman exchange. The private key material of Diffie-Hellman
exchange protects the session secret keys of IKE Phase 2 from the compromise of IKE Phase 1's keys. However,
system performance might be concerned if Diffie-Hellman exchange is performed twice (Phase 1 and Phase 2
individually) for a establishment of IPsec Security Association.
How IPSec VPN Works
So far we have a overview of IPSec concept and how the Security Associations are established. Before a further
discussion, here is the IPSec VPN's operation broken down into five main steps:
1. The initial packet matching correspondent IPSec VPN policies and attempting to pass through the IPSec VPN
gateway triggers the IKE processes to establish Security Associations.
2. During IKE Phase 1, IKE proposals are negotiated, secret keys are shared and the two IPSec endpoints are
authenticated. The ISAKMP SA is established for IKE Phase 2.
3. IKE Phase 2 negotiates new parameters and calculates new secret keys. The IPSec SA is established for VPN
communications.
4. Communications over the two IPSec VPN gateways are protected according on the security parameters and keys
stored in Security Association database. Data packets are encapsulated with ESP header and new IP header,and
transferred over the IPSec VPN tunnel.
5. IPSec SAs terminate by timing out.
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Modes of IPSec VPN data transmission
IPSec transfers the encrypted or authenticated IP packets (ESP or AH encapsulated packets) in a host-to-host
transport mode, as well as in a tunneling mode. Packet exchanges during IKE Phase 1 and Phase 2 are nothing
about the two modes.
Tunnel mode
IPSec Tunnel mode is commonly used for site-to-site communications by tunneling through incompatible
networks. For example, it delivers protected communications between two private networks through Internet,
which is a typical IPSec VPN. In IPSec tunnel mode, the original IP packet is entirely encrypted (not only the
payload data but also the routing information are encrypted), and is encapsulated with a new IP header. With the
new IP header encapsulation and decapsulation, two incompatible networks deliver encrypted packets to each
other by tunneling through Internet.
Transport mode
IPSec Transport mode is used for communications between two end-stations (host-to-host). An end-station can
be a IPSec gateway or just a host running IPSec server/client. Both are actually the destination to each other
while communicating. The basic concept of IPsec Transport mode is that the original IP header is intact; the
routing is neither modified nor encrypted. Transport mode only provides protection of the payload of the original
IP packet by encryption. The two endpoints are supposed to be accessible to each other originally. Usually,
Transport mode is applied to other tunneling protocols to provide protection of GRE/L2TP encapsulated IP data
packets ( GRE/L2TP transmission over IPSec protection). FortiWAN IPSec Transport mode is only available for
Tunnel Routing.
IPSec set up
After basic concept of IPSec introduced previously, this section focus on the introduction of FortiWAN's IPSec and
the configurations to set up FortiWAN's IPSec. FortiWAN provides a complete VPN solution through the
cooperation of Tunnel Routing and IPSec. FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing is used to build a site-to-site VPN with
bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance over multiple WAN links. Moreover, with FortiWAN's IPSec protection,
Tunnel Routing delivers packets over secure channels.
About FortiWAN IPSec VPN
Specifications of FortiWAN's IPsec VPN
Since FortiWAN's IPSec is designed for applications of site-to-site VPN, it is functionally-limited comparing with
standard IPSec protocol suite. However, FortiWAN's IPsec still provides basic protections for tunneling
communications. The specifications is listed as following:
IKE
Support IKE v1 and IKE v2
(A specific procedure is required to switch the version, see IKE Phase 1 Web
UI fields - Internet Key Exchange)
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Authentication method
Support pre-shared key only
IKE Phase 1 modes
Support Main mode only
Encryption algorithm
DES, 3DES, AES128, AES192, AES256
Authentication algorithm
MD5, SHA1, SHA256, SHA384, SHA512
DH group
1 (modp768), 2 (modp1024), 5 (modp1536), 14 (modp2048)
Transmission mode
Tunnel mode and limited Transport mode. Transport mode is only available for
Tunnel Routing.
Security protocol
Support Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) only
NAT traversal
Not Support
DPD
Support
PFS
Support
IP deployment
Support static IPv4 only, the supported WAN link types (See Configuring
your WAN):
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Routing mode
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Bridge Mode: One Static IP
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Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP
IPv6
Not Support
Peer device
Support FortiWAN/FortiGate
Fail over
Not Support (Both IPSec Tunnel mode and Transport mode themselves have no
ability to do fail over, only Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode supports
fail over)
Tunnel mode, Transport mode and Tunnel Routing
FortiWAN provides standard Tunnel mode to build IPSec VPN as the previous descriptions. By encapsulating the
encrypted packet with a new IP header, a tunnel is established between two FortiWAN units so that IPSec
packets can be delivered to the private networks deployed behind the two units through Internet (the public and
untrusted network). This is what called IPsec VPN typically. Compare with FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing, IPSec
Tunnel mode can also establish multiple tunnels through different WAN ports (WAN interfaces) between two
FortiWAN units, but bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance are not available for the IPSec VPN transmission.
It is unable to distribute the IPSec packets of a connection or the connections of a specified group over multiple
IPSec tunnels; they are delivered through one of the tunnels fixedly.
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Although FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing (See "Tunnel Routing") is the technology to distribute packets of one
tunneling connection over multiple tunnels (bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance are so that supported), it
does not provide strict protection to the tunneling communications (the encryption function built-in Tunnel
Routing is very simple and low security). For this reason, the major purpose of FortiWAN's IPSec Transport mode
is to provide Tunnel Routing transmissions an IPSec protection. Actually, the FortiWAN's IPSec Transport mode
is designed for Tunnel Routing only; an Transport mode IPSec SA can not be applied to the traffic except Tunnel
Routing. By establishing an IPSec SA on every TR tunnel, Tunnel Routing's GRE packets will be encrypted (ESP
encapsulated) and be transferred through the specified interface (according to the specified TR algorithm) in
IPSec Transport mode (the original routing of the GRE packet remains intact as the previous description). The
ESP packets are decrypted on the opposite FortiWAN unit to recover the original GRE packets, and the
subsequence is the normal Tunnel Routing processes, packet decapsulation, reassembly and forwarding (to the
hosts behind the FortiWAN). The way for IPSec Transport mode to protect Tunnel Routing transmission is very
flexible. For every TR tunnel of a tunnel group, it is your options to establish a IPSec SA protecting the TR tunnel
or not. Tunnel Routing works normally under full and partial IPSec protection (full protection: each TR tunnel of a
tunnel group is protected by a IPSec SA; partial protection: parts of the TR tunnels of a tunnel group are protected
by IPSec SAs).
In conclusion, FortiWAN provides three methods to build a VPN network, which are Tunnel Routing, IPSec
Tunnel mode and Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode. Note that Tunnel Routing can not support
dynamic IP and NAT pass-through (one of the features of Tunnel Routing, see "Dynamic IP addresses and NAT
pass through" in "Tunnel Routing > How the Tunnel Routing Works"), if it is protected by IPSec.
Type
IPSec protection Tunneling
Bandwidth
Aggregation &
Fault Tolerance
Peer device
IPSec Tunnel
mode
Yes
Yes
No
Peer can be a
FortiWAN or a
FortiGate
Tunnel Routing
No
Yes
Yes
Peer must be a
FortiWAN
Tunnel Routing
over IPSec
Transport mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Peer must be a
FortiWAN
Limitation in the IPSec deployment
FortiWAN IPsec has an intrinsic limitation in establishing ISAKMP Security Associations. For the establishment of
ISAKMP SA between any two devices, one IP address of a WAN link of a FortiWAN device is restricted
to participate in only one ISAKMP SA. The mapping of WAN link IP addresses for establishing ISAKMP SAs
between any two devices must be one-to-one. The negotiations of ISAKMP SAs go to failure (the subsequent
negotiations of IPSec SAs abort so that) if those Phase 1 configurations on any two FortiWAN devices contain a
common WAN link IP address, no matter on the local side or remote side. The following diagrams give the clear
explanation of this in details.
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In the example above, the WAN link IP address mapping of ISAKMP SA 1 between FortWAN 1 and FortiWAN 2 is
typical and correct. Both the WAN link IP addresses, 2.2.2.2 and 4.4.4.4, participate in only one ISAKMP SA, the
ISAKMP SA 1. As for WAN link 3 on FortiWAN 2, its IP address 3.3.3.3 participates in ISAKMP SA 2 and ISAKMP
SA 3 (more than one ISAKMP SA), which causes failure to establish ISAKMP SA 2 and ISAKMP SA 3. IPSec
connections thus can not be established.
The above example indicates a valid IPSec deployment. The mapping of WAN link IP address for all the ISAKMP
SAs between the two devices are in one-to-one relationship:
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ISAKMP SA 1: 2.2.2.2 - 4.4.4.4
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ISAKMP SA 2: 3.3.3.3 - 5.5.5.5
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ISAKMP SA 3: 1.1.1.1 - 6.6.6.6
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The above diagram is anther example of valid IPSec deployment. There are three IPs deployed on FortiWAN 2's
WAN link 2 (See "Configuring your WAN"), and each IP address participates in only one ISAKMP SA.
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ISAKMP SA 1: 2.2.2.1 - 4.4.4.4
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ISAKMP SA 2: 2.2.2.2 - 5.5.5.5
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ISAKMP SA 3: 2.2.2.3 - 6.6.6.6
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Considering the IPSec deployment among more than two FortiWAN devices as the above example.
ISAKMP SA
State
Reason
ISAKMP SA 1
established
For the two FortiWAN devices (FortiWAN1 and FortiWAN 2), the two WAN link IP
addresses, 3.3.3.3 and 5.5.5.5, participate in only ISAKMP SA 1. Although
3.3.3.3 also participates in ISAKMP SA 2, it takes no influence on ISAKMP SA 1
since it is the thing about another device, FortiWAN 3. The deployment limitation
is about any two devices, others can be ignored.
ISAKMP SA 2
established
For the two FortiWAN devices (FortiWAN 2 and FortiWAN 3), the two WAN link
IP addresses, 3.3.3.3 and 8.8.8.8, participate in only ISAKMP SA 2.
ISAKMP SA 3
failed
For the two FortiWAN devices (FortiWAN 1 and FortiWAN 2), the WAN link IP
addresses 6.6.6.6 participates in not only ISAKMP SA 3 but also ISAKMP SA 4.
ISAKMP SA 4
failed
For the two FortiWAN devices (FortiWAN 1 and FortiWAN 2), the WAN link IP
addresses 6.6.6.6 participates in not only ISAKMP SA 3 but also ISAKMP SA 4.
ISAKMP SA 5
established
For the two FortiWAN devices (FortiWAN 2 and FortiWAN 3), thetwo WAN link IP
addresses, 2.2.2.2 and 9.9.9.9, participate in only ISAKMP SA 5. Although
2.2.2.2 also participates in ISAKMP SA 4, it takes no influence on ISAKMP SA 5
since it is the thing about another device, FortiWAN 1. The deployment limitation
is about any two devices, others can be ignored.
Between any two FortiWANs, we cannot terminate traffic through multiple IPSec connections on the same local
or remote IP address. This limitation exists in both of the IPSec types: IPSec Tunnel mode and IPSec Transport
mode, so that Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode is involved indirectly. You have to give careful
consideration to the issue when planing how to deploy the IPSec VPN (and Tunnel Routing) between multiple
FortiWANs.
Planning your VPN
Building a VPN between sites might involve complex association with sites and confusing configurations.
Beginning hastily to configure settings without a comprehensive plan usually causes failure. Making a plan in
advance for your VPN topology is a great help to the next VPN configurations. The following considerations help
you determine the VPN topology and necessary information for configurations.
The locations of the sites that the site-to-site traffic originates from and needs to be delivered to
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Choose the network sites that they need to communicate to each other through the VPN and define what kind of
communication it is (what kind of services provided in a network site and what kind of services that users in a
network site need to access).
The networks, individual hosts or server frames participating in the VPN communications
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A network site consists of hosts, servers, and/or networks (private IP addresses deployment). You need to
determine the participating private IP addresses (the source and destination of traffic) and make policies to permit
traffic to pass through the VPN.
The VPN devices used to build the VPN
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IPSec
A site-to-site VPN (tunnels) between two FortiWAN units, or a FortiWAN unit and a FortiGate unit.
The network interfaces that two VPN devices communicate through
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For any VPN tunnel between two VPN devices, you need to determine the participating network interface for each
end-point. This implies the public IP addresses (local IP and remote IP) used to establish a VPN tunnel through
Internet. Note that only static IP addresses are supported.
One WAN interface cannot serve for more than one IPSec connectivity between any two FortiWAN devices. You
need to take this for consideration when you determine the topology. See "Limitation in the IPSec deployment" for
the details.
The VPN device interfaces that a private network accesses the VPN through
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The private IP addresses associated with the VPN device interfaces to the private networks. Hosts in the private
network behind the VPN device access VPN through these interface. Traffic is forwarded between the VPN tunnels
and the private networks on each site.
The types used to build the VPN
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IPSec protected VPN without bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance: IPSec Tunnel mode.
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IPSec protected VPN with bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance: Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode.
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VPN with bandwidth aggregation and fault tolerance: Tunnel Routing (See "Tunnel Routing").
IPSec VPN in the Web UI
The configurations introduced in this section are based on the deployment of FortiWAN-to-FortiWAN. For the
IPSec VPN established between a FortiWAN unit and a FortiGate unit, see "Establish IPSec VPN with FortiGate".
This section focus on the configurations of IPSec protected VPN, IPSec Tunnel mode and Tunnel Routing over
IPSec Transport mode. For configurations of Tunnel Routing, see "Tunnel Routing".
To set up the IPSec VPN between two FortiWAN units, the following steps are necessary for each of the
endpoints.
1. Define IKE Phase 1 parameters for establishment of ISAKMP Security Association with authenticated a remote
peer.
2. Define IKE Phase 2 parameters for establishment of IPSec Security Association with authenticated a remote
peer.
3. Create correspondent policies of NAT, Auto Routing (AR) and Tunnel Routing (TR) to correctly route the
packets of IKE negotiations and IPSec VPN communications (will be discussed in next section, see "Define
routing policies for an IPSec VPN").
Configurations of IKE Phase 1
An IPSec VPN tunnel involves the connection of two FortiWAN units. Most of the settings used to establish an
IPSec VPN tunnel are required to be corresponding on the both endpoints. Therefore, it is better to collect enough
information in preparation for the configurations of an IPSec VPN tunnel.
Here are the items and information that you need to determine for IKE Phase 1 settings:
Defining the remote and local ends of the IPSec VPN tunnel
Basically, this is to specify the public IP addresses for the two ends (a local FortiWAN unit and a remote FortiWAN
unit) of the IPSec VPN tunnel. The IPSec VPN tunnel is established through connection of the two public IP
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addresses. You need to determine the WAN link of a FortiWAN unit to connect with each other for an IPSec VPN
tunnel; and the IP addresses deployed on the two WAN ports are actually the two ends (local IP and remote IP) of
the IPSec VPN tunnel. FortiWAN's IPSec VPN does not support dynamic IP addresses; it is only available for the
WAN links that are deployed as Routing Mode, Bridge Mode: One Static IP or Bridge Mode: Multiple
Static IP (see "Configuring your WAN" for details). For the settings of a IPSec VPN tunnel configured on the two
endpoints, the Local IP of a FortiWAN unit becomes the Remote IP of the opposite FortiWAN unit and vice versa.
An IPSec VPN tunnel consists of the IKE negotiations (for the security associations, SAs) and the data
transmission tunnel; both are established through the two public IP addresses. You also have to give
consideration to the limitation that we cannot deploy multiple IPSec connections between any two FortiWANs on
the same local or remote IP address. See "Limitation in the IPSec deployment" for details.
A pre-shared key used to authenticate the FortiWAN unit to the remote unit
During the IKE Phase 1 negotiations, a FortiWAN unit need to authenticate itself to the remote unit by a preshared key. The two endpoints of an IPSec VPN tunnel share a common key in advance, so that they can
authenticate itself to each other with the common key, like a password. You need to distribute the pre-shared key
in a secure way. The pre-shared key configured on the two endpoints of a IPSec VPN tunnel must be equal, or the
establishment of IPSec Security Association goes to failure (failed authentication results in failure of IKE Phase 1
and Phase 2.
The modes for parameters exchanging, Main mode and Aggressive mode, used for IKE Phase
1 negotiations
A FortiWAN unit exchange Phase 1 parameters with the remote unit in only Main mode. In Main mode, the Phase
1 parameters are exchanged in six messages with encrypted authentication information. As the previous
introductions, Main mode gives securer authentication by a encryption with the negotiated secret key. By
comparison, Aggressive mode is weak in authentication since the lack of encryption. However, with the simplified
exchanging process, Aggressive mode is faster than Main mode indeed. Security and efficiency are the
considerations you need to evaluate for IKE Phase 1 negotiations. Once it is determined, both the two endpoints
must be configured with the same mode.
Enable Dead Peer Detection (DPD) or not
The connectivity between two endpoints communicating through IPSec may goes down unexpectedly due to
routing problems, hardware broken, host rebooting, etc. In the situation, however, the IPSec entities are not
aware of the loss of peer connectivity (availability of peer), and the security associations (SAs) of each peer
remains. Packets of communication will continue being sent to oblivion, and reestablishment goes to failure.
Dead Peer Detection (DPD) is such a method, by sending periodic HELLO/ACK messages, to confirm the
availability of an IPSec endpoint, recognize a disconnection, reclaim the lost resources (SAs) and reestablish IKE
negotiations automatically. When a disconnection is detected, the active ISAKMP SA and the correspondent
IPSec SAs are removed and renegotiated immediately whether the secret keys expire or not.FortiWAN's IPSec
DPD is performed in the Always Send mode, which the detection messages are sent at configured intervals
regardless of traffic activity between the peers (some products probe for a idle tunnel before sending DPD
detection messages, but FortiWAN does not). Related SAs would be removed once a disconnection is recognized
by FortiWAN's IPSec DPD, but FortiWAN would not automatically perform the reestablishment (new
establishment of the SAs is triggered only if an outgoing packets of the IPSec communication arrive at the
FortiWAN unit).
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The IKE Phase 1 proposals for negotiating security parameters
The main object of IKE Phase 1 is to negotiate the encryption and authentication algorithms, and the
correspondent keys between two FortiWAN units so that they can authenticate the identity to each other during
the Phase 1 process, and protect the subsequent IKE Phase 2 negotiations.
IKE Phase 1 negotiations determine:
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Which encryption algorithms may be applied for converting messages into a form that only the intended recipient
can read
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Which authentication hash may be used for creating a keyed hash from a pre-shared or private key
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Which Diffie-Hellman group (DH Group) will be used to generate a secret session key
The initiator of IKE Phase 1 proposes a list of potential cryptographic parameters that are supported (this is what
the Proposal fields supposed to be configured on Web UI, algorithms and DH Group) to remote FortiWAN. The
remote FortiWAN compares the received proposals with its own list of Phase 1 Proposal and responds with the
choice of matching parameters to use for authenticating and encrypting packets. According the determined
proposal, the two peers handle the subsequent exchanges to generate encryption keys between them, and
authenticate the exchanges through a pre-shared key. The negotiated encryption algorithm, authentication
algorithm and secret session key, which are the outcome of successful IKE Phase 1, will be used to protect the
subsequent IKE Phase 2 negotiations.
To guarantee a successful IKE proposal negotiation, the configurations of proposals on both endpoints must be
partially matched. However, FortiWAN's IKE Phase 1 does not support multiple proposals, which means the IKE
Phase 1 proposal must contain only one encryption algorithm, one authentication algorithm and one DH group.
Therefore, you need to make sure that the IKE Phase 1 proposals on the two FortiWAN units are exactly the
same, or Phase 1 negotiation goes to failure.
IKE Phase 1 Web UI fields
Go to Service > IPsec, select the Tunnel Mode or Transport Mode and click the add button to add a new
configuration panel of Phase 1. The Phase 1 configuration defines the endpoints of the IPSec VPN tunnel, and
the necessary parameters used to negotiate with the opposite unit to establish ISAKMP Security Association.
Add / Delete / Move-Up /
Move-Down
The buttons for:
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Adding a new configuration panel below current Phase 1
configuration
Deleting the current Phase 1 configuration (all the Phase 2
configurations belong to the Phase 1 configuration will be deleted as
well)
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Moving the current Phase 1 configuration up a row
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Moving the current Phase 1 configuration down a row
Packets that matching a Phase 2's Quick Mode selector or
Phase 1's [Local IP, Remote IP] are allowed to pass through
the correspondent IPSec VPN. However, both the two filters
are required to be incompatible with the others, Phase 1
configurations moving-up or moving-down is nothing about rule
first-match.
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Name
A "unique" description name for the Phase 1 definition. The name is
not a parameter exchanged with the opposite unit during Phase 1
negotiations. This name can contain a piece of information used for
simple management, such as it can reflect where the correspondent
remote unit is or what the purpose it is. It is also the index used in
IPSec Statistics (See "Statistics > IPSec").
Hide Details / Show Details
Click to expand or collapse the configuration details.
Local IP
Type the IP address of local FortiWAN's WAN port used to
establish the IPSec VPN tunnel with remote FortiWAN unit.
Packets of IKE negotiations (Both Phase 1 and Phase 2) and
IPSec VPN communications are transferred through the WAN
port on the local side. Note that only static IP address is
supported, please make sure the WAN link type is Routing
Mode, Bridge Mode: One Static IP or Bridge Mode:
Multiple Static IP.
The local IP address must equal to the Remote IP on the
opposite unit that the local unit establish the IPSec VPN with.
Remote IP
Type the IP address of remote FortiWAN's WAN port used to
establish the IPSec VPN tunnel with the local FortiWAN unit.
Packets of IKE negotiations (Both Phase 1 and Phase 2) and
IPSec VPN communications are transferred through the WAN
port on the remote side. Note that only static IP address is
supported, please make sure the WAN link type is Routing
Mode, Bridge Mode: One Static IP or Bridge Mode:
Multiple Static IP.
The remote IP address must equal to the Local IP on the
opposite unit that the local unit establish the IPSec VPN with.
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Please make sure the entered IP address is equal to the IP address of the WAN port that you would like to
employ to establish the IPSec VPN, system will not run error checking on this. Incorrect IP address
causes the negotiations to go to failure.
A duplicate of Remote IP (or pair of Local IP and Remote IP) of a Phase 1 configuration is not
acceptable to other Phase 1 configurations. Please make sure each Phase 1 configuration is
incompatible with others on the Remote IP. See "Limitation in the IPSec deployment" for details.
In Transport mode, the Local IP and Remote IP of a Phase 1 configuration must be equal to the Local IP
and Remote IP of a TR tunnel that IPSec provides protection to, so that TR packets match the ISAKMP
SA and are protected by ESP encapsulation. See "Tunnel Routing".
Additional routing policies are necessary for system to route the packets of IKE negotiations and IPSec
VPN communications to the IP address (WAN port) you defined here (See "Define routing policies for an
IPSec VPN").
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Authentication Method
Only Pre-Shared Key is supported. Enter the pre-shared key in the
field "Input key" next to the drop-down menu. The pre-shared key is
used to authenticate the identity to each other, the local and remote
FortiWAN units, during IKE Phase 1 negotiations. Make sure both
the local and remote units are defined an equal key. For stronger
protection against currently known attacks, a key consisting of a
minimum of 16 randomly chosen alphanumeric characters is
suggested.
Internet Key Exchange
Select either IKE v1 or IKE v2.
Note 1: It requires the two endpoints of an IPSec VPN
connectivity running the same IKE protocol. Unequal IKE
version fails the establishment of ISAKMP SA for an IPSec
VPN connectivity.
Note 2: To change the IKE version for an existing IPSec VPN
connectivity, we strongly recommend to following steps:
1. Stop the traffic passing through the connectivity.
2. Click the Delete button to remove the whole IKE configuration and
click the Apply button.
3. Click the Add button to create a new IKE configuration with the
specified IKE version, and click the Apply button.
4. Make sure the same change is done to both the two endpoint.
System might fail to reestablish the connectivity if you change
the IKE version by simply editing the configuration field.
Mode
Main mode: the Phase 1 parameters are exchanged in six
messages with securer authentication by a encryption with the
negotiated secret key.
Dead Peer Detection
Check to enable the monitoring of current existence and
availability of the remote unit. PDP sends a detection message
periodically to remote unit every specified time interval. The
IPSec tunnel will be considered down if local unit sends the
detection message without a response from the remote unit for
five consecutive times. When a disconnection is recognized,
the active ISAKMP SA (and the correspondent IPSec SAs) are
removed immediately whether the secret keys expire or not (a
renegotiation would not be performed automatically).
Delay: Set the time interval that PDP sends periodically the
detection message.
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An IKE Phase 1 proposal is a combination of one encryption
algorithm, one authentication algorithm, one strength of DH key
exchange, and the key lifetime. Select the encryption and
authentication algorithms, strength of DH key exchange, and enter
the key lifetime for the IKE Phase 1 proposal that will be used in the
IKE Phase 1 negotiations. The remote unit must be configured to
use the same proposal that you define here. Make sure the Phase 1
proposals of the both units are exactly the same. Unmatched
proposals result in failure of negotiations.
Proposal
Encryption
Select one of the following symmetric-key encryption
algorithms:
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3DES: Triple-DES; plain text is encrypted three times by three keys.
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AES128: A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
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AES192: A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
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AES256: A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
Authentication
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DH Group
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DES: Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses
a 56-bit key.
Select one of the following authentication algorithms:
MD5: A MD5-based MAC algorithm (hmac-md5) with 128-bit
message digest.
SHA1: A SHA1-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha1) with 160-bit
message digest.
SHA256: A SHA256-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha256) with 256bit message digest.
SHA384: A SHA384-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha384) with 384bit message digest.
SHA512: A SHA512-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha512) with 512bit message digest.
Select one Diffie-Hellman group from the DH groups 1, 2, 5,
and 14. Diffie-Hellman (DH) groups determine the strength of
the private key material used in the Diffie-Hellman key
exchange process. A higher group number implies a securer
key against private key recover attacks, but additional
processing time to calculate the key is required.
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DH Group 1: 768-bit group
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DH Group 2: 1024-bit group
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DH Group 5: 1536-bit group
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DH Group 14: 2048-bit group
Enter the time interval (in seconds) that the negotiated secret key
(used for ISAKMP SA) is valid during. For the expiration of a key,
IKE Phase 1 is performed automatically to negotiate a new key
without interrupting normal IPSec VPN communications.
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Configurations of IKE Phase 2
After IKE Phase 1 negotiations complete successfully, Phase 2 negotiation begins. Configurations of Phase 2
defines the parameters that are required to establish the IPSec Security Association. The basic parameters of IKE
Phase 2 settings are associated with a Phase 1 configuration for an establishment of IPSec VPN (IPSec SA). This
section we describe the configurations of IKE Phase 2.
Here are the items and information that you need to determine for IKE Phase 2 settings:
The IKE Phase 2 proposals for negotiating security parameters
Similar to Phase 1 negotiations, the purpose of IKE Phase 2 is to negotiate another set of encryption and
authentication algorithms, and the correspondent secret keys, so that the established IPSec SA provides
protection to subsequent IPSec VPN communications.
IKE Phase 2 negotiations determine:
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Which encryption algorithms may be applied to provide data confidentiality for IP Encapsulating Security Payload
(ESP)
Which authentication hash may be used for data integrity, authentication and anti-replay creating in IP
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
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Whether PFS is applied to generate a secret session key or not
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Which Diffie-Hellman group (DH Group) will be used to generate a secret session key if PFS is applied
FortiWAN IKE Phase 2 supports multiple proposals of encryption and authentication algorithms. However, a
successful IKE Phase 2 proposal negotiation requires partially matched proposals on the both units. Incompatible
IKE proposals fails the IKE Phase 2 negotiations. Please make sure on this while configuring.
