Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart - Washington University in St. Louis

Bluetooth and
Bluetooth Smart
Raj Jain
Professor of CSE
Washington University in Saint Louis
Saint Louis, MO 63130
Jain@cse.wustl.edu
Audio/Video recordings of this class lecture are available on-line at:
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-1
©2014 Raj Jain
Overview
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Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
IEEE 802.15 Projects
Bluetooth: Packet Format, Energy Management
Bluetooth Protocol Stack, Application Profiles
Bluetooth LE: Protocol Stack, PHY, MAC
Bluetooth and WiFi Coexistence
Note: This is 1st in a series of lectures on WPANs. ZigBee and
other networks are discussed in subsequent lectures.
Washington University in St. Louis
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11-2
©2014 Raj Jain
Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
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10m or less
Wide Area Network (WAN)
802.16e
Nomadic
802.20
Mobile
802.21
Handoff
802.22
WRAN
2G, 2.5G, 3G
Cellular
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
802.16/WiMAX Fixed Wireless MAN
Local Area Network (LAN)
802.11 Wi-Fi
Personal Area Network (PAN)
802.15.1
Bluetooth
Washington University in St. Louis
802.15.4
ZigBee
802.15.6
Body Area Networks
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11-3
©2014 Raj Jain
WPAN: Design Challenges
Battery powered: Maximize battery life.
A few hours to a few years on a coin cell.
 Dynamic topologies: Short duration connections and
then device is turned off or goes to sleep
 No infrastructure
 Avoid Interference due to larger powered LAN
devices
 Simple and Extreme Interoperability: Billions of
devices. More variety than LAN or MAN
 Low-cost: A few dollars
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11-4
©2014 Raj Jain
IEEE 802.15 Projects
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IEEE 802.15.1-2005: Bluetooth 1.2
IEEE 802.15.2-2003: Coexistence Recommended Practice
IEEE 802.15.3-2003: High Rate (55 Mbps) Multimedia
WPAN
IEEE 802.15.3a: Ultra-Wide Band Phy - disbanded
IEEE 802.15.3b-2005: MAC Interoperability
IEEE 802.15.3c-2009: High Rate (>1Gbps) mm Wave PHY
IEEE 802.15.4-2011: Low Rate (250kbps) WPAN - ZigBee
IEEE 802.15.4a-2007: Higher data rate PHY
IEEE 802.15.4b: Enhancements and clarifications to 802.15.42003 (Completed and incorporated in 802.15.4-2006)
IEEE 802.15.4c-2009: Sub 1 GHz PHY for China
IEEE 802.15.4d-2009: Sub 1 GHz PHY for Japan
IEEE 802.15.4e-2012: MAC Enhancements
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11-5
©2014 Raj Jain
IEEE 802.15 Projects (Cont)
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IEEE 802.15.4f-2012: PHY for Active RFID
IEEE 802.15.4g-2012: PHY for Smart Utility Networks
IEEE 802.15.4h: 802.15.4 Corrigendum 1
IEEE 802.15.4i: 802.15.4 Roll-up to include 15.4a, c & d
IEEE 802.15.4j-2013: Medical Body Area Network 2.36-2.4
GHz
IEEE 802.15.4k-2013: Low Energy Critical Infrastructure
Monitoring PHY
IEEE P802.15.4m: TV White Spaces PHY
IEEE P802.15.4n: China Medical Band PHY
IEEE P802.15.4p: Positive Train Control (Rail
Communications & Control) PHY
IEEE P802.15.4q: Ultra Low Power PHY
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11-6
©2014 Raj Jain
IEEE 802.15 Projects (Cont)
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IEEE 802.15.4r: 15.4 Roll up for e, f, g, j, and k
IEEE 802.15.5-2009: Mesh Networking. Full/partial meshes.
