Microsoft Windows Resource Kit

This chapter examines technical issues related to fonts, focusing on TrueType,
the new font technology available in Microsoft Windows 3.1. This chapter also
presents details about using printer fonts with specific types of printers.
Related information
Windows User’s Guide: “Using Fonts” in Chapter 5, “Control Panel”;
Appendix A, “Special Characters”
Also see the PRINTERS.WRI file in your WINDOWS directory.
Windows Resource Kit: Chapter 2, “The Windows Setup Information
Files”; Chapter 3, “The Windows Files”
Contents of this chapter
About Fonts ......................................................................................................310
About Typography in Windows ................................................................310
About Windows Fonts ...............................................................................311
Font Installation.........................................................................................315
How Windows Matches Fonts...................................................................316
TrueType and Windows 3.1 .............................................................................318
How TrueType Works...............................................................................318
TrueType and Earlier Windows Applications ...........................................320
Printer Fonts and Windows 3.1 ........................................................................320
Character Sets for Printer Fonts.................................................................321
Dot Matrix Printer Fonts ...........................................................................322
HPPCL Printer Fonts..................................................................................323
Printer Fonts for Other HP Printers............................................................331
PostScript Printer Fonts.............................................................................333
Canon Printer Fonts...................................................................................336
IBM 4019 Laser Printer Fonts....................................................................337
Changing Typeface Names for Soft Fonts ........................................................337
Windows Resource Kit
Part 4 Using Windows 3.1
About Fonts
Flowchart Series 3
Font Problems
This section summarizes the typographical terms related to fonts for Windows
applications. If you are already familiar with many aspects of fonts in Microsoft
Windows, see the next section, “TrueType and Windows 3.1,” for a detailed
discussion of the new Windows fonts.
The Windows font-resource files are stored in the Windows SYSTEM
subdirectory. These files are described in Chapter 3, “The Windows Files.”
About Typography in Windows
A typeface is a set of characters that share common characteristics such as stroke
width and the presence or absence of serifs. For example, Arial and Courier are
each typefaces. Frequently, both the typeface and its name are copyrighted by
the typeface designer or manufacturer.
In Windows, a font is the name of a typeface, not including attributes such as
bold or italic (which is a more general definition than in traditional typography).
For example, MS Serif is a font in Windows 3.1.
In Windows, a font family refers to a group of typefaces with similar characteristics. The families that Windows recognizes for font installation and
mapping are Roman, Swiss, Modern, Script, and Decorative. For example,
the sans serif typefaces Arial, Arial Bold, Arial Bold Italic, Arial Italic,
Small Fonts, and MS Sans Serif are all part of the Swiss font family.
For printing and display in a computer system, each font has its own character
set according to the ASCII, ANSI, or OEM standard or other industry standard
that defines what character is represented by a specific keystroke. Windows uses
the ANSI character set. Many non-Windows applications use the ASCII character
set. For details about special character sets in Windows, see Appendix A,
“Special Characters,” in the Windows User’s Guide.
These basic terms are used in Windows to define the appearance of a font
in an application:
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Font style refers to specific characteristics of the font. The four characteristics you can define for fonts in Windows are italic, bold, bold italic,
and roman (often called Normal or Regular in Font dialog boxes).
Font size refers to the point size of a font, where a point is about 1/72
of an inch. Typical sizes for text are 10-point and 12-point.
Font effects refers to attributes such as underlining, strikeout, and color that
can be applied to text in many applications.
Chapter 9 Fonts
You may also encounter these terms in descriptions of fonts and typefaces:
Pitch refers to type size for fixed-width fonts, specified in charactersper-inch (CPI), where 10-pitch = 12-point, 12-pitch = 10-point, and 15pitch = 8-point type.
Serif and sans serif describe specific characteristics of a typeface. Serif
fonts such as Times New Roman or Courier have projections that extend
from the upper and lower strokes of the letters. Sans serif fonts such as Arial
and MS Sans Serif do not have serifs.
Slant refers to the angle of a font’s characters, which can be italic or roman
(no slant).
Spacing can be either fixed or proportional. In a fixed font such as Courier
every character occupies the same amount of space. In a proportional font
such as Arial or Times New Roman, character width varies.
Weight refers to the heaviness of the stroke for a specific font, such as
Light, Regular, Book, Demi, Heavy, Black, and Extra Bold.
Width refers to whether the standard typeface has been extended or
compressed horizontally. The variations are Condensed, Normal, or
X-height refers to the vertical size of lowercase characters.
About Windows Fonts
Windows 3.1 provides three basic kinds of fonts, which are categorized
according to how the fonts are rendered for screen or print output:
Raster fonts are stored in files as bitmaps and are rendered as an array of
dots for displaying on the screen and printing on paper. Raster fonts cannot
be scaled or rotated.
Vector fonts are rendered from a mathematical model, where each
character is defined as a set of lines drawn between points. Vector fonts can
be scaled to any size or aspect ratio.
TrueType fonts are outline fonts using new technology available in
Windows 3.1. They can be scaled and rotated.
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Besides the font-rendering mechanism, Windows fonts are described according
to the output device:
Screen fonts are font descriptions that Windows uses to represent
characters on the display devices.
Printer fonts are the font descriptions used by the printer to create a font.
Windows applications can use three kinds of printer fonts: device fonts,
downloadable soft fonts, and printable screen fonts, as described in
“Printer Fonts and Windows 3.1” later in this chapter.
The rest of this section describes raster and vector screen fonts, and describes
how Windows chooses which font to print or display. The next section,
“TrueType and Windows 3.1,” discusses details about TrueType fonts.
Windows System Screen Fonts
Windows uses special raster fonts as the system screen font for menus, window
captions, messages, and other text. A set of system, fixed, and OEM terminal
fonts are shipped with Windows 3.1 to match your system’s display capabilities
(that is, for CGA, EGA, VGA, or 8514 video displays). The default system screen
font in Windows 3.1 is System, a proportionally spaced raster font.
The installed system screen fonts are listed in the [fonts] section of your WIN.INI
file. For information about the display device resolution of specific Windows
system fonts, see “Font Files” in Chapter 3, “The Windows Files.”