Similar to the processes in Phase 1, two FortiWAN units handle the negotiations of encryption and authentication
algorithms according to their IKE proposals. The only thing that is different from Phase 1 is Perfect Forward
Secrecy (PFS).
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)
By default, the standard IKE Phase 2 derives the secret session key (for IPSec Security Association) based on the
secret session key of ISAKMP Security Association (outcome of Phase 1 negotiations) without additional private
materials. The secret session keys of IPSec SA might become vulnerable (to be recovered) if the keys of ISAKMP
SA are broken or compromised. Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) is the option for IKE Phase 2 to force a new DiffieHellman exchange (it implies a new private key material) involved in the calculations of secret session keys, so
that they are unrelated to only the Phase 1 keys (can not be recovered with only the compromised ISAKMP SA
secret key). Therefore, a DH Group has to be specified for a IKE Phase 2 proposal if the PFS is applied to it.
Certainly, PFS gives securer IPSec SA secret key, but more time is spent on the calculations.
Quick mode selector
Quick mode selector is a rule to determine which packet is transferred throuth IPSec VPN, according to the source
IP address, source port, destination IP address, destination port and protocol of a packet. For Tunnel Mode, it
usually implies the hosts (or a network) behind the two FortiWAN units trying to communicate to each other
through the IPSec VPN tunnel established between the two FortiWAN. Make sure the Quick mode selector of one
endpoint is correspondent to the opposite endpoint. A source IP address defined in the selector in one peer must
be defined as the destination IP address of the selector of the opposite peer, and vice versa. FortiWAN supports
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only Tunnel Routing (TR) traffic to be transferred through IPSec VPN in Transport Mode, therefore, the quick
mode selector is not required for Phase 2 configurations of Transport Mode.
IKE Phase 2 Web UI fields:
IKE Phase 1 and Phase 2 are both the necessaries to establish an IPSec VPN, thus configurations of an IPSec
VPN must contains configurations of the two Phases. Choosing a set of Phase 1 parameters that you would like
to define the correspondent Phase 2 parameters for. The Phase 2 configuration panel is below the Phase 1 panel
on the Web UI. Click the add button on the header of Phase 2 or the add button of an existing Phase 2
configuration to add a new Phase 2 configuration panel.
For IPSec Tunnel mode, you can define multiple sets of Phase 2 parameters within one Phase 1 configuration for
different Phase 2 Quick Mode selectors. A Phase 2 configuration contains only one quick mode selector used to
filter packets matching the only one pair of packet source, destination and protocol. To allow different traffic (for
example, traffic of different protocol) to be transferred through the same IPSec VPN tunnel (through the same
Local and Remote IPs), it requires multiple Phase 2 configurations (different quick mode selectors) to associate
with the same Phase 1. Moreover, you can deliver different IKE Phase 2 proposals (different encryption,
authentication algorithms and DH groups) to the multiple quick mode selectors, if multiple security levels are
necessary.
For IPSec Transport mode, the Phase 2 configuration does not require a Quick Mode selector. FortiWAN's IPSec
Transport mode is designed to protect only communications of Tunnel Routing. Tunnel Routing takes the part to
evaluate packets for TR transmission (TR rules) and distributes packets over TR tunnels (TR algorithms), then
IPSec Transport mode established on a TR tunnel (Local IP and Remote IP) protects all the passing TR packets.
Therefore, multiple Phase 2 sets within a Phase 1 is not required for Transport mode. Remember that FortiWAN
supports only two kinds of site-to-site IPSec VPN, "IPSec Tunnel mode" and "Tunnel Routing over IPSec
Transport mode".
Add / Delete / Move-Up /
Move-Down
The buttons for:
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Adding a new configuration panel below current Phase 2
configuration
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Deleting the current Phase 2 configuration
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Moving the current Phase 2 configuration up a row
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Moving the current Phase 2 configuration down a row
The buttons for Phase 2 configurations are only available for
IPSec Tunnel mode. Each Phase 1 configuration of Transport
mode contains one and only one Phase 2 configuration.
Packets that matching a Quick Mode selector are allowed to
pass through the correspondent IPSec VPN. However, each
Quick Mode selector is required to be incompatible with the
others, Phase 2 configurations moving-up or moving-down is
nothing about rule first-match.
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Name
A "unique" description name for the Phase 2 definition. The
maximum length is "?" characters. The name is not a
parameter exchanged with the opposite unit during Phase 2
negotiations. This name can contain a piece of information
used for simple management, such as it can reflect where the
correspondent remote unit is or what the purpose it is. It is also
the index used in IPSec Statistics (See "Statistics > IPSec").
Hide Details / Show Details
Click to expand or collapse the configuration details.
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Proposal
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An IKE phase 2 proposal is a combination of one or multiple
encryption algorithms, one or multiple authentication
algorithms, one strength of DH key exchange if PFS is
enabled, and the key lifetime.
Select the encryption and authentication algorithms, strength
of DH key exchange, and the key lifetime for the IKE phase 2
proposal that will be used in the IKE Phase 2 negotiations.
Make sure the Phase 2 proposals of the both units performing
the Phase 2 negotiations are compatible. Incompatible
proposals cause Phase 2 negotiations going to failure.
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Encryption
Select one or multiple of the following symmetric-key
encryption algorithms:
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NULL: NULL means perform an integrity check only; packets are not
encrypted. It is invalid to set both Encryption and Authentication to
null.
DES: Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses
a 56-bit key.
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3DES: Triple-DES; plain text is encrypted three times by three keys.
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AES128: A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
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AES192: A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
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AES256: A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
The remote peer or client must be configured to use at least
one of the encryption proposals that you define.
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Authentication
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Select one multiple of the following authentication algorithms:
NULL: NULL means perform an message encryption only; ESP Auth
is not calculated. It is invalid to set both Encryption and
Authentication to null.
MD5: A MD5-based MAC algorithm (hmac-md5) with 128-bit
message digest.
SHA1: A SHA1-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha1) with 160-bit
message digest.
SHA256: A SHA256-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha256) with 256bit message digest.
SHA384: A SHA384-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha384) with 384bit message digest.
SHA512: A SHA512-based MAC algorithm (hmac-sha512) with 512bit message digest.
The remote peer or client must be configured to use at least
one of the authentication proposals that you define.
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PFS Group
As the previous descriptions, PFS is an option to involve a new
Diffie-Hellman exchange in the calculation of secret session
key during Phase 2. Thus, you have to specify the DiffieHellman group for the new Diffie-Hellman exchange if PFS is
enable.
To apply PFS to the Phase 2 key calculation, you just need to
select one of the PFS groups 1, 2, 5, and 14 for Diffie-Hellman
group. A PFS group implies a Diffie-Hellman (DH) group
actually, which determines the strength of the private key
material used in the Diffie-Hellman key exchange process. A
higher group number implies a securer key against private key
recover attacks, but additional processing time for the key
calculation is required. To apply no PFS to the Phase 2 key
calculation, just make all the PFS Group options unchecked.
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PFS Group 1: Enable PFS with DH Group 1, 768-bit group
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PFS Group 2: Enable PFS with DH Group 2, 1024-bit group
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PFS Group 5: Enable PFS with DH Group 5, 1536-bit group
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PFS Group 14: Enable PFS with DH Group 14, 2048-bit group
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Keylife
Enter the time interval (in seconds) that the negotiated secret keys
(used for IPSec SA) are valid during. For the expiration of keys, IKE
Phase 2 is performed automatically to negotiate new keys without
interrupting normal IPSec VPN communications. Keylife of IPSec
SA's secret keys is suggested to be shorter than the keylife of
ISAKMP SA's secret keys.
Quick Mode
Configurations of Quick Mode is required only for IPSec Tunnel
Mode. A Quick Mode selector determines the acceptance or
rejection of transmission through the IPSec VPN tunnel for
packets. It usually implies the IPSec VPN communications
between private networks (hosts) behind the two FortiWANs
unit (IPsec VPN gateways). Packets coming form the networks
behind the local FortiWAN and going to another network
behind the remote FortiWAN are evaluated by Quick Mode
selectors at the local FortiWAN unit. Only packets matching
the selector are allowed to be transferred via the IPSec VPN
tunnel. A Quick Mode selector consists of the following five
filters:
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Source: the source of a packet that is allowed to be transferred via
the IPSec VPN tunnel. It can be an IPv4 address or an IPv4 subnet
behind the local FortiWAN.
Source Port: the source port of a packet that is allowed to be
transferred via the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Destination : the destination of a packet that is allowed to be
transferred via the IPSec VPN tunnel. It can be an IPv4 address or an
IPv4 subnet behind the remote FortiWAN.
Destination Port: the destination port of a packet that is allowed to
be transferred via the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Protocol: the protocol of a packet that is allowed to be transferred
via the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Note that one pair of source and destination is not allowed to
be set to multiple Quick Mode selectors, neither a subset of the
pair is. Make sure the pair of source and destination defined in
a Quick Mode selector is absolutely incompatible to other
Quick Mode selectors (no matter which Phase 1 configuration
they belong to, current one or others).
It's necessary to have an Auto Routing (AR) filter that is
correspondent with the Quick Mode selector you made, see the
following section "Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN".
So far, we have introduced the concept of IPSec VPN and how to configure the settings of FortiWAN's IPSec.
However, the success of the IPSec VPN establishment and communications actually requires the cooperation
between FortiWAN' IPSec and other functions, Auto Routing, NAT and Tunnel Routing. In other words, besides
the configurations of IPSec, correspondent policies of Auto Routing, NAT or Tunnel Routing are required to set up
an IPSec VPN. See "Define routing policies for IPSec VPN".
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Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN
FortiWAN's intelligent routing function (Auto Routing and Tunnel Routing) transferred all packets, including
packets of IPSec, outward over multiple WAN links. Although an IPSec configuration specifies the IP addresses of
the WAN ports (Phase 1: Local IP and Remote IP) used to establish the IPSec VPN and the IP addresses that
Quick Mode selectors evaluate for, it does not imply the correspondent routing for the IPSec packets. You are
required to have extra rules of Auto Routing or Tunnel Routing setting manually to fixedly route the IPSec packets
to correct WAN port.
The IPSec packets we are talking about consist of the packets of 2 phases IKE negotiations (called "IKE packets"
here) and the packets of IPSec VPN communications (called "ESP packets" here). An IKE packet comes from the
local FortiWAN unit and its source IP address is just the configured Local IP (a WAN port); an ESP packet comes
from a private network behind the local FortiWAN and its source IP address is a private IP address. The followings
describe the procedures defining related policies for "IPSec Tunnel mode" and "Tunnel Routing over IPSec
Transport mode".
Define Auto Routing and NAT policies for an IPSec Tunnel-mode VPN
For IPSec Tunnel Mode, you need to make sure connections of both IKE and ESP packets are fixedly routed by
Auto Routing to the WAN port that is configured as the Local IP of the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Example topology for the following policies
For this example topology, we need to have configurations of Network Setting, Auto Routing, NAT and
IPSec as follows:
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Network Setting
Network Settings on the both sides:
WAN settings
Go to System > Network Setting > WAN Setting
WAN Setting
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
WAN Link
1
1
WAN Type
Routing Mode
Routing Mode
WAN Port
Port1
Port1
IPv4 Localhost IP
10.10.10.10
20.20.20.20
IPv4 Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
IPv4 Default Gateway
10.10.10.254
20.20.20.254
For the details of WAN link setting, see "Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode", "Configurations for a
WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP" and "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP".
LAN private subnets
Go to System > Network Setting > LAN Private Subnet
LAN Private Subnet
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
IP(s) on Localhost
192.168.10.254
192.168.100.254
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
LAN Port
Port3
Port3
For the details of LAN private subnet setting, see "LAN Private Subnet".
Define Auto Routing policies for IKE negotiation and IPSec communication packets
For IKE negotiation packets
Packets of IKE negotiation are generated by FortiWAN itself (source and destination IP address of the packets is
respectively the Local IP and Remote IP of Phase 1 configuration), therefor the Source and Destination of the
Auto Routing filter for IKE negotiation must be configured with the Local IP and Remote IP (the IP address of
WAN port of two FortiWAN units). Remember that the IPSec SAs are established on the WAN port of both the
two FortiWANs.
Go to Service > Auto Routing
You need add a new policy to Policies of Auto Routing like:.
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Auto Routing Policy
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Label
IPSec_WAN1 (Any name you desire)
IPSec_WAN1 (Any name you desire)
T
Enable Threshold or not
Enable Threshold or not
Algorithm
Fixed
Fixed
Parameter
Only 1 is checked
Only 1 is checked
Then you add a filter to IPv4 Filters like:
Auto Routing Filter
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
When
All-Time
All-Time
Input Port
Any Port
Any Port
Source
10.10.10.10 or Localhost
20.20.20.20 or Localhost
Destination
20.20.20.20
10.10.10.10
Service
Any or IKE(500)
Any or IKE(500)
Routing Policy
IPSec_WAN1
IPSec_WAN1
Fail-Over Policy
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
Note that packets of IKE negotiations are generated from FortiWAN's localhost, the Source field of
an AR filter must be configured to "Localhost" to match the negotiation traffic and direct it to correct
WAN link.
For IPSec communication packets
Routing of packets that are going to be transferred through IPsec VPN between the private networks (LANs)
behind the two sites (local and remote) is also controlled by FortiWAN's Auto Routing. It is necessary to route
packets to the WAN link that the IPSec SA is established on, so that the packets can be processed (evaluated by
Quick Mode selector and ESP encapsulated) by IPSec on the WAN port.
With the existing policy "For IPsec", you only need to add the filters like:
Auto Routing Filter Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
When
All-Time
All-Time
Input Port
Any Port (or the LAN port, PortX)
Any Port (or the LAN port, PortX)
Source
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
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Auto Routing Filter Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Destination
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
Service
Any
Any
Routing Policy
IPSec_WAN1
IPSec_WAN1
Fail-Over Policy
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
IPSec Phase 2 Quick Mode selector controls the IPSec availability to specified users (the source, destination and
service of packets); before that, it requires the Auto Routing filter to direct the packets to the correct WAN link
(Routing Policy). Make sure the Auto Routing filter and Phase 2 Quick Mode selector are equal on Source,
Destination and Service. For the details of Auto Routing, see "Auto Routing". Although Auto Routing provides failover policy to redirect packets to another WAN link when a failure occurs, it is unable to achieve the fail-over for
IPSec Tunnel mode since the same Quick Mode selector cannot be applied to different IPSec SAs.
Define NAT policies for IKE negotiation and IPSec communication packets
NAT default rules translate the source addresses of packets come from the private subnet (LAN) behind
FortiWAN after Auto Routing determines a WAN link for them. In IPSec VPN Tunnel mode, Packets of
communications usually come from LAN subnet of FortiWAN and are evaluated with NAT rule before Phase 2
Quick Mode selector. If the source address of a IPSec packet is translated to another by NAT, the packet fails in
matching the Quick Mode selector and the IPSec communication goes to failure.
For IKE negotiation packets
IKE negotiation packets are generated on FortiWAN's localhost. The source of a IKE packet is the Local IP (IP
address on the WAN port) of the Phase 1, which will not be translated by NAT. Therefore, a NAT policy is not
required for IKE negotiations.
For IPSec communication packets
By default, all the packets will be processed by NAT once Auto Routing determines a WAN link to the packets.
However, IPSec VPN communication will go to failure if source IP address of the packets are translated
(mismatching the Quick Mode selectors). To disable NAT for the packets:
1. Go to Service > NAT
2. From the drop down menu WAN, select the WAN link used as the local interface of the IPsec VPN tunnel.
3. Add a rule to NAT Rules to disable NAT translation for the packetsdefinition of the Quick Mode selector:
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NAT Rule
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
When
All-Time
All-Time
Source
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
Destination
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
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NAT Rule
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Service
Any
Any
Translated
No NAT
No NAT
Make sure the NAT rule and Phase 2 Quick Mode selector are equal on Source, Destination and Service. For the
details of NAT, see "NAT".
Define IPSec parameters
Go to Service > IPSec
Add Phase 1 configurations for the IPSec tunnel mode VPN between site A's WAN 1 (10.10.10.10) and site B's
WAN 1 (20.20.20.20). The other parameters are not listed here.
Phase 1
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Name
WAN1_WAN1_Phase1
WAN1_WAN1_Phase1
Local IP
10.10.10.10
20.20.20.20
Remote IP
20.20.20.20
10.10.10.10
Add Phase 2 configurations for the IPSec tunnel mode VPN between site A 's WAN 1 (10.10.10.10) and site B's
WAN 1 (20.20.20.20). The other parameters are not listed here.
Phase 2
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Name
WAN1_WAN1_Phase2
WAN1_WAN1_Phase2
Source
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
Source Port
Any
Any
Destination
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
Destination Port
Any
Any
Protocol
Any
Any
Quick Mode
For the details of IPSec configuration, see "IPSec VPN in the Web UI".
Procedures to set up a IPSec Tunnel-mode VPN
To set up a IPSec Tunnel-mode VPN, we suggest the steps to follow as below:
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1. Configure Network Settings on both units.
2. Define correspondent Auto Routing and NAT policies on both units.
3. Configure the settings of IPSec Tunnel mode Phase 1 and Phase 2 on both units.
Define Auto Routing and Tunnel Routing policies for an Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport
mode VPN
As previous descriptions, IPSec Transport mode provides secure data transmission without IP tunneling (IP
encapsulation). However, IPSec Transport mode can give protections to FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing, which
brings a securer (compare to the original TR) and more efficient (compare to the "IPsec Tunnel mode VPN" on
load balancing and fault tolerance) VPN application. Tunnel Routing distributes the encapsulated (GRE) packets
over multiple tunnels (pairs of local WAN port and remote WAN port). With the IPSec SAs established on these
TR tunnels, GRE packets will be protected (encrypted/decrypted) by correspondent SA when they pass through a
TR tunnel (the local and remote WAN ports). Transport-mode IPSec SAs are required for each of Tunnel
Routing's GRE tunnels to associate Tunnel Routing with IPSec.
Example topology for the following policies
IPSec Transport mode protects the communications between private networks behind two FortiWAN units
through two TR tunnels. For this example topology, we need to have configurations of Network Setting, Auto
Routing, IPSec and Tunnel Routing as follows:
Network Setting
Network Setting on the local side:
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WAN settings
Go to System > Network Setting > WAN Setting
WAN Setting Local endpoint
(Site A)
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Remote endpoint
(Site B)
Remote endpoint
(Site B)
WAN Link
1
2
1
2
WAN Type
Routing Mode
Routing Mode
Routing Mode
Routing Mode
WAN Port
Port1
Port2
Port1
Port2
IPv4
Localhost IP
10.10.10.10
11.11.11.11
20.20.20.20
21.21.21.21
IPv4
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
IPv4 Default
Gateway
10.10.10.254
11.11.11.254
20.20.20.254
21.21.21.254
For the details of WAN link setting, see "Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode", "Configurations for a
WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP" and "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP".
LAN private subnets
Go to System > Network Setting > LAN Private Subnet
LAN Private Subnet
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
IP(s) on Localhost
192.168.10.254
192.168.100.254
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
LAN Port
Port3
Port3
For the details of LAN private subnet setting, see "LAN Private Subnet".
Define Auto Routing policies for IKE negotiation
Our goal is two establish IPSec protected VPN based on Tunnel Routing (See "Tunnel Routing") through two TR
tunnels, which implies two IPSec SAs being established on the two TR tunnels. Therefore, it requires routing
policies to route the IKE negotiation packets for establishing the two IPSec SAs.
Packets of IKE negotiation are generated by FortiWAN itself (source and destination IP address of the packets is
respectively the Local IP and Remote IP of Phase 1 configuration), therefor the Source and Destination of the
Auto Routing filter for IKE negotiation must be configured with the Local IP and Remote IP (the IP address of
WAN port of two FortiWAN units). Remember that the IPSec SAs are established on the WAN port of both the
two FortiWANs.
Go to Service > Auto Routing
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Add two Auto Routing policies on the both endpoints like:
Auto Routing
Policy
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Remote endpoint
(Site B)
Remote endpoint
(Site B)
Label
IPSec_WAN1 (Any
name you desire)
IPSec_WAN2 (Any
name you desire)
IPSec_WAN1 (Any
name you desire)
IPSec_WAN2 (Any
name you desire)
T
Enable Threshold
or not
Enable Threshold
or not
Enable Threshold
or not
Enable Threshold
or not
Algorithm
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Parameter
Only 1 is checked
Only 2 is checked
Only 1 is checked
Only 2 is checked
Then you add two IPv4 filters like:
Auto Routing
Filter
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Remote endpoint Remote endpoint
(Site B)
(Site B)
When
All-Time
All-Time
All-Time
All-Time
Input Port
Any Port
Any Port
Any Port
Any Port
Source
10.10.10.10 or
Localhost
11.11.11.11 or
Localhost
20.20.20.20 or
Localhost
21.21.21.21 or
Localhost
Destination
20.20.20.20
21.21.21.21
10.10.10.10
11.11.11.11
Service
Any or IKE(500)
Any or IKE(500)
Any or IKE(500)
Any or IKE(500)
Routing
Policy
IPSec_WAN1
IPSec_WAN2
IPSec_WAN1
IPSec_WAN2
Fail-Over
Policy
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
Tunnel Routing itself takes the responsibility to route packets over multiple tunnels, therefore Auto Routing
policies are not required for packets of IPSec communication. For the details of Auto Routing, see "Auto Routing".
Note that packets of IKE negotiations are generated from FortiWAN's localhost, the Source field of
an AR filter must be configured to "Localhost" to match the negotiation traffic and direct it to correct
WAN link.
Define IPSec parameters
Next is the Phase 1 configurations for two IPSec SAs in Transport mode. To associate an IPSec SA with a TR
tunnel, make sure the Phase 1 configuration and the TR tunnel are equal on the Local IP and Remote IP.
Go to Services > IPSec
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Add Phase 1 configurations for IPSec Transport mode SAs between site A's WAN 1 (10.10.10.10) and site B's
WAN 1 (20.20.20.20), and site A's WAN 1 (11.11.11.11) and site B's WAN 1 (21.21.21.21). The other parameters
are not listed here.
Phase 1
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Local endpoint
(Site A)
Remote endpoint
(Site B)
Remote endpoint
(Site B)
Name
peers_AB_1
peers_AB_2
peers_BA_1
peers_BA_2
Local IP
10.10.10.10
11.11.11.11
20.20.20.20
21.21.21.21
Remote IP
20.20.20.20
21.21.21.21
10.10.10.10
11.11.11.11
Next you need to configure the settings to Phase 2 for the four Phase 1 configurations above. Phase 2 of
Transport mode does not require specifying a Quick Mode selector, only a name and IKE proposal are required.
For the details of IPSec configuration, see "IPSec VPN in the Web UI".
Define Tunnel Routing policies for IPSec communications
As for the communication packets between networks behind the two FortiWAN units, Tunnel Routing controls the
routing of them. You need the configurations to set up the two TR tunnels, and the policies to route GRE packets
over the TR tunnels.
To establish the TR tunnels, go to Service > Tunnel Routing > add a new Tunnel Group with two Group
Tunnels and appropriate balancing algorithm:
Tunnel Group
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Name
Tunnel_Group_AB
Tunnel_Group_BA
Algorithm
Round-Robin (for example)
Round-Robin (for example)
E
Checked
Checked
Local IP
10.10.10.10
20.20.20.20
Remote IP
20.20.20.20
10.10.10.10
Weight
1 (for example)
1 (for example)
E
Checked
Checked
Local IP
11.11.11.11
21.21.21.21
Remote IP
21.21.21.21
11.11.11.11
Weight
1 (for example)
1 (for example)
Group Tunnel 1
Group Tunnel 2
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Next, you need a new rule to Routing Rules, like this:
Routing Rule
Local endpoint (Site A)
Remote endpoint (Site B)
Source
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
Destination
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
Service
Any
Any
Group
Tunnel_Group_AB
Tunnel_Group_BA
Fail-Over
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
A packet matching the rule will be delivered to appropriate tunnel according the Tunnel Routing algorithm (or you
can say a packet matching the rule will be GRE encapsulated and delivered to appropriate WAN port). The IPSec
SAs established on the tunnels guarantee the privacy to transmission on the tunnels by encrypting the packets
before they are transferred outward.
The pair of Local IP and Remote IP is the link to associated a GRE tunnel with an IPSec Transport mode SA,
please make sure the configurations are equal on this. Note that please do not configure an Tunnel mode Phase
1 with the Local IP and Remote IP of a TR tunnel and configure the Phase 2 Quick Mode selector being equal to a
TR routing rule, or Tunnel Routing goes to failure.
For the details of Tunnel Routing, see "Tunnel Routing".
Procedures to set up a Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode
To set up a Tunnel Routing over IPSec Transport mode, we suggest the steps to follow as below:
1. Configure Network Settings on both units.
2. Define correspondent Auto Routing policies on both units.
3. Configure the settings of IPSec Transport mode Phase 1 and Phase 2 on both units.
4. Define Tunnel Routing policies and routing rules on both units.
Establish IPSec VPN with FortiGate
FortiWAN supports the IPSec VPN established with a FortiGate unit. However, the deployment of IPSec VPN
established between FortiWAN and FortiGate is limited by the Spec. of FortiWAN's IPSec (See "About FortiWAN
IPSec VPN"). For example, IPSec Transport mode, IKE v2, authentication with certificates, IKE phase 1
aggressive mode, NAT traversal, dynamic IP address, and some algorithms are not supported for this
deployment. An example for explaining how to set up a simple IPSec VPN (Tunnel mode) between a FortiWAN
and a FortiGate is introduced below:
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IPSec
In this example, the common parameters for establishing IPSec SAs between the two units are as follows:
l
Authentication Method: Pre-shared Key
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Phase 1 Mode: Main (ID protection)
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Dead Peer Detection: disable
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Phase 1 Encryption: DES
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Phase 1 Authentication: MD5
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Phase 1 DH Group: 5
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Phase 1 Keylife: 1200 Secs
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Phase 2 Encryption: DES
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Phase 2 Authentication: MD5
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Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): enable
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Phase 2 DH Group: 5
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Phase 2 Keylife: 120 Secs
Configurations on FortiWAN
To set up the IPSec VPN, configurations of Network Setting, Auto Routing, NAT and IPSec are required on
FortiWAN (See "Define routing policies for an IPSec VPN").
Network Setting
WAN settings
Go to System > Network Setting > WAN Setting, and create a WAN link configuration:
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WAN Link
1
WAN Type
Routing Mode
WAN Port
Port1
IPv4 Localhost IP
10.12.102.42
IPv4 Netmask
255.255.255.0
IPv4 Default Gateway
10.12.102.254
For the details of WAN link setting, see "Configurations for a WAN link in Routing Mode", "Configurations for a
WAN link in Bridge Mode: One Static IP" and "Configurations for a WAN link in Bridge Mode: Multiple Static IP".
LAN private subnets
Go to System > Network Setting > LAN Private Subnet, and create a LAN subnet configuration:
IP(s) on Localhost
2.2.2.254
Netmask
255.255.255.0
LAN Port
Port3
For the details of LAN private subnet setting, see "LAN Private Subnet".
Auto Routing
Go to Service > Auto Routing, and create a policy and two IPv4 filters for IKE negotiations and IPSec
communication.
Policy
Label
IPSec_WAN1 (Any name you desire)
T
Enable Threshold or not
Algorithm
Fixed
Parameter
Only 1 is checked
IPv4 Filter
Two IPv4 filters: one for IKE negotiations, and another for general IPSec communication.
