Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings BUILDINGS | ENERGY | SOLAR TECHNOLOGY Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Methods for Diagnosis and Evaluation Claude-Alain Roulet London . Sterling, VA First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2008 Copyright # Claude-Alain Roulet, 2008 All rights reserved ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-451-8 Typesetting by 4word Ltd, Bristol Printed and bound in the UK by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall Cover design by Paul Cooper For a full list of publications please contact: Earthscan 8–12 Camden High Street London, NW1 0JH, UK Tel: þ44 (0)20 7387 8558 Fax: þ44 (0)20 7387 8998 Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk Web: www.earthscan.co.uk 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Roulet, Claude-Alain. Ventilation and airﬂow in buildings : methods for diagnosis and evaluation / ClaudeAlain Roulet. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-451-8 (hardback) ISBN-10: 1-84407-451-X (hardback) 1. Ventilation–Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Air ﬂow–Measurement–Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. TH7656.R68 2008 697.90 2–dc22 2007034790 The paper used for this book is FSC-certiﬁed and totally chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship Council) is an international network to promote responsible management of the world’s forests. Contents List of Figures and Tables Preamble Introduction vii xii xiii 1 Airﬂow Rates in Buildings Single-zone measurements Application to buildings, multi-zone Further interpretation of the ﬂow matrix Equations for volume ﬂow rates Summary of the various tracer gas methods 1 1 6 9 11 12 2 Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units Measurement of the airﬂow rate in a duct Airﬂow measurements at ventilation grilles Airﬂow rate measurements in air handling units Principle of the interpretation procedure Node by node method General method for ‘black box’ air handling unit Planning tool Example of application Simple measurement using CO2 from occupants Measurements in buildings with large time constants Appropriate method for assessing the recirculation ratio 15 15 19 20 23 23 24 33 33 34 35 36 3 Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency Deﬁnitions Measurement method Practical interpretation of the concentration records Error analysis Example of application Mapping the age of the air in rooms 39 39 42 45 46 47 49 4 Airtightness Why check airtightness? 58 58 vi Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Measurement methods Determining the leakage coeﬃcients Corrections for standard conditions Ways of expressing the airtightness Airtightness of buildings Measurement of airtightness of a duct or network 5 59 63 65 66 67 74 Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation Energy in buildings Energy in air handling units Heat exchangers Energy for ventilation Energy eﬀects of indoor air quality measures 77 77 79 83 97 102 6 Contaminants in Air Handling Units Filters Ducts Humidiﬁers Rotating heat exchangers Coils Measurement protocols Strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems 108 108 109 110 111 113 113 125 7 Common Methods and Techniques Expressing concentrations and ﬂow rates Tracer gas dilution techniques Identiﬁcation methods Error analysis Notes 132 132 134 147 153 165 References 166 Annexes A Unit Conversion Tables B Glossary 171 174 Index 187 List of Figures and Tables Figures 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 Design and measured outdoor airﬂow rate per person in 12 buildings xv Relative diﬀerence between measured and design outdoor airﬂow rate in 37 air handling units xv Comparison of design and measured recirculation rate in 34 air handling units xvi Histogram and cumulated frequencies of measured recirculation rates in air handling units designed without recirculation xvi Design and measured exﬁltration ratios compared in 30 units xvii Ventilation eﬃciency in some ventilated areas xvii 6 Records of CO2 concentration in an oﬃce room Schematics of a supply and exhaust air handling unit 16 Location of the measurement points in circular and rectangular ducts 18 Measuring the airﬂow rate in a duct with the tracer gas dilution method 19 Schematics of a compensated ﬂowmeter 20 Locations of tracer gas injection (arrows), and sampling points for concentration measurements (Ci ) in a typical supply and exhaust air handling unit. 21 Evolution of tracer gas concentration versus time 22 Example of multiple injection devices 23 The simpliﬁed network representing the air handling unit and ducts 25 Measured airﬂow rates in a leaky air handling unit 33 Concentrations at locations shown in Figure 2.5 resulting from injection of SF6 as tracer 1 and N2 O as tracer 2 in a leaky air handling unit 34 Tracer gas concentrations in the supply duct, upstream (3) and 36 downstream (30 ) of the tracer gas injection port Conﬁdence interval of the recirculation ratio as a function of the recirculation ratio itself for three assessment methods 38 viii 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Ventilation modes with typical airﬂow patterns and air change eﬃciencies Typical probability density curves for the age of the air Typical probability curves for the age of the air Record of tracer gas concentration in the exhaust duct during the measurement of the age of air Probability functions of the age of air, calculated from the recorded concentration illustrated in Figure 3.4 Arrangement of the conference room and of its surroundings Arrangement of the conference room after improvement Room ventilation characteristics before and after improvement Minimum design for a 2-D quadratic model Experimental designs C3 (left) and composite centred (right) Map of the age of the air at head level Measured part of outdoor air that is not supplied by the system in mechanically ventilated buildings, shown with uncertainty band Airﬂow rates and pressure diﬀerences as measured in a real test, together with power law and quadratic ﬁts Principle of the guarded zone technique applied to several walls of a room Logarithmic plot of airﬂow rates and pressure diﬀerences Schematic of building airtightness test Roof corner from inside Roof corner under depressurization Principle of the neutral height method for assessing leakage area Location of tracer injection and sampling tubes for the measurement of leakage airﬂow rates in a ventilation system Two measurements providing, by diﬀerence, the duct leakage to outside of the conditioned space Psychrometric chart with constant relative humidity curves and constant enthalpy lines Paths in the psychrometric chart for heating and humidifying outdoor air in winter to reach 208C and 50 per cent relative humidity Paths in the psychrometric chart for heating outdoor air in winter or cooling it in summer to reach 208C and 50 per cent relative humidity Close view of a ﬂat plate heat exchanger Top half of a rotating heat exchanger Relative position of fans and rotating heat exchangers Schematics of an air handling unit, showing location of pressure taps for pressure diﬀerential measurements The simpliﬁed network representing the air handling unit and ducts Relative decrease of global heat recovery eﬃciency as a function of exﬁltration ratio exf and internal recirculation rate Rxs 41 41 42 44 44 48 49 49 55 56 57 59 61 63 65 68 69 70 73 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 86 88 89 93 List of Figures and Tables 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 7.1 7.2 7.3 Global heat recovery eﬃciency versus nominal heat exchanger eﬀectiveness measured in several units Seasonal average coeﬃcient of performance and speciﬁc net energy saving of the tested units Approximate ﬁgures for the eﬃciencies of various elements needed to move the air in the ductwork Installation of the diﬀerential manometer to measure the pressure diﬀerential across the fan Schematics of electric power measurement on a three-phase motor Front panel of the variable frequency controller Fan eﬃciencies as a function of actual fan motor power Air temperature increase as a function of pressure diﬀerential across the fan The HVAC system in the simulated building Olfactive pollution of various new ﬁlters as a function of airﬂow rate Correlation between odour intensity and the mass of oil residues in the tested ducts Perceived air quality for the steam humidiﬁer Bacteria concentration at inner surface of a humidiﬁer correlated with the odour intensity Some extract air is entrained in the supply airﬂow by the rotation of the wheel Schematics of the purging sector Average VOC recirculation rates measured in the EPFL laboratory unit, with and without a purging sector The PAP meter Recommended locations of small bottles in PAP meter Schematics of an air handling unit showing location of VOC injection and sampling points, Ci , for concentration analysis Flash evaporation device for injecting the VOCs EPFL wheel structure SEM image of a new hygroscopic coating Average VOC recirculation rates measured in the EPFL auditorium (leaky) unit, with and without purging sector Average VOC recirculation rates measured in the EPFL laboratory unit, with and without purging sector Transfer ratio as a function of the boiling point for three families Recirculation rates for each chemical compound measured in EPFL and EMPA units, in both cases without a purging sector Two strategies for injection and sampling Signiﬁcance limits and conﬁdence interval Normal (or Gaussian) distribution (left) and its probabillity function (right) ix 96 96 98 100 100 101 102 102 105 109 109 110 111 111 112 112 114 115 118 119 121 121 124 124 125 125 142 155 157 x 7.4 7.5 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Student distribution for 1, 2 and 5 degrees of freedom compared to the normal distribution Conﬁdence limit divided by standard deviation versus number of measurements for various values of probability, P 158 159 Tables 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Summary of diﬀerent injection strategies 12 Summary of single-zone methods 13 Summary of multi-zone methods 13 Possible airﬂow rates in the network represented in Figure 2.8 25 Nominal time constant and room mean age of the air corresponding to the probability curves shown in Figures 3.2 and 3.3 41 Minimum number of measurements needed to obtain the coeﬃcients of a kth degree polynomial empirical model representing a variable in a two- and three-dimensional space 51 2-D, two-level full factorial design 54 2-D design changing one variable at a time 54 2-D full factorial design with three levels 55 Minimum 3-D design for assessing the coeﬃcients of a linear model 55 Full factorial design for assessing the coeﬃcients of a linear model with interactions 56 3-D centred star design 56 Condition number of MT M for some experimental designs and three models 57 Humidity ratio and speciﬁc enthalpy of warm, humid air cooled down and dried as shown in Figure 5.3 82 Measured airﬂow rates with experimental uncertainty band (when available), total and speciﬁc fan power in audited units 95 Outdoor air eﬃciency, o , exﬁltration and inﬁltration ratios exf and inf , external and internal recirculation rates Re , Rxs and Rie , heat recovery eﬀectiveness "HR , global heat recovery eﬃciency G , speciﬁc net energy saving, SNES in Wh/m3 , and coeﬃcient of performance, COP, of audited air handling units 95 Uses of energy in buildings, energy saving measures and their eﬀects on indoor environment quality 104 PAP values and 2-propanone concentrations in PAP meters used as milestones 116 List of VOCs used for contaminant transfer experiments 120 Characteristics of the air handling units used for the experiments 121 Pressure diﬀerentials in the units [Pa] 122 Climatic conditions in the units [8C] 122 List of Figures and Tables 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 VOC transfer rate in the experiments performed in both EPFL units (%) VOC transfer rate in the EMPA experiments General IAQ strategies for HVAC systems Checkpoints in HVAC units in visual inspection IAQ strategies for ﬁlters IAQ strategies for ducts IAQ strategies for rotating heat exchangers IAQ strategies for humidiﬁers IAQ strategies for coils Examples of coherent units Properties of the gases most frequently used as tracers Background concentration of some gases Qualities of some tracer gases Tracer gases most used in the mass spectrometer technique Two-sided conﬁdence limits TðP; N 2Þ for a Student distribution Data measured during a tracer gas experiment in two connected rooms Airﬂow rates [m3 /h], calculated from the data given in Table 7.7 xi 123 123 126 127 128 129 130 130 131 133 135 136 137 145 149 164 165 Preamble This book includes information already published by the author in scientiﬁc journals and in an Air Inﬁltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) technical note (Roulet and Vandaele, 1991), now sold out. Part of the content of Chapters 2, 3 and 5 was also published by the author in a book edited by H. Awbi (Awbi, 2007). Roulet, C.-A. and L. Vandaele, 1991, Airﬂow patterns within buildings: Measurement techniques. AIVC Technical Note 34, AIVC, Bracknell, 265pp, order at inive@bbri.be Awbi, H., 2007, Ventilation Systems, Design and Performance, Taylor and Francis, London, 522pp Introduction Why ventilate? Without ventilation, a building’s occupants will initially be troubled by odours and other possible contaminants and heat. Humidity may rise because of indoor moisture sources such as the occupants, laundry, cooking and plants; thus enhancing moisture hazards (for example, mould growth and condensation). Oxygen will nevertheless not be missed until much later. The purpose of ventilation is to eliminate airborne contaminants, which are generated both by human activity and by the building itself. These are: . . . . . bad odours, to which people entering the room are very sensitive; moisture, which increases the risk of mould growth; carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas, which may induce lethargy at high concentrations; dust, aerosols and toxic gases resulting from human activity, as well as from the building materials (in principle, ‘clean’ materials should be chosen for internal use, but this is not always possible); excessive heat. The airﬂow rate required to ensure good indoor air quality depends upon the contaminant sources’ strengths and on their maximum acceptable concentration: the larger the contaminant sources’ strengths or the smaller the maximum acceptable concentration, the greater the required ventilation rate is. During the heating season in well-designed and clean buildings, the occupants are the main source of contaminants (mostly odours and water vapour). The airﬂow rate should then be between 22 cubic metres per hour (m3 /h) per person, which limits the CO2 concentration to about 1000 parts per million (ppm) above the outdoor concentration, and 54 m3 /h per person, which limits the CO2 concentration to about 400 ppm above the outdoor concentration – meaning that less than 10 per cent of people entering the room will be dissatisﬁed by the odour (CEN, 2006). Airﬂow rates should be much greater in poorly insulated buildings (where there is a risk of mould growth and water vapour condensation), or in spaces where there is a particular source of contamination, including spaces where smoking is allowed. In summer, the minimum airﬂow rate may be much greater than the hygienic airﬂow rate in order to evacuate heat or provide cooling draughts. xiv Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings However, when the outdoor temperature exceeds indoor temperatures, it may be wise to reduce the ventilation rate, only allowing high levels of ventilation at night when the outdoor temperature is low. Ventilation is hence not only essential to ensure an acceptable indoor air quality, but is also often used to improve thermal comfort. For this air heating or cooling, air conditioning (including air humidity control) or free cooling (increasing the outdoor airﬂow rate to cool down the building fabric) are used. In order to achieve these goals, several conditions should be met: . . . . Airﬂow rates should be adapted to need: if too low, good air quality will not be achieved, or draughts, noise and energy waste may result from an excessive airing. The air should be well distributed: ideally, the fresh air should reach any occupied zones ﬁrst and contaminated air should be quickly extracted. The air supply should not decrease comfort. It should not cause complaints about draughts, noise or poor air quality. The air supplied by ventilation systems should be clean and, where appropriate, should comply with the temperature and moisture requirements. In addition, to comply with a sustainable development policy, the ventilation systems should be energy eﬃcient and should perform as required using a minimum amount of energy. Why assess airﬂows in buildings? The conditions listed above are most likely to be met when the building and its ventilation system are not only well designed and built, but also well commissioned. Commissioning a ventilation system involves carrying out measurements to check that it performs as expected. When these conditions are not met or when there are problems, measurements may help in ﬁnding the causes of the problem and in ﬁxing them. In order to show the usefulness of measurements, some results from investigations performed on several air handling units are shown below. It should be emphasized that these ventilation units were not selected because they had problems. The air handling units, located in diﬀerent buildings, were measured in several measurement sessions (Roulet et al., 1999). In some units, the airﬂow rate was far from the design values, or there was unexpected recirculation. Outdoor airﬂow rate The comparison of design and measured outdoor airﬂow rate per person in 12 buildings is shown in Figure 0.1. It can be seen that in several buildings the airﬂow rate per person is larger than 50 m3 /h, and surpasses 200 m3 /h. Introduction xv Measured [m3/(h · p)] 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 Design airflow rate [m3/(h · person)] Figure 0.1 Design and measured outdoor airﬂow rate per person in 12 buildings Source: Roulet et al., 1999. Measured airﬂow rates diﬀer from the design values in many ventilation systems. Figure 0.2 shows the relative diﬀerences between measured and design outdoor airﬂow rate in 37 air handling units, i.e.: Measured airflow rate design airflow rate Design airflow rate These biases range from 79 per cent to þ67 per cent. Only 11 units are within the 10 per cent range. Recirculation rates Some recirculation of air is often planned to distribute heat or cold without conditioning too much outdoor air. This, however, decreases the global indoor air quality, since the contaminants generated within the building are recirculated throughout the whole building. Therefore, recirculation may not be desirable. In any case, recirculation should be controlled. Design and Percent bias 100% 50% 0% -50% -100% Figure 0.2 Relative diﬀerence between measured and design outdoor airﬂow rate in 37 air handling units Source: Roulet et al., 1999. xvi Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 100% Measured 75% 50% 25% 0% 0% 25% 50% 75% Design recirculation rate 100% Figure 0.3 Comparison of design and measured recirculation rate in 34 air handling units Source: Roulet et al., 1999. measured recirculation rates are compared in Figure 0.3. These are seldom the same. Even worse: as shown in Figure 0.4, out of 27 units planned without recirculation, 30 per cent have shown a recirculation rate of more than 20 per cent. Exﬁltration In supply and exhaust units, both airﬂow rates are either balanced, or the supply ﬂow rate is increased a little to make the building slightly overpressured. When the envelope is not airtight, and when the balance between supply and exhaust air is too large, air leaks through the envelope. This does not have much inﬂuence on indoor air quality, but may strongly decrease the eﬃciency of the heat recovery. In some buildings, as much as 100 per cent of the supply air is lost in this way, as illustrated in Figure 0.5, which compares 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Measured recirculation rate Figure 0.4 Histogram and cumulated frequencies of measured recirculation rates in air handling units designed without recirculation Introduction xvii 100% Measured 75% 50% 25% 0% -25% -10% 0% 10% Design exfiltration ratio 20% Figure 0.5 Design and measured exﬁltration ratios compared in 30 units Source: Roulet et al., 2001a. the design and measured exﬁltration ratios, i.e. parts of the supply air leaking through the building envelope in 30 units. Ventilation eﬃciency An eﬃcient airing supplies the occupants with fresh air and blows polluted, old air in unoccupied spaces. The ventilation eﬃciencies in several rooms, assessed using the method described in Chapter 3, are illustrated in Figure 0.6. Rather high ventilation eﬃciency, indicating piston-type ventilation, can be seen in rooms 6 to 10, which are high auditoriums. The normal-height rooms 2 to 5 present a complete mixing, while room 1 shows poor ventilation eﬃciency, partly explained by the fact that supply and exhaust are both located at the ceiling in this room. These few examples clearly illustrate the usefulness of measurements to detect dysfunction. Ventilation efficiency 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 0.6 Ventilation eﬃciency in some ventilated areas Note: Dark bands are uncertainty bars. Note that in one unit the eﬃciency is below 50 per cent, indicating shortcuts and dead zones. Source: Figure drawn from a table published in Roulet et al., 2001a. xviii Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings When assess airﬂows in buildings? Ventilation performance should be checked early to detect potential problems and to optimize the overall performance of the ventilation system. This includes: . . . . . appropriate airﬂow rates; negligible leakage and shortcuts; high ventilation eﬃciency; high fan eﬃciency; clean air and so on. This check should be performed: . . . when commissioning the ventilation system in order to control that the system is built according to the speciﬁcations; if there are indoor air quality problems to help in ﬁnding the causes; before refurbishing the system in order to accurately know where there are potential problems, which should be cured by the refurbishing. Available methods to assess airﬂow rates and related quantities This section brieﬂy presents the methods described in the book in order to guide the user in the choice of the appropriate method. The section also proposes adapted methods for diﬀerent purposes and gives a general guideline for planning measurements. Airﬂow rates in buildings and in handling units Chapter 1 describes in detail the method of using tracer gases for assessing airﬂow rates between indoor and outdoor spaces, and between indoor spaces. Such measurements may be useful to check if the ventilation is suﬃcient. The method also allows checks to assess if the airﬂows follow deﬁned paths from room to room, as required in some buildings, such as laboratories handling dangerous substances. Similar methods, described in Chapter 2, test if airﬂow rates in air handling units correspond to the design values, and detect possible leakage or parasitic airﬂows in such units. Such measurements are also useful to check the power eﬃciency of fans (see Chapter 5, ‘Energy for ventilation’) and energy eﬃciency of heat exchangers (Chapter 5, ‘Heat exchange eﬃciency’). Age of air and ventilation eﬃciency The longer the air stays at a given location, the larger will be its concentrations of various contaminants. The age of the air, i.e. the time spent in the building since the outdoor air entered it, can be measured using tracer gases. The Introduction xix eﬀectiveness of the ventilation in appropriately distributing the air in the ventilated space or in evacuating contaminants emitted at a given location can be assessed using the methods described in Chapter 3. When applied in the air handling unit, such measurements can be performed simultaneously with measurements of airﬂow rates, thus reducing the amount of work required. In a single measurement campaign, the mean age of the air in the ventilated space, the eﬃciency of the ventilation system, the supply, exhaust and recirculation ﬂow rates can be measured as well as the air leakage in both directions through the building envelope. Airtightness The building envelope should be reasonably airtight to ensure the eﬃciency of a mechanical ventilation system, and this system itself should have airtight ducts in order to distribute the air appropriately throughout the ventilated space. Chapter 4 describes the measurement methods. The general methods are described ﬁrst and their application to the building envelope can be found in Chapter 4, ‘Airtightness of buildings’, while the application to air ducts or ductworks are in Chapter 4, ‘Measurement of airtightness of a duct or network’. Energy eﬃciency To comply with a sustainable development policy and also to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, energy eﬃciency of any system should be improved. This can be achieved without the use of systems powered by non-renewable energy. In our case, a mechanical ventilation system could be applied to an appropriate building design, allowing natural ventilation. However, this is not always possible, and in some cases – for example in cold or hot countries where heat recovery on indoor air actually allows energy savings – may even be counterproductive. Therefore, the mechanical ventilation systems should be designed, built, commissioned and maintained with the aim of ensuring good indoor air quality at reduced energy use. Chapter 5 proposes various methods, checklists and propositions to measure, check and improve the energy eﬃciency of ventilation systems and components. They include: . . . . eﬃciency of heat recovery (‘Heat exchange eﬃciency’); eﬀectiveness of heat exchangers(‘Heat exchangers’); fan power eﬃciency (‘Energy for ventilation’); energy eﬀects of indoor air quality measures (‘Energy eﬀects of IAQ measures’). Contaminants in air handling units Unfortunately, in practice major sources of indoor air contaminants are components in air handling units and ventilation systems (Bluyssen et al., xx Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 1995, 2003). This can, however, be avoided by appropriate design and maintenance. Chapter 5, ‘Energy eﬀect of IAQ measures’, lists the sources and causes of pollution in ventilation systems, proposes measurement protocols, and sets out maintenance procedures and strategies to improve the quality of the air delivered by mechanical ventilation systems. Common techniques The description of techniques and methods used for the measurements and their interpretation is detailed in Chapter 7. This chapter includes: . . . . the general description of tracer gas dilution techniques; ways of expressing concentrations and ﬂow rates; mathematical identiﬁcation methods; error analysis. 1 Airﬂow Rates in Buildings This chapter intends to help the reader to measure airﬂow rates and air change rates in buildings and rooms, independently of a mechanical ventilation system. It presents the techniques used to measure the airﬂow rate entering the measured zone (single-zone measurements) and to measure inter-zone airﬂows (multi-zone measurements). A building zone or a zone is a space that can be considered as homogeneous from the point of view of air quality or, more technically, a space in which each tracer gas is homogeneously distributed. In practice, it is a room or a set of adjacent rooms that have much larger airﬂow rates between them than to or from other zones or the outdoor space. The measurement techniques presented here are all based on the use of tracer gases that are injected into the air and analysed in air samples after mixing. More detailed information on the tracer gases themselves, on appropriate injection and sampling methods and on tracer gas analysers is given in Chapter 7, ‘Tracer gas dilution techniques’. Single-zone measurements The tracer gas is injected in a space, mixed into the air and its concentration is measured. Various strategies can be used for assessing the airﬂow rate entering the space: recording and interpreting the concentration decay after having stopped the injection, monitoring the tracer gas concentration when injecting the gas at constant rate, or measuring the tracer gas ﬂow rate required for keeping its concentration constant. Airﬂow rates are obtained by interpreting the evolution with time of either the tracer gas concentration or the injection rate. The interpretation methods are based on the mass conservation of tracer gas and of the air. Mass conservation of tracer gas and air The tracer gas injected in a building space is uniformly mixed into the air. The conservation of the mass of tracer gas within a single zone in contact with the 2 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings outdoor environment is then: dm ¼ I þ Co Qoi Ci Qio dt ð1:1Þ where: m I C Q i o is the mass of tracer gas in the zone (kg); is the injection rate of the tracer gas (kg/s); is the tracer gas mass concentration; is the mass airﬂow rate (for example, Qio is airﬂow rate from indoor to outdoors); subscript for internal environment; subscript for external environment. In addition, the conservation of the mass of air gives: Qoi ¼ Qio ð1:2Þ The mass of tracer in the zone is related to the mass of air M by: ð1:3Þ m ¼ Ci M where Ci is the concentration of the tracer gas in the indoor air. Combining the last three equations, we get: M dCi ¼ I þ Qio ðCi Co Þ dt ð1:4Þ since M is very close to a constant if the temperature is constant. In principle, this equation can directly provide the airﬂow rate: dCi dt C IM Qio ¼ ð1:5Þ writing C ¼ Ci Co . This method is, however, very inaccurate, since very quickly the concentration may vary at random because of turbulence and non-homogeneities. It is therefore better to take a time average by integrating it for a given period of time: ð t þ t ð t þ t ð t þ t I dCi ð1:6Þ dt M Qio dt ¼ C C t t t hence: ð t þ t t Qio dt ¼ ð t þ t t I dt M½lnðCðtÞÞ lnðCðt þ tÞÞ C or, dividing both members by t I M CðtÞ ln hQio i ¼ C t Cðt þ tÞ ð1:7Þ ð1:8Þ where the quantity between brackets h i is averaged over the time period t. Airﬂow Rates in Buildings 3 This solution can be simpliﬁed, depending on the way the tracer is injected. Tracer decay, no injection A suitable quantity of tracer gas is injected to achieve a measurable initial concentration Ci;0 . At time t0 , this injection is stopped and I ¼ 0 afterwards. From Equation 1.4, it can be found that the concentration decays with time according to: Q ð1:9Þ C ¼ Cðt0 Þ exp io t M The quantity n ¼ M Qio ð1:10Þ is called the nominal time constant of the measured zone. It is the ratio of the mass of air contained in the zone to the mass airﬂow rate. It is also the time needed to introduce a mass of new air equal to that contained in the zone. Since I ¼ 0, Equation 1.8 becomes: M CðtÞ ln ð1:11Þ hQio i ¼ t Cðt þ tÞ This equation allows easy calculation of the airﬂow rate from the measurement of concentration at two instants. This method is called the decay method. It is a direct measurement of the nominal time constant, and also provides an unbiased estimate of the mean airﬂow rate. Constant injection rate If the injection rate is constant, the solution of Equation 1.4 is: I t I þ C ¼ Cðt0 Þ exp Qio n Qio ð1:12Þ Using identiﬁcation technique (see Chapter 7 ‘Identiﬁcation methods’), both n and Qio (hence also M) can be obtained. This method is, however, of easy use only when Qio is constant. In this case, the exponential term becomes negligible after three or more time constants, and C ¼ I Qio ð1:13Þ Qio ¼ I C ð1:14Þ or The result is biased (underestimated) if the airﬂow rate is not constant. 4 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Constant concentration Using an electronic mass ﬂow controller monitored by the tracer gas analyser, the concentration of tracer gas can be maintained constant by varying the injection rate in an appropriate way. In this case, the time derivative of the concentration is zero and Equation 1.4 becomes very simple: I þ Qio ðCi Co Þ ¼ 0 ð1:15Þ hence: Qio ¼ I I ¼ ðCi Co Þ C ð1:16Þ This method provides an unbiased estimate of the airﬂow rate, even when it varies with time. Pulse injection The method can also be used with the tracer injected as a short pulse at time t0 . The injected mass M will result in a tracer gas concentration at sampling location that varies with time, starting from background concentration C0 , growing and then decaying back to background concentration. Let C(t) be the tracer concentration above background.The total mass of tracer gas passing at the sampling location is then: ð1 CðtÞQðtÞ dt ð1:17Þ M¼ t0 An approximation to inﬁnite time can be good enough when the experiment (and the integral) is stopped at time tf , when the concentration is close enough to background. Since both functions C(t) and Q(t) are positive and continuously derivable, we can apply the integral mean value theorem (Axley and Persily, 1988), that is: ð tf ð1:18Þ M ¼ QðÞ CðtÞ dt with t0 < < tf t0 This means that there exists a time during the experiment, when the airﬂow rate Q has a value satisfying the above equation. The knowledge of the injected mass M and measurements of the integral of the concentration downwind can then provide a value of Q. The integral of the concentration can be calculated from the mass of tracer m sampled downwind from the injection port by pumping the air at known rate Qs;i through a tube. The sampled mass is related to concentration by: ð1 m¼ CðtÞQs ðtÞ dt ð1:19Þ 0 Airﬂow Rates in Buildings Applying again the integral mean value theorem, we get: ð tf m ¼ Qs;i ð 0 Þ CðtÞ dt with 0 < 0 < tf 5 ð1:20Þ 0 Combining Equations 1.18 and 1.20, we get: m Qi ðÞ ¼ Qs ð 0 Þ M ð1:21Þ There are sampling pumps with controlled constant ﬂow rate. These easily enable Qs;i to be kept constant, and in most cases it is possible to keep the airﬂow rate constant in supply and exhaust during the experiment. Simple and cheap air change rate measurement using CO2 concentration decays Method CO2 generated by occupants can be used as a tracer gas, since it is easy and cheap to measure. There are compact and light CO2 analysers on the market that include a data logger. Peak value of the CO2 concentration during occupancy is an indicator of the minimum airﬂow rate per person. Analysis of the decays observed when the occupants leave the building provides the nominal time constant of the ventilated space, which is directly dependent on the outdoor airﬂow rate from the ventilation system and inﬁltration. Depending on the state of the ventilation system during the decay, this method provides either the total outdoor airﬂow rate provided by the system, or the inﬁltration rate. When combined with a simple pressure diﬀerential measurement, this method can also be used to check airtightness of building envelopes. Equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate Air may enter into a measured zone not only directly from outdoors, but also from neighbouring zones, whose CO2 concentration may diﬀer from outdoor air. These inter-zone airﬂows inﬂuence the CO2 concentration in the measured zone, but can be measured only with complex and expensive techniques (see Chapter 1, ‘Application to buildings, multi-zone’). The concept of equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate is introduced to oﬀset this inconvenience. It corresponds to the outdoor airﬂow rate that would result in the same CO2 concentration in the measured room without inter-zone airﬂows. In the following, this quantity is referred to as ‘outdoor airﬂow rate’. Equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate per person An adult person produces on average and for most of the time (i.e. when quiet or doing light work with about a 100 W metabolic rate) about 20 litres per hour (l/h) of CO2 . At steady state, and assuming that occupants are the only CO2 sources, the equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate per person, Qe , is related to CO2 6 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Figure 1.1 Records of CO2 concentration in an oﬃce room Source: Roulet and Foradini, 2002. concentration C (Ci indoors and Co outdoors) by: Qe ¼ S Ci Co ð1:22Þ where S is the CO2 source strength, i.e. about 20 l/h. The equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate per person can then be assessed during the periods of time when steady state can reasonably be assumed, that is when the CO2 concentration is constant. Example of application CO2 concentration was recorded every ﬁve minutes during several winter days in an oﬃce room occupied by one person. The evolution of CO2 concentration is shown in Figure 1.1. A base outdoor concentration of about 600 ppm was determined from the minimum values at the end of long decay periods (weekends). This base concentration is deducted from the CO2 concentration to get the increase resulting from indoor sources. On 19 November, a CO2 concentration of about 1500 ppm is observed. This corresponds to an equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate at 22 m3 /(h person), obtained by natural ventilation. Decay periods are selected in the record (rectangles in Figure 1.1).They correspond to night or weekend periods, without occupancy, when windows and doors are closed and the air change rate results from inﬁltration only. The average nominal time constant from these ﬁve decays is found to be 10 2 hours. Application to buildings, multi-zone Most buildings include several interconnected zones. In order to measure not only the airﬂow between internal and external environments but also interzone ﬂows, either several tracer gases should be used simultaneously (injecting each of them in a diﬀerent zone), or several experiments should be conducted successively, injecting the tracer successively in the diﬀerent zones, and assuming that the measurement conditions, in particular the airﬂow pattern, Airﬂow Rates in Buildings 7 do not change during the measurement campaign. This section describes ways of interpreting the records of tracer gas injection rates and concentration in the diﬀerent zones to get the airﬂow rates between zones, as well as airﬂow to and from outdoors. For more information on tracer gases and analysers, see Chapter 7, ‘Tracer gas dilution techniques’. Let us assume that there are N zones in the measured building, denoted by the suﬃxes i and j, into which, in principle, N diﬀerent tracers, denoted by the index k, are injected. In principle, each zone receives only one tracer, but the equations presented below allow the use of several gases in the same zone. No tracer is injected in the outside air (zone 0), which is assumed to be of inﬁnite volume. However, the tracer concentration in that zone may diﬀer from zero. The multi-zone tracer gas theory is based on the conservation of the mass of tracer gas and of air and on the following three assumptions: 1 In each zone, tracer concentrations are always homogeneous. 2 The atmospheric pressure is constant. 3 The injection of tracer gas does not change the density of air. The ﬁrst assumption is the weakest. In practice, homogeneous concentration may only be achieved by the use of mixing fans, but these fans may aﬀect inﬁltration conditions. The other two hypotheses are easily satisﬁed because the short-time relative variations of atmospheric pressure are of the order of 0.01 per cent (daily variations of the order of a per cent) and tracer gases are generally injected at relatively low concentrations (104 or less). Conservation of the masses of air and tracer gas k in zone i In each zone, the rate of change of the air mass mi equals the sum of the incoming ﬂows minus the sum of the outgoing ﬂows: N N X X dmi ¼ Qij ð1 ij Þ Qji ð1 ij Þ dt j¼0 j¼0 Change in mass Incoming flow rates ð1:23Þ Outgoing flow rates where ij is equal to one only when i ¼ j, and zero otherwise. The sum is then over all terms for which i 6¼ j. Note that, in most cases, the left-hand side of these equations is close to zero and can be neglected. The conservation equation of the mass of tracer, k, in the zone, i, states that the change of tracer mass within the zone is the sum of the mass of injected tracer and the mass of tracer contained in the air entering the zone, minus the mass of tracer contained in the outgoing air: dmik dt Variation ¼ Iik þ N X Cjk Qij ð1 ij Þ Cik j¼0 Injection N X Qji ð1 ij Þ j¼0 Inﬂow Outﬂow ð1:24Þ 8 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings where: mik Iik Cjk Cik Qij is is is is is the the the the the mass of tracer gas k in zone i; injection rate of tracer gas k in (or just upwind of ) zone i; concentration of tracer k in zone j; concentration of tracer gas k in zone i; airﬂow rate from node j to node i. An extension of assumption 1 above is implicit in this equation, that is: 4 The airﬂow entering a zone does not modify the homogeneity of the concentration of tracer gases in that zone, i.e., an immediate and perfect mixing is assumed. If there are N tracers or N diﬀerent sets of measurements using a single tracer injected at various rates in the various zones, Equations 1.23 and 1.24 above give a full set of N(N þ 1) equations. Therefore, this allows the N(N þ 1) ﬂows between all the zones, including the outdoor air as the zone zero to be determined. There are two methods to transform this set of equations before solving. Since they each have various advantages and disadvantages, they are both described below. Global system of equations The most common technique to be found in the literature (Sinden, 1978; Sherman et al., 1980; Perera, 1982; Sandberg, 1984) is the following. Let us express by Qii the sum of all the ﬂows entering the zone i: N X Qii ¼ Qij ð1 ij Þ ð1:25Þ j¼0 Using the above notation and taking apart the ﬂows coming from outside, Equation 1.24 becomes: N X dCik ¼ Iik þ Ckj Qij ð1 ij Þ þ C0k Qi0 Cik Qii ð1:26Þ Mi dt j¼1 Since any change in the outdoor level of tracer gas concentrations, C0k , will be negligible, these levels are the base levels of tracer gas concentrations anywhere else. In this case the tracer mass balances expressed in Equation 1.26 can be written in a matrix form: d ½M C þ Q C ¼ I ð1:27Þ dt where each row of the N N matrices M C, Q C and I corresponds to a zone and each column to a given tracer gas. More speciﬁcally: M is a diagonal matrix whose elements are the masses of air contained in each zone: mi ¼ i Vi or M ¼ V where is the diagonal matrix of the air densities in the zones, i , and V the diagonal matrix of the volumes of the zones, Vi . Airﬂow Rates in Buildings 9 C contains the diﬀerences in mass concentrations Cik C0k of gas k in zone i. I is the matrix containing the mass ﬂow rates Iik of the tracer, k, in zone i. In usual measurements, this matrix is diagonal. Q is the so-called ﬂow matrix containing, the oﬀ-diagonal elements ( j 6¼ i) being Qij , where Qij represents the mass ﬂow rates from zone j to zone i. The diagonal elements with j ¼ i contain the sum of the ﬂows leaving the zone i, as deﬁned in Equation 1.25. In Equation 1.26, i and j run from 1 to N and this system results in N 2 equations for the inter-zonal ﬂows. The mass ﬂows to and from outside are given by Equation 1.23. When steady state is reached for tracer gas concentration, Equation 1.27 becomes: QC ¼ I hence Q ¼ I C 1 ð1:28Þ This method looks very attractive, but has several disadvantages. First, the number of tracer gases is limited, and it is therefore often impossible or at least very impractical to have tracer gases injected in each zone. In this case, the C-matrix is not square and cannot be inverted. In addition, this method may give non-zero values to non-existent airﬂow rates, or even provide negative airﬂow rates. For this reason, the node-by-node method, which allows writing equations containing only signiﬁcant airﬂow rates, was developed. Zone by zone systems of equations Another presentation of the same model is found in Roulet and Compagnon (1989). It is obtained as follows. Combining Equations 1.23 and 1.24, then taking into account that mik ¼ mi Cik , and using: dmik dCik dm ¼ mi þ Cik i dt dt dt ð1:29Þ we ﬁnally get: mi N X dCik ¼ Iik þ ðCjk Cik ÞQij ð1 ij Þ dt j¼0 ð1:30Þ For each zone i, these N equations give the N ﬂows, Qij ( j ¼ 0; . . . ; i 1; i þ 1; . . . ; N). The ﬂows, Qji , are obtained from the same equations applied to zone j and the remaining ﬂows, Q0i , are given by Equations 1.23. Further interpretation of the ﬂow matrix The ﬁnal result of the measurements is the ﬂow matrix Q deﬁned above. Further information can be deduced from this ﬂow matrix, as shown in the following discussion (Sandberg, 1984). 