ba198ep1.chp:Corel VENTURA

BA 198/00/en/11.99
Version 1.0
52003876
Field Communication
PROFIBUS-DP/PA:
Guidelines for
planning and
commissioning
PROFIBUS-PA
PROFIBUS-DP
Endress + Hauser
The Power of Know How
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Notes on Safety . . . . . . . . . . .
3
1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Advantages of a bus system . . .
1.2 PROFIBUS standard . . . . . .
1.3 PROFIBUS in process engineering
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5
6
7
8
2
PROFIBUS-DP Basics . . . . . . .
2.1 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Topology . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Bus access method . . . . .
2.4 Network configuration . . . .
2.5 Applications in hazardous areas
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9
9
10
12
13
15
PROFIBUS-PA Basics . . . . . . .
3.1 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Segment couplers and links . .
3.3 Topology . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Bus access method . . . . .
3.5 Network configuration . . . .
3.6 Applications in hazardous areas
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16
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17
18
21
23
24
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26
26
27
28
29
29
35
37
37
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38
3
4
5
6
Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Selection of the segment coupler .
4.2 Cable type and length . . . . .
4.3 Calculation of current consumption
4.4 Voltage at last device . . . . . .
4.5 Calculation examples for bus design
4.6 Data quantity . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Cycle times . . . . . . . . . .
4.8 Addressing . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 Example calculations for addressing
and cycle times . . . . . . . .
Installation . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Cabling in safe areas . . . . .
5.2 Example: screening in safe areas
5.3 Example: screening in explosion
hazardous areas . . . . . . .
5.4 Termination . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Overvoltage protection . . . .
5.6 Installation of the devices . . .
5.7 Addressing . . . . . . . . .
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41
42
43
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44
45
45
46
47
System Integration . . . . .
6.1 Device database files (GSD)
6.2 Data format . . . . . . .
6.3 Notes on network design .
6.4 Tested system integrations
6.5 Bus parameters . . . . .
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49
49
50
52
53
55
Endress+Hauser
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7
Device Configuration . . . . . . .
7.1 PROFIBUS-PA block model . .
7.2 Device management . . . . .
7.3 Physical block . . . . . . . .
7.4 Transducer blocks . . . . . .
7.5 Function blocks . . . . . . .
7.6 Operating program Commuwin II.
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56
57
59
60
62
63
66
8
Trouble-Shooting . .
8.1 Commissioning .
8.2 PLC planning . .
8.3 Data transmission
8.4 Commuwin II . .
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68
68
69
70
71
9
Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.1 PROFIBUS-DP . . . . . . . . . 72
9.2 PROFIBUS-PA . . . . . . . . . . 73
10
PROFIBUS-PA Components . . .
10.1 Endress+Hauser field devices
10.2 Network components . . . .
10.3 Supplementary documentation
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 82
11
Terms and Definitions .
11.1 Bus architecture . .
11.2 Components . . .
11.3 Data exchange . .
11.4 Miscellaneous terms
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83
83
84
85
86
12
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1 Calculation sheets for explosion
hazardous areas EEx ia . . . . . .
12.2 Calculation sheets for explosion
hazardous areas EEx ib . . . . . .
12.3 Calculation sheets for non-hazardous
areas . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
Index
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87
88
90
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1
Table of Contents
2
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Notes on Safety
Notes on Safety
These operating instructions are intended as a planning aid for the use of
Endress+Hauser devices in PROFIBUS-PA systems. The approved usage of the
individual devices can be taken from the corresponding device operating instructions.
Approved usage
The field devices, segment coupler, cables and other components must be designed to
operate safely in accordance with current technical safety and EU standards. If installed
incorrectly or used for applications for which they are not intended, it is possible that
dangers may arise. For this reason, the system must be installed, connected, operated
and maintained according to the instructions in this manual: personnel must be
authorised and suitably qualified.
Installation,
commissioning,
operation
If the system is to be installed in an explosion hazardous area, then the specifications in
the certificate as well as all national and local regulations must be observed.
Explosion hazardous
area
• Ensure that all personnel are suitably qualified
• Observe the specifications in the certificate as well as national and local
regulations.
For PROFIBUS-PA all components should be designed in accordance with the FISCO
model. This greatly simplifies the acceptance testing of the PROFIBUS-PA segment.
Endress+Hauser
3
Notes on Safety
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Safety conventions and symbols
In order to highlight safety-relevant or alternative operating procedures in the manual,
the following conventions have been used, each indicated by a corresponding icon in
the margin.
Safety conventions
Symbol
Note!
Caution!
Warning!
Explosion protection
Meaning
Note!
A note highlights actions or procedures which, if not performed correctly, may indirectly affect
operation or may lead to an instrument response which is not planned
Caution!
Caution highlights actions or procedures which, if not performed correctly, may lead to
personal injury or incorrect functioning of the instrument
Warning!
A warning highlights actions or procedures which, if not performed correctly, will lead to
personal injury, a safety hazard or destruction of the instrument
Device certified for use in explosion hazardous area
If the device has this symbol embossed on its name plate it can be installed in an explosion
hazardous area
Explosion hazardous area
Symbol used in drawings to indicate explosion hazardous areas.
Devices located in and wiring entering areas with the designation “explosion hazardous
areas” must conform with the stated type of protection
Safe area (non-explosion hazardous area)
Symbol used in drawings to indicate, if necessary, non-explosion hazardous areas.
Devices located in safe areas stiill require a certificate if their outputs run into explosion
hazardous areas.
Electrical symbols
Direct voltage
A terminal to which or from which a direct current or voltage may be applied or supplied
Alternating voltage
A terminal to which or from which an alternating (sine-wave) current or voltage may be
applied or supplied
Grounded terminal
A grounded terminal, which as far as the operator is concerned, is already grounded by
means of an earth grounding system
Protective grounding (earth) terminal
A terminal which must be connected to earth ground prior to making any other connection to
the equipment
Equipotential connection (earth bonding)
A connection made to the plant grounding system which may be of type e.g. neutral star or
equipotential line according to national or company practice
4
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
1
Chapter 1 Introduction
Introduction
These guidelines have been written with the view of giving the potential PROFIBUS user
an introduction to the planning and commissioning of a PROFIBUS-PA network. They are
based on the experience of Endress+Hauser employees who have been actively
involved in PROFIBUS projects and who, in the meantime, have successfully
commissioned a number of plants. The guidelines are structured as follows:
Chapter
Titel
Inhalt
Chapter 1
Introduction
Advantages of a bus as well as general information
about the PROFIBUS standard
Chapter 2
PROFIBUS-DP basics
Information about PROFIBUS-DP
Chapter 3
Grundlagen PROFIBUS-PA
Information about PROFIBUS-PA, couplers, links
and use in explosion hazardous areas
(FISCO-Model)
Chapter 4
Planning
What must be observed when planning
PROFIBUS-DP/PA systems, with examples
Chapter 5
Installation
Notes on the installation of devices in a
PROFIBUS-DP/PA system
Chapter 6
System integration
Notes on mapping PROFIBUS-PA devices in a PLC
Chapter 7
Device configuration
General information on setting the parameters in
Endress+Hauser devices PROFIBUS applications
Chapter 8
Trouble-shooting
Causes and remedies for general faults that may
occur during the commissioning of a system
Chapter 9
Technical data
Principle technical data of PROFIBUS-PA and
PROFIBUS-DP
Chapter 10
PROFIBUS-PA components
Profiles of the Endress+Hauser PROFIBUS-DP and
PROFIBUS-PA devices
Chapter 11
Terms and definitions
Explanation of the terminology used to describe bus
systems
Chapter 12
Appendix
Calculation sheets for your applications
Application
Should you have any questions regarding PROFIBUS which go beyond the subjects
discussed in this manual, do not hesitate to get in touch with us.
Endress+Hauser
5
Chapter 1 Introduction
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
1.1
Advantages of a bus system
Conventional
PROFIBUS-PA
process-near component PNC
I/O assemblies
process-near component PNC
bus coupler Ex [i]
Ex [i]
Control room
marshalling rack
power
marshalling rack
Fig. 1.1
Signal transfer: conventional and
with PROFIBUS-PA
Wiring
connectors
Field
junction box
Figure 1.1 illustrates the difference between the wiring of a conventional 4..20 mA control
system and a fieldbus system.
• For a compact plant, the wiring from the field to the junction box is roughly the
same: if the measuring points are widely distributed, however, the fieldbus
requires decidedly less cable.
• For conventional wiring, every signal line must be continued from the junction box
to the process-near component, e.g. a programmable logic controller, where it
terminates in a I/O module. For every device a separate power supply is
required, where necessary, suitable for use with devices in hazardous areas.
• In contrast, the fieldbus requires a single cable only to carry all information.
The bus terminates in a bus coupler that communicates directly with the process
near components. Not only cable, but also I/O modules are saved. Since the bus
is powered from a single intrinsically safe power unit, there is no need for
individual isolators and barriers.
Commissioning
Digital communication allows comfortable commissioning of field devices from the control
room. Individual devices can not only be configured from a personal computer but the
settings can also be archived centrally. If there are several identical measuring points in
an application, the stored parameters can be downloaded to the devices. An individual
configuration of each device is no longer necessary.
Operation
In addition to the process variables that are processed in the programmable logic
controller (PLC) or process control system (PCS), the operator has access to a number
of other parameters at every measuring point. These can be displayed in the
Commuwin II operating and display program or a SCADA application. The programs
offer a clear overview of the application.
Maintenance
Devices with diagnosis functions or self-monitoring signal faults to the bus master. The
status of each device can be checked from the control room, so that the maintenance
team can quickly localise and eliminate the fault.
6
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
1.2
Chapter 1 Introduction
PROFIBUS standard
PROFIBUS is an open fieldbus standard to EN 50 170. It was developed by a German
consortium that quickly and pragmatically produced the German Standard DIN 19 245
after attempts to produce an international fieldbus failed in 1992. The European Standard
followed roughly a year later. PROFIBUS is supported by an international network of
PROFIBUS User Organisations.
PROFIBUS-DP (decentralised periphery) is an extension of the original PROFIBUS
standard, see Fig. 1.2. An extension contains a subset of the functionality of the original
standard and is targeted at a specific area of application. PROFIBUS-DP was primarily
developed for the fast processes involved in factory automation. In the original version,
PROFIBUS-DP allowed only one master that communicated via the master-slave method.
The extended version DPV1 allows up to 127 participants including up to 32 masters. A
slave, however, may be allocated to only one "Class 1" master, see Chapter 2. Slaves
are configured by a Class 2 master using acyclic services.
PROFIBUS-DP
PROFIBUS-PA (process automation) is an extension of PROFIBUS-DP for process
automation. It has two specialities: firstly, participants can draw intrinsically safe power
from the bus, secondly, the data transfer is handled according to the international
standard IEC 61158-2. A maximum of 32 participants can be connected to a
PROFIBUS-PA segment. Bus access is governed by the master/slave method, see
Chapter 3.
PROFIBUS-PA
FMS
DP
PA
OSI layer
PA profile
DP profile
FMS
device profile
DP extensions (DPV1)
DP basic functions
User
Application (7)
Fieldbus message
specification FMS
not present
(3) – (6)
Data (2)
Fieldbus data link (FDL)
physical (1)
RS-485/fibre optics
BA198Y55
Endress+Hauser
IEC interface
IEC 61158-2
Fig. 1.2
PROFIBUS versions and
functions
7
Chapter 1 Introduction
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
1.3
PROFIBUS in process engineering
Commuwin II
PLC
Process control system
RS-485
up to 12 Mbit/s
IEC 61158-2
31.25 kbit/s
Non-hazardous area
PROFIBUS-DP
Segment coupler
0 - 10 bar
Explosion-hazardous area
PROFIBUS-PA
IEC 61158-2
31.25 kbit/s
0 - 10 bar
Fig. 1.3
Process automation with
PROFIBUS-DP and
PROFIBUS-PA
BA198E27
Every manufacturing facility has tasks which are associated with process and factory
automation:
• Process automation: measurement, actuation, control...
• Factory automation: filling, storage, conveyance, drives...
For this reason it is possible that the Endress+Hauser devices installed in a factory are
integrated in PROFIBUS-DP, PROFIBUS-DP or mixed systems. Fig. 1.3 shows a typical
example:
• The process is controlled by a process control system or a programmable logic
controller (PLC). The control system or PLC serves as a Class 1 master. It uses
the cyclic services to acquire measurements and output control commands. The
operating program, in this case Commuwin II, serves as a Class 2 master. It uses
the acyclic services and serves to configure the bus participants during
installation and normal operation.
• The PROFIBUS-DP system is used to handle the communication at the control
level. Drives, remote I/Os etc. may all be found upon the bus. It is also possible
to connect externally powered field devices to this level, e.g. the flowmeters
Promass and Promag. PROFIBUS-DP ensures that data are quickly exchanged,
whereby in mixed PROFIBUS-DP/PA systems the baudrate supported by the
segment coupler is often the limiting factor.
• PROFIBUS-PA is used at field level. The segment coupler serves both as
interface to the PROFIBUS-DP system and as power supply for the
PROFIBUS-PA field devices. Depending upon the type of segment coupler, the
PROFIBUS-PA segment can be installed in safe or hazardous areas.
8
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
2
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
PROFIBUS-DP Basics
As far as PROFIBUS systems in process engineering are concerned, the versions
PROFIBUS-DP (variant DPV1) and PROFIBUS-PA are of interest. This chapter describes
the basics of PROFIBUS-DP. The chapter is structured as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Synopsis
Topology
Bus access method
Network configuration
Applications in hazardous areas
2.1
Synopsis
Class 1
master
Class 2
master
PROFIBUS-DP
PROFIBUS-DP slaves
BA198Y46
Fig. 2.1
PROFIBUS-DP system,
Version DPV1
PROFIBUS-DP is used primarily for factory automation. In PROFIBUS-PA systems for
process automation, a PROFIBUS-DP system is used at the control level for quick
transmission of the data. Here, a variant of PROFIBUS-DP, DPV1 is used. In addition to
the cyclic exchange of data with a PLC, this allows the field devices to be configured via
acyclic services. The principle technical data for DPV1 are listed in Table 2.1.
Application
Depending upon the application at hand, the participants in a PROFIBUS-DP system
might be frequency converters, remote I/Os, actuators, sensors, links, gateways etc. as
well as the PLC or process control system. The following Endress+Hauser devices can
be connected directly to a DP system:
Participants
• Flowmeters Promass 63 and Promag 33/35
• Display unit Memograph RSC 10 (listener function only)
• PROFIBUS-DP gateway.
Others are in preparation.
Standard
EN 50170, Parts 1 - 3, Version DPV1
Support
PROFIBUS User Organisation (PNO)
Physical layer
RS-485 and/or fibre optics
Max. length
1200 m (copper) or several kilometres (optics)
Participants
Max. 126, including max. 32 as master
Transmission rate
up to 12 MBit/s
Bus access method
Token passing with master-slave
Endress+Hauser
Table 2.1
Technical data PROFIBUS-DP
9
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
2.2
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Topology
PROFIBUS-DP is based on a linear topology. For lower data transmission rates, a tree
structure is also possible.
Cable
EN 50 170 specifies two types of bus cable. For transmission rates up to 12 Mbit/s, cable
type A is recommended. The specification is given in Table 2.2.
Terminator
135 Ω to 165 Ω at a measuring frequency of 3 MHz to 20 MHz
Cable capacitance
< 30pF per Meter
Core cross-section
>0.34 mm², corresponds to 22 AWG
Cable type
twisted pairs, 1x 2, 2x 2 or 1x 4 core
Loop resistance
110 Ω per km
Table 2.2
Specifications of Cable Type A of
the PROFIBUS-DP standard
Signal attenuation
max. 9 dB over the entire Length of the segment
Screening
woven copper sheath or woven sheath and foil sheath
Structure
The following points should be noted when the bus structure is being planned:
• The max. permissible cable length depends upon the transmission rate. For
PROFIBUS RS-485 cable of type A (see table 2.2) the dependency is as follows:
Transmission rate (kBit/s)
9.6 - 93.75
187.5
500
1500
300 – 12000
Cable length (m)
1200
1000
400
200
100
:
• A maximum of 32 participants per segment is allowed.
• A terminating resistance must be installed at both ends of every segment
(ohmic load 220 Ω)
• The cable length and/or the number of participants can be increased by using
repeaters.
• There must never be more than three repeaters between any two participants.
• The total number of participants in the system is limited to 126 – (2x number of
repeaters).
Spurs
A spur is the cable connecting the field device to the T-box. As a rule of thumb:
• For transmission rates up to 1500 kbits/s, the total length (sum) of the spurs may
not exceed 6.6 m.
• Spurs should not be used for transmission rates greater than 1500 kbits/s.
Examples
Figs 2.2 and 2.3 show examples for a linear and tree bus structure.
Fig 2.2. shows that three repeaters are necessary if the PROFIBUS-DP system is to be
developed to the full. The maximum cable length corresponds to 4x the value quoted in
the table above. Since three repeaters are used, the maximum number of participants is
reduced to 120.
Fig 2.3 shows how several repeaters can be used to create a tree structure. The number
of participants allowable per segment is reduced by one per repeater: the total number
of participants is limited to 126 – (2x number of repeaters).
10
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
T
T
trunk cable
1
2
3
R1
31
T
T
segment 1
R2
1
2
30
3
T
T
segment 2
1
2
3
R3
30
T
T
segment 3
1
2
3
31
BA198Y29
T
Fig. 2.2
PROFIBUS-DP system with
linear structure
T = terminator
R = repeater
1...n = max. number of
field devices on a
segment
T
trunk cable
1
2
3
31
R1
T
T
segment 1
2
1
3
29
R3
T
T
R2
segment 2
1
2
3
31
T
T
segment 3
2
1
3
29
BA198Y30
If the PROFIBUS-DP system has to be routed over large distances or in plant with heavy
electromagnetic interference, then an optical or mixed optical/copper network can be
used. Provided that all participants support them, very high transmission rates are
possible. Fig. 2.4 shows a possible structure for an optical network, whereby the technical
details can be taken from the PROFIBUS standard.
Fig. 2.3
PROFIBUS-DP system with tree
structure
T = terminator
R = repeater
1...n = max. number of
field devices on a
segment
Optical network
Master
PLC
T
optical interface
module
RS-485
copper
optical interface
module
RS-485
copper
T
T
1
Endress+Hauser
2
T
fibre optics
3
4
BA198Y31
Fig. 2.4
Example for a mixed
optical/RS-485 network
T = terminator
1...n = field devices (slaves)
11
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
2.3
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Bus access method
PROFIBUS-DP uses a hybrid access method of centralised master/slave and
decentralised token passing, see Fig.2.5.
• The masters build a logical token ring.
• When a master possesses the token, it has the right to transmit.
• It can now talk with its slaves in a master-slave relationship for a defined period of
time.
• At the end of this time, the token must be passed on to the next active device in
the token ring.
Master class
Version DPV1 of PROFIBUS-DP differentiates between two classes of master:
• A Class 1 master communicates cyclically with its slaves. The master
communicates only with those slaves that are assigned to it. A slave may be
assigned to only one Class 1 master. A typical class 1 master is a programmable
logic controller (PLC) or a process control system.
• A Class 2 master communicates acyclically with its slaves, i.e. on demand. Its
slaves may also be assigned to a Class 1 master. A typical example is a PC with
corresponding operating software, e.g. Commuwin II. It is used for
commissioning as well as for device configuration, diagnosis and alarm handling
during normal operation.
If a PROFIBUS-DP network has more than one master e.g. because both cyclic and
acyclic services are required, then it is a multi-master system. If, for example, a PLC only
is used for control tasks, then the system is a mono-master system.
Master 1, Class 1
has the right to transmit
Data are exchanged
cyclically.
S1
logical token
ring
Class 1
12
S1
S3
S2
Master 2, Class 2
receives the right to
transmit.
It can talk to all slaves.
Data exchange, e.g.
with slave 3 is acyclic.
Fig. 2.5
Data exchange in a
PROFIBUS-DP multi-master
system
M = master
S = slave
M2
M1
S4
S5
S4
S5
Class 2
M2
M1
S2
S3
BA198Y32
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
2.4
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
Network configuration
Data are exchanged over PROFIBUS-DP by means of standard telegrams which are
transmitted via the RS-485 interface. The permissible telegram length depends upon the
master used: at the moment, masters are available that transmit 122 or 244 bytes, see
Chapter 6, Table 6.3.
Data Transmission
The majority of Endress+Hauser devices transmit measured value and status in 5 bytes,
see table 6.1 on page 51. An instrument with several measured values transmits
correspondingly more bytes. In the case of the flowmeter Promass 63, for example, a
cyclic telegram of 51 bytes (50 bytes input and 1 byte output data) is transmitted at
maximum configuration, see below.
By using the data exchange service, a PLC can transmit its output data to the Promass
63 and read the input data from the response telegram. The cyclic data telegram for the
maximum configuration of the Promass has the following structure: If the factory setting
is used, mass flow, totalisor 1 and density are transmitted. Further measured values can
be activated via the on-site elements or by using a PROFIBUS configuration program.