Figure 9.1
Fonts dialog box
for installing TrueType
and screen fonts
To display this dialog,
in Control Panel, click
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Chapter 9 Fonts
Some screen fonts are installed for displaying non-Windows applications when
Windows is running in 386 enhanced mode. By default, code page 437 (U.S.)
fonts are installed. Other screen font files are included for international language
support, identified by the code page number appended to the filename. For a list
of these files with their associated code page translation tables, see “Font Files”
in Chapter 3, “The Windows Files.”
Figure 9.2
Add Fonts dialog box
for installing screen
To display this dialog,
choose the Fonts icon
in Control Panel, then
click Add in the Fonts
dialog box
Windows Raster Fonts
Raster fonts are bitmaps supplied in different sizes for specific video display
resolutions. The Windows fonts MS Serif, MS Sans Serif, Courier, System,
and Terminal are raster fonts.
A raster font file contains data that describes all the characters and style of
a typeface for a specific display device. Windows provides several raster font
sizes for various display devices. For example, MS Serif comes in point sizes
8, 10, 12, and 14 for CGA, EGA, VGA, and 8514 display devices.
Windows can scale raster fonts to even multiples of their supplied sizes.
For example, MS Serif can be scaled to 16, 20, 24, and so on. Bold, italic,
underline, and strikeout styles can also be generated from a standard raster font,
but if you try to scale them too far from their original size or style, they become
The correct font sets for your display and printer are usually installed by
Windows Setup. Additional raster font sets can be installed with the Control
Panel. The following is a list of the raster fonts installed in Windows 3.1.
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Character set
MS Sans Serif
MS Serif
The raster font sets for different display resolutions are distinguished by a letter
suffix on the font name (represented as x in the previous table). Add the letter
from the following table that identifies the resolution to the raster font filename
to see the files that Windows installs for a given display or printer. For example,
the resource file for MS Serif fonts for VGA is named SERIFE.FON.
Font set and
output device
Aspect ratio
A = CGA display
96 dpi
48 dpi
B = EGA display
96 dpi
72 dpi
C = Printer
60 dpi
72 dpi
D = Printer
120 dpi
72 dpi
E = VGA display
96 dpi
96 dpi
F = 8514 display
120 dpi
120 dpi
Raster fonts can also be printed if their resolution and aspect ratio are close to
what your printer requires. If you do not see raster fonts for your printer in a
Fonts dialog box, check your printer’s horizontal and vertical resolution and
compare it with the table above. If there is a close match, choose the Fonts icon
in Control Panel and make sure the appropriate font set is installed. If there is no
close match, you cannot print the Windows raster fonts on your printer.
You might be able to print raster fonts in a different resolution, if the other
resolution has an aspect ratio that matches your printer. Some printer drivers
cannot print raster fonts, regardless of the aspect ratio.
In Windows 3.1, MS Serif and MS Sans Serif replace the identical raster
fonts Tms Rmn and Helv that were installed in earlier versions of Windows.
Windows matches MS Serif to Tms Rmn and MS Sans Serif to Helv through the
[FontSubstitutes] section of WIN.INI. You will still see the Tms Rmn and Helv
typeface names in a Fonts dialog box if, for example, your HPPCL printer uses
the Microsoft 1Z font cartridge.
The new Windows raster font named Small Font was designed for readable
screen display of small fonts. For sizes under 6 points, Small Font is a better
choice than any TrueType font for screen display, because it’s easier to read.
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You can also purchase raster fonts as both screen and printer fonts that work
with Windows. Font vendors include Bitstream Fontware, Hewlett-Packard Type
Director, Adobe Type Library, and SoftCraft WYSIFonts. Windows raster fonts
can also be created using the FontEdit utility from the Windows Software
Development Kit or the Publisher’s Type Foundry from ZSoft Corporation.
Windows Vector Fonts
Vector fonts are a set of lines drawn between points, like a pen plotter drawing a
set of characters. They can be scaled to virtually any size, but generally they do
not look as good as raster fonts in the sizes that raster fonts are specifically
designed for.
Vector fonts are stored in Windows as collections of GDI calls and are timeconsuming to generate. But these fonts are useful for plotters and other devices
where bitmapped characters can’t be used. Before TrueType, vectors fonts were
also used in some applications to create large characters or characters that were
rotated or distorted from the baseline.
Some Windows applications automatically use vector fonts at larger sizes. Some
applications allow you to specify at what point size you want to use vector fonts.
For example, the “Vector Above” setting in Aldus PageMaker specifies the point
size at which PageMaker will switch to vector fonts.
The Windows fonts Roman, Modern, and Script are vector fonts. Although the
vector fonts use the ANSI character set, they are marked internally as an OEM
character set.
Font Installation
In Windows 3.1, fonts can be installed in your system in several ways:
Windows installs TrueType and its screen fonts automatically during
installation. When you specify a printer and other options in the Printer
Setup dialog box, Windows includes information about font cartridges
and built-in fonts for your printer.
Install more TrueType fonts from disks by choosing the Add Fonts button in
the Font Installer dialog box.
Install more HPPCL soft fonts on your hard disk by installing the AutoFont
Support files and following the instructions for adding scalable printer fonts.
Then choose the Add Fonts button in the Font Installer dialog box to install
the fonts in Windows.
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Install other third-party soft fonts on your hard disk by using the utility
supplied by the manufacturer. Then choose the Add Fonts button in the Font
Installer dialog box to install the fonts in Windows.
Install a new font cartridge in your printer, and choose the Printer icon
in Control Panel. In the Setup dialog box, choose a new item from the
Cartridge list.
For more information about using the Font Installer, choose the Help button
in the dialog box. Other details about using the Font Installer are discussed in
“Printer Fonts and Windows 3.1” later in this chapter.
How Windows Matches Fonts
When an application requests characters to print or display, Windows must
find the appropriate font to use from among the fonts installed on your system.
Finding the font can be complex because, for example, your document may
contain fonts that aren’t available on the current printer, or there may be more
than one font with the same name installed on your system.
The basic rules that Windows uses for finding a font are:
If the font is a TrueType font, then TrueType renders the character and
the result is sent to the display or to the printer.
If the font is not a TrueType font, then Windows uses the font mapping
table to determine the most appropriate device font to use.