Range Extension
IEEE 802.15.6-2012: Body Area Networking. Medical and
entertainment. Low power
IEEE 802.15.7-2011: Visible Light Communications
IEEE P802.15.8: New standard for Peer Aware
Communications
IEEE P802.15.9: Key Management Protocol
IEEE P802.15.10: Layer 2/Mesh Under Routing
IEEE 802.15 SG4r: Common Ranging Protocol Study Group
IEEE 802.15 SG4s: EU Regional PHY support Study Group
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11-7
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IEEE 802.15 Projects (Cont)
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IEEE 802.15 SG7a: Optical Camera Comm. Study Group
IEEE 802.15 SGsru: Spectrum Resources Usages in WPANs
Study Group
IEEE 802.15 IGdep: Enhanced Dependability Interest Group
IEEE 802.15 IGled: LED-ID system for 15.7 Interest Group
IEEE 802.15 SCmag: Maintenance Group Standing Committee
IEEE 802.15 SCwng: Wireless Next Generation Standing
Committee
IEEE 802.15.IGthz: Tera-Hertz Interest Group
IEEE 802.15 IG6T: 6TiSCH IETF Liaison Interest Group
IEEE 802.15 SG100G: 100 Gbps Wireless Study Group
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11-8
©2014 Raj Jain
Bluetooth Products
Headsets
Audio
Game Controller
Keyboard
GPS
Printers, faxes, digital cameras…
 720 kbps to 10m initially
 Competes with infrared, which has a range of 1m,
requires line of sight and has a low data rate
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11-9
©2014 Raj Jain
Bluetooth
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Started with Ericsson's Bluetooth Project in 1994 for radiocommunication between cell phones over short distances
Named after Danish king Herald Blatand
(AD 940-981) who was fond of blueberries
Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba, and Ericsson formed Bluetooth
SIG in May 1998
Version 1.0A of the specification came out in late 1999.
IEEE 802.15.1 approved in early 2002 is based on Bluetooth
Later versions handled by Bluetooth SIG directly
Key Features:
 Lower Power: 10 μA in standby, 50 mA while transmitting
 Cheap: $5 per device
 Small: 9 mm2 single chips
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11-10
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Bluetooth Versions
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Bluetooth 1.1: IEEE 802.15.1-2002
Bluetooth 1.2: IEEE 802.15.1-2005. Completed Nov 2003. Extended SCO,
Higher variable rate retransmission for SCO + Adaptive frequency hopping
(avoid frequencies with interference).
Bluetooth 2.0 + Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) (Nov 2004): 3 Mbps using
DPSK. For video applications. Reduced power due to reduced duty cycle
Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR (July 2007): Secure Simple Pairing to speed up
pairing
Bluetooth 3.0+ High Speed (HS) (April 2009): 24 Mbps using WiFi PHY +
Bluetooth PHY for lower rates
Bluetooth 4.0 (June 2010): Low energy. Smaller devices requiring longer
battery life (several years). New incompatible PHY. Bluetooth Smart or
BLE
Bluetooth 4.1: 4.0 + Core Specification Amendments (CSA) 1, 2, 3, 4
Ref: ITL, “Security of Bluetooth Systems and Devices,” http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistbul/august-2012_itl-bulletin.pdf
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11-11
Bluetooth: Details
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Frequency
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Frequency Range: 2402 - 2480 MHz
(total 79 MHz band) 23 MHz in some countries, e.g., Spain
Data Rate: 1 Mbps using 1 MHz (Nominal) 720 kbps (User)
Radio Frequency hopping: 1600 times/s  625 μs/hop
Security: Challenge/Response Authentication. 128b Encryption
TX Output Power:
 Class 1: 20 dBm Max. (0.1W) – 100m
 Class 2: 4 dBm (2.5 mW)
 Class 3: 0 dBm (1mW) – 10m
Network 1
Network 2
Time
Ref: http://www.bluetooth.com/, http://www.bluetooth.org/, http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/index.html
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11-12
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Piconet
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Piconet is formed by a master and many slaves
 Up to 7 active slaves.
Slaves can only transmit when requested by master
 Up to 255 Parked slaves
Active slaves are polled by master for transmission
Each station gets a 8-bit parked address
 255 parked slaves/piconet
The parked station can join in 2ms.
Other stations can join in more time.
Scatter net: A device can participate in
multiple Pico nets  Timeshare and must
synchronize to the master of the current piconet.
Routing protocol not defined.
Ref: P. Bhagwat, “Bluetooth Technology for short range wireless Apps,” IEEE Internet Computing, May-June 2001, pp. 96-103,
bluetooth.pdf (Must read)
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11-13
Frequency Hopping Sequences
Frequency 1
Frequency 2
Frequency 3
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625 μs slots using a 312.5 μs clock
Time-division duplex (TDD)
 Downstream and upstream alternate
Master starts in even numbered slots only.
Slaves start in odd numbered slots only
Slaves can transmit in one slot right after receiving a packet
from master
Packets = 1 slot, 3 slot, or 5 slots long
The frequency hop is skipped during a packet.