Byte
Data
Access
Data format
Unit
0–3
Mass flow
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
kg/s
4
Status mass flow
Read
80h = OK
–
5–8
Totalisor 1
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
kg
9
Status totalisor 1
Read
80h = OK
–
10 – 13
Density
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
kg/m
14
Status density
Read
80h = OK
–
15 – 18
Temperature
Read
32-Bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
K
19
Status temperature
Read
80h = OK
–
20 – 23
Totalisor 2
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
off
24
Status totalisor 2
Read
80h = OK
–
25 – 28
Volumetric flow
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
l/s
29
Status volumetric flow
Read
80h = OK
–
30 – 33
Standard volumetric flow
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
Nl/s
34
Status standard volumetric flow Read
80h = OK
–
35 – 38
Target medium flow
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
kg/s; l/s
39
Status target medium flow
Read
80h = OK
–
40 – 43
Carrier medium flow
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
kg/s; l/s
44
Status carrier medium flow
Read
80h = OK
–
45 – 48
Calculated density
Read
32-bit floating point number (IEEE 754)
%
49
Status calculated density
Read
80h = OK
–
Byte
Data
Access
Data format
Unit
0
Control
0 ⇒ 1: Reset totalisor 1
0 ⇒ 2: Reset totalisor 2
0 ⇒ 3: Reset totalisor 1 + 2
0 ⇒ 4: Zero point calibration
0 ⇒ 5: Positive zero return on
0 ⇒ 6: Positive zero return off
0 ⇒ 7...255: reserved
Write
Integer8
The control command is
triggered by a change in the
input data of the cyclic
services from 00h to another
value.
A change from any bit pattern
to 00h has no effect.
–
Endress+Hauser
3
Table 2.3
Input data Promass ⇒ SPS
Table 2.4
Output data PLC ⇒ Promass
13
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Device database file
In order to integrate the field devices into the bus system, the PROFIBUS-DP system
requires a description of the device parameters such as output data, input data, data
format, data length and the transmission rates supported. These data are contained in
the device database file (the so-called GSD file), which is required by the PROFIBUS-DP
master during the commissioning of the communication system. In addition, device bit
maps are required, which appear as icons in the network tree. Further information on
device database files is to be found in Chapter 6.1.
Bus address
A prerequisite for communication on the bus is the correct addressing of the participants.
Every participant in the PROFIBUS-DP system is assigned a unique address between 0
and 125. Normally the low addresses are assigned to the masters. The addresses may
be assigned by DIP switch, on-site operating elements or by an operating program. The
addressing procedure is described in detail in Chapter 5.
Transmission rate
All participants in a PROFIBUS-DP system must support the governing transmission rate.
This means that the speed of data exchange is determined by the slowest participant.
In the case of Endress+Hauser devices that are designed for PROFIBUS-DP, all
transmission rates from 9.6 kbits/s to 12 Mbit/s are supported.
Bus parameters
In addition to the transmission rate, all active participants on the bus must operate with
the same bus parameters. For the operating and display program Commuwin II, the bus
parameters can be set by using the DPV1 server, see Chapter 6.5. The program can be
started from the icon in the program group Commuwin II.
14
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
2.5
Chapter 2 PROFIBUS-DP Basics
Applications in hazardous areas
All devices and terminators that are installed in hazardous areas as well as all associated
electrical apparatus (e.g. PA links or segment couplers) must be approved for the
corresponding atmospheres.
If a PROFIBUS-DP segment is routed through an explosion hazardous area, then it must
be realised with type of protection "enhanced safety e".
• For copper cable, the number of devices per segment is limited to four.
• The intrinsic safety must always be calculated because every intrinsically safe
component has different values.
• The trunk cable and spurs must be included in the calculation.
• The exchange of a device by the product of another manufacture means that
proof of intrinsic safety must be presented again.
Since PROFIBUS-PA systems are designed for use in hazardous areas, it is much easier
install a segment there. For this reason, a PROFIBUS-PA segment is often used to extend
the PROFIBUS-DP segment into a hazardous area. In order to obtain the highest possible
transmission rate, a link is preferred as interface. Links support a wide range of
PROFIBUS-DP transmission rates.
PLC
Class 1 master
Mixed network
PROFIBUS-DP/PA
e.g. Commuwin II
Class 2 master
DP/PA link
PROFIBUS-DP
PROFIBUS-PA
0 - 10 bar
PROFIBUS-DP slaves
0 - 10 bar
PROFIBUS-PA slaves
BA198Y46
Endress+Hauser
Fig. 2.6
The PROFIBUS-PA system can
be extended into a hazardous
area by using a DP/PA link.
15
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
3
PROFIBUS-PA Basics
This chapter presents the basic principles behind PROFIBUS-PA. The chapter is
structured as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Synopsis
Segment couplers and links
Topology
Bus access method
Network configuration
Applications in hazardous areas
3.1
Synopsis
Class 1
master
DP/PA link or
segment coupler
Class 2
master
PROFIBUS-DP
PROFIBUS-PA
PROFIBUS-PA slaves
0 - 10 bar
Fig. 3.1
PROFIBUS-PA system
Application
BA198Y48
PROFIBUS-PA has been designed to satisfy the requirements of process engineering.
There are three major differences to a PROFIBUS-DP system:
• PROFIBUS-PA supports the use of devices in explosion hazardous areas.
• The devices can be powered over the bus cable.
• The data are transferred via the IEC 61158-2 physical layer, which allows great
freedom in the selection of the bus topology.
The most important technical data are listed in Table 3.1.
Participants
Depending upon the application, the participants on a PROFIBUS-PA segment might be
actuators, sensors and a segment coupler or link. Endress+hauser offers PROFIBUS-PA
instrumentation for the most important process variables, i.e. analysis, flow, level,
pressure and temperature. A complete list is to be found in Chapter 10.
Standard
Table 3.1
Technical data PROFIBUS-PA
16
EN 50 170, Part 4
Support
PROFIBUS User Organisation (PNO) (PNO)
Physical layer
IEC 61158-2
Max. length
1900 m: standard und intrinsically safe applications of category ib
1000 m: intrinsically safe applications of category ia
Participants
Max. 10 in hazardous areas (EEx ia)
max. 24 in hazardous areas (EEx ib)
max. 32 in safe areas
Transmission rate
31.25 kbit/s
Bus access method
Master-slave
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
3.2
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
Segment couplers and links
Class 1 master
Class 2 master
PROFIBUS-DP
segment coupler
link
segment coupler
JB
PROFIBUS-PA
1
4
7
2
5
8
3
6
9
T
T
10
junction box
T
12
11
13
T
BA198Y09
Fig. 3.2
Integration of a PROFIBUS-PA
segment into a PROFIBUS-DP
system using a segment coupler
or link.
PROFIBUS-PA is always used in conjunction with a supervisory PROFIBUS-DP control
system. Since the protocols , physical layer and transmission rates of PROFIBUS-DP and
PROFIBUS-PA are different, see Tables 2.1 and 3.1, the PROFIBUS-PA segment is
connected to the PROFIBUS-DP system via a segment coupler or link.
A segment coupler comprises a signal coupler and bus power unit. Normally, it supports
only one transmission rate on the PROFIBUS-DP side. The transmission rate for
PROFIBUS-PA is fixed at 31.25 kbit/s.
Segment coupler
Three types of segment couplers have been specified according to the type of protection
required.
Segment coupler
Type A
Type B
Type C
Type of protection
EEx [ia/ib] IIC
EEx [ib] IIB
None
Supply voltage
13.5 V
13.5 V
24 V
Max. power
1.8 W
3.9 W
9.1 W
Max. supply current
≤ 110 mA
≤ 280 mA
≤ 400 mA
No. of devices
approx. 10
approx. 20
max. 32
Table 3.2
Segment couplers defined in
standard
At the moment two manufacturers have segment couplers on the market.
Manufacturer
Type of
protection
Supply current
Voltage
DP baudrate
Siemens: 6ES7-157-0 AD00 0XA0
EEx [ia] IIC
100 mA
12.5 V DC
45.45 kbit/s
Siemens: 6ES7-157-0 AC00 0XA0
Standard
400 mA
19.0 V DC
45.45 kbit/s
P+F (E+H): KFD2-BR-EX1.2PA.93
EEx [ia] IIC
110 mA
13.0 V DC
93.75 kbit/s
P+F (E+H): KFD2-BR-1PA.93
Standard
380 mA
25.0 V DC
93.75 kbit/s
A link comprises an intelligent interface and one or more segment couplers, whereby the
couplers may exhibit different types of protection. Normally, a range of transmission rates
are supported on the PROFIBUS-DP side. The transmission rate for PROFIBUS-PA is
fixed at 31.25 kbit/s.
Endress+Hauser
Table 3.3
Segment couplers on the market
Links
17
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
3.3
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Topology
The field devices on the PROFIBUS-PA segment communicate with a master on the
PROFIBUS-DP system. The bus is designed according to the rules for PROFIBUS-DP up
to the segment coupler or link, see Chapter 2.2. Within the PROFIBUS-PA segment,
practically all topologies are permissible, see Fig. 3.3.
Cable
PROFIBUS PA stipulates a two-core cable as transmission medium. An informative annex
to IEC 61158-2 lists the characteristics of four cable types that can be used as
transmission medium.
• Cable types A and B are to be preferred for new installations. They offer the
greatest security for data transmission. In the case of cable type B, several
fieldbuses (with the same type of protection) can be operated with one cable.
Other current-bearing circuits in the same cable are not permitted.
• Cables C and D are intended only for retrofit applications, i.e. when existing
cabling is to be used. They are not suitable for use in explosion hazardous areas.
Problems with the communication are also to be expected if the cables are
routed through plant with heavy electromagnetic interference, e.g. near
frequency converters.
Table 3.4 lists the technical data of each cable type:
Table 3.4
Cable types according to
IEC 61158-2, Annex C
Type A
Type B
Type C
Typ D
Cable contruction
twisted pairs,
shielded
one or more
twisted pairs,
common shield
Several twisted
Several untwisted
pairs, unshielded pairs, unshielded
Core cross-section
0.8 mm2
AWG 18
0.32 mm2
AWG 22
0.13 mm2
AWG 26
1.23 mm2
AWG 16
Loop resistance (DC)
44 Ω/km
112 Ω/km
254 Ω/km
40 Ω/km
Characteristic impedance
at 31.25 kHz
100 Ω ±20 %
100 Ω ±30 %
—
—
Attenuation constant at
39 kHz
3 dB/km
5 dB/km
8 dB/km
8 dB/km
Capacitive unsymmetry
2 nF/km
2 nF/km
—
—
Envelope delay distortion
(7.9...39 kHz)
1.7 µs/km
—
—
—
Degree of coverage of
shielding
90 %
—
—
—
Max. bus length (including
spurs)
1900 m
1200 m
400 m
200 m
Cable for intrinsically safe applications as per the FISCO model must also satisfy the
following additional requirements:
Table 3.5
Safety limits for the bus cable
EEx ia/ib IIC
EEx ib IIB
Loop resistance (DC)
15...150 Ω/km
15...150 Ω/km
Specific inductance
0.4...1 mH/km
0.4...1 mH/km
Specific capacitance
80...200 nF/km
80...200 nF/km
Max. spur length
≤ 30 m
≤ 30 m
Max. bus length
≤ 1000 m
≤ 1900 m
Suitable cable is offered by a number of manufacturers, see Chapter 4.
18
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
A
PNK
1
Termination at JB
possible if spurs do
not exceeed 30 m
Sk
SiK
2
T JB
(Ex i)
3
4
SG T
(Ex i)
n
B
PNK
3
Sk
SiK
1
T
(Ex i)
4
SG T
(Ex i)
2
3
C
PNK
Sk
SiK
4
5
n
JB
1
T
(Ex i)
6
SG T
(Ex i)
2
3
D
PNK
n
Sk
SiK
4
5
n
R+T
+JB
1
T
(Ex i)
SG T
(Ex i)
R+T
7
2
T
6
BA198Y13
Endress+Hauser
Fig. 3.3
Bus topologies
A Tree
B Bus
C Bus + tree
D Bus + tree + extension
PNC:
SiK:
SG:
T:
JB:
R:
1...n:
Sk:
process near component
Signal coupler
Power supply
Terminator
Junction box
Repeater
Field devices
Segment coupler
19
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
Structure
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
The following points should be noted when designing the bus:
• The maximum permissible length is dependent upon the type of cable used.
For cable type definitions, see Table 3.4:
Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
1900 m
1200 m
400 m
200 m
• For systems that are to be realised according to the FISCO model in type of
protection EEx ia, the maximum bus length is 1000 m.
• A maximum of 32 participants are allowed in safe applications and max. 10
participants in explosion hazardous areas (EEx ia IIC).
The actual number of participants must be determined during the planning of the
bus, see Chapter 4.
• A terminator is required at each end of the segment.
• For PROFIBUS-PA the terminator comprises an RC combination
(ohmic load 100 Ω + 1 µF).
• The bus length can be increased by using a repeater.
• Max. three repeaters are allowable between a participant and the master.
Spurs
The cable between the T-box and field device is called a spur.
• Spurs longer than 1 m are counted in the total cable length.
• The length of the individual spurs in safe areas is dependent upon the number of
participants:
Participants 1 - 12
13 - 14
15 - 18
19 - 24
25 - 32
Max. length
per spur
90 m
60 m
30 m
1m
120 m
• According to the FISCO model, the spurs in intrinsically safe applications may not
exceed 30 m in length.
• A maximum of 4 field devices may be connected to a spur.
20
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
3.4
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
Bus access method
PROFIBUS-PA uses the central master/slave method to regulate bus access. The
process near component, e.g. a PLC, is a Class 1 master that is installed in the
PROFIBUS-DP system. The field devices are configured from a PROFIBUS-PA Class 2
master, e.g. Commuwin II. The field devices on the PROFIBUS-PA segment are the
slaves. The access to the field devices depends upon the DP/PA interface that has been
installed.
Segment couplers are transparent as far as the PROFIBUS-DP master is concerned, so
that they are not mapped in the PLC. They simply convert the signals and power the
PROFIBUS-PA segment. The do not need to be configured nor are they assigned an
address.
Segment coupler
The field devices in the PROFIBUS-PA segment are each assigned a PROFIBUS-DP
address and behave as PROFIBUS-DP slaves. A slave may be assigned to only one
Class 1 master. A master communicates directly with its slaves.
• A Class 1 master, e.g. the PLC, uses the cyclic polling services to fetch the data
provided by the field devices.
• A Class 2 master, e.g. Commuwin II transmits and receives field device data by
using the acyclic services.
Class 1 master
Class 2 master e.g.
Commuwin II
PROFIBUS-DP
cyclic data
exchange
Segment
coupler
acyclic data exchange
SiK
T
PROFIBUS-PA
1
2
3
field devices as DP-slaves
BA198Y20
Endress+Hauser
Fig. 3.4
Data exchange via segment
coupler
21
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
Links
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
A link is recognised by the DP-master and is a participant in the PROFIBUS-DP system.
It is assigned a PROFIBUS-DP address and thus becomes opaque to the master. The
field devices on the PROFIBUS-PA side can no longer be directly polled using the cyclic
services. Instead, the link collects the device data in a buffer, which can be read cyclically
by a Class 1 master. Hence a link must be mapped in the PLC.
On the PROFIBUS-PA side, the link acts as the bus master. It polls the field device data
cyclically and stores them in a buffer. Every field device is assigned a PROFIBUS-PA
address that is unique for the link, but not for other PROFIBUS-PA segments.
When the link is accessed by a Class 2 master with the acyclic services it is
quasi-transparent. The desired field device can be accessed by specifying the link
address (DP address) and the device address (PA address).
Class 1 master
Class 2 master
e.g. Commuwin II
PROFIBUS-DP
Cyclic data exchange with
Class 1 master using the
master-slave method
DPSlave
Acyclic data
exchange with
Class 2 master
using the
master-slave
method
Segment coupler
PAMaster
Cyclic data exchange with
PA master using the
master-slave method
T
T
1
Fig. 3.5
Data exchange via a link
22
2
3
4
PROFIBUS-PA
5
6
BA198Y21
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
3.5
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
Network configuration
Data exchange on the PROFIBUS-PA segment is handled by the IEC 61158-2 interface.
The cyclic and acyclic polling services are used to transmit data. Since the PROFIBUS-PA
standard offers the possibility of interconnecting devices from different vendors, a profile
set has been defined that contains standardised device parameters and functions.
Data Transmission
• Mandatory parameters: Every device must provide these parameters. These are
parameters, with which the basic parameters of the device can be read or
configured.
• Application parameters: these are optional parameters.
These parameters allow a calibration and, e.g., additional functions such as a
linearisation to be performed. In view of the fact that these functions are
dependent upon the measured variable, there are several profile sets, e.g. for
level, pressure, flow etc.. The parameters can be accessed acyclically and
require a Class 2 master, e.g. Commuwin II, if they are to be read or modified.
Cyclic data exchanged is handled by standard telegrams. The permissible telegram
length depends upon the master used: at the moment, masters are available that transmit
122 or 244 bytes, see Chapter 6, Table 6.3.
The majority of PROFIBUS-PA devices transmit measured value and status in 5 bytes,
see table 6.1 on page 51. An instrument with several measured values transmits
correspondingly more bytes. In the case of the flowmeter Promass 63, for example, a
cyclic telegram of 51 bytes is transmitted at maximum configuration, see Chapter 2.4.
In the case of the NAMUR/PROFIBUS-PA interface FXA 164, which allows the connection
of up to four limit switches, the limit signals are transmitted in 2 bytes per channel. Byte 1
contains the signal condition, byte 2 the status. Depending upon the configuration, up
to 8 bytes may be transmitted.
In order to integrate the field devices into the bus system, the PROFIBUS-DP system
requires a description of the device parameters such as output data, input data, data
format, data length and the transmission rates supported. These data are contained in
the device database file (the so-called GSD file), which is required by the PROFIBUS-DP
master during the commissioning of the communication system. In addition, device bit
maps are required, which appear as icons in the network tree. Further information on
device database files is to be found in Chapter 6.1.
Device database
A prerequisite for communication on the bus is the correct addressing of the participants.
Every device on the PROFIBUS-PA segment is assigned a unique address between
0 and 125. The addressing is dependent upon the type of interface used (segment
coupler or link) and is set by DIP switches, via on-site operating elements or by software.
The addressing procedure is described in detail in Chapter 5.
Bus address
The transmission rate on a PROFIBUS-PA segment is fixed at 31.25 kbit/s.
Transmission rate
In addition to the transmission rate, all active participants on the bus must operate with
the same bus parameters. For the operating and display program Commuwin II, the bus
parameters can be set by using the DPV1 server, see Chapter 6.5) The program can be
started from the icon in the program group Commuwin II.
Bus parameters
Endress+Hauser
23
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
3.6
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Applications in hazardous areas
The explosion protection concept for the PROFIBUS-PA fieldbus is based on the type of
protection "intrinsic safety i". In contrast to other types of explosion protection, intrinsic
safety is not confined to the individual unit, but extends over the entire electrical circuit.
All circuits connected to the PROFIBUS-PA fieldbus must be realised with type of
protection "intrinsic safety", i.e. all devices and terminators that are installed in hazardous
areas as well as all associated electrical apparatus (e.g. PA links or segment couplers)
must be approved for the corresponding atmospheres
FISCO model
In order to reduce the proof of intrinsic safety of the fieldbus system, comprising different
devices from different vendors, to a justifiable level, the German PTB and various
equipment manufacturers developed the FISCO model (Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe
COncept).
The basic idea is that only one device supplies power to a particular segment. The model
determines the boundary conditions. The field devices are divided into those that draw
their power from the bus itself, and those that must be powered locally. In addition to the
type of protection "intrinsic safety", the latter devices, which require more energy, must
also exhibit a further type of protection. The auxiliary energy required by the segment
coupler and the locally powered devices is galvanically isolated from the intrinsically safe
circuits.
As is the case for all intrinsic circuits, special precautions must be observed when
installing the bus. The aim is to maintain the separation between the intrinsically safe and
all other circuits.
Grounding
The intrinsically safe fieldbus circuit is operated earth-free, which does not preclude that
individual sensor circuits can be connected to ground. If a overvoltage protector is
installed before the device, it must be bonded to the plant grounding system in
accordance with the instructions in the certificate or device manual. Particular attention
must be paid to the grounding of the conducting cable screening because if it is to be
earthed at several positions, a high integrity plant grounding system must be present.
Category
The category of the intrinsically safe field bus is determined by the circuit with the worst
rating, i.e. if the fieldbus circuit of one device has the type of protection EEx ib, then the
whole fieldbus falls in the category ib. Devices that must be connected to a circuit with
type of protection EEx ia (requirements as per certificate) may not be operated on field
bus circuits with type of protection ib. Only circuits that are connected directly to the
fieldbus must be considered here.
Explosion group
Devices that are approved for different explosion groups (IIC, IIB or IIA) can be operated
on the same segment. The permissible explosive atmosphere allowed at a particular
device is determined by the type of protection of that device as well as the explosion
group for which the segment coupler is approved. All devices and terminators that are
installed in hazardous areas as well as all associated electrical apparatus (e.g. PA links
or segment couplers) must be approved for the corresponding atmospheres, e.g. PTB,
BVS, FMRC, CSA etc..