10 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Properties of the ﬂow matrix The total outdoor airﬂow rate to each zone, i, is easily obtained by summing the columns of the ﬂow matrix: Qi0 ¼ N X Qij ð1:31Þ j¼1 And the total exﬁltration airﬂow rate from each zone, i, is the sum of the lines of the ﬂow matrix: Q0i ¼ N X Qij ð1:32Þ i¼1 If there is no totally isolated chamber in the measured system, and if there is some air exchange with outside (as is the case with any usual building), the ﬂow matrix determinant, jQj, is positive and Q has an inverse, Q1 . The elements of this inverse Q1 are given by: Aji Wji ¼ ð1:33Þ jQj where Aji are the cofactors of the element Qij in Q. Transfer of contaminants between zones The basic equations applied to the case where a constant ﬂow rate, Iik , of a contaminant, k, is applied in each zone, i, leads to an equilibrium concentration (for constant airﬂow rates) that is: Cð1Þ ¼ Q1 I ð1:34Þ It follows that the equilibrium concentration in room, j, resulting from a contaminant, k, released only in room, i, is: Cjk ð1Þ ¼ Wji Iik ð1:35Þ and the non-diagonal elements of Q1 are hence the transfer indexes deﬁned in Sandberg (1984). Using a simple inversion of the ﬂow matrix, much information on the possible spreading of contaminants can be obtained. Age matrix and mean age of air The matrix is deﬁned as: ¼ Q1 M ð1:36Þ or, under the assumptions of constant, uniform temperature: ¼ q1 V ð1:37Þ Where q is the volume ﬂow matrix and V a diagonal matrix with the volumes Vii of room i on the diagonal. It is shown (Sandberg, 1984) that the row Airﬂow Rates in Buildings 11 sums of the matrix are the mean age of air in the corresponding rooms: hi i ¼ N X ð1:38Þ ij j¼1 This relation enables the measurement of the room mean age of air to be made, even in rooms where there are several outlets or several ways for the air to leave the room. Equations for volume ﬂow rates All equations above are based on mass balance, and hence include mass airﬂow rates and mass concentrations. However, for practical reasons, volume ﬂow rates and volume concentrations are of common use. Therefore, the basic equations should be adapted as shown below. The mass of the tracer k in the zone i is: mik ¼ ik Vik ¼ i Vi Cik ﬃ i Vi Cik ¼ ik Vi cik 1 Cik ð1:39Þ since Cik 1. The tracer density is deﬁned by ik ¼ mik =Vik where the volume, Vik , is deﬁned at atmospheric pressure, p. Using the perfect gas law for tracer k: m ð1:40Þ pVik ¼ RTi ik Mk where R is the molar gas constant, R ¼ 8313.96 [J/(K kmole)], Mk the molar mass of the tracer, k, and Ti is the absolute temperature of zone i. The density of tracer k in zone i can be computed: ik ¼ pMk RTi ð1:41Þ This is also valid for the density of air, by simply omitting the suﬃx k and using the average molecular weight (M ﬃ 29 g/mole) of the air. Introducing this in Equations 1.23 and 1.26 gives the set of balance equations to be used when handling volumes instead of masses. Equation 1.30 becomes: N X ðcjk cik Þ Vi dcik i ¼ ik þ qij ð1 ij Þ Ti dt Tk j ¼ 0 Tj ð1:42Þ where: T is the absolute temperature of zone i or j, or of tracer k, depending on the subscript; cik is the volume concentration of tracer k in zone i; iik is the volume injection rate of tracer k in zone i; qij is the volume ﬂow rate from zone j to zone i. 12 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings The air mass conservation (Equation 1.23) is rewritten as: q0i ¼ Ti N N X qij ð1 ij Þ X V dTi qji ð1 ij Þ þ i Ti dt T j j¼0 j¼1 ð1:43Þ These last two systems include N þ 1 equations for N þ 1 unknowns, qij , for each zone i. It should be noticed that Equation 1.43 can be simpliﬁed, and becomes similar to Equation 1.23 if indoor and outdoor temperatures are close to each other and if the internal temperature is constant. This means that, provided such conditions are realized, the volume conservation equation can be used instead of mass conservation. Summary of the various tracer gas methods The diﬀerent tracer gas techniques can be broadly divided into two categories: steady-state methods, which directly measure the ﬂow rate, Q, and transient methods, which measure the nominal time constant, n , or the air change rate, n. The steady-state techniques are based on recording steady-state concentrations or concentrations integrated over a long time, while transient methods are based on recording the change in tracer gas concentration. The diﬀerent tracer gas techniques and their properties are given in Tables 1.1 and 1.2. If airﬂow varies with time, only the two-point decay and the constant concentration methods give a correct estimate of the average ﬂow. The constant injection method underestimates the average ﬂow rate if the integration time is much longer than the period of ﬂow variation. Table 1.3 gives a summary of multi-zone methods. As far as single-zone measurements are concerned, the following conclusions can be stated: . It appears that decay, pulse and step-up methods require the least measurement time and usually the least preparation. However, with the exception of the two-point decay method, they give a biased estimate of a variable air change rate. These biases remain small if the measurement period is limited to times close to the nominal time constant. Table 1.1 Summary of diﬀerent injection strategies Tracer injection strategy Pulse injection Decay Constant injection rate Constant concentration Direct result Cost Qy n or n Qy Q Moderate Moderate Moderate Relatively high Note: y The volume has no inﬂuence only when the airﬂow rate, Q, is constant. Airﬂow Rates in Buildings 13 Table 1.2 Summary of single-zone methods Method name Tracer injection technique Interpretation method Transient methods (tracer gas concentration changes) (Simple) decay Decay Identiﬁcation Two-point decay Decay Integral Step-up Constant rate Identiﬁcation Suited for Unbiased Continuous average record No Yes No Steady-state methods (tracer gas concentration is nearly constant) Pulse Pulse Integral No Constant injection Constant rate Direct solution Yes† Long-term integral Any Integral No Constant Constant concentration concentration Integral Yes No (Yes) No (Yes) No No Yes Note: y Under condition. Source: Sherman, 1990. . . The long-term integral method, generally used with passive sources and samplers, also gives a biased estimate of the average airﬂow rate. Since the measurement time is larger, the bias may not be negligible. This technique, however, provides an unbiased estimate of the average tracer concentration. If the tracer is used to simulate a contaminant, such experiments are of great interest for indoor air quality studies. The constant concentration technique is accurate and gives an unbiased estimate of the average airﬂow rate, but it requires the most technical equipment. Table 1.3 Summary of multi-zone methods Tracer injection strategy Unbiased average of time-varying ﬂow Well suited for continuous record Single tracer (repeated measurements) Pulse injection Decay Constant injection rate Constant concentration No No No Yes No No No No Multi-tracer Pulse injection Decay Constant injection rate Constant concentration No Yes* No Yes No No Yes Yes Note: Only for a two-point estimate. 14 . Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Constant injection used with long-term direct solution is simpler to use and may give, under certain conditions, unbiased estimates of an average airﬂow rate. The two-point decay method, and more generally the multi-zone, transient methods may lead to unacceptably large uncertainties if the measurement time period is inappropriate. See Enai et al. (1990) for two-zone, two-tracer, step-up and decay methods. 2 Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units Air handling units are designed to supply new air to the ventilated zone and to extract vitiated air from this zone. Many other airﬂows may be found in such units, as shown in Figure 2.1. Measurements of airﬂow rates in ventilation systems are useful in order to check if the air follows the expected paths and thus detect potential problems early so they can be corrected, also allowing the optimization of the performance of the airﬂow system. Checks include examining if actual airﬂow rates are close to the desired values and if leakages and short-circuits are negligible. The checks should be performed: . . . when commissioning a new ventilation system in order to ensure that the system is built according to the design speciﬁcations; if there are indoor air quality problems to help ﬁnding their causes; before refurbishing a ventilation system in order to accurately identify the potential problems to be cured by the refurbishment. Commissioning mechanical ventilation systems is paramount in order to ensure that they function as designed. This includes not only the measurement of the main airﬂow rates and pressure distributions, but also checks that there are no excessive leakages or shortcuts. It should be noted that commissioning protocols are available for most units mentioned in the Introduction that function as designed, while they are not available for units in which airﬂow rates are not those designed or for units showing signiﬁcant leakages or shortcuts. This chapter proposes methods for measuring most airﬂow rates that occur in ventilation systems. Measurement of the airﬂow rate in a duct Summary of measurement methods Common methods used to measure airﬂow rates in ducts exploit well-known relationships between ﬂow rate and pressure drop across a restricted section Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Fan 16 Extract air Ventilated space Exhaust air Outdoor air Fan Heating Humidifaction Cooling Heat exchanger Filter Recirculation dampers Supply air Figure 2.1 Schematics of a supply and exhaust air handling unit Note: The main airﬂow paths are shown as solid arrows, and secondary or parasitic airﬂow paths are shown as open arrows. Source: Roulet et al., 2000a. placed in the ﬂow, for example a nozzle, Venturi or sharp-edged oriﬁce (ISO, 2003). Alternatively, the air speed can be measured directly at a number of points lying in a cross-section of the duct (a traverse), and the results integrated along the traverse to give the volume ﬂow rate (ISO, 1977). All of these methods have the disadvantage that a long straight section of duct, both upstream and downstream of the measurement point, is needed in order to condition the ﬂow. Moreover, the introduction of a restriction may signiﬁcantly change the airﬂow rate to be measured. Tracer techniques (ISO, 1978; Axley and Persily, 1988; Riﬀat and Lee, 1990), which avoid these problems, employ gas analysers and measure the dilution of a tracer gas introduced into the ﬂow, using equipment that is becoming increasingly common, robust and easy to use. Oriﬁce plate, nozzle and Venturi ﬂowmeters The change in pressure in a pipe with a section of restricted area can be calculated by the Bernoulli law, provided there is neither friction nor compression. A relationship can hence be found between a pressure diﬀerence along the ﬂow line and the corresponding ﬂow rate, which may itself be deduced from a diﬀerential pressure measurement. However, since there is a slight friction, the mass ﬂow is: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2p ð2:1Þ Q ¼ Cd A 1 2 where: Cd A p is the discharge coeﬃcient, taking account of friction losses, is the smallest cross-section in the ﬂow, is the pressure diﬀerence between two taps properly located, Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 17 is the reduction ratio, which is the ratio of the smallest diameter to the diameter of the pipe. The ﬂow may be restricted with an oriﬁce plate, a nozzle or a Venturi tube. The most sophisticated and expensive is the Venturi tube in which the discharge coeﬃcient is nearly 1 and constant for Re > 2 105 and higher than 0.94 if Re > 50,000. Moreover, this device does not induce a large pressure drop in the ﬂow. At the other end of the spectrum is the simple and cheap oriﬁce plate, which induces a large pressure drop and shows discharge coeﬃcients that may be as low as 0.6, depending on the Reynolds number. The characteristics of the nozzle lie in between. The device that is most sensitive to perturbation is the oriﬁce, then the nozzle. The Venturi tube is the least sensitive. All these ﬂowmeters should be mounted between two straight pipes, the upstream pipe being up to 30 pipe diameters long, depending on the type of perturbation upstream, and the downstream part at least 3 diameters long. If a straightening vane 2 diameters long is installed upstream, the distance between this vane and the ﬂowmeter may be reduced down to 10 diameters. The literature (for example, ASHRAE, 2001) provides detailed drawings of such devices. Velocity traverse If the velocity of the air, v, is measured at enough points in the duct, the volume airﬂow rate can be deduced by integration over the whole area, A, of the cross-section as shown: ð ð2:2Þ Q ¼ v dA A where is the density of the air. Equipment to measure air speed Provided the direction of ﬂow is parallel to the duct, which may normally be assumed, then velocity can be determined by the measurement of air speed alone. The air speed measurement devices should be small enough to enable them to be easily inserted through small holes in duct walls. The most common examples are hot wire or NTC anemometers, helix anemometers and Pitot tubes. The hot wire anemometer and NTC anemometers measure the temperature drop of a heated wire or a heated resistor (with a negative temperature coeﬃcient), which, in each case, is directly related to the temperature and speed of the air ﬂowing over it. The sensors are heated by an electric current and measurements are made of the voltage drop, which depends on the temperature. The temperature of still air is taken into account by the use of a reference sensor shielded from the ﬂow. Such devices can measure speeds 18 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 0.316 R 0.548 R 0.707 R 0.837 R 0.949 R Figure 2.2 Location of the measurement points in circular and rectangular ducts Source: ASHRAE, 2001. from 0.05 to 5 m/s, and are well suited for speeds of 1–5 m/s, which are typical in ventilation ducts. Helix anemometers measure the rotation speed of a small helix that is placed perpendicular to the airﬂow. The pressure diﬀerence between the front and the side of the Pitot tube is proportional to the square of the air speed. The helix anemometer and the Pitot tube are most accurate for air speeds above 10 m/s, and therefore may not be the best for measurement in ducts, where speeds as low as 1 m/s can be measured. Test procedure The location of the measurement in the duct should be at least 8 diameters downstream and 3 diameters upstream of any disturbances in the ﬂow, such as a bend in the duct or a change in cross-section. Flow-straightening vanes located at 1.5 diameters upstream will improve the measurement accuracy. Several measurements across the duct should be taken to enable integration. It is advisable to notionally divide the duct section into sub-sections of equal area and to take measurements at their centres. The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ASHRAE, 2001) proposes a division of 16 to 64 rectangular sub-sections for a rectangular duct, and 20 annuli for cylindrical ducts (see Figure 2.2). In the latter, any asymmetry in the ﬂow may be taken into account by taking measurements along two orthogonal directions. Tracer gas dilution Measurement of airﬂow rate in a duct is the simplest application of the tracer gas dilution technique. It is illustrated in Figure 2.3. The tracer is injected at a known constant ﬂow rate, I. The air is analysed downstream, far enough from the injection port to have a good mixing of the tracer into the air (see ‘Sampling points for concentration measurements’, below). Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 19 Figure 2.3 Measuring the airﬂow rate in a duct with the tracer gas dilution method Source: Awbi, 2007. Assuming that no tracer is lost in between, the mass balance of the tracer gas is, at steady state: I ¼ ðC C0 ÞQ ð2:3Þ where: C is the tracer concentration as obtained by analysis, C0 the concentration upstream the injection port (if any), Q the airﬂow rate in the duct, which is then: Q¼ I ðC C0 Þ ð2:4Þ This simple method assumes steady state: both airﬂow rate and injection ﬂow rate are constant and the concentration is recorded only when a constant concentration is reached. This time is rather short, about ﬁve times the time period needed for the ﬁrst molecules of tracer gas to reach the analyser if the air is not recirculated after delivery into a room. If there is recirculation, the time needed to reach the steady state may be much longer, i.e. ﬁve times the nominal time constant of the ventilated space. In this case, applying the method described in ‘Measurement of airﬂow rate in a duct’ (above) will reduce the time needed for measurements. Note that, in a ﬁrst approximation, mass balance can be replaced by volume balance to get volume ﬂow rates instead of mass ﬂow rates. This approximation remains valid as long as the diﬀerence between indoor and outdoor temperature is smaller than 18C. Airﬂow measurements at ventilation grilles Ventilation inlet grilles should distribute the air in each room or space. In supply and exhaust units, extract grilles should absorb an equivalent airﬂow rate. Airﬂows should be balanced so that each room or space receives an appropriate airﬂow rate. Measurements at each grille are essential to ensure such a balance. Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Airflow 20 Fan Flowmeter Differential manometer Figure 2.4 Schematics of a compensated ﬂowmeter Note: The diﬀerential manometer adjusts the fan so that there is no pressure drop through the ﬂowmeter. The methods described in the section on ‘Measurement of airﬂow rate in a duct’ (above) may of course be used to measure the airﬂow rates through grilles, but speciﬁc instruments may be easier to use or bring a more accurate result. Inﬂatable bag This method consists in measuring (using a chronograph) the time required to ﬁll a plastic bag of a known volume when its opening is placed against the grid. It is not very accurate and creates a counter-pressure that could perturb the airﬂow, but the equipment is very cheap: a simple plastic bag, such as a rubbish bag. Flowmeter Any type of ﬂowmeter ﬁxed to a box or cone adapted to the shape of the grille may be used to measure the airﬂow rate through the grille, provided this ﬂowmeter does not require too large a pressure drop across it. Compensated ﬂowmeter The compensated ﬂowmeter (see Figure 2.4) is equipped with a fan, the speed of which is adjusted so that the pressure diﬀerential through the instrument is negligible during the measurement. This allows an accurate measure of the ﬂow rate going through the instrument without perturbing the measured grid or duct. The fan itself could be the ﬂowmeter, since the fan speed at zero pressure diﬀerential is directly related to the airﬂow rate. Airﬂow rate measurements in air handling units Tracer gas injection ports Injecting several tracer gases at various locations and analysing the air at other appropriate locations allows the assessment of several airﬂow rates simultaneously. Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units C0 C4' C7 C5 C6 21 C4 2 1 C1 C1' 3 C2 C3 C3' 4 Figure 2.5 Locations of tracer gas injection (arrows), and sampling points for concentration measurements (Ci ) in a typical supply and exhaust air handling unit. Source: Roulet et al., 1999. In principle, the method described above in ‘Tracer gas dilution’ can be applied to each branch of a duct network. However, this requires as many tracer gas injections and air sampling measurements as there are airﬂow rates. Experience has shown that the experiment can be made simpler, as shown in Figure 2.5, where most practical and eﬃcient injection locations are indicated by arrows. In this ﬁgure, air sampling points for the required tracer gas concentration measurements are also shown. If several tracer gases are needed but not available, it is possible to use the same tracer gas in several experiments, injecting the tracer successively at diﬀerent locations. In this case, care should be taken to ensure constant airﬂow rates in the system. In particular, frequency controllers of the fans should be blocked at a constant frequency. It is also recommended to start with injection at location 2, then 3 and ﬁnally 1. This strategy shortens the time required between two experiments to reduce the tracer gas concentration in the system to a negligible level. Two tracer gases or two successive measurements with one tracer gas allow in most cases assessment of all primary and most secondary airﬂow rates: . . tracer one injected in the main return air duct; tracer two (or a second run with tracer one) injected in the outside air duct. Additional injection ports may be useful to increase the accuracy. These are: . . tracer three (or a third run with tracer one) injected in the main supply air duct, allowing the direct and more accurate determination of supply airﬂow rate; tracer four (or a fourth run with tracer one) injected in the control room at constant concentration to determine leakage from the control room into the air handling unit. The optimal tracer gas injection rate depends on the design airﬂow rate Qo in the duct and on the required concentration, C, itself depending on the sensitivity of the tracer gas analyser. A good method is to adjust the tracer gas injection ﬂow rate on the basis of the outdoor airﬂow rate Q01 . If Ck is the 22 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings expected tracer gas concentration of tracer k: Ik ¼ Ck Q01 ð2:5Þ Sampling points for concentration measurements Tracer gas concentrations are measured at several carefully chosen locations in order to obtain enough information to determine all the wanted airﬂow rates. It is important that there is a good mixing of tracer gas in the measured airﬂow. For this, several criteria should be fulﬁlled. Practice has shown that suﬃcient mixing is reached when the distance between injection ports and air sampling location is at least: . . 10 diameters (or duct widths) in straight ducts; 5 diameters if there is a mixing element such as bends, droplet catcher or a fan between injection ports and the air sampling location. Proper mixing can be checked by looking at the variations of measured concentration with time, and when displacing the sampling location within the duct (see Figure 2.6). If variations are large and random, change the sampling and/or injection points, or use multiple injection ports until variations are within the usual measurement noise. If the minimum distances mentioned above cannot be achieved, use multiple injection (see Figure 2.7) or install obstacles in the airﬂow to increase the turbulence. Turbulent ﬂow may transport some tracer gas a little upwind of the injection point. Therefore, the distance between sampling location upwind of injection points and the injection nozzle should be at least one duct diameter when there is no possibility of backward ﬂow, and larger (3–5 duct diameters) when backward airﬂow is suspected (for example close to T junctions). When sampling, never use the tubes that were once used for injecting a pure tracer gas, since some gas absorbed in the plastic of the tubes may be desorbed, Concentration [ppm] 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.9 10.8 10.7 08:00 08:10 08:20 08:30 Time 08:40 08:50 09:00 Figure 2.6 Evolution of tracer gas concentration versus time Note: The solid line indicates good mixing of the tracer gas; the broken line indicates poor mixing. Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 23 Figure 2.7 Example of multiple injection devices bringing additional tracer into the analyser, thus biasing the concentration measurement. To avoid this, use diﬀerent colours for injection and sampling tubes. Principle of the interpretation procedure The ductwork is modelled by nodes connected by ducts. In principle, the same equations as those used in Chapter 1, ‘Application to buildings, multi-zone’, to assess airﬂow rates measurements in multi-zone buildings could be used, the nodes being considered as zones. There is, however, an important diﬀerence since, in many cases, the directions of inter-zone airﬂows are known, leading to important simpliﬁcations in the system of equations. In addition, tracer gas and air mass conservation equations can be written for each node in the duct network, and this provides, in most cases, a number of equations much larger than the number of unknown airﬂow rates (see for example ‘Building the system of equations’, below). There are several ways to use this peculiarity, which are described below for information. We have nevertheless found that in practice the most robust system of equations (the system that is the least sensitive to measurement uncertainties) can easily be purpose-built for each type of air handling unit, as shown in ‘Simplest way’, below. Node by node method The method presented in Chapter 1, ‘Zone by zone systems of equations’, can also be applied to ductwork and air handling units. Airﬂow and tracer 24 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings gas conservation equations can be rearranged so as to obtain one system of equations per node, giving all airﬂow rates entering in this node. At steady state Iik ¼ N X ½Cjk Cik Qji ð2:6Þ j¼0 where: Iik is the injection rate of tracer gas k in (or just upwind of ) node i, Cjk is the concentration of tracer gas k in (or just downwind of ) node j, Qji is the airﬂow rate from node j to node i. ‘Just upwind’ and ‘just downwind’ mean far enough from the node to ensure a good mixing, but close enough to have no branching between the injection port or sampling location and the node. Each system can be rewritten in a matrix form: ~i I~i ¼ C i Q ð2:7Þ where: I~i Ci ~i Q is the vector containing the tracer gas injection rate in the zone i, is the matrix containing the concentrations diﬀerences, Cjk Cik , of tracer k between zones j and i, is the vector of airﬂow rates entering into zone i from zones j. Airﬂow rates leaving the zones are determined by mass conservation equations Qi0 ¼ N N X X ½1 ij Qji ½1 ij Qij j¼0 ð2:8Þ j¼1 An application to a typical air handling unit is presented below. General method for ‘black box’ air handling unit In most cases, it is not practical to inject tracer gases and to sample the air within the air handling unit. It is often much easier to ﬁnd (or to bore) small holes in duct walls to insert the injection and sampling tubes. Therefore, a method for assessing airﬂow rates in air handling units using injection and sampling ports located only outside the units is presented below. Building the system of equations The ducts, leakage and shortcut network in the air handling system seen from outside, like a black box, are represented schematically in Figure 2.8. Recirculation may be on purpose, or could result from leakage such as that sometimes found in heat exchangers. It occurs anyway between nodes 6 and 2. Regarding indoor air quality, there is no diﬀerence whether the Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 25 2 Q60 Recirculation AHU 6 Q61 1' Q12 1 Q04 Q46 4' 4 Q62 3' Ventilated space Q40 0 1 3 AHU room 3 Figure 2.8 The simpliﬁed network representing the air handling unit and ducts Note: Numbers in black circles represent the nodes of the network; boxes with arrows are tracer gas injection locations; and numbered balloons are air sampling locations. Arrows represent possible airﬂow rates. Source: Awbi, 2007. recirculated air passes through a leak between extract and supply parts of the air handling unit or through a purpose-installed duct. Alternatively, ventilation units with heat exchangers seldom have recirculation ducts. Therefore, the simpliﬁed network, as shown in Figure 2.8, is adapted for most investigations. The possible airﬂows are shown in Table 2.1. Using four tracer gases as illustrated in Figure 2.8 and writing the conservation equations for them at the nodes gives the following system of equations: Node 1, air inlet 0 ¼ ðC01 C11 ÞQ01 þ ðC61 C11 ÞQ61 ð2:9Þ 0 ¼ ðC02 C12 ÞQ01 þ ðC62 C12 ÞQ61 0 ¼ ðC03 C13 ÞQ01 þ ðC63 C13 ÞQ61 0 ¼ ðC04 C14 ÞQ01 þ ðC64 C14 ÞQ61 Table 2.1 Possible airﬂow rates in the network represented in Figure 2.8 0 Coming from node 0 1 2 4 6 7 Q40 Q60 Q70 1 Q01 Q61 Going into node 2 4 6 Q04 Q12 Q24 Q26 Q46 Q62 Q72 Q76 7 Q07 Q27 Q67 Note: The main airﬂows are in bold. The others are parasitic airﬂow rates that in principle should be negligible. 26 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Node 2, return I11 ¼ ðC11 C31 ÞQ12 þ ðC61 C31 ÞQ62 þ ðC71 C31 ÞQ72 ð2:10Þ 0 ¼ ðC12 C32 ÞQ12 þ ðC62 C32 ÞQ62 þ ðC72 C32 ÞQ72 0 ¼ ðC13 C33 ÞQ12 þ ðC63 C33 ÞQ62 þ ðC73 C33 ÞQ72 0 ¼ ðC14 C34 ÞQ12 þ ðC64 C34 ÞQ62 þ ðC74 C34 ÞQ72 Node 4, vented space 0 ¼ ðC01 C41 ÞQ04 þ ðC31 C41 ÞQ24 ð2:11Þ 0 ¼ ðC02 C42 ÞQ04 þ ðC32 C42 ÞQ24 I43 ¼ ðC03 C43 ÞQ04 þ ðC32 C42 ÞQ24 0 ¼ ðC04 C44 ÞQ04 þ ðC34 C44 ÞQ24 Node 6, recirculation 0 ¼ ðC31 C61 ÞQ26 þ ðC41 C61 ÞQ46 þ ðC71 C61 ÞQ76 ð2:12Þ I62 ¼ ðC32 C62 ÞQ26 þ ðC42 C62 ÞQ46 þ ðC72 C62 ÞQ76 0 ¼ ðC33 C63 ÞQ26 þ ðC43 C63 ÞQ46 þ ðC73 C63 ÞQ76 0 ¼ ðC34 C64 ÞQ26 þ ðC44 C64 ÞQ46 þ ðC74 C64 ÞQ76 Node 7, technical room 0 ¼ ðC01 C71 ÞQ07 þ ðC31 C71 ÞQ27 þ ðC61 C71 ÞQ67 ð2:13Þ 0 ¼ ðC02 C72 ÞQ07 þ ðC32 C72 ÞQ27 þ ðC62 C72 ÞQ67 0 ¼ ðC03 C73 ÞQ07 þ ðC33 C73 ÞQ27 þ ðC63 C73 ÞQ67 I74 ¼ ðC04 C74 ÞQ07 þ ðC34 C74 ÞQ27 þ ðC64 C74 ÞQ67 At each node, the entering mass of air equals the leaving mass. Taking account of the possible airﬂows given in Table 2.1, we get, after some reorganization and leaving main airﬂow rate at the left-hand side and parasitic airﬂow rates at the right-hand side of each equation: Node 0, outdoors Node 1, inlet Q01 Q60 ¼ Q40 Q04 þ Q70 Q07 Q01 Q12 ¼ Q61 ð2:14Þ ð2:15Þ Q12 Q24 þ Q62 ¼ Q26 þ Q27 Q72 ð2:16Þ Node 4, vented space Q24 Q46 ¼ Q40 Q04 ð2:17Þ Node 6, recirculation Q46 Q60 Q62 ¼ Q26 þ Q61 þ Q67 Q76 ð2:18Þ Node 2, return Node 7, technical room Q07 Q70 ¼ Q72 Q27 þ Q76 Q67 ð2:19Þ Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 27 This system of 27 equations when combined with the system of Equation 2.9 can be solved in various ways to provide the six main airﬂow rates and potentially ten parasitic ﬂow rates. This global system of equations contains more equations than unknowns. There are several ways to address this situation, and we have found that some methods are better than others for application to air handling units. Therefore we present the tested methods below. Least square solution The system of equations from 2.9 to 2.19 is over-determined: there are 26 equations for calculating 16 airﬂow rates. In zones where I~i 6¼ 0, the system could be solved by least square ﬁt: ~i ¼ ½C T Q 1 T ~ CT i C i Ii ð2:20Þ T where C is C transposed. The resulting ﬂow vector is the one that best satisﬁes the set of equations. However, the injection rate vector I~0 , back-calculated ~ and the measured conusing Equation 2.7 with the resulting ﬂow vector Q centration will not be equal to the actual one. This method always provides a solution, but, depending on the condition of the system of equations, this solution could be far from the reality. At nodes where the tracer i is not injected, the system can only provide linear combinations of airﬂow rates, as far as the determinant jC i j ¼ 0. Eliminating some equations Combining some of the equations of system 2.9 to 2.19 allows avoidance of the measurement of some concentrations. A system having as many equations as unknown airﬂow rates can be solved using: ~ ¼ C 1 I~ Q ð2:21Þ Experience showed that this interpretation method often leads to poorly conditioned systems of equations. Results are then very sensitive to slight changes of input data. Looking for the best conditioned system A set of N equations (N being the number of unknown airﬂow rates, in this case 16) can be selected to give the best accuracy, or the smallest sensitivity to variations or errors of injection rates and concentrations. This set can be theoretically selected by calculating the condition number (see Chapter 3, ‘Condition of the model matrix’) of all possible sets of equations extracted from the full system, and taking the set with the smallest condition number. This selection could be tedious: there are 13,037,895 sets of 16 equations that can be extracted from the system 2.9! 28 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Simplest way A method providing all airﬂow rates with the simplest solutions – hence probably the least sensitive to measurement errors – is given below. The results are provided with their conﬁdence intervals, calculated under the assumption that random and independent errors aﬀect the measurements of tracer gas concentration and injection rates. In this case, the conﬁdence interval of any result, for example an airﬂow rate, is (see Chapter 7, ‘Error analysis’): sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ X @Q 2 ð2:22Þ x2i ½Q Q; Q þ Q with Q ¼ TðP; 1Þ @x i i where: TðP; 1Þ is the Student coeﬃcient for having the actual value within the conﬁdence interval with probability P, xi is for all variables (other airﬂow rates, tracer gas concentration and injection rates) on which Q depends, is for the standard deviation of the variable xi , assumed to be a xi random variable of mean xi . The various airﬂow rates are then: Intake airﬂow rate Q12 ¼ I11 C10 1 C11 ð2:23Þ with Q12 ¼ TðP; 1Þ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 þ I 2 ðC2 þ C2 Þ ðC10 1 C11 Þ2 I11 11 11 10 1 ðC10 1 C11 Þ4 ð2:24Þ Supply airﬂow rate Q24 ¼ I43 C C33 ð2:25Þ 30 3 with Q24 ¼ TðP; 1Þ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 2 ðC30 3 C33 Þ2 I43 þ I43 ðC320 3 þ C33 Þ ðC30 3 C33 Þ4 ð2:26Þ Note that C6k ¼ C40 k , as long as there are no leakages into the air handling unit between locations 40 and 6. Extract airﬂow rate Q46 ¼ I62 C40 2 C42 ð2:27Þ Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 29 with Q46 ¼ TðP; 1Þ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 ðC40 2 C42 Þ2 I52 þ I52 ðC420 2 þ C42 Þ ðC40 2 C42 Þ4 ð2:28Þ Outdoor airﬂow rate Q01 ¼ Q12 C6k C1k C6k C0k ð2:29Þ where k ¼ 1 or 2 is recommended. Q01 ¼ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f01 ðC6k C0k Þ2 ð2:30Þ where f01 ¼ ðC6k C1k Þ2 ðC6k C0k Þ2 Q212 2 2 2 þ Q212 ½ðC6k C0k Þ2 C1k þ ðC6k C1k Þ2 C0k þ ðC1k C0k Þ2 C6k External shortcut Q61 ¼ Q12 Q01 ¼ Q12 Q61 ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q212 þ Q201 ¼ C C11 1 61 C61 C01 ¼ Q12 TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f61 ðC61 C01 Þ2 C11 C01 C61 C01 ð2:31Þ ð2:32Þ where f61 ¼ ðC61 C01 Þ2 ðC01 C11 Þ2 Q212 2 2 2 þ Q212 ½ðC61 C01 Þ2 C11 þ ðC11 C61 Þ2 C01 þ ðC01 C11 Þ2 C61 Recirculation ﬂow rate C7k C3k C C1k Q62 þ Q72 ¼ Q12 3k C6k C3k C6k C3k ð2:33Þ Here again, it is recommended to use concentrations of tracer gas 2 (k ¼ 2). Note that Q62 is aliased with Q72 , multiplied by a coeﬃcient that is very small for tracer 2, since only C62 diﬀers signiﬁcantly from zero. Q62 ¼ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f62 ðC6k C3k Þ2 ð2:34Þ where f62 ¼ ðC6k C3k Þ2 ðC3k C1k Þ2 Q212 2 2 2 þ Q212 ½ðC6k C3k Þ2 C1k þ ðC6k C1k Þ2 C3k þ ðC1k C6k Þ2 C6k 30 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings The bias resulting from the alias with Q72 is not taken into account in the conﬁdence interval. If tracer 4 is used, we get: Leakage to node 2 Q72 ¼ ðC32 C12 ÞðC64 C34 Þ ðC34 C14 ÞðC62 C32 Þ ðC64 C34 ÞðC72 C32 Þ ðC74 C34 ÞðC62 C32 Þ Q72 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ TðP; 1Þ f72 ðC64 C34 ÞðC72 C32 Þ ðC74 C34 ÞðC62 C32 Þ ð2:35Þ ð2:36Þ where 2 2 f72 ¼ ðC64 C34 Þ2 C12 þ ½C64 C14 þ Q72 ðC64 C74 Þ2 C32 2 þ ½C34 C14 þ Q72 ðC74 C34 Þ2 C62 þ Q272 ðC62 C34 ÞC72 2 2 þ ðC62 C32 Þ2 C14 þ ½C12 C62 þ Q272 ðC72 C62 Þ2 C34 2 2 þ ½C32 C12 Q72 ðC72 C32 Þ2 C64 þ Q272 ðC62 C32 ÞC74 The recirculation ﬂow rate can then be determined separately: Q62 ¼ ðC32 C12 ÞðC74 C34 Þ ðC34 C14 ÞðC72 C32 Þ ðC74 C34 ÞðC62 C32 Þ ðC72 C32 ÞðC64 C34 Þ Q62 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ TðP; 1Þ f62 ðC74 C34 ÞðC62 C32 Þ ðC72 C32 ÞðC64 C34 Þ ð2:37Þ ð2:38Þ where 2 2 þ ½C74 C14 þ Q62 ðC74 C64 Þ2 C32 f62 ¼ ðC74 C34 Þ2 C12 2 þ ½Q62 ðC74 C34 Þ2 C62 þ ½C14 C34 þ Q62 ðC64 C34 Þ2 C72 2 2 þ ðC62 C32 Þ2 C14 þ ½C12 C72 þ Q262 ðC62 C72 Þ2 C34 2 2 þ ½C32 þ C12 Q62 ðC62 C32 Þ2 C74 þ Q262 ðC72 C32 ÞC64 Inﬁltration ﬂow rate Q04 ¼ ðC33 C43 ÞQ24 þ I43 C43 C03 ð2:39Þ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f04 ðC43 C03 Þ2 ð2:40Þ with Q04 ¼ where 2 f04 ¼ ðC43 C03 Þ2 ðC33 C43 Þ2 Q224 þ Q224 ðC43 C03 Þ2 C33 2 2 þ ½Q24 ðC03 C33 Þ þ I43 2 C43 þ ½Q24 ðC33 C33 Þ þ I43 2 C03 Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 31 or ðC3k C4k Þ ðC C1k Þ ðC3k C4k Þ ¼ Q12 6k ðC4k C0k Þ ðC6k C3k Þ ðC4k C0k Þ p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ TðP; 1Þ f04 ¼ ðC4k C0k Þ2 Q04 ﬃ Q24 ð2:41Þ Q04 ð2:42Þ where f04 ¼ ðC6k C3k Þ2 ðC3k C1k Þ2 Q212 2 2 2 þ Q212 ½ðC6k C3k Þ2 C1k þ ðC6k C1k Þ2 C3k þ ðC1k þ C6k Þ2 C6k with k 6¼ 3 (recommended value: k ¼ 1). Exﬁltration ﬂow rate Q40 ¼ Q04 þ Q24 Q46 with Q40 ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q204 þ Q224 þ Q246 ð2:43Þ ð2:44Þ Inverse recirculation airﬂow rate through the air handling unit is: Q26 þ ½Q27 Q72 ¼ Q62 Q24 þ Q12 with Q26 ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q262 þ Q224 þ Q212 ð2:45Þ ð2:46Þ Exhaust airﬂow rate Q60 þ ½Q70 Q07 ¼ þQ04 Q40 þ Q01 with Q60 ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q204 þ Q240 þ Q201 ð2:47Þ ð2:48Þ If there is no exhaust duct (supply only systems), Q60 is zero, and Equation 2.47 can be used to get either an estimate of the net leakage rate between the technical room and outdoor environment, [Q70 Q07 ], or, if this is zero, to calculate Q40 , or the net inﬁltration rate. If Q60 ¼ 0 (supply only system): Q04 Q40 þ ½Q70 Q07 ¼ Q01 ð2:49Þ Leakage from technical room to node 6 can be assessed by: Q76 ¼ ðC32 C62 ÞQ26 þ ðC42 C62 ÞQ46 þ I62 C72 C62 ð2:50Þ ðC3k C6k ÞQ26 þ ðC4k C6k ÞQ46 C7k C6k ð2:51Þ or by Q76 ¼ 32 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings with k 6¼ 2 (k ¼ 4 is not recommended here). Q76 ¼ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f76 C7k C6k ð2:52Þ where 2 2 2 f76 ¼ Q226 C3k þ Q246 C4k þ ðQ26 þ Q46 Q76 Þ2 C6k 2 þ ðC3k C6k Þ2 Q226 þ ðC4k C6k Þ2 Q246 þ ðk; 2Þ I6k where: k ¼ 1, 2 or 3; and the delta function ðk; 2Þ ¼ 1 if k ¼ 2 and 0 if k 6¼ 2. Leakage airﬂow rates to the technical room can be obtained from system and equation (2.19). Less than four tracer gases If the tracer gas is injected at only one or two locations, the corresponding equations should be deleted. In this case, some of the airﬂow rates cannot be determined. If only one tracer gas is injected at location 1, merely Q01 , Q12 and Q62 can be measured. It is nevertheless interesting to assess three airﬂow rates in one shot and with one tracer gas only! When a tracer is injected just at location 2, Q45 and Q62 only can be measured. If tracer 4 is not used, leakage from the technical room into the unit cannot be measured. Large leakage can nevertheless be detected from unexpected dilution of the other tracer gases in the unit. If tracer 3 is not used, Q24 , aliased with several leakage ﬂow rates (its value includes a linear combination of parasitic airﬂow rates), can nevertheless be calculated from: C C3k C7k C3k Q24 þ Q26 þ Q27 Q72 1 þ 7k C6k C3k C6k C3k ¼ Q12 þ Q62 ¼ Q12 C6k C1k C6k C3k ð2:53Þ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f24 ðC6k C3k Þ2 ð2:54Þ with Q24 ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q212 þ Q262 ¼ where f24 ¼ ðC6k C1k Þ2 ðC6k C3k Þ2 Q212 2 2 2 þ Q212 ½ðC6k C3k Þ2 C1k þ ðC6k C1k Þ2 C3k þ ðC1k C3k Þ2 C6k In this equation, k ¼ 2 is recommended. Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 33 Planning tool There are many types of air handling units, and, from our experience, each new measurement poses new problems. It is hence impossible to provide a detailed measurement protocol valid for all types. Therefore, a computer program was developed that performs the following tasks: . . . . . Requests input data: – characterization of the air handling unit (type, location, design airﬂow rates, heat exchanger, position of fans with respect to heat exchanger, etc.); – tracer gas(es) used, injection location(s) and design concentration(s); – characterization of building (approximate volume, number of occupants, overpressurized or not, etc.); – airﬂows that obviously cannot exist. Evaluates the risk of poor tracer gas mixing from the distance between injection and sampling locations and from the devices (fans, bends, ﬁlters, dampers) placed in between. Prepares a printed measurement protocol containing injection and sampling locations, injection rates of tracer gases and a system of equation in accordance with ‘Simplest way’ (above). Requests measured tracer gas concentrations and actual injection ﬂow rates or reads them in a ﬁle. Solves the system of equations and prepares a measurement report. This piece of software is available on www.e4tech.com, in ‘Software and Publications’. Example of application Sulphur hexaﬂuoride was injected as tracer 1 and nitrous oxide as tracer 2 in an air handling unit without planned recirculation, but equipped with a rotating heat exchanger. Resulting concentrations are shown in Figure 2.10, and measurement results in Figure 2.9. 440 Relief Exhaust 3700 9400 Outside 8000 1000 11,000 Supply 6700 Figure 2.9 Measured airﬂow rates in a leaky air handling unit Note: Design airﬂow rates were 13,000 m/h for both supply and return, and zero for recirculation. Source: Awbi, 2007. 34 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 100 N2O [ppm] 80 C3: Supply air C4: Room air C4¢: Exhaust 60 40 C6: Relief air 20 0 10:30 10:45 11:00 Time [h] 11:15 11:30 Figure 2.10 Concentrations at locations shown in Figure 2.5 resulting from injection of SF6 as tracer 1 and N2 O as tracer 2 in a leaky air handling unit Note: A shortcut through the heat exchanger dilutes exhaust air, thus decreasing the relief air concentration. The presence of this tracer gas in supply air results from parasitic recirculation. Source: Awbi, 2007. Leaks in the heat exchanger, as well as in the return air channel, were detected with this measurement. Measurement in three other identical units in the same oﬃce did not show any shortcut. However, measured outdoor airﬂow rates were between 55 and 66 per cent of the design value. Simple measurement using CO2 from occupants A special case is when only one tracer is injected in the ventilated space. This could be the carbon dioxide emitted in the ventilated space by occupants. That tracer gas is of great practical interest since it does not need any injection system. In this case, Equation 2.33 can easily be solved. Assuming that there is no inverse recirculation, and no leaks in the air handling unit, the global recirculation rate is: R¼ Q62 C C1k ¼ 3k Q12 þ Q62 C4k C1k ð2:55Þ with R ¼ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ fR ðC4k C3k Þ2 ð2:56Þ where 2 2 2 fR ¼ ðC3k C4k Þ2 C1k þ ðC4k C1k Þ2 C3k þ ðC3k C1k Þ2 C4k And the equivalent outdoor airﬂow rate per occupant is: Q01 þ Q04 0:018½m3 =h ¼ Npersons C4k C0k ð2:57Þ assuming that a person exhales 18 l/h of carbon dioxide and that occupants are the only indoor sources of CO2 . Airﬂow rates are in m3 /(h person) if Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 35 concentrations are in volumetric ratios. It is not possible with only one tracer injected into the ventilated space to diﬀerentiate between outdoor air from mechanical ventilation and from inﬁltration. Measurements in buildings with large time constants Most methods are designed to measure units with recirculation ratios below 50 per cent. This is the case of the method proposed above. However, air handling units designed to condition (heat or cool) spaces with large loads such as those found in cold or tropical climates often present large recirculation ratios that homogenize the concentrations, and large nominal time constants (ratio of the ventilated volume to the outdoor airﬂow rate) that strongly increase the time needed to get steady state in the supply duct (node 3) and in the room (node 4). There is, however, a way to shorten the measurement time by extrapolating the evolution of tracer gas concentration with time (Roulet and Zuraimi, 2003), which is described below. Writing the conservation equation of tracer gas 3 at node 4, in the ventilated space, gives: V @C43 ¼ I3 þ Q24 C23 þ Q04 C03 ðQ46 þ Q40 ÞC43 @t ð2:58Þ Because of the large recirculation ratio, it can be assumed that the concentration is homogeneous in the ventilated space. Dividing this equation by the supply airﬂow rate Q24 gives: V @C43 I ¼ 3 þ C23 þ i C03 ð1 þ i ÞC43 Q24 Q24 @t ð2:59Þ where i is the inﬁltration ratio Q04 =Q24 . Using the deﬁnition of the nominal time constant n , of the recirculation ratio R, and using the tracer gas conservation at node 2: V V Q01 ¼ ¼ n ð1 RÞ Q24 Q01 Q24 and C23 ¼ Rxs C43 þ ð1 RÞC03 ð2:60Þ we get n ð1 RÞ @C43 m_ t3 ¼ ð1 R þ i ÞðC43 C03 Þ @t m_ 24 ð2:61Þ The steady-state concentration is: 1 ¼ C43 I3 þ C03 Q24 ð1 R þ i Þ and 1 C43 ðtÞ ¼ C43 ð1 et= Þ ð2:62Þ 16 40 35 14 C3 30 12 C3¢ 25 10 C3¢–C3 20 8 6 15 4 10 Tracer injection 5 0 0 2 4 6 2 8 10 Time (h) 12 14 16 0 Concentration difference [mg/m3] Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Tracer gas concentration (mg/m3) 36 Figure 2.11 Tracer gas concentrations in the supply duct, upstream (3) and downstream (30 ) of the tracer gas injection port Note: Points are measured concentrations, while lines are exponential ﬁts. Source: Roulet and Zuraimi, 2003. with ¼ n ð1 RÞ 1 R þ i ð2:63Þ The theoretical exponential can be ﬁtted to the experimental points, as shown in Figure 2.11 depicting an actual experiment. The concentration increase in the supply duct, C30 C3 , quickly reaches its steady-state value, while a good ﬁt of the exponential can be obtained within two time constants, allowing the determination of the steady-state concentration and time constant without waiting for equilibrium that is reached after at least ﬁve time constants. Appropriate method for assessing the recirculation ratio In Equations 2.33, 2.34 and 2.41 the concentration diﬀerence C6k C3k is at the denominator, and these two concentrations are close to each other at steady state when the recirculation ratio is high. This leads to a large conﬁdence interval of the calculated airﬂow rates. In units with large recirculation ratios, it is better to inject the tracer gas at location 3 instead of location 2. The supply airﬂow rate can then be determined with better accuracy, using: Q24 ¼ I3 C30 3 C33 ð2:64Þ Assuming that the conﬁdence interval is the same for both concentrations, the conﬁdence interval is: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 Q I C ﬃ TðP; 1Þ þ2 ð2:65Þ Q I C0 C Airﬂow Rates in Air Handling Units 37 The recirculation airﬂow rate can then be calculated using: Q62 ¼ Q24 Q12 ð2:66Þ with Q62 ¼ TðP; 1Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q224 þ Q212 ﬃ TðP; 1Þ 1 þ ð1 RÞ2 Q ð2:67Þ assuming that the relative error Q=Q is the same for both airﬂow rates, and taking into account that Q12 ¼ ð1 RÞQ24 . Note that, in this case, Q62 decreases when R increases. The extract airﬂow rate Q46 cannot be assessed without injecting a tracer gas in the extract duct. However, in air handling units that have no exhaust duct (such as most units in Singapore and other tropical countries), Q60 ¼ 0, hence Q46 ¼ Q62 , and Q40 ¼ Q01 þ Q04 . The recirculation ratio is deﬁned by: R¼ Q62 Q62 ¼ Q24 Q62 þ Q12 ð2:68Þ Assuming that there is no leak in the air handling unit, it can be assessed using three diﬀerent methods: Method A R¼ C3k C10 k C6k C10 k ð2:69Þ the subscript k being for any tracer gas except the one injected in the inlet duct. The conﬁdence interval is: R ¼ TðP; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ fR ðC6k C10 k Þ2 ð2:70Þ where 2 2 þ ðC3k C10 k Þ2 C6k fR ¼ ðC3k C6k Þ2 C120 k þ ðC6k C10 k Þ2 C3k ð2:71Þ If we assume that the relative error is the same for all concentrations, and taking into account that, for tracers injected at locations 2 and 3, C10 k ﬃ 0 and therefore C3k ﬃ RC6k , we can get a simpler expression for the conﬁdence interval of the recirculation ratio: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ TðP; 1ÞC R ﬃ ð2:72Þ 2ðR2 R þ 1Þ C The recirculation ratio can also be calculated using: Method B R¼ Q62 Q24 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Confidence interval of R 38 15% A 10% B C 5% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Recirculation ratio 100% Figure 2.12 Conﬁdence interval of the recirculation ratio as a function of the recirculation ratio itself for three assessment methods Note: For this ﬁgure, the relative conﬁdence intervals of injection rate and concentrations are 5 per cent. with R ¼ Q pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð1 þ RÞ Q ð2:73Þ Or method C R¼1 Q12 Q24 with R ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ Q 2 ð1 RÞ Q ð2:74Þ assuming that the relative error Q=Q is the same for both airﬂow rates, and taking into account that Q12 ¼ ð1 RÞQ24 . The accuracy of the three methods for determining R is compared in Figure 2.12. Method B (Equation 2.73) should be preferred at low recirculation ratios, while method C (Equation 2.74) is best at large recirculation ratios. Method A could be applied where the other methods cannot be used. Note that the relative error R=R becomes very large for small recirculation ratios. It is interesting to see that some interpretation methods of the same measurements provide more accurate results than others, and that the best way depends on the unit measured. Therefore, care should be taken to select the most appropriate method. 