Before TrueType, when Windows mapped fonts that had the same name,
the order of the Windows internal listing of fonts determined which font
was chosen. In Windows 3.1, TrueType fonts are always chosen first, then
the internal listing order is followed.
When Windows uses the font mapping table to match screen fonts to printer
fonts, the characteristics used to find the closest match are, in descending order
of importance: the character set, variable versus fixed pitch, family, typeface
name, height, width, weight, slant, underline, strikeout.
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The following table shows which types of Windows fonts can be printed on
different kinds of printers.
Dot Matrix
The following table lists the character sets installed with Windows 3.1.
Font type, spacing, and default sizes
Arial Bold Italic
Arial Bold
Arial Italic
TrueType, proportional, scalable
TrueType, proportional, scalable
TrueType, proportional, scalable
TrueType, proportional, scalable
Courier New Bold Italic
Courier New Bold
Courier New Italic
Courier New
TrueType, fixed, scalable
TrueType, fixed, scalable
TrueType, fixed, scalable
TrueType, fixed, scalable
Raster, fixed, 10,12,15
MS Sans Serif
MS Serif
Vector, proportional, scalable
Raster, proportional, 8,10,12,14,18,24
Raster, proportional, 8,10,12,14,18,24
Vector, proportional, scalable
Vector, proportional, scalable
Raster, proportional, 2,4,6
Raster, proportional, 8,10,12,14,18,24
TrueType, proportional, scalable
Raster, proportional, display-dependent size
Raster, fixed, display-dependent size
Times New Roman Bold Italic
Times New Roman Bold
Times New Roman Italic
Times New Roman
TrueType, proportional, scalable
TrueType, proportional, scalable
TrueType, proportional, scalable
TrueType, proportional, scalable
* OEM character set, rather than ANSI character set
** Symbol character set, rather than ANSI character set
For information about changing font names to avoid duplicate names in your
system, see “Changing Typeface Names for Soft Fonts” later in this chapter.
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Part 4 Using Windows 3.1
TrueType and Windows 3.1
Windows 3.1 includes a new implementation of outline font technology called
TrueType. TrueType has many benefits over other kinds of Windows fonts:
What you see is really what you get, because Windows uses the same font
for both screen and printer. You don’t have to think about whether you have
a specific point size for a particular printer or for your display.
You can scale and rotate TrueType fonts, and they look good in all sizes
and on all output devices that Windows supports.
Your document will look the same when printed on different printers.
And any printer that uses a Windows 3.1 universal driver can print
TrueType fonts.
Your document will look the same if you move it across platforms. For
example, the text you format in Microsoft Word for Windows will look
the same if you open the same document in Word for the Macintosh.
Each TrueType typeface requires only an .FOT and a .TTF file to create
fonts in all point sizes at all resolutions for all output devices. (Raster fonts
need separate files for each point size, resolution, and display device).
TrueType is integrated with the operating environment, so all Windows
applications can use TrueType fonts like they do other Windows raster fonts
without changes or upgrades.
The TrueType fonts installed with Windows 3.1 are Arial, Courier New, Times
New Roman, and Symbol in regular, bold, bold italic, and italic.
How TrueType Works
Flowchart 3.1
TrueType Fonts
TrueType fonts are stored as a collection of points and “hints” that define the
character outlines. When a Windows application requests a font, TrueType uses
the outline and the hints to render a bitmap in the size requested. Hints are the
algorithms that distort the scaled font outlines to improve how the bitmaps look
at specific resolutions.
Each time you run Windows, the first time you select a TrueType font size,
TrueType renders a bitmap of the selected characters for display or printing.
Because of this, the initial font generation may be slower than with Windows
raster fonts. However, Windows stores the rendered bitmaps in a font cache,
so each subsequent time the font is used during that Windows session, display or
printing will be just as fast as for a Windows raster font.
The Windows universal printer driver supports TrueType. Any printer that
works with the universal printer driver will support TrueType automatically.
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Using TrueType in Windows Applications
With TrueType, you have more choices for fonts in most Windows applications, plus the same fonts you had in earlier versions of Windows. In many
applications, TrueType fonts appear in the Fonts dialog box with a “TT” logo
beside the typeface name. Typefaces that are device fonts have a printer icon
beside their names in the list.
You will also notice that you can specify any size that you want for TrueType
fonts, rather than choosing from a limited list of raster or vector font sizes.
You can choose the TrueType button in the Fonts dialog box in Control Panel to
specify that you want to use TrueType fonts or restrict all choices to only
TrueType. If you restrict all choices to TrueType, you will ensure that type
styles in your documents will print on any dot matrix, HPPCL, or PostScript
printer and that your documents can be moved to other platforms easily.
Figure 9.3
TrueType dialog box
To display this dialog,
click TrueType in the
Fonts dialog box
Windows 3.1 does not automatically change fonts in documents that were
produced with earlier font technologies. If you want to update old documents
to use TrueType fonts, you must update them manually. You might also contact
your application vendor to see if there are new utilities available that will assist
automatic upgrading of documents to use TrueType.
Disk Space, Memory Use, and Speed
You may notice a performance decrease if your document uses many fonts in
many sizes. Rendering many fonts will require a large font cache, which might
force more swapping to the hard disk. This same problem occurred with other
fonts in earlier versions of Windows. With TrueType, less memory is used for
the cache than would be required for corresponding raster fonts. So this should
lead to a net performance gain. The font cache will only use more memory with
TrueType if multiple logical fonts have been mapped to the same raster font.
Usually, however, any additional swapping to disk is still faster than discarding
the rendered bitmaps.
Hard disk space is not the problem for TrueType fonts that it can be for a
comparative selection of raster fonts. When you install Windows, however,
you will see that more disk space is being used to store fonts. This is because
all the Windows raster fonts are still shipped for compatibility with earlier
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applications. Any soft fonts you already have on your hard disk will not be
affected by the installation of TrueType with Windows 3.1.
The Windows limit on the number of TrueType fonts that can exist
simultaneously on your system is 1,170.
TrueType and Earlier Windows Applications
TrueType uses a different character spacing (called ABC widths) than was
used for raster fonts. Applications that use this spacing will be able to space
characters more accurately, especially for bold and italic text. However,
because of this change in spacing, text can sometimes appear inaccurately
in applications written for earlier versions of Windows. For example, the
end of a highlighted text line might look odd on screen.