24
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 3 PROFIBUS-PA Basics
The bus system is powered by a segment coupler. The field devices function as current
sinks and draw a direct current of about 10 mA from the bus cable (some participants
require more). This current supplies the energy necessary for operation. If a field device
transmits data, it does so by modulating the current by ±9 mA.
When it is transmitting data, the fieldbus
acts as an ohmic resistance. Since the
device does not output power, the intrinsic
safety of a bus segment is largely
determined by the current and voltage
limitations placed on the bus power supply.
Operating principle
field device current
max.current
25 mA
fault current
19 mA
In order that a field device does not block
the bus should it fail, its maximum current
consumption is limited by the so-called
fault disconnection electronics (FDE). This
current must be considered when the
segment is planned.
basic
current
10 mA
1 mA
t
1
0
1
0
1
1
BA198Y06
Fig. 3.6
Function of a PROFIBUS-PA
device
An important requirement for participants on a PROFIBUS-PA segment, is that a defective
device may not detrimentally effect the functioning of the system. The fault disconnection
electronics ensure that high current consumption is not possible. An electronic circuit
detects the rise in the basis current above the specified manufacturer's value and either
limits the current consumption or isolates the participant from the bus. The increase in
basic current above the normal value in the event of a fault is designated the fault current.
Fault disconnection
electronics
Due to the FISCO model, the following points only must be observed when a
PROFIBUS-PA segment is planned for use in a hazardous area.
PROFIBUS-PA segments
• The maximum permissible bus length is dependent upon the type of segment
coupler used, the topology of the bus, the bus power and the specific resistance
of the cable. For EEx ia IIC, the maximum length is 1000 m.
• If intrinsically safe circuits of category ia and ib are connected to the same
segment, the type of protection of the entire segment is ib. It may be necessary
to distribute the field devices on two separate segments, should a circuit of
category ia be mandatory for a device or component.
Furthermore, the following applies generally
• The number of participants that may be connected to a segment is determined
by the highest FDE current, the sum of the basic currents and the power that can
be supplied by the segment coupler.
The following information is required for proof of intrinsic safety:
Proof of intrinsic safety
• The total cable length including all spurs greater than 1 m must ber less than
1000 m (EEx ia IIC)
• No spur longer than 30 m
• All participants conform to the FISCO model.
• For every participant ISegment coupler > IDevice
USegment coupler > UDevice
PSegment coupler > PDevice
More information on the planning of a PROFIBUS-PA segment is to be found in Chapter 4.
Endress+Hauser
25
Chapter 4 Planning
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4
Planning
Various aspects must be taken into consideration when a PROFIBUS-PA segment is
planned. Since the importance of each aspect varies from system to system, it is
recommended that the following sections are worked through one after the other. If at
some point it becomes obvious that a concept cannot be realised, then start the whole
procedure again from the beginning with a modified concept.
The chapter is structured as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Selection of the segment coupler
Cable type and length
Calculation of current consumption
Voltage at last device
Calculation examples for bus design
Data quantity
Cycle times
Addressing
Example calculations for addressing and cycle times
4.1
Selection of the segment coupler
The first step in planning a PROFIBUS-PA system is the selection of the segment coupler
according to the criteria laid down in Chapter 3.6. Table 4.1 summerises these:
Zone/Explosion
group
Segment coupler
Remarks
Zone 0
[EEx ia] IIx
Devices that are in installed in Zone 0 must be operated in a
segment with type of protection "EEx ia".
All circuits connected to this segment must be certified for
type of protection "EEx ia".
Zone 1
[EEx ia] IIx
[EEx ib] IIx
Devices that are in installed in Zone 1 must be operated in a
segment with type of protection "EEx ia" or "EEx ib".
All circuits connected to this segment must be certified for
type of protection "EEx ia" or "EEx ib".
Explosion group IIC [EEx ia] IIC
If measurements are made in a medium of explosion group IIC,
the devices concerned as well as the segment coupler must
be certified for explosion group IIC.
Table 4.1
Selection of the segment coupler
according to the type of protection
and the explosion group of the
measured media.
Explosion group IIB [EEx ia] IIC
[EEx ib] IIB
For media of explosion group IIB, both the devices and the
segment coupler can be certified for both group IIC or IIB.
Non-Ex
Devices that are operated on a non-Ex segment may not be
installed in an explosion hazardous area.
Segment coupler
The following segment couplers are available at present:
Table 4.2
Examples of segment couplers
together with specifications
26
Non-Ex
Manufacturer
Designation
Type of
protection
Current output
Voltage
Siemens
6ES7-157-0 AD00 0XA0
[EEx ia] IIC
100 mA
12.5 VDC
Siemens
6ES7-157-0 AC00 0XA0
Standard
400 mA
19.0 VDC
P+F
KFD2-BR-EX1.2PA.93
[EEx ia] IIC
100 mA
13.0 VDC
P+F
KFD2-BR-1PA.93
Standard
400 mA
25.0 VDC
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4.2
Chapter 4 Planning
Cable type and length
The bus length is dependent upon the type of protection of the segment and the
specification of the cable. In order that the basic requirements for transmission on the
IEC 61158-2 physical layer are fulfilled and that the inductance and capacitance of the
cable can be neglected, the bus length and loop resistance are limited. Table 4.2 lists
the PROFIBUS-PA specifications.
Power supply
Type A
Type B
Type C
Application
EEx [ia/ib] IIC
EEx [ib] IIB
Standard
Supply voltage*
13.5 V
13.5 V
24 V
Max. power*
1.8 W
4.2 W
9.1 W
≤ 280 mA
≤ 400 mA
Max. current consumption* ≤ 110 mA
Max. loop resistance
≤ 40 Ω
≤ 16 Ω
≤ 39 Ω
Max. bus segment length
1000 m (EEx ia)
1900 m
1900 m
Max. spur length
30 m
30 m
see Table 4.4
Table 4.3
Standardised power supplies
with max. loop resistance and
bus length for various applications
*see also the technical data supplied by the manufacturer
The bus length is the sum of the length of the trunk cable plus all spurs. If a repeater is
used, then the max. permissible length is doubled.
Bus length
The spurs are subject to the following limitations:
Spurs
• Spurs longer than 30 m are not permissible in explosion hazardous areas.
• For non-hazardous applications, the maximum length of a spur is dependent
upon the number of field devices, see Table 4.4.
• Spurs which are shorter than 1 m are treated as connection boxes and are not
included in the calculation of the total bus length, provided that they do not
together exceed 8 m for a 400 m bus or 2 % of the total length for a longer bus.
No. of field devices
25-32
19-24
15-18
13-14
1-12
Spur length
≤1m
30 m
60 m
90 m
120 m
The maximum cable length for a particular cable resistance is calculated as follows,
whereby the limits in Table 4.4. must be observed.
Table 4.4
Max. spur lengths for non-hazardous
applications
Max. cable length
Max. cable length (km) = max. loop resistance of the segment coupler (Table 4.3)
specific resistivity of the cable (Ω/km)
If not given, the loop resistance is (Ω/km) = 2 x (1000 ρ/A)
whereby ρ = specific resistivity Ω mm2/m und A = core cross-section mm2.
Table 4.5 list examples for the
manufacturers.
PROFIBUS-PA cable available from various
Manufacturer
Order No.
Application
Specific resistance
Siemens
6XV1830-5BH10
Standard
≤ 44 Ω/km
Siemens
6XV1830-5AH10
EEx ia/ib IIC
≤ 44 Ω/km
Kerpen
CEL-PE/OSCR/PVC/FRLA FB-02YS(St)Y#
Standard
Kerpen
CEL-PE/OSCR/PVC/FRLA
FB-02YS(St+C)Y#
EEx ia/ib IIC
Belden
3076F (used in Turck products)
Standard
Endress+Hauser
45.4 Ω/km
Table 4.5
Loop resistance of various
PROFIBUS-PA cables
27
Chapter 4 Planning
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4.3
Calculation of current consumption
The primary factors in determining the number of devices on a segment are the current
supplied by the segment coupler and the current consumption of the field devices. For
this reason, the current consumption must be calculated for every segment. As a rule of
thumb for general planning:
• Max. 32 devices per segment are permissible in non-hazardous areas
(A repeater allows more devices on the segment).
• Max. 10 devices are permissible in hazardous areas of category ia.
For the calculation, the current supplied by the segment coupler Is, the basic current of
every device IB and the fault current of every device IFDE must be known. From the
electrical point of view, a segment is permissible when:
Is ≥ ISEG whereby ISEG = ΣIB + max. IFDE
Table 4.5 lists the basic current, the fault current and other specifications of
Endress+Hauser devices. The following examples illustrate how the calculation should
be made. Empty forms can be found in Appendix A.
Type
Application
ID code
Type of
protection
Basic
current IB
Fault
current IFDE
Auxiliary
energy
Cerabar S
Pressure
1501
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
Deltabar S
Differential
pressure
1504
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
Deltapilot S
Level
1503
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
Micropilot
Level
150A
EEx ia IIC
12 mA
0 mA
from bus
Mycom II
pH/Redox
1508
EEx em [ia/ib] IIC* 11 mA
0 mA
local
Conductivity
(cond).
1509
EEx em [ia/ib] IIC* 11 mA
0 mA
local
Conductivity
(ind)
150B
EEx em [ia/ib] IIC* 11 mA
0 mA
local
Flow
1505
EEx de [ib/ia] IIC* 12 mA
0 mA
local
12 mA
0 mA
local
Promag 33
Promag 35
Promass 63
Flow
1506
EEx de [ib/ia] IIC* 12 mA
EEx d [ib/ia] IIC*
0 mA
local
Prowirl 77
Flow
1510
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
Prosonic T
Level
1502
EEx ia IIC
13 mA
0 mA
from bus
EEx d
17 mA
0 mA
#
FMU 232
TMD 834
Temperature
1507
EEx ia IIC
13 mA
0 mA
from bus
Mypro
Conductivity
150C
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
pH/Redox
150D
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
Conductivity
1515
None
11 mA
0 mA
local
pH
1516
11 mA
0 mA
Turbidity
1517
11 mA
0 mA
Oxygen
1518
11 mA
0 mA
Chlorine
1519
11 mA
0 mA
FXA 164
Level limit
1514
EEx ia IIC
30 mA
0 mA
from bus
RID 261
Display
EEx ia IIC
11 mA
0 mA
from bus
Liquisys
Table 4.6
PROFIBUS-PA data of E+H
devices
28
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4.4
Chapter 4 Planning
Voltage at last device
The resistance of the cable causes a voltage drop on the segment that is greatest at the
device which is farthest from the segment coupler. It must be checked whether an
operating voltage of 9 V (for FEB 20 in Zone 0 9.6 V) is present at this device.
Ohm's law is used:
UB = US – (ISEG x RSEG)
whereby: UB =
US =
ISEG =
RSEG =
4.5
Voltage at last device
Output voltage of the segment coupler (manufacturer's data)
Current consumed on the segment (as calculated in Section 4.2)
Cable resistance = bus length x specific resistivity
Calculation examples for bus design
Specimen calculation for a bus operating in a safe area with the architecture shown in
Fig. 4.1.
Standard segment coupler: Siemens, Is = 400 mA, Us = 19 V. Cable: Siemens, 44 Ω/km
Standard segment coupler:
Us = 19 V
Is = 400 mA
Example 1,
non-hazardous
application
T
20 m
20 m
15 m
5m
7m
7m
20 m
20 m
15 m
5m
7m
Trunk cable 60 m
T
1
7
2
8
3
spur
UB = 17.64 V
4
5
9
6
10
11
12
Fig. 4.1
Example 1: Bus installed in
non-hazardous area
Max. loop resistance, standard segment coupler (see Table 4.2)
39 Ω
Specific resistance of cable (e.g. Siemens)
44 Ω/km
Max. length (m)=
1000 x loop resistance/specific resistance
1000 x (39 Ω/44 Ω) =
886 m
Length of trunk cable
60 m
Total length of spurs
141 m
Total length of cable (= trunk cable + spurs) LSEG
201 m
Total length of cable 201 m < Max. length 886 m
OK!
Endress+Hauser
Cable length
29
Chapter 4 Planning
Current consumption
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
No. Device
Manufacturer
Tag
Basic current
1
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC122
12 mA
0 mA
2
Positioner
––––
VIC121
13 mA
4 mA
3
Deltapilot S
Endress+Hauser
LIC124
11 mA
0 mA
4
TMD 834
Endress+Hauser
TIC123
13 mA
0 mA
5
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC126
12 mA
0 mA
6
Positioner
––––
VIC125
13 mA
6 mA
7
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC222
12 mA
0 mA
8
Positioner
––––
VIC221
13 mA
4 mA
9
Deltapilot S
Endress+Hauser
LIC224
11 mA
0 mA
10
TMD 834
Endress+Hauser
TIC223
13 mA
0 mA
11
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC226
12 mA
0 mA
12
Positioner
––––
VIC225
13 mA
4 mA
Max. fault current (max. IFDE)
Voltage at last device
Fault current
6 mA
Current consumption ISEG = ΣIB + max. IFDE
154 mA
Output current of segment coupler Is
400 mA
Is ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE ?
yes
Output voltage of segment coupler US (manufacturer's data)
Specific resistance of cable RK (e.g. Siemens)
44 Ω/km
Total length of cable LSEG
201 m
Resistance of cable RSEG = LSEG x RK
8.844 Ω
Current consumption of segment ISEG
154 mA
OK!
19.00 V
Voltage drop UA = ISEG x RSEG
1.36 V
Voltage at last device UB = US - UA
17.64 V
UB ≥ 9 V?**
OK!
*The operating voltage for the FEB 24 P in Zone 0 is 9.6 V.
Conclusion
Result of the calculations:
• Cable length:
• Current consumption:
• Voltage at last device:
OK
OK
OK
From the point of view of the architecture, the segment in Example 1 can be operated
with a standard segment coupler with an output current of 400 mA. In this case, two
additional tanks with identical instrumentation could be operated on the same segment.
30
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 4 Planning
In Examples 2 and 3, the PROFIBUS-PA segment is to operate in an explosion hazardous
area. In accordance with the FISCO model, the devices are operated on two separate
segments with type of protection EEx ia for Zone 0 and EEx ib for Zone 1. Calculations
are made for both segments.
Example 2, EEx ia
Specimen calculation for a bus operating in a hazardous area Zone 0 with the architecture
shown in Fig. 4.2. Segment coupler [EEx ia] IIC: Siemens, Is = 100 mA, Us = 13 V.
Cable: Siemens 44 Ω/km, max. bus length = 1000 m
Segment coupler [EEx ia] IIC
Is = 100 mA
Us = 13 V
T
UB = 12.77 V
T
EEx ib
T
trunk cable
EEx ia.
5m
5m
T
2
7
Zone 0
3
8
spur
1
15 m
15 m
50 m
4
5
Zone 0
9
10
6
11
Zone 1
Zone 1
Max. loop resistance, EEx ia (see Table 4.2)
40 Ω
Specific resistance of cable (e.g. Siemens)
44 Ω/km
Max. length (m)=
Fig. 4.2
Example 2: Calculation of the
segment EEx ia.
Bus installed with routing to
Zone 0 (EEx ia) and
Zone 1 (EEx ib)
12
1000 x loop resistance/specific resistance
1000 x (40 Ω/44 Ω) =
Cable length:
909 m
Length of trunk cable
50 m
Total length of spurs
40 m
Total length of cable (= trunk cable + spurs) LSEG
90 m
Total length of cable 90 m < Max. length 909 m
OK!
No. Device
Manufacturer
Tag
3
Deltapilot S
Endress+Hauser
LIC124
11 mA
0 mA
4
TMD 834
Endress+Hauser
TIC123
13 mA
0 mA
9
Deltapilot S
Endress+Hauser
LIC224
11 mA
0 mA
10
TMD 834
Endress+Hauser
TIC223
13 mA
0 mA
Max. fault current (max. IFDE)
Basic current
Current consumption
0 mA
Current consumption ISEG = SIB + max. IFDE
48 mA
Output current of segment coupler Is
100 mA
Is ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE ?
ja
Endress+Hauser
Fault current
OK!
31
Chapter 4 Planning
Voltage at last device
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Output voltage of segment coupler US (manufacturer's data)
13.00 V
Specific resistance of cable RK (e.g. Siemens)
44 Ω/km
Total length of cable LSEG
90 m
Resistance of cable RSEG = LSEG x RK
3.96 Ω
Current consumption of segment ISEG
48 mA
Voltage drop UA = ISEG x RSEG
0.19 V
Voltage at last device UB = US - UA
12.81 V
UB ≥ 9 V?*
OK!
*The operating voltage for the FEB 24 P in Zone 0 is 9.6 V.
Conclusion
Result of the calculations:
• Cable length:
• Current consumption
• Voltage at last device
OK
OK
OK
From the point of view of the architecture, the segment in example 2 can be operated
with an EEx ia segment coupler with an output current of 100 mA.
Example 3, EEx ib
Specimen calculation for a bus operating in a hazardous area Zone 1 with the architecture
shown in Fig. 4.3. Segment coupler [EEx ia/ib] IIC: P+F, Is = 100 mA, Us = 13 V.
Cable: Siemens, 44 Ω/km
Segment coupler [Ex ia/ib] IIC
Is = 100 mA
T
Us = 13 V
Trunk cable 60 m
T
EEx ib
T
EEx ia.
5
Fig. 4.3
Example 3: Calculation of the
segment EEx ib,
Bus installed with routing to Zone 0
(EEx ia) and Zone 1 (EEx ib)
Cable length:
32
9
10
6
Zone 1
11
20 m
Zone 0
20 m
4
8
spur
3
7m
7m
7
Zone 0
20 m
2
UB = 12,22 V
20 m
1
7m
7m
T
12
Zone 1
Max. loop resistance, EEx ib (see Table 4.2)
16 Ω
Specific resistance of cable (e.g. Siemens)
44 Ω/km
Max. length (m)=
363 m
1000 x loop resistance/specific resistance
1000 x (16 Ω/44 W) =
Length of trunk cable
60 m
Total length of spurs
108 m
Total length of cable (= trunk cable + spurs) LSEG
168 m
Total length of cable 168 m < Max. length 363 m
OK!
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 4 Planning
No. Device
Manufacturer
Measuring
point
Basic current
1
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC226
12 mA
0 mA
2
Positioner
––––
VIC121
13 mA
4 mA
5
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC122
12 mA
0 mA
6
Positioner
––––
VIC125
13 mA
6 mA
7
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC126
12 mA
0 mA
8
Positioner
––––
VIC221
13 mA
4 mA
11
Promass 63
Endress+Hauser
FIC222
12 mA
0 mA
12
Positioner
––––
VIC225
13 mA
4 mA
Max. fault current (max. IFDE)
Fault current
Current consumption
6 mA
Current consumption ISEG = SIB + max. IFDE
106 mA
Output current of segment coupler Is (EEx ia IIB)
100 mA
Is ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE ?
no
Speisestrom eines Segmentkopplers Is (EEx ib IIB)
≤280 mA
Is ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE ?
yes
Impossible!
OK!
Output voltage of segment coupler US (manufacturer's data)
Specific resistance of cable RK (e.g. Siemens)
44 Ω/km
Total length of cable LSEG
168 m
Resistance of cable RSEG = LSEG x RK
7.39 Ω
Current consumption of segment ISEG
106 mA
13 V
Voltage drop UA = ISEG x RSEG
Voltage at last device
0.78 V
Voltage at last device UB = US - UA
12.22 V
UB ≥ 9 V?*
OK!
*The operating voltage for the FEB 24 P in Zone 0 is 9.6 V.
Result of the calculations:
• Cable length:
• Current consumption
• Voltage at last device
Conclusion
OK
EEx ia not permissible, EEx ib OK
OK
The result for a segment with type of protection EEx ib and a segment coupler EEx ia IIC
is negative. A segment coupler with type of protection EEx ib IIB would be permissible
but at the moment there is none on the market. Two possible alternatives are shown in
Fig. 4.4:
• Version A:
two segments with type of protections EEx ib are routed to one tank each. In this
case, the current consumption is reduced to 56 mA. A segment coupler with type
of protection EEx ia IIC is adequate for this requirement.
• Version B:
only circuits with type of protection EEx ia are connected to the bus. The plant
can then be equipped with two segments with type of protection EEx ia.
The current consumption per segment is 80 mA.
Endress+Hauser
33
Chapter 4 Planning
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Version A
Segment coupler. 3x [EEx ia] IIC
T
T
T
EEx ib
EEx ib
EEx ia.
T
T
1
2
T
7
Zone 0
3
8
4
Zone 0
9
5
6
10
11
Zone 1
12
Zone 1
Version B
Segment coupler. 2x [EEx ia] IIC
T
T
EEx ia.
EEx ia.