3 Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency The airﬂow patterns should, in principle, be organized in order that new air is brought to the head of the occupants, so that they get fresh, clean air, and that contaminants be evacuated as quickly as possible, before being mixed with indoor air. However, air, as any other ﬂuid, always follows the easiest path. This means that the airﬂow does not necessarily follow expected patterns. Since air is transparent, unexpected airﬂow patterns are noticed only when things go wrong. Depending on the airﬂow distribution in rooms and for a given airﬂow rate, the concentration of contaminants in the occupied space may vary by a factor of two or more. Therefore, measurements may be useful to check if the airﬂow patterns are as expected. Such measurements allow checks to ensure that: . . . the air change eﬃciency is as large as possible, clean air is supplied to the right places, air contaminants are quickly removed. The measurement of the age of the air allows for the detection of possible shortcuts and dead zones and for the checking of the general airﬂow pattern in the room or in a building. Deﬁnitions The quantities deﬁned below are explained in greater detail elsewhere (Sandberg, 1984; Sutcliﬀe, 1990) and are only brieﬂy described here. Age of the air Let us assume that the molecules of outdoor air start their indoor life when entering the building or the ventilation system. These arrive at a given location, r, in a room after a time, r , that varies from one particle to the other. r is called the residence time of the particle in the room, or its age. Note that the air elements themselves, i.e. oxygen and nitrogen molecules, do not age. 40 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings However, the more time a small volume of air spends in a room, the more it will be contaminated by pollutants. Since there is a large number of air particles all taking diﬀerent paths, we deﬁne a probability density f(r ) that the age of particles arriving at a given location is between and þ d and, a probability F(r ) that this age is larger than . These two functions are, by deﬁnition, related by: ð dFðr Þ ð3:1Þ and Fðr Þ ¼ 1 fðtr Þ dt fðr Þ ¼ d 0 The local mean age of air at a point r is deﬁned by the average age of all the air particles arriving at that point: ð1 ð1 r ¼ tfr ðtÞ dt ¼ Fr ðtÞ dt ð3:2Þ 0 0 The room mean age of air hi is deﬁned by the average of the ages of all the air particles in the room. Nominal time constant The nominal time constant, n , of a ventilated zone, is the ratio of its volume, V, to the supplied fresh volume airﬂow rate, q, (including inﬁltration), or the ratio of the mass of air contained in the space, M, to the mass airﬂow rate, Q: V M ð3:3Þ n ¼ ¼ q Q Its inverse is the speciﬁc airﬂow rate or air change rate, n. If the room or ventilated zone has a deﬁned air exhaust, Sandberg (1984) has shown that the nominal time constant is equal to the mean age of air at this exhaust: n ¼ e ð3:4Þ Air exchange eﬃciency This eﬃciency expresses how the fresh air is distributed in the room. The time, a , required on average to replace the air present in the space is twice the room mean age of air (Sandberg and Sjo¨berg, 1983): a ¼ 2hi ð3:5Þ At a given ﬂow rate and zone volume, the shortest time required to replace the air within the space is given by the nominal time constant. Therefore, the air exchange eﬃciency, a , is calculated by: ð3:6Þ a ¼ n 2hi The air exchange eﬃciency is equal to one for piston-type ventilation, where the exhaust is reached at a time corresponding exactly to the nominal time Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 41 Figure 3.1 Ventilation modes with typical airﬂow patterns and air change eﬃciencies Source: Roulet, 2004. Table 3.1 Nominal time constant and room mean age of the air corresponding to the probability curves shown in Figures 3.2 and 3.3 a hi Air exchange eﬃciency Room mean age of the air 25% 1.44 50% 0.99 66% 0.76 80% 0.62 90% 0.55 99% 0.50 constant. In rooms with complete mixing, the room mean age of air equals the nominal time constant, and the air exchange eﬃciency is 50 per cent. Short-circuiting of air will also leave dead zones in the room, giving rise to an eﬃciency that is lower than 0.5 (see Figure 3.1). Table 3.1 shows the air exchange eﬃciency and the corresponding room mean age of the air, assuming that the nominal time constant or the mean age at exhaust is one hour. Some typical probability density curves of the age of the air at the exhaust are illustrated in Figure 3.2, the air exchange eﬃciency being used as parameter. If the air is displaced like a piston, all air particles reach a given location in the room at the same time, and they reach the exhaust at a time f(τ) 4.0 η 3.5 25% 50% 66% 80% 90% 99% 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 τ 3 Figure 3.2 Typical probability density curves for the age of the air Note: The parameter is the air exchange eﬃciency. 42 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings F(τ) 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 η 25% 50% 66% 80% 90% 99% 100% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 τ 3 Figure 3.3 Typical probability curves for the age of the air Note: These theoretical curves are for illustration. Some of them, in particular at very high eﬃciency, are not likely to be found in practice. corresponding to the nominal time constant. The air exchange eﬃciency in this very theoretical case is 100 per cent. At 99 per cent air exchange eﬃciency, there is already some spreading of the ages around an average still equal to the nominal time constant. When probability density function spreads out and the probability function smoothens, the mean age at exhaust remains the same, but there are more young air particles and more aged ones. In addition, the most probable age (the time of the maximum of the curve) is reduced. At 66 per cent air change eﬃciency, this most probable age is already half the nominal time constant. At 50 per cent eﬃciency or complete mixing, the probability density of the age of the air at exhaust is an exponential: there are more young particles than old ones reaching the exhaust. With this distribution, the most probable age is zero, but the mean age is still equal to the nominal time constant. The last curve, with 25 per cent eﬃciency, represents a situation with a shortcut. Figure 3.3 shows the corresponding probability curves for the age of the air at exhaust, still with one hour as nominal time constant. This function shows the percentage of particles at exhaust that are older than the value given on the ordinate. At 100 per cent eﬃciency, all particles are exactly one hour (one time constant) old. When the eﬃciency decreases, the function progressively changes to become an exponential at 50 per cent eﬃciency or complete mixing. When the eﬃciency decreases, there are less and less young particles and more and more old ones at exhaust. At 25 per cent eﬃciency, which is very poor, 10 per cent of the volume of the air at exhaust is older than three time constants! Measurement method The air entering the room is marked with a gas (the tracer gas), and the concentration of that tracer gas is monitored at the location of interest. This Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 43 assumes that the tracer gas behaves the same as the air: no adsorption and same buoyancy, which is the case if the tracer concentration is small. It can be readily understood that if the air is marked at the inlet by a short pulse of tracer gas, and if the tracer molecules follow the air molecules, they will arrive at a given location at the same time as the air molecules. The time spent between injection and the detection of most tracer gas molecules by the analyser is the age of the tracer, hence the age of the air at the air sampling location. The pulse technique is, however, not the only one and the following three strategies can be used: . . . Step-down – a uniform concentration of tracer is achieved at the beginning of the test, when the injection is stopped; Step-up – the tracer is injected at the air inlet at a constant rate from the starting time throughout the test; Pulse – a short pulse of tracer is released in the air inlet at the starting time. The probability functions and the local mean ages at any point, r, can be calculated from the time history of the net tracer concentration, Cr (t), which is the measured concentration minus the background concentration. It was shown, however, that for rooms with a single air inlet and a single air outlet, the step-up method should be preferred, since it is the easiest to perform and gives the best accuracy (Roulet and Cretton, 1992). For the step-up technique, the tracer gas is injected at a constant rate into the supply air in the outside air duct, starting at a known time t0 . It should be ensured that the tracer and the air are fully mixed in the supply duct to produce a steady concentration, C3 , at the air inlet. If C3 cannot be measured, the equilibrium concentration within the enclosure, C4 , may be used instead. The notations for air sampling refer to Figure 2.5. Tracer gas concentration at the locations where the age of air is looked for is recorded. The sampling time interval should be short enough to record the transient evolution of the concentration. It should then be much shorter than the expected age of air. A good value is one tenth of the nominal time constant, which can be estimated by dividing the ventilated volume by the design airﬂow rate, or better, by the actual airﬂow rate if it is known. One important location is in the exhaust duct, where Ce ¼ C6 is measured. Recording the evolution of the tracer gas concentration at this location provides both the actual nominal time constant and the mean age of air in the ventilated space. Injection rate is maintained constant until a steady state is obtained. Depending on the air change eﬃciency, this may take up to four time constants. An example of such a record is given in Figure 3.4. When the concentration stabilizes at a value noted, C1 , the step-up experiment is ended. However, it is recommended to continue recording the concentration after having stopped the tracer gas injection, since this will provide a second measurement of the age of the air, using the decay method. For this purpose, the time when injection is closed should be noted, since this time is the starting time of the decay experiment. 44 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Concentration [ppm] 25 C∞ 20 Step-up 15 Decay 10 5 to Injection 0 09:00 09:10 09:20 09:30 to 09:40 09:50 10:00 10:10 10:20 Figure 3.4 Record of tracer gas concentration in the exhaust duct during the measurement of the age of air To interpret the recorded tracer gas concentrations and obtain the age of air, the background (or supply) concentration should ﬁrst be subtracted from all measurements, and the elapsed time should be calculated by subtracting the starting time from all time values. In the following formulae, the net tracer gas concentration, Cr , is the diﬀerence between the concentration measured at location r and the concentration of this gas in the outdoor air. The probability function of the age of air can be calculated from the concentration ratio: Step-up FðÞ ¼ 1 Cðt t0 Þ C1 Decay FðÞ ¼ Cðt t0 Þ Cðt0 Þ ð3:7Þ Figure 3.5 shows the concentration ratio calculated from the recorded concentration illustrated in Figure 3.4. 1.0 F(t) 0.0 Step-up 0.8 -0.2 Decay -0.4 log[F(t)] 0.6 0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0 Step-up 0.2 -1.2 Time [s] 0.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 -1.4 Decay 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 1000 Figure 3.5 Probability functions of the age of air, calculated from the recorded concentration illustrated in Figure 3.4 Note: Left is a linear scale and right is a logarithmic scale, showing an exponential decay after 700 s. Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 45 The local mean age of air at any location is the integral (or zero moment) of the probability distribution: ð1 Fr ðtÞ dt ð3:8Þ r ¼ 0 ¼ 0 The ﬁrst moment of the probability distribution is, by deﬁnition: ð1 1 ¼ tFr ðtÞ dt ð3:9Þ 0 If there is only one single exhaust, the room mean age of air can be deduced from tracer concentration measurements in the exhaust duct, Ce ðtÞ: ð1 tFe ðtÞ dt 1 hi ¼ ¼ ð01 ð3:10Þ 0 e Fe ðtÞ dt 0 In this case, the nominal time constant of the ventilated space, n , which is the ratio of the space volume and the volumetric airﬂow rate, is equal to the mean age of air at the exhaust: ð1 Fe ðtÞ dt ð3:11Þ n ¼ e ¼ 0 Therefore, the air exchange eﬃciency, a , can be assessed directly by measuring the evolution of the concentration at the exhaust: 2 0 a ¼ n ¼ e ¼ ð3:12Þ 2hi 2hi 21 e Practical interpretation of the concentration records In practice, the moments in the above formulae are calculated numerically, on the basis of discrete recorded values of the concentration and time. A simple way to calculate these moments uses the trapezium integration method, with the general formulation of: ð tN N 1 X 1 fðtÞ dt ﬃ ð3:13Þ ð f þ fj þ 1 Þt 2 j 0 j¼0 where fj is for fðtj Þ and t for tj þ 1 tj . Approximating the variation of the concentration during each time step by a straight line, the two integrals deﬁned above can be estimated by summing ﬁnite elements: ð1 1 F0 þ FN NX þ Fe ðtÞ dt ¼ Fj t þ "0 ðN; d Þ ð3:14Þ 0 ¼ 2 0 j¼1 1 ¼ ð1 0 tFe ðtÞ dt ¼ 1 NFN NX þ jFj t2 þ "1 ðN; d Þ 2 j¼1 ð3:15Þ 46 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings where: Fj is the probability distribution at time t ¼ j t, Step-up case Fj ¼ 1 Cðt0 þ jtÞ Cð1Þ Decay case Fj ¼ Cðt0 þ j tÞ Cðt0 Þ ð3:16Þ N is the last measurement integrated using the trapezium method, "n ðN; d ) is the rest of the integral, evaluated using an exponential ﬁt on the last measurements (see below). The number of measurements, N, could be large enough to ensure that the sum of the terms for j > N are negligible, or, in other words, that CN is very close to the steady-state value. In this case, the remaining parts, "n ðN; d ), are negligible. In practice, however, the measurement can be stopped before reaching the steady state. In this case, the tail in the integral of the moments is not measured, but is estimated. As shown in Figure 3.5, this tail is, in most cases, exponential of the form: Step-up: CðtÞ ¼ C1 ð1 et=c Þ Decay: CðtÞ ¼ Cð0Þet=c Therefore, for time larger than tN ¼ N t, it can be assumed that: t t Fðt > tN Þ ¼ FN exp N d ð3:17Þ ð3:18Þ where d is a time constant determined by a ﬁt on the last measurements in the exponential part. In this case, the remaining part, "n ðN; d Þ, of the moments are: ð1 ð1 t t dt ¼ FN d "0 ðN; d Þ ¼ Fe ðtÞ dt ¼ FN exp N d tN tN ð1 ð3:19Þ "1 ðN; d Þ ¼ tFe ðtÞ dt ¼ FN d ðtN þ d Þ tN The time required for reaching an exponential decay depends not only on the nominal time constant of the room, but also on the ventilation system. The decay will be exponential from the beginning of the test where complete mixing occurs. In case of displacement ventilation, the decay should be very sharp after a time equal to the age of air. Error analysis Using, mutatis mutandis Equation 2.22, the conﬁdence interval of Fð) is: bFj Fj ; Fj þ Fj c Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 47 with sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 Ce ð jt þ t0 Þ 2 Ce ð jt þ t0 Þ Ce ð1Þ Fj ¼ TðP; 1Þ þ Ce ð jt þ t0 Þ Ce2 ð1Þ Then, the conﬁdence intervals of the moments are: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ and 1 ¼ TðP; 1Þ f1 0 ¼ TðP; 1Þ f0 ð3:20Þ ð3:21Þ with f 0 ¼ t 2 þ 2 ððF0 Þ2 þ ðFN Þ2 Þ þ ðtÞ2 N 1 X Fj2 j¼1 F0 þ FN þ 2 N 1 X 2 Fj ðtÞ2 þ ð"0 Þ2 ð3:22Þ j¼1 and f 1 ¼ t 2 þ 2 ððF0 Þ2 þ ðFN Þ2 Þ þ ðtÞ2 N 1 X j2 Fj2 j¼1 1 NFN NX þ jFj 2 j¼1 2 ðtÞ2 þ ð"1 Þ2 ð3:23Þ in which "0 ¼ TðP; 1Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 d2 FN þ FN ðd Þ2 ð3:24Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 ðtN þ d Þ2 d2 FN þ ðtN þ 2d Þ2 FN ðd Þ2 ð3:25Þ and "1 ¼ TðP; 1Þ where d is the conﬁdence interval resulting from the exponential ﬁt. Finally we get: n ¼ e ¼ 0 ðFe Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 hi ¼ ð1 ðFe ÞÞ2 ð0 ðFe ÞÞ2 þ ð1 ðFe ÞÞ2 ð0 ðFe ÞÞ2 ð3:26Þ ð3:27Þ and a ¼ 1 ðFe Þ ð20 ðFe ÞÞ2 ð3:28Þ Example of application The ventilation system of a 60-seat conference room was retroﬁtted to improve indoor air quality. The old, mixing-type installation was replaced by 48 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Air inlets Exhaust grilles Conference room Hall Office Figure 3.6 Arrangement of the conference room and of its surroundings Source: Roulet et al., 1998. a displacement ventilation system, as shown in Figure 3.6. The conference room is 8 m by 10 m wide and 3 m high. It is completely embedded in an old, massive building. Its walls, ﬂoor or ceiling have no contact with the outdoor environment. It has no windows, but leaky entrance doors leading to a hall. The mechanical displacement ventilation system includes two low-velocity air inlets, 1 m high, put at the ﬂoor level against one wall of the room. The air, slightly colder than the room temperature, is introduced at low speed close to the ground through three inlets. This cold air spreads on the ground like a lake, and should go up faster where there are heat sources like occupants. This asymmetric disposition does not allow a uniform distribution of fresh air in the room, but was ﬁrst adopted for practical reasons, the building layout not allowing an optimum location of air inlets and outlets. Five exhaust grilles are located in the ceiling. Since the building owner was interested in assessing the actual performance of the new system, age of air measurements were performed in order to check if the airﬂow pattern in the room was as expected. First, age of air measurements were performed in the room as it was. It was found that the air was poorly distributed in the room because of the asymmetrical disposition of inlet grilles. In addition the doors were found to be leaky, and much air from the ventilation system was leaving the room quickly after entering it, thus reducing the purging eﬀect. The indoor air quality was, however, good, since the ventilation rate was very high (eight minutes nominal time constant, or 15 outdoor air change per hour, or 60 m3 /h per occupant at full occupancy!). On the basis of these results, improvements were brought to the system. The leakages in the room envelope were sealed, a door was added, a new inlet was added on the wall opposite to the existing inlets, and an exhaust grille was added in the ceiling as shown in Figure 3.7. A second measurement campaign was performed, showing a signiﬁcant improvement of the ventilation eﬃciency (see Figure 3.8). The air change Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 49 Air inlets Added air inlet Exhaust grilles Added exhaust grille Added door Conference room Hall Office Figure 3.7 Arrangement of the conference room after improvement Source: Roulet et al., 1998. 100% 1000 800 700 Mean age of air Nominal time constant Air change efficiency 90% 80% 70% 600 60% 500 50% 400 40% 300 30% 200 20% 100 10% Air change efficiency Age and time constant [s] 900 0% 0 Initial values After improvement Figure 3.8 Room ventilation characteristics before and after improvement Source: Roulet et al., 1998. eﬃciency was doubled, and the mean age of air was maintained despite a reduction of the ventilation rate – and of energy use – by a factor two. Mapping the age of the air in rooms This chapter demonstrates how to assess the age of air at some location and on the average in a room. It may nevertheless be interesting to map this quantity in a room, in order to check, for example, if the occupants have the best possible air, or to look for dead zones. Davidson and Olsson (1987) have already generated such maps using computer codes, and some qualitative representations have been drawn from measurements (Valton, 1989). Since the measurement of the age of the air at a given location is not 50 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings straightforward, takes time and has its cost, the theory of experimental design (Box et al., 1978) may help in providing a maximum of information through a minimum of measurements. Minimum number of measurements A map of any scalar variable, v, in a three-dimensional room is in principle obtained by measuring the variable at each node of a network and interpolating between these nodes. Such measurements are, however, very expensive and may be unfeasible. If only ﬁve values are taken on each axis, at least 125 measurements are required, meaning analysis of the air every few minutes at 125 locations over a couple of hours. Therefore, it makes sense to apply a method that needs a minimum number of measurements points. This minimum number depends on the objective of the mapping experiment, or more precisely on the required mapping details. Since the interpolation between measurement points needs a model, the mapping network indeed depends on the empirical model chosen to represent the map of the variable, v. Any inﬁnitely derivable function (as v is assumed to be) can be developed in a Taylor series around a given point. This gives a polynomial, which can be approximated by its k þ 1 ﬁrst terms, k being the degree of the polynomial. In the following, models of degree 1 and 2 are considered. If a linear model is adopted (degree 1), such as: X bi xi ð3:29Þ v¼aþ i where xi are the three coordinates of the measured point, only four measurements are needed to obtain a set of coeﬃcients (a; bi ). If more measurements are made, the coeﬃcients may be obtained by a least square ﬁt procedure provided there is no (or negligible) uncertainty on the coordinates. If their coordinates diﬀer for the other points, these supplementary measurement points give information on the validity of the model used. If the linear model does not appear to be valid, higher degree models may be used. For example, a quadratic model: X X X bi xi þ bij xi xj þ bii x2i ð3:30Þ v¼aþ i i 6¼ j i that contains ten coeﬃcients, can be chosen. Such a model may already ﬁt many practical situations and present minimal and maximal value(s). To determine its coeﬃcients, measurements taken at ten locations are the minimum necessary. An intermediate model is the interactions model: X X bi xi þ bij xi xj ð3:31Þ v¼aþ i i 6¼ j Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 51 Table 3.2 Minimum number of measurements needed to obtain the coeﬃcients of a kth degree polynomial empirical model representing a variable in a two- and three-dimensional space Model dimensions 2 3 Linear Interaction Quadratic Cubic 4th degree 3 4 4 7 6 10 10 20 15 35 for which seven coeﬃcients must be determined. Table 3.2 summarizes the minimum number of measurements needed. Location of the measurement points An important issue is the appropriate location of measurement points. The set of measurement points is called an experimental design. There are many possible experimental designs, but they do not give the expected results with the same accuracy. For example, it is obvious that to ﬁt a linear model in one dimension only (the straight line modelled by y ¼ ax þ b), the location of the two measurement points (the minimum number) that gives the best accuracy for the coeﬃcients a and b is at the extremities of the experimental domain, i.e. at the minimum and maximum possible values of the variable, x. For more sophisticated models or in a larger number of dimensions, the locations of the best sampling points are not so obvious. However, several tools exist for planning such experiments, which are found in the literature (Fedorov, 1972; Box et al., 1978; Bandemer and Bellmann, 1979; Feneuille et al., 1983; Aeschlimann et al., 1986) and are applied below. In experiments to determine the age of the air, points close to walls do not represent the inner volume, and the sampling points should not be located too close to walls or in the corners of the room. In the following, the ‘room’ or the ‘experimental domain’ is a volume that is smaller than the actual measured space by about 20 per cent in each direction. Let us take a coordinate system in such a rectangular volume using as the unit, for each direction, the half-length of that domain in that direction. Three numbers, included in the interval [1; þ1], locate any point in the ‘room’. The experimental design can be represented by a rectangular matrix with three columns (one for each coordinate) and as many lines as measurement points. A general condition is that in order to obtain the coeﬃcients of a polynomial of degree k, each of the variables x, y and z shall take at least k þ 1 values in the experimental design, which should have at least k þ 1 levels on each axis. 52 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings The criteria described below are used to establish the most eﬃcient design. Criteria for location of the measurement points The model matrix M First, let us look at the method used to obtain these coeﬃcients. For each point, the model is applied, replacing the xi by their values given by the experimental design. A system of equations (one equation for each location) is obtained this way, which can be written in a matrix notation: V ¼ MA ð3:32Þ where: V (v1 ; v2 ; . . . ; vn ) is a vector containing the measured quantities at the n locations. M is a matrix, each line of which corresponding to one location. Its ﬁrst column is ﬁlled with ones and corresponds to a constant in the model. The next three columns may contain the coordinates of the locations if the model contains linear terms. The next three columns may contain the products of these coordinates two by two (for example, x1 x2 ; x1 x3 ; x2 x3 ) in case of interaction terms and, for a quadratic model, the next three columns contain the squares of the coordinates. Other models will produce other matrices. A is a vector containing the coeﬃcients (e.g. a, bi , bij (i 6¼ j) and bii ) of the model. In the general case, M is rectangular and the least square ﬁt procedure is used: A ¼ ðMT MÞ1 M0 V ð3:33Þ T where M is the transposed matrix of M. This equation is also valid if M is a square matrix, but reduces to the simpler equation: A ¼ M1 V ð3:34Þ In any case, a matrix should be inverted and the determinant of this matrix should not be zero! Since this determinant can be calculated before making the measurements, it is a ﬁrst criterion for the choice of the experimental design: it should be signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from zero. Variance of the calculated response If the coeﬃcients are known, an estimate ve of the value of the variable v can be obtained at each location in the enclosure: ve ¼ AT r where r is the vector (1, x1 ; x2 ; x3 ). ð3:35Þ Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 53 If 2 is the experimental variance of the measured variable v, the variance (ve ) of the estimated variable is: 2 2 ðve Þ ¼ rT ðMT MÞ1 r2 ð3:36Þ A variance function can be deﬁned: VF ¼ N 2 ðve Þ ¼ NrT ðMT MÞ1 r 2 ð3:37Þ where N is the number of measurements. VF depends on the experimental design (M and N) and on the location r and can hence be calculated before doing any measurement. If VF depends only on the distance to the origin (or the modulus of r), the experimental design is said to be isovariant by rotation. If VF is a constant within the experimental domain, the design gives a uniform accuracy. A good experimental design should have a small variance function, as constant as possible. If ðMT MÞ1 is diagonal, the design is orthogonal. In this case, the variance function is minimum. Condition of the model matrix The condition number of the matrix M plays an important role on the upper bound of the relative errors on the result (see Chapter 7, ‘Upper bound of the errors’). This condition multiplies the experimental errors and transfers these errors into the result A. It should therefore be as small as possible. This number depends on the experimental design and on the model chosen but does not depend on the results of the measurements. Hence it can be calculated before doing any measurement and constitutes one more criterion, which is relatively easy to compute, for the choice of the best experimental design. This is a much better criterion than the determinant of MT M. Expendability of the experimental design It may be interesting that the measurements performed to obtain the coeﬃcients of a ﬁrst-degree polynomial are not lost and could be used with other measurements to expand the polynomial to a higher degree. Some designs are expandable that way, some others are not. Examples of experimental designs Several experimental designs for mapping parallelepiped volumes or a rectangular area were examined (Roulet et al., 1991). Linear, interaction and quadratic models were tested. Several of these designs were found to be unusable (singular matrix or too large a condition number for the quadratic model). Only good examples are given below. 54 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings As mentioned above, the experimental domain is about 20 per cent smaller than the measured space, samples of air being taken at least 0.1 times the characteristic enclosure dimension from the walls. Factorial designs A factorial design for k dimensions and l levels is obtained by dividing the experimental domain (for example, the interval [1; 1]) on each axis into l equidistant levels. The complete factorial design contains all the points obtained by the l k combination of the l possible values of the k coordinates. The number of points in a full factorial design is hence l k . If l and k are greater than 2, the full factorial designs often have many more points than the minimum required, and are therefore seldom used. However, partial factorial designs can be obtained by selecting the necessary number of measurement points from the full design. Some examples are given below. The 2-D, two-level full factorial design (see Table 3.3) is optimal for a linear model, providing the coeﬃcients of that model with the best accuracy. If, for economical reasons, one point is omitted, the conﬁdence intervals of the coeﬃcients are twice that based on four measurement points. Table 3.3 2-D, two-level full factorial design No x y 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 It is very important to note that the frequently used design consisting of changing one variable at a time (see Table 3.4) is less accurate than the former. Table 3.4 2-D design changing one variable at a time No x y 1 2 3 4 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 Adding a ﬁfth point at the centre (0,0) of the 2-D, two-level full factorial design allows assessing the coeﬃcient of the interaction term b12 , without loss of accuracy. The following two points: No x y 6 7 1 1 0 0 Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 55 Figure 3.9 Minimum design for a 2-D quadratic model can be added to obtain a minimum design for a quadratic model, which has a condition number of 6.3 (see Figure 3.9). The 2-D full factorial design with three levels shown in Table 3.5 has a better condition number (4.4) for a quadratic model. Table 3.5 2-D full factorial design with three levels No x y No x y 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 6 7 8 9 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 3-D designs In three dimensions, the four point design of Table 3.6 is best for a linear model. Table 3.6 Minimum 3-D design for assessing the coeﬃcients of a linear model No x y z 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 It can be expanded to a full factorial design (see Table 3.7), which is appropriate for an interaction model. Also at three dimensions, the star design shown in Table 3.8 is less accurate and requires more work than the minimum design of Table 3.6. However, combining the centred star design with the full factorial design of Table 3.7 gives a so-called composite centred design, suitable for a quadratic model, having a condition number of 4.4. If fewer points are wanted, 56 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 3.7 Full factorial design for assessing the coeﬃcients of a linear model with interactions No x y z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table 3.8 3-D centred star design No x y z 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 the points 8, 5 and 2 can be deleted (in that order) giving ﬁnally a design having 12 points and a condition number of 4.8. Finally, deleting two more points (3 and 15) gives the design C3, which has six points in the centre of the faces and four points at opposite corners (see Figure 3.10). The condition number of MT M calculated using the absolute value norm T |M M| for these designs and three models is given in Table 3.9. There are numerous other possibilities that can be imagined or found in the literature. Figure 3.10 Experimental designs C3 (left) and composite centred (right) Age of Air and Ventilation Eﬃciency 57 Table 3.9 Condition number of MT M for some experimental designs and three models Experimental design Number of points Quadratic model Interactions model Linear model 3 4 5 6 9 – – – 6.3 4.4 – – 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 4 8 10 15 – – 4.3 4.4 – 1.0 3.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2-D Designs 2-level part factorial 2-level full factorial Centred 2-level factorial Minimum for quadratic 3-level full factorial 3-D Designs 2-level half factorial 2-level full factorial C3 Composite centred Example of application The age of air was mapped in the conference room after the improvement, ﬁrst in the empty room, and then with ten occupants sitting around a Ushaped table. These measurements were performed at the head level of sitting persons, using the nine-sampling-point full factorial design shown in Table 3.5. The results are shown in Figure 3.11. In the unoccupied room, the air is older at the middle left, where there is only one air inlet. When the room is occupied, the air is younger in the middle of the room, where the occupants are. 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 4 800–1000 600–800 400–600 200–400 0–200 1000 -5 -1 0 X -2 -4 800 -5 600 400 -1 200 3 2 Age of air [s] Age of air [s] 500–600 400–500 300–400 200–300 100–200 Y 0 4 3 2 Y 0 -2 -4 X Figure 3.11 Map of the age of the air at head level Note: Left is the unoccupied room, and right is the room occupied by ten persons sitting around a conference table. 4 Airtightness Why check airtightness? Controlled airﬂows, having adequate ﬂow rate and passing at the appropriate locations are essential for good indoor air quality. Leakage, allowing the uncontrolled air to follow inappropriate paths, should therefore be reduced as much as possible. This requires an airtight building envelope and airtight ductwork: building and ductwork airtightness is a prerequisite for eﬃcient natural or mechanical ventilation. Envelope leakage is not an appropriate way for airing buildings. In buildings with hybrid ventilation, the indoor air quality is controlled partly by a mechanical ventilation system and partly by a natural ventilation design. The share between these two systems could be seasonal (natural ventilation in mild seasons and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery during hot or cold seasons) or spatial: small rooms with an external wall with natural ventilation, and large rooms or rooms located inside the building with mechanical ventilation. In any case, both ventilation systems should be controlled. While Figure 0.5 shows the exﬁltration ratios (i.e. the part of the supplied air leaving the building by another way than the exhaust duct) for several buildings, Figure 4.1 shows the inﬁltration ratios (i.e. the part of outdoor air that is not supplied by the mechanical ventilation unit) measured in 11 spaces that are equipped with full mechanical (not hybrid) ventilation. Out of these ten spaces, seven have an inﬁltration rate signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from zero, and in two of them more than 30 per cent of the outdoor air is not controlled! Exﬁltration has a negative eﬀect on heat recovery, since the heat in the air leaving the building through leakage cannot be recovered (see Chapter 5, ‘Eﬀect of leakages and shortcuts on heat recovery’). In cold climates, warm and humid indoor air going through the external envelope through leaks encounters increasingly colder surfaces. The water vapour of this air eventually condenses on the coldest surfaces within the cracks, thus creating dramatic condensation problems at leakage locations. Inﬁltration has a negative eﬀect on indoor air quality, since inﬁltrated air is neither ﬁltered, dried, cooled nor heated. A survey performed by Carrie et al. (1997) in France and Belgium has shown that, on the average, 40 per cent of the supplied air is lost through ductwork leakage before reaching the user. This obviously reduces the eﬀective Airtightness 59 Infiltration ratio 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Figure 4.1 Measured part of outdoor air that is not supplied by the system in mechanically ventilated buildings, shown with uncertainty band ventilation rate. Maintaining air quality requires an increase in supply air, leading to energy wastage. Checking the airtightness of a building envelope or a duct network should therefore be performed at each commissioning of a building or ventilation system. Measurement methods The airtightness of the envelope of the measured object is in fact expressed by its permeability to air, which is the relationship between the leakage airﬂow rate and the pressure diﬀerential through the envelope of the object. This relationship can be either expressed by a mathematical expression (see Equations 4.1 and 4.3) or by an equivalent leakage area (see Equation 4.19). One internationally standardized way to assess this permeability requires the maintenance of a pressure diﬀerential between the interior and the exterior of the object with a fan, and the measurement of the airﬂow rate needed to maintain this pressure diﬀerential (ISO, 1998). Other, simpler but less accurate methods applicable to buildings are described below in ‘The stack eﬀect method’. They use the stack eﬀect to create the pressure diﬀerential and openings and the location of the neutral level (the level where the indoor–outdoor pressure diﬀerential is zero) to estimate the leakage area. The fan pressurization method Before measurements are taken, all purpose-installed openings (doors, windows, ventilators, etc.) should be closed, and the mechanical ventilation system switched oﬀ (unless used for pressurization). The ventilation grilles should either be sealed or all ventilation dampers should be closed. It may be necessary to seal chimneys and ﬂues but these can be sealed later as part of the test if desired. Clean up open ﬁres to avoid dispersion of ash in the rooms. The pressure diﬀerential is created by a fan installed in an opening of the envelope of the object, or by the ventilation fans themselves. It is measured with a sensitive manometer (range 0–100 Pa (Pascals) or 10 mm water 60 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings column) and the airﬂow rate through the fan is measured using any of the following methods: . . . The airﬂow rate through a fan depends on the pressure diﬀerential and its rotation speed. Measuring these two quantities allows assessment of the airﬂow rate from the characteristic curve of the fan. Blower doors use this method. A suitable airﬂow meter such a nozzle or a sharp-edged oriﬁce is installed in the airﬂow circuit (see Figure 4.5). The tracer gas dilution technique, as described in Chapter 2, ‘Tracer gas dilution’. These measurements are repeated for several pressure diﬀerentials, ranging from a few Pascals to about 60 Pa, or even more for some cases. The minimum pressure is limited by the noise of the pressure diﬀerential, for example, the random pressure variations resulting from wind and stack eﬀect. Therefore, measurements should be performed when there is no wind and the minimum pressure diﬀerential is in practice twice the natural pressure diﬀerential. The maximum pressure is limited by the resistance of the object by practical limits such as fan airﬂow rate combined with the object’s leakage. Note that 100 Pa is a pressure that can result from 40 km/h wind velocity. Since fan pressurization is subject to the disturbing inﬂuence of natural pressure ﬂuctuations created by the wind, most measurements are made at pressure diﬀerentials far above those created by natural forces. This may lead to inaccuracy if the results are extrapolated to lower pressure diﬀerentials. Two general models are used to characterize air permeability. The power law, fully empirical, reﬂects the fact that leakage is a combination of various cracks and openings that may be arranged in parallel and series network: q ¼ Cpn ð4:1Þ where: q p n C is the is the is the is the volume airﬂow rate through the leakage site (m3 /s); pressure diﬀerence across the leakage site (Pa); ﬂow exponent (0:5 < n < 1); airﬂow coeﬃcient (m3 s1 Pan ). Since the airﬂow may be either laminar or turbulent, and the airﬂow rate is proportional to the pressure diﬀerential in laminar ﬂows and to its square root in turbulent ﬂows, Etheridge proposes a quadratic law, that expresses that the ﬂow is a mix of laminar and turbulent ﬂow arranged in parallel (Etheridge and Sandberg, 1996): p ¼ aq2 þ bq ð4:2Þ where: a and b are coeﬃcients representing respectively the turbulent and laminar parts of the quadratic law (Pa s/m3 and Pa s2 /m6 ). Airtightness 61 Airflow rate [m3/h] 1000 800 600 400 Measured points Power law Quadratic law 200 0 0 10 20 Pressure [Pa] 30 40 Figure 4.2 Airﬂow rates and pressure diﬀerences as measured in a real test, together with power law and quadratic ﬁts Inverting this relationship gives the airﬂow rate resulting from a pressure diﬀerential: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b þ b2 4ap ð4:3Þ q¼ 2a By ﬁtting one of these two models on the measured points on a [q; p] diagram, the coeﬃcients and the exponent of either of the above models can be assessed (see Figure 4.2). Reductive sealing Global permeability measurement does not provide information on the location of leakage. Reductive sealing aims to quantify the proportion of the total air leakage that is attributable to diﬀerent components or groups of components. One method to locate leakage is to seal components, areas, rooms or zones suspected of leakage and to perform a new pressurization test. The diﬀerence is the leakage of the sealed leaks. The fan pressurization equipment is set up and the dwelling prepared, in the usual way (see ‘The fan pressurization method’, above). An air leakage test is then carried out, either pressurizing or depressurizing. A component or group of components is then chosen (for example, all chimneys and ﬂues) and sealed with self-adhesive tape, polyethylene sheet, inﬂatable bladder or modelling clay, as appropriate. It is important that care is taken to make a good seal on all components. For example, special attention should be given to corners and around the fasteners. The air leakage test is then repeated, the diﬀerence between this test and the ﬁrst test being a measure of the air leakage attributable to the component or group of components that were sealed. Further components can then be chosen and the process continued. The diﬀerence of leakage ﬂow rate at each pressure between two successive tests is the leakage of the components sealed between these tests. Leakage coeﬃcients for each group of sealed components can be calculated from these leakage 62 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings ﬂow rates at each pressure using the method described in section ‘Determining the leakage coeﬃcients’, below. Components that can usually be sealed include: chimneys, ﬂues; ventilation openings, external doors (other than the one used to mount the pressurization fan), wooden ground ﬂoors or roof, cracks between walls and ﬂoors, pipe and cable entry or exit points, and any other obvious cracks and openings (for example, gaps between a window frame and the wall into which it is ﬁxed). The last air leakage test in this process gives a measure of the background air leakage, i.e. the remaining air leakage not sealed during the previous tests. It is quite common for this to constitute more than half of the overall air leakage, even where all of the most obvious air leakage paths have been sealed. When all the components required have been sealed and air leakage