Most applications list the font names on menus and in dialog boxes that will
match the names of fonts that can be printed on the current printer. So the
change in font names for Windows 3.1 will probably not affect you. You will
only see more choices in most Fonts dialog boxes.
Windows 3.1 maps the typefaces Helvetica to Arial and Times to Times
New Roman in the [FontSubstitutes] section of WIN.INI. You can change this
section of WIN.INI to map any font names to other font names.
Printer Fonts and Windows 3.1
A printer font is any font that can be produced on your printer. There are
basically three kinds of printer fonts:
Device fonts are fonts that actually reside in the hardware of your printer.
They can be built into the printer itself or can be provided by a font
cartridge or font card.
Printable screen fonts are Windows screen fonts that can be translated
for output to the printer.
Downloadable soft fonts are fonts that reside on your hard disk and
are sent to the printer when needed.
Not all printers can use all three types of printer fonts. Plotters, for example,
cannot use downloadable soft fonts. HPPCL printers cannot print Windows
screen fonts.
Windows Resource Kit
To take advantage of TrueType and to make other improvements, the printer
drivers for the many different kinds of dot matrix, HPPCL, and PostScript
Chapter 9 Fonts
printers have been replaced by new universal printer drivers. Instead of seeing
the specific name of your printer in the Printer Setup dialog box in Control Panel
or Print Manager, you will see a generic description of your printer.
For more information about using the Font Installer and other elements of
the Printer Setup dialog box, see “Installing and Configuring a Printer” in
Chapter 5, “Control Panel,” of the Windows User’s Guide. Or choose the
Help button in the Printer Setup dialog box.
Character Sets for Printer Fonts
Windows uses the ANSI character set. Some printers use the IBM (OEM)
standard for codes above 128, such as the IBM Proprinter. Other printers
might use their own proprietary set of extended character codes.
To be sure you get the characters you want, consult your printer documentation
for the character set supported by the printer. Then see Appendix A, “Special
Characters,” in the Windows User’s Guide for instructions on how to enter codes
from the keyboard for special characters.
You can also use the Windows Character Map to select and insert special
characters in your document.
Figure 9.4
When you insert special characters in a document to print, the character you see
on the screen might not be correct, because it is displayed using the ANSI
character set and the best matching screen font for the current printer font.
However, the printed document will contain the correct character. Conversely, if
you type an ANSI character that appears on screen but is not supported in your
printer fonts, some other character will be printed instead.
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Dot Matrix Printer Fonts
Dot matrix printers support device fonts and printable screen fonts. Usually,
a dot matrix printer includes only a limited range of internal device fonts.
Typically fixed-spacing fonts are supplied in a variety of characters-per-inch
(CPI) sizes, and are conventionally named typeface xxCPI, where typeface is the
typeface name, and xx is the number of characters per inch. Distinguishing a
device font on a dot matrix printer is usually as easy as checking for the CPI
designation at the end of the font name, such as “Courier CPI 10.”
Through the universal printer driver, dot matrix printers can also support
TrueType. When you use TrueType fonts on a dot matrix printer, Windows
sends a rasterized graphics image to the printer.
Dot matrix printers do not provide any landscape device fonts, but vector screen
fonts can be printed in any resolution or orientation. Dot matrix device fonts are
faster but less flexible than screen fonts.
Dot matrix printers are distinguished as either 9-pin or 24-pin printers:
9-pin dot matrix printers such as the Epson 9-pin and IBM Proprinter
series usually print in a 1.67:1 aspect ratio. The Windows Epson 9-pin
driver supports resolutions of 120x72 (1.67:1 aspect ratio), 120x144 (1:1.2),
and 240x144 (1.67:1). The first and last of the three resolutions can print
raster screen fonts using the D font set (120x72 dpi). The same font set is
available in half-point sizes for the 240x144 resolution. The aspect ratios
reverse in landscape orientation, so fewer fonts will be available.
24-pin dot matrix printers such as the Epson 24-pin and IBM Proprinter
24 series can print in 120x180 resolution (1:1.5 aspect ratio), 180x180
(1:1), and 360x180 (2:1). Some others, such as the NEC 24-pin, provide
a 360x360 resolution. The 180x180 resolution is usually best for printing
raster screen fonts. In 180x180 resolution, these printers can print 1:1 aspect
ratio screen fonts, such as the E set (96x96 dpi) and the F set (120x120 dpi).
E set fonts will be available at about 50 percent, and F set fonts at 75
percent of normal point sizes. A true 180x180 dpi screen font set is
available by special order from Epson of America.
Some 24-pin dot matrix printers such as the Epson and NEC printers also support
font cards or cartridges. You can use these fonts if the Windows driver for that
printer supports them.
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Figure 9.5
Printer Setup dialog box
for dot matrix printers
with cartridges
To display this dialog,
click the Setup button
in the Printers dialog
Choose a cartridge in
the list box to match
the font cartridge in
your printer
HPPCL Printer Fonts
Printers that use the Hewlett-Packard Printer Control Language (HPPCL) can
print several different types of fonts. HPPCL printers can use font cartridges,
downloadable soft fonts, vector screen fonts, and TrueType fonts.
HPPCL printers cannot print Windows raster screen fonts.
When you use TrueType fonts on an HPPCL printer, TrueType performs all
the font rendering in the computer and downloads bitmaps of the fonts to
the printer. TrueType downloads only the specific characters needed in a
document, not the entire font.
If you use an HP LaserJet-compatible printer, be sure to specify accurately
the amount of memory installed in your printer. This is important because
the Windows HPPCL driver now tracks the available memory in your printer.
You may get an out-of-printer-memory error or other errors if the memory
is specified incorrectly.
Font Cartridges
Hewlett-Packard LaserJet-compatible font cartridges are supplied by numerous
manufacturers, including Hewlett-Packard, Pacific Data Products, and IQ
Engineering. Some cartridge vendors will also produce custom font cartridges to
your specifications.
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Windows treats font cartridges as device fonts because they are always with the
printer. Font cartridges can be selected in the Printer Setup dialog box. The
HPPCL driver available with Windows 3.1 can support all HP font cartridges.