When
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All-Time
All-Time
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IPSec
Input Port
Any Port
Any Port (or the LAN port, PortX)
Source
Localhost
2.2.2.0/255.255.255.0
Destination
10.12.136.180
1.1.1.0/255.255.255.0
Service
Any or IKE(500)
Any
Routing Policy
IPSec_WAN1
IPSec_WAN1
Fail-Over Policy
NO-ACTION
NO-ACTION
For the details of Auto Routing, see "Auto Routing".
NAT
Go to Service > NAT, and create a NAT rule:
When
All-Time
Source
2.2.2.0/255.255.255.0
Destination
1.1.1.0/255.255.255.0
Service
Any
Translated
No NAT
For the details of NAT, see "NAT".
IPSec
Go to Service > IPSec, and create a Tunnel Mode:
Phase 1
Name
IPSec_FGT_P1
Local IP
10.12.102.42
Remote IP
10.12.136.180
Authentication Method
Pre-shared Key: 12345
Internet Key Exchange
v1
Mode
Main (ID protection)
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IPSec
Dead Peer Detection
IPSec set up
Disable
Proposal
Encryption
DES
Authentication
MD5
DH Group
5
Keylife
1200 Secs
Phase 2
Name
IPSec_FGT_P2
Proposal
Encryption
DES
Authentication
MD5
PFS Group
5
Keylife
120 Secs
Quick Mode
Source
2.2.2.0/255.255.255.0
Port
Any
Destination
1.1.1.0/255.255.255.0
Port
Any
Protocol
Any
So far, it is complete to set up the IPSec VPN on the FortiWAN side, configurations on the FortiGate side are
introduced next. For the details of IPSec parameters, see "IPSec VPN in the Web UI".
Configurations on FortiGate
To set up the IPSec VPN, configurations of Network, Router and VPN are required on FortiGate. For further
information of FortiGate configurations, see FortiOS Handbook on Fortinet document site.
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IPSec
Network
Go to System > Network > Interface. Configure the setting for WAN 1 with IP address 10.12.136.180 on a
physical interface.
Interface Name
wan1
Type
Physical Interface
Addressing mode
Manual
IP/Network Mask
10.12.136.180/255.255.255.0
VPN
Go to VPN > IPsec > Tunnels and click Create New.
Name
IPSec_to_FWN_P1
Select "Custom VPN Tunnel (No Template)" and click Next to configure the settings as follows:
Network
IP Version
IPv4
Remote Gateway
Static IP Address
IP Address
10.12.102.42
Interface
WAN1
Mode Config
Disable
NAT Traversal
Disable
Dead Peer Detection
Disable
Authentication
Method
Pre-shared key
Pre-shared key
12345
IKE
Version
V1
Mode
Main (ID protection)
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Phase 1 Proposal
Encryption
DES
Authentication
MD5
Diffie-Hellman Group
5
Key Lifetime (seconds)
1200
Local ID
Keep it blank
XAUTH
Type
Disable
Phase 2 Selectors
Name
IPSec_to_FWN_P2
Local Address
Subnet: 1.1.1.0/255.255.255.0
Remote Address
Subnet: 2.2.2.0/255.255.255.0
Phase 2 Proposal
283
Encryption
DES
Authentication
MD5
Enable Replay Detection
disable
Enable Perfect Forward
Secrecy (PFS)
enable
Diffie-Hellman Group
5
Local Port
All check
Remote Port
All check
Protocol All
All check
Autokey keep Alive
disable
Auto-negotiate
disable
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IPSec
Key Lifetime
Seconds
Seconds
120
Router
Go to Router > Static > Static Routes, and click Create New to create two rules for WAN1 and the IPSec
tunnel - IPSec_to_FWN_P1:
Destination
IP/Mask
0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
2.2.2.0/255.255.255.0
Device
wan1
IPSec_to_FWN_P1
Gateway
10.12.136.254
N/A
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Optional Services
Firewall
Optional Services
As an edge device, FortiWAN provides other functions except the major traffic load balancing and fault tolerance.
These optional functions are helpful to manage the network in all the ways.
Firewall
This section introduces how to set up the firewall. Unlimited number of rules can be added to the firewall rule list.
The rules are prioritized from top to bottom that is rules at the top of the table will be given higher precedence
over lower ranked ones. [IPv4 Rules] and [IPv6 Rules] are for configurations of IPv4 and IPv6 respectively.
FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Firewall service, see "Log"
and "Reports: Firewall".
E
Check the box to enable the rule
When
Three options available: Busy hour, Idle hour and All-Time (See "Busyhour Settings").
Source
Packets sent from specified source will be matched (See "Using the web UI").
Destination
Packets sent to a specific destination will be matched. This field is the same as the “Source”
field, except that packets are matched with specified destination (See "Using the web UI").
Service
The TCP/UDP service type to be matched. Select the matching criteria from publicly known
service types (e.g. FTP), or enter the port number in TCP/UDP packets and specify the range.
Type the starting port number plus hyphen “-“ and then the ending port number. e.g.
“TCP@123-234” (See "Using the web UI").
Action
Choose the actions when the rule is matched: Accept: The firewall will let the matched packets
pass. Deny: The firewall will drop the matched packets.
L
Check to enable logging. Whenever the rule is matched, the system will record the event to the
log file.
Default rules
By default, FortiWAN's firewall enables the following IPv4/IPv6 rules to deny some accesses coming from the
Internet, which might cause general security issues:
1. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
2. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
3. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
4. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
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& Source=WAN & Destination=Localhost & Service=HTTP(80) &
& Source=WAN & Destination=Localhost & Service=HTTPS(443) &
& Source=WAN & Destination=Localhost & Service=SSH(22) &
& Source=WAN & Destination=Localhost & Service=SNMP(61) &
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5. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
6. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
7. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
8. When=All-Time
Action=Deny
9. When=All-Time
Action=Accept
Optional Services
& Source=WAN & Destination=Localhost & Service=RIP(520) &
& Source=WAN & Destination=Any Address & Service=TCP@139 &
& Source=WAN & Destination=Any Address & Service=TCP@445 &
& Source=WAN & Destination=Localhost & Service=TCP@5432 &
& Source=Any Address & Destination=Any Address & Service=Any &
The ninth rule is fixed to be the last rule at the bottom for evaluation. Packets that do not match any other rule will
match this rule and be accepted. This rule is unmodifiable. The second rule denies any HTTPS access to
FortiWAN's localhost from the Internet, which means it is unable to access to the Web UI through any WAN port.
You can disable this rule or change Action to Accept to allow Web UI accessing throught WAN ports if no security
issues are concerned. The sixth, seventh and eighth rules deny any access (coming from the Internet) of
NetBIOS, Microsoft-DS Active Directory, Windows shares and Microsoft-DS SMB file sharing, and the Postgre
SQL database system that FortiWAN uses for Reports.
Example 1
Rules for Filtering Packets
l
l
l
The users from the internet (WAN) can only access FTP Server 211.21.48.195 through port 21.
The users from LAN can access all servers and hosts on the internet (WAN) through port 25 (SMTP), port 80
(HTTP), port 21 (FTP), and port 110 (POP3).
All other packets are blocked.
The rules table for the example will look like this:
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Firewall
Source
Destination
Service
Action
WAN
211.21.48.195
FTP (21)
Accept
WAN
DMZ
Any
Deny
LAN
WAN
HTTP (80)
Accept
LAN
WAN
SMTP (25)
Accept
LAN
WAN
FTP (21)
Accept
LAN
WAN
POP3 (110)
Accept
LAN
WAN
Any
Deny
Example 2
Rules for Filtering Packets
l
The users from the internet (WAN) can access server 211.21.48.195 inside DMZ through TCP port 7000.
l
The hosts 192.168.0.100 – 192.168.0.150 in the LAN can access the Internet (WAN) but the others cannot.
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Users from the Internet (WAN) cannot connect to the port 443 on FortiWAN (i.e. Web Administration on FortiWAN).
Note: “Localhost” represents the address of FortiWAN host machine.
l
Users from LAN can access FTP server 192.192.10.1 through port 21.
l
Users from the internet cannot ping FortiWAN . Note: To intercept ping messages, users can deny “ICMP” protocol
in service type because ping is a type of “ICMP”.
l
l
Users from the LAN cannot access DMZ.
l
Users from the internet (WAN) cannot access LAN and DMZ.
The rules table for the example will look like this:
Source
Destination
Service
Action
WAN
211.21.48.195
TCP@7000
Accept
192.168.0.100192.168.0.150
WAN
Any
Accept
WAN
Localhost
TCP@443
Deny
LAN
192.192.10.1
FTP (21)
Accept
WAN
Localhost
ICMP
Deny
LAN
DMZ
Any
Deny
WAN
DMZ
Any
Deny
WAN
LAN
Any
Deny
See also
l
Busyhour Settings
l
Using the web UI
l
Reports: Firewall
NAT
FortiWAN is an edge server that is usually placed on the boundary between WAN and LAN. When a connection is
established from a private IP address (in LAN or DMZ) to the internet (WAN), it is necessary to translate the
private IP address into one of the public IP addresses assigned to the FortiWAN's WAN link. This process is called
NAT (Network Address Translation). FortiWAN provides the typical NAT (called S-NAT also) for sessions
established from internal area. Once the private source IP address of outgoing packet of a session is translated to
a public IP address, the mapping is kept in translation table and therefore the inbound traffic (from public area) of
the session can be accepted and forwarded to the internal host who established the session.
With the typical NAT, two-way data transmission between an internal host and an external host is achieved, only
if the internal host starts the sessions. An external host is unable to starts a session with an internal host via the
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typical NAT. FortiWAN's 1-to-1 NAT gives the availability of two-way transmission between an internal host and
an external host not only for sessions starting from the internal host but also for sessions starting from the
external host.
FortiWAN provides log mechanism to the NAT service, see "Log".
Default Rules
FortiWAN's NAT Default Rules are the NAT rules (and IPv6 NAT rules) generated automatically by system
according to the Network Setting of WAN links. Once a WAN link is sat up (See "Configuring your WAN"), the
default rules are generated at the same time so that FortiWAN performs NAT automatically to packets coming
from anywhere (except subnets in WAN or/and DMZ and static routing subnets of the WAN link) and going to be
transferred via the WAN link. NAT default rules are varies according to how the WAN link is deployed. For
example,
WAN link 1: Routing mode with a basic subnet (125.227.251.0/255.255.255.0) in WAN and DMZ, and the IP(s)
on localhost are 128.227.251.80 and 128.227.251.81. System adds the default rules to WAN link 1 as following:
When = All-Time, Source = 125.227.251.0/255.255.255.0, Destination = Any
Address, Service = Any, Translated = No NAT
When = All-Time, Source = Any Address, Destination = Any Address, Service =
Any, Translated = 128.227.251.80
WAN link 2: Bridge mode: One Static IP, the IP on localhost is 125.227.250.10. System adds the default rules
to WAN link 2 as following:
When = All-Time, Source = 125.227.250.10, Destination = Any Address, Service =
Any, Translated = No NAT
When = All-Time, Source = Any Address, Destination = Any Address, Service =
Any, Translated = 128.227.250.10
WAN link 3: Bridge mode: Multiple Static IP, 125.227.252.100-125.227.252.101 are deployed on localhost,
125.227.252.102-125.227.252.103 are deployed in WAN, 125.227.252.104-125.227.252.105 are deployed in
DMZ. System adds the default rules to WAN link 3 as following:
When = All-Time, Source = 125.227.252.100-125.227.252.101, Destination = Any
Address, Service = Any, Translated = No NAT
When = All-Time, Source = 125.227.252.104-125.227.252.105, Destination = Any
Address, Service = Any, Translated = No NAT
When = All-Time, Source = Any Address, Destination = Any Address, Service =
Any, Translated = 128.227.252.100
WAN link 4: Bridge mode: PPPoE, system adds the default rule to WAN link 4 as following:
When = All-Time, Source = Any Address, Destination = Any Address, Service =
Any, Translated = DynamicIP(DHCP/PPPoE)
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Optional Services
The last rule translates source IP address of all packets into an IP address (localhost) of the WAN link. The
second (or third) rule from the bottom ignores NAT to packets coming from subnets of the WAN link. Those
default rules are added as the bottom rules to the top-down rule table. They are unable to be deleted and edited,
unless the correspondent deployment of the WAN link changes. The default rules will translate source IP address
of a matched packet into the first of the IP addresses that are assigned to localhost of the WAN link, which
normally is a public IPv4 address or global IPv6 address. Therefore, packets with private source address (IPv4) or
Link-Local source address (IPv6) are acceptable to Internet after the NAT process. However, even a packet
comes with public source address (IPv4) or Global source address (IPv6), NAT is also performed if it matches the
last rule. NAT default rules are based on deployment of a WAN link, deployment of LAN is regardless. Set NAT
rules manually for advanced applications.
Similarly, system generates default rules for IPv6/IPv4 dual stack WAN links. Take the WAN link 1 above as
example, if a IPv6 basic subnet 2001::/64 is deployed on WAN link 1 and the localhost is 2001::1, system adds
the IPv6 default rules to WAN link 1 as following:
When = All-Time, Source = 2001::/64, Destination = Any Address, Service = Any,
Translated = No NAT
When = All-Time, Source = Any Address, Destination = Any Address, Service =
Any, Translated = 2001::1
Note that for FortiWAN V4.0.x, system does note generate IPv6 default rules for IPv6/IPv4 dual stack
WAN link. It is necessary to add IPv6 default rules manually, or the IPv6 transmission might fail if its
source IP address is a Link-Local address. Please refer to the examples above for this.
Non-NAT
Non-NAT is used for Private Network and MPLS Network where the host in WAN can directly access the host in
DMZ, and where FortiWAN is used to balance VPN load and backup lines.
FortiWAN's inbound and outbound load balancing (Auto Routing and Multihoming) distribute session over
multiple WAN links. It's necessary to make sure the correct NAT rules are applied to every enabled WAN link.
Enable NAT
:
Enable the function, and NAT will translate any private IP to a fixed public IP assigned to a
given WAN link. Disable the function; FortiWAN will act as a general router for the host in
WAN to directly access the host in DMZ.
WAN
:
Enabled WAN links are listed in the menu. Select the WAN link to set and apply NAT rules
to.
NAT Rules
As the previous description, FortiWAN provides typical NAT for out-going session (established from internal host
to external host). Here we describe the NAT rules which specified how to translate source IP address of a outgoing packet into specified IP address of the WAN link. Incoming packets from a external host can be accepted
and forwarded to the correct internal host only if a out-going packet has already be translated and transferred to
the same external host. NAT rules are separated into IPv4 NAT rules and IPv6 NAT rules, which are used to
translate a IPv4 address to another IPv4 address and translate a IPv6 address to another IPv6 address
respectively. You will see the default rules at the bottom of the two rule tables, if IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses are
deployed on localhost of the WAN link.
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IPv4 NAT Rules
Customized rules for IPv4-to-IPv4 NAT on a specified WAN link (select from the drop-down menu WAN above).
E
Enable the NAT rule or not.
When
The predefined time periods during which the rules will apply. Options are Busy, Idle, All-Times
(See "Busyhour Settings").
Source
The packets sent from the source will be matched. Note: The source IPv4 to be translated
must be the IPv4 address assigned to the LAN or DMZ (See "Using the web UI").
Destination
The packets sent to the destination will be matched (See "Using the web UI").
Service
The packets with the service port number to which users would like NAT to apply. It can be the
TCP/UDP port, or Predefined service groups from [System]->[Service Grouping] (See "Using
the web UI").
Translated
Specify manually the IPv4 address or a range of IPv4 addresses that is assigned to the
localhost of the specified WAN link. Source IP address of the packets that match the rule
would be translated to the IP address specified here.
The first IPv4 address assigned to the localhost of the WAN link automatically displays in
the drop-down menu for options. If multiple IPv4 addresses are assigned to the WAN
link's localhost, you can set any of them manually by selecting the options "IPv4 Address"
and "IPv4 Range".
Select No NAT if no translation is needed.
The option [Dynamic IP] will be available while a Dynamic WAN link (Bridge Mode: PPPoE
and Bridge Mode: DHCP) is applied.
L
Check to enable logging. Whenever the rule is matched, the system will record the event to the
log file.
IPv6 NAT Rules
Customized rules for IPv6-to-IPv6 NAT on a specified WAN link (select from the drop-down menu WAN above).
291
E
Enable the NAT rule or not.
When
The predefined time periods during which the rules will apply. Options are Busy, Idle, All-Times
(See "Busyhour Settings").
Source
The packets sent from the source will be matched (See "Using the web UI"). Note: The source
IPv6 to be translated must be the IPv6 address assigned to the LAN or DMZ.
Destination
The packets sent to the destination will be matched (See "Using the web UI").
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Optional Services
Service
The packets with the service port number to which users would like NAT to apply. It can be the
TCP/UDP port, or Predefined service groups from [System]->[Service Grouping] (See "Using
the web UI").
Translated
Specify manually the IPv6 address or a range of IPv6 addresses that is assigned to the
localhost of the specified WAN link. Source IP address of the packets that match the rule
would be translated to the IP address specified here.
The first IPv6 address assigned to the localhost of the WAN link automatically displays in
the drop-down menu for options. If multiple IPv6 addresses are assigned to the WAN
link's localhost, you can set any of them manually by selecting the options "IPv6 Address"
and "IPv6 Range".
Select No NAT if no translation is needed.
The option [Dynamic IP] will be available while a Dynamic WAN link (Bridge Mode:
PPPoE) is applied. Bridge Mode: DHCP does not support IPv6/IPv4 dual stack.
Note that this field must be an IPv6 address obtained upon public DMZ subnet and with
64-bit or lower prefix length.
L
Check to enable logging. Whenever the rule is matched, the system will record the event to the
log file.
1-to-1 NAT Rules
1-to-1 NAT maintains a fixed 1-to-1 mapping (binding) between internal IP addresses and the IP addresses of a
WAN link's localhost (also called external addresses here), which requires the same amount of IP addresses on
both sides. Therefore, both a internal host and external host can launch sessions to each other. 1-to-1 NAT
supports translation for IPv4 only.
E
Enable the 1-to-1 NAT rule or not.
When
Select the time when to apply the 1-to-1 NAT rule, including three options: Busy, Idle and
All-Time (See "Busyhour Settings").
Internal Address
Select the internal IPv4 address, IPv4 range or IPv4 subnet that the 1-to-1 NAT rule should
be applied to (See "Using the web UI"). For a 1-to-1 NAT rule, the amount of internal IP
address here must be the same as amount of external IP address below. (Note: Internal IP
Address must be an IP address of the internal network or DMZ port.)
Service
Select a service port where the 1-to-1 NAT rule should be applied to, such as TCP, UDP,
ICMP or any of the predefined network service groups (See "Using the web UI").
External Address
Select the external IPv4 address, IPv4 range or IPv4 subnet that the 1-to-1 NAT rule should
be applied to (See "Using the web UI"). For a 1-to-1 NAT rule, the amount of external IP
address here must be the same as amount of internal IP address above. (Note: External IP
Address must be an IP address obtained upon WAN link connection.)
L
Check to enable logging. Whenever the rule is matched, the system will record the event to
the log file.
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For any out-going packet (no matter a internal or a external host launch the session), if the packet matches a 1-to1 NAT rule on When, Internal Address (Source) and Service, source IP address of the packet will be translate to
correspondent external address specified in the rule. For any in-coming packet (no matter a internal or a external
host launch the session), if the packet matches a 1-to-1 NAT rule on When, External Address (Destination) and
Service, destination IP address of the packet will be translate to correspondent internal address specified in the
rule.
Enable NAT
Example: To translate packets from local machine 192.168.123.100 to public IP address 172.31.5.51, check
“Enable NAT”, and select WAN #1, then check “Enable”. The NAT rule settings look like:
Source
Destination
Service Translated
192.168.123.100
Any Address
Any
172.31.5.51
Disable NAT
Disable NAT sets FortiWAN to Non-NAT mode whereby all the WAN hosts can acccess DMZ hosts directly with
proper routing setup. In this mode, FortiWAN acts as a router connecting multiple subnets.
Note: Once NAT is disabled, it is disabled on all the WAN Links.
Example: Non-NAT Settings
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Persistent Routing
Optional Services
Non-NAT is commonly used on Private Network and MPLS network, which makes possible for the hosts of the
branch office to directly access the headquarters. In case that ISP 1 is down, FortiWAN will automatically route
the link to ISP 2, and, accordingly, serve as VPN load balancer based on the status of each link.
Persistent Routing
Persistent routing is used to secure subsequent connections of source and destination pairs that are first
determined by Auto-Routing in FortiWAN. It is useful for applications require secure connection between the
server and client whereby client connection will be dropped if server detects different source IP addresses for the
same client during an authenticated and certified session. PR ensures that the source IP address remains
unchanged in the same session.
Timeout: For every session (pair of source and destination), if there is no packets occured during the timeout
period, records of persistent route of the session will be cleared. That means the next coming connection of the
session will be routed by the auto-routing rules first.
FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Persistent Routing service,
see "Log" and "Statistics: Persistent Routing".
IPv4/IPv6 Web Service Rules
Sets persistent routing rules on Web services. Enable this function, and all the http and https connections
established from source IP specified below to destination port 80 and port 443 are governed by Web Service
Rules.
E
:
Check the box to enable the rule.
When
:
Options: Busy hour, Idle hour, and All-Time (See "Busyhour Settings").
Source
:
Established connections from the specified source will be matched (See "Using the web UI").
Action
:
Do PR: the matched connections will be routed persistently.
No PR: the matched connections will NOT be routed persistently. (The Default)
L
:
Check to enable logging: Whenever the rule is matched, system will record the event to log
file.
IPv4/IPv6 IP Pair Rules
Sets persistent routing rules on IPv4/IPv6 addresses. Enable this function, and all connections established from
the source IPv4/IPv6 to destination IPv4/IPv6 specified below are governed by IPv4/IPv6 IP Pair Rules.
E
:
Check the box to enable the rule.
When
:
Options: Busy hour, Idle hour, and All-Time (See "Busyhour Settings").
Source
:
Established connections from the specified source will be matched (See "Using the web UI").
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Destination
:
Action
:
The connections to the specified destination will be matched. This field is the same as the
“Source” field, except it matches packets with the specified destination (See "Using the web
UI").
Do PR: the matched connections will be routed persistently. (The Default)
No PR: the matched connections will NOT be routed persistently.
L
:
Check to enable logging: Whenever the rule is matched, system will record the event to log
file.
Persistent routing is often used when destination servers check source IP. The function is performed on most
secure connections (e.g. HTTPS and SSH). To prevent the connections from being dispatched over a diverse
range of WAN links, persistent routing serves the best solution for maintaining connections over a fixed WAN link.
See below for how auto-routing is related to persistent-routing:
Once a connection is established, auto-routing rules are applied to determine the WAN link to be used.
Subsequent connections with the same destination and source pair obey the rules formulated in the persistent
routing table. Note that the device will consult the rule table whenever established connections are to be sent to
new destinations.
Auto-routing will be reactivated once in persistent routing the interval between two successive connections are
longer than timeout period. A second connection will be considered as a "new" one. Then auto-routing will secure
the connection to go through a different WAN link.
Example 1
The persistent routing policies to be established accordingly:
l
l
l
l
In LAN, established connections from IP address 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.10.100 are NOT to be routed
persistently.
Established connections from DMZ to LAN are NOT to be routed persistently.
Established connections from LAN to the host IP ranging from 10.10.1.1 ~ 10.10.1.10 are NOT to be routed
persistently.
Since the default action by IP Pair rules is Do PR, if no rule is added, all connections will use persistent routing.
Then persistent routing table will look like:
Source
Destination
Action
192.168.0.100
192.192.10.100
No PR
DMZ
WAN
No PR
LAN
10.10.1.1-10.10.1.10
No PR
Example 2
The persistent routing policies to be established accordingly:
HTTP and HTTPs connections from the subnet 192.168.0.0/24 in LAN use persistent routing.
HTTP and HTTPs connections from WAN use persistent routing.
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Optional Services
As there is no default action set by Web Service Rules, if no rule is added, all connections will be based on IP Pair
Rules to determine whether to use persistent routing.
The persistent routing table should look like:
Source
Action
192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0
Do PR
WAN
Do PR
Example 3
The persistent routing policies to be established accordingly:
HTTP and HTTPs connections from LAN hosts with IP range 192.168.0.10~192.168.0.20 use persistent routing,
but this does not apply to other services except IP address 192.168.0.15.
HTTP and HTTPs connections from subnet 192.168.10.0/24 to 192.192.10.100 use persistent routing. But this
does not apply to other connections.
Connections from IP address 211.21.48.196 in DMZ to the WAN subnet 10.10.1.0/24 in WAN do NOT use
persistent routing.
Since the default action by IP Pair Ruels is Do PR, if no rule is added, all connections will use persistent routing.
Then persistent routing table will look like:
Source
Action
192.168.0.10-192.168.0.20
Do PR
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
Do PR
Source
Destination
Action
192.168.0.15
WAN
Do PR
192.168.0.10-192.168.0.20
WAN
No PR
192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0
ANY
No PR
211.21.48.196
10.10.1.0/255.255.255.0
No PR
Note: Rules are matched top down. Once one rule is matched, the rest will be ignored. In this case, the
connections from 192.168.0.15 may meet the criteria of the first and second IP Pair rules, only the first rule will be
applied. Hence the rules will not perform NoPR on 192.168.0.15 even though it matches the second rule.It shall
be noted that Web Service Rules are prioritized over IP Pair Rules. As 192.168.10.0/255.255.255.0 is configured
to be NoPR in IP Pair Rules, but DoPR in Web Service Rules, HTTP connections will still apply persistent routing.
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Optional Services
Bandwidth Management
Bandwidth Management
Bandwidth Management (BM) allocates bandwidth to applications. To secure the bandwidth of critical
applications, FortiWAN Bandwidth Management (BM) defines inbound and outbound bandwidth based on traffic
direction, i.e. take FortiWAN as the center, traffic flows from WAN to LAN is inbound traffic, otherwise, it is
outbound traffic. No matter which direction a connection is established in, a connection must contain inbound
traffic and outbound traffic. The section will mainly explain how to guarantee bandwidth based on priority
settings, and how to manage inbound and outbound traffic by configuring busy/idle hours, data
source/destination, and service type, etc.
Bandwidth Management consists of Classes and Filters (IPv4/IPv6). Click "Expand Link Settings" or "Collapse
Link Settings" to show or hide configuration details of links and bandwidth limit.
FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Bandwidth Management
service, see "Log", "Statistics: Bandwidth" and "Report: Bandwidth Usage".
Inbound BM and Outbound BM
Bandwidth Management is divided into inbound BM and outbound BM, which are used to control the inbound
traffic and outbound traffic respectively on each WAN port. Packets (network streams) that are transferred inward
(from WAN to LAN, DMZ or localhost) on a WAN port are counted to inbound traffic; packets that are transferred
outward (from LAN, DMZ or localhost to WAN) on a WAN port are counted to outbound traffic. Therefor, both
inbound BM and outbound BM are required if you would like to control a connection in the two ways (Bandwidth
Management ignores the direction of a connection, the initiator of the connection). BM policy consists of BM
classes and filters. A BM class defines the bandwidth to allocate applications on each WAN port, while a BM filter
defines the associated application by source, destination and service of the packets. According to the associated
inbound/outbound classes, bandwidth is allocated to the inbound/outbound traffic that is defined in an
inbound/outbound filter.