tests carried out, the pressurization fan can be reversed and the air leakage tests repeated as the components are progressively unsealed in the reverse order to that in which they were sealed. Best results are usually obtained by sealing groups of components (for example, all openable windows in the dwelling) because the leakage through an individual component (for example, a single openable window) can be too small for the pressurization fan to resolve. Multi-zone fan pressurization method The technique can be extended to multi-zone pressurization, aiming to assess the air permeability of not only the envelope of an object (for example, a building) but also of its internal partitions (Fu¨rbringer and Roulet, 1991). The building zones are represented by nodes of a network linked by partitions. One of the zones is the outdoor air. To assess the coeﬃcients of all partitions requires the measurement of many inter-zone airﬂow rates and pressure diﬀerentials. An appropriate design of the experiment aiming to assess the required coeﬃcients, and only these, will considerably reduce the work required. For example, two fans and a control system allow assessment of the leakages of many parts of a building. To avoid the tedious work of sealing with plastic foil all building parts that should not be measured, the airﬂows through these parts are inhibited by maintaining a zero pressure diﬀerence across them. The measuring fan with its ﬂowmeter equipment is installed in a wall or door of the room containing the element to be measured. Another larger fan is installed in a door or a window of the building (or the dwelling) containing the room (see Figure 4.3). In order to get the leakage characteristics for a given element, the pressure in the room should be varied step by step from 10 Pa up to 60 or 70 Pa. The guarding pressure should be varied simultaneously to maintain a zero average pressure diﬀerence between the room and the building. This pressure diﬀerence actually varies between 1 and þ1 Pa. A ﬁt through several measurements provides the airﬂow rate corresponding to a zero pressure diﬀerence. Several experiments are necessary to measure the other walls of the room by simply opening or closing various doors and windows. When a set of Airtightness 63 Figure 4.3 Principle of the guarded zone technique applied to several walls of a room Note: At the left, only the external wall is measured, while at the right, the right partition wall is included in the measurement. experiments is performed, enough equations can be written to compute the airﬂows through the various measured parts for each pressure step. For that purpose, the pressure steps should be the same in each experiment, for example, 10, 30, 50 and 70 Pa. In order to get accurate pressure steps, the fans speeds are automatically controlled. Since even this control cannot be good enough to get accurate measurements (because of external and random inﬂuences such as temperature or wind ﬂuctuations), the data should be automatically selected and recorded only when the following conditions are fulﬁlled: . . The pressure in the room is equal, within a predeﬁned tolerance, to the predeﬁned value of the pressure for each step. The pressure diﬀerence between the room and the guarding zone is smaller (in absolute value) than a predeﬁned small value. Finally, for each pressure step and each conﬁguration, several values are measured and averaged to minimize the eﬀect of random noise. Determining the leakage coeﬃcients Density corrections It is the airﬂow through the fan, qm , which is measured and the airﬂow q through the leak that is needed to calculate the leakage coeﬃcients. In pressurization experiments, the air blown by the fan comes from outside while the air leakage comes from inside. In depressurization experiments, the opposite is the case, but in both cases the temperature of the airﬂows may not be the same. During the measurements, the mass of air is conserved and: q ð4:4Þ hence q¼ m m m qm ¼ q where m and are the densities of the air going respectively through the fan and through the leaks. Since the density of the air is inversely proportional to 64 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings its absolute temperature, and as long as the pressure diﬀerential remains small with respect to the atmospheric pressure: q ¼ qm T Tm ð4:5Þ where T and Tm are the absolute temperatures of the air going respectively through the measured elements and through the fan or the airﬂow-measuring device. This assumes that the variations of air moisture do not signiﬁcantly change the density. Before any further analysis, Equation 4.5 should be used to correct the measured ﬂows for density if the indoor–outdoor temperature diﬀerence is larger than a few degrees. Note that a diﬀerence of 108C will induce a bias of 3 per cent in the airﬂow rate if this correction is not performed. Two measurement points If measurements are performed at two pressures only, for example at the lowest accurately measurable pressure diﬀerential and at the maximum acceptable one, results of measurements are p1 , q1 and p2 , q2 . The coeﬃcients of the power law are then: n¼ log q1 log q2 log p1 log p2 and q1 q ¼ 2n n p1 p2 ð4:6Þ p1 q22 p2 q21 q1 q2 ðq2 q1 Þ ð4:7Þ C¼ The coeﬃcients of the quadratic law are: a¼ p1 q2 p2 q1 q1 q2 ðq2 q1 Þ and b¼ More than two measurement points More than two measurements may be useful for testing the ﬁtness of the model and to increase the accuracy of results. In this case, the least square ﬁt method can be applied to get the coeﬃcients of the power law. For this, Equation 4.1 can be linearized by taking the logarithm of both sides: log Q ¼ log C þ n log p ð4:8Þ This expresses a linear relationship between log Q and log p (see Figure 4.4): y ¼ a þ nx ð4:9Þ with: y ¼ log Q a ¼ log C ð4:10Þ x ¼ logðpÞ An appropriate ﬁtting technique (see Chapter 7, ‘Identiﬁcation methods’) can be used to identify the parameters, a and b, and the corresponding conﬁdence Airtightness 65 log(airflow rate) 5.5 5.0 slope n 4.5 log(C) 4.0 3.5 0 1 2 3 Log(pressure difference) 4 Figure 4.4 Logarithmic plot of airﬂow rates and pressure diﬀerences Note: The slope of the best-ﬁt line is an estimate of n and its ordinate at origin is an estimate of logðCÞ. intervals. If the coeﬃcients a and b are known, the airﬂow coeﬃcient C and the exponent n are calculated using: C ¼ expðaÞ and n¼b ð4:11Þ The Etheridge model in Equation 4.2 can be rewritten, dividing by the airﬂow rate q: p ¼ a þ bq q ð4:12Þ that is again a linear model: y ¼ a þ bx ð4:13Þ with y¼ p q and x¼q ð4:14Þ In this case, the linear ﬁt directly provides the coeﬃcients a and b of the Etheridge model. The measurement points can also be interpreted using the inverse problem theory (Tarantola, 1987), taking into account a priori knowledge such that the exponent n is between 0.5 and 1. Fu¨rbringer et al. (1994) propose such a method, which has the advantage of providing a clear view of the error margins of the coeﬃcients. Corrections for standard conditions Coeﬃcients obtained from measurements that are performed under diﬀerent atmospheric conditions should be corrected to reduce them to standard conditions, for example 208C and 101,300 Pa. 66 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Using the subscript o for these standard conditions and no subscript for the measurement conditions, then: ð2n 1Þ ð1 nÞ ¼ C ð4:15Þ Co o o where is the viscosity (kg s1 m1 ), the density of air and n the power law exponent. The variation of the air density is: pTo ¼ o p o T ð4:16Þ and the variation of the viscosity is given by the following approximation as a function of the absolute temperature, T: pﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1:458 106 T ¼ ð4:17Þ 110:4 1þ T hence 110:4 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1þ T 17:1 þ 0:047 To ¼ ð4:18Þ ﬃ 110:4 17:1 þ 0:047o o To 1þ T where is the temperature in degrees Celsius. The approximation given in the second part of Equation 4.18 can be used between 108C and 408C. Since the correction is small and if the temperatures and pressures are known with a reasonable accuracy, the additional errors introduced by this correction are negligible. Ways of expressing the airtightness For practical reasons, permeability is often characterized by one ﬁgure only. Some information is of course lost when one ﬁgure is used to represent the permeability instead of two. The following ways are commonly used for this issue. Airﬂow rate at conventional pressure The airﬂow rate at a given, conventional pressure, is calculated from Equations 4.1 or 4.3 depending on which parameters are available. The conventional pressure is usually 1, 4, 10 or 50 Pa, depending on the standard used or on the local uses. 50 Pa corresponds to a pressure diﬀerential commonly used for measurements and therefore at a pressure range for which the leakage rate is measured accurately. It does not, however, correspond to a typical pressure diﬀerential across building envelopes, which is closer to 4 Pa. Airﬂow rate at 1 Pa is the coeﬃcient C in Equation 4.1. 10 Pa is a compromise between accuracy obtained at high pressures and actual, lower pressures. Airtightness 67 Virtual air change rate By dividing the airﬂow rate at conventional pressure by the internal volume of the tested enclosure gives a virtual leakage air change rate at that pressure. For this ﬁgure, 50 Pa is the most used pressure diﬀerence, and the ﬁgure is then noted n50; in [h1 ]. This value is less than 1 h1 in airtight buildings but, depending on the climate and building habits, buildings may have ﬁgures larger than 10 h1 . This ﬁgure does not indeed characterize the quality of the envelope, since it depends on the volume of the enclosure. It provides an indication of the importance of inﬁltration in relation to building ventilation. Speciﬁc leakage rate The airﬂow rate at conventional pressure divided by the area of the envelope of the tested enclosure provides a ﬁgure characterizing this envelope. For such application, the most common pressure diﬀerential is 4 Pa, and this parameter is then v4 , or speciﬁc leakage rate at 4 Pa. It is expressed in m3 /(h m2 ). It is also the average air velocity through the envelope. This ﬁgure is less than 1, even 0.5 m3 /(h m2 ) for airtight envelopes. Equivalent leakage area An equivalent leakage area, i.e. the area of a circular hole with sharp edges that would have the same airﬂow rate at a given pressure diﬀerential, is: rﬃﬃﬃ ð4:19Þ pðn 1=2Þ AL ¼ C 2 The uncertainty of the leakage area resulting from uncertainties on coeﬃcients C and n is: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 2 C ð4:20Þ þ ðn ln pÞ2 AL ¼ A2L C Speciﬁc equivalent leakage area The equivalent leakage area can be divided by the area of the envelope of the tested enclosure to provide a speciﬁc leakage area. At 4 Pa, this ratio, expressed in cm2 /m2 , is close to the speciﬁc leakage rate expressed in m3 /(h m2 ). Airtightness of buildings The main reason for conducting building airtightness measurements is to characterize the leakage of the building envelope in the absence of climatic or other variable parameters inﬂuencing the results. Therefore the building (or part of the building or a particular component) is pressurized or depressurized 68 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings in order to create a pressure diﬀerence large enough to minimize inﬂuences from wind and temperature diﬀerences on the results. This pressure diﬀerential is built up and maintained by means of a fan, forcing airﬂow through the envelope or component to be evaluated. This ampliﬁed airﬂow can be put in evidence by both qualitative (visualization) as well as quantitative (measurement of the airﬂow for a given pressure diﬀerence) techniques in order to assess the leakage locations, areas and characteristics. External fan The technique involves replacing an external door with a panel containing a powerful, variable speed fan. Several commercial blower doors are now available. These can be adjusted to ﬁt snugly into any domestic doorframe. Airﬂow through the fan creates an artiﬁcial, uniform static pressure within the building. Internal and external pressure taps are made and a manometer is used to measure the induced pressure diﬀerential across the building envelope. It has become common practice to test buildings up to a pressure diﬀerence of 50 Pa. Some means must also be provided to enable the volumetric ﬂow rate through the fan to be evaluated. The aim of this type of measurement is to relate the pressure diﬀerential across the envelope to the airﬂow rate required to produce it (see ‘Determining the leakage coeﬃcients’, above). The general conﬁguration for a pressurization/depressurization test is shown in Figure 4.5. The measurement procedure will depend upon the purpose of the test and the exact equipment used. The airﬂow required to produce a given pressure diﬀerence under pressurization (airﬂow in) will not necessarily be identical to the ﬂow required to produce the same pressure diﬀerential under depressurization (airﬂow out). This diﬀerence is mainly due to the fact that certain building elements can act as ﬂap valves. For example, some types of window will be forced into their frames under pressurization while the reverse will be true for evacuation. This implies that the actual leakage area of the building envelope will be a function of the type of test conducted. Hence, ideally, the fan and ﬂow measuring mechanism must be reversible. Figure 4.5 Schematic of building airtightness test Airtightness 69 The overall airtightness of the structure and the size of the available fan govern the maximum volume of enclosure that may be pressurized. Even if large fans are available, in large leaky structures it may be possible to only achieve a limited range of pressure diﬀerentials. Several researchers have used trailer mounted fans with maximum ﬂow capacities of about 25 m3 /s to examine buildings with volumes as large as 50,000 m3 . Internal fan Because of the size and cost of trailer-mounted equipment and the inherent diﬃculties of transportation and required manpower, other techniques have been developed for the examination of large buildings. One method is to create the required pressure diﬀerential using the building’s existing air handling system. This technique relies on the building possessing a suitable mechanical ventilation system, which can be adjusted to meet the needs of the measurement. Essentially, the supply fans are operated while all return and extract fans are turned oﬀ and return dampers closed (or exhaust ducts sealed) so that the air supplied to the building can only leave through the leakage sites. The analysis of measurement results proceeds along the same lines as that for small buildings, but because of the large building volume it may not be possible to achieve a pressure diﬀerence of 50 Pa. Leakage visualization Leakage can be visualized using infrared imaging, using a camera able to see far infrared radiation emitted by any surface. When reducing the internal pressure, outdoor air enters the building through leakage. Outdoor air, with a temperature that should diﬀer from indoor air, changes the temperature of surfaces close to the leaks, thus making them visible, as in Figures 4.6 and 4.7 showing the connection between two walls and the roof of a wooden building. In this Figure 4.6 Roof corner from inside Source: Roulet, 2004. 70 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Figure 4.7 Roof corner under depressurization Source: Roulet, 2004. case, the airtightness is not good enough and cold air enters the inhabited space through cracks between wooden panels. The stack eﬀect method This simple and easy-to-install method to estimate the air leakage distribution in tall buildings is based on the pressure distribution induced in buildings by the stack eﬀect (Tamura and Wilson, 1966). Three parts can be estimated separately: the ground ﬂoor, the top ﬂoor and the remaining ﬂoors. The basic idea is to pressurize the building with the stack eﬀect, and to plan three diﬀerent experiments where two airﬂows can be measured to get three independent equations for the three diﬀerent leakages that will be estimated (Hakajiwa and Togari, 1990). For this measurement method, the building should be tall and the temperature diﬀerence between indoors and outdoors should be large enough, in such a way that the pressure diﬀerence between inside and outside induced by the stack eﬀect is larger than the pressure caused by the wind. Therefore, calm weather should be preferred and the mechanical ventilation system switched oﬀ. The pressure diﬀerence resulting from buoyancy is proportional to the product of the indoor–outdoor temperature diﬀerence and maybe the stack height. It reaches 30 Pa if the product of the height and the temperature diﬀerence is 700 Km. The leakage of the building is divided into three parts: . . . leakage through the ground level including the entrance door (suﬃx g); leakage through the top level including the roof (suﬃx t); leakage through the remaining ﬂoors (suﬃx r). If the building has all its internal doors open as well as the staircase and the lift shaft, and if the temperature does not vary too much throughout the building, Airtightness 71 there is a priori only one neutral plane at the height z0 . The neutral plane is the generally horizontal plane in the building or part of it where the indoor– outdoor pressure diﬀerential is zero. Its height depends on the size and position of the ventilation and leakage openings. It is such that the airﬂows going in and out of the building are balanced. The pressure diﬀerence, p, caused by the stack eﬀect at any height, z, in a given building conﬁguration is then: ðz ðzÞg dz ð4:21Þ pðzÞ ¼ z0 where ðzÞ is the diﬀerence between the densities of indoor and outdoor air at height z, and g ¼ 9:81 m/s2 is the acceleration due to gravity. If the temperatures are homogeneous, Equation 4.21 gives: pðzÞ ¼ gðz z0 Þ ð4:22Þ Using the law of perfect gases to express the air density, we get: Mp 1 1 gðz z0 Þ pðzÞ ¼ R Ti Te ð4:23Þ where: Ti and Te M p R are the indoor and outdoor air absolute temperatures, is the average molar mass of the air, i.e. 0.029 kg/mole, is the atmospheric pressure, is the constant for perfect gases, i.e. 8.31396 J/mole K. The leakage of the building is represented by the usual power law: Q ¼ C pn ð4:24Þ Assuming that the exponent n is the same for every leak, there are three unknowns, the leakage coeﬃcients, Cg , Cr and Ct . To estimate these coeﬃcients, three measurements are performed, where the pressure diﬀerences, the temperatures at various heights in the building and some airﬂows are measured. A ﬁrst relationship is given by the conservation of mass with a closed envelope. The two other equations are obtained by mass conservation with a large opening at the bottom and at the top of the building. In these cases, the airﬂows through these openings are measured. The relations are as follows: 1 All openings closed – in this case, the neutral plane is somewhere at midheight of the building and, by conservation of the mass of air, we have: ð zrt dðr Cr pðzr Þn Þ ð4:25Þ g Cg pðzg Þn ¼ t Ct pðzt Þn þ zrb where g , r and t are the densities of the air at the ground level, the remaining ﬂoors and at the top level in order to have the proper mass ﬂow. 2 Entrance door open – the airﬂow through the open entrance door (or any other large opening on the ground level), Qg , is measured, either by 72 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings measuring the air speed at several locations and integrating over the whole opening or using a tracer gas. ð zn n dðr Cr pðzr Þn Þ ¼ 0 ð4:26Þ g Qg þ t Ct pðzt Þ þ zrb 3 Windows open at the top level – the airﬂow through these windows, Qt , is measured. We have similarly: ð zrt n dðr Cr pðzr Þn Þ ¼ 0 ð4:27Þ g Cg pðzg Þ þ t Qt þ zrb The neutral plane is now at the top level. Assuming that n is 0.6 or two-thirds, which are the most probable values, the system of three equations above can be solved to estimate Cg , a global Cr and Ct . If the temperatures are not uniform inside or outside, Equation 4.21 should be used instead of Equation 4.22. The system is then more complex but can still be solved. The most important condition to observe during the measurement is the absence of wind. The main advantage of the method is that it does not require the use of sophisticated equipment. As a minimum, the required equipment is: . . . . wind velocity meter, 0–5 m/s, for measuring the airﬂow rate in the openings; diﬀerential manometers, 0–50 Pa; air temperature thermometers; length measuring device as long as the building is tall. This equipment can be completed by more diﬀerential manometers and more thermometers, used to verify the linearity of the pressure distribution through the building. Neutral height method A simple variant of the stack eﬀect method oﬀers in many cases a good estimate of the leakage area and determines if speciﬁcations are met or exceeded (Van der Maas et al., 1994). It is also based on the determination of the neutral height and the equipment necessary is only an airﬂow direction detector (small smoke generator such as a cigarette, incense stick or small ﬂame) and a yardstick. With no wind, this method even allows the leakage characterization of a single storey building. The measurement should be performed with the mechanical ventilation system switched oﬀ, preferably on a cold day without wind and when the building is heated. In these conditions, the airﬂow through the building results from buoyancy only. The method can also be used, mutatis mutandis, in cooled buildings in a warm climate. The principle is to determine the position of the neutral height in an outside opening such as a door. The airﬂow direction detector is moved from bottom to Airtightness 73 Figure 4.8 Principle of the neutral height method for assessing leakage area Note: The left shows no leak (except the test opening), while on the right, the leakage is above the test opening. Source: Roulet, 2004. top of the opening to observe the ﬂow direction. The neutral level is located between the ingoing and outgoing ﬂow directions. Sensitivity can be increased or decreased by reducing or increasing the width of the opening. In an airtight building, the neutral height will be located at about midheight of the measuring opening (see Figure 4.8, left). Cold air enters the building through the lower half of the opening, and warm air leaves the building through the upper part. Using the Bernoulli equation and mass conservation, it can be shown that the mass ﬂow rate through the upper or lower half of the opening is: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 gH T ð4:28Þ QA ¼ Cd o A 3 T0 where (Van der Maas et al., 1994): Cd o is the discharge coeﬃcient of the opening (for example, 0.6), is the density of air outdoors (assumed to be the cold zone at temperature To ), A is the area of the opening of with W and height H, g is the gravitational acceleration (about 9.81 m/s), T is the indoor–outdoor temperature diﬀerence. If some air enters or leaves the enclosure through another opening or through leaks, part of the incoming air will leave or enter the building through it and will not, therefore, pass through the upper or lower part of the test opening. The neutral height rises or goes down to balance the two airﬂows (see Figure 4.8, right). Using mass conservation, the net mass ﬂow rate is given, assuming 74 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings that Ti > To , by: 1=2 3=2 To z 3=2 zn Q ¼ QA 1 n ﬃ QA ð1 aÞ3=2 a3=2 Ti H H with a¼ ð4:29Þ zn H where zn is the height of the neutral level. The opening area between this neutral level and the mid-height of the opening is close to the equivalent leakage area. If the leakage is small, the sensitivity can be increased by reducing the width of the opening, for example by partly closing the door. A neutral height below the mid-height of the test opening means that most of the leakage area is below the opening. If the other leakages or openings are larger than the test opening, the neutral height will not be found within the test opening, even when this is wide open. In this case, a walk through the building is necessary to identify and, if possible, to close or seal these large openings. The equivalent area measured this way is the diﬀerence between the equivalent areas of the openings or leakage areas located above and below the opening. Therefore, it is useful to make this measurement at two test openings located at the bottom and the top of the building. Measurement of airtightness of a duct or network To ensure that fresh air reaches the ventilated space, thus ensuring acceptable air quality, and to avoid energy waste when the air is either heated or cooled, the duct network should be airtight. Signiﬁcant energy may be wasted, for example, where leaky ductwork passes through an unheated space such as an attic, basement or crawl space. As an example, it was found that ductwork is the most signiﬁcant source of leakage in western US houses, together with ﬁreplaces (Dickerhoﬀ et al., 1982). Modera (1989) conﬁrms these ﬁndings, but some houses were nevertheless found to be acceptable. Several techniques allow for the checking of the airtightness of air ductwork. In Finland, the airtightness of the ventilation system has to be checked when commissioning the system (NBCF, 1987), but in most countries, measurements are seldom carried out. ASTM (2003) provides guidance to perform such tests. Some measurement methods are described below. Pressurization method The principle of this method is a combination of those principles described in Chapter 2, ‘Measurement for airﬂow rate in a duct’ and Chapter 4, ‘The fan pressurization method’, above. All intakes, supply terminals, exhaust and extract terminals connected to the system should be carefully sealed, for Airtightness Seal 75 Seal Sampling Tracer A Tracer B Seal Seal Sampling Figure 4.9 Location of tracer injection and sampling tubes for the measurement of leakage airﬂow rates in a ventilation system Source: Roulet and Vandaele, 1991. example, using plastic sheeting and adhesive tape. Inﬂated balloons are also well suited to seal circular ducts. Tracer gas injection and air sampling tubes are installed at appropriate points in the main supply or exhaust ducts, as shown in Figure 4.9, to quantify any residual ﬂow rate resulting from leakage. The system fans (or a fan added at one register if required) are used to pressurize the supply side and depressurize the exhaust side of the network. Since all inlet and exhaust grilles or ducts are sealed, the ﬂow, qL , through the fan(s) results from leakage, and is measured as described in Chapter 2, ‘Measurement of the airﬂow rate in a duct’, together with the pressure diﬀerence, p, between the inside and outside of the ducts. The ﬂow rate is the sum of all leaks downstream of the measurement point in pressurized ducts, and upstream for depressurized ducts. A series of measurements is made at diﬀerent fan speeds, and the coeﬃcients of Equations 4.1 or 4.2 are determined, and the relationship is subsequently used to calculate the leakage rate at the service pressure diﬀerence. Flow rate diﬀerence method If a duct is very leaky, the leakage can be obtained by measuring the diﬀerence between the ﬂow rates at two locations along the ﬂow. Since additional pressure drop should be avoided, tracers are recommended to measure the airﬂow rates. One tracer should be injected at a point upstream of the ﬁrst location, and a second tracer injected at the ﬁrst location. The concentrations of each tracer are measured after the second, downstream location, at a distance where a good mixing is achieved (see Chapter 2, ‘Sampling points for concentration measurements’). If steady ﬂows can be assumed, two sequential measurements using a single tracer at each point may be used instead. For depressurized ducts, only one tracer is necessary since it is diluted by the air entering the duct through leakage. The tracer gas is injected at the 76 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings upstream end of the duct and its concentration is measured at both ends to give the ﬂow rate at each. The leakage of the whole supply or exhaust network may be determined by measuring the diﬀerence between the airﬂow rate in the main duct (close to the fan) and the sum of all the ﬂow rates at the individual inlet or extract terminals. For this purpose, the main airﬂow rate through the fan may be measured with a tracer, and the ﬂow rates at the terminals may be determined by one of the methods described in Chapter 2, ‘Airﬂow measurements in air handling units’, the most appropriate being the compensated ﬂowmeter (see Chapter 2, ‘Compensated ﬂowmeter’). With this method, the leakage ﬂow rate is the diﬀerence of two large numbers. Therefore, it is not the best one for tight or only slightly leaky ducts. Because of its ease of use, it can nevertheless be used for diagnosis purposes, to detect if the ductwork is very leaky or not. Diﬀerential building pressurization The methods described above measure the leakage of the air duct system. From the point of view of energy saving, however, it may be useful to measure the air leakage to or from outside only, and not leakages between the system and the interior of the building. For this purpose, the duct system is assumed to be a part of the envelope and the duct leakage is obtained by diﬀerence. In a ﬁrst test, the closed building is pressurized after sealing the outdoor air intake and exhaust of the building, with all the registers and returns open (see Figure 4.10, left). In a second test, all registers and returns are sealed (see Figure 4.10, right). The diﬀerence in airﬂow rate between the two tests, for each pressure diﬀerence, results from duct leakage to the outside. The major advantage of this method is that it needs little equipment, in addition to that required for envelope leakage measurements. However, it is prone to inaccuracy since the duct leakage is again obtained as the diﬀerence between the measurements of two large airﬂow rates. Seal Seal Seal Conditioned space Seal Conditioned space Figure 4.10 Two measurements providing, by diﬀerence, the duct leakage to outside of the conditioned space 5 Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation Energy in buildings Energy uses and indoor environment quality Energy is used in buildings for many purposes such as: . . . . . . . heating and cooling; drying and humidifying; ventilation (moving the air); hot water supply; lighting; building systems such as lifts, escalators, communication networks; cooking, washing, leisure, producing goods and services. According to the Rio Declaration, sustainable buildings should take account of environmental, economical and social factors. This includes, among others, low energy use, good indoor environment quality and health. The three factors have equal importance: a building cannot be good if it fails in one of them. Ventilation plays a large role in these issues by ensuring a good indoor air quality. In mechanically ventilated buildings, ventilation uses energy to move the air and, in many cases, to condition it. In some case, especially when appropriate studies are not performed, there may be a conﬂict between strategies to reduce energy use and to improve indoor environment quality. However, studies and existing high performance buildings show that it is possible to realize healthy, comfortable and energy eﬃcient buildings. Basic recommendations to reach these objectives are (Roulet, 2004): . . . Prefer passive methods to active ones wherever possible. Think about user comfort, needs and behaviour. Adapt the building and its systems to its environment. 78 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Passive and active ways to get high quality buildings. Passive ways are architectural and constructive measures that naturally provide a better indoor environment quality without or with much less energy use. Examples are: . . . . . improving winter thermal comfort with thermal insulation, passive solar gains, thermal inertia and controlled natural ventilation;1 improving summer thermal comfort with thermal insulation, solar protection, thermal inertia and appropriate natural ventilation; ensuring indoor air quality by using low-emitting materials and controlled natural ventilation; providing controlled daylighting; protecting from outdoor noise with acoustical insulation adjusting the reverberation time for a comfortable indoor acoustics. Passive means are often cheap, well accepted by the occupants, use very little or no energy, and are much less susceptible to break down than active means. However, they often depend on meteorological conditions and therefore cannot always fulﬁl their objectives. They should be adapted to the location and therefore need creativity and additional studies from the architect, and a design error may have dramatic consequences. Active (or technological) ways improve the indoor environment quality by mechanical actions, using energy to complement the passive ways or even to compensate for low building performance. Examples are: . . . . . heating boilers and radiators for winter comfort; artiﬁcial cooling by air conditioning or radiant panels for summer comfort; mechanical ventilation; artiﬁcial lighting; actively diﬀusing background music or noise to cover the ambient noise. Active ways, when appropriately designed, built and maintained, are perfectly adapted to needs. Flexible and relatively independent of meteorological conditions, they allow for the correction of architectural errors. However, the required technology is often expensive, uses a lot of energy and may break down. Furthermore, active means require a higher maintenance input. Passive ways are preferred, but cannot always fulﬁl the comfort objectives. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is to use them as much as reasonably possible and to compensate for their insuﬃciencies with active systems, which will then be of lesser importance. This strategy often allows more freedom in choosing the type and location of active systems. The passive way of ensuring indoor air quality is of course natural ventilation, but also reduction of pollutant emission indoors by an appropriate choice of building materials and furniture. The corresponding active way is mechanical ventilation wherever necessary, including heating, cooling, humidiﬁcation or dehumidiﬁcation. An appropriate design of the ventilation systems, a careful commissioning of new systems and conscientious maintenance guarantee good Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 79 indoor air quality at a lower energy cost. Once again, measurements may help in commissioning and diagnosing failures. Energy in air handling units Energy for heating and cooling buildings Heating and cooling aim to keep a quasi steady and comfortable temperature indoors, despite variations of the outdoor temperature, and taking into account the solar radiation heating the building fabric, mainly through windows, and internal heat gains from occupants and their activities. The amount of energy needed for this depends on the following parameters: . . . . . the climate, which is the imposed boundary condition; the opaque parts of the building envelope, the function of which is to protect the indoor environment against the weather. Reinforced thermal insulation and good airtightness are essential for this purpose; the transparent parts of this envelope, ensuring daylighting and view, but also allowing the solar radiation to heat the indoor environment. This passive solar heating is welcome in the cold season, but induces overheating in the warm season. Therefore, transparent parts of the envelope should be equipped with mobile and eﬃcient solar protection to control the passive solar heating and daylighting; the thermal inertia (thermal mass) of the building fabric, which naturally stabilizes the indoor temperature; the internal gains resulting from occupants’ activities, which contribute to heating in the cold season but add to the cooling load in hot season. It can easily be seen that heating and cooling energy needs depend mainly on the building design and its location. These energy needs may be satisﬁed by diﬀerent systems, including air conditioning. The systems should be energy eﬃcient, i.e. satisfy the needs at a minimum energy cost. Among the numerous heating and cooling systems, we only consider here using air as a medium. It should be mentioned that, because of its low density, air is a poor heat carrier: one litre of water carries, in practice, 7–15 times more heat than one cubic metre of air!2 Energy for air conditioning Buildings are primarily ventilated for the purpose of removing the pollutants generated within them. The air leaving the buildings has the characteristics (temperature, humidity, chemical composition) of the indoor air. It is replaced at the same mass airﬂow rate by air coming from outdoors, which also has its own characteristics. Air conditioning is giving or taking heat and water vapour to or from the outdoor air entering the building to obtain the required indoor air temperature and humidity. This needs energy. 80 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 30 Sat. 90 kJ/kg Water content [g/kg] 25 90% 80 80% 70 20 70% 60 60% 50 15 50% 40 40% 30 10 30% 20 5 20% 10 10% 0 0 10 20 30 ºC Figure 5.1 Psychrometric chart with constant relative humidity curves and constant enthalpy lines Note: It is shown that air at 208C and 50 per cent relative humidity contains about 7.5 g of water vapour per kilogram. Its enthalpy is 39 kJ/kg and its dew point is close to 108C. Figure 5.1, a psychrometric chart for air, shows several characteristics of humid air. The curves show the water content of air as a function of its temperature for various relative humidities. The water content cannot be greater than that shown by the saturation curve. Air with a relative humidity 0 < ’ < 1 has a water content ’ times that of the saturated air. Energy is needed for heating or cooling the air as well as for evaporating water in it or condensing water for drying it. Taking as a reference dry air at 08C, the speciﬁc enthalpy or energy needed to heat and humidify 1 kg of air to reach the temperature and humidity ratio x is: h ¼ cda þ ðL þ cw Þx ð5:1Þ where: cda is the speciﬁc heat capacity of dry air, about 1006 J/(kgK); cw is the speciﬁc heat capacity of water vapour, about 1805 J/(kgK); L is the latent heat of evaporation, i.e. the heat required to evaporate 1 kg of water, about 2,501,000 J/kg; x is the humidity ratio, i.e. the mass of water vapour per kilogram of dry air. This humidity ratio, x, is related to the water content, !, which is the mass concentration of water vapour in moist air of Figure 5.1, by: x¼ ! 1! and !¼ x 1þx ð5:2Þ Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 81 30 Sat. 90 kJ/kg Water content [g/kg] 25 90% 80 80% 70 20 70% 60 60% 50 15 50% 40 40% 30 10 30% 20 5 10 20% Humidifying Heating 10% 0 0 10 20 30 °C Figure 5.2 Paths in the psychrometric chart for heating and humidifying outdoor air in winter to reach 208C and 50 per cent relative humidity Figure 5.2 illustrates the paths of temperature and water content of air for heating and humidifying outdoor air in winter, at 08C and 80 per cent relative humidity, in order to get 50 per cent relative humidity at 208C. A part of the energy required for heating and humidifying the air in winter is brought from free sources such as solar radiation or metabolic activity of occupants. All the electricity used for lighting and other appliances that are not part of the heating system end up as heat, in most cases released into indoor air. Plants and occupants, as well as activities such as cooking and drying laundry add water vapour to indoor air. When this is not enough to reach a comfortable indoor climate, the complement is provided by a heating system. In this case, about 0.34 Wh is needed to heat or cool 1 m3 of air by 18C, as long as the air is humidiﬁed by ‘free sources’. This value is therefore used in models calculating the energy for heating buildings. If a humidiﬁer is used, it will take 2.5 kJ (about 0.7 Wh) per gram of water vapour generated. This heat is taken in the indoor environment if the humidiﬁer does not generate water vapour but water droplets (spray humidiﬁers). The paths in the psychrometric chart for cooling and drying summer outdoor air from 308C and 70 per cent relative humidity down to 208C and 50 per cent relative humidity are shown in Figure 5.3. Note that, for drying the air, it should ﬁrst be cooled down at the dew point temperature corresponding to the required speciﬁc humidity, and then reheated to the required indoor temperature. It should also be noticed that it is impossible to cool the air below its dew point without drying it. Hot and humid outdoor air cools down and eventually dries on contact with cold surfaces, on which excess water vapour condenses. If these surfaces are not cooled down, such as the building fabric or furniture, their temperature rises and cooling stops after a while. However, the air temperature rises more 82 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 30 Sat. 90 kJ/kg Water content [g/kg] 25 90% 80 70 20 15 80% Cooling 60 70% 50 Drying 60% 50% 40 40% 30 10 30% 20 5 10 20% Reheating 10% 0 0 10 20 30 °C Figure 5.3 Paths in the psychrometric chart for heating outdoor air in winter or cooling it in summer to reach 208C and 50 per cent relative humidity slowly if the air is in contact with massive structures that were cooled down before, for example, by strong airing during the cool night. Mechanical cooling is needed to keep the surfaces in contact with the air cold, and to get continuous air drying and cooling. Warm, humid air is ﬁrst cooled down when passing through a refrigerated heat exchanger (horizontal ‘cooling’ line in Figure 5.3) until it reaches its dew point. Then it is dried by losing the water that condenses on the heat exchanger (‘drying’ curve) until it reaches the required speciﬁc humidity, at a new lower dew point. It should then be reheated to the required temperature. Numerical values for this process are given in Table 5.1. The largest change in enthalpy is when drying, since 2500 J should be withdrawn from the heat exchanger to condense each gram of water. The energy required to reheat the dry, cold air can be provided by various means: Table 5.1 Humidity ratio and speciﬁc enthalpy of warm, humid air cooled down and dried as shown in Figure 5.3 Process Cooling Drying Heating Temperature (8C) Relative humidity ’ (%) Humidity ratio x (g/kg) Speciﬁc enthalpy h (J/(kg K)) Enthalpy increase h (J/(kg K)) 30.0 23.9 9.3 20.0 70 100 100 50 18.8 18.8 7.3 7.3 78,756 71,815 27,571 38,724 6941 44,244 11,153 Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation . . . 83 From the indoor environment, heat loads and solar gains. This way, common in tropical climates, saves the investment of the heating system, and heating energy is free. It has, however, the disadvantage of blowing cold air into the occupied spaces, often leading to draughts. In such systems, recirculation is often very large and temperature control is obtained by varying the supply airﬂow rate. Heat provided to a warm heat exchanger by the heat pump used to cool down the chilled water. This heat pump provides cooling water at temperatures higher than indoor temperature. This water or a part of it can be circulated into the warm heat exchanger without any running cost. The investment is limited to pipes connecting the chiller condenser to the warm heat exchanger and to a control valve. Heat provided to a warm heat exchanger by a separate heating system. This is expensive both in investment and running costs and should not be used. Measurement of energy for heating, cooling, humidifying or dehumidifying air The amount of energy needed to increase the temperature and humidity of a known volume of air depends only on the start and ﬁnal values of temperature and humidity ratios. Using Equation 5.1: Q ¼ hV ¼ Vcda þ ðL þ cw Þx ð5:3Þ Therefore, measuring the airﬂow rate (according to Chapter 2, ‘Measurement of airﬂow in a duct’) through the heating coils and humidiﬁer (if any), as well as air temperature and moisture upwind and downwind of these elements, allows for the calculation of the heating and humidifying power. This is not that simple for cooling and dehumidifying. The measurement of airﬂow rate is the same, but air temperature and humidity should be measured before and after each of the processes mentioned in Table 5.1: . . Cooling and dehumidiﬁcation – measurements in outdoor air and after the cooling coils provide the power taken from the chilled water. This power may also be obtained by measuring the chilled water ﬂow rate in the cooling coil and its temperature increase. Reheating – measurements before and after the heating coil give the power provided by the reheating system. This power can also be calculated from measurements of the heating water ﬂow rate in the heating coil and its temperature decrease. Heat exchangers The purpose of heat exchangers is to transfer heat from water to air (heating coils) or vice versa (cooling coils). This heat should be transferred in the most eﬃcient way possible, without transferring contaminants. The diagnosis should characterize the performance of the exchanger. 