T
T
1
2
Fig. 4.4
Example 2:
Alternative architectures:
3
Version A – two segments with
degree of protection EEx ib IIC
Version B – two segments with
degree of protection EEx ia IIC
7
Zone 0
Zone 0
4
9
5
Zone 1
8
6
10
11
12
Zone 1
T: Terminator
34
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4.6
Chapter 4 Planning
Data quantity
If the participants communicate directly with the PROFIBUS-DP master through a
segment coupler, then the amount of data exchanged sets no limits to the design of the
PROFIBUS-DP segment. If a link is used as interface to the PROFIBUS-DP system,
however, the amount of data that can be stored in the I/O buffer is limited. The maximum
telegram length that can be handled by the PLC must also be taken into consideration.
Table 4.7 summarises the measured values, amount of data and cycle times associated
with Endress+Hauser devices. Table 6.3 in Chapter 6.4 lists the telegram lengths of
various PLCs.
Specifications in bytes
T
0...15
6...51
5
0---15
6...51
0...15
6...51
5
5
0..15
6...51
Amount of data 44...284 bytes to PLC
5
Link,
non-hazardous
area
T
2
3
bytes per device
1
4
5
7
8
9
6
10
11
12
Fig. 4.5
Example 1: Bus installed in
non-hazardous area
Take Example 1 in Fig 4.5: can a link be used?
• 4x devices deliver 4x 5 bytes =
• 4x Promass deliver 4x 6 to 51 byte =
• 4x positioners deliver 4x 0 to 15 byte =
Example: Data quantity
20 bytes
24...204 bytes
0...60 bytes
Depending upon the device configuration, from 44 bytes to 284 bytes are periodically
exchanged with the PLC. In the case of a link, the data are transmitted to the PLC in a
telegram. The telegram length is limited:
a) by the buffer size of the link, e.g.
244 bytes,
b) by the max. telegram length of the PLC, e.g. 122 bytes
c) by the PROFIBUS-PA specification
244 bytes.
It can seen that the use of a link is determined by the configuration of the field devices
and the system components used. Should the maximum configuration be required, a link
could not be used.
Endress+Hauser
35
Chapter 4 Planning
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Type
Cyclic data
Data amount
Response time
Function blocks
Cerabar S
Pressure
5 byte
10 ms
AI, PB, TB pressure
Deltabar S
Differential pressure 5 byte
10 ms
AI, PB, TB pressure
Deltapilot S
Level
5 byte
10 ms
AI, PB, TB level
Micropilot
Level
5 byte
10 ms
AI, PB, TB level
Mycom II
pH Wert
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11,3 ms
AI, PB
Conductivity (ind.)
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11,3 ms
AI, PB
Conductivity (cond.) 5....10 byte
Temperature
10 ms ...11,3 ms
AI, PB
Promag 33/35
Flow
Totalisator
Control
Promass 63
Mass flow
5 byte ... 50 byte
10 ms ... 23 ms
Totalisator 1
+ 1 byte output data
Temperature
Density
Totalisator 2
Volumetric flow
Satndard
volumetric flow
Target medium flow
Carrier medium flow
Calculated density
Control
8x AI, PB, TB flow
2x TB totalisor
Prowirl 77
Flow
Totalisator
Control
5 byte ...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
+ 1 byte output data
AI, PB, TB flow
TB totalisor
Prosonic T
Level
5 byte
10 ms
AI, PB, TB level
TMD 834
Temperature
5 byte
10 ms
AI, PB, TB temp.
Mypro
Conductivity,
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
pH value
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
pH value
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
O2, Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
Cl2, Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
Turbidity,
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
Conductivity
Temperature
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11.3 ms
AI, PB
FXA 164
Level limit
2...8.byte
10 ms...13.9 ms
DI, PB
RIB 261
Display
0 byte
0 ms
Listener function
Liquisys
Table 4.7
PROFIBUS-PA data of E+H
devices
36
5...10 byte
10 ms ...11,3 ms
+ 1 byte output data
AI, PB, TB flow
TB totalisor
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4.7
Chapter 4 Planning
Cycle times
In addition to the amount of data, the cycle times must also be considered when the
PROFIBUS-PA segment is planned. Data exchange between a PLC (a Class 1 master)
and the field devices occurs automatically in a fixed, repetitive order. The cycle times
determine how much time is required until the data of all the devices in the network are
updated.
The more complex a device is, the greater the amount of data to be exchanged and the
longer the response time for the exchange between PLC and device. Table 4.7
summarises the amount of data and the response times for Endress+Hauser devices.
The total cycle time for the updating of network data is calculated as follows:
Total cycle time =
Sum of the cycle times of the field devices
+ internal PLC cycle time
+ PROFIBUS-DP transmission time
Examples can be found in Section 4.9.
The total cycle time of a system can be reduced considerably by the use of links. The
limitation placed on the transmission rate of the PROFIBUS-DP side by a segment coupler
is eliminated.
4.8
Links
Addressing
Every device in the bus system is assigned a unique address. Valid addresses lie in the
range 0...126. If the address is not set correctly, the device cannot communicate.
The PLC is able to assign up to 126 addresses to individual devices. A device address
may appear only once within a particular PROFIBUS-DP system. If a segment coupler is
used, then the addresses assigned to the PROFIBUS-PA devices count as
PROFIBUS-DP addresses. For a typical bus configuration with PLC and PC, the
addresses are assigned as follows:
PROFIBUS-DP network
• the PLC is assigned an address (Class 1 master)
• the PC or operating tool is assigned an address
(Class 2 master)
• the other addresses are assigned to the field devices.
If one or more links are in use, these are considered to be on the PROFIBUS-DP network.
The field devices connected to link, however, form a separate PROFIBUS-PA system. In
this case, the PROFIBUS-DP addresses are assigned as follows:
Addressing with a link
• the PLC is assigned an address (Class 1 master)
• the PC or operating tool is assigned an address
(Class 2 master)
• every link is assigned an address:
The field devices connected to the link are assigned a unique address for the
PROFIBUS-PA segment of which they are part. They are not counted as part of
the PROFIBUS-DP system.
• the rest of the addresses are assigned to the other field devices that are
connected to transporent segment couples or directly to the PROFIBUS-DP
system.
On the PROFIBUS-PA side, every device is assigned an address between 3 and 126,
(the addresses 0 and 1 are reserved). Address 2 is reserved for the link.
Three examples for addressing are to be found in Section 4.9.
Endress+Hauser
37
Chapter 4 Planning
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
4.9
Example calculations for addressing and cycle times
Siemens segment couplers can be used by any PROFIBUS-DP master (PLC or process
control system) that supports a baudrate of 45.45 kbit/s. In the example, two couplers
for hazardous areas and one for non-hazardous areas are used.
Example 1:
Siemens segment
coupler
• A maximum of 126 (0 - 125) addresses can be given to the participants, since
the segment coupler is transparent.
• 124 addresses are available for assignment to the field devices.
• The addresses 3 - 19 are used.
• The transmission rate is 45.45 kbit/s.
The cycle time for the following example is:
• Σ (cycle time of the devices) + PLC cycle time (ca. 100 ms)
= 17 x 10 ms + 100 ms
= 270 ms
Note!
• For PROFIBUS-DP alone, the DP transmission time must also be considered.
Note!
Segment coupler
[EEx ia] IIC/IIB
Non-hazardous area
Device designation
6ES7-157-0 AD00-0XA0
6ES7-157-0 AC00-0XA0
max. output current
100 mA
400 mA
power supply
DP master
address A 1
CPU
100 ms
45.45 kbit/s
PROFIBUS-DP
38
Ex segment coupler
A 14
A3
A9
A 15
A4
A 10
A 16
A5
A6
A 11
A 12
A 13
PROFIBUS-PA
A8
A7
Safe area
Ex segment coupler
PROFIBUS-PA
PROFIBUS-PA
Standard segment coupler
Fig. 4.6
Example of network for Siemens
segment coupler
Operating tool
address A 2
A 17
A 18
A 19
Explosion hazardous area
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 4 Planning
The Peppert + Fuchs segment coupler can be used by any PROFIBUS-DP master (PLC
or process control system). It can thus be used in all common configurations. In the
example, two couplers for hazardous areas and one for non-hazardous areas are used.
Example 2:
Pepperl + Fuchs
segment coupler
• A maximum of 126 (0 - 125) addresses can be given to the participants, since
the segment coupler is transparent.
• 124 addresses are available for assignment to the field devices.
• The addresses 3 - 19 are used.
• The transmission rate is 93.75 kbit/s.
The cycle time for the following example is:
• Σ (cycle time of the devices) + PLC cycle time (ca. 100 ms)
= 17 x 10 ms + 100 ms
= 270 ms
Note!
• For PROFIBUS-DP alone, the DP transmission time must also be considered.
Note!
Segment coupler
[EEx ia] IIC/IIB
Non-hazardous area
Device designation
KFD2-BR-EX1.2PA93
KFD2-BR-1PA.93
max. output current
100 mA
400 mA
power supply
DP-master
address A1
CPU
Operating tool
address A2
100 ms
PROFIBUS-DP
93.75 kbit/s
Ex segment coupler
A3
A9
A 15
A4
A 10
A 16
A5
A6
Endress+Hauser
A 11
A 12
A 13
Hazardous area
PROFIBUS-PA
A 14
A7
Safe area
Ex segment coupler
A8
PROFIBUS-PA
PROFIBUS-PA
Standard segment
A 17
A 18
A 19
Fig. 4.7
Network example for P+F
segment
39
Chapter 4 Planning
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
The Siemens PA-link can be used by any PROFIBUS-DP master (PLC or process control
system). Three links are used in the example: two links for hazardous areas and one for
non-hazardous areas. Two segment couplers for non-hazardous areas are connected to
the link for non-hazardous areas. Similarly two segment couplers for hazardous areas
are connected to the hazardous area link.
Example 3:
Siemens PA-link
• A maximum of 126 addresses can be assigned to the participants on the
PROFIBUS-DP system.
• A maximum of 30 addresses (address range 3 - 126) can be assigned in the
PROFIBUS-PA segments connected to the link.
• The PROFIBUS-DP addresses 3 -5 are used to address the links.
• In the PROFIBUS-PA segments, the addresses 2 -11, 2 - 10 and 2 - 9 are used,
whereby address 2 is reserved for the link in each case.
• The transmission rate may be up to 12 Mbit/s.
The cycle time for the following example is:
• Σ (cycle time of the devices) + cycle time per link + PLC-cycle time
PROFIBUS-PA segment 1:
PROFIBUS-PA segment 2:
PROFIBUS-PA segment 3:
Note!
9 x 10 ms + 3 x 1 ms + 100 ms = 193 ms
8 x 10 ms + 3 x 1 ms + 100 ms = 183 ms
7 x 10 ms + 3 x 1 ms + 100 ms = 173 ms
•
Note!
• For PROFIBUS-DP alone, the DP transmission time must also be considered.
Segment coupler
[EEx ia] IIC/IIB
Non-hazardous area
PA Link (IM157)
Device designation
6ES7-157-0 AD00-0XA0
6ES7-157-0 AC00-0XA0
6ES7-157-0 AC00-0XA0
max. output current
100 mA
400 mA
——
power supply
Operating tool
address A2
DP master
addess A1
CPU
100 ms
…12 Mbit/s
PROFIBUS-DP
Standard segment
Ex segment coupler
A3
Ex segment coupler
A4
Link
A5
Link
PA 2
Link
PA 2
PA 2
PA 7
PA 6
PA 7
PA 3
PA 9
PA 4
PA 10
PA 4
PA 9
Non-hazardous area
PA 8
PA 10
PA 11
Subnetwork
PA 4
PA 5
PA 5
PA 6
PA 7
PA 8
PROFIBUS-PA
PA 3
PROFIBUS-PA
PROFIBUS-PA
PA 8
PA 3
PA 6
Subnetwork
PA 9
PA 5
Subnetwork
Explosion-hazardous area
Fig. 4.8
Network example for Siemens link
40
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5
Chapter 5 Installation
Installation
When installing a PROFIBUS-PA segment, particular attention must be paid to the wiring.
The customer has two choices:
• T-box with screw terminals
• Cord sets with M12 connector.
In both cases, care must be taken regarding the continuity of the screening and the
correct termination of the segment.
PROFIBUS-DP systems are usually connected together by means of Sub-D connectors,
since there are currently no special components.
The correct installation of the field devices is also important. Since this is beyond the
scope of these guidelines, the information should be taken from the corresponding
device instructions. Finally, the address must be set. The way in which this is done has
an influence on how the segment is subsequently commissioned.
The chapter contains the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cabling in safe areas
Example: screening in safe areas
Example: screening in explosion hazardous areas
Termination
Overvoltage protection
Installation of the devices
Addressing
Note!
• Endress+Hauser devices that are suitable for use in explosion hazardous areas are
designed such that the circuit that is connected to the bus exhibits the type of
protection "intrinsic safety" category ia.
• In contrast to loop-powered devices, four-wire devices have further types of
protection. This must be taken into account when the device is installed. Since the
connection compartment for the intrinsically safe circuits are designed with type of
protection EEx d or EEx e, the M12 connector cannot be used for EEx d devices and
only under certain conditions for EEx e devices.
Endress+Hauser
Note!
41
Chapter 5 Installation
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5.1
Cabling in safe areas
Screened cable must always be used, see Chapter 3.2. In order to obtain the optimal
effectiveness, the screening should be connected as often as possible to ground.
• The external ground terminal on the transmitter must be connected to ground.
• The screening must be grounded at each end of the cable.
• In the event of large differences in potential between the individual grounding
points, only on point on the screening should be connected to the ground. All
other screening ends are connected to ground via a capacitor that is suitable for
HF applications. (Recommended: ceramic capacitor 10 nF/250 V∼)
Depending upon the T-box, the cable screening is grounded via a 10 nF
capacitor or a special Pg cable gland. If necessary, the capacitor can be
replaced by a wire jumper.
plant ground
Bus cable
100 Ω
T-box (E+H Order Nos.)
Aluminium housing IP 67 with 4-pin connector
• 017481-0130 with special Pg9 (Iris spring)
switchable bus terminator
• 017481-0110 with standard Pg,
switchable bus terminator,
internal grounding capacitor 10 nF
(for capacitive grounding)
B
S
A
1µF
next T-box
A
S
B
Bus cable
connector
jumper
cable gland with iris spring and/or
connected screening
PROFIBUS-PA
device via M12
connector
Fig. 5.1
Optimal EMC connection when
voltage differences between the
grounding points are small
Screening the spur/
T-box
bus terminator
ON
bus terminator
OFF
Use cable glands with good electromagnetic compatibility, if possible with all-round
contacting of the cable screening (iris spring). A prerequisite is small potential
differences, if necessary with equipotential bonding.
• The continuity of the PA cable screening between tapping points must be
ensured.
• The connection to the screening must be kept as short as possible.
Ideally, cable glands with iris spring should be used to connect the cable screening to
T-boxes. The iris spring within the gland connects the screening to the T-box housing.
The woven screening lies under the iris spring. When the gland is tighten, the spring is
squeezed tight onto the screening, producing good electrical contact between the
screening and the metal housing.
A T-box is to be seen as part of the screening (Faraday cage). This applies in particular
drop-line boxes, when they are connected to a PA device via plug and cable. In such
cases, a metal plug must be used, in which the cable screening is in direct contact with
the plug housing, e.g. a cord set.
42
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5.2
Chapter 5 Installation
Example: screening in safe areas
Note!
• These suggestions may deviate from existing standards (IEC 61158-2) and
guidelines, but produce optimal installation from an EMC point of view.
Note!
Optimal installation when an equipotential bonding system exists
Example 1
• When the device is not connected directly to the T-box or junction box, use a
cord set ➀ with M12 connector.
T-box
power
supply/
segment
coupler
T-box
cable gland with
iris spring
ground connection
as short as possible
field device
plug with ground
connection
➀
field device
Fig. 5.2
Optimal installation when an
equipotential bonding system
exists
Plant grounding system (German practice shown here)
Isolated installation when no additional grounding is allowed or when the potential
differences between the grounding points are too great (the customer's grounding
concept must be observed).
Example 2
• The segment coupler is the preferred point to fully connect the screening (i.e. not
via a capacitor)
• When the device is not connected directly to the T-box or junction box, use a
cord set ➀ with M12 connector.
T-box
T-box
power
supply/
segment
coupler
standard Pg 9
➀
capacitors:
max. 10 nF/250 V~
field device
field device
Fig. 5.3
Alternative installation for
isolated version
Endress+Hauser
43
Chapter 5 Installation
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5.3
Example: screening in explosion hazardous areas
The examples which follow reflect German practice - when adapting them for international
use, please observe your national regulations.
T-boxes and junction boxes must be certified for use in hazardous areas (light blue
colour), type of protection EEx ia. E+H order number: e.g. 017481-0100
Example 1
Common grounding of all devices
• When the device is not connected directly to the T-box or junction box, use a
cord set ➀ with M12 connector.
• The connection between the screening/housing is not routed into the T-box ➁ and
must be pulled in afterwards.
Non-hardardous
area
Explosion hazardous area
T-box
T-box
power
supply/
segment
coupler
terminator
E+H Order No.
017481-0001
standard Pg 9
➀
➁
field device
field device
plant grounding system (German practice shown here)
Fig. 5.4
Common grounding of all devices
Example 2
Separate grounding of the devices between safe and hazardous areas.
• When the device is not connected directly to the T-box or junction box, use a
cord set ➀ with M12 connector.
• The connection between the screening/housing is not routed into the T-box ➁ and
must be pulled in afterwards.
• Use a small capacitor (e.g. 1 nF/1500 V dielectric strength, ceramic) ➂. The total
capacitance connected to the screening must not exceed 10 nF.
Non-harzardous
area
Explosion hazardous area
T-box
power
supply/
segment
coupler
screening
isolated
from
housing
standard Pg 9
➀
➁
field device
Fig. 5.5
Separate grounding of the
devices between safe and
hazardous areas.
44
➂
T-box
terminator
E+H Order
No.
017481-0001
field device
plant grounding system (German practice shown here)
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5.4
Chapter 5 Installation
Termination
The start and end of every PROFIBUS-PA segment must be fitted with a bus terminator.
For non-hazardous areas, some T-boxes have an integrated terminating element that can
be switched in when required. If this is not the case, a separate terminator must be used.
• The segment coupler at the beginning of the segment has a built in terminator.
• The terminator in the T-box at the end of the segment must be switched in, or a
separate terminator must be used.
• T-boxes with switchable terminators may not be used in explosion hazardous
areas. The terminator requires the corresponding FISCO approval and is a
separate unit.
• For a segment with a tree architecture, the bus ends at the device that is the
furthest from the segment coupler.
• For a junction box, the termination can be made at the box, provided that none of
the connected spurs exceeds 30 m in length.
• If the bus is extended by the use of a repeater, then the extension must also be
terminated at both ends.
The beginning and end of the PROFIBUS-DP segment must also be terminated, see
Chapter 2. The terminating resistors are already built into most of the connectors on the
market and must only be switched in.
5.5
Overvoltage protection
Depending upon the application, the PROFIBUS-PA segment can also be protected
against overvoltages.
• An overvoltage protector is installed immediately after the segment coupler.
• An overvoltage protector is installed immediately before every device
(between the device and the T-box).
• In the case of hazardous applications, each overvoltage protector must have the
corresponding approval.
• The manufacturer's instructions are to be observed when installing.
The overvoltage protectors HAW 560 (standard) and HAW 562 Z (hazardous
applications) are available from Endress+Hauser or direct from the manufacturer (Dehn
und Söhne, Neumarkt, Germany)
Segment coupler
field device
Overvoltage
protection
Endress+Hauser
Fig. 5.6
PROFIBUS-PA overvoltage
protection system
45
Chapter 5 Installation
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5.6
Installation of the devices
The devices must be installed in accordance with the following operating manuals.
Explosion-hazardous
areas
Note!
Electrical connection
ID Code
Device
Operating instructions
1501
Cerabar S
BA 168P/00/de
1502
Prosonic T
BA 166F/00/de
1503
Deltapilot S
BA 164F/00/de
1504
Deltabar S
BA 167P/00/de
1505
Promag 33/35
BA 029D/06/de
1506
Promass 63
BA 033D/06/de
1507
TMD 834
BA 090R/09/de
1508
Mycom II pH
BA 143C/07/de
1509
Mycom II conductivity (ind.)
BA 168C/07/de
150A
Micropilot FMR 230 V
BA 202F/00/de
Micropilot FMR 231
BA 176F/00/de
150B
Mycom II conductivity (cond.)
BA 144C/07/ de
150C
Mypro conductivity
BA 198C/07/de
150D
Mypro pH
BA 198C/07/de
1510
Prowirl 77
BA 037D/06/de
1515 – 1519
Liquisys
in Vorbereitung
1514
FXN 164
TI 343F/00/de
RID 261
BA 098R/09/a3
All components used in explosion-hazardous applications must have a FISCO approval.
If this is not the case, the PROFIBUS-PA segment must be specially approved by the
responsible authorities. All the Endress+Hauser devices listed above have been certified
in accordance with the FISCO model.
Note!
In addition to the general installation guidelines, any special guidelines for installation in
explosion-hazardous areas as well as the guidelines in Chapter 4.1 regarding the
interconnection of devices in explosion hazardous areas must be observed.
Connect up according to the instructions in the device operating manual.
For devices with integrated polarity protection of the bus line, the correct polarity is
automatically selected. If a device without polarity protection is incorrectly wired, then it
will not be recognised by the PLC or operating program. Such an incorrect connection,
however, has no damaging effect on the device or the segment.