Inbound & Outbound Classes
An inbound/outbound class defines how to allocate bandwidth to the specified traffic. Specified traffic associated
with the class can be controlled according to the WAN link it passes through and the time it is generated, and
bandwidth is allocated according to settings of Guarantee, Max and Priority.
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Enable BM
Tick the check box to enable Bandwidth Management.
Name
Assign a name to bandwidth class. Better use simple
names to avoid confusion, e.g. “HTTP” to manage the
bandwidth of HTTP service.
Link
The WAN link number which bandwidth limitation will be
applied to. Traffic of specified applications (defined in
inbound and outbound filters) passing through the WAN link
will be shaped according to the bandwidth limitation below.
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This is the bandwidth allocation on a WAN link during
defined busy hour (see System > Busyhour Settings for
more details, "Busyhour Settings"). Associated traffic
passing through the WAN link during the time period will be
shaped according to the following settings.
Busy Hour
Settings
Guaranteed Kbps
The guaranteed bandwidth for this class. This secures
bandwidth allocated as defined for WAN link in peak hours.
This is significant to guarantee the service quality especially
for critical applications like VoIP.
Max Kbps
The maximum bandwidth for WAN link. Maximum
bandwidth is often allocated to services like WWW and
SMTP that consume large bandwidth. Note that traffic of
the WAN link would be blocked if value of the field is zero.
Priority
The priority of the connections on the WAN link. It can be
High, Normal, or Low. The connections with higher priority
will first be allocated bandwidth.
This is the bandwidth allocation on a WAN link during
defined idle hour (see System > Busyhour Settings for more
details, "Busyhour Settings"). Associated traffic passing
through the WAN link during the time period will be shaped
according to the following settings.
Idle Hour
Settings
Guaranteed Kbps
The guaranteed bandwidth for this class. This secures
bandwidth allocated as defined for WAN link in peak hours.
This is significant to guarantee the service quality especially
for critical applications like VoIP.
Max Kbps
The maximum bandwidth for WAN link. Maximum
bandwidth is often allocated to services like WWW and
SMTP that consume large bandwidth. Note that traffic of
the WAN link would be blocked if value of the field is zero.
Priority
The priority of the connections on the WAN link. It can be
High, Normal, or Low. The connections with higher priority
will first be allocated bandwidth.
Inbound & Outbound IPv4/IPv6 Filter
A filter is used to evaluate the traffic passing through FortiWAN by its source, destination and service. Traffic
matches the filter will be associated to the corresponding BM class, so that the traffic is shaped according to the
bandwidth allocation of the class. The source and destination here mean the actual initiator and terminator of the
inbound/outbound traffic, no matter whether the traffic is processed by NAT or Virtual Server.
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Check the box to enable the rule.
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Input Port
Select a interface that packets are received on for this filter term to evaluate the
outbound traffic, or leave it as Any Port. See Using the web UI for details. This
field is only available for Outbound IPv4/IPv6 filters.
Source
The source used to evaluate traffic (original packets) by where it comes from (See
"Using the web UI").
Destination
The destination used to evaluate traffic (original packets) by where it goes to (See
"Using the web UI").
Service
The service used to evaluate traffic (original packets) by what the source port
and destination port they are. Service matches as long as source port or
destination port matches (See "Using the web UI").
The options GRE and ESP in the Service drop-down menu is for the GRE
and ESP packets coming from other VPN devices. GRE and ESP packets
generated by FortiWAN are invisible to Bandwidth Management filters.
Classes
The BM class that traffic matching the filter (Source, Destination and Service) is
associated with.
L
Check to enable logging: Whenever the rule is matched, system will record the
event to log file.
Managing Bandwidth for Tunnel Routing and IPsec
Bandwidth Management is capable to control the original traffic that is encapsulated by Tunnel Routing or IPSec
VPN. Traffic that is going to be transferred outward through Tunnel Routing or IPSec VPN will be processed by
Bandwidth Management before encapsulating, and traffic that is transferred inward through Tunnel Routing or
IPSec VPN is controlled by Bandwidth Management after decapsulating. In other words, FortiWAN's Tunnel
Routing and IPSec are transparent to Bandwidth Management (and the corresponding BM log and statistics).
Bandwidth Management can only recognize the original applications (by matching a filter on the Service) that is
going to be encapsulated or has been decapsulated by Tunnel Routing or IPSec. The GRE and ESP packets
generated by FortiWAN are invisible to Bandwidth Management.
To control Tunnel Routing or IPSec transmission by Bandwidth Management, please make sure a Bandwidth
Management filter is defined correctly (on the source, destination and service) to match its original packets. If you
would like to control the overall Tunnel Routing or IPSec transmission no matter what the original services it is, try
to classify the traffic by its Source and Destination; the Source and Destination of the Routing Rules of Tunnel
Routing, or the Source and Destination of the Quick Mode selectors of IPSec Tunnel mode (See "How to set up
routing rules for Tunnel Routing" and "IPSec VPN in the Web UI").
Traffic shaping by Bandwidth Manage takes place before Tunnel Routing and IPSec encapsulations. Traffic of an
application is counted together in BM logs no matter whether it is transferred through Tunnel Routing and IPSec,
thus you cannot recognize the traffic statistics as a Tunnel Routing (includes Tunnel Routing over IPSec
Transport mode), IPSec (Tunnel mode) or general transmission from the BM logs by the PROTO field (See "Log >
View"). As for FortiWAN Reports, statistics of the traffic that is transferred through Tunnel Routing is indicated as
GRE in the reports but it is unable to drill down to the individual services. On the other hand, you cannot
recognize a traffic as FortiWAN's IPSec in the service report pages, traffic that is transferred through FortiWAN
IPSec is separated into individual services. See "Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec" for the details.
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Note that during the period system applying the configurations of Bandwidth Management (click the Apply button
on Web UI), traffic passing through FortiWAN will be blocked for a while.
Scenarios
Example 1 Inbound BM
The maximum bandwidth limited for internet users to transfer emails to mail server 211.21.48.197 in DMZ during
both busy and idle periods is 128K on WAN1, 64K on WAN2, and 128K on WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on
WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is zero.
The maximum bandwidth limited for hosts in LAN zone to download data from internet web servers during both
busy and idle periods is 128K on WAN1, 64K on WAN2, and 64K on WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1,
WAN2 and WAN3 is zero.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for 192.168.0.100 to download data from internet FTP
servers is 50K on WAN1, 30K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1 is 20K, and zero on
WAN2 and WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum bandwidth limited for 192.168.0.100 to download data
from internet FTP servers is 50K on WAN1, 200K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth is 20K on
WAN1, 100K on WAN2 and WAN3. The bandwidth is prioritized as "High" during both busy and idle periods.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for internet users to upload data to FTP server
211.21.48.198 in DMZ is 500K on WAN1, 256K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1 is
200K, and zero on WAN2 and WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum bandwidth limited for internet users to
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upload data to FTP server 211.21.48.198 in DMZ is 500K on WAN1, 300K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed
bandwidth is 200K on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3. The bandwidth is prioritized as "Low" during both busy and idle
periods.
Name
Link
Mail Server
For LAN Zone
For
192.168.0.100
FTP Server
Busy Hour Settings
Idle Hour Settings
Guaranteed Max Kbps
Kbps
Priority
Guaranteed Max Kbps
Kbps
Priority
WAN1
0
128
Normal
0
128
Normal
WAN2
0
64
Normal
0
64
Normal
WAN3
0
128
Normal
0
128
Normal
WAN1
0
128
Normal
0
128
Normal
WAN2
0
64
Normal
0
64
Normal
WAN3
0
64
Normal
0
64
Normal
WAN1
20
50
High
20
50
High
WAN2
0
30
High
100
200
High
WAN3
0
30
High
100
200
High
WAN1
200
5000
Low
200
500
Low
WAN2
0
256
Low
200
300
Low
WAN3
0
256
Low
200
300
Low
Filter Settings
Source
Destination
Service
Classes
WAN
211.21.48.197
SMTP(25)
Mail Server
WAN
LAN
HTTP(80)
For LAN Zone
WAN
192.168.0.100
FTP(21)
For
192.168.0.100
WAN
211.21.48.198
FTP(21)
FTP Server
There are two possible scenarios for inbound data. One is local host downloading data from a remote FTP server
in WAN, the other is a remote user in WAN uploading data to FTP in LAN. In both two scenarios data are sent
from WAN to LAN. Thus it is necessary to configure BM rules for the scenarios on the Inbound BM page.
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Example 2 Inbound BM
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for hosts in LAN zone to download data from FTP server
192.192.10.10 is 128K on WAN1, 128K on WAN2, and 64K on WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum
bandwidth limited for hosts in LAN zone to download data from FTP server 192.192.10.10 is 512K on WAN1,
WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is zero during both busy and idle
periods.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for hosts 192.168.0.10 ~ 192.168.0.50 in LAN zone to
download data from internet web servers is 128K on WAN1, 256K on WAN2 and WAN3. The gauranteed
bandwidth is zero on WAN1, 128K on WAN2 and 64K on WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum bandwidth
limited for hosts 192.168.0.10 ~ 192.168.0.50 in LAN zone to download data from internet web servers is 128K
on WAN1, 512K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth is zero on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3. The
bandwidth is prioritized as "Low" on WAN2 and WAN3 during both busy and idle periods.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for hosts in a subnet 192.168.100.0/24 in LAN to
download data from internet FTP servers is 50K on WAN1, 64K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth
on WAN1 is 20K, and zero on WAN2 and WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum bandwidth limited for hosts
in a subnet 192.168.100.0/24 in LAN to download data from internet FTP servers is 20K on WAN1, 128K on
WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth is 20K on WAN1, 32K on WAN2 and WAN3. The bandwidth is
prioritized as "High" during both busy and idle periods.
Configuring inbound BM class table
Name
For LAN Zone
For
192.168.0.10-50
For
192.168.100.0/24
Link
Busy Hour Settings
Idle Hour Settings
Guaranteed Max Kbps
Kbps
Priority
Guaranteed Max Kbps
Kbps
Priority
WAN1
0
128
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN2
0
128
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN3
0
64
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN1
0
128
Normal
0
128
Normal
WAN2
128
256
Low
0
512
Low
WAN3
64
256
Low
0
512
Low
WAN1
20
50
High
20
50
High
WAN2
0
64
High
32
128
High
WAN3
0
64
High
32
128
High
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Filter Settings
Source
Destination
Service
Classes
192.192.10.10
LAN
SMTP(25)
For LAN Zone
WAN
192.168.0.10-192.168.0.50
HTTP(80)
For
192.168.0.10-50
WAN
192.168.100.0/255.255.255.0
FTP(21)
For
192.168.100.0/24
Example 3 Outbound BM
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for internet users to download data from FTP server
211.21.48.198 in DMZ is 128K on WAN1 and WAN2, and 64K on WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum
bandwidth limited for internet users to download data from FTP server 211.21.48.198 in DMZ is 512K on WAN1,
WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is zero during both busy and idle
period.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for internet users to receive emails from mail server
211.21.48.197 in DMZ is 128K on WAN1 and WAN2, and 256K on WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum
bandwidth limited for internet users to receive emails from mail server 211.21.48.197 in DMZ is 128K on WAN1
and WAN2, and 512K on WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is zero. The bandwidth
is prioritized as "Low" during both busy and idle periods.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for internet users to download data from a virture FTP
server 192.168.0.100 in LAN is 200K on WAN1, 100K on WAN2 and WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth on WAN1
is 100K, and 50K on WAN2 and WAN3. During the idle period, the maximum bandwidth limited for internet users
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to download data from a virture FTP server 192.168.0.100 in LAN is 512K on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3. The
guaranteed bandwidth is on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3 is zero. Note: When configuring filters on virtual servers,
specify the private IP assigned to the virtual server and not the translated public IP.
During the busy period, the maximum bandwidth limited for hosts in a remote subnet 10.10.10.0/24 to download
data from FTP server 211.21.48.198 in DMZ is 128K on WAN1 and WAN2 and 256K on WAN3. During the idle
period, the maximum bandwidth limited for hosts in a remote subnet 10.10.10.0/24 to download data from FTP
server 211.21.48.198 in DMZ is 256K on WAN1 and WAN2, and 512K on WAN3. The guaranteed bandwidth is
zero on WAN1, WAN2 and WAN3, and the bandwidth is prioritized as "Low" during both busy and idle periods.
Settings for BM classes above
Name
Mail Server
For LAN Zone
For
192.168.0.100
FTP Server
Link
Busy Hour Settings
Idle Hour Settings
Guaranteed Max Kbps
Kbps
Priority
Guaranteed Max Kbps
Kbps
Priority
WAN1
0
128
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN2
0
128
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN3
0
64
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN1
0
128
Low
0
128
Low
WAN2
0
128
Low
0
128
Low
WAN3
0
256
Low
0
512
Low
WAN1
100
200
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN2
50
100
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN3
50
100
Normal
0
512
Normal
WAN1
0
128
Low
0
256
Low
WAN2
0
128
Low
0
256
Low
WAN3
0
256
Low
0
512
Low
Filter Settings
Source
Destination
Service
Classes
211.21.48.198
WAN
FTP(21
FTP Server
211.21.48.197
WAN
POP(110)
Mail Server (POP3)
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Connection Limit
Source
Destination
Service
Classes
192.168.0.100
WAN
FTP(21)
For 192.168.0.100
211.21.48.198
10.10.10.0/255.255.255.0
Any
For 10.10.10.0
Two possible scenarios for upstream data: e.g. FTP (scenario 1), is that local host uploads data from a remote
FTP server in the WAN. The other scenario is a remote user in WAN downloads data from a FTP server in the
LAN. Both of these scenarios are sending data from LAN to WAN. Thus configuring BM rules for these two
scenarios on the inbound BM page is necessary.
See also:
l
Busyhour Settings
l
Using the web UI
l
Log
l
Statistics: Bandwidth
l
Report: Bandwidth Usage
Connection Limit
Connection Limit is a feature that restricts the number of connections to remain below a certain specified limit.
When the number of connections exceeds that limit, the system will automatically log the event (if logging is
enabled). Connection limit can detect exceptionally high volumes of traffic caused by malicious attacks.
FortiWAN protects the network by rejecting connections above the threshold.
Configurations of Connection Limit are divided into 2 sections: Count Limit and Rate Limit. Configuration of
Count Limit is aimed to limit the number of total connections biult by one IP address simultaneously; that is to say
the request of new connection via this IP address will be denied, once the count of connections reaches the
connection number specified in this section. On the other hand, configuration of Rate Limit is aimed to restrict the
number of connections built by one IP address every second. The source of connection can be from any of the
following options: IP address, IP Range, Subnet, WAN, LAN, DMZ, Localhost, and any specific IP address.
FortiWAN provides mechanisms to record, notify and analysis on events refer to the Connection Limit service,
see "Log", "Statistics: Connection Limit" and "Report: Connection Limit".
Log Interval
Log Interval
:
The log interval determines how often the system records when the number of the connections
exceeds the limit defined in the rules table.
Rules – Count Limit
305
Source
:
Match connections from a specified source (See "Using the web UI").
Count
:
Set the limit for maximum number of the connections.
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Cache Redirect
L
Optional Services
:
Check to enable logging. If the box is checked, logging will be enabled. Whenever the rule is
matched, the system will record the event to the log file.
Rules – Rate Limit
E
:
Enable: This rule can be matched. Disable: This rule does not need to be matched.
When
:
All of these three options are applicable 24 hours a day (See "Busyhour Settings").
Source
:
Match connections from a specified source (See "Using the web UI").
Destination
:
Match connections to specified Destination: This field is the same as the “Source” field, except that
connections are matched with specified destination (See "Using the web UI").
Service
:
The TCP/UDP service type to be matched. Select the matching criteria from publicly known service
types (e.g. FTP), or enter the port number in TCP/UDP packets and specify the range. Type the
starting port number plus hyphen “-“ and then the ending port number. e.g. “TCP@123-234” (See
"Using the web UI").
Conn/Sec
:
Specify the number of connection allowed per second, under the conditions of [When], [Source],
[Destination], and [Service] defined.
L
:
Check to enable logging. If the box is checked, logging will be enabled. Whenever the rule is
matched, the system will record the event to the log file.
Cache Redirect
FortiWAN is capable of working with external cache servers. When a user requests a page from a web server on
the internet, FortiWAN will redirect the request to the cache server. If the requested web page is already on the
cache server, it will return the page to the user, thus saving time on data retrieval. Cache servers are configured
here. However, cache servers have to support caching in transparent mode. Note: Cache Server can be in DMZ.
FortiWAN provides log mechanisms on events refer to the Connection Limit service, see "Log".
Cache Group
The first table configures cache server groups. Multiple groups can have different sets of rules which are then
created on the second table. In addition, the number of cache servers is not limited to one. Therefore it is
possible to have multiple cache servers with different weights in the cache server group.
Group Name
Assign a name for this cache server group.
IP
The IPv4 address of the cache server.
Port
The port number of the cache server.
Weight
The weight for redirecting the requests to this cache server. A higher value means a greater
the chance.
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Associated WAN
Cache Redirect
Select WAN link associated with the cache server. Cache redirect works only when both the
selected WAN link and the cache server are available. Selecting "NO" means cache redirect
is not associated with WAN links. No matter a WAN link is available or not, cache redirect
can work if the cache server is available.
Redirect Rule
Source
The source where the request originates and it will be redirected to the cache server.
Specify the IP(s) when selecting “IPv4 Address”, “IPv4 Range” and/or IPv4 subnet (See
"Using the web UI").
Destination
The destination where the request will be sent and it will be redirect to the cache server.
Specify the IP(s) when selecting “IPv4 Address”, “IPv4 Range” and/or IPv4 subnet (See
"Using the web UI").
Port
The service port number and it will be redirected to the cache server.
Group
Select “NO REDIRECT” for requests not to be directed. Or assign pre-existing group to
redirect the requests.
L
Enable logging or not: If the box is checked, the logging will be enabled. Whenever the rule
is matched, the system will write the event to the log file.
Redirect rules can be established to match requests that will be redirected to the specific cache server group.
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Cache Redirect
Optional Services
Example 1 The Requested Web Page is NOT on the Cache Server
When FortiWAN receives a request from a client, the request will be redirected to the cache server. The cache
server will determine if the data requested already exists or not. If not, then the request will be performed on
behalf of the client with the data returned from the web server to the client.
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Internal DNS
Example 2 The Requested Web Page is on the Cache Server
When FortiWAN receives a request from a client, the request will be redirected to the cache server. In this case,
the data requested already exists on the cache server. Therefore it will return the data requested to the client
without passing the actual request to the internet.
Internal DNS
Internal DNS is the DNS server built in FortiWAN used to manage your domain for internal users. Internal DNS
resolve domain name for DNS requests coming from LAN or DMZ subnets. FortiWAN's Internal DNS is recursive
DNS, which allows users to resolve other people's domains. The DNS servers set in System > Network Setting
> DNS Server will be asked by Internal DNS while it recursively resolve an unknown domain (See "Set DNS
server to FortiWAN"). In case that all the set DNS servers are not available or the DNS server is not configured,
Internal DNS will ask the root domain name server for resolving the domain. Allocate the Internal DNS to users in
LAN and DMZ subnets by manually set the DNS server on their computers to the gateways, which are LAN ports
or DMZ ports. It is unable to automatically allocate FortiWAN's internal DNS to users by FortiWAN's DHCP. An
user in LAN or DMZ subnet need to manually configure the DNS server on its computer to the gateway it connects
to for using FortiWAN's Internal DNS. Activate DNS function by configuring fields below:
Global Settings: IPv4 / IPv6 PTR Record
Enable Internal DNS
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Turn on/off internal DNS server.
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Internal DNS
IPv4 PTR Record
IPv6 PTR Record
Optional Services
l
TTL: Specifies the amount of time other DNS servers and applications are allowed to
cache the record.
l
IPv4 Address: Enter the reverse lookup IPv4 address.
l
Host Name: Enter the corresponding FQDN for the reverse IP.
l
TTL: Specifies the amount of time other DNS servers and applications are allowed to
cache the record.
l
IPv6 Address: Enter the reverse lookup IPv6 address.
l
Host Name: Enter the corresponding FQDN for the reverse IP.
Domain Settings
Domain Name
Enter domain names for the internal DNS. Press “+” to add more domains.
TTL
Assign DNS query response time.
Responsible Mail
Enter domain administrator's email.
Primary Name Server
Enter primary server's name.
IPv4 Address
Query IPv4 address. It can be: IPv4 single address, range, subnet, or predefined IPv4
group.
IPv6 Address
Query IPv6 address. It can be: IPv6 single address, range, subnet, or predefined IPv6
group.
NS Record
Name Server
Enter server name's prefix. For example: if a server’s FQDN is "nsl.abc.com", enter “nsl”.
IPv4 Address
Enter the IPv4 address corresponding to the name server.
IPv6 Address
Enter the IPv6 address corresponding to the name server.
A/AAAA Record
Host Name
Enter the prefix name of the primary workstation. For example: if the name is
"www.abc.com", enter “www”.
IP Address
Enter the IPv4/IPv6 address of the primary workstation.
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Internal DNS
CName Record
Alias
Enter the alias of the domain name. For example, if "www1.abc.com" is the alias of
"www.abc.com", (domain name), enter “www1” in this field.
Target
Enter the real domain name. For example, if "www1.abc.com" is the alias of
"www.abc.com", enter “www”.
SRV Record
Service
Specify the symbolic name prepended with an underscore. (e.g. _http, _ftp or _imap)
Protocol
Specify the protocol name prepended with an underscore. (e.g. _tcp or _udp)
Priority
Specify the relative priority of this service (0 - 65535). Lowest is highest priority.
Weight
Specify the weight of this service. Weight is used when more than one service has the
same priority. The highest is most frequently delivered. Leave is blank or zero if no
weight should be applied.
Port
Specify the port number of the service.
Target
The hostname of the machine providing this service.
TTL
TTL (Time To Live) specifies the amount of time that SRV Record is allowed to be
cached.
MX Record
Host Name
Enter the prefix of the mail server’s domain name. For example, if domain name is
"mail.abc.com", enter “mail”.
Priority
Enter the priority of the mail servers. The higher the priority is, the lower the number is.
Mail Server
Enter the IP address of the mail server.
External Subdomain Record
Subdomain Name
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Enter the name of an external subdomain. To add an additional subdomain, press +.
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DNS Proxy
NS Record
Optional Services
l
Name server - Enter the prefix of domain name (e.g. if the FQDN of the host is
"ns1.abc.com", enter "ns1")
l
IPv4 address - Enter the corresponding IPv4 address of the domain name.
l
IPv6 address - Enter the corresponding IPv6 address of the domain name.
DNS Proxy
Conceptually, FortiWAN's DNS Proxy is a function to dynamically redirect outgoing DNS requests (UDP 53) to an
appropriate DNS server according to FortiWAN's WAN link loading. It is implemented by dynamically replacing
the original destination IP address of outgoing DNS requests with another DNS server IP address. No matter what
the DNS server that an internal host is configured with, for any outgoing DNS request passing through FortiWAN,
DNS Proxy replaces the original destination IP address of the DNS requests with the DNS server IP address
determined by a load balancing algorithm. Basically, FortiWAN's DNS Proxy selects a WAN link with lighter traffic
loading and replace original destination of the DNS query packet with another DNS server that is associated with
the WAN link.
How the DNS Proxy works and its configurations
Once DNS Proxy is enabled, any DNS request (UDP 53) received on FortiWAN's LAN and DMZports will be
evaluated. DNS Proxy contains two phases; selecting a WAN link with lighter traffic loading (depends on the
specified algorithm) and replacing the destination of DNS queries. Configuration of DNS Proxy contains three
basic elements:
l
An algorithm used to select a WAN link
l
Participating WAN links
l
The DNS servers used to replace the original destination of packets
DNS Proxy determines the DNS server for replacement by selecting one of the participating WAN links.
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Optional Services
DNS Proxy
DNS Proxy Setting Fields
Enable DNS Proxy
Enable/disable DNS Proxy.
Algorithm
Select an algorithm (See Load Balancing Algorithms) for selecting one of the
participating WAN links:
l
By Weight: select a WAN link from the participants in weighted round-robin.
l
By Down Stream: always select the WAN link that has the lightest downstream traffic.
l
By Up Stream: always select the WAN link that has the lightest upstream traffic.
l
By Total Traffic: always select the WAN link that has the lightest total traffic.
The algorithm specified here determines a WAN link only for getting the associated
DNS server to replace destination of the DNS packets. The selected WAN link is not
for routing the packets. Auto Routing determines the WAN link to transfer the packets
outward according to the policies.
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DNS Proxy
WAN
Optional Services
Select the participating WAN links by specifying the DNS servers and weight. From
the drop-down menu, select a WAN link and configure the following fields Weight and
Server 1 - 3. Then the WAN link becomes one of the participating WAN links for DNS
Proxy selects according to the specified algorithm.
After DNS Proxy selects a WAN link for a DNS request according to the specified
algorithm, the destination of the DSN packet will be replaced with the DNS server
associated to the WAN link. You can associate maximum of three DNS server IP
addresses to a WAN link. DNS Proxy detects availability of the specified DNS servers
and chooses the first available server for every replacement. A replacement will not
take place if no specified server is available.
IP addresses of DNS servers specified here can be internal or external IP addresses.
DNS packets processed by DNS Proxy will be transferred toward the internal or
external IP address according routing rule set in Network Setting (see Configuring
your WAN and LAN Private Subnet) and Auto Routing (see Auto Routing).
No matter which algorithm is specified, if only one WAN link is configured here, DNS
packets will be always processed with the DNS server associated with the WAN link.
In other words, DNS Proxy redirects DNS requests to a fixed DNS server regardless of
traffic loading on WAN links.
Weight
Give a weight to the WAN link. This field is visible when By Weight is
selected in Algorithm.
Server 1
Specify IP address of the first DNS server to the WAN link. This IP
address will be used to replace the destination of a DNS packet if
the associated WAN link is selected.
Getting this field configured is necessary to have a WAN link
participated in DNS Proxy. A WAN link without configuring this field
will not participate in DNS Proxy.
Server 2
Specify IP address of the second DNS server to the WAN link. This IP
address will be used for the replacement if Server 1 is not available. This
is optional.
Server 3
Specify IP address of the third DNS server on the WAN link. This IP
address will be used for the replacement if Server 1 and Server 2
are not available. This is optional.
Source
DNS request packets coming from the specified source will be matched. Enter a single
IPv4 address, IPv4 range (in format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx-xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) or a IPv4 subnet (in
format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/netmask).Keep it blank for matching any source.
Domain Name
DNS requests for the specified domain name will be matched. A wildcard character is
accepted for the left-most label of a domain name, e.g. *.fortinet.com or
*fortinet.com.
Note that other formats such as www.*.com, www.fortinet.* or *.fortinet.* are not
supported. Keep it blank for any domain name.
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Optional Services
DNS Proxy
What DNS Proxy performs to DNS packets is only replace the destination of DNS packets; it does not involve
routing for the packets. DNS Proxy select a WAN link only for the destination replacement, not for routing the
packets. Auto Routing determines the route for the outgoing DNS packets (actually, Auto Routing is the only
function routing for all outbound traffic, see Auto Routing). For example, although DNS Proxy selects WAN 1 for
replacing destination of a DNS packet with IP of the DNS server associated with WAN 1, FortiWAN routing
function might transfer it through other WAN links (WAN 2 or WAN 3) or a LAN port.
Scenario
Here is an example using algorithm By Weight to select the DNS server for the destination replacement in the
weight WAN1:WAN2 = 2:1.