84 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings To improve energy eﬃciency, mechanical ventilation systems are often equipped with heat recovery for recovering the heat contained in exhaust air. This heat is in most cases given back to supply air. Such heat recovery exchangers are eﬃcient during both cold and hot seasons, saving heating and cooling energy. Some of these heat exchangers also transfer humidity, thus decreasing the energy used to humidify or dehumidify the air. As shown in Figures 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, air handling units may have parasitic shortcuts and leakages. Such leakages have often been observed in buildings (Presser and Becker, 1988; Hanlo, 1991; Fischer and Heidt, 1997; Roulet et al., 1999). They can dramatically decrease the eﬃciency of ventilation and heat recovery (Roulet et al., 2001). Moreover, leakage in a building’s envelope allows indoor air to escape outdoors without passing through the heat recovery system. In addition, these units use electrical energy for fans, which may, in some cases, exceed the saved heat. The inﬂuence of these various phenomena on the real energy saving is addressed in this chapter. Types of heat exchangers Water-to-air heat exchangers are in most cases made out of ﬁnned tubes in which the water circulates. The ﬁns increase the exchange area between the exchanger surface and the air. The heat exchangers most commonly used for heat recovery are plate heat exchangers, rotating heat exchangers and heat pipes. Most common air-to-air exchangers are plate heat exchangers, in which the exhaust air is blown in several channels limited by plates made of glass, metal or plastic (see Figure 5.4). The other side of these plates is in contact with inlet air, so that heat Figure 5.4 Close view of a ﬂat plate heat exchanger Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 85 Figure 5.5 Top half of a rotating heat exchanger can be transferred from the warm side to the other. The heat recovery eﬃciency of these exchangers ranges from 60 to 80 per cent, depending on the type and size. A variant of this exchanger is the heat pipe exchanger, in which heat pipes are used to transport heat from warm to cold air. The air leakage between both sides of such heat exchangers should be zero. Rotating heat exchangers Rotating heat exchangers are used in larger systems (see Figure 5.5). A disc with a porous structure (honeycomb, corrugated metallic foils) allowing the air to ﬂow easily through it, is placed so as to have half of its area in the exhaust duct, and the other half in the supply duct. This disc rotates slowly and is heated in the warmer air, where air moisture may also condense on the surface of the porous structure. It is then cooled in colder, dryer air, also evaporating here the condensed water. This way, sensible and latent heat contained in warm air is given to cold air, and the heat recovery eﬃciency may reach 90 per cent. A gasket and a purging sector limit contamination from exhaust air to fresh air, without eliminating it completely (see Chapter 6, ‘Contaminant transport in rotating heat exchangers’). A small leakage can be accepted in a rotating heat exchanger, resulting in a recirculation rate of less than 4 per cent. Reduced leakage is achieved by carefully installing the rotating heat exchanger, and by balancing the air pressure between both sides of the exchanger. To achieve this, supply and exhaust fans should not be on the same side of the heat exchanger (see Figure 5.6). 86 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Figure 5.6 Relative position of fans and rotating heat exchangers Placing both fans on the same side results in a large pressure diﬀerential through the rotating heat exchanger, thus increasing leaks. A parasitic recirculation rate as large as 40 per cent was measured by the author in such a unit! Most rotating heat exchangers are equipped with a purging chamber, located between inlet and exhaust air ducts, on the warm side of the wheel (see Chapter 6, ‘Contaminant transport in rotating heat exchangers’). Glycol heat exchanger When exhaust and inlet ducts are not side by side, heat can be transported by a hydraulic circuit with two heat exchangers. The ﬂuid (generally a glycol–water mix) is heated by the air–liquid heat exchanger located in one of the ducts, then pumped to the other exchanger to give heat to the cold air. Heat pump In exhaust only systems, the recovered heat cannot be given to outdoor air, but to the hydraulic heating system or to a hot water boiler. For this, the temperature of the hot side of the recovery system is increased using a heat pump, whose cold source is the exhaust air. Heat exchange eﬃciency The eﬃciency of heat recovery exchangers has two aspects: the energy (or enthalpy) eﬃciency and the temperature eﬃciency. The ﬁrst is the ratio of the enthalpy ﬂow delivered to the supply air by the enthalpy ﬂow in exhaust air: E ¼ Hdownwind; supply Hupwind; supply Hupwind; exhaust Houtdoor air ð5:4Þ If supplied air upwind of the heat exchanger (inlet air) has the same characteristics as that of the outdoor air, Houtdoor air may be replaced by Hupwind; supply . The enthalpy of air is determined by its temperature and moisture content (Equation 5.3). Therefore, measurement of temperature and moisture content of air upwind and downwind of both sides of the heat exchanger allows the determination of the enthalpy eﬃciency of the heat exchanger itself. Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 87 The enthalpy ﬂow, H, is the product of mass airﬂow rate and speciﬁc enthalpy, h: H ¼ Qh ð5:5Þ where is the density of air. At ambient temperature, a numerical expression of Equation 5.3 for air is: h ¼ 1004:5 þ xð2;500;000 þ 1858:4Þ ð5:6Þ where: is the air temperature, x is the humidity ratio, that is the mass of water vapour per kg dry air. The humidity ratio can be calculated from water vapour partial pressure, p, and atmospheric pressure, pa : x¼ 0:62198p pa p ð5:7Þ The water vapour partial pressure is calculated from relative humidity, ’ by: ð5:8Þ p ¼ ’ps where ps is the water vapour pressure at saturation, which depends on the temperature: 22:5 if < 0 ps ¼ 610:5 exp ð5:9Þ 273 þ if > 0 ps ¼ 610:5 exp 17:27 237:3 þ ð5:10Þ The humidity ratio can also be derived from mass concentration of water, Cw , or volume concentration, cw : x¼ Cw cw ¼ 1 Cw 1 cw ð5:11Þ Also interesting, and much simpler to assess, is the eﬃciency or eﬀectiveness, or temperature eﬃciency of the heat exchanger, which reveals how well a heat exchanger performs. This eﬃciency is simply calculated from temperature measurements in both circuits of the heat exchanger: Hot side: ";h ¼ hot; in hot; out hot; in cold; in ð5:12Þ Cold side: ";c ¼ cold; out cold; in hot; in cold; in ð5:13Þ When the mass ﬂows multiplied by the speciﬁc heats are equal on both sides the eﬃciency will also be equal. 88 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Exhaust air 6 Extract air 4 - + Outdoor air 1 3 Supply air Figure 5.7 Schematics of an air handling unit, showing location of pressure taps for pressure diﬀerential measurements Leakage through heat exchangers Some heat exchangers let some air leak between both air channels. This is in most cases not expected, since there are very few air handling units equipped with both recirculation and a heat exchanger. In addition, some air is entrained by the rotation of the wheel in rotating heat exchangers. The amount of air transferred this way can be measured with tracer gases (see Chapter 2, ‘Airﬂow measurements at ventilation grilles’), and the leakage ﬂow rate is one of the results of the measurement of airﬂow rates in the air handling unit. As mentioned in Chapter 2, the global recirculation rate can easily be checked by measuring the concentration of a tracer injected in the ventilated space, such as the carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants. Assuming that there is no inverse recirculation and no leaks in the air handling unit, the global recirculation rate is: R¼ Csupply Coutdoor Cexhaust Coutdoor ð5:14Þ If no recirculation is expected, but a signiﬁcant recirculation rate is observed, it may be the result of leakage through the heat exchanger. If more information is required, in particular to check whether it is the exchanger or another part of the air handling unit that leaks, additional measurements could be performed, as described in Chapter 2, ‘Airﬂow rate measurements in air handing units’. Pressure diﬀerential measurements are useful to explain leakage. In addition, these are easier to perform than leakage measurements and can readily bring information for a diagnosis. Pressure diﬀerentials should be measured between the following locations (see Figure 5.7): . . Between one and six on one hand, and three and four on the other hand. These pressure diﬀerentials drive the leakage direction. They should be zero or slightly positive, so that a possible leakage ﬂow goes from supply to exhaust, and not the contrary. Between one and three on one hand, and four and six on the other hand. These pressure diﬀerentials increase with clogging. Compare them with the nominal pressure diﬀerential given by the factory for the actual airﬂow Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 89 rates. If these pressure diﬀerentials are signiﬁcantly larger than the nominal values, the wheel should be cleaned. Indication on how to measure pressure diﬀerentials is given in ‘Measurement of pressure diﬀerences’, below. A word of caution: there should be no fan between the pressure taps used to measure the pressure diﬀerentials! Eﬀect of leakages and shortcuts on heat recovery Deﬁnitions of global heat recovery eﬃciency Building leakage and shortcuts within the ventilation system may signiﬁcantly reduce the eﬀectiveness of the heat recovery as shown below (Roulet et al., 2001). Consider the airﬂows in the ventilation unit schematically presented in Figure 5.8. Outdoor air enters the inlet grille and is blown through the heat recovery system, where it is either heated or cooled. When heat recovery is not needed, for example to bring free cooling during the night, plate heat exchangers are bypassed or the wheel is stopped in rotating heat exchangers. Then, after additional heating or cooling when required, the outdoor air enters the supply duct to be distributed into the ventilated space. As the envelope is not perfectly airtight, the supply air is mixed with inﬁltration air in the ventilated space. A part of the air may also be lost by exﬁltration. The extract air ﬂows through the other part of the heat recovery system where it is either cooled (if inlet air should be warmed up) or heated (if fresh outdoor air should be precooled). The air is then blown to the outside through the exhaust duct to the atmosphere. If the exhaust and inlet grilles are not well located, it is possible that a part of this exhaust air re-enters the inlet grille, resulting in an external recirculation rate. Leakage through the heat recovery system may also result in an internal recirculation rate, from inlet to exhaust, or from extract to supply. Re o re e a Rie i x Rxs HR rs s Ventilated space inf AHU exf Figure 5.8 The simpliﬁed network representing the air handling unit and ducts Note: o: outdoor air; i: inlet grille; s: supply air; x: extract air; e: exhaust air; a: atmosphere; HR: heat recovering exchanger; Re : external recirculation; Rie : inlet to extract recirculation; Rxs : extract to supply recirculation; inf: inﬁltration; exf: exﬁltration. Arrows represent considered airﬂow rates. Source: Roulet et al., 2001. 90 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings In simpliﬁed methods to calculate heating (or cooling) demand of buildings, ventilation heat loss, V , is often calculated by (CEN, 1999, 2007): V ¼ m_ ðhx ho Þð1 G Þ ð5:15Þ where: m_ is the mass ﬂow rate of outdoor air in kg/s, hx is the speciﬁc enthalpy of extract air, which is considered as representative of the average indoor air, ho is the speciﬁc enthalpy of outdoor air, G is the global eﬃciency of the heat recovery system. This global eﬃciency, G , is the eﬃciency of the whole system, including of the ventilated building and its ventilation equipment. It should not be confused with the nominal eﬃciency of the heat recovery unit itself, "HR . This eﬃciency, deﬁned in ‘Heat exchange eﬃciency’, above, is measured at the factory with balanced intake and exhaust airﬂow rates (m_ re ¼ m_ rs ) and is: "HR ¼ hrs hi hx hre x re ¼ ﬃ hx ho hx ho x o ð5:16Þ where the signiﬁcation of subscripts can be seen in Figure 5.8, and h are speciﬁc enthalpies of the air in J/kg. As a ﬁrst approximation, only sensible heat is considered, and the temperatures at the same locations can be used. As shown below, this replacement leads to optimistic results when the air handling unit has parasitic recirculation or when the building has inﬁltration or exﬁltration. Global heat recovery eﬃciency Without heat recovery, the heat loss of the building, L , resulting from these airﬂow rates is the sum of extract heat ﬂow and exﬁltration heat loss, or the heat necessary to bring outdoor air to indoor climate conditions: L ¼ ðm_ x þ m_ exf Þðhx ho Þ ¼ ðm_ s þ m_ inf Þðhx ho Þ ð5:17Þ The heat recovered by the exchanger is: R ¼ m_ re ðhx hre Þ ¼ m_ rs ðhrs hi Þ ð5:18Þ since, in a ﬁrst approximation, all the heat taken from extract air is given to supply air. The global heat recovery eﬃciency of the system is then: G ¼ R m_ re ðhx hre Þ m_ re ¼ " ¼ L ðm_ x þ m_ exf Þðhx ho Þ ðm_ x þ m_ exf Þ HR ð5:19Þ It can readily be seen that this global eﬃciency is not equal to the nominal eﬃciency of the heat recovery system, "HR . An expression giving G as a function of the outdoor airﬂow, exﬁltration and recirculation rates can be derived from Equation 5.19 by taking account of mass conservation at the nodes of the system. Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 91 We have mentioned above the following recirculation rates: External Re ¼ m_ i m_ o m_ e m_ a ¼ m_ e m_ e Rie ¼ Inlet to exhaust m_ i m_ rs m_ e m_ re ¼ m_ i m_ i Rxs ¼ Extract to supply m_ s m_ rs m_ x m_ re ¼ m_ x m_ x ð5:20Þ ð5:21Þ ð5:22Þ The mass ﬂow balance for the whole building is: m_ a þ m_ exf ¼ m_ o þ m_ inf ð5:23Þ Combining this equation with the deﬁnition of the external recirculation rate, we get: m_ e ¼ 1 ðm_ þ m_ inf m_ exf Þ 1 Re o ð5:24Þ Then, writing the mass ﬂow rate balance at node 1 (see Figure 5.8), we get: m_ i ¼ m_ o þ Re m_ e ¼ m_ o þ Re ðm_ inf m_ exf Þ 1 Re ð5:25Þ The mass balance at node 2 gives: m_ rs ¼ ð1 Rie Þm_ i ¼ ð1 Rie Þ ½m_ þ Re ðm_ inf m_ enf Þ ð1 Re Þ o ð5:26Þ From mass balances at nodes 3 and 4: m_ s ¼ m_ rs þ Rxs m_ x ð5:27Þ and m_ s ¼ m_ x þ m_ exf m_ inf ð5:28Þ we get m_ x ¼ ¼ 1 ½m_ þ m_ inf m_ exf 1 Rxs rs m_ o ð1 Rie Þ þ ð1 Re Rie Þðm_ inf m_ exf Þ ð1 Rxs Þð1 Re Þ ð5:29Þ Mass balance at node 5 gives: m_ re ¼ m_ x ð1 Rxs Þ ð5:30Þ Therefore: G ¼ m_ x ð1 Rxs Þ " ¼ x re "HR m_ x þ m_ exf HR ð5:31Þ 92 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings where: x ¼ m_ x m_ x þ m_ exf ð5:32Þ is the extraction eﬃciency, i.e. that part of the air leaving the ventilated volume, which is extracted through the air handling unit, and re ¼ 1 Rxs ¼ m_ re m_ x ð5:33Þ is the air recovery eﬃciency, or that part of the extract air that passes through the heat recovery unit. Looking at Equation 5.32, it seems at ﬁrst glance that the global heat recovery eﬃciency depends only on extract and exﬁltration airﬂow rates. However, the purpose of ventilation is to provide fresh, outdoor air in the ventilated volume. Let us see how Equation 5.32 is changed when the fresh airﬂow rate taken at inlet grille is used as a reference. Fresh air entering the air handling unit is m_ o . Because of external recirculation, this air is mixed with exhaust air into the inlet duct. A part, Rie , of this mix is recirculated to the exhaust duct. All the fresh, outdoor air that enters the building through the air handling unit is found in m_ rs , which is, from the deﬁnition of Rie and using Equation 5.25: m_ rs ¼ ð1 Rie Þm_ i ¼ ð1 Rie Þðm_ o þ Re m_ e Þ ð5:34Þ Since m_ e is no longer fresh, the only part of m_ rs that is fresh is m_ o ð1 Rie Þ. Therefore the total fresh airﬂow rate entering the ventilated space in building is: m_ ¼ m_ o ð1 Rie Þ þ m_ inf ð5:35Þ which means that m_ o ð1 Rie Þ ¼ m_ m_ inf ð5:36Þ replacing in Equation 5.32 m_ x by its value given by Equation 5.29, and taking into account the above relation, gives ﬁnally: G ¼ b1 exf Re Rie ðinf exf Þcð1 Rxs Þ " 1 Re Rie ðinf exf Þ exf ½Re þ Rxs ð1 Re Þ HR ð5:37Þ where inf ¼ m_ inf m_ and exf ¼ m_ exf m_ ð5:38Þ are respectively the inﬁltration and exﬁltration ratios. In other terms, the extraction eﬃciency is: x ¼ 1 exf Re Rie ðinf exf Þ 1 Re Rie ðinf exf Þ exf ½Re þ Rxs ð1 Re Þ ð5:39Þ Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation Global efficiency 1.0 93 Recirculation Rxs 0.8 0.0 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Exfiltration ratio γexf 1.0 Figure 5.9 Relative decrease of global heat recovery eﬃciency as a function of exﬁltration ratio exf and internal recirculation rate Rxs Source: Roulet et al., 2001. which depends on all parasitic airﬂow rates. When there is no external recirculation (Re ¼ 0), Equation 5.37 simpliﬁes to: G ¼ ð1 exf Þð1 Rxs Þ "HR ¼ x "HR 1 Rxs exf ð5:40Þ and inﬁltration has no eﬀect. In this case, exﬁltration through the envelope and internal recirculation from extract to supply ducts have the same eﬀect, since both drive air away from the heat recovery device. The extraction eﬃciency in Equation 5.40 is illustrated in Figure 5.9, which indeed represents the relative reduction of heat recovery resulting from exﬁltration and internal recirculation. Global eﬃciency G equals the eﬀectiveness "HR only if there is no exﬁltration, and neither external nor extract-to-supply recirculation. Otherwise, G is smaller than "HR . The inlet to exhaust recirculation, as well as the inﬁltration ratio, have only a small eﬀect on heat recovery eﬃciency, but reduce the amount of fresh air supplied by the unit to the ventilated space. In order to get the same amount of fresh air, the supply airﬂow rate should be increased. Fresh air eﬃciency can be deﬁned by: o ¼ m_ m_ inf m_ o ð1 Rie Þ ¼ m_ s m_ s ð5:41Þ This recirculation obviously results in an increased consumption of electric energy for the fans, which is approximately proportional to the cube of the airﬂow rate, without delivering more fresh air. However, such parasitic recirculation is often not noticed, and hence can lead to an undiscovered reduction of indoor air quality. 94 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Net energy saving and performance index Heat recovery systems recover thermal energy but use electric energy for the fans. The net energy saving should therefore take into account the primary energy needed to produce electricity and the fact that the losses of the fans heat the air. The net energy saving per cubic metre of supplied outdoor air (SNES in Wh/m3 ) averaged over a heating period is: SNES ¼ o G L þ fan ð fr fp Þ m_ ð5:42Þ where: L ¼ m_ cðx o Þ is the ventilation heat loss, based on average internal and external temperature during the heating season; is the part of the fan power recovered as heat in the supply fr air. This factor fr is close to one for supply fans and zero for exhaust fans; is a production factor, accounting for the fact that the fp production of 1 kWh of electric energy requires much more primary energy. A net gain in thermal or primary energy is achieved by the heat recovery system only when SNES is positive. Otherwise the system even wastes energy. By analogy with heat pumps, a coeﬃcient of performance, COP, is deﬁned by the ratio of recovered heating power and used electric power: COP ¼ G L þ fr fan fan ð5:43Þ This COP is deﬁned without taking account of the production factor, fp , as is usually the case for heat pumps. Examples of application Airﬂow rates and heat exchanger eﬃciencies were measured in ten large units and three small, wall-mounted room ventilation units. The main characteristics of these units are summarized in Table 5.2. Recirculation ratios and eﬃciencies measured in these units are given in Table 5.3 and illustrated in Figure 5.10. The speciﬁc net energy saving (SNES) and COP are calculated with a 16 K indoor–outdoor average temperature diﬀerence during 210 days, a recovery factor for fans, fr ¼ 0:5 (taking account that there are two fans in these units, one of them in the supply duct) and a production factor, fp ¼ 3:55, which is the average for low-voltage electricity in Europe according to Frischtknecht et al. (1994). Major leakages have been observed in several buildings. In four of them, inﬁltration represents a signiﬁcant part of the outdoor air, and in four of them, most of the air leaves the building through the envelope instead of passing the heat recovery unit. Signiﬁcant internal recirculation is observed Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 95 Table 5.2 Measured airﬂow rates with experimental uncertainty band (when available), total and speciﬁc fan power in audited units Airﬂow rates (m3 /h) Unit Outdoor air 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1900 100 2530 80 2380 70 2200 300 5000 200 15,000 2000 11,000 400 16,000 1000 9000 1000 14,300 600 a b c 25 42 74 Supply air Fan power Extract air Exhaust air W Wh/m3 2070 70 1790 40 1600 200 990 2900 200 1860 50 1500 200 850 2480 70 1930 40 1830 50 1800 3400 100 3240 90 2000 2000 1800 5400 100 6000 700 5500 700 3710 16,400 700 11,000 1000 10,000 3000 11,800 11,600 200 10,000 300 9500 900 8180 17,400 700 13,400 600 12,000 2000 9760 10,000 2000 1970 90 1000 3000 3800 16,200 400 3420 70 1000 1000 7970 36 75 87 34 74 87 24 41 74 13 27 32 0.27 0.19 0.42 0.33 0.34 0.45 0.39 0.33 0.35 0.45 0.22 0.24 0.20 Table 5.3 Outdoor air eﬃciency, o , exﬁltration and inﬁltration ratios exf and inf; external and internal recirculation rates Re , Rxs and Rie , heat recovery eﬀectiveness "HR , global heat recovery eﬃciency G , speciﬁc net energy saving, SNES in Wh/m3 , and coeﬃcient of performance, COP, of audited air handling units o exf inf 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 97% 92% 100% 68% 98% 97% 100% 97% 95% 93% 16% 47% 29% 77% 8% 43% 14% 25% 97% 91% 0% 6% 9% 20% 7% 0% 76% 55% 17% 0% 8% 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 49% 0% 18% 100% a b c 74% 57% 68% 8% 2% 0% Unit 0% 0% 0% Re 0% 0% 0% Rxs Rie x "HR G 7% 5% 5% 1% 7% 6% 2% 0% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 86% 59% 72% 31% 92% 61% 87% 77% 10% 18% 70% 70% 90% 30% 80% 90% 80% 70% 50% 50% 56% 1.55 39% 1.35 62% 1.18 9% 0.05 69% 1.92 52% 0.69 68% 1.45 54% 1.17 5% 0.37 8% 0.92 6.5 8.0 5.2 3.3 6.7 4.5 5.5 5.5 1.8 1.5 0% 94% 4% 99% 25% 100% 63% 80% 90% 40% 44% 55% 6.2 6.8 8.2 33% 44% 39% SNES COP 1.37 2.21 2.69 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Global recovery efficiency 96 100% Large units Small units 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Heat exchanger efficiency Figure 5.10 Global heat recovery eﬃciency versus nominal heat exchanger eﬀectiveness measured in several units 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Good Poor Unacceptable COP in the three small units, and external recirculation above 20 per cent is measured in three large units. These leakages signiﬁcantly aﬀect heat recovery eﬃciencies, which drop from nominal values of between 50 and 90 per cent down to actual values ranging between 5 and 69 per cent. On average, the nominal heat recovery eﬀectiveness "HR is 70 per cent, but the global, real eﬃciency is only 43 per cent. In the best case, 80 per cent heat recovery eﬀectiveness is reduced by 15 per cent down to a 69 per cent real eﬃciency. Only 8 units out of 13 have a net energy saving larger than 1 Wh/m, as shown in Figure 5.11. Note that 1 Wh allows heating one cubic metre of air by about 38C. Negative speciﬁc net energy savings are observed in three units, where the heat recovery uses more energy than it saves! The coeﬃcient of performance of good units can be much larger than those of a heat pump used for heating buildings, but is rather small in three units. A COP of less than 2.5 indicates that the heat recovery is less eﬃcient than heating the air with a gas boiler with 75 per cent eﬃciency (Ruyssevelt, 1987). –1 Large units Small units 0 1 2 SNES [Wh/m3] 3 Figure 5.11 Seasonal average coeﬃcient of performance and speciﬁc net energy saving of the tested units Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 97 Best net energy savings in large units (7 and 8 in Table 5.2) are 80,000– 90,000 kWh per winter season, but unit 10 actually wastes as much energy. Small units (a, b and c) save between 80 kWh and 350 kWh during an entire season. From an energy and economic lifetime analysis perspective, such units are disadvantageous. Note that these results are obtained when the heat recovery is functioning. Annual average eﬃciency may even be less due to reduced operation time (Drost, 1993). Energy for ventilation The energy to move the air is the product of a force by a displacement. The force is the pressure, p, exerted on the section area, A, of the duct, and the displacement is the path, l, of the air during a time interval, t. But A l is the volume of air displaced during this time interval. The energy to move a volume V of air is hence: Em ¼ pA l ¼ pV ð5:44Þ Taking a time derivative of the above equation provides the mechanical power, m , needed to get an airﬂow rate, q: dEm dV ¼ p ¼ pq ð5:45Þ dt dt The mechanical power delivered by a fan is the product of the volume airﬂow rate, Q, delivered by the fan, and the pressure diﬀerential, p, across the fan. The mechanical power required to move the air through a ductwork is also the product of the volume airﬂow rate through the ductwork, and the pressure diﬀerence between the main supply and main exhaust ducts. Since the pressure diﬀerence is proportional to the square of the airﬂow rate, the mechanical power for ensuring a given airﬂow rate into a ductwork is proportional to the cube of the airﬂow rate! Increasing the airﬂow rate in a room by 10 per cent requires 33 per cent more fan power and doubling the airﬂow rate requires a power eight times larger if the ductwork is not adapted to this new airﬂow rate. m ¼ Why check fan power and related quantities? The electrical energy needed to move the air depends on the properties of the air distribution system and of the fan. For a given nominal power, eﬃciencies varying by a factor two or more were measured (see ‘Examples of application’, below). Assessing the fan eﬃciency and the speciﬁc power (in Joules or Watt-hours per cubic metre of transported air) is part of a comprehensive energy diagnosis of a mechanical ventilation system. Poor fan eﬃciency not only wastes expensive electric energy, but also hinders eﬃcient cooling. The cooling power of the air blown by the fan is: cool ¼ cQ ¼ cq ð5:46Þ 98 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings where: is the density of air, c is the heat capacity of air, is the temperature diﬀerence between exhaust air and supply air. The kinetic energy given to the air by the fan is, sooner or later, degraded into heat by viscosity and friction on the surfaces of ducts, room walls and furniture. The kinetic energy of the air leaving the room to the outside is very small when compared to that of the air just after passing through the fan, especially in units with large recirculation ratios. Since the fan motor is in the airﬂow, its heat loss is also delivered to the air. Therefore, nearly all the energy given to the fan ends as heat in the indoor air. This corresponds to a heating power equal to the electric power consumed by the fan motor, e . Hence: heat ¼ e ¼ q p f ð5:47Þ For air conditioning, the heating power should be small when compared to the cooling power. Therefore, the ratio: cool c ¼ f heat p ð5:48Þ should be as large as possible. This means that the fan eﬃciency should be as close as possible to one (or 100 per cent). In addition, the pressure diﬀerential should be as small as possible. Another way to look at this issue is to calculate the air temperature increase resulting from heat loss: heat ¼ e p ¼ cq f c ð5:49Þ This should be as small as possible, so again, the fan eﬃciency should be large and the pressure diﬀerential should be at a minimum. The energy losses of fans are shared between the elements of the chain linking the electrical network to the aeraulic ductwork (see Figure 5.12). In this chain, the fan is often the worst culprit. It is not, however, simple to assess the eﬃciency of each element, and we will concentrate on the measurement of the eﬃciency of the whole chain, by measuring on the one hand the Converter Motor Transmission Fan Ductwork η = 0.95 η = 0.8 η = 0.95 η = 0.6 Sizes the fan Figure 5.12 Approximate ﬁgures for the eﬃciencies of various elements needed to move the air in the ductwork Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 99 consumption of electrical energy by the fan motor, and on the other hand the kinetic energy given to the air in duct. The fan eﬃciency is the ratio of useful power, m , to the electrical power consumed by the fan motor, e : f ¼ m q p ¼ e e ð5:50Þ Measuring the airﬂow rate, q, and the pressure diﬀerential, p, across the fan provides the kinetic power of the air, and measuring in addition the electric power used by the fan allows for the assessment of fan eﬃciency. The uncertainty band resulting from uncertainties on the measured quantities is: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ðqÞ 2 ðpÞ 2 e 2 þ þ ð5:51Þ f ¼ f e q p Measurement of airﬂow rate Airﬂow rates through both supply and exhaust fans can be assessed by tracer gas measurements, as described in Chapter 2, ‘Airﬂow measurements at ventilation grilles’. Depending on the units used when interpreting the results, these measurements may provide either volume airﬂow rates, qv , or mass airﬂow rates, Qm . These are related by: Qm ¼ q where is for the density of the air, which can be calculated by: p p½Pa M ½kg=m3 ¼ ﬃ 3:46 103 T½K RT ð5:52Þ ð5:53Þ where: p T M R is the is the is the is the atmospheric pressure (average 101,300 Pa at sea level), absolute temperature, average molar mass of the air mixture (about 28.8 g/mole), molar gas constant ¼ 8.31396 J/(moleK) . Then, if mass airﬂow rates are taken from tracer gas measurements, the airﬂow through the fans should ﬁrst be converted into volume airﬂow rate. Airﬂow rate through the fan can also be assessed from the fan speed, the pressure diﬀerential across the fan, and the fan characteristics – provided by the factory – which give the airﬂow rate from the fan speed and pressure diﬀerential. Measurement of pressure diﬀerences The pressure diﬀerential is measured with a diﬀerential manometer with a range of 200–500 Pa (20–50 mm water column). 100 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings q 265 Pa Dp Figure 5.13 Installation of the diﬀerential manometer to measure the pressure diﬀerential across the fan The two ports of this manometer are connected to pressure taps located on both sides of the fan (see Figure 5.13). Care should be taken to avoid too much dynamic pressure on these taps. It is advisable to install the pressure taps perpendicular to the airﬂow, preferably close to the air duct wall, and at locations where the air velocity is about the same on both sides of the fan so that the dynamic pressure, if any, is the same on both sides. If the pressure varies signiﬁcantly when moving one of the pressure taps, this means that the dynamic pressure has an eﬀect. On most air handling units, a diﬀerential pressure switch is installed to check the function of the fan. This switch is connected by two pipes to taps installed in the ducts before and after the fan. These taps can be used to connect the diﬀerential manometer, but the safety switch should be either disabled or short-circuited. Otherwise, the fan motor will stop as soon as the pipes of the pressure switch are disconnected. Measurement of electric power The electric power used by the fan motor is measured with a wattmeter, which should be wired to the fan according to Figure 5.14. This instrument measures Voltage inputs U V W Current inputs 13.3 kW U V W R S T Figure 5.14 Schematics of electric power measurement on a three-phase motor Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 101 simultaneously the r.m.s. voltage, U, between phase and neutral point, the r.m.s. current, I, running into each motor coil and the phase shift, ’, between voltage and current. The power is calculated by: e ¼ 3 X Uj Ij cosð’j Þ ð5:54Þ j¼1 the sum being on all three phases. In very small air handling units, the fan motor may be single phase, and e ¼ UI cosð’Þ ð5:55Þ To measure the current an ampere-meter must be installed in the circuit. An easy way is to use clamp-on ampere-meters. A measuring clamp is installed around each wire leading to the motor. This clamp contains a transformer that gives a current proportional to the current running through the closed clamp. Care should be taken not to install the clamp around the two-wire or four-wire cable. The measured current will be zero in this case, whatever the power used by the motor. In some air handling units, the fan is controlled by a variable frequency controller (see Figure 5.15). Such devices are often equipped with a screen Figure 5.15 Front panel of the variable frequency controller 102 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 100% Efficiency 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0 2,500 5,000 Measured power [W] 7,500 Temperature increase [K] Figure 5.16 Fan eﬃciencies as a function of actual fan motor power 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 500 1,000 Pressure differential [Pa] 1,500 Figure 5.17 Air temperature increase as a function of pressure diﬀerential across the fan on which the frequency, the voltage, the current and the fan motor power can be displayed. Examples of application Fan eﬃciencies were measured on several fans of various units. Figure 5.16 represents the measured fan eﬃciencies versus their measured used electric power. It shows a general improvement of the fan eﬃciency when fan motor power increases. However, the dispersion is huge and large diﬀerences can be observed for each power class. For example, eﬃciencies range from 30 per cent to more than 60 per cent for 3 kW fans, and from 10 per cent to 35 per cent for small fans. Figure 5.17 illustrates the fact mentioned above (see ‘Why check fan power and related quantities?’) that the air temperature increases when the pressure diﬀerential is large. The dispersion results from variations in fan eﬃciencies. Energy eﬀects of indoor air quality measures In the 1970s, after the oil crises, measures were hastily taken in many buildings to reduce their energy use. These measures were planned with only two objectives: energy eﬃciency and return on investment, without taking care of Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 103 indoor environment quality and health or paying attention to possible damages to buildings. If a decrease of thermal comfort was implicitly accepted, cases of mould growth, increased indoor pollution and health hazards were not expected but often observed. Since then, the idea that saving energy in buildings decreases the indoor environment quality still prevails. Of course, some energy conservation opportunities such as low internal temperature or too low ventilation rates may degrade the indoor environment. These should therefore either be avoided, or accepted only in case of emergency and for a limited period of time. Some other energy saving measures should be used only in conjunction with others. For example, retroﬁtting windows in poorly insulated dwellings leads to a risk of mould growth, and improving the envelope airtightness without taking care of ensuring and controlling a minimum ventilation rate may decrease indoor air quality. Table 5.4 lists, in the ﬁrst column, various uses of energy in buildings. Known ways to save energy are presented in the second column, and eﬀects of these energy saving measures on comfort or indoor environment quality are presented in the third column. It can readily be seen that there are many cases where energy saving measures, when well designed and executed, improve indoor environment quality. Several recommendations, resulting from experience and recent surveys performed within European projects (Bluyssen et al., 1995; Roulet et al., 2005) are given below. Method The method used to scientiﬁcally support these recommendations is described in detail in Jaboyedoﬀ et al. (2004). A typical oﬃce building equipped with full air conditioning and cold ceiling, including heat recovery, was simulated using an appropriate computer program. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system is shown in Figure 5.18. The three-storey building is of heavy construction and well insulated with low-e, clear glazing. The oﬃce rooms are oriented south with 53 per cent glazed area. The internal temperature can be controlled using either air conditioning or hydronic heating and cooling. Numerous simulations were performed for diﬀerent climates: northern (Oslo), central (London and Zu¨rich) and southern Europe (Rome), and the following variants were calculated: . . . . . . . outdoor air supply: 15–50 m3 /hour and per person; relative humidity of supply air to room: 50 per cent and no humidiﬁcation; eﬃciency of heat recovery: 0 (no heat recovery), 0.75 and 0.85; inﬁltration: 0.5 and 1.0 air changes per hour; set point for cooling: 248C, 288C and no cooling; ventilation: 24 hours a day or during working hours only (7 am to 7 pm); natural ventilation – using windows – instead of mechanical ventilation. 104 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 5.4 Uses of energy in buildings, energy saving measures and their eﬀects on indoor environment quality Energy use Energy saving measures Impact on indoor environment Compensation of transmission heat loss in winter Better, thicker insulation IR reﬂective by low emissivity coated Improves comfort and health by preventing mould growth Compensation of ventilation heat loss in winter Lower ventilation rate Needs a reduction of indoor pollution sources to maintain indoor air quality Less draughts, less noise Generally improves indoor air quality in winter Winter heating in general Improve solar gains with larger, well-oriented windows Improve the use of gains by better insulation and good thermal inertia If windows are poor: cold surfaces Overheating if poor solar protection If well designed: good visual contact with outdoor environment, excellent summer and winter comfort Elimination of heat gains during warm season Use passive or ‘free’ cooling Very comfortable in appropriate climates and buildings Better indoor air quality and comfort Should be kept within comfort zone Internal temperature control Comfortable set-point temperature, improved control Avoids over- and under-heating Ventilation (moving the air) Natural ventilation Reduce airﬂow rate Increase duct size Eﬃcient fans Best where applicable Possible only where overventilated Less noise Less noise Humidiﬁcation Switch it oﬀ No health eﬀect in most cases Lighting Use daylighting Comfortable light, with limited heat gains when well controlled Comfort depends on the quality of light. Reduced heat load Limit the ventilation rate to the required level Use heat recovery on exhaust air Use eﬃcient, wellcommissioned and maintained cooling systems Higher internal temperature Use eﬃcient artiﬁcial lighting Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 105 Cold ceiling Fan Heating Humidifaction Cooling Heat exchanger Filter Office space Radiators Figure 5.18 The HVAC system in the simulated building For each variant, the eﬀect of the following changes in design and operation was simulated: . . . . . . . . . with 50 per cent recirculation instead of no recirculation; with or without heating or cooling supply air; eﬀect of ventilation strategies on heating demand; eﬀect of airtightness on heating demand; with and without a droplet catcher with 20 Pa pressure drop downwind of the cooling coil; with an improved ﬁlter with 150 Pa pressure drop; changing used ﬁlters at a pressure drop of 180 Pa instead of 250 Pa; with rotating or ﬂat plate heat exchanger: eﬃciency 0.85 and 0.75; eﬀect of increase of pressure diﬀerence through ductwork: 1600 Pa versus 1000 Pa. Simulation results The main results of these simulations are summarized below. These conclusions, in particular the numerical values, are valid for the building and the system simulated. However, the order of magnitude and general tendencies are likely to be valid for more general situations. Recirculation The electric energy used by cooling and fans decreases by about 40 per cent (27 per cent for Rome, 43 per cent for Zu¨rich and 50 per cent for Oslo) if no recirculation is used, compared to 50 per cent recirculation. No heat recovery was used in these cases. Heating The energy use for heating mainly depends on climate and internal gains. Except for heat recovery and time schedule of operation (working hours/24 hours 106 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings per day), ventilation strategies have a minor inﬂuence on heating energy demand. The air may be either heated by coils in the supply air or by radiators in the room. The energy use for heating does not change signiﬁcantly in all climates. The tightness of the building envelope has a large inﬂuence, up to a factor of two, on the heating energy need. When high inﬁltration occurs, humidity is also reduced in winter. Cooling Cold ceilings are more eﬀective than air conditioning. For the same airﬂow rate and same comfort conditions, more energy was required for cooling using air conditioning than with the hydronic cooling ceiling. Lowering the set point for cooling from 268C to 248C causes an augmentation of the cooling demand of the zones by a factor of three to eight, depending on the geographic location. A droplet catcher downwind of a cooling coil has a negligible eﬀect on energy demand, but may be essential to avoid humidifying downstream ﬁlters or acoustic dampers, changing them to biotopes. Filters Using a two-stage ﬁlter system instead of an old F7 ﬁlter leads to an increase in electric power use for fans of 10–15 per cent, depending on the pressure diﬀerence over the system. Again, depending on the pressure diﬀerence over the system, earlier replacement of a ﬁlter results in a decrease in fan power consumption by 2–3 per cent. Humidiﬁcation In the northern (Oslo) and central locations (London and Zu¨rich), humidifying the supply air at 30 per cent minimum relative humidity requires about 20–25 per cent more energy for ventilation than without humidiﬁcation. In the southern climate (Rome), the increase is only 3 per cent, mainly because humidiﬁcation is seldom required. In all climates, humidifying the supply air at 30 per cent increases the total heating energy need by 5–10 per cent, while this need almost doubles if the relative humidity is set at 50 per cent. Heat recovery Without heat recovery, the heating energy use for ventilation is 70–140 per cent more than with medium eﬃciency (50 per cent) heat recovery. Heat recovery with high eﬃciency (75 per cent) – such as those achieved by well-installed rotating heat exchangers in airtight buildings – leads to a reduction of the heating energy demand for ventilation by about 30 per cent, compared to medium eﬃciency (50 per cent) heat recovery. That means that the 3 per cent reduction in eﬃciency caused by installing a purging sector in Measurements and Measures Related to Energy Eﬃciency in Ventilation 107 a rotating heat exchanger (see Chapter 6, ‘Rotating heat exchangers’), has a negligible eﬀect on energy demand. Inﬁltration or exﬁltration through a leaky building envelope strongly reduces the eﬃciency of heat recovery (see ‘Eﬀect of leakages and shortcuts on heat recovery’, above). With a heat recovery eﬃciency of 75 per cent, the heating energy demand for cold and mild climates (Oslo, Zu¨rich, London) is approximately 3–5 per cent higher with an eﬃciency of 0.75 than with 0.85. For warm climates (Rome), this number is approximately 15 per cent higher, however, with low absolute values. Ductwork An increase of pressure diﬀerence from 1000–1600 Pa, caused by air velocity, length, curves, duct wall smoothness and deposits in the ducts, leads to an increase in electric power use of 60 per cent. The increase in total electric power depends on the geographic location and ranges from 25–55 per cent. Notes 1 Natural ventilation can be controlled by installing (automatically or manually) adjustable vents in an airtight building envelope. 2 These ratios take not only density and heat capacity into account, but also practical temperatures. 6 Contaminants in Air Handling Units The purpose of mechanical ventilation systems is to supply appropriate amounts of clean air and to evacuate vitiated air. However, in ﬁeld audits it was seen that ventilation systems often host contaminant sources and are, in the worst cases, the main source of air pollution in buildings (Fanger, 1988; Bluyssen et al., 1995, 2000b). Components in the mechanical ventilation system may considerably pollute the passing air. The main sources and reasons for pollution in a ventilation system vary considerably depending on the type of construction, use and maintenance of the system. This chapter summarizes the results of these ﬁeld audits, and proposes methods to detect the sources of contaminants and strategies to avoid these. Filters Filters are one of the main sources of sensory pollution in ventilation systems (Bluyssen et al., 2000a). Some new ﬁlters may also inﬂuence the perceived air quality negatively. The ﬁlter material has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the starting pollution eﬀect of new ﬁlters (see Figure 6.1). When ﬁlters get older, i.e. are in use for some time, the emission of odours ﬁrst decreases, but increases again later, when the ﬁlter gets loaded. The reason for this emission after the ﬁlter is in use for some time remains unclear, however. Micro-organisms may not be the only pollution source on a ﬁlter, but it is important to keep ﬁlters dry, since wet media ﬁlters are perfect supports for microbial growth and microbes may also emit dangerous pollutants and bad odours. Filters may be moistened either by snow, rain or fog entering the outdoor air inlet, or by water droplets spread by some humidiﬁers or found in airﬂows downstream of the cooling coils. Environmental conditions such as airﬂow (amount or intermittent/continuous) and temperature do not have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the pollution of downwind air. Contaminants in Air Handling Units 109 16 Cassette Cellulose Glass fibre Odour intensity 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 500 1000 Airflow rate [m3/h] 1500 Figure 6.1 Olfactive pollution of various new ﬁlters as a function of airﬂow rate Source: Bluyssen et al., 2000a, 2003. Ducts The duct material and the manufacturing process has the biggest eﬀect on the perceived air quality (Bjo¨rkroth et al., 2000). Depending on the machinery used in the manufacturing process, new spiral wound ducts, ﬂexible ducts and other components of the ductwork might contain small residual amounts of processing oil. The oil layer is very thin and invisible, but it emits an annoying odour. Aluminium ducts score the best with respect to perceived air quality. Plastic ducts seem a feasible solution, but some ﬂexible plastic ducts are very smelly. Oil residues are the dominating sensory pollution source in new ducts. The sensory assessments showed a clear correlation between the total mass of oil residues (average surface density surface area) and the perceived air pollution (see Figure 6.2). 