If you want to add a font cartridge that came out after the printer driver was
written, you may need a printer cartridge metrics (.PCM) file. A .PCM file tells
Windows the characteristics of the new font and is installed with the Font
Installer in the same way as soft fonts. After a .PCM file is installed, a new entry
appears in the Cartridges dialog box of the Printer Setup dialog box.
For new HP cartridges, contact Microsoft Product Support Services for the
appropriate .PCM file. For third-party cartridge support, contact the cartridge
vendor. If you want to develop support for your own custom font cartridges,
custom .PCM files can be generated with the Windows Printer Font Metric
Editor. The PFM Editor Kit is also available from Microsoft Product Support
Services, but the Editor requires in-depth technical knowledge of the fonts
contained in a cartridge.
Downloadable Fonts
You can get HP LaserJet-compatible downloadable soft fonts from a number of
sources, including Hewlett-Packard, Bitstream, SoftCraft, and CompuGraphics.
Some downloadable font utilities also generate raster screen fonts for Windows.
If an exact screen font match is not available, Windows uses one of its own
screen fonts.
Hewlett-Packard downloadable fonts are installed with the Font Installer, while
third-party HPPCL soft fonts are installed with their own installation utility. To
use the Font Installer, choose the Fonts button in the Printer Setup dialog box.
Figure 9.6
HP Font Installer
dialog box for LaserJetcompatible printers
To display this dialog,
click the Fonts button in
the Printer Setup dialog
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The Font Installer places soft font entries in WIN.INI under a section specific to a
driver and port, such as [HPPCL,LPTx] (where x is the port number) as
described later in this section. Because soft fonts are installed for a printer on
a specific port, the soft fonts will not appear if you change the printer. To copy
the soft font listings to the other port, choose the Copy Fonts To New Port
button in the Font Installer dialog box.
HPPCL fonts can be downloaded on either a temporary or a permanent basis.
Temporary fonts are downloaded only when the HPPCL driver encounters
a particular font while printing. At the end of the print job, the soft font is
discarded from the printer’s memory. Printers such as the Apricot Laser and
Kyocera F-1010, which require temporary soft fonts to be downloaded only
at the start of a print job but not during the job, cannot use soft fonts with the
Windows HPPCL driver.
Font entries in the WIN.INI for temporary soft fonts are similar to this:
The .PFM file is the Windows Printer Font Metrics file, used by Windows
applications to determine the size, weight, and spacing of the font in question.
The .USP file is the soft font you want to download to the printer.
Permanent fonts stay resident in the printer until the printer is turned off. Fonts
can be marked as permanently downloaded by selecting fonts in the Font
Installer dialog box and choosing the Permanent option. A dialog box prompts
you to choose Download Now or Download At Startup options.
If you choose the Download Now option, the selected fonts will be downloaded to the printer when you choose the Exit button to dismiss the dialog
box. Windows then sends a hard reset to the printer, which forces the printer
to delete all previously downloaded fonts. So if you mark some fonts as
Permanent and choose Download Now and then repeat the procedure, only
the fonts downloaded the second time will be resident in the printer.
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When you choose the Download At Startup option, Windows performs the
following tasks:
The PCLSF0YN.EXE program is saved on your hard disk, and a batch
file named SFLPTx.BAT is created to run PCLSF0YN.EXE.
This program prompts you to download permanent soft fonts:
Download PCL fonts to ? [y/n]
If you answer Yes, the program downloads the fonts and (if you have
a network) prints the banner page.
A line is added to your AUTOEXEC.BAT to run the batch file whenever
you boot the computer. For example:
rem The Windows HP LaserJet/DeskJet font installer added the next line
The added line uses command/c to run the batch file so that AUTOEXEC
can continue executing after running the batch file.
The soft font listings in WIN.INI are modified to remove everything to
the right of the comma, because the fonts will have already been downloaded whenever Windows checks this WIN.INI entry. For example, this
temporary soft font entry:
The SFLPTx.BAT file uses the MS-DOS TEMP environment variable.
If the set TEMP= statement in AUTOEXEC.BAT does not set a valid location for
TEMP, the batch file will not work correctly, and the fonts might not be
Recovering Soft Fonts After Reinstalling Windows
The Font Installer copies the fonts to a directory on your hard disk (usually
C:\PCLFONTS) and also creates a .PFM file for the soft font. This file is used
by Windows to determine the metrics of the font (such as family weight).
When you reinstall Windows, the soft font entries in WIN.INI are lost. This
usually means you will have to run the Font Installer and have it recopy the
soft fonts and regenerate the .PFM files.
Windows Resource Kit
Chapter 9 Fonts
But there is an easier way. The Font Installer can generate a summary file named
FINSTALL.DIR that contains the WIN.INI font entries. This file can be used to
regenerate the WIN.INI entries without the time-consuming reinstall process. To
keep this file up to date, create a new FINSTALL.DIR after adding or removing
any soft fonts.
The process for creating FINSTALL.DIR is not documented in the Windows
User’s Guide, and is not described in the online help for the Font Installer.
To create a FINSTALL.DIR file:
In the Printer Setup dialog box, choose the Fonts button to display the
Font Installer.
In the Font Installer dialog box, hold down the CTRL and SHIFT keys and
click the Exit button.
A dialog box appears that you can use to create the FINSTALL.DIR file.
The edit box proposes a directory and filename for saving FINSTALL.DIR.
You can accept the default or specify a different directory. The directory
that contains the downloadable fonts is the best choice.
Choose the OK button to create the FINSTALL.DIR file.
Figure 9.7
Create Installer
Directory File
dialog box
To display this dialog,
press CTRL+SHIFT while
clicking Exit in the
HP Font Installer dialog
Windows Resource Kit
Part 4 Using Windows 3.1
To reinstall soft fonts with FINSTALL.DIR after reinstalling Windows:
In the Printer Setup dialog box, choose the Fonts button to display the
Font Installer.
In the Font Installer dialog box, hold down the CTRL and SHIFT keys while
choosing the Add Fonts button to display a special Add Fonts dialog box.