Algorithm
By Weight
DNS Server
WAN
1
2
Weight
2
1
Server 1
211.136.28.237
202.106.0.20
Server 2
-
-
Server 3
-
-
According to the configuration, all the DNS requests received on FortiWAN's LAN ports and DNS ports will be
reworked as followings:
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Packet
Source
Request A record
for
Original destination
Hit WAN
link
Replaced destination
Packet 1
192.168.0.10
www.abc.com
8.8.8.8
WAN1
211.136.28.237
Packet 2
192.168.0.101
www.def.com
202.96.209.5
WAN1
211.136.28.237
Packet 3
192.168..0.66
www.ijk.com
202.96.209.133
WAN2
202.106.0.20
Packet 4
192.168.0.23
www.opq.com
211.136.150.66
WAN1
211.136.28.237
Packet 5
192.168.0.7
www.rst.com
223.5.5.5
WAN1
211.136.28.237
Packet 6
192.168.0.211
www.xyz.com
211.136.112.50
WAN2
202.106.0.20
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DNS Proxy
Optional Services
DNS Proxy for peering issue
Actually, DNS Proxy is mainly used to resolve potential traffic congestion on single WAN link due to the usage of
Optimum Route for resolving ISP peering issue (certainly, it can also be used for just redirecting DNS requests to
another DNS server, which is unrelated to peering issue). As mentioned in Optimum Route Detection, Optimum
Route does resolve the inefficient transmission resulted by bad peering between ISPs. No matter which detection
mode is used for Optimum Route, traffic to a particular destination will be almost fixed by Optimum Route on
particular WAN links (which the WAN links connect to the same ISP subnet that the particular destination is
located in) if this ISP has bad peering with other ISPs (other WAN links). In real practice, most of service providers
or internet content providers will not deploy their servers in only one ISP network if peering issue exists between
ISPs. To provide service to users located in different ISP networks, they will logically deploy servers in several ISP
networks, and maintain DNS servers (or appropriate settings on ISP's DNS) for a common domain in each of the
ISP networks. Each of the DNS servers will answer the IP address of corresponding application server that is
located in the same ISP network together with the DNS server to any DNS query for the server name. In other
words, asking different DNS servers (located in different ISP networks) for the same server name will be
responded with different IP addresses, which belong to different ISP networks. Users in an ISP network can
access the server located in the same ISP network without passing across others ISPs if they ask an appropriate
DNS.
Even if FortiWAN connects to multiple ISP networks, the problem is that users behind FortiWAN are usually
configured with a fixed DNS server (that is probably located in one of the connected ISP networks), which means
they always ask the same DNS server for a server name and are responded with the same IP address of the
server. A user will not know other IP addresses of the same server name in other ISP networks unless they
change DNS configuration to others.
For example a FortiWAN transfers outbound traffic by Auto Routing with Optimum Route (see Auto Routing and
Optimum Route). In the above diagram, the DNS 1 (10.10.10.100) in ISP-1 network answers 10.10.10.10 to
query for server name www.abc.com, while the DNS 2 (20.20.20.100) in ISP-2 network answers 20.20.20.20 to
the query for the same server name. In other words, traffic to www.abc.com will be routed to WAN 1 by Optimum
Route if a client asks DNS 1 for www.abc.com, or traffic will be routed to WAN 2 by Optimum Route if the client
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Optional Services
DNS Proxy
asks DNS 2 for www.abc.com. However, the clients in LAN are configured with a static DNS address no matter
manually or by DHCP. If all the clients in LAN are configured with DNS Server = 10.10.10.100, all the
traffic to www.abc.com will fixedly be destined to 10.10.10.10 through WAN 1. This is what we mentioned traffic
congestion on single WAN link resulted by usage of Optimum Route for resolving ISP peering issue.
For this reason, FortiWAN's DNS Proxy is a mechanism used to detect a WAN link with lighter traffic loading and
redirect a DNS query to the DNS server located in the ISP network connected by the WAN link. For example, if
DNS Proxy detects WAN 2 has lighter traffic loading than WAN 1, DNS queries for www.abc.com will be
redirected to DNS 2 (20.20.20.100) and the response for www.abc.com will be 20.20.20.20. With appropriate
configuration on Optimum Route, traffic to www.abc.com can be routed to WAN 2. No matter what the original
DNS server (destination IP) of the query is, DNS Proxy replace it with another DNS according to current WAN link
loading. Therefore, accessing to the same service can to distributed into multiple WAN links with Auto Routing by
Optimum Route for this case.
To use DNS Proxy with Optimum Route to improve the bad transmission efficiency resulted by bad peering
between ISPs, here is the basic premise for using DNS Proxy:
l
l
l
l
FortiWAN connects to the bad-peering ISP networks through different WAN links.
Optimum Route Detection is appropriately configured, and corresponding Auto Routing policy and filters are
created for routing traffic by the algorithm: By Optimum Route. Without these configurations, the basic peering
issue does not get resolved, and DNS Proxy becomes meaningless for this.
Make sure that a service provider deploys different servers in the bad-peering ISP networks, and maintains DNS
servers to answer corresponding IP address of the server that is located in the same ISP network with the DNS
server. DNS Proxy will become helpless for this case if the service is only deployed in a ISP network.
List these particular DNS servers located in each of the ISP networks. A DNS server must be associated with a WAN
link connected to the ISP network that the DNS server is located in.
Scenario
Base on the above example, make sure Optimum Route Detection and Auto Routing are configured before going
on DNS Proxy. We assume that the Optimum Route Policy (see Optimum Route Detection) is configured as
Static IP Table as followings:
ISP-1 Network
ISP-2 Network
Table Name
ISP1
ISP2
Setting
Upload the IP file of ISP 1. The IP subnet
10.10.10.0/24 is maintained in the file.
Upload the IP file of ISP 2. The IP subnet
20.20.20.0/24 is maintained in the file.
Parameter
Check WAN1
Check WAN2
You can also set the Optimum Route Policy as Dynamic Detect, Static & Dynamic or Dynamic & Static, see
Optimum Route Detection for the details.
The Auto Routing policy and filter rule are correspondingly configured as followings (see Auto Routing for details):
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Label
Algorithm
Parameter
OR_W1_W2
By Optimum Route
Check WAN1 and WAN2
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SNMP
Optional Services
When
Input Port
Source
Destination
Service
Routing Policy
All-Time
Any Port
Any Address
WAN
Any
OR_W1_W2
The above settings provides the basic solution of bad peering between ISP 1 and ISP 2. In this example, servers
of www.abc.com are deployed in both ISP 1 and ISP 2 networks, and the DNS server in each ISP network
answers corresponding IP to requests for www.abc.com. To introduce DNS Proxy to the case to dynamically
distribute sessions to www.abc.com through the two WAN links, it requires the following settings of DNS Proxy
configured:
We use algorithm By Total Traffic to select the DNS server associated with the lightest-loaded WAN link for the
destination replacement (you can try other algorithms).
Algorithm
By Total Traffic
DNS Server
1
2
Server 1
10.10.10.100
20.20.20.100
Server 2
-
-
Server 3
-
-
WAN
Proxy Domains
www.abc.com
The configurations guarantees that destinations of DNS packets querying for www.abc.com will be replaced with
DNS servers 10.10.10.100 or 20.20.20.100 in circular order according to weight 2:1. DNS packets processed by
DNS Proxy will be transferred outward according the Auto Routing policies. In this case (bad peering exists
between the two ISPs), it is better to let DNS packets destined to 10.10.10.100 be routed to WAN 1 and DNS
packets destined to 20.20.20.100 be routed to WAN 2. Packets might be stuck by the bad peering if packets
destined to 10.10.10.100 be routed to WAN 2. Here, with Optimum Route being used in the Auto Routing policy,
DNS packets processed by DNS Proxy will be routed to appropriate WAN link to avoid the bad peering.
SNMP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is often used in managing TCP/IP networks by providing system
information and sending event notifications to a SNMP manager. A SNMP manager is typically a host running the
SNMP manager application. The SNMP manager communicates with the SNMP agent running on a FortiWAN
unit; sends out SNMP requests and receives incoming event notification (SNMP trap) from the SNMP agent. The
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Optional Services
SNMP
agent responds FortiWAN's system information for SNMP requests and sends SNMP traps to the SNMP
manager.
To monitor your FortiWAN system via SNMP, you must:
l
l
Compile the FortiWAN MIB file to your SNMP manager.
Make sure at least one network interface is well-configured to send out SNMP traps and receive SNMP requests.
The SNMP manager can communicate with a FortiWAN unit via the IP addresses configured on the localhost of a
WAN port, DMZ port or LAN port (See "Network Settings").
l
Make sure SNMP is acceptable to FortiWAN's firewall (See "Firewall").
l
Configure SNMP settings and Event Notification to FortiWAN unit.
SNMP agent configuration
To configure SNMP settings, go to Service > SNMP. Check the box Enable SNMP to enable SNMP agent on
FortiWAN and select the SNMP version. FortiWAN supports SNMP v1, v2 and v3 protocols.
SNMP v1/2
Community
System Name
System Contact
System Location
Enter the community which the SNMP belongs to.
Enter a string to represent this system.
Enter a string to represent a person in charge of this system.
Enter a string to represent the location of this system.
SNMP v3
Community
System Name
System Contact
System Location
Enter a string to represent this system.
Enter a string to represent a person in charge of this system.
Enter a string to represent the location of this system.
Username
Enter user name used for authentication.
Password
Enter the password used for authentication.
Privacy Key
AuthProtocol
PrivProtocol
Authentication
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Enter the community which the SNMP belongs to.
Enter the privacy key code. Eg: 12345678, ABCDEFGHUI.etc.
Select the authentication protocol used for transferring the authenticated
password, either MD5 or SHA.
Select the authentication protocol used for transferring the authenticated privacy
key.
Select the authentication method for user and privacy key, either authentication
with or without privacy.
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IP MAC Mapping
Optional Services
SNMP trap for even notification
FortiWAN (SNMP agent) sends traps to a SNMP manager for notification when significant events occur. Enable
the function by configuring the settings of Log Notification to FortiWAN (See "Notification").
FortiWAN MIB
The FortiWAN MIB defines the structure of the management data maintained on FortiWAN. It contains the fields,
information and traps that are specific to a FortiWAN units. The FortiWAN MIB file is available on the Fortinet
Customer Service & Support website, https://support.fortinet.com/.
IP MAC Mapping
Users can specify the IP-MAC table by classifying periods like peak hours and idle hours. Once the IP-MAC table
is set up, a packet from a certain IP address can pass through FortiWAN only when its MAC address matches the
table list and time period.
FortiWAN provides log mechanism to the IP MAC Mapping service, see "Log".
E
:
Enable/Disable
When
:
Select the time period: busy hour, idle hour and all time. All time is defined in 24-hour
system. For details, refer to [System] -> [Busyhour Settings] (See "Busyhour
Settings").
IP Address
:
Enter the IP address of the network interface card.
MAC Address
:
Enter the MAC address of the network interface card.
L
:
Check it to activate the rule and record results in log file. Otherwise, the rule is
inactive and data will not be stored.
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Statistics
Traffic
Statistics
This topic deals with FortiWAN network surveillance system. Comprehensive statistics are collected to monitor
networking status, bandwidth usage of traffic class, and dynamic IP WAN link. These data offer deep insight into
the network, and help detect unexpected network failures, boosting network reliability and efficiency.
Traffic
It sorts and displays real-time traffic of traffic class over WAN link. Select traffic direction (inbound/outbound) in
Traffic Type to view statistics.
The table below shows 3 sorts of statistics:
l
Maximum/Minimum bandwidth allocation and priority
l
Traffic for the last 3 seconds
l
Traffic for the last minute
The statistics are analyzed based on individual WAN connection and traffic direction. To view statistics, select
from Traffic Type (Inbound/Outbound), traffic direction and WAN Link number.
Traffic Type
:
Traffic flow direction: inbound and outbound.
WAN Link
:
The number of WAN links for inspection.
Automatic Refresh
:
Time interval to refresh statistical table.
Traffic Class
:
The name of the traffic class defined on Inbound/Outbound Bandwidth Management
page. Among these, unclassified classes are labeled as “Default Class”.
Min. ~ Max.(Priority)
:
The maximum/minimum traffic volume allowed for a specific traffic class of different
priority levels.
3-Second Statistics
:
Displays packet numbers or traffic flow volume in Kilobyte/sec for the last 3 seconds.
1-Minute Statistics
:
Displays packet numbers or traffic flow volume in Kilobyte/sec for the past 60
seconds.
Top 10
:
Displays the data flow for the last five seconds with corresponding IP address.
Statistics can be ranked by By Source and By Destination.
Bandwidth
Unlike traffic statistics in previous section that focuses on real-time monitor of network status, statistics in BM
(Bandwidth Management) is intended for long-term analysis. For particular traffic class in a given traffic direction,
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Persistent Routing
Statistics
administrators can view bandwidth usage in bar graph during the past 60 minutes, 30 hours, 50 days, and 20
months.
Traffic Type
:
Traffic flow direction: inbound or outbound traffic.
Traffic Class
:
The name of the traffic class defined on the Inbound/Outbound Bandwidth
Management page or the sum of all traffic classes.
WAN Link
:
The number of WAN links users to inspect.
Refresh
:
Click to refresh statistical charts.
Persistent Routing
It shows details with respect to persistent routing status. With persistent routing, administrators can view
connections and manually reset these connections as well.
Clear All: Clear all the connections via persistent routing.
Automatic Refresh: Time interval to refresh persistent routing data.
IPv4/IPv6 IP Pair
IP Pair Entry
:
Shows connection entries that match IP Pair Rules.
Source IP
:
Source IP of the current persistent routing connection.
Destination IP
:
Destination IP of the current persistent routing connection.
Count
:
Number of connections that the current persistent routing rule applies to.
Timeout
:
Length of time to lapse before the current connection times out.
WAN
:
The WAN link through which the current persistent routing connection travels.
IPv4/IPv6 Web Service
Web Service Entry
:
Shows connection entries that match Web Service Rules.
Source IP
:
Source IP of the current persistent routing connection.
Count
:
Number of connections that the current persistent routing rule applies to.
Timeout
:
Length of time to lapse before the current connection times out.
WAN
:
The WAN link through which the current persistent routing connection travels.
Note that IP Pair and Web Service show at most 50 entries respectively.
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Statistics
WAN Link Health Detection
WAN Link Health Detection
It shows WAN link health detection results regarding the reliability of a specific WAN connection. The data are
derived based on ping results from destination IP list configurations in System > WAN Link Health Detection
(See "WAN Link Health Detection"). It enables to observe the number of sent requests, number of received
responses, and the success ratio for a given destination. These statistics assist administrators in further analyzing
network status and user behavior.
WAN Link
:
The WAN link to be monitored.
Automatic Refresh
:
Time interval for refreshing tables.
Destination IP
:
The destination IP address to which ping requests will be sent.
Number of Requests
:
The number of requests sent to the Destination IP so far. A request indicates a ping
packet if Detection Protocol is ICMP, or a TCP connection request if Detection
Protocol is TCP.
Number of Replies
:
The number of responses received so far from the Destination IP. A reply indicates a
ICMP echo reply or a time_exceed if Detection Protocol is ICMP, or a system
acknowledge indicating TCP connection is established if Detection Protocol is TCP.
Both indicate the success of a single WAN link detection.
Success Ratio (%)
:
The percentage of responses divided by requests. The higher the percentage, the
greater the reliability.
Dynamic IP WAN Link
It shows dynamic IP WAN link details like its IP address obtained via PPPoE or DHCP. It also enables to create
new IP addresses by re-establishing connections to the WAN.
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Re-Connect All
:
Reconnect all WAN links via PPPoE or DHCP.
Automatic Refresh
:
Time interval to refresh table results.
WAN
:
WAN connected by either PPPoE or DHCP.
IP Address
:
IP allocated to current WAN link.
Gateway
:
Gateway’s IP address for current WAN link.
Netmask
:
Sub network mask.
DNS
:
Dynamic DNS Server IP.
Connected Time
:
Duration of WAN connectivity.
Reconnect
:
Reconnect a WAN link via PPPoE or DHCP.
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DHCP Lease Information
Statistics
DHCP Lease Information
It shows data DHCP lease assigns, i.e. lease IP and MAC address, client-hostname, and expiration time. Once
option of DHCP server is selected, a list regarding all existing DHCP servers in the network will display. Option
Automatic Refresh sets the time interval to regularly update DHCP servers.
DHCP Server
:
Displays the DHCP server and IP range to be assigned.
Automatic Refresh
:
The time interval after which the table of DHCP leases information is updated.
Lease IP
:
WAN connected by either PPPoE or DHCP.
IP Address
:
Shows the IPv4 address assigned to the client’s machine.
MAC Address
:
Shows the MAC address of the client’s machine.
Client-Hostname
:
Shows the name of the client machine.
Expiration Time
:
Shows the time period when the IP address is valid.
DHCPv6 Server
:
Displays DHCPv6 server and range of IPv6 addresses which can be assigned.
Lease IP
:
Shows the IPv6 address assigned to client's machine.
Client ID
:
Shows the ID assigned to the lease IPv6 address.
Expire Time
:
Shows the time period during which the IPv6 address is valid.
RIP & OSPF Status
It shows RIP status based on RIP and OSPF settings in [System] -> [Network Settings] -> [LAN Private Subnet].
Data on this page are used to inspect private subnet’s Network IP, Netmask, and gateway list.
Type
:
Select from the list to view RIP or OSPF routing.
Automatic Refresh
:
Select auto-refresh interval, or disable the function.
Network IP
:
Shows the Network IP of the private subnet.
Netmask
:
Shows the Netmask of the private subnet.
Gateway
:
Shows the Gateway of the private subnet.
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Statistics
Connection Limit
Connection Limit
It enables administrators to inspect the number of established connections in real-time and to justify the
maximum number of connections allowed on [Service] -> [Connection Limit] page, to avoid network congestion.
Automatic Refresh
:
Select auto-refresh interval, or disable the function.
No.
:
Numbering of IP addresses based on the number of connections established.
IP
:
Shows the source IP of the connection.
Connections
:
Shows the number of connections that are established by the source IP address and
still active in system. An connection in system might be a connection with traffic flow
existing or a idle connection. This number varies from connections closing to newly
opened connections.
Clear
:
System maintains necessary tables and information for connections. Clicking the
button to abort the connections established by the source IP address, and release the
occupied memory then. When system is under attacks with high volumes of malicious
connections, FortiWAN's Connection Limit (See "Connection Limit") stops
subsequent connections established by the malicious IP addresses, but it takes time
to recover system from the bandwidth and memory occupied by those malicious
connections that are already in system. The Clear button terminates them
immediately.
Virtual Server Status
It displays status and statistics regarding virtual server defined in Service/Virtual Server.
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Automatic Refresh
:
Enable it and choose time interval for refreshing.
Virtual Server Status
:
Green = OK; Red= Failed.
WAN IP
:
Displays WAN IPs defined in the rules on Service/Virtual Server page.
Service
:
Displays services defined in the rules on Service/Virtual Server page. These services
are those available for virtual servers.
Server IP
:
Displays server IPs defined in the rules on Service/Virtual Server page. The server IPs
denote those in real network usage.
Detect
:
Displays detection method, TCP or ICMP.
Status
:
Displays detection result.
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FQDN
Statistics
FQDN
The IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of the FQDNs that connected via FortiWAN are shown in this page.
IPv4 FQDN
FQDN
:
The FQDN connected via FortiWAN.
IPv4 Address
:
IPv4 addresses of the FQDN connected via FortiWAN. It maintains 20 addresses at
most.
FQDN
:
The FQDN connected via FortiWAN.
IPv6 Address
:
IPv6 addresses of the FQDN connected via FortiWAN. It maintains 20 addresses at
most.
IPv6 FQDN
Tunnel Status
Tunnel Status displays the connectivity of every single GRE tunnel of each tunnel group defined in Service >
Tunnel Routing (see Tunnel Routing) and statistics of the corresponding data transmission
Tunnel Group
The drop-down menu lists all the tunnel groups defined in Service > Tunnel
Routing. Select the tunnel group for monitoring it. The statistics of the specified
tunnel group will be displayed in the Tunnel Health Status table below.
Automatic Refresh
Enable automatic refresh by selecting the time interval (Every 3, 6, 9, 15, ...
Seconds) for refreshing the statistics, or disable it by selecting Disabled. The
statistics here will be automatically refreshed periodically if it is enabled.
Tunnel Health Status
This table displays the connectivity and statistics of specified tunnel group in the following four fields.
Tunnel
The GRE tunnel defined in the specified tunnel group, represented by the pair of
its local and remote IP addresses.
3-Second Statistics
Statistics of data transmission through this tunnel in the past 3 seconds,
represented by RX Packets, RX Kbps, TX Packets and TX Kbps.
1-Minute Statistics
Statistics of data transmission through this tunnel in the past 1 minute,
represented by RX Packets, RX Kbps, TX Packets and TX Kbps.
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Statistics
Tunnel Traffic
Status
Indicating the connectivity of the tunnel with color schemes:
Green indicates the tunnel is available (OK).
Red indicates the tunnel is unavailable (failed).
Moreover, round trip time (RTT) between the two endpoints of the tunnel is
provided here for reference. The RTT will become blank if the tunnel is
failed. You can also get the RTT of the tunnel by running Tunnel Routing's
benchmark (see Tunnel Routing - Benchmark).
Default Rule Subnets
This table lists the subnets (in the local and remote sites) that the default rules of the specified tunnel group
consist of. See How to set up routing rules for Tunnel Routing for the details of default rule of a tunnel group.
Local Subnets
The local subnets (subnets in the local site) of the default routing rules of the
specified tunnel group. It will be blank if there is no default rule enabled.
Opposite Subnets
The opposite subnets (subnets in the remote site) of the default routing rules of
the specified tunnel group. It will be blank if there is no default rule enabled.
The default rule subnets listed here and corresponding page on remote Web UI are supposed to be equal for a
tunnel group, just the position is switched. Local subnets here are the opposite subnets for the remote site, and
the opposite subnets here are the local subnets for the remote site.
Tunnel Traffic
It collects inbound/outbound traffic statistics regarding tunnel routing in the past 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 30
days. Statistics are displayed on chart.
Traffic Type
:
Traffic flow direction.
Time
:
Collect statistics in the past 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 30 days.
Tunnel Routing Group
:
Select a group from the list. Depending on N tunnels the group gets, N statistical
charts will show.
IPSec
IPSec Statistics reports the usages and states of your configured IPSec Security Associations (See "IPSec"). Go
to Statistics > IPSec, a select bar and two statistics tables are displayed.
Selector
Select the combination of Mode and Phase 1 here, and then the statistics of related IPSec SAs are reported.
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IPSec
Statistics
Mode
Select the mode, Tunnel mode or Transport mode, of the security
associations that you ask for.
Phase 1 Name
All the configured Phase 1 names of the mode you selected above are
list in the drop-down menu. Select a Phase 1 name (ISAKMP SA) to
display the statistics of the associated IPSec SAs (Phase 2).
Refresh
Click to refresh the statistics page.
Statistics of the IPSec SAs associated to the ISAKMP SA you selected is displayed in two tables, Security
Association Database and Security Policy Database.
Security Association Database
List information of each IPSec SA including local and remote IP addresses, negotiated encryption and
authentication algorithms, timing and the states.
Local IP
The local IP address of the IPSec SA.
Remote IP
The remote IP address of the IPSec SA.
Encryption
The encryption algorithm that the IPSec SA employs.
Authentication
The authentication algorithm that the IPSec SA employs.
Used time (s)
The past time since the IPSec SA is established.
Life time (s)
The time interval (in seconds) that the secret key of the IPSec SA is
valid during. For the expiration of a key, IKE Phase 2 is performed
automatically to establish a new IPSec SA (a new key is negotiated).
The value here is equal to value of Keylife of the correspondent Phase
2 configuration.
Change time (s)
The time point that system starts to establish a new IPSec SA for
replacing the current IPSec SA which is going to expire. New
IPSec SA will be prepared in advance so that it takes over the
expired IPSec SA in time. This value is related to Life time and
determined by system.
Status
States of the IPSec SA:
l
larval: an IKE Phase 2 is in progress to establish an IPSec SA
l
mature: the IPSec SA is established and still within validity
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dying: the IPSec SA is about to expire, and another IKE Phase 2 is in
progress for taking over
dead: the connectivity between two endpoints communicating through
the IPSec SA is down; the peer is unavailable.
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Statistics
Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec
Security Policy Database
List information of Quick Mode selector of each IPSec SA and the related time stamps.
Name
The unique name of the IPSec SA (the name configured to the Phase 2)
Source[port]
For IPSec in Tunnel mode, this is the Source and Source Port of
the Quick Mode selector of the IPSec SA (the Source and Port
configured to the Phase 2).
For IPSec in Transport mode, this is the source IP address of the
Tunnel Routing packets (GRE encapsulated), which is equal to the
Local IP of the IPSec SA (the Local IP configured to the Phase 1).
Port information will not be list for this case.
Destination[port]
For IPSec in Tunnel mode, this is the Destination and Destination
Port of the Quick Mode selector of the IPSec SA (the Destination
and Port configured to the Phase 2).
For IPSec in Transport mode, this is the destination IP address of
the Tunnel Routing packets (GRE encapsulated), which is equal to
the Remote IP of the IPSec SA (the Remote IP configured to the
Phase 1). Port information will not be list for this case.
Protocol
For IPSec in Tunnel mode, this is the Protocol of the Quick Mode
selector of the IPSec SA (the Protocol configured to the Phase 2).
For IPSec in Transport mode, this is always "gre".
Created time
The time that the IPSec SA is established.
Last used time
The time that the IPSec SA is applied last to a data packet.
For the details of parameters of IPSec, see "IPSec VPN in the Web UI".
Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec
Compare with general IP transmission, traffic transferred through FortiWAN's Tunnel Routing or IPSec is charged
extra on GRE/ESP encapsulation and decapsulation (See "Tunnel Routing" and "IPSec VPN"). In order to
individually allocate bandwidth to applications encapsulated in GRE and ESP packets, Tunnel Routing and
IPSEC are designed to be transparent to Bandwidth Management (See "Bandwidth Management"). Bandwidth
Management shapes the traffic before packet encapsulation or after packet decapsulation. FortiWAN's traffic
statistics is associated with the operation of Bandwidth Management, which implies traffic of Tunnel Routing and
IPSec is partially transparent to the statistics function. FortiWAN gives the traffic statistics in three ways: BM log,
statistics on Web UI and FortiWAN Reports. Traffic statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec in the three ways are
discussed as follows.
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Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec
Statistics
BM logs
A BM log is actually a traffic statistics (inbound-pkts, inbound-bytes, outbound-pkts, outbound-bytes, total-pkts
and total-bytes) in a time period for a traffic (source IP, destination IP, source port and destination port) that
matches the Bandwidth Management filter (See Log format in "Log View"). Bandwidth Management treats the
traffic equally no matter whether it is later transferred through Tunnel Routing and IPSec. The BM log tells
nothing directly (through the source port and destination port fields) that a transmission is actually done by Tunnel
Routing, IPSec or normal IP routing. You might be aware of a Tunnel Routing and IPSec transmission through
the source IP and destination IP in the logs, if you those IP addresses are already predefined just for the Tunnel
Routing and IPSec transmission. The only situation that you see the GRE or ESP indicated by source port and
destination fields in a BM log is when the traffic comes from other VPN devices.
Statistics on Web UI
Pages Statistics > Traffic and Statistics > BM(See "Statistics > Traffic" and "Statistics > BM") the traffic
statistics by WAN links and defined Bandwidth Management classes, which tells nothing directly about Tunnel
Routing and IPSec traffic. The way to identify the traffic that is transferred through Tunnel Routing or IPSec is to
create a BM class and BM filter to classify the traffic by the source IP and destination IP that are defined in Tunnel
Routing's routing rules or IPSec's Quick Mode selectors.