All Endress+Hauser devices have integrated polarity protection and can be
commissioned independent of the actual polarity.
46
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
5.7
Chapter 5 Installation
Addressing
The device address can be set either locally via DIP switch, via local operating elements
or by the appropriate software, e.g. Commuwin II.
Address switch
• If future extensions to the network are planned, it makes sense to assign
addresses for the devices that are not yet connected. These can then be
connected per plug and play at a later date.
All Endress+Hauser devices except the temperature sensor TMD 834 are fitted with an
address switch.
2 + 8 = 10
on
off
SW
HW
1
• Switches 1 - 7:
• Switch 8:
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Hardware address
Hardware addressing (OFF) or
Software addressing (ON) is used.
The default setting is the software address 126.
Hardware addressing has the advantage that the device can be installed in the segment
immediately.
Hardware addressing
1) Set switch 8 to OFF.
2) Set an address with switches 1 - 7: the associated values are shown in the table.
Switch No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Value in position "off"
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Value in position "on"
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
A software address can be set by calling the DPV1_DDE server in Commuwin II or by
using a PROFIBUS-DP operating tool.
Software addressing
• The device leaves the factory set for software addressing: Default address 126.
• This address can be used to check the function of the device and to connect it
into an operating network.
• Afterwards, the address must be changed to allow other devices to be
connected to the network.
Endress+Hauser
47
Chapter 5 Installation
Commuwin II
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
To set an address with Commuwin II proceed as follows:
1) Select software addressing at the device: set switch 8 of the address switch to ON
2) Start the DVP1 server with a double click on the DPV1 icon in the Commuwin II
program group.
3) Select the item Set Address in the menu Configure.
4) If a type IM 157 Siemens DP/PA link is being used, enter its DP-address under
PA Link Addr.
5) Enter the current address under Old Addr. (= 126 when commissioning).Check the
address entered by clicking on Check Old Address. If a device with the entered
address is found, a message to this effect appears under Device ID. Otherwise the
error message "unknown" appears.
x
Set Device Address
Pa-Link Addr.:
Old Addr.:
34
Device Id:
TMD 834
New Addr.:
Device Id.:
Check Old Addr.
Check New Addr.
UNKNOWN
Set Address
Cancel
Help
6) Enter the new address in New Addr.Check that there is no address conflict by
clicking on Check New Address. When the button Set Address becomes active,
click on it to assign the new address to the device.
x
Set Device Address
Pa-Link Addr.:
Old Addr.:
34
Device Id:
TMD 834
New Addr.:
10
Device Id.:
UNKNOWN
Check Old Addr.
Check New Addr.
Set Address
Help
Cancel
7) When the procedure is completed correctly, the following message appears:
"Address successfully changed!"
48
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
6
Chapter 6 System Integration
System Integration
This chapter is concerned with the information that is required for the system integration
of PROFIBUS-DP and PROFIBUS-PA devices. The chapter is structured as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
6.1
Device database files
Data format
Notes on network design
Bus parameters
Tested integrations
Device database files (GSD)
A device database file contains a description of the properties of the PROFIBUS-PA
device, e.g. the supported transmission rates and the type and format of the digital
information output to the PLC. The bitmap files also belong to the .gsd files. These allow
the measuring point to be represented by an icon. The device database file and
corresponding bitmaps are required by the network design tool of the PROFIBUS-DP
network.
Every device is allocated an identity code by the PROFIBUS User Organisation (PNO).
This appears in the device data base file name (.gsd). For Endress+Hauser devices, the
identity code is always 15xx, where xx is device dependent. The identity codes of the
various devices are listed in Table 4.5 in Chapter 4.3.
Device name
ID
code.:
GSD
Type file
Bitmaps
Micropilot
FMR 23x
150A
(hex)
EH__150A.gsd
EH_150Ax.200
EH150A_d.bmp
EH150A_n.bmp
EH150A_s.bmp
The full set of device data base files for Endress+Hauser devices can be obtained as
follows:
• INTERNET:
Endress+Hauser → http://www.endress.com
Product Avenue → Downloadstreet → Field Communication Street
PNO
→http://www.PROFIBUS.com (GSD library)
• As diskette direct from Endress+Hauser: Order No. 943157-0000
The .GSD files must be loaded into a specific subdirectory in the PROFIBUS-DP network
design software of your PLC.
Working with GSD files
• GSD files and bitmaps that are located in the directory "Typdat5x", for example,
are required for the planning software STEP7 used by the Siemens S7-300/400
PLC family.
• x.200 files and bitmaps that are located in the directory "Extended" are required
for the planning software COM ET200 for the Siemens S5.
• The GSD files located in the directory "standard" are for PLCs that support the
"identifier byte" (0x94) but not the "identifier format". These are for use e.g. with
the Allen-Bradley PLC5.
More details about the directories used for storing the GSD files can be found in Chapter
6.4, which describes the network design.
Endress+Hauser
49
Chapter 6 System Integration
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
6.2
Data format
By using the data exchange service, a PLC can transmit its output data to a field device
and read the input data from the response telegram. The output data is not evaluated by
all devices, see the device operating instructions.
Analogue values
If the input data contains analogue measured values, these are usually transmitted in 5
bytes to the PLC.
bytes 1
bytes 3
bytes 2
bytes 4
bytes 5
Measured value as IEEE 754 floating point number
Status
If a device delivers more than one measured value, the measured value telegram is
increased accordingly, see Chapter 2.4. The number of measured values that a device
transmits is set with the network design tool. Table 4.7 in Chapter 4.6 as well as the device
operating manuals summarise the measured values that can be transmitted by
Endress+hauser devices.
The measured value is transmitted as a IEEE 754 floating point number, whereby
Measured value = (–1)Sign x 2(E – 127) x (1 + F)
D15
D14
Sign
Exponent (E)
2
7
D13
2
6
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
5
4
3
2
1
0
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Fraction (F)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
-1
-2
2
-3
2
2
-4
2
-5
2
-6
2
-7
Fraction (F)
-8
2
-9
2
-10
2
-11
-12
2
-13
2
2
-14
2
-15
2
-16
2
-17
-18
2
-19
2
2
-20
Fig. 6.1
IEEE-754 floating point number
2
Example:
40 F0 00 00 hex = 0100 0000 1111 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 binary
2
-21
2
-22
2
-23
Value = (–1)0 x 2(129 – 127) x (1 + 2–1 + 2–2 +2–3)
= 1 x 22 x (1 + 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.125)
= 1 x 4 x 1.875
= 7.5
Not all PLCs support the IEEE 754 format. For this reason a conversion module must often
be used or written.
Level limit signals
If the field device outputs a level limit signal, e.g. FXA 164 with Liquiphant, the information
is transmitted in 2 bytes as follows.
An exact description of the transmission format is to be found in the operating instructions.
50
bytes 1
bytes 2
Digital value (USGN8)
Status
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 6 System Integration
Table 6.2 lists the status messages that can be transmitted by Endress+hauser devices.
The status codes correspond to the PROFIBUS profiles "PROFIBUS-PA Profile for
Process Control Devices - General Requirements" V 2.0.
Status
The full table is supported by the flowmeters Promag, Promass and Prowirl. All other
devices support only Codes 00Hex, 40Hex and 80Hex.
StatusCode
Significance
Device
status
Implimented
Flow
Other
00 Hex
Non-specific
BAD
x
x
04 Hex
Configuration error
BAD
x
08 Hex
Not connected
BAD
x
0C Hex
Device failure
BAD
x
10 Hex
Sensor failure
BAD
x
14 Hex
No communication (last usable value)
BAD
x
18 Hex
No communication (no usable value)
BAD
x
1C Hex
Out-of-order
BAD
x
20 Hex
Configuration error "variable not"
BAD
x
40 Hex
Non-specific (Simulation)
UNCERTAIN
x
44 Hex
Last usable value
UNCERTAIN
x
48 Hex
Substitute set
UNCERTAIN
x
4C Hex
Initial value
UNCERTAIN
x
50 Hex
Sensor conversion not accurate
UNCERTAIN
x
54 Hex
Engineering unit range violation
UNCERTAIN
x
58 Hex
Subnormal
UNCERTAIN
x
5C Hex
Configuration error, value adapted
UNCERTAIN
x
80 Hex
OK
GOOD
x
81 Hex
LOW_LIM (alarm active)
GOOD
x
82 Hex
HI_LIM (alarm active)
GOOD
x
84 Hex
Active block alarm
GOOD
x
88 Hex
Active advisory alarm
GOOD
x
8C Hex
Active critical alarm
GOOD
x
90 Hex
Unacknowledged block alarm
GOOD
x
94 Hex
Unacknowledged advisory alarm
GOOD
x
98 Hex
Unacknowledged critical alarm
GOOD
x
9C Hex
good local operation possible
GOOD
x
AC Hex
Initiate fail-safe
GOOD
x
Endress+Hauser
x
x
Table 6.1
Status messages
51
Chapter 6 System Integration
6.3
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Notes on network design
In general, the design of a PROFIBUS-DP network proceeds as follows:
1. The network participants are stipulated in a PROFIBUS-DP network design program.
The network is configured off-line with the planning software To this end, the GSD
files are first loaded into the specified directory of the program.
2. The PLC application program must now be written. This is done using the
manufacturer's software. The application program controls the input and output of
data and determines where the data are to be stored. If necessary, an additional
conversion module must be used for PLCs that do not support the IEEE 754
floating point format. Depending upon the way the data is stored in the PLC
(LSB or MSB), a byte swapping module may be required.
3. After the network has been designed and configured, the result is loaded into the
PLC as a binary file.
4. When the PLC configuration is complete, the system can be started up. The master
opens a connection to each individual device. By using a Class 2 master, e.g.
Commuwin II, the devices parameters can now be set.
System
Master
PROFIBUS
configuration
software
SystemProgrammingsoftware
IEEE
conv.block
bytes
swap
Siemens
S5 … series
S7 … series
COM PROFIBUS
HW Config
HW Config
Step 5
Step 7
PCS 7
FB 201
___
___
no
Allen Bradley
PLC-5
SST PROFIBUS
Configuration Tool
RS Logix-5
___
no
RS Logix-500
___
Schneider
TSX Premium
Sycon Hilscher
PL7 Pro
___
yes
Schneider Quantum Modicon Quantum
Sycon
Concept
___
yes
Klckner-Moller
PS 416
CFG-DP
S 40
___
yes
ABB Freelance
Field controller
Digitool
Digitool
___
yes
Bosch
ZS 401
Win DP
Win SPS
___
yes
SLC-500
Table 6.2
Examples of network design
software
––– not necessary, since integrated in software
52
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
6.4
Chapter 6 System Integration
Tested system integrations
Table 6.3 lists those PROFIBUS-DP systems that have been successfully tested by
Endress+Hauser. A detailed description of the network design as well as information on
other systems is available on request.
PLC
Interface
DP/PA-Coupler
Siemens S7-300
315-2DP
P+F
Siemens S7-300
315-2DP
Siemens
Siemens S7-300
315-2DP
Siemens DP/PA link
Siemens S7-400
414-2DP
P+F
Siemens S7-400
414-2DP
Siemens
Siemens S7-400
414-2DP
Siemens DP/PA link
Siemens S5-135U
IM 308C
P+F
Siemens S5-135U
IM 308C
Siemens
Siemens S5-155U
IM 308C
P+F
Siemens S5-155U
IM 308C
Siemens
Siemens S5-155U
IM 308C
Siemens DP/PA link
Allen Bradley PLC-5
SST-PFB-PLC5
P+F
Allen Bradley PLC-5
SST-PFB-PLC5
Siemens DP/PA link
Allen Bradley SLC 500
SST-PFB-SLC
P+F
Mitsubshi Melsec AnS
A1S-J71PB92D
P+F
Schneider TSX Quantum
140 CRP 81100
P+F
Schneider Premium
TSX PBY 100
P+F
HIMA H41 (MODBUS)
PKV 20-DPM
P+F
Klckner-Mller PS 416
PS416-NET-440
P+F
ABB Freelance 2000
Fieldcontroller
P+F
Softing OPC Server
Profiboard/Proficard
P+F
Bosch CL 350 P
BM DP12
P+F
Bosch CL 350 P
BM DP12
Siemens DP/PA link
Endress+Hauser
Table 6.3
Summary of tested systems
53
Chapter 6 System Integration
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Table 6.5 summarises the most important DP-parameters of various systems.
PLC/interface
DP/PA coupler
No of slaves per DP
interface
DP telegram length
Siemens S7-300
315-2 DP
P+F
64
244 bytes
Siemens
64
244 bytes
Siemens DP/PA link
max. 64 links with
1)
max. 24 slaves each
122 bytes read
122 bytes write
P+F
96
244 bytes
Siemens
96
244 bytes
Siemens DP/PA link
max. 96 links with
1)
max. 24 Slaves
122 bytes read
122 bytes write
Siemens S5-135U
IM 308C
P+F
122
Siemens
122
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Siemens S5-155U
IM 308C
P+F
122
Siemens
122
Siemens DP/PA link
max. 20 links with
1)
max. 24 slaves each
122 bytes read
122 bytes write
Allen Bradley PLC-5
SST-PFB-PLC5
P+F
125
Siemens DP/PA link
max. 125 links with
1)
max. 48 slaves each
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Allen Bradley SLC 500
SST-PFB-SLC
P+F
96
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Mitsubishi Melsec AnS
A1S-J71PB92D
P+F
60
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Schneider TSX Quantum
+ 140 CRP 81100
P+F
125
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Schneider Premium +
TSX PBY 100
P+F
125
max. 244 bytes
HIMA H41 (MODBUS) +
PKV 20-DPM
P+F
125
max. 244 bytes
Klckner-Mller PS 416
+PS416-NET-440
P+F
30, 126 with repeaters
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
ABB Freelance 2000 +
Fieldcontroller
P+F
125
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Bosch CL 350 P +
BM DP12
P+F
125
Siemens DP/PA link
max. 125 links with
1)
max. 48 slaves each
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
Siemens S7-400
414-2 DP
Table 6.4
Summary of tested systems
1)
54
244 bytes read
244 bytes write
dependent on the telegram length of the slaves
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
6.5
Chapter 6 System Integration
Bus parameters
Endress+Hauser's PROFIBUS-DP devices support baudrates up to 12 Mbit/s. The
baudrate is automatically adjusted to that used by the master.
Baudrate,
PROFIBUS-DP devices
If Commuwin II is used as a Class 2 master to transmit acyclic values, then the bus
parameters of the DPV1 DDE server must be matched to those of the segment coupler
(or those of the network for PROFIBUS-DP applications).
Operating program
Commuwin II.
Depending upon the segment coupler, the corresponding PROFIBUS-DP baudrate must
be set in the network design software.
Pepperl + Fuchs 93.75 kbit/s
Siemens
45.45 kbit/s
PA Link (Siemens) 9.6 kbit/s – 12 Mbit/s
The baudrate of Commuwin II must be set in the DPV1 DDE server.
1. Start the server DPV1 from the File Manager or Explorer by a double click on the
DPV1 icon in the Commuwin II program group.
2. Open the item Parameter Settings in the Configure menu. The baudrate can now
be adjusted.
Communication Parameter Settings
Local Station Addr.:
x
OK
1
Cancel
Baudrate [kBd]:
45,45
Help
Bit Times
Slot Time [TSL]:
640
[6882 µs]
Min St Delay [minTSDR]:
11
[119 µs]
Max St Delay [max TSDR]: 400
[4302 µs]
Setup Time [TSET]:
[1022 µs]
95
Target Rotation Time [TTR]: 10000
[107527 µs]
Default
Higest Station Addr. [HSA]: 126
Gap Update Factor:
1
Max. Retry Limit::
3
3. After the baudrate has been entered, update the bus parameters by clicking on
Default.
4. If necessary optimise the parameters as per Table 6.3 or the manufacturer's
specifications.
Segment coupler
Siemens
P+F "old"
P+F "new"1)
Slot time
640
10000
4095
Max. station delay time
400
1000
100
Min. station delay time
11
255
22
Setup time
95
255
150
GAP update factor
1
1
1
3
5
5
Max. retry limit
2)
Target rotation time (TTR)
1)
2)
TTR calculated by master + 20 000 bit times
Table 6.5
Bus parameters for Commuwin II
The segment coupler has the label 12-3-98
Value must be set in all masters.
Endress+Hauser
55
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
7
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Device Configuration
There are two reasons for configuring a PROFIBUS-PA device:
• the adjustment of the operating parameters of the device to calibrate it for the
application at hand. In this case the corresponding operating instructions should
be used.
• the adjustment of the profile parameters of the device in order to e.g. scale or
simulate the cyclic measured value output to the PLC.
The operating parameters can be set using the local operating elements of the device,
if it is so equipped. This is not described in this manual. These parameters can also be
adjusted by the acyclic services of the PROFIBUS-DP system, e.g. with the Commuwin II
operating and display program. Profile parameters are accessible only through the cyclic
services of the PROFIBUS-DP system.
This chapter describes the operating concept of the PROFIBUS-PA devices. It is
subdivided as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Note!
56
PROFIBUS-PA block model
Device management
Physical block
Transducer block
Function block
Operating program Commuwin II.
Note!
The figures and tables in this chapter mostly refer to PROFIBUS-PA Profile 3.0 which will
be released shortly.
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
7.1
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
PROFIBUS-PA block model
The PROFIBUS-PA profile describes several parameters that can be used to realise a
device. Mandatory parameters must always be present, Optional parameters are only
present when required, e.g. for a particular transmitter type. Manufacturer-specific
parameters are used to realise device functions that are not in the standard profile. A
manufacturer's operating tool or a device description is required for their operation.
In the case of PROFIBUS-PA devices that conform with the standard, these parameters
are managed in block objects. Within the blocks, the individual parameters are managed
using relative indices.
Device management
Physical block
output value of
transmitter/
input value of PLC
Function
block
BA198Y35
Transducer
block
sensor signal
measured value
Fig. 7.1
PROFIBUS-PA block model of a
sensor
Fig. 7.1 shows the block model of a simple sensor. It comprises four blocks: device
management, physical block, transducer block and function block that are described in
detail in the following sections. The sensor signal is converted to a measured value by
the transducer block and transmitted to the function block. Here the measured value can
be scaled or limits can be set before it is made available as the output value to the cyclic
services of the PLC.
Device management
Physical block
output value
Function
block
Transducer
block
signal to valve
BA198Y53
input value of
actuator
(set point)/
output value of PLC
Fig. 7.2
PROFIBUS-PA block model of an
actuator
For an actuator, the processing is in the reverse order, see Fig. 7.2. The PLC outputs a
setpoint value that serves as the input value to the actuator. After any scaling, the setpoint
value is transmitted to the transducer block as the output value of the function block. It
processes the value and outputs a signal that drives the valve to the desired position.
Endress+Hauser
57
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
Block structure
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
The parameters assigned to the individual blocks use the data structures and data
formats that are specified in the PROFIBUS standard. The structures are designed such
that the data are stored and transmitted in an ordered and interpretable manner.
All parameters in the PROFIBUS-PA profile, whether mandatory or optional, are assigned
an address (slot/index). The address structure must be maintained, even if optional
parameters are not implemented in a device, This ensures that the relative indices in the
profile are also to be found in the devices.
Standard parameters
With the exception of the device management, the standard parameters are to be found
at the beginning of every block. They are used to identify and manage the block. The
user can access these parameters using the acyclic services, e.g. by means of the
Commuwin II operating program. Table 7.1 lists and briefly explains the standard
parameters.
Rel. Parameter
Index
Table 7.1
Standard block parameters
Description
R/W
M/O
1
BLOCKOBJECT
Contains the type of block, e.g. function block, as well
as further classification information in the form of three
storey a tree structure.
R
M
2
ST_REV
Event counter: Counts every access to a static block
parameter. Static parameters are those device
parameters that are not influenced by the process.
R
M
3
TAG_DESC
Text for unambiguous identification of the block: In the
physical block, TAG_DESC is used as the measuring
point tag.
R, W
M
4
STRATEGY
A code number that allows blocks to be grouped
together.
R, W
M
5
ALERT_KEY
Identifies the part of the plant where the transmitter is
located. Helps in the localisation of events.
R, W
M
6
MODE_BLK
Describes the operating mode of the block.
Three parameters are possible:
actual mode
permitted mode and
normal mode
MODE_BLK allows a functional check of the block. If
the block is faulty, a default value can be output.
R, W
M
7
ALARM_SUM
Contains the current status of the block alarms. At the
moment only the following are signalled: the change of
a static parameter (10 s) and the violation of the
advisory and critical limits in the analog input block.
R, W
M
8
BATCH
Provided for batch processes as per IEC 61512 Part 1.
Is only to be found in function blocks.
R, W
M
R = Read, W = Write, M/O = Mandatory/Optional parameter
58
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
7.2
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
Device management
The device management comprises the directory for the block and object structure of
the device. It gives information about:
• which blocks are present in the device
• where the start addresses are located (slot/index)
• how many objects each block holds.
By using this information, the application program of the master can find and transmit
the mandatory and optional parameters of a profile block, see Fig. 7.3.