In the edit boxes, specify the drive, directory, and filename for the
FINSTALL.DIR file. Then choose the OK button.
The Font Installer dialog box now displays the fonts in the right list box.
Select the desired fonts and choose the Move button.
When the prompt asks for a target directory, specify the same directory
where the fonts are currently installed.
The fonts now appear in the left list box, indicating they are installed in
In this procedure, Windows doesn’t copy any fonts, but merely updates the
WIN.INI file with the soft font listings contained in the FINSTALL.DIR file.
Figure 9.8
Add Fonts dialog
box for reloading
the fonts installer
directory file
To display this dialog,
press CTRL+SHIFT while
clicking Add Fonts
in the HP Font Installer
HPPCL Driver Font Summary File
The Windows HPPCL driver maintains an internal font database in memory.
Each time you choose an HPPCL printer as the current printer, the HPPCL driver
must either build an internal font database or read the database from a previously
created Font Summary file. Each time the Font Summary file must be rebuilt,
this message appears:
Building font database. Please wait.
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Chapter 9 Fonts
This building-font-database message appears when the HPPCL driver is set up,
when fonts are added, or when connections are changed in Control Panel, but
not for each print job.
When the HPPCL driver builds an internal font database, it attempts to write
the database to a Font Summary file, so it can subsequently read the information
from the file instead of rebuilding the database. If the driver can read the
database from the Font Summary file, it will not display the building-fontdatabase message. The driver saves the Font Summary file in the directory that
contains HPPCL.DRV and then adds an entry in WIN.INI for this location. For
Do not change the path for the file in the FontSummary= line in WIN.INI.
The driver would just continue to rebuild the Font Summary file in the directory
that contains HPPCL.DRV. The only way to change the location of the Font
Summary file is to change the location of HPPCL.DRV.
The driver might display the building-font-database message for each print job
for these reasons:
The HPPCL driver might be in a directory where the Font Summary file
cannot be created, such as a read-only directory or a network directory
for which you don’t have write or create privileges.
To correct this problem, either get access to the directory that contains
HPPCL.DRV or move HPPCL.DRV to a directory that you can access.
The WIN.INI file might be corrupt or in a directory that you can’t access. Or
duplicate WIN.INI files might exist. If the driver can’t add the
FontSummary= entry in WIN.INI, it can’t read the Font Summary file,
and therefore it will rebuild the font database each time.
To correct this problem, verify that only one copy of WIN.INI exists, that
it has the proper entries for printers, and that it is in a directory you can
access. If necessary, reinstall Windows to verify the integrity of WIN.INI.
You might have placed the entry MaxFontSummary=0 in the driverspecific section of WIN.INI (for example, under the [HPPCL,LPT1]
section). If MaxFontSummary=0, the driver will never build a Font
Summary file, so it will have to build the font database each time you print.
To correct this problem, set MaxFontSummary=1 or remove this entry
from WIN.INI.
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Part 4 Using Windows 3.1
HPPCL Soft Font Limitations
HPPCL printers have a limit of 16 soft fonts per page. (This limit applies only
to soft fonts, not to cartridge fonts.) If you send a page that contains more than
16 soft fonts to an HPPCL printer, the following message appears:
Some fonts will be substituted
Choose the OK button to continue printing.
An Error 20 message might appear on the front panel of the HPPCL printer when
printing a document that contains soft fonts. This also indicates that you tried to
download more fonts than the printer’s memory can hold. You can recover from
this error by pressing the Continue button on the printer control panel. The soft
font that caused the error is not downloaded and will not print.
To avoid this error, reduce the number of fonts that you try to download, or
add more memory to your printer. Also make sure you haven’t downloaded any
permanent soft fonts that are taking up memory in the printer.
The maximum number of soft fonts you can install is limited by the maximum
size of WIN.INI, not by the Font Installer itself.
About Printer Fonts for HPPCL Printers
In Windows 3.1, all HPPCL printers are supported by the universal HPPCL.DRV
driver. There are four basic levels of HPPCL printers: LaserJet, LaserJet
Plus/LaserJet II, LaserJet IID and IIP, and LaserJet III, IIID, and IIIP.
HP LaserJet. The original HP LaserJet had only one font cartridge and
did not support downloadable fonts. These units are fairly rare today, as
most were upgraded to the level of the LaserJet Plus.
HP LaserJet Plus, LaserJet II, and compatibles. These printers are
similar except the LaserJet II uses different escape codes to select the paper
tray and supports two font cartridges. Most LaserJet-compatible printers are
compatible with the LaserJet Plus. As a default, these printers contain only
Courier and LinePrinter device fonts. To print additional fonts, cartridges or
downloadable fonts are required.
The LaserJet Plus and LaserJet II require separate soft fonts for Portrait and
Landscape use. The HP-compatible downloadable fonts used by all HPPCL
printers are bitmaps, so separate downloadable files must be installed for
each point size you want.
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Chapter 9 Fonts
HP LaserJet IID and IIP. These printers have the same capabilities as
previous models plus font rotation capabilities. Portrait orientation fonts can
be printed in landscape mode, and vice versa. Any device font or soft font
available to the printer can be rotated without installing separate portrait and
landscape fonts for the IID and IIP. Also, the LaserJet IID can print doublesided. Both printers include a few more resident font styles than previous
models, but these fonts are still limited to Courier and LinePrinter typefaces.
HP LaserJet III. The LaserJet III has all the capabilities of previous
models, plus a scalable font technology. Two scalable outline typefaces
are built into the LaserJet III: CG Times and Swiss (similar to MS Serif and
MS Sans Serif), in regular, bold, italic, and bold italic. The LaserJet III also
has the standard nonscalable Courier and LinePrinter bitmap fonts and
supports the newer generation of standard Hewlett-Packard bitmap font
cartridges and standard nonscalable PCL soft fonts.
Additional LaserJet III scalable outline fonts are available from Hewlett-Packard
as cartridge or downloadable soft fonts. With the HPPCL driver in Windows 3.1,
downloadable outline fonts can be installed with the Font Installer.
Printer Fonts for Other HP Printers
Windows 3.1 also includes fonts for Hewlett-Packard DeskJet and PaintJet
printers, and for plotters.