Page Statistics > Tunnel Traffic (See "Statistics > Tunnel Traffic") is the only page reports the traffic statistics
about Tunnel Routing. Although traffic statistics is reported by the defined Tunnel Routing groups, statistics of
the individual application in the tunnel traffic is unavailable here.
Page Statistics > IPSec (See "Statistics > IPSec") tells nothing about traffic statistics of IPSec, only IPSec
connectivity states are reported here.
FortiWAN Reports
Different from BM logs, service of traffic that is transferred through Tunnel Routing is indicated as GRE in
Reports (See "Reports > Bandwidth Usage > Services"). Individual service type of the original packets
encapsulated by Tunnel Routing becomes invisible in Reports. The GRE traffic passing through FortiWAN from
other VPN devices and the GRE traffic generated by FortiWAN Tunnel Routing will be counted into service GRE
in page Reports > Bandwidth Usage > Services, which might be confusing. Drilling it down by Internal IP, Inclass
or Outclass could figure it out. As for traffic transferred through IPSec, Reports counts the traffic by individual
application (the original packets before/after be ESP encapsulated/decapsulated) rather than counting it into
service ESP. FortiWAN IPSec is transparent to Reports statistics.
Here are a summary of discussion above.
Traffic transferred through IPSec Tunnel mode
Original traffic
ESP encapsulated
traffic
BM Control
O
X
BM log
O
X
Reports
O
X
Traffic transferred through Tunnel Routing or IPSec Transport mode
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Statistics
Traffic Statistics for Tunnel Routing and IPSec
Original traffic
GRE encapsulated
traffic
ESP encapsulated
traffic
BM Control
O
X
X
BM log
O
X
X
Reports
X
O
X
We have a simple example to explain the difference between the statistics ways. Consider that user A generates
60MB FTP traffic and 80MB HTTP traffic and transfer them through normal IP routing, user B generates 40MB
FTP traffic and 20MB HTTP traffic and transfer them through Tunnel Routing (through one tunnel group). All the
traffic is controlled by Bandwidth Management, thus there will be four BM logs indicating:
l
user A (source IP) generates FTP traffic (source or destination port) in 60MB
l
user B (source IP) generates FTP traffic (source or destination port) in 40MB
l
user A (source IP) generates HTTP traffic (source or destination port) in 80MB
l
user B (source IP) generates HTTP traffic (source or destination port) in 20MB
From the BM logs, we have no idea which one is transferred through Tunnel Routing. The thing we know from the
logs is 100MB FTP traffic and 100MB HTTP traffic passed through FortiWAN, and they are 200MB in total.
In page Statistics > Tunnel Traffic, we see 60MB tunnel traffic (parts of the 200MB) belongs to the tunnel group.
However, it tells nothing about the statistics for the individual services (FTP and HTTP) in the tunnel traffic.
As for Reports > Service, statistics by service is displayed as follows:
l
FTP = 60MB
l
HTTP = 80MB
l
GRE = 60MB
l
Total = 200MB
All the tunnel traffic (FTP and HTTP generated by user B) is classified into GRE, and we have no idea about what
the original services are in it. What we can do is drilling it down by Internal IP to identify the generator user B, or
drilling it down by Inclass and Outclass to identify the individual service if the corresponding BM classes are welldefined.
Considering the IPSec transmission with the same example, user B generates the same traffic but transfer them
through IPSec. We will have BM logs the same as what we discussed above, and have no idea which service is
transferred through IPSec. In page Report > Service, the traffic is counted as follows:
l
FTP = 100MB
l
HTTP = 100MB
l
Total = 200MB
Drilling it down by Internal IP can identify the generators user A and user B, but it tells nothing about service ESP.
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View
Log
Log
This topic deals with how to configure logging and how to forward logs. Log records keep FortiWAN data and are
capable of storing a wide variety of data concerning System, Firewall, Routing, and bandwidth management, etc.
Log files can be forwarded to other servers for archiving or for notifying events via emails (see "Log Control" and
"Log Notification").
Additionally, FortiWAN offers a powerful reporting and analysis tool: Reports. The web-based analysis software
that is embedded in FortiWAN or running on an independent machine enables administrators to gain insights into
network traffic without manually filtering through large volumes of log data (See "Enable Reports").
View
View has a sub-menu of 13 log types (see the table below). Choose the desired log type, and its corresponding
events will show in display window. Click the Refresh button to get the latest log records. Please be aware that
this page is only for online viewing of current events. For log data pushing and archiving, see the Control in next
section.
Log Type
:
Choose log type to view its events in display window. The log types are:
l
System Log
l
Firewall Log
l
NAT Log
l
Auto & Persistent Routing Log
l
Virtual Server Log
l
BM Log
l
Connection Limit Log
l
Cache Redirect Log
l
Multihoming Log
l
Backup Line Log
l
Dynamic IP Log
l
IP-MAC Mapping Log
l
Tunnel Routing Log
l
IPSec Log
Recent Event
:
Log events listed in time order.
Refresh
:
Refresh to get the latest log events.
Clear
:
Clean up log records.
Log format
A log listed here consists of three parts:
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Log
View
{TIMESTAMP} {LOG_TYPE} {LOG_CONTENT}
The {TIMESTAMP} is in the format 'yyyy-mm-dd HH:MM:SS' and is always an UTC time. The details of {LOG_
TYPE} and {LOG_CONTENT} are described as follows.
Notation Conventions
{ADDRPORT} follows TCPDUMP format, for example:
l
IPv4: 8.8.8.8.80
l
IPv6: 2001::8:8:8:8.80
{IP-5-TUPLE}
l
ICMP:PROTO=1 SRC=<ip> DST=<ip> ID=<icmpid> TYPE=<icmptype> CODE=<icmpcode> (BM log
dones't have TYPE and CODE fields, because they are bypacket)
l
TCP:PROTO=6 SRC=<{ADDRPORT}> DST=<{ADDRPORT}>
l
UDP:PROTO=17 SRC=<{ADDRPORT}> DST=<{ADDRPORT}>
l
ICMPv6:PROTO=58 SRC=<ip> DST=<ip> TYPE=<icmpv6type> CODE=<icmpv6code>
l
Others:PROTO=<protocol num> SRC=<ip> DST=<ip>
Firewall
FW {IP‐5‐TUPLE} ACTION=[ACCEPT|DENY] TOTLEN=<pktlen>
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a Firewall rule triggers the log. System generates only one log
for this session. This log indicates all the packets of the session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are accepted or denied by Firewall,
and the first packet size is <pktlen>. In reality, the event ACCEPT will not be logged by system.
See "Firewall" for further information.
NAT
NAT {IP‐5‐TUPLE} NEW_SRC={ADDR}
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a NAT rule triggers the log. System generates only one log for
this session. This log indicates source addresses of the packets of {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are translated to the new address
{ADDR} by NAT.
See "NAT" for further information.
Auto & Persistent Routing
AR {IP‐5‐TUPLE} AR=[<widx>|NONE] TOTLEN=<pktlen>
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Log
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a Auto Routing rule triggers the log. System generates only
one log for this session. This log indicates packets of the session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are transferred outward through
WAN link <widx>, or all the WAN links defined in the routing and fail-over policies fail to transfer the packets
(AR=NONE). The first packet size of the session is <pktlen>. See "Auto Routing" for further information.
PR {IP‐5‐TUPLE} PR=[<widx>|WAIT_AR|NONE] TOTLEN=<pktlen>
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a Persistent Routing rule triggers the log. System
generates only one log for this session. This log indicates packets of the session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are
transferred outward through WAN link <widx> (the persistence entry of the session is not expired), or Auto
Routing determines the WAN link for the session (PR=WAIT_AR, the persistence entry of the session is expired
or absent), or the action to this session is No PR (PR=NONE). The first packet size of the session is
<pktlen>. See "Persistent Routing" for further information.
If a PR log that PR=WAIT_AR, the PR log and a correspondent AR log are generated in pairs.
Virtual Server
VS {IP‐5‐TUPLE} NEW_DST={ADDR} TOTLEN=<pktlen>
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a Virtual Server rule triggers the log. System generates only
one log for this session. This log indicates destination addresses of the packets of {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are translated to
the new address {ADDR} by Virtual Server. The first packet size of the session is <pktlen>.
See "Virtual Server" for further information.
BM
BM {IP‐5‐TUPLE} INPKTS=<%lu> INBYTES=<%lu> OUTPKTS=<%lu> OUTBYTES=<%lu>
TOTALPKTS=<%lu> TOTALBYTES=<%lu> DURATION=<%lu>SECS
Session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a Bandwidth Management filter triggers the log when it is closed. System
generates only one log for this session. This log indicates the traffic statistics (INPKTS, INBYTES, OUTPKTS,
OUTBYTES, TOTALPKTS, TOTALBYTES and DURATION) of the session {IP‐5‐TUPLE}.
See "Bandwidth Management" for further information.
Connection Limit
Count Limit
CL SRC=<ip> DROP=<pkt_number>
This log is triggered every time-period if the number of connections generated by a source SRC=<ip> exceeds the
limitation defined in Connection Limit > Count Limit. This log indicates connections generated by SRC=<ip> and
passing through FortiWAN are more that the limitation, and there are <pkt_number> packets are dropped for the
reason.
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Log
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Rate Limit
RL RULE=<ridx> DROP=<pkt_number>
This log is triggered every time-period if a rule <ridx> of Connection Limit > Rate Limit is matched. This log
indicates connections defined in the Rate Limit rule <ridx> are generated in a rate higher than the limitation, and
there are <pkt_number> packets are dropped for the reason.
See "Connection Limit" for further information.
Cache Redirect
CR {IP‐5‐TUPLE} NEW_DST={ADDR‐PORT}
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} matching a Cache Redirect rule triggers the log. System generates only
one log for this session. This log indicates destination addresses and ports of the packets of {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are
translated to {ADDR} by Virtual Server. The first packet size of the session is <pktlen>.
See "Cache Redirect" for further information.
Multihoming
MH FROM=<ip> TYPE=<A|AAAA> WLINK=<widx> REPLY=<ip>
An DNS response (queried for A or AAAA records) by Multihoming triggers the log. System generates the log only for
DNS queries for A and AAAA records. This log indicates a DNS query whose type is TYPE=<A|AAAA> and comes
from FROM=<ip> is responded by Multihoming with REPLY=<ip>, which is the IP address of WAN link <widx>.
System generates two logs for A and AAAA records if the DNS query type is ANY.
See "Multihoming" for further information.
Dynamic IP
DHCP
DHCP WLINK=<widx> ACTION=<init|renew|rebind|expired|failed|release|stop|bind>
[IP=<ip>]
System triggers the log when a DHCP WAN link <widx> is acted for ACTION. ACTION=bind and IP=<ip> must
be generated in pairs for a log.
PPPoE
PPPOE WLINK=<widx> ACTION=<start|terminated|bind> [IP=<ip>]
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Log
System triggers the log when a PPPoE WAN link <widx> is acted for ACTION. ACTION=bind and IP=<ip>
must be generated in pairs for a log. Three more logs are introduced when a PPPoE WAN link goes to failure:
l
PPPOE config‐requests timeout
l
PPPOE connection no response
l
PPPOE authentication failed
IP-MAC Mapping
MAC {IP‐5‐TUPLE} BAD_SRC_MAC=<MAC>
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} blocked by IP-MAC Mapping triggers the log. System generates only one
log for this session. This log indicates source MAC addresses <MAC> of the packets of {IP‐5‐TUPLE} and the MAC
address defined in IP-MAC table are mismatched, and so that the packets are blocked.
MAC {IP‐5‐TUPLE} BAD_DST_MAC=<MAC>
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} blocked by IP-MAC Mapping triggers the log. System generates only one
log for this session. This log indicates destination MAC addresses <MAC> of the packets of {IP‐5‐TUPLE} and the
MAC address defined in IP-MAC table are mismatched, and so that the packets are blocked.
See "IP-MAC Mapping" for further information.
Tunnel Routing
TR {IP‐5‐TUPLE} GROUP=<group name> TOTLEN=<pktlen>
The first packet of session {IP‐5‐TUPLE} being transferred by Tunnel Routing triggers the log. System generates
only one log for this session. This log indicates packets of {IP‐5‐TUPLE} are transferred through the Tunnel Group
<group name>, and the first packet size of the session is <pktlen>.
TUN FROM=<ip> TO=<ip> ACTION=<start|stop|fail|recover>
This log is triggered when a single GRE tunnel FROM=<ip> TO=<ip> is acted for actions ACTION.
See "Tunnel Routing" for further information.
IPSec
ISAKMP-SA <established|expired|deleted> <LOCAL_IP_PORT>-<REMOTE_IP_PORT>
An ISAKMP SA between <LOCAL_IP_PORT> and <REMOTE_IP_PORT> is established, expired or deleted.
IPsec-SA <established|expired>: ESP/<Transport|Tunnel> <LOCAL_IP_PORT>-><REMOTE_
IP_PORT>
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Log
View
A Transport mode or Tunnel mode IPSec SA between <LOCAL_IP_PORT> and <REMOTE_IP_PORT> is
established or expired.
<initiate|respond> new phase <1|2> negotiation: <LOCAL_IP_PORT><=><REMOTE_IP_
PORT>
After an ISAKMP SA or IPSec SA is expired, new IKE phase 1 or 2 negotiation between <LOCAL_IP_PORT> and
<REMOTE_IP_PORT> is initiated or responded.
NOTIFY: the packet is retransmitted by <IP_PORT>
Packets of IKE negotiation are retransmitted due to the failure in authentication (pre-shared keys of the two entities
might not be correspondent with each other).
<IP> INFO: request for establishing IPsec-SA was queued due to no phase1 found.
Request for establishing IPSec SA from <IP> was queued due to the failure in phase 1 negotiation (Phase 1
proposals of the two entities might not be correspondent with each other).
<IP> INFO: received INITIAL-CONTACT
<IP> received the request for negotiation from the peer.
ERROR: phase1 negotiation failed due to time up.
A queued or retransmitted phase 1 negotiation is declared to failure because the time is up.
<IP> ERROR: notification NO-PROPOSAL-CHOSEN received in informational exchange.
<IP> does not receive any proposal in the phase 2 negotiation messages (Phase 2 proposals of the two entities
might not be correspondent with each other).
See "IPSec VPN" for further information.
System
Admin session
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<account> logged in from <ip>
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<account> logged out from <ip>
Account change
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Administrator account <account> removed
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Monitor account <account> removed
l
Administrator account <account> password successfully changed
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Administrator account <account> successfully added
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Monitor account <account> password successfully changed
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Monitor account <account> successfully added
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Log
Access deny
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Incorrect <account> password from <ip>
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Maximum # of Administrator/<account> login reached
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Maximum # of Monitor/<account> login reached
UI command
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There is no slave
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Configuration synchronization finished successfully
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Configuration synchronization failed
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Peer information is not available
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ARP caches are updated
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Neighbor Discovery caches are updated
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System time synchronized
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No NTP servers in system settings
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License key <key> is applied successfully, system rebooting...
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License key <key> is applied successfully
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Test email is sent to <receiver>
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Failed to send test email to <receiver>
UI setting
l
Settings are applied for page System -> <page name>
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Settings are applied for page Service -> <page name>
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Settings are applied for page Log -> <page name>
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Unable to add account. The maximum number of Administrator accounts have been
reached.
l
Unable to add account. The maximum number of Monitor accounts have been reached.
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Settings are applied for RADIUS Authentication
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Error starting notification daemon
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Error in starting daemon for page Service -> Internal DNS
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Error in starting daemon for page Service -> Multihoming
Info access error
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Cannot save log/event settings
Update
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System firmware updated
Config
l
System configuration restored
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Multihoming daemon file write error
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Log
View
Shutdown
l
System reset to factory default settings
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System reboot
Instant push
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Pushing <logtype> is initiated
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Failed to push <logtype>
Service error
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Restarting Internal DNS Error
Connection overflow
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Current Connection Number(<connections>) reach <limit>
Rate overflow
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Current Rate Number(<connection rate>) reach <limit>
Undefined code
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Undefined event code <event code>
VRRP
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VRRP become master
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VRRP become backup
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VRRP double-check failed
HA
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Peer version changed from "<Model>" to "<Model>"
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Peer serial number changed from "<Serial Number>" to "<Serial Number>"
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Peer state changed from "<State>" to "<State>"
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Responded to Slave's Time Synchronization Request
l
Responded to Slave's Configuration Synchronization Request
l
Stopped configuration synchronization due to errors
l
Finished configuration synchronization with the Slave
l
Won precedence over the booting peer. Enter the Master state.
l
Preceded by the booting peer. Enter the Slave state.
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Master heartbeat detected. Enter the Slave state.
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Slave heartbeat detected. Enter the Master state.
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Panic heartbeat detected. Enter the Master state.
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No heartbeat detected. Enter the Master state.
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Log Control
Log
l
Won precedence over the incompatible peer. Enter the Master state.
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Preceded by the incompatible peer. Enter the Panic state.
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Peer heartbeat stopped. Enter the Master state to take over services.
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Preceded by another Master. Reboot to enter the Slave state.
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Too Much port down. Reboot to enter the Slave state.
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Preceded by the incompatible peer. Enter the Panic state.
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Peer heartbeat stopped. Enter the Master state to take over services.
l
Two Slaves linked at the same time. Restart HA after random delay.
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Master is gone. Enter the Master state to take over services.
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Peer heartbeat stopped
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Time synchronization failed.
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Configuration synchronization failed.
Log Control
Control sets to forward data from FortiWAN to servers via FTP, E-mail and Syslog (protocol) for archiving and
analysis. Configure log push method one log type by another, or use “Copy Settings to All Other Log Types”. It
copies and applies settings of one log type to others avoiding unnecessary duplicating of settings.
Log Type
:
Select log type to be forwarded to servers.
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System Log
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Firewall Log
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NAT Log
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Auto & Persistent Routing Log
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Virtual Server Log
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BM Log (Bandwidth Management)
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Connection Limit Log
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Cache Redirect Log
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Multihoming Log
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Backup Line Log
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Dynamic IP Log
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IP-MAC Mapping Log
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Tunnel Routing Log
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IPSec
Copy Settings to All Other Log Types
:
Copy and apply settings of a log type to other ones.
Method
:
E-Mail, FTP and Syslog
Push Now
:
Click this button and logs are pushed immediately.
Push Log When Out of Space
:
Check Enable to avoid losing data in case of space shortage.
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Log
Notification
Enable Scheduled Push
:
Check to enable pushing schedule.
Initial Time
:
Start time for scheduled push.
Period
:
Duration for scheduled push.
Methods
FortiWAN transfer logs with FTP, Email and Syslog. It either forwards logs to external FTP server, administrator’s
mail account via SMTP or a remote syslog servers.
FTP
Server
:
FTP Server’s IP or domain name
Account
:
FTP user account
Password
:
FTP user password
Path
:
FTP server path
SMTP Server
:
SMTP server for logging
Account
:
Authenticated account for mail server
Password
:
Authenticated password for mail server
Mail From
:
Sender
Mail To
:
Receiver(s). Separate receivers with “,” or “.”.
Server
:
IP address of remote syslog server.
Facility
:
Assign a facility to the logging message to specify the program type.
E-Mail
Syslog
Note: If the Server is applied with a FQDN, then the DNS Server must be set in the Web UI [System]->[Network
Settings]->[DNS Server] (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
Notification
Two methods are provided to send out the notifications for important system events: E-mail and SNMP trap.
Please configure the settings for the methods and select the event type to notify.
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Notification
Log
E-Mail Settings
The table below summarizes the event notification mail setup:
SMTP Server
SMTP Port
SSL
Account
SMTP Server
Specify the port (465 by default) that the SSL encrypted SMTP is using if the SSL
check box is checked. FortiWAN uses fixed port:25 for non-encrypted SMTP. This field
becomes ineffective if the SSL is unchecked.
Check to enable SMTP transfers over SSL.
Authenticated account for the mail server
Password
Authenticated password for the mail server
Mail From
Sender
Mail To
Send Test E-mail Now
Receiver(s). Separate receivers with “,” or “.”.
Click the button to run test for the email settings above.
Note: If the SMTP Server is applied with a FQDN, then the DNS Server must be set in the Web UI System >
Network Settings > DNS Server (See "Set DNS server for FortiWAN").
SNMP Trap Settings
Event notification can also be sent via SNMP traps. These can only be sent if there is an existing SNMP manager
for receiving FortiWAN’s SNMP traps.
Destination IP
Community Name
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The SNMP managing device IP
Community name
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Log
Notification
Types of Events to Notify
Event Types to Notify
Select All
Clear All
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Check to select the events. Enter the threshold to number of connections, rate of
connections and total WAN traffic to trigger the notification.
WAN link failure and recovery
Send notification when a WAN link fails or recovers
from failure. A integer used to indicate the failed or
recovered WAN link.
Account change
Send notification when an account is added,
removed or password-changed.
HA slave failure and recovery
Send notification when the slave unit in HA
deployment fails or recovers from failure. Integer 1
indicates the slave unit recovered and integer 2
indicates it failed.
HA takeover
Send notification when the local unit in HA
deployment was took over by its slave unit. Integer
1 indicates the truth of HA takeover and integer 2
indicates the falseness of HA takeover.
VRRP takeover
Send notification when the local unit in VRRP
deployment was took over by its backup unit.
Integer 1 indicates the truth of VRRP takeover and
integer 2 indicates the falseness of VRRP
takeover.
Number of connections reaches
___
Set the threshold and the number of connections
being processed in system will be sent as an event
notification when it exceeds the threshold.
Rate of connections reaches___
/ sec
Set the threshold and the number of connections
established in system every second will be sent as
an event notification when it exceeds the
threshold.
Total WAN traffic reaches ___
Kbps
Set the threshold and the number of current total
WAN traffic (sum of inbound and outbound traffic
of every WAN link) will be sent as an event
notification when it exceeds the threshold.
Click to check all the event types
Click to uncheck all the event types
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Enable Reports
Log
Enable Reports
FortiWAN's Reports provides long-term and advanced data analysis by processing system logs to database. The
original logs FortiWAN generates contains raw data which is yet to be processed, and Reports can organize and
analyze these data into readable statistics.
Every FortiWAN unit embeds the Reports system (See "Reports"), or the Reports could be also a stand-alone
system running on a computer. Here is the settings to specify the ways of log push for Reports servers.
Embedded Reports
Enable Reports DB
:
Enable the embedded Reports (See "Reports"). Logs will be processed directly to
the database stored in the built-in hard disk. Analysis and statistics are displayed
via Web UI.
The Reports displays no data without enabling this.
Stand-alone Reports
Enable Reports UDP
:
Enable it to push logs to specified stand-alone Reports server.
Recipient IP Address
:
Specify location of the stand-alone Reports server that logs are pushed to. This
field is available only if Enable Reports UDP is checked.
The stand-alone Reports displays no data without enabling this.
A stand-alone Reports and the embedded Reports can run at the same time, but both servers use the same logs.
Events
Select the log type for FortiWAN to send to Reports.
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Firewall
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Virtual Server
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Bandwidth Usage
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Connection Limit
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Multihoming
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Tunnel Routing
Selected logs here will be pushed to embedded Reports and stand-alone Reports, if any or both of them are
enabled.
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Reports
Enable Reports
Reports
Reports is the built-in monitoring and traffic pattern analysis tool for instant status of WAN connections and traffic
statistics analysis. MIS personnel can perform offline and more detailed analysis of the data to gain insight into
user traffic patterns for better network design and management policy definition. However, FortiWAN generates
large volumes of raw activity logs during the process of monitoring its functions. For long-term or trend analysis,
Reports is an online companion tool that greatly simplifies the analysis of the data.
Reports Features
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Provides historical detail and reporting over longer periods of time (See "Create a Report").
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Provides more fine-grained subcategories of analysis and reports (See "Advanced Functions of Reports: Drill in").
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Provides customized filters on reports (See "Advanced Functions of Reports: Custom Filter").
l
Provides instant email of reports in PDF formats (See "Advanced Functions of Reports: Report Email").
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Reports can be saved in PDF format (See "Advanced Functions of Reports: Export").
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Supports user-select report date range (See "Create a Report").
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Supports user-specified backup of original log and database data (See "Reports Database Tool").
Reports provides analysis and reporting capabilities on device status, top bandwidth utilization and function
status. MIS personnel can gain complete understanding of the detailed network statistics via the various reports.
Such statistics include, for example, the exact time of failure of every WAN link, the peak rate and amount of
bandwidth of every WAN link, the minimum and maximum traffic volume for a given specified day range, the
traffic volume and service conditions of a certain server during a specified day range. Bandwidth Usage presents
the analysis of how the bandwidth of every WAN link is used: what connections are constructed between which
internal IP and external IP hosts, what services operate on the connections, and what and how much traffic is
transferred through which WAN link? For example, you can obtain, from Reports analysis, the external traffic
destinations from any or all devices inside the LAN or look at what internet servers attracted the most traffic from
your enterprise.
It is important to have a solid grasp of the functionality and operational theory of Reports in order to effectively
analyze network traffic patterns and various statistics of FortiWAN for optimal management policy definition.
Reports reporting function is calendar-based (in the upper right portion of the UI screen). Reporting can be done
for a specific day, by highlighting that date in the calendar. Reporting can be done over a range of dates by
specifying the start date and the end date on the Calendar.
Reports reporting function is divided into three categories and eighteen subcategories:
l
Device Status: Dashboard, Bandwidth, CPU, Session, WAN Traffic, WAN Reliability, WAN Status, TR Reliability
and TR Status (See "Device Status").
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Bandwidth Usage: In Class, Out Class, WAN, Service, Internal IP and Traffic Rate (See "Bandwidth Usage").
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Function Status: Connection Limit, Firewall, Virtual Server and Multihoming (See "Function Status").
To make those data and analysis available, please enable Reports via Log > Reports (See "Enable
Reports") or Reports > Settings > Reports (See "Settings > Reports").
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Create a Report
Reports
Create a Report
Report’s reporting function is calendar-based (in the upper right portion of the UI screen). Reporting can be done
for a specific day, by highlighting that date in the calendar. Reporting can be done over a range of dates by
specifying the start date and the end date on the Calendar.
Enable Reports
Please complete the necessary setting to enable FortiWAN Reports via Log > Reports (See "Enable Reports")
or Reports > Settings > Reports (See "Settings > Reports"), or data is unavailable for Reports.
Select a Report Type
On the left of the main page is the Category Area where you can select a report type.
Specify a Date or Date Range
At the upper right corner of the Display Area exists a date selector where you can specify a single date or date
range. Click on the magnifier icon next to the date selector to start with date selection.
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Time between 00:00 to 23:59 (of a selected date)
l
Days from start to end if Date Range specified (max 90 days)
Single Date
Start date:
l
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Click on the field under “Start date” to call up a calendar for further selection.
Select a date from the calendar, and reports will be generated on the selected date from 00:00 to 23:59. The
selected date is highlighted in white, while the other dates are displayed in gray, and today’s date is circled in
yellow.
l
Click the right or left arrow to go to the next or previous month.
l
Click Apply to complete date selection, and reports will then be generated accordingly.
l
Choose a different report type from the Category Area to generate reports on the same date selected if needed.
Date Range
To select a date range:
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Reports
l
Export and Email
Click the checkbox between Start date and the End date, and then Start time, End date and End time will become
available for selection (as shown below):
l
Put a Start date and End date by clicking the input field and selecting from the calendar.
l
Input the Start time and End time in the format of HH:MM. Note that the duration cannot exceed 90 days.
l
Click Apply to complete date range selection and start generating reports.
l
Choose a different report type from the Category Area to generate reports on the same date range selected if
needed.