Device Management (Slot 1)
DIRECTORY_OBJECT_HEADER
Slot x
Slot y
Index j
FUNCTION BLOCK 1
Index m
FUNCTION BLOCK 2
Index k
PHYSICAL BLOCK 1
Index n
TRANSDUCER BLOCK 2
Index l
TRANSDUCER BLOCK 1
DIR_ID
REV_NUMBER
NUM_DIR_OBJ
NUM_DIR_ENT
FIRST_COMP_LIST_DIR_ENTRY
NUM_COMP_LIST_DIR_ENTRY
COMPOSITE_LIST_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES
INDEX_PB
NUM_PB
INDEX TB
NUM_TB
INDEX_FB
NUM_FB
COMPOSITE_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES
BLOCK_PTR_1
BLOCK_PTR_2
BLOCK_PTR_3
BLOCK_PTR_4
....
BLOCK_PTR_#
COMPOSITE_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES_CONTINUOUS
BA198Y36
Fig. 7.3
Structure and function of the
device management
Device management block
The device management is always located in slot 1 starting at index 0. It contains the
following parameters:
Abs. Parameter
Index
Description
R/W
M/O
8
SOFTWARE_REVISION
Software version implemented in device
R
M
0
DIRECTORY_OBJECT_HEADER
Header comprising
(see Fig. 7.3 for parameter names)
Directory code (=0)
Directory version number
Number of directory objects
Number of directory entries
Index of the first directory entry
Number of block types
R
M
1
COMPOSITE_LIST_DIRECTORY
_ENTRIES/
Pointer:
W
Abs. index + offset, 1st physical block
Number of physical blocks
Abs. index + offset, 1st transducer blk.
Number of transducer blocks
Abs. index + offset, 1st function block
Number of function blocks
Pointer 1 to 1st block
Pointer 2 to 2nd block
.....
Pointer # to #th block
M
Continuation of COMPOSITE_
DIRECTORY_ENTRIES or start of the
pointer entries
M
COMPOSITE_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES
2
COMPOSITE_DIRECTORY_ENTRIES_
CONTINUOUS
W
Table 7.2
Device management parameters
R = Read, W = Write, M/O = Mandatory/Optional parameter
Endress+Hauser
59
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
7.3
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Physical block
The physical block contains the properties of the field device. These are device
parameters and functions that are not dependent upon the measurement method. This
ensures that the function and transducer blocks are independent of the hardware.
The physical block contains the following parameters:
Table 7.3
Physical block parameters
Rel. Parameter
Index
Description
R/W
M/O
8
SOFTWARE_REVISION
Software version implemented in the device
R
M
9
HARDWARE_REVISION
Hardware version implemented in the device
R
M
10
DEVICE_MAN_ID
Manufacurer's identity code
W
M
11
DEVICE_ID
Manuafacturer's name for the device
R
M
12
DEVICE_SER_NUM
Serial number of the device
R
M
13
DIAGNOSIS
Bit-coded uniform diagnostic messages
R
M
14
DIAGNOSIS_EXTENSION
Manufacturer's diagnostic messages
R
O
15
DIAGNOSE_MASK
Bit mask that indicates the DIAGNOSIS bits
supported.
R
M
16
DIAGNOSIS_EXTENSION_MASK
Bit mask that indicates the
DIAGNOSIS_EXTENSION bits supported
R
O
17
DEVICE_CERTIFICATION
Text describing the device certification
R, W
O
18
WRITE_LOCKING
On/off switch for write protection
R, W
O
19
FACTORY_RESET
Command that resets the device e.g. to its
factory settings
W
O
20
DESCRIPTOR
User text that describes the function of a device
within an application
R, W
M
21
DEVICE_MESSAGE
User text that describes the function of the
device within its application or device unit
R, W
M
22
DEVICE_INSTAL_DATE
Installation date of the device
R, W
M
23
LOCAL_OP_ENA
Enable/Disable of local operation
R, W
M
24
IDENT_NUMBER
Specifies the configuration behaviour of the
device on acknowledgement of the device
identity code.dar
R, W
M
25
HW_WRITE_PROTECTION
Shows the setting of a hardware jumper that
activates a general write protection.
R, W
M
R = Read, W = Write, M/O = Mandatory/Optional parameter
60
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
The diagnostic messages are divided into standard (DIAGNOSE) and
manufacturer-specific blocks (DIAGNOSE_EXTENSION). A diagnostic message is
supported when a "1" is to be found in the corresponding bit mask (_MASKE). The
following statuses are to be found in the standard diagnostics.
Octet
Bit
Parameter
Description
1
0
DIA_HW_ELECTR
Fault in device electronics hardware
1
DIA_HW_MECH
Mechanical device fault
2
DIA_TEMP_MOTOR
Motor temperature too high
3
DIA_TEMP_ELECTR
Electronics temperature too high
4
DIA_MEM_CHKSUM
Memory error
5
DIA_MEASUREMENT
Measured value error
6
DIA_NOR_INIT
Device not initialised
7
DIA_INIT_ERR
Intialisation error
0
DIA_ZERO_ERR
Zero point error
1
DIA_SUPPLY
Load supply error
2
DIA_CONF_INVAL
Invalid configuration
3
DIA_WARMSTART
Warm start in progress
4
DIA_COLDSTART
Cold start in progress
5
DIA_MAINTENANCE
Maintenance necessary
6
DIA_CHARACT
Invalid characteristic
7
IDENT_NUMBER_VIOLATION
Violation of identity number
3
0-7
reserved
4
0-6
reserved
7
EXTENSION_AVAILABLE
2
Manufacturer's diagnostic messages available
Diagnostic messages
Table 7.4
Standard diagnostic messages
In the case of Endress+Hauser devices, a device error message is available when Bit 7
of Octet 4 is set (=1). They are stored as 6 bytes in slot 1. For further information, see the
corresponding field device.
Endress+Hauser
61
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
7.4
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Transducer blocks
Transducer blocks stand as separating elements between the sensor (or actuator) and
the function block. They process the signal from the sensor (or actuator) and output a
value that is transmitted via a device-independent interface to the function block.
The transducer blocks reflect the measurement (or actuator) principles. Moreover, blocks
also exist for devices with a binary input or output signal- Fig. 7.4. shows the transducer
blocks that are currently available. A description of the parameters can be taken from
BA 124F (Commuwin II) or the appropriate device operating instructions.
Measurement
equipment
A (Analysis)
T (Temperature)
Differential
pressure
Hydrostatic
Resistance
thermometer
Electromagnetic
Displacement
Thermocouple
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonics
Pyrometer
Vortex
Microwave
Positive
displacement
Capacitance
Vibration
Coriolis
Fig. 7.4
Summary of measuring methods
implemented in transducer
blocks (1999)
P (Pressure,
∆p)
L (Level)
F (Flow)
Thermal
Fig. 7.5 shows an example for a hydrostatic level transmitter. The functions indicated can
be operated via the acyclic services. When Commuwin II is used Endress+Hauser
devices can also be operated with the E+H matrix or graphic operation interface.
VOLUME
STATUS
LINEARISATION
CYL_DIAMETER
CYL_VOLUME
LINEARISATION
MAX_NUM_SUPPORTED
MAX_NUM_NEED
INDEX
INPUT_VALUE
OUT_VALUE
LIN_TYPE
ZERO_OFFSET
LEVEL
DENSITY_FACTOR
FULL_CAL
EMPTY_CAL
PRESSURE
(MAX_PRESSURE)
(MIN_PRESSURE)
(UNIT)
Parameters can be read and written using the acyclic services
l
Sensor
signal
l
p
Measured
value
v
v
l
Fig. 7.5
Example for the transducer block
of a hydrostatic level transmitter
62
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
7.5
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
Function blocks
The function blocks contain the basic automation functions. Since the application
program demands that a cyclic value always behaves in the same manner, the blocks
are designed to be as independent as possible from the actuator/sensor and the fieldbus.
For transmitters there are currently three function blocks, which are described in more
detail in the following pages.
The analog input block is fed by the transducer block of a particular transmitter. The first
function in the processing chain allows the measured value to be replaced by a simulated
value when required. Then the input value is normalised to a value between 0 and 1.
Normally, the lower and upper range values of the transducer block are used for scaling.
No limits are set on the scaling values, and values beyond the end-values are correctly
scaled.
Analog input block
The resulting value can now be linearised if required. Depending upon the setting, for
example, a root function, a linearisation table or a preset linearisation might be activated.
For Endress+Hauser devices with Profile 2.0, these functions are currently mapped on
the transducer block. For devices with Profile 3.0 (available early in 2000) the linearisation
will be mapped on the analog input block as described here.
The normalised value is now scaled. If the "OUT" value offered to the PLC is to be identical
with the input value of the transducer block, then the lower and upper range values from
the transducer block must again be used for scaling. Alternatively, other values can be
used, e.g. 1 – 32768 (20 – 215) in 15-bit resolution.
An integration time and limits can now be assigned to the output value. Violations of the
limits are signalled in the status byte. Finally the status of the output value is checked.
The safety functions are activated when the status "BAD" or the mode "out of service" is
detected. On fault condition a default value can be used as output value. The cyclic
measured value made available to the DP master comprises the output value OUT and
the status.
MAN
1
τ
1
NORMAL_MODE
PERMITTED_MODE
MODE_BLK
MAN
FSAFE_TYPE
FSAFE_VALUE
HI_HI_LIM
HI_LIM
LO_LIM
LO_LO_LIM
ALARM_HYS
PV_TIME
OUT_SCALE
OUT_SCALE_UNIT
OUT_SCALE_MIN
OUT_SCALE_MAX
LIN_TYPE
PV_SCALE
PV_SCALE_UNIT
PV_SCALE_MIN
PV_SCALE_MAX
SIMULATION
VALUE
STATUS
ON_OFF
CHANNEL
Parameters can be read and written using the acyclic services
MODE/
STATUS
OUT
FAIL O/S
SAFE
0
Output
scaling
AUTO
Damping
Limit
Alarms are indicated in the status byte
Safety logic
BA198Y39
Linearisation
1
OUT
HI_HI_ALM
HI_ALM
LO_ALM
LO_LO_ALM
Simulation
0
ACTUAL_MODE
1
PV
Input scaling
Fig. 7.6
Schematic diagram of the analog input block
Endress+Hauser
63
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
The totalisor block is used when a process variable must be summed over a period of
time. This is the case for flowmeters, whereby for Endress+Hauser devices totalisors can
be activated for both volume and mass measurements. The block is fed by the transducer
block of a particular transmitter, which provides a measured value and status.
Totalisor block
The first function in the processing chain is a safety logic that checks the status of the
input value. If the status is "BAD", the safety function is activated. Three options are now
available: the bad value can be used for totalising, the last valid value can be used or
the totaliser can be switched off. The safety function remains active until the status
changes to "OK".
The next function is the selection of counting mode. Four options are available: all values,
positive values only, negative values only, no values at all. The value is now totalised by
the counter. The counter can be set to work with equidistant timing or over time
differences. It can also be reset to a preset value or zero.
Limits may also be assigned to the totalisor. Violations of the limits are signalled in the
status byte. Finally the status of the output value is checked. If the mode "out of service"
is detected, the safe functions are activated. On fault condition a default value can be
used as output value. The cyclic measured value made available to the DP master
comprises the output value TOTAL and the status.
Σ
FAIL
SAFE
MEMORY
RUN
MAN
BALANCED
POS_ONLY
NEG_ONLY
HOLD
NORMAL_MODE
PERMITTED_MODE
MAN_VALUE
MODE_BLK
HI_HI_LIM
HI_LIM
LO_LIM
LO_LO_LIM
ALARM_HYS
SET_TOT
PRESET_TOT
UNIT_TOT
MODE_TOT
FAIL_TOT
CHANNEL
Parameters can be read and written using the acyclic services
MODE/
STATUS
TOTAL
O/S
HOLD
AUTO
Limit
Alarms are indicated in the status byte
Safety logic
BA198Y40
Counter
ACTUAL_MODE
Counting mode
HI_HI_ALM
HI_ALM
LO_ALM
LO_LO_ALM
Safety logic
Fig. 7.7
Schematic diagram of the totaliser block
64
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
The discrete input block is used for limit switched, e.g. the Liquiphant (in connection with
the FXA 164 NAMUR/PROFIBUS-PA interface). The analog input block is fed by a
transducer block of a particular transmitter.
Discrete input block
The first function in the processing chain allows the measured value to be replaced by
a simulated value when required. Afterwards the resulting signal can be inverted.
Finally the status of the output value is checked. The safety functions are activated when
the status "BAD" or the mode "out of service" is detected. On fault condition a default
value can be used as output value. The cyclic measured value made available to the
PROFIBUS-DP master comprises the output value OUT_D and the status.
MAN
INVERT
FAIL O/S
SAFE
NORMAL_MODE
PERMITTED_MODE
MAN
MODE_BLK
FSAFE_TYPE
FSAFE_VAL_D
INVERT
SIMULATION
VALUE
STATUS
ON_OFF
CHANNEL
Parameters can be read and written using the acyclic services
MODE/
STATUS
OUT_D
BA198Y36
ACTUAL_MODE
AUTO
Endress+Hauser
Fig. 7.8
Schematic diagram of the
discrete input block
65
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
7.6
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Operating program Commuwin II.
PROFIBUS-PA devices can be operated by the operating program Commuwin II (from
software version 2.0 upwards) A full description of Commuwin II is to be found in operating
instructions BA 124F. All the standard functions of Commuwin II are supported excepting
envelope curves for ultrasonic and microwave devices. The device settings can be made
using the operating matrix or graphic operating interface.
Requirements
Commuwin II runs on an IBM-compatible PC or Laptop. The computer must be equipped
with a PROFIBUS interface, i.e. PROFIBOARD for PCs and PROFICARD for laptops.
During the system integration, the computer is registered as a Class 2 master.
Operation
The PA-DPV1 server must be installed. The connection to Commuwin II is opened from
the PA-DPV1 server.
• Generate a live list with "Tags"
....
Selection of the
device operation
Selection of profile
operation
007 - FEB 24
PHY_20:
LEVEL:
AI:
008 - CERABAR S
PHY_30:
Pressure
AI:
....
LIC 123
LIC 123
LIC 123
PIC 205
PIC 205
PIC 205
• E+H operation is selected by clicking on the device name, e.g. CERABAR S.
• Profile operation is selected by clicking on the appropriate tag,
e.g. AI: PIC 205 = Analog input block Cerabar S.
• The settings are entered in the device menu.
Device menu
The device menu allows matrix or graphical operation to be selected.
• In the case of matrix operation, the device or profile parameters are displayed in
a matrix. A parameter can be changed when the corresponding matrix field is
selected.
• In the case of graphical operation, the operating sequence is shown in a series of
pictures with parameters. For profile operation, the pictures Diagnosis, Scaling,
Simulation and Block are of interest.
The device parameters are set in accordance with the corresponding operating
instructions. Tables of profile functions are also to be found here. The parameter blocks
are adapted to the transmitters: not all the functions shown in Fig 7.5 to Fig. 7.8 need be
implemented.
Devices from other vendors can also be operated via the profile parameters. In this case,
standardised transducer, function or physical blocks appear.
Off-line operation
(E+H, Samson)
Commuwin also allows the devices to be configured off-line. After all parameters have
been entered, the file generated can be loaded into the connected device.
Up-/download
(E+H, Samson)
This function allows the parameters of an already configured device to be loaded and
stored in Commuwin II. If several devices (with the same software version) have to be
configured in the same way, the parameters can now be downloaded into the devices.
66
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 7 Device Configuration
BA198D43
Fig. 7.9 shows the graphic operation picture for the basic calibration of the Deltapilot S.
Fig. 7.9
Basic calibration of the Deltapilot
using Commuwin II
Fig. 7.10 shows the graphical operation for the scaling of the Deltapilot S. By selecting
the device profile "AI transmitter block" (acknowledge with ↵) the parameters PV_SCALE
and OUT_SCALE can be set. Please note that for DPV1 Version 2.0, the unit is not
transmitted with the measured value. The setting of the PV unit also has no effect on the
output value OUT.
BA198D43
The operating picture "Diagnosis" shows the current status of the device. "Simulation"
allows a measured value to be simulated, "Block" displays the current setting of the mode
block.
Endress+Hauser
Fig. 7.10
Scaling of the PA output of all
devices using Commuwin II
67
Chapter 8 Trouble-Shooting
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
8
Trouble-Shooting
This chapter contains a summary of the most frequent faults and questions concerning
PROFIBUS that have been dealt with by our service department. It is subdivided as
follows:
•
•
•
•
8.1
Commissioning
PLC network design
Data transmission
Commuwin II
Commissioning
Question/Fault
Cause/Remedy
How can I assign an address to a
device?
With the exception of the temperature sensor TMD 834, all
Endress+Hauser devices have an address switch that allows
hardware or software addressing.
For software addressing (or for the TMD 834) a PROFIBUS-DP
operating tool is required, e.g. the DPV1 server in Commuwin II. Its
use is described in Chapter 5.7
Where is the device termination
switch?
There is no termination switch on the device itself.
The bus is terminated by using a separate terminator or a T-box with a
switchable terminating element.
In the case of explosion hazardous applications, a separate,
certified terminator must be used!
When a device is added to the
bus, the segment fails.
The segment coupler supplies a defined maximum output current to
the segment. Every device requires a particular basic current (see
Chapter 4.2). If the sum of the basic currents exceeds the output
current of the coupler, the bus become unstable.
Diagnosis: Measure the current consumption of the devices with an
ammeter.
Remedy: Reduce the electrical load on the segment concerned, i.e.
one or more devices must be disconnected.
PROFIBUS-PA slave with address
2 cannot be found.
68
If a Siemens DP/PA-link Type IM 157 is used, the internal address
must be taken into consideration. On the PROFIBUS-PA side, the link
has the fixed internal address 2. For this reason, the address 2 may
not be assigned to any of the PROFIBUS-PA slaves connected to the
link.
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
8.2
Chapter 8 Trouble-Shooting
PLC planning
Question/Fault
Cause/Remedy
The measured value in the
Siemens S5 is incorrect
The Siemens S5 PLC cannot interpret the IEEE floating point format.
A conversion module is required that transforms the IEEE floating
point value into Siemens KG format. This can be obtained from
Siemens.
The module is for Types 135 U and 155 U but not for 115 U and 95 U.
The measured value in Siemens
S7 PLCs is always zero
The function module SFC 14 must be used.
The SFC 14 ensures that e.g. 5 bytes can be consistently loaded into
the SPS. If the SFC 14 is not used, only 4 bytes can be consistently
loaded into the Siemens S7.
The measured value at the device The parameters PV_SCALE and OUT_SCALE are not set correctly.
display is not the same as that in
the PLC.
Instructions on how to adjust the parameters PV_SCALE and
OUT_SCALE in the function block can be taken from Chapter 7.6 or
the device operating instructions.
No connection between the PLC
and the PROFIBUS-PA network.
1. The bus parameters and baudrate were not set when the PLC
was configured.
The baudrate to be set depends upon the segment coupler used.
Pepperl + Fuchs 93.75 kBit/s
Siemens
45.45 kBit/s
PA Link (Siemens) freely selectable
2. The bus parameters require adjustment?
3. The polarity of the PROFIBUS-DP line is reversed (A and B)?
4. PROFIBUS-DP bus not terminated?
Both the beginning and the end of the bus must be terminated.
Endress+Hauser
69
Chapter 8 Trouble-Shooting
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
8.3
Data transmission
Question/Fault
Remedy
How are data transferred to the
PLC?
The measured values are transmitted in 5 byte long data blocks. 4
bytes are used to transmit the measured value. The fifth byte contains
standardised status information. Error codes for Endress+Hauser
device faults, e.g. E 641, are not transmitted with the status.
For limit switches, the information is transmitted in two bytes: Signal
condition and status information.
See Chapter 2.4 and 3.4.
What does status information
mean?
See Table 6.1 in Chapter 6.2.
How is data transmitted from the
Promag 33/35 to the PLC?
Information regarding the function of the cyclical services can be
found in the operating instructions of the Promag 33/35. Depending
upon the device settings, up to two measured values can be
transmitted.
If the totalisor is not required, its position must be reserved
(FREE PLACE).
70
How can the totalisor of the
Promag 33/35 be reset?
The output word of the cyclical services is used. The procedure is
described in Chapter 2.4, Table 2.3 using the Promass 63 as an
example.
How can the PLC switch on the
positive zero return of the Promag
33?
The output word of the cyclical services is used. The procedure is
described in Chapter 2.4, Table 2.3 using the Promass 63 as an
example.
How is data transmitted from the
Promass 63 to the PLC?
Information regarding the function of the cyclical services can be
found in the operating instructions of the Promass 63. The first 4
blocks (measured values) in the device are always activated. If any of
these measured values are not required, the PROFIBUS master (SPS)
must transmit the code FREE_PLACE for the appropriate block(s). The
FREE_PLACEs are set during the configuration of the PLC. If other
measured values are required, e.g. standard volume flow, these must
be activated in the device. See also chapter 2.4.
How can the totalisor of the
Promass 63 be reset?