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11-14
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Bluetooth Packet Format
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Access Baseband/Link Data
Code
Control Header Payload
72b
54b
0-2745b
Packets can be up to five slots long. 5 slots =3125 bits.
Access codes:
 Channel access code identifies the piconet
 Device access code for paging requests and response
 Inquiry access code to discover units
Header: member address (3b), type code (4b), flow control,
ack/nack (1b), sequence number, and header error check (8b)
18b Header is encoded using 1/3 rate FEC resulting in 54b
Synchronous traffic has periodic reserved slots.
Other slots can be allocated for asynchronous traffic
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11-15
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Bluetooth Operational States
Standby
Disconnected
Inquiry
Connecting
Active
Low Power
Washington University in St. Louis
Page
Transmit
Park
Connected
Sniff
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11-16
Hold
©2014 Raj Jain
Bluetooth Operational States (Cont)
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Standby: Initial state
Inquiry: Master sends an inquiry packet. Slaves scan for
inquiries and respond with their address and clock after a
random delay (CSMA/CA)
Page: Master in page state invites devices to join the piconet.
Page message is sent in 3 consecutive slots (3 frequencies).
Slave enters page response state and sends page response
including its device access code.
Master informs slave about its clock and address so that slave
can participate in piconet. Slave computes the clock offset.
Connected: A short 3-bit logical address is assigned
Transmit:
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Energy Management in Bluetooth
Three inactive states:
1. Hold: No Asynchronous Connection List (ACL). Synchronous
Connection Oriented (SCO) continues.
Node can do something else: scan, page, inquire
2. Sniff: Low-power mode. Slave listens after fixed sniff intervals.
3. Park: Very Low-power mode. Gives up its 3-bit active member
address and gets an 8-bit parked member address. Wake up
periodically and listen to beacons. Master broadcasts a train of
beacons periodically
Sniff
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Park
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11-18
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Bluetooth Protocol Stack
Application
Applications (Profiles)
BNEP TCS RFCOMM SDP
Middleware Audio
L2CAP
Host
Controller
Interface
Link Manager
Transport
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Baseband
RF
RF: Frequency hopping Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) m
Baseband: Frequency hop selection, connection, MAC
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11-19
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Baseband Layer
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Each device has a 48-bit IEEE MAC address
3 parts:
 Lower address part (LAP) – 24 bits
 Upper address part (UAP) – 8 bits
 Non-significant address part (NAP) - 16 bits
UAP+NAP = Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI)
from IEEE
LAP is used in identifying the piconet and other operations
Clock runs at 3200 cycles/sec or 312.5 μs (twice the hop rate)
Upper Address Part Non-sig. Address Part Lower Address Part
8b
16b
24b
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11-20
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Bluetooth Protocol Stack (Cont)
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Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP):
 Protocol multiplexing
 Segmentation and reassembly
 Controls peak bandwidth, latency, and delay variation
Host Controller Interface: Chip independent interface to
Bluetooth chip. Allows same software to run on all chips.
RFCOMM Layer:
 Presents a virtual serial port
 Sets up a connection to another RFCOMM
Service Discovery Protocol (SDP): Devices can discover the
services offered and their parameters
Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol (BNEP): To
transport Ethernet/IP packets over Bluetooth
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11-21
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Bluetooth Protocol Stack (Cont)
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IrDA Interoperability protocols: Allow existing IrDA
applications to work w/o changes
IrDA object Exchange (IrOBEX) and Infrared Mobile
Communication (IrMC) for synchronization
Audio is carried over 64 kbps over SCO links over baseband
Telephony control specification binary (TCS-BIN):
implements call control including group management (multiple
extensions, call forwarding, and group calls)
Application Profiles: Set of algorithms, options, and
parameters. Standard profiles: Headset, Cordless telephony,
Intercom, LAN, Fax, Serial line (RS232 and USB).
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11-22
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Application Profile Examples
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Headset Profile
Global Navigation Satellite System Profile
Hands-Free Profile
Phone Book Access Profile
SIM Access Profile
Synchronization Profile
Video Distribution Profile
Blood Pressure Profile
Cycling Power Profile
Find Me Profile
Heart Rate Profile
Basic Printing Profile
Dial-Up Networking Profile
File Transfer Profile
Ref: Bluetooth SIGn, “Adopted Bluetooth Profiles, Services, Protocols and Transports,”
https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications
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11-23
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Power per MB
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Type
Bit rate
TX Power
mJoules/MB
802.11b
11Mb
50mW
36.4
802.11g
54Mb
50mW
7.4
802.11a
54Mb
200mW
29.6
802.15.1
Bluetooth
802.15.3
1Mb
1mW
8.0
55Mb
200uW
0.03
Once connected, Bluetooth classic maintains connections even
when there is no data. Low power but not low enough.