Export and Email
All reports generated by FortiWAN can be exported in PDF format to your local computer; just simply click the
Export button on the upper side of any report page, and select PDF.
All reports generated by FortiWAN can be sent to users via email. Reports saved in PDF format can be sent out
as email attachments. Click the Email button on the right upper corner of any report page to edit settings of the
report email. In the settings dialog, you may send current report through email immediately or arrange a
scheduled email for it. No matter which report page you’re at, you can always click the Email button on that page
to send the current report through email, or the Schedule button to get the report email scheduled (see Report
Email).
Device Status
The Device Status report shows the top-level view of the analysis of the traffic flowing through FortiWAN. Device
Status includes 9 categories showing the average data rate through FortiWAN, the number of sessions
(connections) in use, the status of WAN links and TR connections and FortiWAN hardware statistics.
Dashboard
The Dashboard is a palette containing the chart-based summary of FortoiWAN's system information and
hardware states. Bandwidth usage, CPU, memory and HD storage usages, concurrent sessions, WAN link states,
the peer information in HA deployment, FortiWAN firmware version, model and bandwidth capability are
summarized here for your reference at a glance. For long-term and deep look inside the items, individual report
page gives the details.
The statistics of bandwidth, session , CPU and memory usages on the dashboard come from the Reports
database, just like all the other report pages, are counted every 5 minutes. The data of WAN link state, peer
information and hard disk on the dashboard is updated instantly when it is refreshed every time. You can set an
appropriate refresh time interval for the dashboard (See "Dashboard Page Refresh Time").
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Device Status
Reports
System Information
The System Information panel located at the upper-right corner gives the information of current FortiWAN
firmware version, model and bandwidth capability.
Total Bandwidth
The line chart in Total Bandwidth panel displays the distribution of traffic (inbound and outbound) passed through
FortiWAN over the past one hour. The horizontal (x) axis is graduated in minutes, and the vertical (y) axis is
graduated in bps (average) to indicate the bandwidth usage. The distributions of inbound and outbound traffic are
marked with different color. Moving the mouse to any point of the distribution will display the exact traffic
generated at the time. Moving the mouse over the line chart and clicking it will redirect you to the Bandwidth page
(See "Bandwidth").
The bar chart aside the distribution displays the percentage of the traffic generated in the past five minutes. The
bandwidth capability (denominator) used to calculate the percentage is the sum of the transfer speed (down
stream and up stream) of every enabled WAN link (defined in Network Setting, see "Configuring your WAN"). For
example, if there are two enabled WAN links defined with 10 Mbps and 20 Mbps down stream, and 5 Mbps and
10 Mbps up stream respectively, the bandwidth capability used to calculate the percentage will be 45 Mbps. This
bandwidth capability changes as a WAN link being enabled or disabled. The bars are marked with different color
for inbound and outbound traffic. 50% and 80% are the two waterlines used in the bar chart to alert administrators
to the exceedance. The bar is marked with green if the percentage of bandwidth usage is less than 50%, with
orange if it is between 50% an 80%, and with red if it exceeds 80%.
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Reports
Device Status
Session
The line chart in Session panel displays the distribution of sessions amount that FortiWAN processed over the
past one hour. The horizontal (x) axis is graduated in minutes, and the vertical (y) axis is graduated in 1's to
indicate the session amount. Moving the mouse to any point of the distribution will display the exact session
amount generated at the time. Moving the mouse over the line chart and clicking it will redirect you to the Session
page (See "Session").
The bar chart aside the distribution displays the percentage of the sessions amount generated in the past five
minutes. The concurrent session capability (denominator) used to calculate the percentage depends on your
FortiWAN model. 50% and 80% are the two waterlines used in the bar chart to alert administrators to the
exceedance. The bar is marked with green if the percentage of session amount is less than 50%, with orange if it
is between 50% an 80%, and with red if it exceeds 80%.
CPU
The line chart in CPU panel displays the distribution of FortiWAN's CPU usage over the past one hour. The
horizontal (x) axis is graduated in minutes, and the vertical (y) axis is graduated in % to indicate the CPU usage.
Moving the mouse to any point of the distribution will display the exact percentage of CPU used at the time.
Moving the mouse over the line chart and clicking it will redirect you to the CPU page (See "CPU").
The bar chart aside the distribution displays the percentage of CPU usage in the past five minutes. 50% and 80%
are the two waterlines used in the bar chart to alert administrators to the exceedance. The bar is marked with
green if the CPU usage is less than 50%, with orange if it is between 50% an 80%, and with red if it exceeds 80%.
Memory
The line chart in Memory panel displays the distribution of FortiWAN's memory usage over the past one hour. The
horizontal (x) axis is graduated in minutes, and the vertical (y) axis is graduated in % to indicate the memory
usage. Moving the mouse to any point of the distribution will display the exact memory usage at the time.
The bar chart aside the distribution displays the percentage of memory usage in the past five minutes. 50% and
80% are the two waterlines used in the bar chart to alert administrators to the exceedance. The bar is marked
with green if the memory usage is less than 50%, with orange if it is between 50% an 80%, and with red if it
exceeds 80%.
WAN Link State
The WAN Link State panel displays the state of every FortiWAN's WAN link. The number of WAN links displayed
here varies depending on the model of the FortiWAN unit. Taking FortiWAN 200B for example, it supports 25
WAN link connections in maximum (See "WAN link and WAN port"). Each WAN link is color-coded to indicate its
state.
OK (Green)
Backup Line (Blue)
Failed (Red)
Disabled (Black)
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The WAN link is configured, enabled and connecting for data transmission.
The WAN link is sat as a backup line (See "Backup Line Setting").
The WAN link is configured and enabled, but disconnected.
The WAN link is not active (probably configured or not).
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Device Status
Reports
Peer Information
Peer information displays the state of slave unit for a HA deployment (See "FortiWAN in HA (High Availability)
Mode").
Version
Model/Bandwidth
Serial Number
Uptime
The firmware version of the slave.
The model and Max. bandwidth of the slave.
The serial number of the slave.
The time the slave has been up and running.
State
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Normally, this field displays “Slave”.
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During the procedure of reboot, this field displays "Rebooting".
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System panic happens, this field displays "Panic".
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Peer unit is lost (power-off or Ethernet cable disconnected), this field displays
"None".
Firmware version, FortiWAN model or throughput license is inconsistent with the
local unit, this field displays "Incompatible".
Hard Disk
FortiWAN's Reports functions with a database system and necessary log data stored in the built-in hard disk. Disk
space is being consumed by increasing report database. Once the disk space is ran out, Reports will fail to
continue log processing. Disk usage statistics viewer here reports the disk space usage (%), so that an
appropriate cleanup (See "Disk Space Control" and "Reports Database Tool") can be took to low disk space.
Free space
The available disk space.
Other used
The disk space used for disk overhead or preallocation.
DB used
The disk space used by Reports' database.
Bandwidth
The Bandwidth report shows the traffic distribution by the date range defined. Your FortiWAN model is rated by
its data throughput (and number of simultaneous connections). This report will help you determine if you are
using the correct FortiWAN model and bandwidth capability for the data volumes at our location.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Bandwidth Distribution:
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X axis: Time between 00:00 to 23:59 (of a selected date). Days from start to end if Date Range specified (max 90
days) .
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Reports
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Y axis: Bandwidth in Kbps or Mbps.
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Green indicates inbound data rate.
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Blue indicates outbound data rate.
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Device Status
Clicking on Both, In or Out buttons at the right upper corner of the graph allows you to see bandwidth distribution in
different directions:
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Both: Displays both inbound and outbound bandwidth distribution.
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In: Displays only inbound bandwidth distribution.
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Out: Displays only outbound bandwidth distribution.
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Moving the mouse over the graph will display time, date and corresponding traffic distribution (as shown below):
Statistics Table:
l
Lists the average inbound and outbound traffic rate distributed by the date range defined. This is the numerical
presentation of the same information in the Bandwidth Distribution Charts.
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Time: Time periods or dates if a date range is defined.
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Inbound bps: Traffic originating from outside of FortiWAN, going into the internal port.
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Outbound bps: Traffic originating from inside of FortiWAN, going to the external port.
CPU
The CPU report shows the distribution of CPU usage of FortiWAN by the date range defined. CPU usage is a
measure of how much traffic is being managed or how much services the FortiWAN is required to do on that
traffic. Sustained usage near 80% is a good indicator that a larger FortiWAN model is required to handle the
required traffic and services load. Use this chart to compare your target maximum usage with the actual usage
over time.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
CPU Usage Distribution
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X axis: Time between 00:00 to 23:59 (of a selected date). Days from start to end if Date Range specified (max 90
days).
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Y axis: CPU usage in %.
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Moving the mouse over the graph will display time, date and corresponding CPU usage in percentage.
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Device Status
Reports
Statistics Table
l
Lists the CPU usage distributed in percentage (%) by the date range defined. This is the numerical presentation of
the same information in the CPU Usage Distribution Charts.
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Time: Time periods or dates if a date range is defined.
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% Usage: CPU usage in %.
Session
The Session report shows the distribution of sessions (connections) by the date range defined. Your FortiWAN
model is rated by the number of simultaneous connections it can process (among other things as noted above).
This report will help you determine if you are using the correct FortiWAN model for the number of connections in
use by your users.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Session Amount Distribution:
l
X axis: Time between 00:00 to 23:59 (for a selected date). Days from start to end if Date Range specified (max 90
days).
l
Y axis: Number of Sessions in 1,000’s.
l
Moving the mouse over the graph will display time, date and corresponding number of sessions.
Statistics Table:
l
Lists the number of sessions distributed by the date range defined. This is the numerical presentation of the same
information in the Session Distribution Charts.
l
Time: Time periods or dates if a date range is defined.
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Count: Number of Sessions.
WAN Traffic
The WAN Traffic report shows the traffic distribution of every FortiWAN’s WAN link by the date range defined.
This report will help you to determine if WAN links are capable for the data volumes.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
WAN Traffic Distribution
l
l
Traffic distributions of every WAN links are presented individually.
X axis: Time between 00:00 to 23:59 (of a selected date). Days from start to end if Date Range specified (max 90
days).
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Y axis: Bandwidth in Kbps or Mbps.
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Green indicates inbound data rate.
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Blue indicates outbound data rate.
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Clicking on Both, In or Out buttons at the right upper corner of the graph allows you to see bandwidth distribution in
different directions:
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Both: Displays both inbound and outbound bandwidth distribution.
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In: Displays only inbound bandwidth distribution.
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Out: Displays only outbound bandwidth distribution.
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Moving the mouse over the graph will display time, date and corresponding traffic distribution.
WAN Reliability
The WAN Reliability report shows the statistics on the failures happened on FortiWAN WAN links.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Statistics Table
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Lists the times of failure happened on WAN links by the date range defined.
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WAN: WAN links that are enabled on FortiWAN. (Disabled WAN links will not be shown in the table).
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Fails: Times of failure happened on this WAN link.
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Drill in: Click to check the status (OK and Fail) over time on this WAN link (See "Drill In").
WAN Status
FortiWAN supports various numbers of WAN links, for example, FortiWAN 700 supports 25 WAN links, FortiWAN
5000 and FortiWAN 6000 support 50 WAN links. The WAN Status report shows the statuses on every FortiWAN’s
WAN link. The various statuses are defined as below.
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OK: WAN link is enabled, configured and connected physically.
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Fail: WAN link is enabled and configured, but disconnected.
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Disable: WAN link is not enabled from FortiWAN Web UI.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Statistics Table
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Lists the statuses of every WAN link by the date range defined.
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Time: Time periods or dates if a date range is defined.
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WAN: The WAN link.
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Status: The status happened on the WAN link at the time.
TR Reliability
Tunnel Routing (TR) is FortiWAN’s important function used to construct intranets between multiple LANs
anywhere in the world. Tunnel Routing also boosts performance by supporting link aggregation and fault
tolerance over multiple links for services such as VPN and live video streaming. A Tunnel Group represents the
configuration of Tunnel Routing on FortiWAN between two specific sites; it includes related internal IP addresses
of both sites and routing policies between sites (See "Tunnel Routing").
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The TR Reliability report shows the statistics on the failures happened on FortiWAN’s TR links. Please reference
FortiWAN User Manual for more information about Tunnel Routing.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Statistics Table
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Group: Tunnel Group configured on FortiWAN; the failed TR link belongs to. Select “Group” as primary sorting via
clicking on the column title “Group”.
Local IP: Local IP address of the failed TR link in the Tunnel Group. Select “Local IP” as primary sorting via clicking
on the column title “Local IP”.
Remote IP: Remote IP address of the failed TR link in the Tunnel Group. Select “Remote IP” as primary sorting via
clicking on the column title “Remote IP”.
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Fails: the count of failures occurring on the IP pair in this Tunnel Group for the reporting period.
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Drill in: Click to check the status (OK and Fail) of the TR link (See "Drill In").
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Note: A “▲” or “▼” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g. Group
▲. The sorting order will be switched by clicking on the same column header.
TR Status
The TR Status report shows the statuses of every FortiWAN’s TR link (See "Tunnel Routing") by date the range
defined.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
The various statuses are defined as below.
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OK: TR link is enabled, configured and connected physically.
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Fail: TR link is enabled and configured, but disconnected.
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Disable: TR link is not enabled from FortiWAN Web UI.
Statistics Table
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Lists the statuses of every TR link by the date range defined.
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Time: Time periods or dates if a date range is defined.
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Local IP: Local IP address of the TR link.
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Remote IP: Remote IP address of the TR link.
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Status: the OK/Fail Status of this Source IP -> Destination IP pair at that time.
Bandwidth Usage
This report category is the core function of the Reports and also serves as the basis for traffic analysis to gain
insights for better policy management. This category can further be divided into In Class, Out Class, WAN,
Service, Internal IP and Traffic Rate.
The Bandwidth Usage Report includes: Charts (upper) and Statistics Table (lower).
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Pie Charts display respective percentage of all the traffic patterns that sorted (default) by the total data volume (IN
+ OUT) shown on the page. The Pie Charts display will change depending upon which column in the Statistics
Table is selected for primary sorting. This Pie Chart shows the percentage of the traffic pattern of the top 10 items
only, which might not match the percentage value listed in the Statistics Table. Use it only as a visual reference to
see who the major users are.
Bar Charts illustrate the total volume of each traffic pattern shown on the page, and the percentage of each traffic
pattern out of total traffic. The Bar Chart display will change depending upon which column in the Statistics Table is
selected for primary sorting.
The Statistics Table is the numerical presentation of the same information illustrated in the Pie chart and Bar
Charts. The traffic statistics includes information of total traffic, inbound traffic, outbound traffic and percentage of
total traffic.
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Inbound Bytes: The volume of traffic originating from outside of FortiWAN, going into the internal network.
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Outbound Bytes: The volume of traffic originating from inside of FortiWAN, going to the external network.
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Total Bytes: (Default primary sorting) The volume of total traffic = Inbound Bytes + Outbound Bytes.
The statistics table lists 10, 20, 50 or 100 entries sorted by default in declining order by total data volume. By
default the first screen shows the top 10 entries, but navigation buttons and a direct-entry page box at the lower
right corner of the screen allow you to examine all items found. The default number of rows to be listed on the
report page can be defined in account settings.
The Statistics Table may be re-sorted by Inbound Bytes, Outbound Bytes or Total Bytes, by selecting the
appropriate column header. The Pie and Bar charts will reformat to reflect the selected traffic measurement.
Note that the percentage of total traffic shown in the Statistics Table may not be the same as that shown on the
Pie Chart. The Statistics Table shows the percentage of total traffic in all traffic patterns, while the Pie Chart only
shows the total of the top 10 traffic users.
See also:
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Report: Inclass
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Report: Outclass
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Report: Service
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Report: WAN
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Report: Internal IP
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Report: Traffic Rate
Inclass
This report shows the statistics of each inbound class as defined in FortiWAN’s Bandwidth Management function
(See "Bandwidth Management"). Each class is a classification (by service, by IP address and etc.) of incoming
traffic passed through FortiWAN. This statistic will help you realize if the Bandwidth Management policies of
FortiWAN are running well, or if any adjustment is necessary for the specified bandwidth class.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
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Pie Chart: Pie chart of traffic statistics is generated based on Inbound Classes of FortiWAN’s Bandwidth
Management.
Bar Chart: Bar chart statistics show the actual data volume used by the top 10 Inbound Classes.
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Statistics Table:
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List the Inbound Class the most traffic being classified into.
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In Class: The Inbound Classes defined in FortiWAN.
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Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Inbound classes.
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Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Inbound Classes.
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Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Inbound Classes (Inbound Bytes + Outbound Bytes).
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Note: Select “Inbound Bytes”, “Outbound Bytes” or “Total Bytes” as primary sorting by clicking on the
column title. A “▲” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g.
Inbound Bytes ▲.
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% Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Inbound Classes in %.
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% Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Inbound Classes in %.
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% Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Inbound Classes in %.
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Reports
Only one of the three statistics data (% Inbound Bytes, % Outbound Bytes, or % Total Bytes) will be
displayed in the statistics table depending on the primary sort column.
This page and this table describe total traffic volume, not traffic rate. Data transferred are measured in
KBytes, MBytes or GBytes over the period of time selected.
Drill in (See "Drill In"):
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Clicking the magnifier icon located under the “Drill in” column in the statistics table allows you to perform an
additional ‘drill-down’ analysis on traffic for the selected In Class, shown by Out Class, WAN, Service,
Internal IP, External IP, Internal Group, External Group and Traffic Rate (Trend) via the selected policy In
Class:
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Out Class – Out Classes that are associated with this In Class.
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WAN – WAN links that are associated with this In Class.
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Service – Services (L3-L7) that are associated with this In Class.
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Internal IP – Any monitored internal IP addresses that are associated with this In Class.
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External IP – Any monitored external IP addresses that are associated with this In Class.
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Internal Group – Any monitored internal IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the internal IP
addresses are associated with this In Class.
External Group – Any monitored external IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the external IP
addresses are associated with this In Class.
Traffic Rate: bandwidth distribution generated by this In Class by the date range defined.
Outclass
This report shows the statistics of each outbound class as defined in FortiWAN’s Bandwidth Management
function (See "Bandwidth Management"). Each class is a classification (by service, by IP address and etc.) of
outgoing traffic passed through FortiWAN.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
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Pie Chart: Pie chart of traffic statistics is generated based on Outbound Classes of FortiWAN’s Bandwidth
Management.
Bar Chart: Bar chart statistics show the actual data volume used by the top 10 Outbound Classes.
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Bandwidth Usage
Statistics Table:
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List the Outbound Class the most traffic being classified into.
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Out Class: The Outbound Classes defined in FortiWAN.
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Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Outbound Classes.
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Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Outbound Classes.
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Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Outbound Classes (Inbound Bytes + Outbound Bytes).
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% Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Outbound Classes in %.
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% Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Outbound Classes in %.
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% Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Outbound Classes in %.
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Note: Select “Inbound Bytes”, “Outbound Bytes” or “Total Bytes” as primary sorting by clicking on the
column title. A “▲” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g.
Inbound Bytes ▲.
Only one of the three statistics data (% Inbound Bytes, % Outbound Bytes, or % Total Bytes) will be
displayed in the statistics table depending on the primary sort column.
This page and this table describe total traffic volume, not traffic rate. Data transferred are measured in
KBytes, MBytes or GBytes over the period of time selected.
Drill in (See "Drill In"):
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Clicking the magnifier icon located under the “Drill in” column in the statistics table allows you to perform an
additional ‘drill-down’ analysis on traffic for the selected policy Out Class, shown by In Class, WAN, Service,
Internal IP, External IP, Internal Group, External Group and Traffic Rate (Trend) via the selected policy Out
Class:
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In Class – In Classes that are associated with this Out Class.
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WAN – WAN links that are associated with this Out Class.
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Service – Services (L3-L7) that are associated with this Out Class.
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Internal IP – Any monitored internal IP addresses that are associated with this Out Class.
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External IP – Any monitored external IP addresses that are associated with this Out Class.
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Internal Group – Any monitored internal IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the internal IP
addresses are associated with this Out Class.
External Group – Any monitored external IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the external IP
addresses are associated with this Out Class.
Traffic Rate: bandwidth distribution generated by this Out Class by the date range defined.
WAN
This report shows the statistics of traffic passed through FortiWAN via the WAN Links.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
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Pie Chart: Pie chart of traffic statistics is generated based on WAN links defined on FortiWAN.
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Bar Chart: Bar chart statistics show the actual data volume used by the top 10 WAN links.
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Statistics Table :
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List the WAN links on the FortiWAN that traffic passed through.
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WAN: The WAN links defined on the FortiWAN.
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Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the WAN links.
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Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the WAN links.
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Note: Select “Inbound Bytes”, “Outbound Bytes” or “Total Bytes” as primary sorting by clicking on the
column title. A “▲” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g.
Inbound Bytes ▲.
% Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the WAN links in %.
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% Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the WAN links in %.
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% Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the WAN links in %.
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Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the WAN links (Inbound Bytes + Outbound Bytes).
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Reports
Only one of the three statistics data (% Inbound Bytes, % Outbound Bytes, or % Total Bytes) will be
displayed in the statistics table depending on the primary sort column.
This page and this table describe total traffic volume, not traffic rate. Data transferred are measured in
KBytes, MBytes or GBytes over the period of time selected.
Drill in (See "Drill In"):
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Clicking the magnifier icon located under the “Drill in” column in the statistics table allows you to perform an
additional ‘drill-down’ analysis on traffic for the selected WAN link, shown by In Class, Out Class, Service,
Internal IP, External IP, Internal Group, External Group and Traffic Rate (Trend) via the selected WAN link:
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In Class – In Classes that traffic is passed through this WAN link.
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Out Class – Out Classes that traffic is passed through this WAN link.
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Service – Services (L3-L7) that traffic is passed through this WAN link.
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Internal IP – Any monitored internal IP addresses that traffic is passed through this WAN link.
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External IP – Any monitored external IP addresses that traffic is passed through this WAN link.
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Internal Group – Any monitored internal IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that traffic is passed
through this WAN link.
External Group – Any monitored external IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that traffic is passed
through this WAN link.
Traffic Rate: bandwidth distribution generated by this WAN link by the date range defined.
Services
This report shows the statistics of traffic passed through FortiWAN by various services.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
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Pie Chart: Pie chart of traffic statistics is generated based on the traffic incurred by Services.
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Bar Chart: Bar chart statistics show the actual data volume used by the top 10 Services.
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Statistics Table:
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List the Services generating (as a source or termination) the most traffic.
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Service: The Service that traffic passed through FortiWAN.
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Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Service.
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Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Service.
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Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Service (Inbound Bytes + Outbound Bytes).
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Note: Select “Inbound Bytes”, “Outbound Bytes” or “Total Bytes” as primary sorting by clicking on the
column title. A “▲” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g.
Inbound Bytes ▲.
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% Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Service in %.
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% Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Service in %.
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% Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Service in %.
Only one of the three statistics data (% Inbound Bytes, % Outbound Bytes, or % Total Bytes) will be
displayed in the statistics table depending on the primary sort column.
This page and this table describe total traffic volume, not traffic rate. Data transferred are measured in
KBytes, MBytes or GBytes over the period of time selected.
Drill in (See "Drill In"):
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Clicking the magnifier icon located under the “Drill in” column in the statistics table allows you to perform an
additional ‘drill-down’ analysis on traffic for the selected service, shown by In Class, Out Class, WAN,
Internal IP, External IP, Internal Group, External Group and Traffic Rate (Trend) via the selected service:
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In Class – In Classes where this Service traffic is classified into.
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Out Class – Out Classes where this Service traffic is classified into.
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WAN – WAN links that this Service traffic passed through.
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Internal IP – Any monitored internal IP addresses that are associated with this Service.
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External IP – Any monitored external IP addresses that are associated with this Service.
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Internal Group – Any monitored internal IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the internal IP
addresses are associated with this Service.
External Group – Any monitored external IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the external IP
addresses are associated with this Service.
Traffic Rate: bandwidth distribution generated by this Service by the date range defined.
Internal IP
This report shows the statistics of traffic passed through FortiWAN by Internal IP addresses.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
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Pie Chart: Pie chart of traffic statistics is generated based on traffic incurred (as a source or termination) by Internal
IP addresses.
Bar Chart: Bar chart statistics show the actual data volume used by the top 10 Internal IP addresses.
Statistics Table:
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List the Internal IP addresses generating (as a source or termination) the most traffic.
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IP: The Internal IP addresses.
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Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Internal IP addresses.
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Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Internal IP addresses.
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Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Internal IP addresses (Inbound Bytes + Outbound Bytes).
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% Total Bytes: The volume of total traffic of the Internal IP addresses in %.
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% Inbound Bytes: The volume of inbound traffic of the Internal IP addresses in %.
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% Outbound Bytes: The volume of outbound traffic of the Internal IP addresses in %.
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Note: Select “Inbound Bytes”, “Outbound Bytes” or “Total Bytes” as primary sorting by clicking on the
column title. A “▲” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g.
Inbound Bytes ▲.
Only one of the three statistics data (% Inbound Bytes, % Outbound Bytes, or % Total Bytes) will be
displayed in the statistics table depending on the primary sort column.
This page and this table describe total traffic volume, not traffic rate. Data transferred are measured in
KBytes, MBytes or GBytes over the period of time selected.
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Drill in (See "Drill In"):
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Clicking the magnifier icon located under the “Drill in” column in the statistics table allows you to perform an
additional ‘drill-down’ analysis on traffic for the selected Internal IP address, shown by In Class, Out Class,
WAN, Service, External IP, Internal Group, External Group and Traffic Rate (Trend) via the selected
Internal IP address:
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In Class – In Classes that are associated with this Internal IP address.
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Out Class – Out Classes that are associated with this Internal IP address.
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WAN – WAN links that are associated with this Internal IP address.
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Service – Services (L3-L7) that are associated with this Internal IP address.
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External IP – Any monitored external IP addresses that are associated with this Internal IP address.
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Internal Group – Any monitored internal IP group (set up under the Settings menu) where this Internal IP
address belongs to.
External Group – Any monitored external IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the external IP
addresses are associated with this Internal IP address.
Traffic Rate: bandwidth distribution generated by this Internal IP address by the date range defined.
Traffic Rate
This report shows the statistics of traffic passed through FortiWAN by Traffic Rate.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Bandwidth Distribution:
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X axis: Time between 00:00 to 23:59 (of a selected date). Days from start to end if Date Range specified (max 90
days).
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Y axis: Bandwidth in Kbps or Mbps.
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Green indicates inbound data rate.
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Blue indicates outbound data rate.
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Clicking on Both, In or Out buttons at the right upper corner of the graph allows you to see bandwidth distribution in
different directions:
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Both: Displays both inbound and outbound bandwidth distribution.
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In: Displays only inbound bandwidth distribution.
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Out: Displays only outbound bandwidth distribution.
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Moving the mouse over the graph will display time, date and corresponding traffic distribution.
Statistics Table:
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List the average inbound and outbound traffic rate distributed by the date range defined. This is the numerical
presentation of the same information in the Bandwidth Distribution Charts.
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Time: The time periods or date ranges defined.
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Inbound bps: The inbound traffic rate in the time periods or date ranges.
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Outbound bps: The outbound traffic rate in the time periods or date ranges.
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Drill in:
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Clicking the magnifier icon located under the “Drill in” column in the statistics table allows you to perform an
additional ‘drill-down’ analysis on traffic for the selected Time period , shown by In Class, Out Class, WAN, Service,
Internal IP, External IP, Internal Group and External Group via the selected Time period:
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In Class – In Classes that are associated within this time period.
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Out Class – Out Classes that are associated within this time period.
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WAN – WAN links that traffic passed through within this time period.