See Table 2.3 in Chapter 2.4 or the device operating manual.
How can the PLC switch on the
positive zero return of the
Promass 63?
See Table 2.3 in Chapter 2.4 or the device operating manual.
How can the PLC adjust the zero
point of the Promass 63?
See Table 2.3 in Chapter 2.4 or the device operating manual.
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
8.4
Chapter 8 Trouble-Shooting
Commuwin II
Question/Fault
Cause/Remedy
Commuwin II cannot open the
connection to the PROFIBUS-PA
devices.
Commuwin II is a Class 2 master that allows the transmission of
acyclic values. The PROFIBUS-DP baudrate to be set depends upon
the segment coupler used.
See also Chapter 6.4.
The connection to the devices
cannot be opened.
1. If the PLC and Commuwin II are used in parallel, the bus
parameters must be mutually compatible. The bus parameters
must be identical for all connected masters.
If Commuwin II is used, the Token Rotation Time (TTR) calculated
by the PLC configuration tool must be increased by 20 000 bit times
and the corresponding value entered in the Commuwin II
DDE server, see Chapter 6.4.
In the case of a Siemens S5 system with ComProfibus, the
Delta TTR must be increased by 20 000 bit times.
2. The HSA parameter (Highest Station Address) must permit the
Commuwin II address. The HSA specifies the highest address
permitted for active participants (masters) on the bus. Slaves
can have a higher address.
3. Is the Commuwin II address free or is it being used by another
device?
4. Is the correct baudrate set?
5. Have the drivers and cards been correctly installed? Is the green
LED on the TAP of the Proficard or Profiboard lit?
6. Is the GAP update to high (the result is longer waiting times)?
A device does not appear in the
live list.
1. Device is not connected to segment.
2. Address used twice.
Device cannot be fully operated.
1. The device version is not supported by Commuwin II.
A full device description is necessary (see Chapter 6.1).
The default parameters of the PROFIBUS-PA profile are offered.
2. Full operation is possible for Endress+Hauser devices and
Samson positioners only.
A change of unit at the device has If the measured value at the device display is to be the same as that
no effect on the value on the bus. transmitted to the PLC, the parameters PV_SCALE and OUT_SCALE
must be matched.
OUT_SCALE_MIN = PV_SCALE_MIN
OUT_SCALE_MAX = PV_SCALE_MAX
See Chapter 7.6 and the device operating instructions.
Endress+Hauser
71
Chapter 9 Technical Data
Identification
Function and system design
Electrical connection
Human interface
Documentation
72
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
9
Technical Data
9.1
PROFIBUS-DP
Designation
PROFIBUS-DP
Application
Fieldbus for factory automation and process control
Bus access method
Multimaster with logical token ring
Topology
See Chapter 3
No of participants
max. 127 per Bus, but max. 32 per segment
Segments can be connected together with
repeaters
Baudrate
up to 12 MBit, dependent upon transmission
medium and cable length
Signal coding
RS-485
Response time
Dependent upon the data transmission rate
Bus cable
copper: screened, twisted pairs, screening
grounded at both ends. Cable specifications,,
see Chapter 3.1
Fibre optics: see PROFIBUS-DP specifications
Cable length
copper: up to 1200 m, depending upon baudrate,
see Chapter 3.1
Spur length
Total length of all spurs max. 6.6 m,
for baudrates > 1.5 MBit/s none
Bus connection
Connecting elements: 9-pole Sub-D connectors
Bus termination
At both ends of every segment
Repeater
Max. 3 between 2 participants
Local operation
If appropriate, via keys or touch keys
PC operation
Via operating program, z. B. Commuwin II, and
PROFIBUS interface card
Bus address
Set with DIP switch, local operating elements or
software
Software/hardware addressing selectable
PROFIBUS-DP
EN 50 170, Part 1 - 3, DIN 19 245, Part 1-3
PNO Guidelines for PROFIBUS-DP
Intrinsic safety
None
Physical layer
RS-485
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
9.2
Chapter 9 Technical Data
PROFIBUS-PA
Identification
Function and system design
Electrical connection
Human interface
Documentation
Endress+Hauser
Designation
PROFIBUS-PA
Application
Intrinsically safe fieldbs for process engineering
Bus access method
Master-slave
Topology
See Chapter 3
No. of participants
max. 32 for non-hazardous applications
max. 24 for EEx ib IIB
max. 10 for EEx ia/ib IIC
The actual number is dependent upon the the
segment coupler and the current consumption of
the participants
Baudrate
31.25 kBits/s
Signal coding
Manchester II
Update time
Dependent upon the number of devices on the bus:
t = n x 10 ms + PLC program run time
+ DP transmission time
Bus power supply
EEx ia/ib IIC: 13.5 V, 128 mA
EEx ib IIB:13.5 V, 280 mA
Standard:
24 V, 380 mA
Bus cable
Preferred: screened, twisted pairs, screening
ground at both sides
Cable specifications (and other types),
see Chapter 3.2
Cable length
Dependent upon application and bus coupler,
Kapitel 3.2
Spur length
Max. 30 m each for hazardous applications,
otherwise as in Chapter 3.2
Bus connection
Connecting elements: T-pieces
Bus termination
At both ends
Specications: R = 100 Ω ± 2 %, C = 1 µF ± 20 %
Repeater
Max. 4 per bus segment
Local operation
If appropriate, via keys or touch-keys
PLC operation
Via common parameters and profile commands
PC operation
Via operating program, z. B. Commuwin II, and
PROFIBUS interface card
Bus address
Set at DIP switch or via software
Software/hardware addressing selectable
PROFIBUS-PA
EN 50 170, Part 4, DIN 19 245, Part 4
PNO Guidelines for PROFIBUS-PA
Intrinsic safety
EN 50 020, FISCO model, IEC 79-14
Physical layer
EN 61158-2 or IEC 61158-2
73
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
10
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
PROFIBUS-PA Components
10.1 Endress+Hauser field devices
Cerabar S
0 - 10 bar
Prosonic T
74
Product
Cerabar S
Process variable
Pressure
PROFIBUS ID code
1501
Auxiliary energy
9…32 VDC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5 bytes)
Pressure
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Pressure
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC T6
Certificate
PTB 98 ATEX 2178
PNO certificate
Z00408
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Product
Prosonic T
Process variable
Level
PROFIBUS ID code
1502
Auxiliary energy
9…32 VDC
Max. basic current
13 mA; for FMU 232 max. 17 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5 bytes)
Level
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Level
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC T6 (not FMU 232)
Certificate
PTB 98 ATEX 2179
PNO certificate
Z00402
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
Product
Deltapilot S
Process variable
Level
PROFIBUS ID code
1503
Auxiliary energy
9…32 VDC, fr FEB 24P 9,6...32 VDC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5 bytes)
Level
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Level
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC T6
P -1 ... 2 bar
Intensor
4...20 mA
1.4571 / Al3 O2 / FPM
Pmin Span 100 mbar
Pmax 20 bar
Mat.
U 10,5 ... 45 V DC
IP 65
Order Code XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XX X XXXX
Ser.-No.
Certificate
PTB 98 ATEX 2134
PNO certificate
Z00409
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Product
Deltabar S
Process variable
Differential pressure
PROFIBUS ID code
1504
Auxiliary energy
9…32 VDC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Deltapilot S
Deltabar S
Patented
Endress+Hauser
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5 bytes)
Differential pressure
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Pressure
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC T6
Certificate
PTB 98 ATEX 2180
PNO certificate
Z00405
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
75
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
Promag 33/35
Promass 63
76
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Product
Promag 33/35
Process variable
Flow
PROFIBUS ID code
1505,
Auxiliary energy (local)
16...62VDC; 85...260VAC; 20...55VAC
Min. bus voltage
9V
Max. basic current
12 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, Local operation, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5...10 bytes)
Flow, Totaliser
Cyclic data from PLC (1 byte)
Control for resetting totaliser, zero point
adjustment
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Flow, Totaliser
Additional signals
1x 4...20 mA Flow
Degree of protection
EEx e [ib] IIC T4-T6
EEx de [ib] IIB/IIC T4-T6
Certificate
BVS 95.D.2077X
BVS 95.D-2078X
PNO certificate
Z00410
PROFIBUS-DP version available
yes, ID code 1511
DP-baudrate
up to 12 Mbit/s, automatically adjusted
Product
Promass 63
Process variable
Flow
PROFIBUS ID code
1506
Auxiliary energy (local)
16...62 VDC; 85...260VAC; 20...55 VAC
Min. bus voltage
9V
Max. basic current
12 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, Local operation, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5...50 byte)
Mass flow, Totalisator 1, Temperature,
Density, Totalisator 2, Volumetric flow,
Standard volumetric flow, Target medium
flow, Carrier medium flow, Calculated
density
Cyclic data from PLC (1 byte)
Control for resetting of totalisor, zero
point adjustment, Zero point return
Acyclic profile data
8x Analog Input, Physical, Flow, 2x
Totaliser
Additional signals
1x 4...20 mA (Mass, Density,
Temperature)
Degree of protection
EEx [ia/ib] IIC/IIB
Certificate
SEV No.96.1 10394
PNO certificate
Z00407
PROFIBUS-DP version available
yes, ID code 1512
Baudrate
up to 12 Mbit/s, automatically adjusted
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
MYCOM-P
°C
%
pH
V0
H0
HOLD CAL.1CAL.2
V
1
2
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
Product
TMD 834
Process variable
Temperature
PROFIBUS ID code
1507
Auxiliary energy
9…32 VDC
Max. basic current
13 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
No
Device address
software
Cyclic data to PLC (5 byte)
Temperature
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Temperaturee
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC T4 - T6
Certificate
CESI Ex-97.D.074
PNO certificate
Z004xx
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Product
Mycom II
Process variable
pH-value, Conductivity
PROFIBUS ID code
1508: pH-value
1509: Conductivity (ind.)
150B: Conductivity (cond.)
Auxiliary energy (local)
20...30 VDC; 24/100/115/200/230VAC
Min. bus voltage
9V
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, Local operation, software
Cyclic data to PLC (10 bytes)
pH-value, Temperature
Conductivity, Temperature
Acyclic profile data
None
Additional signals
2x 4...20 mA, pH-value, Temperature or
2x 4...20 mA, Conductivity, Temperature
TMD 834
Mycom II
H
+
E
Endress+Hauser
Degree of protection
EEx e m [ia/ib] IIC T4
Certificate
BVS 95.D.2098
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
77
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
Micropilot FMR 23x
Mypro
78
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Product
Micropilot FMR 230V/FMR 231
Process variable
Level
PROFIBUS ID code
150A
Auxiliary energy
9…32 VDC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5 bytes)
Level
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Level
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC T6
Certificate
FMR 231
PTB 98 ATEX 2119
PTB 98 ATEX 2110X
FMR 230V PTB 98 ATEX 2119
PNO certificate
Z00517
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Product
Mypro
Process variable
pH-value, Conductivity
PROFIBUS ID code
150C: Conductivity
150D: pH-value
Auxiliary energy
9...32 VDC
Min. bus voltage
9V
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (10 bytes)
pH-value, Temperature or
Conductivity, Temperature
Acyclic profile data
None
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia/ib IIC T4
Certificate
BVS 97.D.2063
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Endress+Hauser
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
Product
Prowirl 77
Process variable
Flow
PROFIBUS ID code
1510
Auxiliary energy (extern)
9...32 V
Max. basic current
12 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, software
Cyclic data to PLC (5...10 bytes
Flow, Totaliser
Cyclic data from PLC (1 byte)
Control for resetting of totalisor, zero
point adjustment
Acyclic profile data
Analog Input, Physical, Flow, Totaliser
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia/ib IIC T2-T6
Certificate
BVS 97.D.2045
PNO certificate
Z00411
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Product
Liquisys
Process variable
pH-value, Conductivity, Turbidity,
Oxygen, Chlorine
PROFIBUS ID code
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
Auxiliary energy (local)
20...30 VDC; 24/100/115/200/230VAC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, Local operation, software
Cyclic data to PLC (10 bytes)
Measured value + Temperature
Acyclic profile data
None
Additional signals
Relay
Degree of protection
None
Certificate
None
PNO certificate
in preparation
PROFIBUS-DP version available
in preparation
Prowirl 77
Liquisys S
Conductivity
pH
Turbidity
Oxygen
Chlorine
79
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
RID 261
FXN 164
80
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Product
Display RID 261
Process variable
Display function
PROFIBUS ID code
None
Auxiliary energy
9...32 VDC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
Setting of the address of the monitpred
slaves and offet via DIP-switch
Cyclic data to PLC
None, Listener function
Input and output data (5 bytes)
Process value + limit value display
4 bytes IEEE-754 + 1 byte status to
PROFIBUS-PA V 3.0
Acyclic profile data
None
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC
Certificate
in preparation
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Product
PA/NAMUR-interface FXA 164
Process variable
4 x level limit
Input
NAMUR, e.g. Liquiphant with FEL 56
PROFIBUS ID code
1514
Auxiliary energy
9...32 VDC
Max. basic current
11 mA
Fault current
0 mA
Start-up current
< basic current
Local operation
yes
Device address
DIP switch, local operation, software
Cyclic data to PLC
(2 byte pro Kanal)
Grenzstand
Acyclic profile data
4x Discrete Input, Physical,
4x Level limit
Additional signals
None
Degree of protection
EEx ia IIC
Certificate
in preparation
PROFIBUS-DP version available
No
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
10.2 Network components
A complete list of the components that are available from Endress+Hauser is to be found
in the price list or the accessory program SD 096F.
Component
Description
E+H Order No..
Segment coupler
Standard
EEx ia/ib IIB
Siemens PLC: use Siemens coupler
017039-1000
017039-0000
Cable
Kerpen IEC 1152-2
Siemens 6 XV 1830 - 5 AH 10
Beldon 3976F
Cord sets with M12 connector, length 1 m, 2.5 m or 10 m,
yellow or blue.
————
————
————
see accessory program
SD 096F
Terminator
Weidmller (for Ex and Nicht-Ex)
Turck (for Ex and Nicht-Ex, M12 connector)
017481-0001
520001028
T-boxes
Weidmller (various)
Turck (various)
see accessory program
SD 096F
Junction boxes
Weidmller (various)
Turck (various)
see accessory program
SD 096F
Display unit
Memograph:
– indicates measured value, status and tag number
of connected device,
– with PROFIBUS-DP protocol
– Listener function
RSC10-xxxxxxxxxx
Operating program
Commuwin II
FXS113-xxx
Computer interfaces
(for Commuwin)
Softing PROFICARD (PCMCIA card)
016570-5200
Softing PROFIBOARD (ISA board)
016570-5300
Device database files (GSDs)
Required for PLC integration
943157-0000
or download via Internet
12:00
14:00
16:00
18:00
20:00
22:00
http:\\www.endress.com
Endress+Hauser
81
Chapter 10 PROFIBUS-PA Components
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
10.3 Supplementary documentation
Profibus Standard
EN 50 170 Part 1, 2
DIN 19 245, Teil 1 - 4
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin
PROFIBUS Product Catalogue
PROFIBUS User Organisation
Haid- und Neu-Straße 7
D76131 Karlsruhe
Internet:
www.profibus.com
Cerabar S
Technical Information TI 216P/00/en
Technical Information TI 217P/00/en
Mycom II (pH, conductivity measurement)
Technical Information TI 143C/07/en
Technical Information TI 144C/07/en
Mypro (pH, conductivity measurement)
Technical Information TI 172C/07/en
Technical Information TI 173C/07/en
Promag 33
Technical Information TI 027D/06/en
Promass 63
Technical Information TI 030D/06/en
Prowirl 77
Technical Information TI 031D/06/en
Deltabar S
Technical Information TI 256P/00/en
Prosonic T
Technical Information TI 246F/00/en
Deltapilot S
Technical Information TI 257F/00/en
TMD 834
Technical Information TI 201T/02/en
FXN 164
Technical Information TI 343F/00/en
Liquisys
Technical Information TI xxxC/07/en
in preparation
Memograph RSG 10
Technical Information TI 054R/09/en
Micropilot FMR 231
Technical Information TI 281F/00/en
RID 261
Technical Information TI xxxR/09/en
in preparation
Commuwin II Operating Program
System Information SI 018F/00/en
82
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 11 Terms and Definitions
11 Terms and Definitions
This chapter contains a selection of terms and definitions to be met in fieldbus technology.
It is subdivided as follows:
•
•
•
•
Bus architecture
Components
Data exchange
Miscellaneous terms
11.1 Bus architecture
• Topology
The structure of the communication system, e.g. linear (bus), tree, ring, star. For
PROFIBUS, linear and tree structures are permissible
• Participant
A device that is connected to and recognised by the communication system. Every
participant has a unique address.
– active communication participant = master
A device that has the right to initiate communcation.
– passive communication participant = slave
A device that may communicate only when it receives the right to do so from a
master.
• Physical layer
The cable and associated hardware that connects the participants together. Among
other things, the physical layer defines how a signal is to be transmitted over the
bus, how it is to be interpreted and how many participants are allowed on a
segment. The following transmission methods are relevant to PROFIBUS
applications:
– RS-485
Standard for transmission on shielded two-core cable that is used for PROFIBUS-DP.
– IEC 61158-2
International fieldbus standard with data transmission and power supply on shielded
two-core cable that is used for PROFIBUS-PA.
– Fibre optics
Alternative to two-core cable for PROFIBUS-DP applications when operating in
environments with heavy electrical interference or when long buses and high
transmission rates are required. Can also be used as a basis for redundant
structures.
• Segment
In the case of a tree structure, a network section that is separated from the trunk line
by a repeater, segment coupler or link.
– Trunk cable
The longest bus cable, which is terminated at both ends with a terminator.
– Spur
Line connecting the field device to trunk cable.
For PROFIBUS-PA, the number and length of the spurs is limited by the physics and
application (standard or explosiion-hazardous area)
(spur cable ≤ 30 m, splice ≤ 1 m).
Endress+Hauser
83
Chapter 11 Terms and Definitions
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
11.2 Components
• Process-near component (PNC)
A PNC is in direct contact with the fieldbus and manages the communication with
the field devices (= bus master). It can be either a PLC or an operating programm
running on a personal computer.
• Signal coupler
The interface between a PROFIBUS-DP system and a PROFIBUS-P A segment. The
signal coupler converts the signal from RS-485 to IEC 61158-2 format and adapts
the transmission rate.
• Bus power unit
Supplies the devices on the PROFIBUS-PA segment with power (except those which
are externally powered). Normally the signal coupler and bus power unit are
contained in a signal unit, e.g. as the segment coupler. The can also be designed as
a PLC interface card.
• Segment coupler
A device that serves as both signal coupler and bus power unit. In these guidelines,
a segment coupler is considered to be "transparent", i.e. its existence is not
recognised by the communication system. The master communicates directly with
the connected devices. The coupler includes a terminator and in the case of
Ex-versions, a barrier.
• Link
PROFIBUS-DP/PROFIBUS-PA interface for the connection of one or more PROFIBUS
segments. A link is not "transparent", i.e. there is no direct communication between
the master and the PROFIBUS-PA slaves. Their data are collected by the links and
made available as a whole to the PROFIBUS-DP master. A link is a slave in a
PROFIBUS-DP system but a master to the connected PROFIBUS-PA segments.
• Repeater
A repeater amplifies the communication signal, thus allowing the bus length to be
extended. Up to 4 repeaters are allowed per bus segment (PROFIBUS-PA). A
repeater is a bus participant.
• Field devices
Actuators and sensors that are connected to a PROFIBUS-PA/PROFIBUS-DP
segment. Field devices are normally slave.
• T-box
Means of connecting individual field devices to the trunk cable. The field devices
can be connected directly to the T-box or via a spur. T-boxes are used for distribution
only had have no intelligence.
• Junction box
Means of connecting several field devices to the trunk cable. Normally, the field
devices are connected to the junction box by a spur. Junction boxes are used for
distribution only had have no intelligence.
• Terminator
Component that terminates the beginning and end of the bus segment, in order to
avoid interfering reflections. For PROFIBUS-PA, one terminator is built inot the
segment coupler. Various T-boxes have a built-in terminator that can be switched on
when the box is at the end of the segment. For explosion-hazardous applications a
separate bus terminator must be used.
84
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 11 Terms and Definitions
11.3 Data exchange
• Bus access method
The mechanism that is used to ensure proper communication between the
participants on the network.
• Logical token ring
A bus access method for communication systems with several masters (multimaster
system). During the network design stage, a central list containing every master with
its assigned access time is compiled . The master with the token has the right to
transmit for this period of time. Afterwards, the token is passed on to the next master
in the list. After the list has be worked through, the procedure is started over again.
– Token rotation time
The time required until all the masters in a token ring have been worked through.
Normally, the token rotation time also corresponds the update time for the plant data
base.
• Master-slave method
A bus access method in which the right to transmit is assigned to one participant
only (the master), whereas all the other participants (slaves) can only transmit when
requested to do so.
• Hybrid method
A mixture between two bus access methods, e.g. for PROFIBUS-DP the masters are
linked together in a logical token right, but communicate directly with their slaves
using the master-slave method.
• Cyclic data transfer (polling)
The regular exchange of data between a master and its slaves. For measuring
instruments, this concerns the measured value and status signals.