HP DeskJet Printer Fonts
The HP DeskJet Printer is an ink-jet printer. The Windows 3.1 driver for the
Hewlett-Packard DeskJet and DeskJet Plus printers supports Windows vector
screen fonts, DeskJet internal fonts, soft fonts, and TrueType. Both DeskJet
printers can print at resolutions of 75, 150, and 300 dpi. Without font cartridges,
the DeskJet includes only the built-in Courier and LinePrinter fonts. Cartridges
can be selected in the Printer Setup dialog box. At this time, font cartridges for
DeskJet printers are available only from Hewlett-Packard.
DeskJet soft fonts are installed with the Font Installer. To use downloadable
fonts on the DeskJet printers, you must install either HP22707A or HP22707B
RAM cartridges. When you set printer memory in the Printer Setup dialog box,
make sure to specify the total amount of RAM cartridge memory if more than
one cartridge is installed.
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DeskJet internal, downloadable, and cartridge fonts will not work in landscape
orientation. This is a hardware, not a driver, limitation. For landscape mode,
print with Windows vector screen fonts such as Modern or Roman.
If you use the HP DeskJet 500 driver from Hewlett-Packard, add the entry
prtresfac=0 to the [DJ500,port] section of WIN.INI.
HP PaintJet Printer Fonts
The HP PaintJet is a color ink-jet printer. The Hewlett-Packard PaintJet driver in
Windows 3.1 composes a full page at a time in 180x180 dpi resolution and
outputs the page to the PaintJet as a large bitmap. This produces the highest
possible quality of output, but results in very large temporary spool files if you
use Print Manager. For acceptable printing speed, we recommend that you
choose the Fast Printing Direct To Port option in the Connect dialog box in
Printer Setup. This option bypasses Print Manager.
The PaintJet driver supports the printing of PaintJet internal fonts, Windows
raster and vector screen fonts, PaintJet soft fonts, and TrueType. The same
considerations apply for printing raster screen fonts on the PaintJet as for using
the 24-pin dot matrix printers in 180x180 dpi resolution (see “Dot Matrix Printer
Fonts” earlier in this chapter). PaintJet soft fonts are not downloadable fonts.
They are used internally by the driver, which places them as necessary into the
full-page bitmap during page composition. The font itself is never sent to the
printer, except as part of the full-page bitmap.
PaintJet soft fonts, which have a .PJF filename extension, are installed with the
Font Installer. Windows 3.1 supports PaintJet soft fonts for Courier 10-CPI and
Letter Gothic 12-CPI and 18-CPI. Additional soft fonts can be obtained from
Hewlett-Packard. Scalable PaintJet soft fonts are also available from HewlettPackard in the HP Color PrintKit (HP part number 17390A).
HP Plotter Printer Fonts
Because plotters are vector devices, they can print only vector fonts. Plotters
cannot print any kind of bitmap, including raster screen fonts and TrueType
fonts. HP plotters include one internal vector font called Plotter. The Windows
vector screen fonts Modern, Roman, and Script can also be printed on HP
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Chapter 9 Fonts
PostScript Printer Fonts
All PostScript fonts are scalable outlines that can be printed at any size.
PostScript outline fonts can also be rotated to any angle and can be printed
in both portrait and landscape modes. However, font size limits are often
imposed by applications. A common PostScript font size limit in an application
is 127 points.
Most PostScript printers include either the standard Apple LaserWriter Plus
set of 35 scalable fonts or the earlier Apple LaserWriter set of 17 fonts.
PostScript soft fonts are installed with utilities provided by the soft font
vendor. Because the fonts are scalable, if there isn’t a comparable screen
font, mismatches can occur between screen display and printed output.
PostScript printers cannot print Windows raster screen fonts, although they
can print vector screen fonts. Printing of Windows screen fonts is not usually
necessary because of the large selection of resident fonts in a PostScript printer.
LaserWriter Plus Typefaces
The LaserWriter Plus standard font set includes 11 typefaces, 8 of which are
available in roman, bold, italic, and bold italic. The Symbol typeface contains
mathematical and scientific symbols; Zapf Chancery is a calligraphic font; and
Zapf Dingbats contains decorative bullet characters and embellishments. These
typefaces are available only in roman style.
PostScript Printers and TrueType
TrueType fonts are treated as downloaded fonts by the PostScript driver. When
you use TrueType fonts on a PostScript printer, scaling and hints are always
performed in the computer. Scan conversion can be done in the computer or
in the printer, depending on the point size. At smaller point sizes, TrueType
performs scan conversion in the computer; at larger point sizes, scan conversion
is done in the printer.
You can specify how to send TrueType fonts to your printer, for example, as
bitmaps or in Adobe Type 1 format. To do this, in the Advanced Options dialog
box of Printer Setup, choose the method in the Send To Printer As list that you
want to use for sending TrueType fonts to the printer.
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If your PostScript printer supports downloaded fonts, you might want to use
printer fonts in place of TrueType fonts to speed up printing and to use less
printer memory. To do this, in the Advanced Options dialog box of Printer
Setup, select the Use Printer Fonts For All TrueType Fonts option.
You can also map a TrueType font to a PostScript font in the [FontSubstitutes]
section of WIN.INI. This will increase printing speed, but the results on the
display may not be exactly the same as the printed output.
If your PostScript printer does not support downloaded fonts, you must use
printer fonts to print any TrueType fonts in your documents. There are two ways
to do this: allow the PostScript driver to print using the printer fonts that most
closely match the TrueType fonts, or follow the steps described in the section
“Substituting PostScript Fonts” later in this chapter.
Specifying Virtual Printer Memory
You can change the amount of virtual memory that your PostScript printer
has available for storing fonts. The PostScript driver uses a default setting
recommended by the printer manufacturer for virtual memory.
To find out how much virtual memory your printer has, print the TESTPS.TXT
file in the WINDOWS directory. To adjust the amount of virtual memory, in the
Advanced Options dialog box of Printer Setup, type the amount of virtual
memory you want to use in the Virtual Memory (KB) box. For details, see
Chapter 4, “Troubleshooting,” in the Windows Getting Started booklet.