7 Odour intensity 6 5 4 3 1 m/s 3 m/s 5 m/s 2 1 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Mass of oil residue in duct [g] Figure 6.2 Correlation between odour intensity and the mass of oil residues in the tested ducts Source: Bjo¨rkroth et al., 2000. 110 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings The eﬀect of airﬂow on the perceived air quality from ducts was relatively small and is probably insigniﬁcant in normal applications. Increasing the airﬂow rate in the duct does not, surprisingly, reduce the odour intensity: the additional airﬂow rate certainly dilutes the evaporated oil but the increased air velocity also evaporates more oil. Emissions from dust/debris accumulated in the ducts during construction (mostly inorganic substances) seem to be less important. No simple correlation was observed between the amount of accumulated dust and odour emissions. However, the organic dust accumulated during the operation period may produce more severe odour emissions. When dust has accumulated on the inner surface of the ducts, the relative humidity of the air in the ducts has a larger eﬀect on the odour emissions of ducts without oil residues than ducts with oil residues. Humidiﬁers Odour intensity The main reasons for pollution from humidiﬁers are: disinfecting additions, old water in tanks or dirty tanks, microbiological growth, stagnant water in the tank when the humidiﬁer is oﬀ, and desalinization and demineralization devices and agents (Mu¨ller et al., 2000). Humidiﬁers only pollute the air signiﬁcantly if the humidiﬁer is not used or maintained in the prescribed way. Investigations make it clear that periodical cleaning of humidiﬁers and the use of fresh water are paramount for a good air quality. Under normal conditions, it was found for all humidiﬁers that airﬂow has no inﬂuence on the odour intensity caused by humidiﬁers (see Figure 6.3). A relation was found between perceived air quality and the concentration of bacteria on the inside of the humidiﬁer (see Figure 6.4). The odour intensity increases with increasing number of bacteria. This was not the case for other locations in an HVAC system. A similar correlation could not be found for fungi. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 on 2 on 3 on 1 off 2 off 3 off 500 1000 1500 2000 Airflow rate [m3/h] Figure 6.3 Perceived air quality for the steam humidiﬁer Source: Mu¨ller et al., 2000. Contaminants in Air Handling Units 111 Odour intensity 6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 200 300 400 500 600 Surface concentration of bacteria [thousands of CFU/cm2] 700 Figure 6.4 Bacteria concentration at inner surface of a humidiﬁer correlated with the odour intensity Note: CFU ¼ colony forming unit. Source: Mu¨ller et al., 2000. Rotating heat exchangers Rotating heat exchangers are not themselves sources of contaminants, but they may transfer contaminants from exhaust to supply air with entrained air, and through possible leakage around the wheel at the separation wall. Leakage from exhaust to supply was measured by the author in several units, and found to be negligible in most cases (see Chapter 5, ‘Leakage through heat exchangers’). A part of the extract air is indeed entrained to the supply duct by the rotation of the wheel, as shown in Figure 6.5. All the exhaust air contained in a sector of the wheel is entrained back into the supply air. This is avoided by installing a purging sector, which returns this vitiated air back to the exhaust duct (see Figure 6.6). This chamber covers a sector of about 58, in which the outdoor air passes through the wheel, makes a 1808 turn in the purging chamber, passes back in the wheel and ﬁnally leaves the air handling unit by the exhaust air duct. This cleans the wheel from contaminants accumulated when passing in the extract air, before entering the outdoor air. Note that this device functions properly only when the sense of rotation of the wheel is Supply air Rotation air Extract air Figure 6.5 Some extract air is entrained in the supply airﬂow by the rotation of the wheel 112 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Exhaust air Outdoor air Extract air Supply air Figure 6.6 Schematics of the purging sector Note: A part of the outdoor air cleans the porous structure and then is sent back to the exhaust air. such that a sector of it that contains exhaust air passes ﬁrst through the purging chamber. The author has seen wheels turning the wrong way! In addition, contaminants can be transferred from exhaust to supply ducts by adsorption–desorption. This was conﬁrmed by measurements with volatile organic compounds (Andersson et al., 1993; Roulet et al., 2000) and perceived air quality (Pejtersen, 1996). For example, measurements performed by the author according to the protocol described in ‘Contaminant transport in rotating heat exchangers’, below, gave the transfer rates illustrated in Figure 6.7. This ﬁgure shows transfer rates with and without a purging sector. Leakage and entrained air would result in the same recirculation rate for all chemical compounds, this rate being close to zero for the unit giving the results of Figure 6.7. This is obviously not the case. 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% n- D ec an e 1Bu ta no l 1H ex an ol Ph en ol 1H ex an Be al nz al 1, de 6hy D ic de hl or oh ex an D ip e ro py le th er Li m on en e m -X yl en e M es ity le ne No purging sector With purging sector Figure 6.7 Average VOC recirculation rates measured in the EPFL laboratory unit, with and without a purging sector Source: Roulet et al., 2000. Contaminants in Air Handling Units 113 Figure 6.7 shows that certain categories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily transferred by a sorption transfer mechanism. Among the tested VOCs, those having the highest boiling point were best transferred. The largest transfer rate in a well-installed unit was found for phenol (30 per cent). Leakage and pollutant transfer can be avoided or at least strongly reduced through proper installation of the wheel, good maintenance of the gasket, proper installation of a purging sector, and by maintenance of a positive pressure diﬀerential from supply to exhaust duct at wheel level. Coils Laboratory tests (Bluyssen et al., 2003) show that heating and cooling coils without condensing or stagnating water, are components that have small contributions to the overall odour intensity of the air. On the contrary, cooling coils with condensed water in the pans are microbial reservoirs and ampliﬁcation sites that may be major sources of odours to the inlet air. Measurement protocols HVAC systems are in general low sources of measurable chemical pollutants. When searched for, most pollutants are below the detection limits of common analysers, and chemical analyses can be successful only in very polluted systems. They are therefore not discussed here. No standard procedure exists for microbiological measurements in ventilation systems. The techniques used are air sampling with impactors, gluing airborne microbes (mould, yeast, bacteria) on appropriate culture media, or simply exposing these culture media in open Petri dishes or on ﬁlms lying or glued on the inner walls of ducts or units. The main problem is ensuring reproducible samples. Only two methods are presented here: the measurement of sensory pollution and the assessment of contaminant transfer. Sensory pollution Principle of the method Since the nose is the most sensitive instrument to detect pollutants, the measurement protocol to assess the pollution resulting from ventilation systems or components is mainly focused on measuring the sensory pollution eﬀect, evaluated by a trained panel of people (Bluyssen, 1990; Elkhuizen et al., 1995). A panel of 12–15 subjects is selected and trained to give a value to the odour intensity. To evaluate air quality at a given place, each panel member smells the air – after having refreshed his or her nose in pure, fresh air – and gives a value to the odour intensity. The ﬁnal value is the average over the panel. 114 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Selecting the panel The subjects are selected from a group of at least 50 applicants of ages ranging from 18 to approximately 35 years old. There is no restriction on distribution of gender. Participants should abstain from smoking and drinking coﬀee for at least one hour before any test. Also, they are asked not to use perfume, strong smelling deodorants or make-up, and not to eat garlic or other spicy food the day before the tests and on the day of the tests. The selection is based on the quantitative assessment of the concentration of a reference gas by smelling. The reference gas is 2-propanone, which is easy to measure and to produce in various concentrations in the air. Passive evaporation creates known concentration of this gas in air, and this air is presented to the human nose at a constant airﬂow coming out of a so-called PAP meter, which consists of a 3 l jar made of glass covered with a plastic cap, a fan and a diﬀuser (see Figure 6.8). The cap has two holes; in one of them the fan is placed to suck the air through the jar and to blow it into a glass cone that diﬀuses the exhausted air. The angle of the cone is at 88, to avoid mixing with room air. The diameter of the top of the cone is 8 cm, convenient to situate the nose in the middle. The small fan should produce at least 0.9 l/s, several times more than the airﬂow during inhalation. The person therefore inhales exclusively air from the jar, undiluted by room air. Ø24 mm Cap (plastic) 3 litre jar 240 mm Fan Ø140 mm Figure 6.8 The PAP meter Source: Bluyssen, 1990. 430 mm Cone (top Ø80 mm) Contaminants in Air Handling Units 115 Bottle Jar Fan Figure 6.9 Recommended locations of small bottles in PAP meter Source: Bluyssen, 1990. The 2-propanone gas is evaporated in the PAP by placing one or more 30 ml glass bottles ﬁlled with 10 ml of 2-propanone and making diﬀerent holes in the caps of these bottles. The concentration (in parts per million) of 2-propanone obtained with one small bottle is about three times the diameter of the hole in millimetres. Placing one or more bottles enables the production of diﬀerent 2-propanone concentrations. The actual 2-propanone concentrations should be measured by a suitable calibrated analyser. The position of the small bottles in the PAP meter is of great importance. Recommended positions are illustrated in Figure 6.9. The steady-state concentration of 2-propanone in the top of the diﬀuser depends on the level of the liquid in the small bottles (which is standardized at 10ml), the location of the small bottles in the jar of the PAP meter, the ambient temperature (standardized at 228C), and the size of the holes in the caps of the small bottles through which the 2-propanone diﬀuses. To get steady state, it is recommended to condition the whole apparatus and the small bottles with 2-propanone the day before any test. One hour before the test, place the bottles in position in the jar, leave the over-caps oﬀ and activate the fan. After 30 minutes a steady-state level with less than 3 per cent variation should be reached. The space where the sensory panel is trained has to fulﬁl certain criteria. Preferable is a space that has: . . . . . temperature control; 100 per cent outdoor ventilation; a ﬁltration unit (for example, active carbon); a Teﬂon layer on walls, ﬂoor and ceiling; displacement ventilation (from ﬂoor to ceiling) or local exhaust. Acceptable is a space that is empty (no smoking) and has: . walls, ﬂoor and ceiling covered with a Teﬂon layer or cleaned with a nonsmelling agent; 116 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 6.1 PAP values and 2-propanone concentrations in PAP meters used as milestones Value 1 (no odour) 2 5 10 20 . . Concentration [ppm] <1 5 19 42 87 mechanical air supply with ﬁltered air; mixing ventilation with a certain minimum ventilation rate. During the tests, the background level of 2-propanone should not be more than 1 ppm. Five diﬀerent 2-propanone concentrations generated by ﬁve PAP meters are used as milestones for the training. These milestones have PAP values corresponding to the concentrations in Table 6.1 of 2-propanone in the top of the cone. The equation for calculating the values is: PAP value ¼ 0:84 þ 0:22 2 propanone concentration (ppm) ð6:1Þ Once the milestones are calibrated, it is important to keep the same PAP meters with the same bottles at the same locations in the jar, since changing these parameters may change the 2-propanone concentration in the cone. For selecting the panel, eight additional PAP meters with ﬁve concentrations ranging from 0–40 ppm and three with 5–90 ppm are prepared. The applicants are asked to assess these eight diﬀerent concentrations of 2-propanone using the milestones as the reference. They will be instructed to have at least two inhalations of unpolluted air in between each PAP sniﬀ. The question asked of the applicants is: How strong is the air that you perceive? Give a number on a scale from 1 to 20, but refer this number always to the numbers on the milestones 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20. One is equal to no smell (you perceive nothing), 20 is equal to extreme strong smell. The applicants are allowed to go back and forth between the eight diﬀerent unknown concentrations and the milestones as much as they need, and note the given value for each unknown PAP meter. The dozen subjects with the least sum of diﬀerences between given and actual values are selected. Training procedure The 12–15 subjects are trained for three to ﬁve days in smaller groups of three or four people. Each day, they receive approximately one hour of intensive training. In the ﬁrst two days, the panel is trained to assess perceived air Contaminants in Air Handling Units 117 pollution of concentrations of 2-propanone unknown to them by making comparison with the milestones. On the third, fourth and ﬁfth days, training includes 2-propanone concentrations and other sources of pollution. Since the pollutants have diﬀerent characters to 2-propanone it is of great importance that the subjects understand that they are exposed to the intensity by comparing the intensity of the milestones. Up to 12 diﬀerent concentrations of pollutants are presented each training day. After the evaluation of each unknown concentration of 2-propanone, the panel member is given the correct answer and their performance is discussed with the experiment leader. The panel members write their votes on a form where it is possible to follow their performance during the training. Panel members are submitted to a test similar to the selection test at the end of the third and ﬁfth training days. If they do not succeed, they should either quit the panel or train for two additional days. Experimental day On each experimental day, the panel members are retrained for approximately 15–20 minutes per group of three to four people. During this training the panel members are exposed to two or three diﬀerent concentrations of 2-propanone and two diﬀerent materials, on which they receive feedback. Also on each experimental day, the panel members are exposed to six diﬀerent concentrations of 2-propanone corresponding to the values 1, 3, 7, 12, 16 and 19. The concentrations of 2-propanone should be measured just before the sensory assessments of each group of panel members. These exposures make it possible to compare diﬀerent sensory panels and to calculate performance factors. The panel members are placed in a well-ventilated waiting room. During each round of assessments, one by one the subjects assess the intensity of the perceived air pollution of the air sample (from a material in a PAP meter, in a walk-in climate chamber, air from a ventilation system and so on) by making comparison with the intensity of the milestones. The panel members are allowed to go back and forth between the milestones and the polluted air sample. The members write down their assessment on a voting sheet, which is handed to the experiment leader before making the next assessment. The time between assessments or each panel member should not be less than three minutes. An experienced panel member can assess an air sample within 30–45 seconds. With a panel of 12 subjects the time between assessments for a panel member will be approximately nine minutes, and for a group of four panel members three minutes. Contaminant transport in rotating heat exchangers Principle of the method A heated VOC mix is injected in the extract duct (star in Figure 6.10), in such a way that the VOCs are well evaporated and mixed into the air at location C4 118 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Exhaust air C6 Extract air C4 - + Outdoor air C1 Supply air C3 Figure 6.10 Schematics of an air handling unit showing location of VOC injection and sampling points, Ci , for concentration analysis Source: Roulet et al., 2000. of Figure 6.10. The concentration of these VOCs in the air is analysed at the four locations shown in Figure 6.10. Locations C6 and C3 should be far enough from the rotating heat exchanger to ensure a good mixing after sorption and desorption. If there is no transfer at all, C3 ¼ C1 ¼ C0 , the outdoor concentration of each compound, and C6 ¼ C4 . If some VOCs are transferred, there should be, at steady state, equilibrium between the amount of VOC taken in extract air and the amount transferred to supply air: Qe ðC4 C6 Þ ¼ Qs ðC3 C1 Þ ð6:2Þ The transfer rate can be calculated as the ratio of the mass ﬂow rate of VOC delivered into supply air, and the mass ﬂow rate of VOC in extract air: R¼ Qs ðC3 C1 Þ Qs ðC3 C1 Þ ¼ Q e C4 Qe C6 Qs ðC3 C1 Þ ð6:3Þ Injection technique Injection could be performed in two ways: 1 At a constant ﬂow rate – for example, by evaporating the mix placed in an open pan. Interpretation is performed as described in Chapter 1, ‘Constant injection rate’, or Chapter 2, ‘Tracer gas dilution’. The problem is that the injection rate, I, is rather diﬃcult to control for each component in the mix. 2 Pulse injection – sampling is started ﬁrst. Soon after the sampling starts, a known mass of VOC mix is injected, either with a spray or, better, by ﬂash evaporation (see Figure 6.11). This injection does not need to be very short, but it should be shorter than the sampling time. Sampling is continued after the end of the injection for more than two air changes, ensuring that VOC concentration is returned down to background level. Interpretation is performed as described in Chapter 1, ‘Pulse injection’. The amount injected is such that the resulting concentration values are clearly above the concentration outdoors, but below the saturation limit of the samplers. Contaminants in Air Handling Units Stainless steel turnings 119 Syringe Hot air blower (200 °C) Ø 6 mm copper tube Figure 6.11 Flash evaporation device for injecting the VOCs Source: Roulet et al., 2000. Air sampling and analysis Air at the four locations is sampled with a pump through small tubes ﬁlled with an adsorbing medium (for example, activated charcoal, TENAX). The sampling rate is about 0.1 l of air per minute. VOCs accumulate in the compound by absorption, as long as the medium is not saturated. The sampling tube is then hermetically sealed and taken to the laboratory for further analysis. The VOCs are desorbed by heating the tubes and they are stored in a cold trap. The content of the trap is then injected in the column of a gas chromatograph. A ﬂame ionization detector (FID) is used to detect and measure the amount of each compound, while a mass spectrograph is used to help identify the compound (Mogl et al., 1995). An FID analyser can also be used on site to sample and analyse the air but, if pulse injection is used, this analysis should be performed at periodical and short intervals at the four locations shown in Figure 6.10. Which VOCs? The ‘natural’ concentration of VOCs is often (and hopefully!) not large enough to provide accurate measurement of transfer rate. Therefore, a mix of various VOCs should be injected in the extract duct in order to obtain concentrations that are signiﬁcantly larger than concentrations in outdoor air. Criteria to determine the VOCs’ mixture are: . . . . . The compounds are selected on their occurrence in buildings. Sources are paints, paper, solvents, carpets and human emissions. They are representative of the diﬀerent organic families with the characteristic of their functional group and saturation degree. The result is diﬀerent boiling point and polarity. They are easy to analyse and the results are signiﬁcant. The concentrations chosen must be under the saturation limit of the TENAX sampler. The compounds should be easy to manipulate They should not give a long-lasting and bad smell in the room and should present an acceptable toxicity at the measured concentrations. Lists of VOCs found most often in oﬃce buildings, as well as proposals for VOC cocktails can be found in the literature (Brown et al., 1994; Hodgson, 1995; Maroni et al., 1995; Molhave et al., 1997; Wolkoﬀ et al., 1997; van der 120 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 6.2 List of VOCs used for contaminant transfer experiments Class Alkanes Compound (current names) n-decane Alcohols n-butanol 1-hexanol phenol Haloalcanes 1,6-dichlorohexane Aldehydes hexanal (caproaldehyde) benzaldehyde Cyclic and 4-isopropenyl 1-methyl aromatic cyclohexene (limonene) hydrocarbons 1,3-dimethylbenzene (m-xylene) 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene) Ethers dipropylether Formula C10 H22 CH3 (CH2 )3 OH CH3 (CH2 )5 OH C6 H5 OH Cl(CH2 )6 Cl CH3 (CH2 )4 CHO C6 H5 CHO C10 H16 Sources Paints and associated supplies Adhesives Solvent Boiling point [ oC] 174 117 158 182 203 128 179 177 1,3-(CH3 )2 C6 H4 Solvent, adhesives Paper, paints Adhesives Perfumed waxes and cleaners Solvent, fuel 139 1,3,5-(CH3 )3 C6 H3 Solvent, fuel 165 CH3 (CH2 )2 O(CH2 )2 CH3 Paints and associated supplies 91 Wal et al., 1998). These lists can inspire a selection of compounds to include in the mix. However, the total number of compounds should not be too large in order to keep the analysis at a practical level. Therefore, the list in Table 6.2, which includes most signiﬁcant VOCs for several classes of organic compounds, was found suitable after careful selection. It should be noted that acetic and butyric acids were chosen in a ﬁrst step, but eliminated after the initial experiments for two reasons. First, because they are poorly selected by the columns used in the gas chromatograph, and second, because butyric acid has an awful smell. Example of application Experiments were performed on three small to medium air handling units, ventilating an auditorium and a laboratory at the EPFL,1 and a building at the EMPA.2 The characteristics of these units, measured using tracer gas dilution technique, are summarized in Table 6.3. Both EPFL units are equipped with a rotating heat exchanger, whose wheel has a diameter of 785 mm, is 200 mm thick and rotates at 11 rpm. It is made of thin aluminium sheet, sinusoidally corrugated with a wavelength of 4.2 mm and peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.9 mm. A ﬂat foil is placed between corrugated foils (see Figure 6.12). The aluminium sheets are treated to have a hygroscopic surface (see Figure 6.13) The purging sector is a rectangle 100 mm high and 40 mm thick. The purging sector was correctly used in the laboratory unit. The auditorium Contaminants in Air Handling Units 121 Table 6.3 Characteristics of the air handling units used for the experiments EPFL Quantity Outdoor airﬂow rate Supply airﬂow rate Extract airﬂow rate Exhaust airﬂow rate Recirculation ﬂow rate Recirculation rate Room mean age of air EMPA Unit Auditorium Laboratory Akademie 3 1900 100 2070 70 1790 40 1600 200 130 50 7% 4% 15 1 2530 80 2900 200 1860 50 1500 200 100 200 5% 11% 10 1 7000 1000 9500 120 5790 60 3000 1600 1500 900 26% 16% 20 1 m /h min unit, however, was found with the wheel turning in the wrong way, making the purging sector inactive. The measured ventilation eﬃciency in the EMPA academy is about 70 per cent, showing displacement ventilation. The rotating heat exchanger is made of Hexcore, a honeycomb consisting of a synthetic ﬁbre material (Nomex). It has no hygroscopic coating. The wheel has a diameter of 1580 mm, is 140 mm thick 2 mm Figure 6.12 EPFL wheel structure 10 mm Figure 6.13 SEM image of a new hygroscopic coating 122 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 6.4 Pressure diﬀerentials in the units [Pa] Auditorium unit Filters Across wheel in Inlet – supply 88 5 Extract – exhaust 107 5 Laboratory unit out 80 5 110 5 EMPA unit in out in out 85 5 60 5 82 5 67 5 97 2 94 1 109 3 88 1 125 5 54 5 30 5 21 5 230 2 283 5 72 5 125 5 125 5 137 5 423 2 475 5 Between Cold side supply and Warm side exhaust and rotates at 5 rpm. The diameter of one honeycomb cell is 1.5 mm. The wheel has no purging sector and the fans are not in their ideal positions. This explains the high recirculation ﬂow rate of about 15 per cent. Pressure diﬀerentials were measured in all units just before or after the experiments. These are shown in Table 6.4. It can be seen that a negative pressure between supply and exhaust ducts allows vitiated air to pass from exhaust to supply through possible leakage. This is especially remarkable in the EMPA unit, where the fans are both on the same side of the wheel. The climatic conditions just before or after the experiments are shown in Table 7.2. Results Experiments were performed several times in various conditions. In order to avoid adsorption in ﬁlters, these were taken out during experiments. Experiments were performed with the rotating heat exchanger turning in the correct direction, i.e. with an active purging sector, and in the wrong direction, thus suppressing the eﬀect of the purging sector. Table 6.5 Climatic conditions in the units [8C] Unit Expt. Dew point Inlet Supply Extract Exhaust Auditorium unit Laboratory unit EMPA Aþ1 Aþ2 Aþ3 A1 A2 Lþ1 Lþ2 L1 L2 Temperature Inlet 4.4 Supply 20.0 Extract 18.0 Exhaust 10.0 0.1 1.1 2.3 0.9 0.1 1.1 2.3 0.9 3.8 3.8 4.6 3.8 2.5 0.9 0.2 1.6 3.8 3.8 4.6 3.8 2.5 0.9 0.2 1.6 1.8 11.7 11.2 12.1 4.4 20.0 18.0 10.0 9.7 20.4 20.2 13.0 4.4 20.0 18.0 10.0 9.7 20.4 20.2 13.0 15.2 21.0 22.4 18.1 13.1 22.2 22.2 15.5 15.2 21.0 22.4 18.1 13.1 22.2 22.2 15.5 19.5 24.0 24.6 20.7 Contaminants in Air Handling Units 123 Table 6.6 VOC transfer rate in the experiments performed in both EPFL units (%) Auditorium unit Purging sector Experiment no. 1,6-Dichlorohexane 1-Butanol 1-Hexanal 1-Hexanol Benzaldehyde Dipropylether Limonene Mesitylene m-Xylene n-Decane Phenol With Laboratory unit Without With Without Aþ1 Aþ2 Aþ3 A1 A2 Lþ1 Lþ2 L1 L2 26 9 15 36 10 10 11 5 4 8 51 16 10 14 32 12 13 10 9 8 10 44 38 29 23 45 31 13 13 20 13 25 54 4 16 15 30 18 5 16 15 10 16 50 58 42 29 54 49 22 14 31 20 42 71 8 11 17 16 8 5 3 7 9 8 32 17 9 3 20 10 5 0 9 9 10 37 34 34 38 41 28 24 14 28 28 27 64 47 39 34 62 39 9 13 28 27 29 64 Results of all experiments are shown in Tables 6.6 and 6.7. Evidence for adsorption Leakage and entrained air would result in the same recirculation rate for all chemical compounds, this rate being about 7 per cent for the auditorium unit, close to zero for the laboratory unit, and about 25 per cent for the EMPA unit. Recirculation rates of most VOCs are larger than that. The diﬀerences among compounds shown in Figures 6.14 and 6.15 can be explained only by a physico-chemical behaviour such as adsorption. In all Table 6.7 VOC transfer rate in the EMPA experiments Experiment no. Sampling time 1-Hexanal 1-Hexanol + m-Xylol Benzaldehyde Dipropylether Limonene Mesitylene n-Decane Phenol 1 (%) 2 (%) 3 (%) 91 mins 74 51 85 15 35 46 46 94 91 mins 57 39 63 25 22 29 30 57 45 mins 92 59 100 53 47 54 54 101 Average (%) Standard Deviation 74 49 83 39 35 43 43 84 18 10 19 20 13 13 12 24 124 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% n- D ec an e 1Bu ta no 1l H ex an ol Ph e 1- nol H ex Be an nz al 1, al 6d D e h ic yd hl e or oh ex D an ip e ro py le th er Li m on en e m -X yl en M e es ity le ne No purging sector With purging sector Figure 6.14 Average VOC recirculation rates measured in the EPFL auditorium (leaky) unit, with and without purging sector Source: Roulet et al., 2000. experiments, the smallest recirculation rates are for limonene. They are close to the rates that could be expected from leakage or entrained air. At the other extreme, it is clear that phenol, hexanal and dichlorohexane present a strong adsorption, which cannot be completely removed in the purging sector. More evidence for adsorption is the dependence on boiling point shown in Figure 6.16. The transfer ratio for each type of compound increases with the boiling point of the compound, as can be expected for adsorption or condensation. It is often claimed that non-hygroscopic wheels have a lower transfer ratio than hygroscopic wheels. Alternatively, it is also said among rotating heat exchanger specialists that non-hygroscopic wheels become hygroscopic with time (Ruud and Carlsson, 1996). It should be noticed that the recirculation rates measured in similar conditions (without purging sector) in a unit with a hygroscopic wheel (EPFL laboratory) and with a non-hygroscopic wheel (EMPA unit) are clearly correlated (see Figure 6.17). The line in this ﬁgure is a least square ﬁt line, with a correlation coeﬃcient of R ¼ 0:79, and slope 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% nD ec an e 1Bu ta no 1l H ex an ol Ph en ol 1H ex Be an nz al 1, al 6de D hy ic hl de or oh ex D an ip e ro py le th er Li m on en e m -X yl en M e es ity le ne No purging sector With purging sector Figure 6.15 Average VOC recirculation rates measured in the EPFL laboratory unit, with and without purging sector Contaminants in Air Handling Units 125 Transfer ratio 70% 60% 50% Alcohols 6 C chains 6 C cyclic 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 50 100 150 Boiling point [°C] 200 250 Figure 6.16 Transfer ratio as a function of the boiling point for three families Note: The ﬁlled square corresponds to dichlorohexane. 100% EMPA 80% y = 1.09x + 0.22 R2 = 0.63 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% EPFL laboratory Figure 6.17 Recirculation rates for each chemical compound measured in EPFL and EMPA units, in both cases without a purging sector unity. The average diﬀerence between recirculation rates is 22 per cent, close to the recirculation rate resulting from internal leakage in the EMPA unit. This supports the hypothesis that the surface of the clean new wheel has not much inﬂuence on the adsorption properties of aged wheels. There are, however, new developments of rotating heat exchangers transferring latent heat and water vapour, without transferring chemical compounds such as odours (Okano et al., 1999; Seibu Giken Co., 1999). Strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems Indoor air quality strategies for an optimal performance of HVAC systems and their components can be divided in two categories: . Strategies that aﬀect the HVAC system while in use – operation, maintenance and replacement strategies; 126 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 6.8 General IAQ strategies for HVAC systems Design Operation Prevent pollution from outdoor air coming into the system Select appropriate ﬁltering system Discontinuous sources: ventilate mainly Locate outdoor air intake at a clean site, when the source intensity is small far from potential pollution sources Continuous sources: use an appropriate ﬁltering system Prevent pollution Avoid recirculation Install appropriate ﬁltering system in extract duct. Active charcoal absorbs odours Install possibility for switching of recirculation system at certain hours from recirculation Suppress recirculation if possible Discontinuous indoor air sources: no recirculation at certain hours Continuous indoor air sources: use an appropriate ﬁltering system System settings/operation strategies Room temperature 208C (lower air temp. Start system before oﬃcial business hours improves perceived air quality) to purge the building (for example, two Room humidity at 30–60% (lower room nominal time constants earlier) humidity improves perceived air quality, Switch oﬀ during certain periods during but lower than 30 per cent might aﬀect the day, when nobody is present (meeting health negatively). rooms, for example) . Strategies that aﬀect the design of the HVAC system – design principles and innovative design strategies. For both of these categories, IAQ strategies were deﬁned to prevent HVAC systems and components from being and becoming a source of pollution (Bluyssen et al., 2003). These are summarized in Tables 6.8 to 6.14. Contaminants in Air Handling Units 127 Table 6.9 Checkpoints in HVAC units in visual inspection Component passed fail h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h Humidiﬁer Access door exists, but closed airtight Clean water, no visible microbial growth or oil ﬁlm Drop separator and drip pan are clean (if applicable) Drainage with siphon; clean Humidiﬁer automatically shuts down if the air handling unit is oﬀ The humidiﬁer runs dry when the HVAC unit is shut down h h h h h h h h h h h h Ducts Access door not blocked No condensed water or microbial growth in the ducts No pieces of construction materials, mineral wool etc in the ducts No metal powder in the ducts Amount of dust under limit value h h h h h h h h h h Outdoor chamber Access door: exists but closed Chamber is clean (no dirt, leaves, loose insulation materials etc.) Appropriate water drainage Filters Access door: closed airtight Pressure diﬀerence meter is installed and operational Chamber is clean and dry (no water on the bottom of the chamber) No broken ﬁlters or visible leaks Filters bags do not touch on the bottom of the chamber when the unit is not in operation Filters are clean (commissioning) or not too dirty/smelly (100% of the back side is not dark) Filters are of class F7 or better (ﬁne ﬁlters) Coils Access door: exists, but closed airtight Fins are clean and not damaged No visible microbial growth (cooling coils) Drip pan and drainage (cooling coils) Rotating heat exchanger Access doors on both sides No signiﬁcant leakage between supply and exhaust channels Purging sector is installed on the warm side of the wheel Wheel rotates in correct direction (wheel material passes in front of the purging sector after having left the exhaust part of the unit) F5 or better class ﬁlters are installed upwind of the wheel in both ducts Pressure diﬀerence between supply and exhaust is positive Wheel stops automatically when heat recovery is smaller than the power needed to turn the wheel 128 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 6.10 IAQ strategies for ﬁlters Design Operation Prevent ﬁlters from becoming a source of pollution Select a low-polluting new ﬁlter Change ﬁlter on time: depending on the Condition (bake) new ﬁlters before use situation, traﬃc and other loads once in Use another ﬁltering method such as 1–12 months, but in general every six electrostatic ﬁltering or apply a two or months for highly polluted areas (town) more phase ﬁltering system and one year for low-polluting areas Keep the ﬁlter dry (by proper layout of air (countryside) intake section, heating of supply air with Check pollution eﬀect regularly in pre-heater or heating ﬁlters for a certain sensory, chemical and biological terms period) Minimize micro-organisms (UV radiation) Avoid snow penetrating in the HVAC system by proper layout of air intake section Keep ﬁlter bags from lying on the bottom of the ﬁlter chamber when the HVAC unit is not in operation (preventing ﬁlters absorbing water due to eventual rain or snow penetration) Prevent outdoor air from bypassing the ﬁlter Make certain the ﬁlter frame and sealing Make certain the ﬁlter frame and sealing seat have no leaks seat have no leaks Prevent outdoor air impurities from passing the ﬁlter itself: proper choice of ﬁlter type Contaminants in Air Handling Units 129 Table 6.11 IAQ strategies for ducts Design Operation Prevent ducts from becoming a source of pollution Use duct processed without oil, and which Inspect ducts at least once a year and does not emit pollutants itself (label or clean if necessary smell) Interior surfaces should be smooth, avoid sharp edges or self-tapping screws in ducts Prevent dust accumulating during operation or debris from construction Keep duct ends closed until in operation Inspect ducts at least once a year and Keep accessories packed in closed boxes clean if necessary Remove packaging just before installation Check ﬁlter system that provides clean air Prior to ﬁrst operation, check all parts in to duct at least once a year contact with the airﬂow for cleanliness, and reclean if necessary Install a ﬁlter system upwind of the ducts Prevent condensation points Add insulation material outside the ducts Prevent condensation from humidiﬁers Other recommendations Limit ﬂexible air ducts (diﬃcult to clean) Check location and service openings, Avoid sealant with high emission and do especially in spaces with suspended not attach tapes or tags ceilings Very often service openings in Install service openings ducts are useless because there is no Install stiﬀeners and other ﬁttings in such a opening in the suspended ceiling or there way that deposits of dirt are prevented are cables under the service opening and cleaning can be carried out 130 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 6.12 IAQ strategies for rotating heat exchangers Design Operation Select a wheel equipped with purging sector and install it with the purging sector on the warm side of the wheel Supply and exhaust fans should be located and sized so that a positive pressure diﬀerence of about 200 Pa is achieved between supply and exhaust ducts at the wheel level Avoid hygroscopic wheels when contamination is an important concern Change wheels if they are warped Install ﬁlters in both channels upwind of the heat exchanger If pressure on supply side is negative compared to exhaust side then change pressure hierarchy If the rotation of wheel is in the wrong direction then change to proper direction: the wheel should pass from exhaust to supply ducts in front of the purging sector Clean dirty wheels according to instructions of the manufacturer, with either compressed air, vacuum cleaner or pressurized water Check that the wheel control stops the wheel when no heat can be recovered Table 6.13 IAQ strategies for humidiﬁers Design Operation Prevent pollution from water, water tanks and devices/agents to disinfect, demineralize and/or desalinate the water Remove oil residue before use of If there is an oil ﬁlm on water surface, humidiﬁer to prevent an oil ﬁlm on water drain water and clean humidiﬁer Take care using disinfecting material immediately Use UV as germicide Change water every week De-ionization cartridges to prepare soft Clean tank (not possible for steam: keep water might emit VOCs them dry/empty when not in use) Install demineralization device in disperser Clean humidiﬁer regularly every six to keep the oscillator circuit board free months (dry or wet) from mineral precipitation for as long as Desalinization must take place with an possible agent that does not smell Use a control system with which Humidiﬁer should automatically shut Check operation of control system down when the HVAC system is oﬀ regularly New water is added when the water temperature exceeds 208C (spray nozzle and evaporative humidiﬁers, ultrasonic humidiﬁers) Other recommendations Do not use porous wet material Prevent condensation from steam humidiﬁer Contaminants in Air Handling Units 131 Table 6.14 IAQ strategies for coils Design Operation Prevent water reservoirs and material of Keep outlet of drain free at the lowest point of the drain pan (include angle) Water/condensation should not stay too long in reservoirs: change system design Remove oil before installation Prevent corrosion by selecting the proper material Do not place any adsorbing material behind cooling coil coils from becoming a source of pollution Maintain on time Water collection reservoirs: remove water regularly, clean Check for visible growth of moulds on coil surface Prevent water droplets from being produced Place a droplet catcher behind cooling coil Notes 1 E´cole Polytechnique Fe´de´rale de Lausanne (Swiss Federal Institue of Technology of Lausanne). 2 Swiss Federal Research Institute for Materials. 