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11-24
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Bluetooth and WiFi Coexistence
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Bluetooth frequency hops in 1 MHz carriers over 2402 - 2480
MHz (79 MHz total)
WiFi uses OFDM with 52 subcarriers in 20 MHz channels in
2402-2480 MHz (3 non-overlapping channels)
Most computers have both Bluetooth and WiFi
Collaborative Strategies: Two networks on the same device
Non-Collaborative Strategies: No common device
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11-25
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Collaborative Coexistence Strategies
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Both networks on the same equipment (Laptop or IPhone):
1. Time Division: Bluetooth skips slots when WiFi is busy,
WiFi reserves time for Bluetooth between Beacons
2. Packet Traffic Arbitration: Packets are prioritized and
queued on a common queue for transmission
3. Notch Filter: WiFi OFDM does not use subcarriers to
which Bluetooth hops
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11-26
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Non-Collaborative Coexistence Strategies
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Measure noise level and error rate:
Random bit errors  Noise
1. Adaptive Packet Selection: Bluetooth uses coding (FEC
and Modulation) depending upon interference. Use FEC
only if noise. No FEC if interference.
2. Master Delay Policy: Bluetooth keeps track of error rates
on various frequencies. Refrains from transmission on
frequencies where interference is high
3. Adaptive frequency hoping: Hop over only good
frequencies
4. Adaptive Notch Filter on WiFi
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11-27
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State
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Sensors periodically announce their “state”
30°F
55 km/hr
23 KwH
Small data transfers
 Event triggered or polled.
 Gateway devices, e.g., cell phones, can transfer this
data to Internet.
 Sensors do not need to speak IP.
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Bluetooth Smart
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Low Energy: 1% to 50% of Bluetooth classic
For short broadcast: Your body temperature, Heart rate,
Wearables, sensors, automotive, industrial.
Not for voice/video, file transfers, …
Small messages: 1Mbps data rate but throughput not critical.
Battery life: In years from coin cells
Simple: Star topology. No scatter nets, mesh, …
Lower cost than Bluetooth classic
New protocol design based on Nokia’s WiBree technology
Shares the same 2.4GHz radio as Bluetooth
 Dual mode chips
All new smart phones (iPhone, Android, …) have dual-mode
chips
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Bluetooth Smart PHY
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37 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 38 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 39
Ref: J. Decuir, “Bluetooth 4.0: Low Energy,’2010, http://chapters.comsoc.org/vancouver/BTLER3.pdf
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11-30
Freq.
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2.4 GHz. 150 m open field
1010
1010
Star topology
1 Mbps Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying
Time
Time
Better range than Bluetooth classic
FSK GFSK
Adaptive Frequency hopping. 40 Channels
with 2 MHz spacing.
3 channels reserved for advertizing and 37 channels for data
Advertising channels specially selected to avoid interference
with WiFi channels
Freq.
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Freq.
©2014 Raj Jain
Bluetooth Smart MAC
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Two Device Types: “Peripherals” simpler than “central”
Two PDU Types: Advertising, Data
Non-Connectable Advertising: Broadcast data in clear
Discoverable Advertising: Central may request more
information. Peripheral can send data without connection
General Advertising: Broadcast presense wanting to connect.
Central may request a short connection.
Directed Advertising: Transmit signed data to a previously
connected master
Peripheral
Channel 37 Channel 38 Channel 39 Channel 37..39 Channel 37..39 Channel 37..39
Adv_Ind
Adv_Ind
Adv_Ind
Scan_Resp
Scan_Req
Central
Ref: J. Decuir, “Bluetooth 4.0: Low Energy,’2010, http://chapters.comsoc.org/vancouver/BTLER3.pdf
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Conn_Req
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Bluetooth Smart MAC (Cont)
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After connecting, master tells slave about hopping sequence
and wake up cycle
All subsequent data transfers in 37 data channels
Both devices can sleep between transactions
Data can be encrypted.