Figure 9.9
Advanced Options
dialog box for
PostScript printers
To display this dialog,
click Advanced
in the Options dialog
Check the Print
PostScript Error
Information option
in this dialog
to get a printout
of errors
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Chapter 9 Fonts
Substituting PostScript Fonts
You can edit the Substitution Table to specify which PostScript printer fonts you
want to print in place of the TrueType fonts in your documents. The changes you
make in the Substitution Table only affect the fonts that are printed. The fonts
that appear on the screen will not change; the original TrueType fonts are still
used to display TrueType text in your document. (To substitute screen fonts,
change the [FontSubstitutes] section of WIN.INI.)
To specify which printer fonts to use, choose the Edit Substitution Table button
in the Advanced Options dialog box of Printer Setup. Then select the TrueType
font you want to replace from the For TrueType Font list in the Substitution
dialog box. From the Use Printer Font list, select the PostScript printer font you
want to use instead of the selected TrueType font.
If your printer supports downloaded fonts, you can choose the Download As
Soft Font option. In this case, the selected TrueType fonts will be sent to the
printer using the method you specified in the Send To Printer As list in the
Advanced Options dialog box. Repeat these steps until you have selected printer
fonts to use in place of all the TrueType fonts in your document.
Figure 9.10
Substitution dialog box
To display this dialog,
click Edit Substitution
Table in the Advanced
Options dialog box
PostScript Drivers
In Windows 3.1, most PostScript printers use PSCRIPT.DRV, the universal
driver. If you install a PostScript printer that does not appear in List of Printers
in the Printers dialog box, you need to install a Windows PostScript Definition
(.WPD) file for your printer. To do this, choose the Printers icon in Control
Panel. Then choose Add Unlisted or Updated Printer from List of Printers in the
Printer Setup dialog box.
Windows 3.1 requires an OEMSETUP.INF file for version 3.1 of a new .WPD
file. See Chapter 6, “Print Manager,” in the Windows User’s Guide for more
details about this procedure. If you have a .WPD file for Windows 3.0, then
you do not need a new OEMSETUP.INF file to install the .WPD file.
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In Windows 3.1, the PostScript driver can detect errors that Print Manager
cannot detect. You can specify whether to print information about these errors
after your document has finished printing. This information may help you or
a Product Support Service representative determine what caused the error.
To print out PostScript error information, in the Advanced Options dialog box of
Printer Setup, choose the Print PostScript Error Information option.
PostScript Downloadable Outline Fonts
PostScript printers also accept downloadable outline fonts, which can be scaled
to any size and printed in both portrait and landscape orientations. Downloadable PostScript fonts are available from several suppliers, including Adobe and
Bitstream. Both Adobe and Bitstream supply utilities that install the fonts and
add entries to WIN.INI. Because this capability is included with these commercial font products, the PostScript driver in Windows does not include a font
installation facility.
Although PostScript downloadable outlines can be scaled to any size, Windows
screen fonts cannot. You must install specific sizes of Windows screen fonts
with the Adobe and Bitstream utilities. Install only the sizes you feel you will
frequently use. If you specify a PostScript font size that does not have a corresponding screen font, Windows will substitute another screen font. This results
in a little loss in display quality but, of course, no loss in print quality.
PostScript Cartridges
To use PostScript cartridges with Windows, you must use the PostScript printer
driver. Choose the Printer icon in Control Panel and follow the steps for
installing a printer, choosing the Apple LaserWriter Plus (PostScript) option
or another PostScript printer from the list in the Printer Setup dialog box. PostScript cartridges are not supported directly by the Windows PostScript driver.
Canon Printer Fonts
The Canon Laser Beam Printers LBP-8 Mark III and Mark IV have built-in
outline fonts that can be scaled to any size. These printers are capable of printing
with scalable device fonts, bitmap device fonts, or Windows vector screen fonts.
The two internal scalable typefaces are Dutch (similar to MS Serif) and Swiss
(similar to MS Sans Serif). A nonscalable Courier font is also available internally
in 8- and 12-point sizes. The Windows driver for the Canon Mark III and IV
supports the Canon BM1, BM2, and BM3 bitmap font cartridges, as well as the
SC1 scalable outline font cartridge.
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Chapter 9 Fonts
TrueType fonts and downloadable fonts are not supported for the Canon Series
II and III. If you are using one of these printers and want to print TrueType
fonts, choose the Enable TrueType option in the Printer Setup dialog box.
IBM 4019 Laser Printer Fonts
The IBM Laser Printer model 4019 can print internal device fonts, IBM
downloadable fonts, font cards, Windows vector screen fonts, and TrueType
fonts. The printer includes Courier and Boldface Proportional internal fonts.
Downloadable fonts are installed with the Font Installer and can be marked as
Permanent or Temporary in the Font Installer dialog box. Downloadable fonts
and font cards are available from IBM.
Changing Typeface Names for Soft Fonts
If you purchase a TrueType font or other soft font that has the same name as
a font you are already using, you should use the Font Installer to change the
name of the font. You cannot change the name of a cartridge font.
To change a soft font name:
In the Font Installer dialog box, select the font you want to edit from the list
of installed soft fonts.
Choose the Edit button. In the Edit dialog box, type a new name for the
selected font in the Name box.
Figure 9.11
Edit dialog box
To display this dialog,
select a font name in
the HP Font Installer
dialog and click the
Edit button
Windows Resource Kit
Part 4 Using Windows 3.1
Choose the OK button.
The new name for the selected font now appears in the Font Installer dialog
box and in the Windows applications that use the font.
Choose the Exit button.
Important Do not change any Font ID or Family settings that Font Installer
automatically enters unless you have experience creating fonts or manually
downloading soft fonts.
The options in the Edit dialog box vary depending on whether you are installing
a font that Font Installer doesn’t recognize or whether you are editing the name
of a currently installed font. For details about the options, choose the Help
button in the dialog box.
If the Font Installer doesn’t recognize the name or family of a font that you
select to install, the Font Metrics dialog box appears so that you can enter the
information. We strongly recommend that you do not change the settings provided by the font manufacturer. Use this option only if absolutely necessary.
To enter a font name in the Font Metrics dialog box:
Windows Resource Kit
Type the manufacturer’s name for the font in the Name box.
Select the family the font belongs to.
Choose whether you want to install the soft font files permanently
or temporarily.
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