7 Common Methods and Techniques Expressing concentrations and ﬂow rates Coherent units When using equations, such as Equation 2.7, to model ventilation systems, coherent units should be used to get the correct results. Some examples are given in Table 7.1, and Annex A gives conversion tables. If the analysers and tracer gas ﬂowmeters do not provide coherent units, the measured data should be converted to coherent units before further interpretation. Corrections for density changes Note that Equation 2.7 is essentially a mass conservation equation, and is therefore exact only when mass ﬂow rates and mass concentrations are used. However, volume concentration and volume ﬂow rate can be used as long as the density of air does not change too much along its ﬂow. The perfect gas law can model air as well as the tracer gases at ambient temperature: pV ¼ nRT ð7:1Þ where: p is the V is the n is the R ¼ 8:31396 J/(mole K) is the T is the pressure of the gas, occupied volume, number of moles of gas, molar gas constant, absolute temperature. The density of a mixture of gases, can then be calculated. Let Mi be the molar P mass of the gas, i , that is the mass of Nav ¼ 6.02486 1023 molecules. The density is obtained by multiplying Equation 7.1 by M and dividing it by V: n M p m M ¼ ð7:2Þ ¼ ¼ V V RT Common Methods and Techniques 133 Table 7.1 Examples of coherent units Airﬂow rate kg/s m3 /h m3 /h Injection rate Concentration kg/s m3 /h cm3 /h Mass concentration Volume concentration ppm with P i M i ni M¼ P i ni ð7:3Þ ¼ 28:96 g/mole. being the average molar mass of the mixture. For dry air, M The relative change in density is then: p T M ¼ þ p T M ð7:4Þ As long as the tracer gas is present only in trace concentration, the temperature has the largest eﬀect on the density. Conversion formulae for concentration The conversion between units of tracer (or contaminant) concentration requires the knowledge of the densities of tracer (or contaminant) and air, or of their molecular masses. Therefore, formulae are given below instead of tables. Concentration of a gas in a mixture can be expressed in several ways: The mass concentration, Cm , is the ratio of the mass of the considered gas, x, and the mass of the mixture: m Cm ¼ P x i mi ð7:5Þ The molar concentration, CM , is the ratio of the number of molecules, or of moles, of the considered gas to the total number of molecules, or moles, in the mixture: n CM ¼ P x i ni ð7:6Þ The volume concentration, CV , is the ratio of the volume of the considered gas at the considered temperature and pressure and the volume of the mixture at the same temperature and pressure. It is also the ratio of the partial pressure of the considered gas and the total pressure: CV ¼ Vx p x ¼ V p ð7:7Þ 134 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings In a mixture, every gas, x, occupies the whole volume, V: V¼ nx RT px ð7:8Þ The relations between mass concentration, Cm , molar concentration, CM , and volume concentration, Cv of component x, are then: m M n M M Cm ¼ P x ¼ P x x ¼ x CM ¼ x CV M M i mi i Mi ni ð7:9Þ Molar and volume concentration are the same, since at a given pressure and temperature, one mole of gas always occupies the same volume. Tracer gas dilution techniques Tracer gas dilution techniques are among the most eﬃcient to assess airﬂow patterns within buildings and air handling systems. They consist of ‘colouring’ or marking the air with a tracer gas, i.e. a gas that mixes well with the air and is easy to analyse in trace amounts. Non-toxic tracer gases may be useful to simulate the behaviour of contaminants having similar densities. The concentration of tracer gas is analysed when or where the tracer is well mixed with the air. The evolution of the measured concentration depends on both the injection ﬂow rate and the airﬂow rate that dilutes the tracer. Interpreting this concentration evolution provides airﬂow rates, age of the air, ventilation eﬃciency, leakage ﬂow rates and so on. Applications of these techniques are presented in Chapters 1, 2 and 3. The technique itself, i.e. the tracer gases, the injection techniques and the analysers are presented here. Properties of tracer gases A tracer gas used for airﬂow measurements in buildings should ideally have the following properties: 1 be easily analysable, preferably at low concentrations to reduce cost and side eﬀects such as density changes or toxicity; 2 have low background concentration, allowing the use of low concentration in measurements; 3 be neither ﬂammable nor explosive at practical concentrations, for obvious safety reasons; 4 be non-toxic at the concentration used, for obvious health reasons in inhabited buildings; 5 have a density close to the air density (i.e. a molecular weight close to 29 g/mole) to ensure easy mixing; 6 not be absorbed by furnishings, decompose or react with air or building components; 7 should be cheap in the quantity required for measurement. Common Methods and Techniques 135 Table 7.2 Properties of the gases most frequently used as tracers Tracer name Chemical formula Molecular Density/air MAC weight @NTP [ppm] MDCy [] Helium Neon He Ne 4 20 0.14 0.69 – – >6 106 >20 1012 Carbon dioxide Nitrous oxide CO2 N2 O 44 44 1.53 1.53 5000 25 3 106 50 109 Sulphur hexaﬂuoride SF6 146 5.10 1000 Freon R11 Freon R12 Freon R13 Freon R22 Freon R111 Freon R112 Freon R113 Freon R114 Freon R115 Halon 1211 Halon 1301 137 120 104 86 220 203 187 171 154 165 149 4.74 4.17 3.60 2.99 7.60 7.03 5.90 5.90 5.31 5.53 4.99 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 ? ? CFCl3 CF2 Cl2 CF3 Cl CHF2 Cl CCl3 –CCl2 F CCl2 F–CCl2 F CCl2 F–CClF2 CClF2 CClF2 CClF2 CF3 CF2 BrCl CF3 Br IR IR 0:1 1012 ECD (IR) 1 1012 50 109 50 109 20 109 50 109 50 109 50 109 0:5 109 10 1012 ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD ECD (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) (IR) Liquid @NTP Perfreons PB C6 F6 Perfreobenzene PMB CF3 C6 F5 Perﬂuoromethylbenzene PMCH CF3 C6 F11 Perﬂuoro-methyl-cyclohexane PDCH CF3 CF3 C6 F10 Perﬂuoro-dimethyl-cyclohexane PMCP CF3 C5 F9 Perﬂuoro-methyl-cyclopentane PDCB CF3 CF3 C4 F6 Perﬂuoro-dimethyl-cyclobutane Analyser (besides MS) 186 (6.4) ECD 236 (8.1) ECD 350 (12.1) – 1014 ECD 400 (13.8) – 1014 ECD 300 (10.3) – 1014 ECD 300 (10.3) – 1014 ECD Note: MAC ¼ maximum acceptable concentration for health safety; y MDC ¼ minimum detectable concentration using the best available analyser. The useful concentration is about 100 times larger; IR: Infrared absorption spectrograph or photo-acoustic detector; ECD: Gas chromatography and electron capture detector. Item 5 is important mainly if the concentration is relatively high (for example, 0.1 per cent or higher). For this reason and to achieve also items 3, 4 and 7, items 1 and 2 are essential. Table 7.2 shows properties of tracers that have been used, together with appropriate detection methods. Note that the mass spectrometer (MS) can 136 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Table 7.3 Background concentration of some gases Gas Formula Rural concentration Water vapour Argon H2 O Ar 20 103 9.3 103 Carbon dioxide Helium Methane CO2 He CH4 350 106 5.24 106 1.48 106 Nitrous oxide Ozone Nitrogen oxides N2 O O3 NOx 315 109 35 109 3 109 Methyl chloride Freon R12 Freon R11 Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Neon CH3 Cl CCl2 F2 CCl3 F CCl4 CHCl3 Ne 630 1012 305 1012 186 1012 135 1012 20 1012 18 1012 Sulphur hexaﬂuoride Halon 1301 PDCH or Perﬂuoro-dimethyl-cyclohexane PMCH or Perﬂuoro-methyl-cyclohexane PMCP or Perﬂuoro-methyl-cyclopentane PDCB or Perﬂuoro-dimethyl-cyclobutane SF6 CF3 Br CF3 CF3 C6 F10 CF3 C6 F11 CF3 C5 F9 CF3 CF3 C4 F6 850 1015 750 1015 22 1015 4.5 1015 3.2 1015 0.34 1015 Source: Dietz et al., 1983. potentially analyse any tracer. Table 7.3 shows their background concentrations in outdoor air. It can be seen in Tables 7.2 and 7.4 that no tracer complies with all the requirements. Moreover, because of possible interferences in the analyser used for multi-tracer experiments, the use of a speciﬁc tracer may forbid the use of several other interesting tracers. A comparative experiment of the mixing of diﬀerent tracers (SF6 , N2 O and He) was performed to study the eﬀect of density (Niemela¨ et al., 1990). This study shows that diﬀerences may occur when the tracer is at concentrations higher than 10 per cent, for example, where it is not well mixed with air at the injection location. However, density eﬀect is not a major cause of error for tracer gas measurements, and mixing can be improved (see ‘Mixing tracer gases’, below). Indeed, each tracer gas has some inconveniences: helium is too light and requires an expensive mass spectrometer for analysis; neon is expensive; CO2 is very cheap to obtain and to analyse but has a large background; N2 O interferes with water vapour; SF6 has a strong greenhouse eﬀect; freons and halons destroy the ozone layer; and perfreons are adsorbed in furniture. Common Methods and Techniques 137 Table 7.4 Qualities of some tracer gases Name Compliance with the quality Low No No Ease BackNo ﬁre Low Density hazard toxicity close to reactivity of ground local cost use conc. sources air Helium Neon Carbon dioxide Nitrous oxide SF6 Freons R11, R12, R13 Freons R111 to R115 Halon BCF Halon R13B1 Perfreons (PFT) þþ þþ þþ y y y y y þþ þþ þþ – – þ þ þ þ þ þþ — þþ þ þ – – — — — — þþ þþ – – þ þ þ þþ þþ — þ þþ þþ þ þþ þ þ þ þ þ – þ — þ þþ þ þ þþ þþ þþ þ þþ — þ þþ þ þ þ þ þþ þ — þþ þ – þ þ – þ þ Note: þþ Very good for that property; þ Good; – Not so good; — Poor; Is not combustible but a strong oxidant at high concentration and temperature; y Is not combustible but decomposes in a ﬂame, producing toxic chemicals. Mixing tracer gases Perfect mixing of tracer gas in the air of the measured zone or in the measured duct is essential when determining the airﬂow rates, but not for experiments to determine the age of the air. We found that in a closed, quiet, isothermal room, it may take several hours to mix a tracer gas into the air. In a 60 m3 room, this time is shortened to less than half an hour if a 100 W heat source (such as a quiet person or a light bulb) is present. A small 20 W fan like those used to ventilate the power supplies of computers reduces the mixing time down to ﬁve minutes. Several methods can be used to improve or accelerate the mixing of tracer gases. The most widely used method is to inject the tracer upwind of a mixing fan, which can be a small 20 W cooling fan used in the electronic industry. Alternatives include portable oscillating fans. This method works perfectly but changes the thermal gradients in the measured zone, and may aﬀect the air exchange rates. It should not be used during the measurement of the age of the air. Mixing fans are not necessary if the injection nozzles are located at the locations where natural convection or mechanical ventilation provides signiﬁcant air currents. Moreover, a continuous injection ﬂow rate greatly assists the attainment of a uniform tracer gas concentration and is therefore preferred to pulse injection. Quick mixing with the air around the injection port is obtained if the velocity of the tracer gas at the injection nozzle is large enough to create a turbulent jet (Silva and Afonso, 2004). For this purpose, the ﬂow controlling valve and nozzle should be at the end of the injection tube, with the tube 138 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings maintained under pressure. It is noted, however, that these two conditions complicate the experimental arrangement since control leads must extend to the end of the injection tube, and the system, under pressure, will be more sensitive to leaks. In buildings with a large internal volume it may be necessary to discharge large amounts of tracer. If this is the case, then the following method may be used: the operator works out a zigzag or circular path through the area that will give good coverage of the building. The time taken to walk along the path is noted. The amount of gas required to dose the area is evaluated (from knowledge of the building volume and the required initial concentration), and the gas ﬂow rate needed to discharge that volume of gas in the time taken to walk along the path is calculated. The gas cylinder is set to discharge the gas at the required rate and the operator walks along the path carrying the discharging cylinder. Some mixing of air and tracer will occur as a consequence of the movement of the operator through the building. Mixing of tracer gas in ducts and air handling units is described in Chapter 2, ‘Tracer gas injection ports’. Tracer density problem If the tracer gas density diﬀers signiﬁcantly from that of the air, that is, if its molecular weight diﬀers much from 29g/mole, the concentrated tracer rises or falls (depending on its density) directly as it leaves the injection duct. Injection jets help to avoid this, while diﬀusers make the phenomenon worse, since they lower the injection speed of the concentrated tracer. Since there is no non-toxic tracer gas with the density of air (apart from ethane, which is explosive, the closest are highly toxic carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and nitrous oxide!), a simple approach is to dilute the tracer in air at about 1 :10 or more, and to use this diluted mixture. This not only adjusts the density, but also increases the injection ﬂow rate – thus helping mixing – and makes the problem of ﬂow control easier in relatively small rooms or for small concentrations. In any case, the tracer concentration should not exceed a value that signiﬁcantly changes the density of air. A proposed limit is: Clim 3 104 air 102 tracer Mtracer ð7:10Þ where M is the molecular mass of the tracer gas, in grams per mole. The factor 3 104 corresponds to a change in density for a temperature variation of 0.1 K in pure air. Such changes are very unlikely to have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the airﬂows in a space. With common tracer gases, this limit concentration is much larger than the concentrations commonly used. Several experiments have shown that if the tracer is properly injected, the errors caused by the tracer density are negligible in relation to other sources of error (Sandberg and Blomqvist, 1985). Common Methods and Techniques 139 Sampling methods Samples of air containing tracer gases need to be taken for analysis. There are several sampling methods, each one being adapted to a particular purpose. Grab sampling using hand pumps and bags is very cheap, easy to install and needs few materials in the ﬁeld. This method can be used for decay measurements in no more than a few zones, and for constant emission provided conditions remain constant. The passive sampling technique, which relies on adsorbing the tracers on a porous material, is used to sample the air continuously in such a way that the amount of tracer collected is proportional to the dose. An advantage of the passive (and also of active adsorbing) sampling is that, because of the storage in the adsorbing material, very tiny concentrations can be detected. The passive samplers and emitters are the only testing material and can be sent for analysis by mail. The above methods are most suitable for a small number of measurements. For continuous monitoring of variable airﬂow rates in several zones over a long period of time, sampling networks using tubes and pumps are recommended. Such a sampling network is made of pipes returning from each zone to the analyser, and one or more pumps to draw the air–tracer mixture through these pipes. Grab sampling This technique does not require expensive equipment to be used on the measurement site. The tracer gas is initially injected into the space and allowed to mix with the air. Because this whole process is designed to be as simple as possible, rudimentary injection techniques are usually employed: releasing the tracer from a syringe, a plastic bag or a plastic bottle has shown itself to be adequate for the purpose. When required, the air in the space is sampled using syringes, ﬂexible bottles, air bags or chemical indicator tubes (see ‘Chemical indicator tubes’, below). The sample taken in this manner is intended to give an instantaneous picture of the tracer concentration at that time, hence the actual time taken to take the sample should be kept as short as possible. After further deﬁned periods of time, more samples can be taken. A minimum of two samples are required to evaluate the average air change rate between the sampling times, but often more are taken to ensure accuracy. The time interval between samples or the absolute time that samples are taken must also be recorded. Air samples are then returned to the laboratory for analysis. Passive sampling These sampling devices are metallic or glass tubes a few millimetres in diameter, partly ﬁlled with a given quantity of adsorbing material, such as activated charcoal. For transport and storage, these tubes are sealed with 140 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings tight caps. Properly used passive samplers adsorb all the tracers that are in the air entering the sampler. They are used to obtain a quantity of tracer that is nearly proportional to the dose (that is, the time integral of the concentration) received during the measurement time. Passive (or diﬀusive) sampling is initiated by opening one end of the tube for hours, days or weeks. Since the tracer reaching the adsorbent is adsorbed, there is a concentration gradient between the absorbent and the entrance of the tube. This leads to a diﬀusive ﬂow of tracer, proportional to the concentration gradient. Active sampling can be carried out with the same tubes by pumping the air through the tube. This technique is mainly used to achieve quick sampling. To ensure that the entire tracer contained in the air is trapped on the adsorbent, care must be taken not to sample too large a volume of air or not to pump the air through the adsorbent too fast, otherwise ‘break through’ will occur. Networks, pumps and pipes A star-type pipe network may be used in conjunction with valves and pumps to periodically collect samples of air in the monitored zones and to direct them to the analyser, one after the other. Any small, airtight air pump is suitable to pump the sampled air to the analyser. Its model and size is chosen for a low working pressure, and with a ﬂow large enough to ﬂush the content of the pipe between two analysers. The working pressure is determined by the pressure drop through the sampling tubes and the analyser, and is usually less than 1000 Pa. The tubing must be airtight and should not signiﬁcantly adsorb or absorb the tracer gases. For these reasons, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes should be avoided, as well as Teﬂon if freons or PFTs are used. Suitable materials are nylon and polyethylene. Metallic pipes can also be used, but they are more diﬃcult to install. Never use tubes that have contained pure tracers, such as pipes once used for injection, since the small amounts of tracer gas absorbed in the plastic material will contaminate the sampled air. Such tubes should be marked or coloured and used exclusively for injection. The inner diameter of these tubes may range from a few millimetres to 1 cm. Smaller pipes lead to larger pressure drops and need stronger pumps, whereas larger pipes need larger ﬂows to ﬂush the content of the pipe in a reasonable time. To avoid large pressure drops and noise, the average speed in the tubes should not exceed 5 m/s. The choice of tube size is inﬂuenced by the overall length of tubing required, i.e. by the size of the building. Some indications are given below. For common tracer gases at temperatures commonly found in buildings, the pressure drop, p, for a length, L, of pipe of diameter, D, and volume ﬂow rate, q, is given by: p q ﬃ 733 106 4 L D ð7:11Þ Common Methods and Techniques 141 As an example, for an airﬂow rate of 100 l/h, that is 28 106 m3 /s, the minimum pipe inner diameter will be 2.6 mm to have an air speed of 5 m/s. In this case, the pressure drop will be 420 Pa/m, which may be too large in most buildings. A pipe with a 4 mm inner diameter will have an air speed of 2.2 m/s and a pressure drop of 80 Pa/m, which allows for 12 m long pipes with a pump allowing 1000 Pa under pressure at 10 l/h. Injection and sampling port locations To ensure the best possible mixing of tracer with air in the measured zone, the tracer gases should be injected at the locations where natural convection or mechanical ventilation provides signiﬁcant air currents. Examples are ventilation inlets and the bottom of heating devices. Sampling locations should be kept away from injection points, but at locations which are representative of the air in the zone or where mixing can be reasonably assumed to be good. Ventilation exhaust grilles are generally good locations. If there is a convective loop in the measured room, it is convenient to place injection and sampling points on this loop but at two opposite points. However, the points should not be placed near a door or a window that can be opened during the measurement. In a two-storey building with an open staircase, the upstairs tracer injection points should be placed close to the staircase, while the sampling points should be near the outside walls. To obtain a more representative sample, or to inject at several locations in a zone, the sampling or injection pipe may be connected to a mixing box or manifold, from which several pipes, of the same length and diameter, go to various locations in the zone. Injection and sampling sequence Multi-zone tracer gas active measurement methods generally use only one analyser and often single bottles of each gas. This requires the zones to be scanned in sequence. There are several ways to plan these sequences, the two extremes being sequential or simultaneous operation (see Figure 7.1). In sequential operation, one zone at a time, the sample tube for a given zone is pre-purged with a fresh sample prior to analysis. After this, some tracer gas is injected and the injection pipe is subsequently purged and the cycle repeated in another zone. The simultaneous operation applies mainly to the constant concentration method. The air from zone i is pre-purged, while the air from the preceding zone, i-1, is analysed. At the same time, the amount of tracer to be injected to zone i-2 (already analysed) is calculated and delivered while the injection pipe of zone i-3 (already injected) is purged. This strategy is much more complex to control but is fast. Purge injection Tracer gas Analysis Pre-purge Tracer gas Analysis Purge Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Purge 142 Figure 7.1 Two strategies for injection and sampling Note: Left is one zone at a time; right is time shared. Remember, however, that, in order to achieve good mixing, it is advantageous to inject the tracer continuously whenever possible. A series of short pulses spread evenly over time can simulate this continuous injection. The air used to purge the pipes should ideally come from the measured zone and be returned to the same zone. However, if the ﬂow rate in the sampling pipes is small, compared to the ventilation rate (which is the common case), it is reasonable to purge the injection tubes with outside air and to exhaust samples to the outside. To ensure that the analysed air has a concentration averaged over the time between two measurements; it is possible to continuously pump the air from each zone into an inﬂatable bag that is then periodically emptied into the analyser. Tracer gas analysers Objective of the analysis Measurement of the concentration of tracer in the air is the basic parameter needed for the interpretation or control of the concentration itself. Several analysing principles are available for such measurements. For any analyser, the salient features to consider are the following: . . . Sensitivity – it is desirable to minimize the quantity of tracer gas used, not only from the point of view of cost, but also toxicity, ﬁre or other hazards that may be relevant. The more sensitive the analyser, the lower is the required working concentration. Selectivity – the analyser should not be sensitive to other gases usually present in indoor air, for example, nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon dioxide, argon and so on. Speed – the time needed for the analysis must be considered, especially if several locations are to be sampled in sequence. The analysis time depends on the type of instrument and varies from milliseconds for mass spectrometers Common Methods and Techniques . 143 up to several minutes for gas chromatographs or multi-tracer infrared analysers. Faster analysis will enable more frequent sampling of each zone and hence provide more detailed data. Frequent sampling (for example, every ﬁve to ten minutes) is essential for the constant concentration technique to maintain accurate control of concentration. Accuracy – last but not least, the accuracy of the concentration measurement directly inﬂuences the accuracy of the results. There are several principles employed for analysis for tracer gas concentrations that diﬀer in the gases analysed, the range of concentration detected, accuracy, speed, ease of use and cost. These principles are discussed and speciﬁc examples are given below. Infrared absorption spectrometry Any polyatomic gas molecule exhibits vibration modes, which are excited by infrared radiation. The wavelengths of the infrared radiation corresponding to molecular vibration frequencies1 are absorbed in proportion to the number of tracer gas molecules present in the infrared beam. This absorption is used as a measure of the concentration of tracer gas molecules in the path between an infrared source and detector. This technique is referred to as absorption spectroscopy. Infrared absorption spectrometers may be either dispersive or non-dispersive types, and both are in common use. Dispersive spectrometers use a diﬀraction grating that reﬂects the electromagnetic waves of a light beam into diﬀerent directions, each direction corresponding to a given wavelength. The instrument is tuned by the operator to a narrow band of wavelengths speciﬁc to the gas of interest and any convenient infrared detector measures the absorption. Some modern instruments use tuneable laser diodes that emit the appropriate wavelength. In non-dispersive devices, all the infrared radiation present in the absorption bands of the tracer is used. The infrared light beam is sent through both a reference channel containing nitrogen or pure air and an analysis channel that contains a sample of room air. A chopper is used to alternately pass the radiation from each channel to an analysis chamber containing a pure sample of the tracer gas. This gas heats and cools in response to the modulated beam. The heated gas expands through a measuring channel into an expansion chamber. The resulting alternating ﬂow through the measuring channel is measured by a highly sensitive gas ﬂow detector, which transmits an electric signal. Characteristics of infrared absorption spectrometers: . . . Analysable tracers – N2 O, SF6 , halon 1301, CO2 . Other detectable gases, such as H2 O, benzene, alkenes and so on, are not suitable as tracers. The sensitivity depends on the analysed gas. For example, full-scale deviation is 200 ppm for N2 O, or 20 ppm for SF6 and CF3 Br. Interfering gases – care must be taken to eliminate the eﬀects of other gases absorbing at similar frequencies (cross-sensitivity), particularly water 144 . . Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings vapour and CO2 present at high concentrations in the air. Filters are used to minimize the eﬀect but humidity should be measured simultaneously to some tracers, such as N2 O, to allow for corrections. Analysis time – 10–50 s. Accuracy – 1 per cent of full scale if the zero drift is controlled. Photo-acoustic detector This analyser is also an infrared absorption spectrometer, but uses a diﬀerent detector. An infrared radiation beam is ﬁrst chopped then optically ﬁltered to leave only frequencies that are absorbed by the tracer of interest. This beam then enters a gas-tight chamber containing the air sample. As above, the sample is heated and cooled in phase with the chopping frequency, creating sound waves in the chamber. This is the photo-acoustic eﬀect. Microphones detect these sound waves. Characteristics of analysers with photo-acoustic detector: . . . . . Analysable tracers – N2 O, SF6, CO2 , freons F11, F112, 113 and 114, halons (one ﬁlter for each tracer). Other detectable gases are not suitable as tracers, such as H2 O, benzene, alkenes and so on. Sensitivity – the detection limit depends on the tracer but is typically 0.05 ppm, and the dynamic range is 105 . The lowest full-scale range may then be 2 ppm but 10 ppm is recommended with usual tracers. The sensitivity for N2 O, CO and CO2 drops strongly when these gases are diluted in dry nitrogen, as is often the case for calibration gases. Adding a special ‘Naﬁon’ tube in the sampling circuit allows for the moistening of the mixture in order to recover the normal high sensitivity. Interfering gases – several gases (which are not necessarily present in the air) may interfere with each tracer. Therefore, ﬁlters and tracers should be chosen in accordance with manufacturer’s speciﬁcations. Analysis time – 30 s for one gas, 105 s for ﬁve gases and H2 O. Accuracy – 1 per cent of full scale. Mass spectrometry The pressure of the air sample is ﬁrst lowered to about 105 Pa by pumping it through a capillary tube. The molecules of the sample are then ionized, accelerated to a given velocity and passed into a mass spectrometer. The classical mass spectrometer curves the trajectory of the ions with a strong magnetic ﬁeld. The radius of curvature depends on the velocity and charge-to-mass ratio of the ion; only those having the appropriate combination will pass a slit placed in front of the detector. The most suitable spectrometer is, however, the quadrupole mass spectrometer, which is currently used in vacuum processes to analyse the residual gases. The gases entering into the analyser are ionized and the positive ions are separated by directing them axially between two pairs of rods creating an electric ﬁeld at variable radio frequency. The ions follow a helicoidal path in Common Methods and Techniques 145 Table 7.5 Tracer gases most used in the mass spectrometer technique Mass Comments 127 51 7.6% of mass 127 peak. Interferes with Freon 22 Freon R22 þ CHF CHClFþ CHClþ 2 51 69 85 Interferes with SF6 2.1% of peak 51. Interferes with R14 and R13B1 1.5% of peak at mass 51. Interferes with R12 Freon R12 CClFþ 2 CFþ 3 85 69 Freon R13B1 Gas Ions SFþ 5 SFþ SF6 Freon R12B2þ CF2 Brþ n-Butane He C4 H þ 10 C3 H þ 7 þ He 120 Not commonly available 58 43 Flammable above 2% concentration 4 5.24 ppm background concentration Ne Ne þ 20 Expensive, 18 1012 background concentration Ar Arþ 40 Background of 1%. Not a tracer but a good reference Note: Mass-to-charge ratio of the most common isotopes singly charged. Source: Sherman and Dickerhoﬀ, 1989. this ﬁeld. Only ions having a charge-to-mass ratio that corresponds to a given radio frequency reach an oriﬁce at the end of that path and pass into an electron multiplier, whose signal is proportional to the number of incoming ions. Such instruments deliver a signal for each molecule having a given chargeto-mass ratio. A given molecule may give several signals at diﬀerent radio frequencies, since ionization may often break the molecule into several ions. For example, water vapour gives a peak not only at mass 18 (H2 Oþ ), but also þ at mass 17 (HOþ ), 16 (Oþ ), 2 (Hþ 2 ) and 1 (H ). The electric current is proportional to the concentration, but the sensitivity depends on the analysed gas. Characteristics of mass spectrometers: . . . . . Analysable tracers – any tracer that can be distinguished from the normal components of air. Confusion may occur if the molecule or a part of it has the same charge-to-mass ratio as components of air. Examples are shown in Table 7.5. Sensitivity – 2 106 for tracers with low background concentration. Interfering gases – any gas present in the sample may interfere with another, but it is nevertheless possible to analyse up to seven tracers without there being too much interference from the gases in the air or between the tracers themselves. Analysis time – a few milliseconds. Accuracy – 1 per cent. 146 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Gas chromatography A puﬀ of the sampled air is injected into a separating (chromatographic) column, a tube in which adsorbent material is packed. This column is heated and the pulse of sample is pushed with a ﬂow of inert carrier gas. The various components of the sample pass through the column at various speeds according to their aﬃnity for the adsorbent material. At the end of the column, the components emerge in sequence and can be quantitatively detected with a suitable detector. Both ﬂame ionization detectors (FIDs) and electron capture detectors (ECDs) have been used for tracer gas analysis. In the FID, a pair of polarized electrodes collects the ions produced when organic compounds are burned into an hydrogen ﬂame, and the current produced is ampliﬁed before measurement. This detector is rugged, reliable, easy to maintain and operate, and is by far the most used in gas chromatography, since it combines a good sensitivity to organic compounds (limit of detection of about 109 g) with a good linearity within a range of up to 107 . However, organic compounds are not very good tracer gases and the ECD, which is much more sensitive to halogenated2 compounds, is the most common in tracer gas analysis. In this detector, a radioactive nickel cathode emits electrons, which are received on an anode. Halogens capture these electrons, lowering the received current and thereby indicating the tracer concentrations. ECDs are popular since they can measure halogenated tracers to exceptionally low concentrations. Characteristics of gas chromatographs: . . . . . Analysable tracers (with ECD) – any halogenated compound like SF6 , freons, perﬂuorocarbons or perﬂuorocycloalkanes. Sensitivity – from ppb (109 ) range for SF6 down to 1014 for the PFTs. Interfering gases – H2 O, O2 (oxygen traps and desiccators are used to suppress these eﬀects). Analysis time – a few minutes but can be lowered down to 20 seconds by shortening and back ﬂushing the column, if high selectivity is not needed. Accuracy – depends on the quality of the calibration, but can be 2 per cent of reading. Chemical indicator tubes This is a single shot method to estimate the air change in a single zone by the decay or constant injection technique with some tracers. Detector tubes are glass tubes packed with a selective solid absorbent, which gives a colour reaction to some gases. The tubes used are sensitive to CO2 in the 0.01–0.30 per cent range. Tubes as supplied by the manufacturer are sealed at both ends. To make a measurement the seals are broken, one end of the tube (the correct end is indicated on the tube) is inserted into a pair of specially designed hand bellows, the other end being left open to sample the air tracer mixture. Common Methods and Techniques 147 By making the prescribed number of strokes of the hand-held bellows, the correct amount of air is drawn through the tube. This enables the tracer gas evaluation to be made. The glass tube has graduation marks on it, and the length of the discolouration caused by the reaction indicates the concentration of tracer in the room air. Detector tubes can only be used once and must be discarded after each sample taken. This single shot method is not very accurate but it is cheap and easy to operate. Therefore, it is suitable for a rough ﬁrst estimate of the air change rate. The interpretation of the result is performed using the integral decay method (see Chapter 1, ‘Pulse injection’). Characteristics of chemical indicator tubes: . . . . Analysable tracers – CO2 , H2 O and many toxic gases that are not useable as tracers. Sensitivity – 0.01–0.3 per cent range for CO2 . Analysis time – one minute. Accuracy – 5 per cent or 10 per cent of full scale. Calibration of the analysers Any analyser should be periodically calibrated by analysing standard samples, which are mixtures of the tracers in air or other inert gas. The calibration mixtures containing N2 O and CO2 must be moistened when a photo-acoustic detector is used. To transfer the calibration mixture from the containers to the analyser, never use valves or tubes that were previously used with pure or high concentration tracers. During the measurements, it is recommended to periodically sample and analyse the outside air as a convenient zero reference, even if no tracer is expected in the outdoor air. Identiﬁcation methods Identiﬁcation is to assess the values of some parameters in formulae from values of variables involved in these formulae. There are several identiﬁcation techniques. Only some of them are presented below. The rationale of the presented methods can be found in the literature, so only the ﬁnal formulae are presented here. Linear least square ﬁt The problem is the following: given N pairs of data (x; y), ﬁnd the straight line: y ¼ a þ nx ð7:12Þ ﬁtting these points at the best. That means that the coeﬃcients a and n should be such that the sum of the ‘distances’ of the measured points to the line is a minimum. 148 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Linear least square ﬁt of the ﬁrst kind Such methods are used to ﬁnd the coeﬃcients of leakage models of Equations 4.1 or 4.2 in fan pressurization (see Chapter 4, ‘The fan pressurization method’). The regression of the ﬁrst kind assumes that the abscissa, xi , of each measurement is well known and that the distribution of the ordinates around the regression line is Gaussian with a constant standard deviation. This method is very commonly used but it should be emphasized that the above hypotheses are not veriﬁed in the case of permeability tests because the values of xi are measured estimates. The regression line of the ﬁrst kind minimizes the sum of the square of the residual ordinates (vertical distances): SSRy ¼ N X ½ yi ða þ nxi Þ2 ð7:13Þ 1 Its coeﬃcients can be calculated using the following relationships. First compute the estimates of the averages: x ¼ N 1X x N i¼1 i N 1X y y ¼ N i¼1 i ð7:14Þ and the estimates of the variances: s2x ¼ N 1 X ðx xÞ2 N 1 i¼1 i s2y ¼ N 1 X ð y yÞ2 N 1 i¼1 i sxy ¼ ð7:15Þ N 1 X ðx xÞð yi yÞ N 1 i¼1 i Then the best estimates of the coeﬃcients a and n, according the above hypotheses, are: n¼ sxy s2x ð7:16Þ a ¼ y n x The slope given by Equation 7.16 is valid if the xi are exactly known, and the minimized distance is the sum of the square of the vertical distances between the measured points and the regression line. Common Methods and Techniques 149 Conﬁdence in the coeﬃcients The variances on the linear coeﬃcients of the regression of the ﬁrst kind are usually estimated using the following relations, which assume that the dispersion around the line is Gaussian with a constant standard deviation and is the result of the measurement errors: vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ u N 2 u1 X 1 sy nsxy x2 ð7:17Þ and sa ¼ sn t sn ¼ N2 sx N i¼1 i If T(P; ) is the signiﬁcance limit of the two-sided Student distribution for a probability, P, for degree of freedom, , then the conﬁdence levels on the coeﬃcients are: Ia ¼ sa TðP; N 2Þ ð7:18Þ In ¼ sn TðP; N 2Þ ð7:19Þ This means that with a probability, P, the coeﬃcient, a, lies in the interval ½a Ia ; a þ Ia and the same for n. The estimate of the variance around the regression line at abscissa x is: rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ðN 1Þ 2 sy ðxÞ ¼ sn sx þ ðx xÞ2 ð7:20Þ N and the conﬁdence interval in the estimate of y using the regression line for any x is: Iy ðxÞ ¼ sy ðxÞTðP; N 2Þ ð7:21Þ The values of the two-sided Student distribution are given in Table 7.6. The relation (Equation 7.17) can be used to obtain the conﬁdence intervals for a0 and n0 in the second kind regression if the roles of x and y are permuted. Table 7.6 Two-sided conﬁdence limits TðP; N 2Þ for a Student distribution TðP; N 2Þ for probability P ¼ N2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.8 0.9 0.95 0.99 0.995 0.999 3.078 1.886 1.638 1.533 1.476 1.440 1.415 1.397 1.383 1.372 6.3138 2.9200 2.3534 2.1318 2.0150 1.9432 1.8946 1.8595 1.8331 1.8125 12.706 4.3027 3.1825 2.7764 2.5706 2.4469 2.3646 2.3060 2.2622 2.2281 63.657 9.9248 5.8409 4.6041 4.0321 3.7074 3.4995 3.3554 3.2498 3.1693 127.32 14.089 7.4533 5.5976 4.7733 4.3168 4.0293 3.8325 3.6897 3.5814 636.619 31.598 12.924 8.610 6.869 5.959 5.408 5.041 4.781 4.5787 150 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Regression of the second kind When there are uncertainties in both axes, there is no reason to emphasize the x axis, and the same procedure can be followed commuting the roles of x and y. Generally another regression line is obtained, which is given by: y0 ¼ a0 þ n0 x ð7:22Þ with another pair of coeﬃcients: n0 ¼ s2y sxy 0 ð7:23Þ 0 a ¼ y n x This regression line minimizes the sum of the square of the residual abscissae: N X y0 a0 2 xi ð7:24Þ SSRx ¼ n0 i¼1 If the two lines are close to each other or, in other words, if: n0 n and therefore a0 a ð7:25Þ then it can be said that there is a good correlation between the two physical quantities x and y. The correlation coeﬃcient deﬁned by: n sxy R¼ ð7:26Þ hence R2 ¼ 0 s s n x y is a measure of the interdependence of x and y. It is not a measure of the quality of the ﬁt or of the accuracy of the estimates of the coeﬃcients, since jRj ¼ 1 for any ﬁt based on only two sets of points. The estimates of the errors on a and n are calculated in ‘Conﬁdence in the coeﬃcients’, above. Orthogonal regression If the two regressions of the second kind are calculated and diﬀerent results are obtained, the problem is to choose the coeﬃcients: which pair is the closest to the reality? Since each pair of coeﬃcients is obtained assuming that one variable is exactly known, it is likely that the best set is neither of them and instead lies in between, but where? There are several answers to that question, none of them being really satisfactory. One recipe is to take an average slope: n ¼ n þ n0 2 ð7:27Þ or a weighted average slope: n ¼ "y n þ "x n0 2 ð7:28Þ Common Methods and Techniques 151 where "y and "x are the experimental errors on y and x respectively and deduce a corresponding value of a using Equation 7.16. This recipe does not show clearly which quantity is minimized by the ﬁt. Another more physical way is so-called ‘orthogonal’ regression. It minimizes the real (orthogonal) distance between the measured points and the regression line drawn with the scales on the axes inversely proportional to the experimental errors, using variables weighted by the experimental errors: Yi ¼ yi "y and Xi ¼ xi "x ð7:29Þ Writing the regression line with these coordinates: Y ¼ A þ X ð7:30Þ the minimized residual is: SSR? ¼ N X ðYi Xi AÞ2 i¼1 2 þ 1 ð7:31Þ The slope in original (x, y) coordinates is given by the following relations. Let us deﬁne: n ¼ s2y s2x 2sxy ð7:32Þ If x and y are respectively the estimated standard deviations of the abscissas, xi , and ordinates, yi , the slope is given by: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ n? ¼ x n n2 þ 1 ð7:33Þ y Between the two possibilities, the sign of n? must be chosen equal to the sign of n given by Equation 7.16. This sign is always positive in pressurization tests. The coeﬃcient, a, is obtained with the relation of Equation 7.16. Bayesian identiﬁcation In section ‘Linear least square ﬁt’, above, it was said that the usual regression techniques for the identiﬁcation of the coeﬃcients can strictly be used only when one of the variables is well controlled. In this case only, the relations given in ‘Conﬁdence in the coeﬃcients’, can be used to get a good estimate of the conﬁdence intervals of the obtained coeﬃcients. When there are uncertainties on both axes, for example in pressurization tests, these methods are not strictly valid, since they do not give any information on the relation between the two coeﬃcients and their uncertainties. If several measurements of the same leak are performed, several pairs of coeﬃcients, C and n, for the relation: Q ¼ C pn ð7:34Þ 152 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings will be obtained, and a correlation between C and n will be found: the larger C values correspond to the smaller n and vice versa. A good identiﬁcation technique should give the most likely couple of coeﬃcients together with the probability density fðC; nÞ. Such a technique exists (Tarantola, 1987) and is summarized below. Identiﬁcation of the model parameters Let us put in a vector, z, both measured data and model parameters that have to be determined and assume that this vector is a random variable with a normal distribution in k-fold space (k ¼ number of parameters and data): fðzÞ ¼ A exp½ 12 ðz zp ÞT C 1 z ðz zp Þ ð7:35Þ where: zp Cz is the a priori vector, z, containing the measured values and reasonable estimates of the parameters to be identiﬁed, is the covariance matrix between the elements of z. Its diagonal elements are the variances of the measured quantities and a priori estimated variances of the parameters. These latter variances are generally large, since the parameters are generally not known before the measurements. The components of the vector, z, are linked by a mathematical model or a set of equations that can be written: ðzÞ ¼ 0 ð7:36Þ For example, if a linear relationship is assumed between two measured variables, x and y, the set of equations: yi ¼ a þ bxi can be written 0 1 x1 B B 1 x2 B B B B @ 1 xn ð7:37Þ in a matrix form: 1 y1 1 C0 y2 C a CB C C C@ b A ¼ 0 C A 1 ð7:38Þ yn Generally, the proposed model is not exact and it may be assumed that it has a normal distribution: gðzÞ ¼ B exp½ 12 ðzÞT C 1 T ðzÞ ð7:39Þ where CT is the covariance matrix of the model. If the model is exact, this distribution is a Dirac distribution: gðzÞ ¼ ½ðzÞ ð7:40Þ Combining the prior knowledge contained in the distribution fðzÞ with the model described with the distribution gðzÞ gives a new distribution containing Common Methods and Techniques the a posteriori information. This new distribution: h i T 1 ðzÞ ¼ C exp 12 fðzÞT C 1 T ðzÞ þ ðz zp Þ C z ðz zp Þg 153 ð7:41Þ From this distribution, the z vector presenting the maximum likelihood can be found. It is the vector, z, that minimizes the exponent: T 1 ðzÞT C 1 T ðzÞ þ ðz zp Þ C z ðz zp Þ ð7:42Þ This most probable vector contains the identiﬁed model parameters and the most probable values of the measured quantities. Practically, this vector is found using numerical methods looking for the minimum of the exponent given above. More references on such methods are Mitchell and Kaplan (1969) and Nelder and Mead (1965). Error analysis This method allows us to obtain the a posteriori estimate, Czi , of the covariance matrix of the distribution, (z). For that purpose, the model, (z), is linearized around the most probable vector, zs . The a posteriori covariance matrix is then: 1 1 1 T 1 C iz ¼ ðF T ¼ Cz CzF T s CT F s þ Cz Þ s ðF s C z F s þ C T Þ F s C z ð7:43Þ where Fs is a matrix having the dimension N M, with M ¼ Nn þ n þ N, N being the number of measurements and n the number of parameters to be identiﬁed. Fs contains the derivatives of the model, (z), evaluated at the point, zs : 0 1 @1 @1 B @z1 @zM C B C Fs ¼ B C ð7:44Þ @ @ A @ n N @z1 @zM zs Error analysis Purpose of the error analysis The accuracy of any measurement depends on the conditions in which the measurement is done, on the quality of the measuring instrument and on the skill of the people making the measurement. Measurements cannot be perfect, accuracy cannot be inﬁnite, and any measurement result includes some uncertainty. That means that the result is not absolute, but it is always possible to state that the actual value is contained, with a given probability, within some conﬁdence limits, or vice versa, that the probability that the actual value is outside some limits is lower than a certain value. Since this conﬁdence interval may be large, there is no sense in giving the result of a measurement without any information on its reliability. 