• Acyclic data transfer
The irregular exchange of data between a master and a slave. For measuring
instruments, this usually concerns the adjustment of process-relevant device
parameters during commissioning or operation. Alternatively a detailed error
message may be transmitted when a bad status is detected.
• Update time
The time required in cyclic data exchange to collect the complete set of data
available on a bus segment.
• Bus address
A unique device code used to identify a bus participant, which enables the master
to transmit data to a particular slave on the network. The bus address is normally set
via DIP switch or software.
Endress+Hauser
85
Chapter 11 Terms and Definitions
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
11.4 Miscellaneous terms
• FISCO model
Basis for the use of PROFIBUS-PA devices in explosion-hazardous areas.
• Fault disconnection electronics (FDE)
Measures aimed at preventing an impermissible current consumption in the event of
a fault, so that a defective bus participant cannot detrimentally affect the function of
the rest of the system.
• Fault current
The increase in the current consumption with respect to the basic current in the
event of a fault.
• Device database file (GSD)
Device descriptions and bitmaps required be the master, in order that a device is
recognised as a bus participant. The device database files are required during the
commissioning of the communication system.
86
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 12 Appendix
12 Appendix
The following data are required to design a PROFIBUS-PA segment:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Requirements
Max. output current of the segment coupler Is
mA
Output voltage of the segment coupler Us
V
Specific resistance of the cable RK
Ω/km
Total length of the spurs
m
Length of the trunk cable
m
Basic and fault currents of the field devices used
(for Endress+Hauser devices see Section 4.3, page 28).
12.1 Calculation sheets for explosion hazardous areas EEx ia
No. Device
Manufacturer
Tag
Basic current IB
Fault current IFDE
Current consumption
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Highest fault current(max. IFDE)
Current consumption ISEG = ΣIB + max. IFDE
Output current of segment coupler IS
IS ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE?
Max. loop-resistance, standard
yes = OK
Cable length
40 Ω
Specific resistance of cable RK
Ω/km
Max. length (m) = 1000 x (40 Ω/ Specific resistance of cable)
m
Length of trunk cable
m
Total length of spurs
m
Total length of cable LSEG
m
Total length of cable < Max. length
Endress+Hauser
OK!
87
Kapitel 12 Appendix
Voltage at last device
PROFIBUS-PA-Handbuch
Output voltage of segment coupler US (Manufacturer's data)
V
Ω/km
Specific resistance of cable RK
Total length of cable LSEG
Ω
Resistance of cable RSEG = LSEG x RK
Current consumption of segment ISEG
Voltage drop UA = ISEG x RSEG
V
Voltage at last device UB = US – UA
V
≥ 9* V?
OK!
*for FEB 24P ≥ 9.6 V
12.2 Calculation sheets for explosion hazardous areas EEx ib
Current consumption
No. Device
Manufacturer
Tag
Basic current
Fault current
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Highest fault current(max. IFDE)
Current consumption ISEG = ΣIB + max. IFDE
Output current of segment coupler IS
IS ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE?
88
yes = OK
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 12 Appendix
Cable length
16 Ω
Max. loop-resistance, standard
Specific resistance of cableRK
Ω/km
Max. length (m) = 1000 x (16 Ω/ loop-resistance of cable)
m
Length of trunk cable
m
Total length of spurs
m
Total length of cable LSEG
m
Total length of cable < Max. length
OK!
Output voltage of segment coupler US (Manufacturer's data)
Specific resistance of cable RK
Voltage at last device
V
Ω/km
Total length of cable LSEG
Resistance of cable RSEG = LSEG x RK
Ω
Current consumption of segment ISEG
Voltage drop UA = ISEG x RSEG
V
Voltage at last device UB = US – UA
V
≥ 9* V?
OK!
*for FEB 24P ≥ 9.6 V
Endress+Hauser
89
Kapitel 12 Appendix
PROFIBUS-PA-Handbuch
12.3 Calculation sheets for non-hazardous areas
Current consumption
No. Device
Manufacturer
Tag
Basic current
Fault current
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Highest fault current(max. IFDE)
Current consumption ISEG = ΣIB + max. IFDE
Output current of segment coupler IS
IS ≥ ΣIB + max. IFDE?
90
yes = OK
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Chapter 12 Appendix
Cable length
39 Ω
Max. loop-resistance, standard
Specific resistance of cable RK
Ω/km
Max. length (m) = 1000 x (39 Ω/ Widerstandbelag of cable)
m
Length of trunk cable
m
Total length of spurs
m
Total length of cable LSEG
m
Total length of cable < Max. length
OK!
Output voltage of segment coupler US (Manufacturer's data)
Specific resistance of cable RK
Voltage at last device
V
Ω/km
Total length of cable LSEG
Resistance of cable RSEG = LSEG x RK
Ω
Current consumption of segment ISEG
Voltage drop UA = ISEG x RSEG
V
Voltage at last device UB = US – UA
V
≥ 9* V?
OK!
*for FEB 24P ≥ 9.6 V
Endress+Hauser
91
Index
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Index
A
H
Acyclic data transfer . . . . . . . .
Addressing . . . . . . . . . . .
Addressing and cycle times (examples)
Analog input block . . . . . . . .
Analogue values . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . .
Application parameters . . . . . . .
Approved usage . . . . . . . . .
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. . . 57
. . . 58
12, 21, 85
14, 23, 85
. . . 83
. . . 27
. 14, 23
. . . 84
B
Baudrate . . . .
Block model . . .
Block structure . .
Bus access method
Bus address . . .
Bus archtecture . .
Bus length . . . .
Bus parameters . .
Bus power unit . .
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Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable length . . . . . . . . . .
Cable type . . . . . . . . . . .
Cabling in safe areas . . . . . .
Calculation examples for bus design
Calculation sheets . . . . . . . .
Cerabar S . . . . . . . . . . .
Certificates . . . . . . . . . .
Commissioning . . . . . . . . .
Commuwin II . . . . . . . . . .
Components . . . . . . . . . .
Current consumption . . . . . . .
Cycle times . . . . . . . . . .
Cyclic data transfer . . . . . . .
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27, 29, 31, 32
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48, 55, 66, 71
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28, 30 - 31, 33
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. . . . . 85
C
D
Data exchange . . . . .
Data format . . . . . .
Data quantity . . . . . .
Data transmission . . . .
Deltabar S . . . . . . .
Deltapilot S . . . . . .
Device database file (GSD)
Device management . . .
Discrete input block . . .
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. . . . 85
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14, 23, 49, 86
. . . . . 59
. . . . . 65
EEx ia . . . . . . . . .
EEx ib . . . . . . . . .
Electrical connection . . . .
Endress+Hauser field devices
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. 31, 87
. 32, 88
. . . 46
. . . 74
Fault current . . . . . . . .
Fault disconnection electronics
Fibre optics . . . . . . . .
Field devices . . . . . . . .
FISCO model . . . . . . . .
Function block . . . . . . .
FXN 164 . . . . . . . . . .
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24
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41 . .
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83
48
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49
I
IEC 61158-2 . . .
Installation . . . .
Installation of devices
Integration . . . .
INTERNET . . . .
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J
Junction box
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
L
Level limit signals
Limit switch . . .
Links . . . . .
Liquisys . . . .
Logical token ring
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50
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15, 17, 22, 37, 40, 55, 84
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79
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85
Mandatory parameters
Master . . . . . . .
Master class . . . .
Master-slave method .
Max. cable length . .
Micropilot FMR 23x . .
Mycom II . . . . . .
Mypro . . . . . . .
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Network components . . .
Network configuration . . .
Network design . . . . .
Non-hazardous application
Non-hazardous areas . . .
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81
13, 23
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52
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29
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90
M
23
83
12
85
27
78
77
78
N
O
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optical network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overvoltage protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66
11
45
P
E
F
92
Hardware addressing .
Hazardous applications
Hazardous areas . .
Hybrid method . . .
. . 86
25, 86
. . 83
. . 84
24, 86
. . 63
. . 80
Participant . . . . . . .
Physical block . . . . . .
Physical layer . . . . . .
Planning . . . . . . . .
PLC network design . . .
Process-near component .
PROFIBUS-DP . . . . .
PROFIBUS-PA . . . . . .
PROFIBUS-PA cable . . .
PROFIBUS-PA components
Promag 33/35 . . . . . .
Promass 63 . . . . . . .
Prosonic T . . . . . . .
Prowirl 77 . . . . . . .
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7, 9 . . .
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83
. . . . .
60
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83
. . .
26 - 40
. . . . .
69
. . . . .
84
15, 17, 37, 55, 72
7, 15, 37, 41, 73
. . . . .
27
. . .
74 - 82
. . . . .
76
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76
. . . . .
74
. . . . .
79
Endress+Hauser
PROFIBUS-PA Guidelines
Index
R
U
Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
RID 261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
RS-485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Update time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85
V
Voltage at last device . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 - 30, 32 - 33
S
Safety conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Screening in explosion hazardous areas . . . . . . . . . . 44
Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Segment coupler . . . . . . . . 17, 21, 26, 38 - 39, 45, 55, 84
Signal coupler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Software addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Spurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 83
Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Supplementary documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
W
Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
T
T-box . . . . .
Technical data .
Termination . . .
Terminator . . .
TMD 834 . . .
Token ring . . .
Token rotation time
Topology . . .
Totalisor block .
Transducer block
Transmission rate
Trouble-shooting
Trunk cable . .
Type of protection
Endress+Hauser
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. . . 84
. 72 - 73
. . . 45
. . . 84
. . . 77
. . . 12
. . . 85
10, 18, 83
. . . 64
. . . 62
. 14, 23
. 68 - 71
. . . 83
. . . 27
93
Europe
Austria
❑ Endress+Hauser Ges.m.b.H.
Wien
Tel. (01) 8 80 56-0, Fax (01) 8 80 56-35
Belarus
Belorgsintez
Minsk
Tel. (01 72) 26 31 66, Fax (01 72) 26 31 11
Belgium / Luxembourg
❑ Endress+Hauser S.A./N.V.
Brussels
Tel. (02) 2 48 06 00, Fax (02) 2 48 05 53
Bulgaria
INTERTECH-AUTOMATION
Sofia
Tel. (02) 65 28 09, Fax (02) 65 28 09
Croatia
❑ Endress+Hauser GmbH+Co.
Zagreb
Tel. (01) 6 60 14 18, Fax (01) 6 60 14 18
Cyprus
I+G Electrical Services Co. Ltd.
Nicosia
Tel. (02) 48 47 88, Fax (02) 48 46 90
Czech Republic
❑ Endress+Hauser GmbH+Co.
Praha
Tel. (0 26) 6 78 42 00, Fax (0 26) 6 78 41 79
Denmark
❑ Endress+Hauser A/S
Søborg
Tel. (31) 67 31 22, Fax (31) 67 30 45
Estonia
Elvi-Aqua
Tartu
Tel. (7) 42 27 26, Fax (7) 42 27 27
Finland
❑ Endress+Hauser Oy
Espoo
Tel. (90) 8 59 61 55, Fax (90) 8 59 60 55
France
❑ Endress+Hauser
Huningue
Tel. 89 69 67 68, Fax 89 69 48 02
Germany
❑ Endress+Hauser Meßtechnik GmbH+Co.
Weil am Rhein
Tel. (0 76 21) 9 75-01, Fax (0 76 21) 9 75-5 55
Great Britain
❑ Endress+Hauser Ltd.
Manchester
Tel. (01 61) 2 86 50 00, Fax (01 61) 9 98 18 41
Greece
I & G Building Services Automation S.A.
Athens
Tel. (01) 9 24 15 00, Fax (01) 9 22 17 14
Hungary
Mile Ipari-Elektro
Budapest
Tel. (01) 2 61 55 35, Fax (01) 2 61 55 35
Iceland
Vatnshreinsun HF
Reykjavik
Tel. (05) 88 96 16, Fax (05) 88 96 13
Ireland
Flomeaco Company Ltd.
Kildare
Tel. (0 45) 86 86 15, Fax (0 45) 86 81 82
Italy
❑ Endress+Hauser Italia S.p.A.
Cernusco s/N Milano
Tel. (02) 92 10 64 21, Fax (02) 92 10 71 53
Jugoslavia
Meris d.o.o.
Beograd
Tel. (11) 4 44 29 66, Fax (11) 43 00 43
Netherland
❑ Endress+Hauser B.V.
Naarden
Tel. (0 35) 6 95 86 11, Fax (0 35) 6 95 88 25
Brazil
❑ Samson Endress+Hauser Ltda.
Sao Paulo
Tel. (0 11) 5 36 34 55, Fax (0 11) 5 36 30 67
Philippines
Brenton Industries Inc.
Makati Metro Manila
Tel. (2) 8 43 06 61-5, Fax (2) 8 17 57 39
Norway
❑ Endress+Hauser A/S
Tranby
Tel. (0 32) 85 10 85, Fax (0 32) 85 11 12
Canada
❑ Endress+Hauser Ltd.
Burlington, Ontario
Tel. (9 05) 6 81 92 92, Fax (9 05) 6 81 94 44
Singapore
❑ Endress+Hauser (S.E.A.) Pte., Ltd.
Singapore
Tel. 4 68 82 22, Fax 4 66 68 48
Poland
❑ Endress+Hauser Polska Sp. z o.o.
Warszawy
Tel. (0 22) 7 20 10 90, Fax (0 22) 7 20 10 85
Chile
DIN Instrumentos Ltda.
Santiago
Tel. (02) 2 05 01 00, Fax (02) 2 25 81 39
Portugal
Tecnisis - Tecnica de Sistemas Industriais
Linda-a-Velha
Tel. (01) 4 17 26 37, Fax (01) 4 18 52 78
Colombia
Colsein Ltd.
Bogota D.C.
Tel. (01) 2 36 76 59, Fax (01) 6 10 78 68
Romania
Romconseng SRL
Bucharest
Tel. (01) 4 10 16 34, Fax (01) 4 10 16 34
Costa Rica
EURO-TEC S.A.
San Jose
Tel. 2 96 15 42, Fax 2 96 15 42
Russia
❑ Endress+Hauser Moscow Office
Moscow
Tel., Fax: see Endress+Hauser GmbH+Co.
Instruments International
Ecuador
Insetec Cia. Ltda.
Quito
Tel. (02) 25 12 42, Fax (02) 46 18 33
Slovak Republic
Transcom Technik s.r.o.
Bratislava
Tel. (7) 5 21 31 61, Fax (7) 5 21 31 81
Slovenia
❑ Endress+Hauser D.O.O.
Ljubljana
Tel. (0 61) 1 59 22 17, Fax (0 61) 1 59 22 98
Spain
❑ Endress+Hauser S.A.
Barcelona
Tel. (93) 4 80 33 66, Fax (93) 4 73 38 39
Sweden
❑ Endress+Hauser AB
Sollentuna
Tel. (08) 6 26 16 00, Fax (08) 6 26 94 77
Switzerland
❑ Endress+Hauser AG
Reinach/BL 1
Tel. (0 61) 7 15 62 22, Fax (0 61) 7 11 16 50
Turkey
Intek Endüstriyel Ölcü ve Kontrol Sistemleri
Istanbul
Tel. (02 12) 2 75 13 55, Fax (02 12) 2 66 27 75
Ukraine
Industria Ukraïna
Kiev
Tel. (44) 2 68 52 13, Fax (44) 2 68 52 13
Africa
Egypt
Anasia
Heliopolis/Cairo
Tel. (02) 4 17 90 07, Fax (02) 4 17 90 08
Morocco
Oussama S.A.
Casablanca
Tel. (02) 24 13 38, Fax (02) 40 26 57
Nigeria
J F Technical Invest. Nig. Ltd.
Lagos
Tel. (1) 62 23 45 46, Fax (1) 62 23 45 48
South Africa
❑ Endress+Hauser Pty. Ltd.
Sandton
Tel. (0 11) 4 44 13 86, Fax (0 11) 4 44 19 77
Tunisia
Controle, Maintenance et Regulation
Tunis
Tel. (01) 79 30 77, Fax (01) 78 85 95
America
Guatemala
ACISA Automatizacion Y Control Industrial S.A.
Ciudad de Guatemala, C.A.
Tel. (02) 34 59 85, Fax (02) 32 74 31
Mexico
❑ Endress+Hauser I.I.
Mexico City
Tel. (5) 5 68 96 58, Fax (5) 5 68 41 83
South Korea
❑ Endress+Hauser (Korea) Co., Ltd.
Seoul
Tel. (02) 6 58 72 00, Fax (02) 6 59 28 38
Taiwan
Kingjarl Corporation
Taipei R.O.C.
Tel. (02) 7 18 39 38, Fax (02) 7 13 41 90
Thailand
❑ Endress+Hauser Ltd.
Bangkok
Tel. (2) 9 96 78 11-20, Fax (2) 9 96 78 10
Vietnam
Tan Viet Bao Co. Ltd.
Ho Chi Minh City
Tel. (08) 8 33 52 25, Fax (08) 8 33 52 27
Iran
Telephone Technical Services Co. Ltd.
Tehran
Tel. (0 21) 8 74 67 50, Fax(0 21) 8 73 72 95
Paraguay
Incoel S.R.L.
Asuncion
Tel. (0 21) 21 39 89, Fax (0 21) 2 65 83
Israel
Instrumetrics Industrial Control Ltd.
Tel-Aviv
Tel. (03) 6 48 02 05, Fax (03) 6 47 19 92
Uruguay
Circular S.A.
Montevideo
Tel. (02) 92 57 85, Fax (02) 92 91 51
Jordan
A.P. Parpas Engineering S.A.
Amman
Tel. (06) 5 53 92 83, Fax (06) 5 53 92 05
USA
❑ Endress+Hauser Inc.
Greenwood, Indiana
Tel. (3 17) 5 35-71 38, Fax (3 17) 5 35-14 89
Venezuela
H. Z. Instrumentos C.A.
Caracas
Tel. (02) 9 79 88 13, Fax (02) 9 79 96 08
Asia
China
❑ Endress+Hauser Shanghai
Instrumentation Co. Ltd.
Shanghai
Tel. (0 21) 64 64 67 00, Fax (0 21) 64 74 78 60
❑ Endress+Hauser Beijing Office
Beijing
Tel. (0 10) 68 34 40 58, Fax: (0 10) 68 34 40 68
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Anasia
Jeddah
Tel. (02) 6 71 00 14, Fax (02) 6 72 59 29
Kuwait
Kuwait Maritime & Mercantile Co. K.S.C.
Safat
Tel. 2 43 47 52, Fax 2 44 14 86
Lebanon
Nabil Ibrahim
Jbeil
Tel. (3) 25 40 51, Fax (9) 94 40 80
Sultanate of Oman
Mustafa & Jawad Sience & Industry Co.
L.L.C.
Ruwi
Tel. 60 20 09, Fax 60 70 66
United Arab Emirates
Descon Trading EST.
Dubai
Tel. (04) 35 95 22, Fax (04) 35 96 17
Hong Kong
❑ Endress+Hauser (H.K.) Ltd.
Hong Kong
Tel. 25 28 31 20, Fax 28 65 41 71
India
❑ Endress+Hauser India Branch Office
Mumbai
Tel. (0 22) 6 04 55 78, Fax (0 22) 6 04 02 11
Yemen
Yemen Company for Ghee and Soap Industry
Taiz
Tel. (04) 23 06 64, Fax (04) 21 23 38
Indonesia
PT Grama Bazita
Jakarta
Tel. (21) 7 97 50 83, Fax (21) 7 97 50 89
Australia + New Zealand
Japan
❑ Sakura Endress Co., Ltd.
Tokyo
Tel. (04 22) 54 06 11, Fax (04 22) 55 02 75
Australia
GEC Alsthom LTD.
Sydney
Tel. (02) 96 45 07 77, Fax (02) 97 43 70 35
Malaysia
❑ Endress+Hauser (M) Sdn. Bhd.
Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan
Tel. (03) 7 33 48 48, Fax (03) 7 33 88 00
New Zealand
EMC Industrial Instrumentation
Auckland
Tel. (09) 4 44 92 29, Fax (09) 4 44 11 45
All other countries
Latvia
Raita Ltd.
Riga
Tel. (02) 25 47 95, Fax (02) 7 25 89 33
Argentina
❑ Endress+Hauser Argentina S.A.
Buenos Aires
Tel. (01) 5 23 80 08, Fax (01) 5 22 05 46
Pakistan
Speedy Automation
Karachi
Tel. (0 21) 7 72 29 53, Fax (0 21) 7 73 68 84
Lithuania
Agava Ltd.
Kaunas
Tel. (07) 20 24 10, Fax (07) 20 74 14
Bolivia
Tritec S.R.L.
Cochabamba
Tel. (0 42) 5 69 93, Fax (0 42) 5 09 81
Papua-Neuguinea
SBS Electrical Pty Limited
Port Moresby
Tel. 53 25 11 88, Fax 53 25 95 56
❑ Endress+Hauser GmbH+Co.
Instruments International
D-Weil am Rhein
Germany
Tel. (0 76 21) 9 75-02, Fax (0 76 21) 97 53 45
http://www.endress.com
Endress + Hauser
The Power of Know How
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