BADMINTON History The game of badminton originated in Siam, China over 2,000 years ago. It was brought to England in 1870 and was played somewhat like tennis. After being played in Canada, badminton arrived in America and has been popular since 1929. Since 1992, badminton has been an Olympic sport, with bird speeds reaching 100 m.p.h. Nature of the Game Badminton is played as a singles or doubles game with one or two players on a side. The object of the game is to hit the shuttlecock or “bird” back and forth with a racket across a net five feet high at its center. The bird should be hit with such speed and accuracy that the opponent is unable to return the shot successfully. The game can either be fast or slow paced, depending on the skill level of the players. Safety/Etiquette 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Keep a firm grip on the racket. Be careful not to hit your partner with the racket. Stay in your own court to avoid the possibility of collision with other players. Stop play if other players enter your court. Wait until there is a stop in the action to retrieve a bird from another court. Be aware of the walls and the net posts. Before play, agree on the boundaries and determine the first server. Players call their own lines; replay the point if in doubt. Shake hands after the game/match. Facilities/Equipment 1. 2. 3. 4. Rackets are fragile. Avoid striking the floor, wall, net, posts, or your partner. Also avoid flipping, throwing, or twirling rackets. Shuttlecocks should be handled by the tips only. Birds caught in the net should be removed carefully. Each student is responsible for reporting any damaged rackets to the instructor. Rackets are returned to the proper slot and birds to the basket at the end of each period. Game Rules/Scoring Players 1. 2. 3. Singles – one player on a side. Doubles – two players on a side. Mixed Doubles – one male and one female partner opposing a male and female opponent. Scoring 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Rally scoring allows for a point to be won by either team regardless of which team is serving. Both singles and doubles games are won with 21 points. The side winning a rally adds a point to their score. At 20 all, the side that gains a 2 point lead first, wins that game. At 29 all, the side scoring the 30th point wins that game. In the third game of singles and doubles, players change sides when a side scores 11 points. A match is won by winning two out of three games. General Rules/Regulations 1. Serving a. The server must keep both feet in contact with the floor at the time of the serve. b. The bird must be contacted below the waist. c. The racket head must be below the server’s wrist. d. The server should not serve until the receiver is ready; the opponent is deemed ready if a return is attempted. e. Partners of the server and receiver may stand anywhere on the court providing they do not obstruct the opponent’s view. f. A bird that touches the net on the serve and goes into the proper service court is legal. g. If the server misses the bird on the serve attempt, it still counts. In singles and doubles the serve would go to the opponent. 2. Serving Order – Singles a. At the beginning of the game (0-0) and when the server’s score is even, the serve will begin from the right service court. When the server’s score is odd, the serve will be from the left service court. b. If the server wins a rally, the server scores a point and will then serve again from the alternate service court. c. If the receiver wins a rally, the receiver scores a point and becomes the new server. They serve from the appropriate service court – left if the score is odd and right if it is even. 3. Serving Order - Doubles a. A team will only have one player serve, per “service”. b. At the beginning of the game and when the score is even (0,2,4,6, etc.) the server serves from the right service court. When it is odd (1,3,5,7, etc.) the server serves from the left service court. c. If the serving side wins a rally, the serving side scores a point and the same server serves again from the alternate service court. d. If the receiving side wins a rally, the receiving side scores a point. The receiving side becomes the new serving side. e. The players do not change their respective service courts until they win a point when their side is serving. 4. The winners of the first game serve first in the next game. 5. Birds falling on the lines are considered good. 6. During a rally, a bird that touches the net and goes over is in play. 7. A fault (violation of rules) occurs if: a. On the service, any part of the racket head is higher than the server’s wrist and contact is made above the waist. b. The service fails to cross the net or go into the proper service court. c. The feet of the server and receiver are not in the proper courts at time of service. d. The server hesitates or stops (feint/balk) the service motion or misses the bird. e. The improper receiver returns the bird on the serve. f. A bird hit into the net, under the net, against the wall or ceiling is out-of-bounds. g. A player hits the bird before it crosses the net. h. The bird touches a player or clothing. i. The player touches the net while the bird is in play. j. The bird is hit twice in succession by one/both partners. k. The bird is held, caught, or carried on the racket when struck. l. A player obstructs an opponent. 8. Let (a play allowed to be replayed) a. The bird becomes caught in or on the net after passing over the net. b. The bird hits the basketball supports or net. c. The following situations occur before the next serve and if the offending side wins the rally: 1. The correct server serves from the wrong court. 2. The wrong server serves from either the correct/incorrect service court. 3. The correct receiver receives in the wrong court. Basic Skills A. B. C. Grip 1. Forehand – with the racket head perpendicular to the floor, shake hands with the grip so the “V” formed by the thumb and forefinger is on the top of the handle. 2. Backhand – using a forehand grip, rotate the hand slightly so the thumb is along and parallel to the wide side of the handle. Footwork 1. Move toward the shot with short steps and end with a long stride. 