~3 ms per transaction, 15 mW Power = 10 mA using 1.5V
 30μAs/transaction
 21.6 M transactions using 180 mAh battery
 41.1 years with 1 transaction/minute
Advertising Channel
Peripheral
Slave
Adv_Ind
Central
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Data Channels
Connect_Req
Master
Data
Ack
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LL End
Ack
Ack
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Bluetooth Smart Protocol Stack
Applications
Apps
Generic Access Profile
Generic Attribute Profile
Attribute Protocol
Security Manager
Host
Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
Host Controller Interface
Link Layer
Direct Test Mode
Controller
Physical Layer
Ref: J. Decuir, “Bluetooth 4.0: Low Energy,’2010, http://chapters.comsoc.org/vancouver/BTLER3.pdf
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Generic Attribute (GATT) Profile
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Defines data formats and interfaces with the Attribute Protocol
Type-Length-Value (TLV) encoding is used
Each attribute has a 16-bit Universally Unique ID (UUID)
standardized by Bluetooth SIG
128-bit UUID if assigned by a manufacturer
Allows any client to find a server, read/write data
Allows servers to talk to generic gateways
Allows security up to AES-128
Each to encode in XML
Makes profile (application) development easier
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11-34
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Bluetooth Gateway Devices
A gateway device helps connect a Bluetooth device to
the Internet. Smart phone, Tablets, PC, …
 A generic app can forward the data to the URL sent by
the device
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Bluetooth Smart Applications
Proximity: In car, In room 303, In the mall
 Locator: Keys, watches, Animals
 Health devices: Heart rate monitor, physical activities
monitors, thermometer
 Sensors: Temperature, Battery Status, tire pressure
 Remote control: Open/close locks, turn on lights
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Ref: E. Vlugt, “Bluetooth Low Energy, Beacons and Retail,” Verifone White paper, 2013, 12 pp.,
http://www.verifone.com/media/3603729/bluetooth-low-energy-beacons-retail-wp.pdf
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11-36
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Beacons
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Advertizing based on proximity
Peripherals (your phone) broadcasts its presence if Bluetooth is
turned on
Primary aim of these broadcasts is to allow device discovery
Advertising packets consist of a header and max 27B of
payload with multiple TLV-encoded data items
 May include signal strength  Distance
iOS7 iPhones can send/received iBeacons
Can be used for customized
advertising, indoor location, geofencing
PayPal uses this to identify you.
You can pay using a PIN and your phone.
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11-37
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Summary
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Bluetooth basic rate uses frequency hoping over 79 1-MHz
channels with 1, 3, 5 slots packets.
Three inactive states: hold, sniff, park. Has a fixed set of
applications called "Profiles"
Bluetooth and WiFi co-exist by time-sharing or adaptive
frequency notching
Bluetooth Smart is designed for short broadcasts by sensors.
39 2-MHz channels with 3 channels reserved for advertising.
One or two-message exchanges
Generic attribute profile allows new applications using UUID
for data types
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11-38
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Homework 11
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Submit answer to the following Problem:
Assume that in one slot in Bluetooth 256 bits of
payload could be transmitted. How many slots are
needed if the payload size is (a) 512 bits, (b) 728 bits,
and (c) 1024 bits. Assume that the non-payload
portions do not change.