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Service – Services (L3-L7) that are associated within this time period.
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Internal IP – Any monitored internal IP addresses that are associated within this time period.
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External IP – Any monitored external IP addresses that are associated within this time period.
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Internal Group – Any monitored internal IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the internal IP addresses
are associated within this time period.
External Group – Any monitored external IP group (set up under the Settings menu) that the external IP addresses
are associated within this time period.
Function Status
This report category is the function to monitor the status of FortiWAN’s major functions for a long period. Long
term statistics of function status is helpful to administrators. This category can further be divided into Connection
Limit, Firewall, Virtual Server and Multihoming.
Connection Limit
To prevent network congestion, FortiWAN’s Connection Limit function limits the number of connections from
each source IP. A Connection Limit event means the number of connections from a given source IP has exceeded
the limit (See "Connection Limit"). Reports produces a summary report for Connection Limit events.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Statistics Table
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List the Source IP generating the most accesses while connections exceeding the limit, sorted by the volume of
Drops in declining order.
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Source IP: The IP address generating connections exceeding the limit.
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Drops: The counts of denied access (try to construct new connection) while the connections exceeding the limit.
Firewall
Firewall is the most popular tool to control network access and deny illegal access. FortiWAN’s Firewall function
limits network access by service, source IP and/or destination IP. A Firewall event means that network access has
been denied according to the Firewall rules (See "Firewall"). Reports produces a summary report for Firewall
events.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
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Statistics Table
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Lists the Service, Source IP and Destination IP of denied network access, sorted by the volume of Drops in declining
order.
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Service: The Service of denied access.
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Source IP: The Source IP address of denied access.
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Destination IP: The Destination IP address of denied access.
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Drops: The counts of denied access.
Virtual Server
FortiWAN’s Virtual Server function the linking of multiple servers in an internal (or private) network to external
network (public) IP addresses. It is usually used to share multiple servers with single public IP addresses – a
simple server load balancing application (See "Virtual Server & Server Load Balancing"). Reports produces a
summary and detailed report for Virtual Server.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Statistics Table
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Lists the Virtual Server IP (Service) and count of access, sorted by the Server IP (default).
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WAN IP: the public IP address for external users to access the virtual server.
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WAN Service: the service for external users to access the virtual server.
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Server IP: the IP address of the Virtual Server.
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Server Service: the service ran on the virtual server.
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Requests: the count of accessing this Server Service ran on the Virtual Server IP from the WAN IP address.
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Note: Select “WAN IP”, “WAN Service”, “Server IP” and “Server Service” as primary sorting via clicking on the column
title. A “▲” or “▼” is shown aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g. Server IP
▲. The sorting order will be switched by clicking on the same column header.
Multihoming
FortiWAN’s Multihoming function performs load balancing and fault tolerance between WAN links for inbound
traffic. Users from the public network are told dynamically by FortiWAN the best available WAN link to access in
order to reach specific resources on the internal network (See "Inbound Load Balancing and Failover
(Multihoming)"). Reports produces a summary and detailed report for Multihoming.
Create a report for a specific day or over a range of dates (See "Create a Report").
Export reports and send reports through email (See "Export and Email").
Statistics Table
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Lists the Domain Name and the count of the number of times this domain was accessed, sorted by the FQDN
(default).
FQDN: the domain name configured on FortiWAN. Select “FQDN” as primary sorting via clicking on the column title
“FQDN”.
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WAN: which WAN links this FQDN was accessed through. Select “WAN” as primary sorting via clicking on the
column title “WAN”.
WAN IP: the WAN IP address in this FQDN accessed through the WAN link. Select “WAN IP” as primary sorting via
clicking on the column title “WAN IP”.
Access: the counts of accessing this domain by external users via the WAN IP address.
Note: Select “FQDN”, “WAN” and “WAN IP” as primary sorting via clicking on the column title. A “▲” or “▼” is shown
aside the column header while the column is selected as primary sorting, e.g. FQDN ▲. The sorting order will be
switched by clicking on the same column header.
Advanced Functions of Reports
Reports provides advanced functions beyond the basic reports to give an accurate analysis. Drill In and Custom
Filter are the functions about querying the reports with complex conditions. It delivers only the data that a user
needs from large data sets. Export and Report Email are the functions about documentations and delivering of
the on-line reports. The details of the advanced functions are described as follows.
Drill In
There are 7 different query conditions for Bandwidth Usage, including In Class, Out Class, WAN, Service, Internal
IP, External IP and Traffic Rate. In every Bandwidth Usage report, analysis can be further drilled-in to include
more traffic data statistics; in other words, Reports allows traffic to be queried based on combination of multiple
conditions. For example, select Service as the query subject from the menu in the category area, and the Service
report will be displayed accordingly, as shown below:
Service=All
Go to Reports > Service, you can have an overall service report which gives the traffic statistics of all the service
usages (query result is as shown below).
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The HTTPS(TCP@443) service can be further drilled in to query which WAN link of FortiWAN are utilizing this
service by clicking the Drill In magnifier icon in the row of HTTPS(TCP@443) listed in the table and select WAN
(query result is as shown below):
Service=HTTPS(TCP@443) & WAN=All
As indicated in the blue box (shown in the figure above), this page presents the data of HTTPS(TCP@443) traffic
in the WAN report, In the statistics table, the WAN link 1 can be further drilled in to query what internal IP
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addresses are included by clicking the Drill In magnifier icon in the row of WAN 1 listed in the table and select
Internal IP (query result is as shown below):
Service=HTTPS(TCP@443) & WAN=1 & Internal IP=All
As indicated in the blue box (shown in the figure above), this page presents the data of Internal IP report that
includes the traffic of WAN 1 (WAN) using HTTPS(TCP@443) (Service), The IP address: 10.12.106.17 can be
further drilled in to query what External IP addresses it is connected to by clicking the Drill In magnifier icon in the
row of 10.12.106.17 IP listed in the table and select External IP (query result is as shown below):
Service=HTTPS(TCP@443) & WAN=1 & Internal IP=10.12.106.17 & External IP=All
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As indicated in the blue box (shown in the figure above), this page presents the data of External IP report that
includes the traffic of WAN 1 (WAN) at internal IP=10.12.106.17 (Internal IP) using HTTPS(TCP@443) (Service).
From the example illustrated above, administrators can easily query the traffic flow based on combination of
various conditions needed, while analysis can be drilled in to more details for better review. In the upper section
of the report page, you’ll see a summary of the query conditions used in the existing report (highlighted in blue as
shown in the image above), making it clear for administrators to keep track of the query details.
Service=HTTPS(TCP@443) & WAN=1 & Internal IP=10.12.106.17 & Traffic Rate=All
Continuing the example described above, the query submitted returns a result that the IP address: 10.12.106.17
via WAN 1 is connecting to External IP addresses, via the HTTPS(TCP@443) service. You can change the last
Drill In condition (External IP) to a different one (such as traffic rate of bandwidth usage) using the same filter:
WAN=1, Internal IP=10.12.106.17 and Service=HTTPS(TCP@443), by selecting Traffic Rate from the drop-down
menu of External IP (as shown below):
The report presented by Traffic Rate using the same filter: Service=HTTP(TCP@443), WAN=1 and Internal
IP=10.12.106.17 is illustrated as follows.
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As illustrated in the example above, Reports offers two kinds of advanced query: you can either keep drilling in
with different conditions to get a report with more specific details, or change query condition at any Drill In level;
in other words, network flow data can be queried either vertically or horizontally.
Custom Filter
Reports offers 6 fixed reports of bandwidth usage by default; In Class, Out Class, WAN, Service, Internal IP, and
External IP. Usually, administrators will need to check drilled-in information for particular target regularly. As
discussed previously, Drill-in function can be used to obtain more report specifics, while Filter helps to directly
obtain more traffic data of a specific target. In order to quickly perform a query based on a specific filter without
going through those tedious steps over again, Custom Filter allows users to apply their own filters based on
particular requirements for query on bandwidth usage reports.
Click Filter above every Bandwidth Usage report to see an extended block for further settings.
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Add new condition:
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A Filter can be composed of multiple conditions. Click Add new condition and select an option from the drop-down
menu to start setting your filter: In Class, Out Class, WAN, Service, Internal IP, External IP, Internal Group and
External Group.
Conditions:
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There are two actions for options while setting the condition:
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Including: Extract only those records that fulfill the specified criterion.
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Configurations for report categories:
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In Class: Enter the Inbound Class name you want to query (include or exclude) in the input field.
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Out Class: Enter the Outbound Class name you want to query (include or exclude) in the input field.
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WAN: Enter the WAN number you want to query (include or exclude) in the input field.
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Excluding: Extract those records that not fulfill the specified criterion.
Service: Enter the Service you want to query (include or exclude) in the input field. Click on the arrow next to
the input field to see more Service options. Predefined L4 and L3 protocols are available. Entering a single
or a range of port number is also allowed.
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Internal IP: Enter the Internal IP address you want to query (include or exclude) in the input field.
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External IP: Enter the External IP address you want to query (include or exclude) in the input field.
Delete: Delete the extended block of condition settings in the filter.
Cancel:
Click Cancel to close the extended block of filter settings.
Apply:
Click Apply to start the query based on the filter conditions defined. The result is presented in the report area.
Note both the result and filter conditions will not be saved in user profile. When the page moves to other report
categories, the filter conditions will be invalid.
Example
Check out the Internal IP report first, and create and apply a customer filter, for example, with the conditions
WAN = 1 and Service = HTTPS(TCP@443). The query result of traffic statistics that are associated with the
Service HTTPS(TCP@443) and passed through FortiWAN via WAN1 will then be displayed by Services
accordingly. As illustrated below, the block marked in blue indicates the query subject of current report:
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Continuing the example described above, apply the custom filter: Service=HTTPS(TCP@443), WAN=1 and
Internal IP=10.12.106.17 in the Traffic Rate report, and the query result will show the corresponding traffic
statistics by traffic rate as follows (the block marked in blue indicates the query subject of current report):
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Note: Saved custom filters are kept in user account profile. Users can edit and delete custom filters from their
account profile. Please refer to section of Customer Filters in Account Settings for more information.
Export
All reports generated by Reports can be exported as PDF or CSV format. By clicking Export button on the upper
side of any report page, PDF and CSV are displayed for options.
Report Email
All reports generated by Reports can be sent to users via email. Reports saved in PDF or CSV format can be sent
out as email attachments.
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Note: Prior to creating emails, you must first configure an email server used to transfer report emails to Reports.
You can set the email server through Reports > Settings > Email Server, or the email function on every report
page.
Click the Email button on the right upper corner of any report page to configure email settings to current report
page. For example, in the settings dialog below, you are currently in Traffic Rate report (see the header "Email :
Traffic Rate" on the setting dialog), then you can:
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Send Traffic Rate through email immediately
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Configure the email server used to transfer report emails
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Set Traffic Rate email scheduled
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Add Traffic Rate to an existing scheduled report email
The Email function is also available for custom-filter reports and drill-in reports. No matter which report page
you’re at, you can always click the Email button on that page to determine when you want to send the current
report through email.
Send now
Click the Send now tab on the setting dialog. This feature requires a email server configured first.
Recipients
Format
Select the format of reports included in this email: PDF or CSV.
Cancel
Click to cancel current configuration and close the dialog window.
Send
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Enter the email address of report email recipients.
Click to send the report email immediately.
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Email Server
Click the Email Server tab on the setting dialog. You can also set the email server through Reports > Settings
> Email Server. Both ways directs to one Reports to one email server.
SMTP Server
Enter the SMTP server used to transfer emails.
Port
Enter the port number of the SMTP server.
SSL
Click to allow SMTP server to transfer emails through SSL.
Account
Enter the user name for SMTP server authentication.
Password
Enter the password for SMTP server authentication.
Mail From
Fill in the sender’s name of emails.
Schedule
Click the Schedule tab on the setting dialog to set the report email scheduled. This feature requires a email
server configured first.
Recipients
Enter the email address of report email recipients.
Format
Select the format of reports included in this email: PDF or CSV.
Schedule
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l
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Select the period for automatic report email sending.
Daily: the report bounded in previous day 00:00 ~ 24:00 will be automatically sent at
05:00 everyday.
Weekly: the report bounded in the last week (Monday 00:00 ~ Sunday 24:00) will be
automatically sent at 05:00 every Monday.
Monthly: the report bounded in the last month (the first day 00:00 ~ the last day 24:00)
will be automatically sent on the first day of every month at 05:00.
Add to existing
Click the Add to existing tab on the setting dialog to list the schedule. By clicking the button "Add to this" on the
right upper corner of every schedule item, you can add current report category to one of the scheduled report
emails. You can edit the schedule through Reports > Settings > Scheduled Emails.
Reports Database Tool
FortiWAN's Reports stores database in the built-in hard disk (HDD) for long-term analysis and reports. As the data
increases, storage consumption increases. The Reports database tool (DB tool) is an application running on your
local computer to manage remote FortiWAN Reports database. Note that the DB tool must be ran on a host that
can access FortiWAN Web UI. Please contact Fortinet CSS to get the tool and install it following the instructions
below.
A Web-based Reports database management tool providing limited functions similar to the Reports database
tool is available, see Database Data Utility.
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Installation Procedures
Step 1: Click the installation file (such as FWN-dbtool-4.0.0-B20150303.exe) to run the installer. Select the
language of your choice.
Step 2: Read the System Requirements.
Step 3: Click ‘Next’ to begin the setup.
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Step 4: Read the License Agreement carefully. Click the ‘I Agree’ button to accept the agreement and begin the
installation process. Otherwise, please click ‘Cancel’.
Step 5: Choose a destination folder for setup and click ‘Next’.
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Step 6: Choose a Start Menu folder (or check ‘Do not create shortcuts’ to ignore it). Click ‘Install’ and then the
installation process will begin.
Step 7: Click ‘Finish’ to complete Reports DB Tool setup.
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Start DB Tool
To perform the database tool, please go to: Start > Programs > FWN-dbtool, and DB Tool utility is available
for selection.
DB Tool: Tool to manage report data from the Reports database.
Fortinet: Link to Fortinet web site.
Uninstall: Uninstalls DB Tool.
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Setting
The first time when you use the DB tool, please go to Setting to specify the database to be managed.
DB IP
DB Port
Save
Specify the location of the Reports database. it would be the IP address of FortiWAN Web UI.
Specify the port number that Reports database is listening. Please use the default port 5432.
Click to save the setting.
The DB tool can be used to backup, restore and delete data from FortiWAN's Reports database.
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Backup
From date
To date
Save to the directory
Delete the data after
exported
Backup
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Specify the start date to back up the data by selecting a date from the drop-down
calendar.
Specify the end date to back up the data by selecting a date from the drop-down
calendar.
Click Browse to select a location where the backup data should be saved.
Check it to delete the data in Reports database after it is backed up.
Click to start backing up the data of selected dates.
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Restore
Restore
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Click to select backup files to restore to database.
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Delete
From date
To date
Delete
Select a date from the drop-down calendar to specify the start date to delete the data.
Select a date from the drop-down calendar to specify the end date to delete the data.
Click to start deleting data of selected dates.
Note that although operations that Backup and Restore data of the current date (today) are allowed, it might
cause damages the report data since FortiWAN Reports is receiving and processing the data for today. Backup
and Restore are strongly recommend to be used for data before today.
Reports Settings
The Settings here is used to simply manage the Reports on database, disk space and the SMTP server used to
email reports. Click the listed settings and you can further configure them:
Reports
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Enable/disable Reports (See "Reports").
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IP Annotation
:
Create, modify and delete the notes of IP addresses (See "IP Annotation").
Dashboard Page Refresh
Time
:
Auto refresh dashboard page according the time interval you specify (See "Dashboard
Page Refresh Time").
Email Server
:
Manage email server settings for sending emails (See "Email Sever").
Scheduled Emails
:
Manage the existing email scheduling (See "Scheduled Emails")
Disk Space Control
:
Monitor disk free space, and send alerts or purge data when it is low (See "Disk Space
Control").
DB Data Utility
:
Manage the Reports database via backup, restore and delete operations (See
"Database Data Utility")
Please note that this function is only available for the users log-in as administrator permission.
Reports
FortiWAN Reports works by parsing and analyzing the various system logs. Before using the FortiWAN Reports,
you have to enable it by specifying the way and the events to push system logs to Reports. You will be redirected
to Log > Reports to complete the necessary settings to enable the FortiWAN Reports (See "Log > Reports").
IP Annotation
IP annotation helps users to recognize IP addresses shown in Reports by predefined notes. An annotation icon
will appear next to the IP address listed in a report page. Users can read the content of the annotation through
clicking the icon. Click Settings > IP Annotation to enter the IP Annotation settings page.
Search IP Annotations
The search function for IP annotations is on the right upper corner of the page.
Search
:
Type in the IP address or annotation content that you want to search in the search
field and click the magnifier icon to start searching. The searching result based on
existing IP annotation information will be listed in the table under the field.
Prev
:
Click to return to previous page of IP annotation list.
Next
:
Click to go to next page of IP annotation list.
Show rows
:
Allow you to select the number of IP annotation to be displayed in the search result
per page: 10, 20 or 50 rows.
List the IP Annotations
All IP annotations are displayed in the table on the center of the page.
IP address
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:
List the IP address of an annotation.
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Note
:
Lists the annotation content of the IP address.
Action
:
Click Edit to edit the content of an IP annotation. The edit interface is the same as
what for adding a new annotation (See below). Click Delete to delete an IP
annotation.
Add a New IP Annotation
Click the New Note button on the left upper corner to enter the page for adding a new IP annotation.
IP address
:
Enter the IP address for the IP annotation.
Note Content
:
Enter the annotation content.
Save
:
Click to save the configuration and complete adding an IP annotation.
Dashboard Page Refresh Time
Reports dashboard displays instant hardware states and information of FortiWAN (See "Dashboard"). The refresh
interval keeps your dashboard in sync with the latest data, however frequent page refresh might cause high CPU
usage especially when FortiWAN is processing large traffic flow. Please select the appropriate fresh interval for
your system. The options are refreshing dashboard every 5 sec, 15 sec, 20 sec and 30 sec, or Do not refresh
the dashboard.
Email Server
Individual reports (See "Report Email") and system alerts (See "Disk Space Control") can be sent to users via
email. It is necessary to configure the email server first to deliver the report and alert emails to users. Note that
configuration here is the same as the configuration made in the tab "Email" of every report page (See "Report
Email").You can maintain the unique configuration of mail server for Reports via Settings > Email Server or the
"Email" function of every report page. The mail servers used for Reports, log push (See "Log Control") and
notifications (See "Notification") could be different. Click Settings > Email Server to enter the Email Server
settings page.
SMTP Server
:
Enter the SMTP server used to transfer emails.
Port
:
Enter the port number of the SMTP server.
SSL
:
Click to allow SMTP server to transfer emails through SSL.
Mail From
:
Fill in the sender’s name of emails.
Account
:
Enter the user name for SMTP server authentication.
Password
:
Enter the password for SMTP server authentication.
Save
:
Click to save the configuration.
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Scheduled Emails
You may have get some report emails scheduled (see Report Email). Go to Reports > Settings > Scheduled
Emails, then you can edit or delete the schedules.
Email
The scheduled report email. You can see the information of the email:
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Period: Daily, weekly or monthly.
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Reports: The report categories included in the email.
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Recipients: Email addresses of report email recipients
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Format: Format that the reports are attached in, PDF or CSV.
Action
Edit or Delete the report email.
Edit a scheduled report email
Recipients
Edit the email address of report email recipients.
Format
Select the format that the reports are attached in: PDF or CSV.
Schedule
Select the period for automatic email sending: Daily, Weekly or
Monthly.
Reports
Save
Delete report categories from the report email. The only way to add
report categories to a scheduled report email is the "Add to existing"
function on every report page (see Report Email).
Click to save the changes.
Disk Space Control
Disk space of the FortiWAN Reports is being consumed by increasing report database. Once the disk space is
used up, Reports will fail to continue log processing. Disk Space Control monitors the disk space status of
Reports and triggers actions (purge and alert) according to user-defined conditions. Click Settings > Disk Space
Control to enter the Disk Space Control settings page.
Purge old data from database
The Purge function is triggered by two conditions, day duration and percentage of free disk space. It will purge the
old data from database when any of the two conditions is satisfied. This function purges data from database
without data backup. Please refer section of Reports Database Utility in Advanced Functions for more information
about database backup (See "Reports Database Tool").
Days
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:
Enter the number of days for the duration. When database data exceeds the day
duration, Reports keeps the latest data of the day duration in database and purges
the earlier data. Leave the field empty if you want disable the condition.
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Percentage (%)
:
Enter the percentage. When disk free space is less than the percentage of total disk
space, Reports purges the earlier data from database to keep disk free space more
than the amount. Leave the field empty if you want disable the condition.
Send notification after
purge data
:
Click to enable notification via email after data purging. Settings > Email Server must
be configured to ensure the notification (See "Reports Email Server").
Send Alerts
The alert function is triggered by two conditions, day duration and percentage of free disk space. It will alert
administrator via email when any of the two conditions is satisfied. Settings > Email Server must be configured to
ensure the notification (See "Reports Email Server").
Days
:
Enter the number of days for the duration. Reports sends an alert to users when
database data exceeds the day duration. Leave the field empty if you want disable
the condition.
Percentage (%)
:
Enter the percentage. Reports sends an alert to users when disk free space is less
than the percentage of total disk space. Leave the field empty if you want disable the
condition.
Note that system schedules condition check for database purge and sending alerts at 04:00 A.M. everyday. You
are suggested to set a looser condition for sending alerts than database purge so that you get the alert earlier
before the data being purged, if you need to backup the data (via Reports database tool) in advance.
Mail To
e-mail address
:
Enter the email address for system delivers alerts and notifications to. Settings >
Email Server must be configured to ensure the notification (See "Reports Email
Server").
Disk Space Status
Current usage of disk space is displayed here for reference. A pie chart of disk space usage is generated based on
free space, database used and other used. Moving the mouse over the three parts of the chart displays the
correspondent amount of space.
Free Space
:
Display the amount of free disk space in MB and percentage.
Database Used
:
Display the disk amount used by Reports database in MB and percentage.
Other Used
:
Display the amount of disk overhead or pre-allocated space in MB and percentage.
Total Space
:
Display the total disk space in MB.
Save
:
Click to save the configuration.
Database Data Utility
FortiWAN's Reports keeps report data in the built-in hard disk (HDD) for long-term analysis and reports. As the
data increases, disk storage consumption increases. The DB data utility provides functions to manage FortiWAN
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Backup: Backup report data for migration.
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Delete: Delete report data to release disk space.
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Restore: Restore backup data to Reports' database.
The DB data utility is a Web-based management tool providing limited features very similar to the Reports
database tool.
Go to Reports > Settings > DB Data Utility, an operation panel with tabs Backup, Restore and Delete is
shown.
Backup
This feature allows you a database backup for a single day. For having backups of a couple of days, you will need
to either perform the backups individually (day by day) or install a Reports Database tool on your local computer
to perform a single database backup for a couple of days.
To backup report data of a single date, click the Backup tab on the panel and simply follow the steps:
1. Click the Date field to open the calender and specify a date for backup.
2. Click the Backup button to start data backup procedure. The backup file will be named in form Default_
yyyymmdd.data by default, such as Default_20161007.data. This backup file will be required when you are
restoring it back to FortiWAN.
Restore
To restore a data backup to Reports, click the Restore tab on the panel and simply follow the steps:
1. Click the filed Select the data file to restore to select a backup file (.data file) for restoring.
2. Click the Restore button to start data restore procedure.
Note that it is not allowed to backup or restore report data of the current date (today) since FortiWAN Reports is
receiving and processing the data for today. The operations are available for data before today.
Note that both the Web-based database data utility and the Reports database tool use the common backup file
format (.data), which implies that a backup file (.data), whether is generated by the Web-based database data
utility or the Reports database tool, can be restored back to Reports database in both the ways.
Delete
To delete report data from the database, click the Delete tab on the panel and simply follow the steps:
1. Click the From date field to open the calender and specify the start date for deleting.
2. Click the To date field to open the calender and specify the end date for deleting.
3. Click the Delete button to delete the report data of the specified period.
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Reports Settings
Appendix A: Default Values
Appendix A: Default Values
In console, enter the command ‘resetconfig’, or on the Web UI select “Factory Default” to do a hard reset and
restore all settings to factory default.
When restored to factory default, accounts and passwords for access of CLI, Web UI and SSH login will also be
reset to:
FortiWAN Log-ins
Web-based Manager Default
< V4.0.x
V4.1.0
Adminstrator/1234
Adminstrator/1234
Monitor/5678 (read-only)
Monitor/5678 (read-only)
admin/null (Fortinet default)
CLI Default
Adminstrator/fortiwan
Adminstrator/1234
admin/null (Fortinet default)
The Web UI login port will be restored to the default port 443.
FortiWAN also supports SSH logins. The interface for SSH login is the same as the console with identical
username and password.
WAN Link Health Detection Default Values
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System default values contain 13 fixed servers IPs for health detection.
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Values for all Port Speed and Duplex Settings will also be reset.
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All ports are restored back to AUTO state.
Network default Values (FortiWAN 200B)
Port 1: WAN
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WAN Link: 1
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IP: 192.168.1.1
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Netmask : 255.255.255.0
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IP in DMZ 192.168.1.2~192.168.1.253
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Default Gateway 192.168.1.254
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DMZ at Port 5
Port 2: WAN
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WAN Link: 2
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IP: 192.168.2.1
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Netmask: 255.255.255.0
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IP in DMZ 192.168.2.2~192.168.2.253
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Default Gateway 192.168.2.254
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DMZ at Port 5
Reports Settings
Port 3: WAN
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WAN Link: 3
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IP: 192.168.3.1
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Netmask: 255.255.255.0
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IP in DMZ 192.168.3.2~192.168.3.253
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Default Gateway: 192.168.3.254
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DMZ at Port 5
Port 4: LAN
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IP: 192.168.0.1
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Netmask: 255.255.255.0
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DHCP Server Disabled
Port 5: DMZ
Fields such as Domain Name Server, VLAN and Port Mapping, WAN/DMZ Subnet Settings are all cleared
Service Category Default Values
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Firewall: default security rules apply
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Persistent Routing: Enabled
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Auto Routing: By Downstream Traffic as default
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Virtual Server: Disabled
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Bandwidth Managemet: Disabled
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Cache Redirection: Disabled
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Multihoming: Disabled
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All fields in the Log/Control Category are cleared
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Copyright© 2016 Fortinet, Inc. All rights reserved. Fortinet®, FortiGate®, FortiCare® and FortiGuard®, and certain other marks are registered trademarks of Fortinet,
Inc., and other Fortinet names herein may also be registered and/or common law trademarks of Fortinet. All other product or company names may be trademarks of their
respective owners. Performance and other metrics contained herein were attained in internal lab tests under ideal conditions, and actual performance and other results
may vary. Network variables, different network environments and other conditions may affect performance results. Nothing herein represents any binding commitment
by Fortinet, and Fortinet disclaims all warranties, whether express or implied, except to the extent Fortinet enters a binding written contract, signed by Fortinet’s General
Counsel, with a purchaser that expressly warrants that the identified product will perform according to certain expressly-identified performance metrics and, in such
event, only the specific performance metrics expressly identified in such binding written contract shall be binding on Fortinet. For absolute clarity, any such warranty will
be limited to performance in the same ideal conditions as in Fortinet’s internal lab tests. Fortinet disclaims in full any covenants, representations,and guarantees pursuant
hereto, whether express or implied. Fortinet reserves the right to change, modify, transfer, or otherwise revise this publication without notice, and the most current
version of the publication shall be applicable.