2. In the ready position the racket is held high, the knees are slightly bent, and the body weight is on the balls of the feet. Strokes By using the same motion for all shots, the opponent is unable to detect what shot you are going to make until the bird is actually hit. A good wrist action allows more power and control with much less effort. A forehand stroke is one from the dominant side; the backhand stroke is from the non-dominant side. The racket is swung back, the arm is bent with the elbow up, the wrist is cocked, and the body weight is placed on the back foot. From this position, the stroke is made by throwing the hand at the point of contact between bird and racket with weight being transferred to the forward foot. If possible, shots should be made with an overhand stroke. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D. Clear – a shot used to drive your opponent away from the net or forecourt or to slow the game. The bird should fly above the opponent’s reach and fall within one foot of the baseline. Smash – an attacking shot made at the limit of one’s upward reach and slightly in front of the shoulder. At the moment of contact, the arm and wrist come down forcibly. Drive – A flat shot kept as low as possible and is second only to the smash as an attacking shot. Drop Shot – any shot that drops immediately after crossing the net. The descent of the bird is controlled with little follow-through. Net Shot – any shot played as near to the net as possible, controlled by wrist and forearm. The hairpin shot is an example of a net shot. Serves 1. High and deep (singles) – take a position near and on the proper side of the center line and about four feet behind the short service line. Drop the bird on the racket side and swing the racket forward. 2. Low and short (doubles) – take a position closer to the front service line. The racket is swung forward with little follow-through. 3. Drive (flick) – a quick snap of the wrist in the backhand grip with the bird held directly in front of the body. The bird travels in a direct line at the receiver. E. Flight Patterns (left to right) A = underhand clear/high single serve B = short serve C = underhand drop shot D = overhead clear E = high doubles serve F = hairpin net shot G = smash H = overhead drop hot I = net shot J = drive Playing Strategy A. Singles – serve long most of the time. Return a high serve with a drop or clear. Build the game plan on a basis of alternate drop and clear shots, and then use the smash/drive as openings occur. Run your opponent from the front to back and from side to side of the court. B. Doubles – make shots, the return of which will leave an opening for your partner to play a winning shot. Never play a shot that leaves your partner open to smashes. Always make an attacking shot. This implies that all shots should be hit down. Most serves should be short and low. Attack short serves when receiving. 1. Side-by side – each partner is responsible for half of the playing court, net to baseline. 2. Up-and-back – one member plays the front portion of the court, operating from the centerline and just behind the short service line. The partner plays the rear portion of the court from the centerline and just in front of the double rear service line. 3. Up/back rotation – combines the two doubles’ strategies, using the sideby-side position for defense, and up and back formation for attack. Terminology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Alley – an extension of the width of the court on both sides to be used in doubles play. Backhand – any stroke made on the side of the body opposite the racket side. Baseline – back boundary line. Bird – the object that flies over the net, officially known as a shuttlecock. Block – placing the racket in front of the bird and letting it rebound into the opponent’s court. Carry – momentarily holding the bird on the racket during the execution of a stroke. Clear – a high shot that falls close to the baseline. Double hit – contacting the bird twice in succession on the same stroke. Doubles – a game of four players, two on each team. Drive – a hard stroke that just clears the net on a horizontal plane. Drop – a shot made that barely clears the net with little speed. Fault – any violation of the rules whose penalty is loss of serve or the point. Forehand – any stroke made on the racket side of the body. Hairpin (net) stroke – shot made from below and very close to the net with the bird just clearing the net and dropping sharply downward. Home position – the ideal spot for awaiting the opponent’s return. Let – a play allowed to be replayed. Match – best two out of three games. Odd and even courts – in singles, the right half of the court is “even” and the left half of the court is the “odd.” When the even player is serving from the right the score is even, and odd when serving from the left. Rally – rapid returns made by players. Ready position – an alert body position enabling quick movement in any direction. Receiver – the player to whom the bird is served. Server – the player who puts the bird in play. Shuttlecock – the feathered/plastic object that is hit back and forth in badminton. Singles – a game involving one player on each end of the court. Sling – an untrue hit, usually because of the bird momentarily resting on the racket. Smash – a powerful overhand stroke that sends the bird downward over the net. Stroke – the action of striking the bird with the racket. Toss/spin – the method of deciding which side will serve first at the beginning of the match. ↓ Doubles Sideline ↓ ↓ Singles Sideline ↓ ↑ Net ↑ ↓ Center Line ↓ Alley ↑ Short Service Line ↑ ↑ Double Back Service Line ↑ ↓ Back Boundary Line/Baseline ↓ ↓ Singles Back Service Line ↓ Badminton Court Right Service Court Left Service Court Grading See activity unit breakdown, fitness grade breakdown, and final grading scale under NC/SC Grading Policy at the front of the Study Guide. Technique Description/Skill Tests Specific skills for activity units are taught on a regular basis. In some units, demonstrated knowledge of skills may be obtained through some form of skill testing. This testing is not outcome based.