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-39
©2014 Raj Jain
Reading List: Bluetooth
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J. Decuir, “Bluetooth 4.0: Low Energy,” 2010, 62 pp.,
http://chapters.comsoc.org/vancouver/BTLER3.pdf
E. Vlugt, “Bluetooth Low Energy, Beacons and Retail,” Verifone White
paper, 2013, 12 pp., http://www.verifone.com/media/3603729/bluetoothlow-energy-beacons-retail-wp.pdf
P. Bhagwat, "Bluetooth Technology for short range wireless Apps," IEEE
Internet Computing, May-June 2001, pp. 96-103,
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/abstractKeywords.jsp?arnumber=935183
(Must read)
Logitech, “Bluetooth Faq,”
http://www.logitech.com/images/pdf/userguides/bluetooth-faq.pdf
R. Heydon, "Bluetooth Low Energy: The Developer’s Handbook," Prentice
Hall, October 2012, 368 pp., ISBN: 0-13-288836-X , Safari Book
N. Hunn, "Essentials of Short-Range Wireless," Cambridge University
Press, July 2010, 344 pp., ISBN: 978-0-521-76069-0, Safari Book
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-40
©2014 Raj Jain
References
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Bluetooth SIG, http://www.bluetooth.com/lowenergy
Bluetooth SIG, “BLUETOOTH 4.1 Features and Technical Description,”
2013,
https://www.bluetooth.org/enus/Documents/Bluetooth%204.1%20Technical%20Description.pdf
Bluetooth SIG, "Adopted Bluetooth Profiles, Services, Protocols and
Transports," https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adoptedspecifications
http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Bluetooth-20EDR
ITL, "Security of Bluetooth Systems and Devices,"
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistbul/august-2012_itl-bulletin.pdf
E. Ferro and F. Potorti, ""Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wireless protocols: a survey
and a comparison", Volume: 12 Issue: 1, Pages: 12-26, IEEE Wireless
Communications, 2005,
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7742/30466/01404569.pdf?tp=&arnumber=14
04569&isnumber=30466
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-41
©2014 Raj Jain
References (Cont)
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P. McDermott-Wells, "What is Bluetooth?", Volume 23, Issue
5, Page(s):33 - 35, IEEE Potentials, 2005,
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/45/29958/01368913.pdf?tp=&arn
umber=1368913&isnumber=29958
K.V.S.S.S.S. Sairam, N. Gunasekaran, and S.R. Redd,
"Bluetooth in wireless communication" Volume 40, Issue 6,
Page(s):90 - 96, IEEE Communications Magazine, June 2002,
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/35/21727/01007414.pdf?tp=&arn
umber=1007414&isnumber=21727
B. Chatschik, "An overview of the Bluetooth wireless technology", Volume 39,
Issue 12, Page(s):86 - 94, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2001,
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/35/20896/00968817.pdf?tp=&arnumber=968817&isn
umber=20896
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-42
©2014 Raj Jain
Acronyms
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ACL
AES-128
BLE
BNEP
CAP
CSA
dBm
DPSK
EDR
EU
FEC
FSK
GATT
GFSK
GHz
GPS
HS
Asynchronous Connection List
Advanced Encryption Standard w 128 bit keys
Bluetooth Low Energy
Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol
Connection Access Profile
Core Specification Amendment
Deci-bel milli-watt
Differential Phase Shift Keying
Enhanced Data Rate,
European Union
Forward Error Correction
Frequency Shift Keying
Generic Attribute
Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying
Giga Hertz
Global Positioning System
High Speed,
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-43
©2014 Raj Jain
Acronyms (Cont)
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ID
IEEE
IETF
IG
iOS
IP
IPv6
IrDA
IrMC
IrOBEX
LAN
LAP
LE
LTE
MAC
MAN
Identifier
Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Internet Engineering Task Force
Interest Group
Apple's idevices Operating System
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol version 6
Infrared Data Association
Infrared Mobile Communications
Infrared Object Exchange
Local Area Network
Lower address part
Low Energy
Long Term Evolution
Media Access Control
Metropolitan Area Network
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-44
©2014 Raj Jain
Acronyms (Cont)
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MB
MHz
mW
NAP
OFDM
OUI
PAL
PAN
PC
PDU
PHY
PIN
RF
RFCOMM
RFID
SC
Mega Byte
Mega Hertz
milli Watt
Non-significant address part
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Organizationally Unique Identifier
Protocol Adaptation Layer
Personal Area Network
Personal Computer
Protocol Data Unity
Physical Layer
Personal Identification Number
Radio Frequency
Radio Frequency Communication
Radio Frequency Identifier
Standing Committee
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-45
©2014 Raj Jain
Acronyms (Cont)
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SCO
SDP
SG
SIG
SIM
TCS
TDD
TLV
TV
TX
UAP
UCD
URL
USB
UUID
uW
Synchronous Connection Oriented
Service Discovery Protocol
Study Group
Special Interest Group
Subscriber Identity Module
Telephony Control Specification
Time-division duplex
Type-Length-Value
Television
Transmit
Upper address part
Unicast Connectionless Data
Uniform Resource Locator
Universal Serial Bus
Universally Unique Identifier
Micro-Watt
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-46
©2014 Raj Jain
Acronyms (Cont)
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WAN
WBS
WiFi
WiMax
WPAN
WRAN
XML
Wide Area Network
Wide Band Speed
Wireless Fidelity
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
Wireless Personal Area Networks
Wireless Regional Area Network
Extensible Markup Language
Washington University in St. Louis
http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-14/
11-47
©2014 Raj Jain