154 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Generally, an instrument does not directly give the required information. In most cases, several measurements are combined to obtain the needed value. For example, in tracer gas measurements, several concentrations, gas ﬂows, time and volume measurements are combined in equations that are solved to get the airﬂow rates. The errors accompanying the measured values propagate through the interpretation formulae and ﬁnally give a probable error on the ﬁnal result. In this chapter, some methods for estimating the error on the result are presented. Note that only the instrumental and random errors are treated here. Bias caused by misuse of the instruments or by a lack of precautions is not discussed here. Deﬁnitions Let x be the result of a measurement. If several measurements of the same physical quantity are made, the results, xi , of these measurements will not be all equal, but nearly all of them will be within some interval. The conﬁdence interval with a probability, P, has this probability to include the actual value. In practice, about NP results out of a large number, N, of measured values of the same quantity should be included in the conﬁdence interval. The conﬁdence interval or the probable error can be expressed by two ways: 1 The absolute error is expressed in the same units as the physical quantity: Measurement ¼ x x ½unit ð7:45Þ and the conﬁdence interval goes from x x to x þ x. 2 The relative error is the ratio of the absolute error to the measured value: " ¼ x=x ð7:46Þ which can be expressed in per cent by multiplying " by 100. The inverse relation is: x ¼ x" ð7:47Þ The results should always be given with their conﬁdence interval (or with an estimate of the possible error) and with the unit used. The digits in the results should all be signiﬁcant: Correct: length ¼ 420 10 mm or 420 mm within 2 per cent; Not coherent: length ¼ 421:728 9:511 mm or 421.728 mm within 2.255 per cent. A few statistics Error analysis cannot be done well without using some basic statistical theory. There are simpliﬁed methods, which unfortunately often give too large an error Common Methods and Techniques 155 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 -3 -2 -1 0.1 Confidence interval 0 0 1 2 x-<x> 3 s Figure 7.2 Signiﬁcance limits and conﬁdence interval domain. The statistical method allows one to obtain more information on the reliability of the results. Because of random reading errors and uncontrolled perturbations, the test values will follow a given distribution. We can model such distributions by treating x as a stochastic variable. The probability density function, fðXÞ, of the variable x is the probability to ﬁnd x between X and X þ dx. Its integral F(X) is the probability of having x < X: ðX fðxÞ dx ð7:48Þ FðXÞ ¼ probðx < XÞ ¼ 1 The lower signiﬁcance limit is the value Xi for which FðXi Þ ¼ p, where p is a given probability. The upper signiﬁcance limit is the value Xs for which FðXs Þ ¼ 1 p. The conﬁdence interval [Xi ; Xs ] is the range between the lower and the upper signiﬁcance limit (see Figure 7.2). The probability to ﬁnd x in this interval is P ¼ 1 2p. Average If the same importance is given to all the results, an estimate of the average, , of the variable, x, based on N measurements is calculated by: P x hxi ¼ i i ﬃ ð7:49Þ N where the sum runs over these N measurements (i ¼ 1; . . . ; N). If we give more importance to some measurements than to the others, a weight, wi , can be attributed to each value, xi , and the weighted average is calculated by: P wx hxi ¼ Pi i i ð7:50Þ i wi 156 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Variance and standard deviation A ﬁgure representing the importance of the scattering around the average value is the mean square deviation or variance: P 2 P 2 2 ðx Þ Nhxi2 i ðxi hxiÞ ¼ i i ð7:51Þ Sx ¼ ðN 1Þ ðN 1Þ The square root of Sx is the estimate, sx , of the standard deviation, x : pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð7:52Þ sx ¼ Sx ﬃ x The larger the number of measurements, the better the estimate. Covariance An estimate sxy of the covariance xy of two random variables x and y, of which N measurements xi and yi were done, is calculated by: P P ðx y Þ Nhxih yi i ðxi hxiÞð yi h yiÞ ¼ i i i ð7:53Þ Sx ¼ ðN 1Þ ðN 1Þ This ﬁgure gives the tendency of two quantities to vary together. If these two variables are totally independent, the covariance will be zero. The covariance of a quantity with itself is the variance, already deﬁned in Equation 7.51. Statistical distributions There are numerous probability distributions with a mathematical model. It is not the place here to present all of them. They can be found in the specialized handbooks such as Bevinton (1969), Diem and Lentner (1970) and Box et al. (1978). The two most used distributions, which are also used afterwards to estimate the conﬁdence intervals, are presented below. The probability density function of the normal or Gaussian distribution (see Figure 7.3, left) is: 2 1 c x where c¼ ð7:54Þ fðcÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ exp 2 2 where is the average and the standard deviation of the variable x. The probability of the normal distribution (see Figure 7.3, right) is: 1 c ð7:55Þ FðcÞ ¼ 1 þ erf pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 where the error function erf(x) is: ð 2 x erfðxÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ expð2 Þ d 0 with erfðxÞ ¼ erfðxÞ. ð7:56Þ Common Methods and Techniques 0.5 1 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2 0 0 -3 -2 -1 157 0 x – <x> s 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 x – <x> s 1 2 3 Figure 7.3 Normal (or Gaussian) distribution (left) and its probabillity function (right) The conﬁdence interval [c; c] of the normal distribution is obtained by solving the equation: pﬃﬃﬃ P ¼ erfðc= 2Þ ð7:57Þ for a given value of P. If the normalized variable: x c¼ ð7:58Þ is calculated using the estimate, s, of the standard deviation (based on N þ 1 measurements) instead of the exact value, , (which is not known in practice), then this estimate of the normalized variable: x ð7:59Þ t¼ s has a probability density function following the Student distribution (see Figure 7.4): Nþ1 t2 N þ 1=2 2 t ð7:60Þ fðt; NÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ N N N 2 where the gamma function ðx=2Þ is: if x is even: ðx=2Þ ¼ ðx=2 1Þðx=2 2Þ 3 2 1 if x is odd: ðx=2Þ ¼ ðx=2 1Þðx=2 2Þ 1=2 ð7:61Þ If n is large, the Student distribution tends to the normal distribution. The conﬁdence interval ½T; T where T ¼ TðP; Þ of the Student distribution cannot be expressed analytically. It can be found in Table 7.6 (or in 158 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings 0.4 Normal 5 2 1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 7.4 Student distribution for 1, 2 and 5 degrees of freedom compared to the normal distribution more detail in statistical tables such as Zwillinger (2003)) and in most mathematical software packages. Conﬁdence interval of the Gaussian distribution Assuming that a measurement, xi , is a combination of the ‘true’ value and a random error, ei , we have: xi ¼ þ ei ð7:62Þ By measuring xi , we expect to ﬁnd the best estimate of . This can be done by performing N > 1 measurements and computing their average. This average x is the estimate of the ‘true’ value : P x ð7:63Þ ﬃ hxi ¼ i i N Let us recall that the conﬁdence interval is the interval that has a given probability, P (for example, 95 per cent), to contain the ‘true’ value. In other terms, the probability of it being wrong, that is that the ‘true’ value being outside this conﬁdence interval, is the error probability p ¼ 1 P. What we need now is precisely to give the conﬁdence interval around x that will contain with a fair probability. The value of this conﬁdence interval depends on the probability distribution of the measured values. In principle, a reasonable distribution function should be chosen, adjusted on the measurements and the validity of this adjustment should be tested with the 2 test. In most cases, however, and mainly when the number of the measurements is large, a normal distribution with a mean and a standard deviation can be assumed for the results of the measurements. Under this assumption, the conﬁdence limit of the ‘true’ value is given by: s ð7:64Þ Ic ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ TðP; N 1Þ N where s is the estimate of , and TðP; N 1Þ is the conﬁdence interval of the Student distribution with N 1 degrees of freedom. These are shown in Figure 7.5. Confidence limit/standard deviation Common Methods and Techniques 159 5 4 P = 99.9% 3 99% 2 90% 1 0 50% 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number of measurements Figure 7.5 Conﬁdence limit divided by standard deviation versus number of measurements for various values of probability, P Hence, we can state: ¼ hxi Ic ð7:65Þ P is the probability that the conﬁdence interval contains the ‘true’ value. P is chosen a priori, in practice between 0.9 and 0.99, depending on the degree of conﬁdence needed. The higher the probability, the broader is the conﬁdence interval ½Ic ; Ic . Note that the conﬁdence interval of the ‘true’ value stabilizes to a value close to the standard deviation if more than seven measurements are performed. Error analysis What is the problem? If several measurements are combined to obtain the needed results, the errors should also be combined the proper way to get the resultant error. In other words, the problem is the following. Suppose that we need several results y1 ; y2 ; . . . ; yj ; . . . ; yM , each of them depending on measurements of several variables x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xj ; . . . ; xN : yj ¼ fj ðx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xj ; . . . ; xN Þ ð7:66Þ Here, j ( j ¼ 1 to M) enumerates the various results (for example, M diﬀerent airﬂow rates) and i (i ¼ 1 to N) enumerates the variables on which the results depend (for example, the tracer gas concentrations and ﬂow rates or pressures and conductances). If the measurements, xi , each have an absolute error, xi , what are the errors, yj , on the results, yj ? Most simple error analysis The simplest rule, which is taught everywhere, is the following: the error y on the result is estimated by replacing, in the total diﬀerential df of the function f, 160 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings the inﬁnitely small increments dxi by the absolute error xi and by summing the absolute values: X @fj ð7:67Þ x yj ¼ @x i i i If only arithmetical operations are used, the rules simplify to the following: . . If the result is obtained by adding or subtracting the measurements, the absolute error on the result, y, is the sum of the absolute errors, x, of each measurement. If the result is obtained by multiplying or dividing measured data, the relative error on the result, y=y, is the sum of the relative errors, x=x, on the measurements. Estimate of the variance The simplest method illustrated above is very rough, since it overestimates the conﬁdence interval by supposing that all the errors in the measurements pull the result in the same direction, which is highly improbable. A statistical interpretation is then needed to take account of randomly distributed errors. If the variances, sxi , and the covariances, sxi;xj , of the measurements are known or estimated, the covariances on the results, syk; yl , is, in a ﬁrst approximation: X X @fk @fl syk; yl ¼ s ð7:68Þ @xi @xj xi;xj i j The variance of a given result is then: X X @fk @fk ðsyk Þ2 ¼ s @xi @xj xi;xj i j ð7:69Þ and if the measured variables are independent (that is if sxi;xj ¼ 0 when i 6¼ j ), this simpliﬁes to: X @fk 2 ðsxi Þ2 ð7:70Þ ðsyk Þ2 ¼ @x i i The corresponding conﬁdence intervals are then easily obtained by multiplying these results by the Student coeﬃcient T(P; 1). Linear equations systems To interpret the results of an experience, we often should solve a system of equations such as: Ay ¼ x ð7:71Þ where components of the vector x and the coeﬃcients in the matrix A (which are the results of the measurements) are perturbed by random errors that can be Common Methods and Techniques 161 represented by a vector x and a matrix A. The question is: which is the resulting error y on the vector y, which is the vector containing the ﬁnal results? If the matrix A and the vector x were known, we could write: ðA þ AÞð y þ yÞ ¼ x þ x ð7:72Þ and, taking Equation 7.71 into account, we could solve: y ¼ ðA þ AÞ1 ðx AyÞ ð7:73Þ This equation can be used many times in a Monte-Carlo process, varying each time all the components of A and x at random, according to their probability density function. This provides a series of vectors y from which an estimate of the probability density functions of the components can be calculated. However, this procedure is time consuming and, assuming a normal distribution of the measurement methods, simpler methods are available, which are described next. Complete error analysis The requested ﬁnal result is calculated using: X hence yi ¼ ij xj y ¼ A1 x ð7:74Þ j where the coeﬃcients ij are those of the inverse matrix A1 . The error calculated with the most simple (or the diﬀerential) method will then be: X @yi X @yi þ x a yi ¼ k kl @x @a k k kl k;l X @ij X jik xk j þ x a ¼ @a j kl kl k k;l ð7:75Þ But since @ij ¼ ik lj @akl ð7:76Þ we get ﬁnally: X X X yi ¼ jik xk j þ ik jl xj kl k kl ð7:77Þ j If the variances and covariances s2xk;xl , s2aki;amn and s2aki;xm are known, the covariance of the results s2yi; yj is well estimated using a ﬁrst order Taylor’s expansion (Bevinton, 1969). We get: X @yi @yj X @yi @yj s2akl amn þ s2xk xl s2yi ; yj ¼ @a @a @x @x kl mn k j klmn kl X @yi @yj @yj @yi 2 sakl xm þ þ ð7:78Þ @a @x @a kl m kl @xm klmn 162 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings the partial derivatives are computed as above and we get ﬁnally: X X ik yl jm yn s2akl amn þ ik jl s2xk xl s2yi ; yj ¼ klmn þ X kl ðik yl jm jk yl im Þs2akl xm ð7:79Þ klmn which simpliﬁes, if the variables are independent (that is, if the covariances are zero, which is not always the case): X X ik jk y2ln s2aki akl þ ik jk s2xk xk ð7:80Þ s2yi ; yj ¼ kl kl Upper bound of the errors The vector y contains a large number of data, but it is helpful to represent the error by a single value. To obtain such a single value, the following deﬁnitions, which can be found in the speciﬁc mathematical literature (for example, Deif, 1986) are used. Vectorial norms and matrix norms The norm jxj of a vector x is any operation of the n-fold real space Rn in the ensemble of real numbers R satisfying: jxj 0 and jxj ¼ 0 if and only if x ¼ 0 jcxj ¼ jcj jxj for any c 2 R ð7:81Þ jx þ yj jxj þ j yj For example, the Euclidian norm that corresponds best to the standard deviation: ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qX x2i ð7:82Þ jxj2 ¼ complies P with the relations in Equation 7.81, but there are many others, like xi or jxj1 ¼ maxðjxi jÞ. jxj1 ¼ The norm jAj of a matrix A is any application NðAÞ ) jAj 2 R satisfying: jAj 0 and jAj ¼ 0 if and only if A ¼ 0 jcAj ¼ jcj jAj for any c 2 R jA þ Bj jAj þ j Bj ð7:83Þ jA Bj jAj j Bj The matrix norm jAj is consistent with the vectorial norm jxj if: jAxj jAj jxj for any x ð7:84Þ Common Methods and Techniques and the matrix norm is subordinated to the vectorial norm jxj if: jAxj for any x 6¼ 0 jAj ¼ max jxj 163 ð7:85Þ The subordinated norm is the smallest matrix norm compatible with the norm jxj. For example, the norm jAj2 , deﬁned as: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ jAj2 ¼ 1 ð7:86Þ where 1 is the largest eigenvalue of AH A (AH ¼ hermitic conjugate or transpose of the complex conjugate matrix) is subordinated to the Euclidian norm jxj2 but the Frobisher norm: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ X X ﬃ a2i a2j ð7:87Þ jAjF ¼ i j is consistent with the Euclidian norm but not subordinated to it. Finally, the following norms, which lead to faster calculations, are often used: X jxi j ð7:88Þ jxj1 ¼ i and the corresponding norm for the matrix A: jAj1 ¼ max jAj j ð7:89Þ where Aj are the column vectors of A. Calculation of the upper bound From the norms of the experimental errors y and A, it is possible to calculate an upper limit to the norm of the resulting error x by the use of the following relation. If jIj ¼ 1 (it is true for jIj2 ), then the norm of the relative error is: jxj jAj jA1 j jyj jAj þ ð7:90Þ jxj jAj 1 jAj jA1 j j yj The quantity: condðAÞ ¼ jAj jA1 j ð7:91Þ is of great importance in this calculation. It is the so-called condition number of the matrix A related to the used norm. This number indicates how nearly singular the matrix is. If the spectral norm jAj2 is used, we get the smallest possible condition number, which is: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð7:92Þ cond2 ðAÞ ¼ jAj2 jA1 j2 ¼ 1 n 164 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings where 1 and n are respectively the largest and the smallest eigenvalues of AH A. This number is the spectral condition number. Constant absolute error If the absolute error is constant: A ¼ e1 and y ¼ y1 ð7:93Þ where 1 and 1 are respectively a matrix of order N and an N-component vector with all elements equal to 1 (they are not the identity matrix and the unit vector). It is easy to see that: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ and j1j2 ¼ N ð7:94Þ j1j2 ¼ N because the eigenvalues of 1 are N and 0N 1 , and those of 1H 1 ¼ 12 are N 2 and 0N 1 . It follows that: pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ and jyj2 ¼ N y ð7:95Þ jAj2 ¼ eN and jxj cond2 ðAÞ jxj 1 eNjA1 j pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ N y Ne þ j yj jAj ð7:96Þ Constant relative error In this case, if e and " are the constant relative errors on A and y: A ¼ eA and y ¼ "y ð7:97Þ and, from the deﬁnitions of the norms: jAj ¼ ejAj and jyj ¼ "y ð7:98Þ and we get, for any norm satisfying jIj ¼ 1: jxj condðAÞ ð" þ eÞ jxj 1 condðAÞ ð7:99Þ assuming that e condðAÞ < 1, that is that A þ dA is regular. Example: A measurement with two tracer gases at constant concentration in two zones gives the results in Table 7.7. Table 7.7 Data measured during a tracer gas experiment in two connected rooms Tracer concentration 1 Tracer concentration 2 Injection rate, tracer 1 Injection rate, tracer 2 Zone 1 Zone 2 10 ppm 6.46 ppm 2:65 104 m3 /h 0 m3 /h 2.29 ppm 10 ppm 0 m3 /h 3:6 104 m3 /h Common Methods and Techniques 165 Table 7.8 Airﬂow rates [m3 /h], calculated from the data given in Table 7.7 Flow going to Flow coming from Outdoors Zone 1 Zone 2 Outdoors Zone 1 Zone 2 – 21.4 22.2 11.0 – 20.1 32.6 9.7 – From which, using the method described in Chapter 1, ‘Zone by zone systems of equations’, we get the airﬂow rates to and from each zone [m3 /h] shown in Table 7.8. Let us suppose that the error on the injection rate is 5 per cent and if the relative error on the concentration is 2 per cent. What is the probable error on the airﬂows? Using the most simple method, we get a relative error of 9 per cent. Using the spectral norm, we get relative errors of 12 per cent for zone 1 and 7 per cent for zone 2. These are upper limits that are easily calculated, but there is more information than the simple method allows, since we can see the diﬀerence in quality of the measurements between the two zones. Notes 1 The wavelength, and the frequency, f, of an electromagnetic wave such as light, infrared or radio waves are related by f ¼ c, where c is the velocity of light (3 1010 m/s). 2 Halogenated compounds are compounds containing ﬂuorine, chlorine bromine and iodine in their molecule. References Aeschlimann, J.-M., C. Bonjour and E. Stocker, eds, 1986, Me´thodologie et Techniques de Plans d’Expe´riences: Cours de Perfectionnement de l’AVCP, vol. 28, AVCP, Lausanne. Andersson, B., K. Andersson, J. Sundell and P.-A. Zingmark, 1993, Mass transfer of contaminants in rotary enthalpy exchangers, Indoor Air, vol. 3, pp. 143–148. ASHRAE, 2001, Handbook – Fundamentals, ASHRAE, Atlanta. ASTM, 2003, E1554-03 Standard Test Methods for Determining External Air Leakage of Air Distribution Systems by Fan Pressurization, ASTM, Philadelphia. Awbi, H., 2007, Ventilation Systems, Design and Performance, Taylor and Francis, London. Axley, J. and A. Persily, 1988, Integral mass balance and pulse injection tracer technique, ‘Eﬀective Ventilation’, 9th AIVC Conference, Gent, Belgium, AIVC. Bandemer, H. and A. Bellmann, 1979, Statistische Versuchsplanung, BSB G. Teubner Verlag, Leipsig. Bevinton, P., 1969, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, MacGraw Hill, New York. Bjo¨rkroth, M., B. Mu¨ller, V. Ku¨chen and P. M. Bluyssen, 2000, Pollution from ducts: What is the reason, how to measure it and how to prevent it?, Healthy Buildings conference, vol. 2, Espoo (SF), pp. 163–169. Bluyssen, P. M., 1990, Air Quality Evaluated by a Trained Panel, Technical University of Denmark, Lund. Bluyssen, P. M., E. De Oliveira Fernandes, L. Groes, G. Clausen, P.-O. Fanger, O. 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Hunter, 1978, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis and Model Building, John Wiley, New York. References 167 Brown, S. K., M. R. Sim, M. J. Abramson and C. N. Gray, 1994, Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review, Indoor Air, vol. 4, pp. 123– 134. Carrie, F. R., P. Wouters, D. Ducarme, J. Andersson, J. C. Faysse, P. Chaﬀois, M. Kilberger and V. Patriarca, 1997, Impacts of air distribution system leakage in Europe: The SAVE Duct European Programme, 18th AIVC Conference vol. 2, Athens, pp. 651–660. CEN, 1999, EN 832, Thermal Performance of Buildings: Calculation of Energy Use for Heating – Residential Buildings, CEN, Brussels. CEN, 2006, prEN 15251, Criteria for the Indoor Environment, Including Thermal, Indoor Air Quality (Ventilation), Light and Noise, CEN, Brussels. CEN, 2007, prEN ISO/FDIS 13790, Thermal Performance of Buildings: Calculation of Energy Use for Heating and Cooling, CEN and ISO, Brussels and Geneva. 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Zwillinger, D., ed., 2003, CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Annex A Unit Conversion Tables Introduction SI units are used throughout this book. Non-SI units are, however, of general use in air inﬁltration and ventilation, like the air change rate in l/hour or US units. To expedite the unit’s translations, some tables are given below. Only physical quantities which are of general use in air inﬁltration and ventilation measurement techniques are listed. The ﬁgures given in the tables are multiplying factors transforming values expressed in units of the ﬁrst column into values expressed in the ﬁrst row units. Example: 1 cm ¼ 0.01 m. Multiples and sub-multiples Multiples Sub-multiples Preﬁx Symbol Factor Preﬁx Symbol Factor peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca P T G M k h da 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 femto pico nano micro milli centi deci f p n m m c d 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 Length Name Symbol 1 1 1 1 1 m cm in ft yd metre centimetre inch foot yard m cm in ft yd 1 0.01 0.0254 0.3048 0.9144 100 1 2.54 30.48 91.44 39.37008 0.3937008 1 12 36 3.28084 0.0328084 1/12 1 3 1.093613 0.01093613 1/36 1/3 1 172 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Area Name 1 1 1 1 1 m2 cm2 sq in sq ft sq yd 1 104 6.4516 104 0.092903 0.836127 104 1 6.4516 929.0304 8361.27 1550 0.3937008 1 144 1296 10.7639 0.0328084 1/144 1 9 1.19599 0.01093613 1/1296 1/9 1 Symbol square metre square centimetre square inch square foot square yard 2 m cm2 sq in sq ft sq yd Volume Name 1 cubic metre 1 litre 1 millilitre 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic inch m3 Symbol 3 m l ml cu yd cu ft cu in ml cm3 l 1 0.001 0.000001 0.76455551 0.02831687 196.6 106 1000 1 0.001 764.5555 28.31687 0.196645 6 10 1000 1 764555.5 28316.87 196.6449 cu yd cu ft cu in 1.30795 1.308 103 1.308 106 1 0.037037 257.2 106 35.31464 0.035315 35.32 106 27 1 6.944 103 5085.308 5.085308 0.005085 3888 144 1 Note: the millilitre is equal to the cubic centimetre. Mass Name Symbol 1 kilogram 1gram 1 pound 1 ounce 1 grain kg g lb oz gr kg g lb oz gr 1 0.001 0.45359229 0.02834952 64.79 106 1000 1 453.5923 28.34953 0.064799 2.204623 2.205 103 1 0.0625 142.9 106 35.27396 0.03527396 16 1 2.2857 103 15,432 15.43 700 437 1 Time Name Symbol 1 1 1 1 1 s min h d yr second minute hour day year s min h d yr 1 60 3600 86,400 31,556,926 1/60 1 60 1440 526103 1/3600 1/60 1 24 8765 1/86400 1/1440 1/24 1 365.25 31,688 109 1.90133 106 114.08 106 2.73791 103 1 Unit Conversion Tables 173 Pressure Name Symbol 1 Pascal 1 millibar 1 mm water column Pa mbar mm H2 O 1 inch water column in H2 O 1 pound per square inch lb/in2 or psi Pa mbar mm H2 O in H2 O psi 1 100 9.81 0.01 1 0.0981 0.102 10.2 1 0.004 0.422 0.0393 145.037 106 14.5037 103 1.42 103 249 6894.76 2.5 68.9476 25.4 703 1 27.7 36 103 1 Volume ﬂow rate Symbol m3 /s l/min m3 /h cu ft/s cu ft/min cu ft/h m3 /s l/min m3 /h cu ft/s cu ft/min cu ft/h 1 16.667 106 277.78 106 0.02831687 471.95 106 7.87 106 60,000 1 16.666667 1699.0122 28.316870 0.47194784 3600 0.06 1 101.9407335 1.699012225 0.028316870 35.3146 588.58 106 0.00980962 1 0.01666667 277.78 106 2118.878 0.0353146 0.58857728 60 1 0.01666667 127132.693 2.11887822 3 3600 60 1 Mass ﬂow rate Symbol kg/s kg/min kg/h lb/s lb/min lb/h kg/s kg/min kg/h lb/s lb/min lb/h 1 0.01666667 277:78 106 0.45359229 0.00755987 125:1 106 60 1 0.01666667 27.2155375 0.45359229 0.00755987 3600 60 1 1632.932 27.21554 0.4535923 2.204623 0.03674372 612:4 106 1 0.01666667 277:8 106 132.27738 2.204623 0.03674372 60 1 0.01666667 7,936.643 132.27738 2.204623 3600 60 1 Annex B Glossary Items in italics are additional entries in the glossary. Age of the air (or age of a contaminant) Average time period since the fresh air (or a contaminant) entered the room or the building. This age depends on the location in the building. The room mean age of air is the average of the age over the whole room. Air change performance Coeﬃcient deﬁned by ASHRAE, which is the double of the air exchange eﬃciency. Air change rate (or speciﬁc airﬂow rate) The ratio of the volumetric rate at which air enters (or leaves) an enclosed space divided by the volume of that space. Often this is expressed in air changes per hour. Its inverse is the nominal time constant. Air exchange eﬃciency Eﬃciency of the ventilation to change the air in a room. It is half the ratio of the nominal time constant and the room mean age of air. Air exchange rate General term relating to the rate of airﬂow between one space and another. This can be between various internal zones of a building or between the building and the atmosphere. Air exﬁltration The uncontrolled leakage of air out of a building. Airﬂow coeﬃcient Coeﬃcient in the air leakage characteristics, which has the dimension of an airﬂow. This coeﬃcient multiplies the pressure diﬀerential at a power exponent. Airﬂow rate The mass or volume of air moved in unit of time. (The transport may be within an enclosure or through an enclosing envelope.) Air inﬁltration The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a building (i.e., Glossary 175 adventitious openings), caused by pressure eﬀects of the wind and/or the eﬀect of diﬀerences in the indoor and outdoor air density. Air inﬁltration characteristic The relationship between the inﬁltration airﬂow rate into a building and the parameters that cause the movement. Air leakage Airﬂow rate through a component of the building envelope, or the building envelope itself, when a pressure diﬀerence is applied across the component. Air leakage characteristic An expression that describes the air leakage rate of a building or component. This may be: . . . the air leakage ﬂow rate at a reference pressure diﬀerence across the component or building envelope; the relationship between ﬂow rate and the pressure diﬀerence across the building envelope or component; the equivalent leakage area at a reference pressure diﬀerence across the component or building envelope. Airtightness A general descriptive term for the leakage characteristics of a building. Analyser Instrument used to measure the concentration of a tracer gas or a contaminant in a sample of air. Anemometer Any instrument measuring the air speed or the air velocity. Background concentration Concentration of a gas in outdoor air. Background leakage Leakage of air through a building envelope that is not accounted for by obvious measurable gaps. Balanced fan pressurization Technique utilizing two or more blower doors to evaluate the leakage of individual internal partitions and external walls of multi-zone buildings. Technique involves using the fans to induce a zero pressure diﬀerence across certain building components, thus eliminating their leakage from the measurement. Balanced ventilation Ventilation systems in which fans both supply and extract air from the enclosed space, the supply and extract ﬂow rates being equal. Blower door (or fan door) A device that ﬁts into a doorway for supplying or extracting a measured ﬂow rate of air to or from a building. It is normally used for testing for air leakage by pressurization or depressurization. 176 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Building component General term for any individual part of the building envelope. Usually applied to doors, windows and walls. Building envelope The total of the boundary surfaces of a building, through which heat (or air) is transferred between the internal spaces and the outside environment. Calibration Operation where the output of a measuring device is compared with reference standards, to accurately quantify the results provided by the measuring device. Capacitance pressure transducer A device with a metal diaphragm sensing element acting as one plate of a capacitor. When pressure is applied it moves with respect to a ﬁxed plate, changing the thickness of the dielectric between. The resulting signal is monitored using a bridge circuit. Cell Volume in a room limited by a theoretical or physical surface, in which the physical quantities of interest can be considered as homogeneous. A room can be divided in several cells. Chemical indicator tubes (or Dra¨ger1 tubes) Glass tubes containing an adsorbing material that changes colour in the presence of a speciﬁc gas. Compensated ﬂowmeter Airﬂow rate measuring instrument in which a fan compensates the pressure drop required by the measuring device. Component leakage The leakage of air through the building envelope or internal partitions, which is directly attributable to ﬂow through cracks around doors, windows and other components. Concentration Ratio expressing the amount of a chemical component in a mixture. This ratio may be expressed in terms of mass, of volume or of number of molecules. In air, it can also be the ratio of the mass of component divided by the volume of air. Condition number Number expressing how much the errors in measured data are enlarged when transmitted, through the interpreting equations, to the ﬁnal results. Conductance Generally, any path allowed for air between two zones. Also the ratio of the ﬂow rate through a path to the pressure diﬀerential across that path. Connected space A space in a building adjacent to the measurement space with which signiﬁcant exchange of air may take place, thus increasing the eﬀective volume of the space. Glossary 177 Constant concentration technique A method of measuring ventilation rate whereby an automated system injects tracer gas at the rate required to maintain the concentration of tracer gas at a ﬁxed, predetermined level. The ventilation rate is proportional to the rate at which the tracer gas must be injected. Constant injection rate technique A method of measuring ventilation rate whereby tracer is emitted continuously at a uniform rate. The equilibrium concentration of tracer gas in air is measured. Contaminant An unwanted airborne constituent that may reduce the acceptability of the air quality. Contaminant removal eﬀectiveness See ventilation eﬃciency. Continuity equation (or mass balance) Mathematical expression relating to the conservation of matter, an example of which is the equation equating the ﬂow of tracer gas into a space with the ﬂow of tracer gas out of a space. this particular equation is the basis for evaluating air exchange rates from tracer gas measurement. Damper Adjustable plate in a duct for controlling the ﬂow rate. Decay rate technique A method for measuring ventilation rate whereby a quantity of tracer gas is released and the decrease in concentration measured as a function of time. Deduction method Multi-fan testing method in which the pressure diﬀerential between two zones of a building is changed step by step in order to obtain the leakage characteristics of building elements in these zones. Density Ratio of the mass of a quantity of matter to its volume. Depressurization Term used to describe fan pressurization when a static under-pressure is created within the building. Diﬀerential pressure See pressure diﬀerential. Discharge coeﬃcient A dimensionless coeﬃcient relating the mean ﬂow rate through an opening to an area and the corresponding pressure diﬀerence across the opening. Displacement ﬂow (or piston ﬂow) With this type of ﬂow, incoming outdoor air displaces internal air without mixing. 178 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Distribution eﬀectiveness Ratio of the average tracer gas or contaminant concentration to the concentration that could be reached, at equilibrium, in the same zone or building with the same tracer or contaminant sources. Also the ratio of the contaminant or tracer turnover time to the room mean age of air. It is the inverse of the relative contaminant removal eﬀectiveness. Door panel Panel adapted to a door or a window on which the pressurization fan is mounted. Draught gauge Inclined u-tube manometer. Dra¨ger1 tubes See chemical indicator tubes. Eﬀective volume The volume of the interior building (or room) in which mixing occurs. Eﬃciency of the ventilation system Ratio of the fresh air provided by the ventilation system to an enclosure to the total amount of air entering the room, including inﬁltration. Electron capture detector An instrument, which uses a weak beta source to generate electrons in an ionization chamber, subjected to a pulsed voltage, thus generating a current. Electron-capturing material in the sample reduces the number of electrons in the chamber and thus the current. This reduction can be calibrated in terms of tracer gas concentration; hence the concentration of tracer gas in an air sample can be evaluated. Envelope (of a building) See building envelope. Equivalent leakage area The equivalent amount of oriﬁce area that would pass the same quantity of air as would pass collectively through the building envelope at a speciﬁed reference pressure diﬀerence. Experimental design The way an experiment is planned, or, more precisely, a list of values of controlled parameters at which measurements should be performed to obtain the required results. Extract ventilation A mechanical ventilation system, in which air is extracted from a space or spaces, thus creating an internal negative pressure. Supply air is drawn through adventitious or intentional openings. Glossary 179 Fan pressurization General term applied to any technique involving the production of a steady static pressure diﬀerential across a building envelope or component. Often referred to as dc pressurization. Flame ionization detector Detector used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph, in which the change in ionic current caused in a hydrogen–air ﬂame by a tracer or contaminant is detected. This detector is sensitive to organic compounds. Flow coeﬃcient In the power function approach this parameter is used in conjunction with the ﬂow exponent to quantify ﬂow through an opening. Flow equation Equation describing the airﬂow rate through a building (or component) in response to the pressure diﬀerence across the building (or component). These equations are usually power law or quadratic law in form. Flow exponent In the power function approach, this parameter characterizes the type of ﬂow through a component (n ¼ 1 represents laminar ﬂow, n ¼ 0:5 represents turbulent ﬂow). For most ﬂow paths, n takes a value between these extremes. Fortuitous leakage Uncontrolled air leakage through a building envelope due to the natural action of wind and temperature, i.e., air inﬁltration. Gas chromatography A process by which gases can be separated from one another. Used in this application to separate tracer gases from each other and from the constituents of air, thus allowing individual analyses to be performed. Gasometer Instruments to measure volumes of any gas. Grab sampling method Any tracer gas method where air/tracer samples are obtained from a building and analysed afterwards in a laboratory. Guard zone technique Dual fan pressurization technique used to measure the leakage characteristics of a building part. One fan is used to pressurize a guarding zone, surrounding the guarded zone in which the other fan just maintains a zero pressure diﬀerential between these zones. The measured building part is the only unguarded part. Hot wire anemometer Anemometer in which the temperature of a heated wire exposed to the wind determines the air velocity. 180 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Indoor air pollution Pollution occurring indoors from any source, i.e., from outside as well as inside the building. Infrared gas analyser Instrument used to determine tracer gas concentrations by determining the transmission of infrared radiation at an absorption frequency through a ﬁxed path length. Inter-zonal airﬂow General term applied to the process of air exchange between internal zones of a building. Leakage area See equivalent leakage area. Leakage characteristics Equation relating the airﬂow rate through a leak and the pressure diﬀerential across this leak. This relation involves the ﬂow coeﬃcient and the ﬂow exponent. Leakage path A route by which air enters or leaves the building or ﬂows through a component. Leakage site A point on the outer or inner surfaces of a building envelope or an internal wall where a leakage path emerges. Leeward Downwind side of any object. Manometer A device for measuring pressure employing the principle of displacement of liquid levels in a liquid-ﬁlled u-tube. The limbs of the ‘u’ may be vertical, inclined (draught gauge) or curved. Mass balance See continuity equation. Mass ﬂow controller Device controlling the ﬂow rate of a gas by means of a valve controlled according the measurement of the mass ﬂow rate. Mass spectrometry Technique allowing the quantitative measurement of amounts of diﬀerent gases, based on the separation of the ionized gas molecules according their mass-to-charge ratio. Mechanical ventilation Ventilation by means of one or more fans. Glossary 181 Mixing The degree of uniformity of distribution of outdoor air or foreign material in a building. Mixing fan Small electric fan used to aid the mixing of room air and tracer gas before and/or during a measurement. Multiple tracer gas technique General term applied to measurement methods using two or more tracer gases. These methods are often used to evaluate inter-zonal airﬂows. Multi-zone A building or part of a building comprising a number of zones or cells. Natural ventilation Ventilation using only purpose-provided openings and the natural motive forces of wind and temperature diﬀerence. Nominal time constant The ratio of the volume of an enclosed space divided by the volumetric rate at which air enters (or leaves) that space. Its inverse is the air change rate. Normalized leakage area Equivalent leakage area expressed per unit building envelope area. Oriﬁce plate A device for assessing gas ﬂow by measuring the pressure drop across an oriﬁce in the ﬂow line. Outdoor air Air from free atmosphere that is generally assumed to be suﬃciently uncontaminated to be used for ventilation. Passive sampling Method of sampling tracer gas in a building by the process of passive diﬀusion. Passive tracer source Small container injecting continuously a small ﬂow of tracer (mostly PFT tracers) by passive diﬀusion through its cover cap. Perﬂuorocarbon tracers (or PFT) Tracer gases composed of a family of perﬂuoroalkylcycloalkanes, i.e., cyclic organic compounds in which the hydrogen atoms are all replaced by ﬂuorine atoms. These tracers can be analysed in trace amount because the background concentration is low and the electron capture detector is very sensitive to them. Photo-acoustic detector Tracer gas analyser in which the alternate expansion and contraction of the gas sample irradiated with a chopped beam of convenient wavelength is detected with a microphone. 182 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Piston-type ventilation See displacement ﬂow. Pitot tube Anemometer measuring the diﬀerence between the pressure in a tube facing the ﬂow, in which the ﬂow is stopped, and the pressure along a side of the tube. Pollutant removal eﬀectiveness See ventilation eﬃciency. Pollution migration Descriptive term for the movement of indoor air pollutants throughout a building. Pollution source Any object, usually within a building, that produces a substance that will contaminate the internal environment. Power law Flow equation in which the airﬂow rate through the building envelope is proportional to a power of the pressure diﬀerential. Ppm Unit for expressing volume concentration, which is a part per million (106 ) or a cubic centimetre per cubic metre. Pressurization Airtightness measuring technique using a fan to pressurize the measured volume at a constant pressure. See also fan pressurization. Pressure diﬀerential Usual term for the diﬀerence in pressure across a building envelope or component, whether caused by natural or artiﬁcial means. Pressure tap Point at which pressure is measured. Pulse injection technique Tracer gas measuring technique in which the tracer is injected in a short pulse. Purging ﬂow rate Part of the airﬂow rate, which eﬀectively removes the contaminants out of the location of interest. It is the product of the airﬂow rate and the ventilation eﬃciency. Purpose-provided openings Openings in the building envelope for the speciﬁc purpose of supplying or extracting ventilation air. Quadratic law Flow equation in which the pressure diﬀerential is related to the airﬂow rate by a quadratic polynomial. Glossary 183 Reductive sealing method A method of determining the leakage of speciﬁc building components by pressurizing the building and recording the leakage changes as components are sealed successively. When all the major outlets and component cracks are sealed, the remainder is the background leakage. Relative contaminant removal eﬀectiveness Ratio of the concentration that could be reached, at equilibrium, in the same zone or building with the same tracer or contaminant sources, to the average tracer or contaminant concentration. Also the ratio of the room mean age of air to the contaminant or tracer turnover time. It is the inverse of the distribution eﬀectiveness. Residence time See age of the air. Residual gas analyser See mass spectrometry. Retroﬁt The process of reducing energy loss in a building by physical means, for example, reducing excess air inﬁltration by obstructing ﬂow through cracks and openings. Reynolds number Ratio of the inertial force to the friction force. It is also the ratio of the velocity of a ﬂuid to its dynamic viscosity, multiplied by a typical dimension, for example, the duct diameter. Room Volume of a building limited by building elements. In ventilation technique, this concept keeps its usual meaning. A room may be divided in several cells and several rooms may be combined in a zone. Room mean age of air Average of the mean age of air over the whole room. Sample container Container used to obtain a sample of air/tracer mixture from a measured building. The sample is usually returned to a laboratory for analysis. Short-circuiting A direct ﬂow path between an air supply point and an air extract point, i.e., air ﬂows along the shortest path, without mixing. Single tracer gas technique General term applied to any method using only one tracer gas. These methods are usually used to evaluate air change rate. Single zone Any case where a building or part of a building is considered to be a single wellmixed space. 184 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings Site analysis Applied to any tracer gas measurement technique where tracer gas concentrations and air exchange rates are determined directly at the measurement building. Smoke leak visualization A method of detecting leaks in the building fabric by pressurizing the building and using smoke to trace the paths followed by the leaking air. Speciﬁc airﬂow rate (or air change rate) The ratio of the volumetric rate at which air enters (or leaves) an enclosed space divided by the volume of that space. Its inverse is the nominal time constant. Speciﬁc leakage area Equivalent leakage area expressed per unit ﬂoor area. Stack eﬀect Pressure diﬀerential across a building envelope caused by diﬀerences in the density of the air due to an indoor–outdoor temperature diﬀerence. Step injection technique Tracer gas measurement technique in which the tracer is injected at constant rate, starting from a given time. Supply ventilation A system in which air is supplied to a space(s) so creating an internal positive pressure. Air leaves the building through adventitious or purpose-provided openings. Tachometer Instrument for measuring velocity or speed of rotation, used to evaluate the speed of fans, this in turn is used to calibrate the fan in terms of airﬂow. Often used in blower doors. Thermography The process of converting the heat emitted from an object into visible pictures. Used to indicate and represent the temperature distribution over part of a building envelope. Tracer gas A gas used at low concentration, together with an analyser, to determine airﬂow rates or other related quantities. Tracer gas analyser Any instrument used to evaluate the concentration of tracer gas in a sample of air. Tracer gas injection Any process by which tracer gas is released into a space. Tracer gas sampling Any process by which tracer gas or air containing tracer gas is sampled for analysis. Glossary 185 Turnover time of a contaminant Ratio of the mass of contaminant contained in an enclosure to the mass ﬂow rate of the contaminant source in this enclosure. Ventilation The process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space. Ventilation eﬃciency An expression describing the ability of a mechanical (or natural) ventilation system to distribute the outdoor air in the ventilated space. Ventilation energy Energy loss from a building due to ventilation. Venturi tube Duct with a restricted section, which allows the measurement of the ﬂow rate through the pressure diﬀerential between the restricted and the normal section. Windward Upwind side of any object. Zone Part of a building, which is considered as a single volume for the experiment performed, or the physical quantity of interest. A zone may contain several rooms. Index absolute error, 154 active ways, 78 adsorption, 123 age matrix, 10 age of the air, 39, 42, 174 air age of, 39, 42, 174 change eﬃciency, 40 leakage rate, 67 performance, 174 rate, 1, 174 conditioning, 79 exchange eﬃciency, 174 exchange rate, 174 handling unit, 20 airﬂow rates in, 15 energy in, 79 permeability, 59 speed, 17 airﬂow assessment, xiv coeﬃcient, 60, 174, 179 meter, 20 rate, xiii, 1, 174 equivalent outdoor, 5 exﬁltration, 31 exﬁltration, xvi exhaust, 31 extract, 28 in air handling unit, 15 in duct, 15 inﬁltration, 30 intake, 28 inter-zone, 6 minimum, xiii outdoor, xiv, 29 per person, 5 recirculation, xv, 29, 37 supply, 28 volume, 11 airtightness, 58, 66, 175 of buildings, 67 of ducts, 74 analyser, 142, 175, 184 anemometer, 17, 175, 179 average, 155 bag ﬂow meter, 20 balanced ventilation, 175 Bayesian identiﬁcation, 151 blower door, 175 building airtightness, 67 envelope, 176 high quality, 78 chemical indicator tubes, 146, 176 chromatograph, 145, 179 CO2, 5, 34 coeﬃcient airﬂow, 60, 174, 179 discharge, 177 leakage, 60, 64 of performance, 94 coil, 131 contamination, 113 compensated ﬂowmeter, 20, 176 computer program, 32 concentration, 133, 176 condition number, 53, 163, 176 conditions standard, 65 188 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings conductance, 176 conﬁdence interval, 28, 149, 154, 155 conservation equation, 1, 7, 177 constant concentration, 3, 12, 176 constant injection rate, 3, 12, 43, 177 contaminant, 108, 177 in heat exchangers, 117 transfer, 10 cooling, 79, 105 coil, 83 covariance, 156 decay method, 3, 12, 43, 177 density, 177 correction for, 132 of tracer gas, 138 detector tubes, 146, 176 discharge coeﬃcient, 177 displacement ﬂow, 177 duct, 15, 129 airtightness, 74 contamination, 109 eﬃciency air exchange, 174 of fans, 97 of heat exchangers, 86 of heat recovery, 90 of ventilation, xvii, 39, 178, 185 electric power of fan, 100 electron capture detector, 146, 178 energy, 77 and well-being, 102 saving, 94, 104 ventilation, 97 envelope of a building, 176 equivalent leakage area, 67, 178 outdoor airﬂow rate, 5 error analysis, 153 exﬁltration, xvi, 31, 174 exhaust, 31 experimental design, 51 extract airﬂow rate, 28 extract ventilation, 178 fan eﬃciency, 97 electric power, 100 pressurization, 59, 179 balanced, 175 ﬁlter, 106, 128 contamination, 108 ﬂame ionization detectors, 146, 179 ﬂow coeﬃcient, 60, 179 exponent, 60, 179 matrix, 9 meter, 20 compensated, 20, 176 gamma function, 157 gas chromatograph, 145, 179 Gaussian distribution, 156 glycol heat exchanger, 86 grab sampling, 139, 179 grille, 19 heat exchange eﬃciency, 86 heat exchanger, 83, 130 contaminants in, 117 heat pump, 86 heat recovery, 106 eﬀect of leakage on, 89 eﬃciency, 90 heating, 79, 105 coil, 83 helix anemometers, 18 high quality buildings, 78 hot wire anemometers, 17, 179 humidiﬁer, 130 contamination by, 110 humidity ratio, 87 humidiﬁcation, 106 identiﬁcation method, 147 indoor air quality strategies, 125 environment, 104 inﬁltration, 30, 175 infrared absorption, 143, 180 injection, 118, 184 location, 141 sequence, 141 intake airﬂow rate, 28 inter-zone airﬂows, 6 leakage, 58, 175 Index air change rate, 67 and heat recovery, 89 area, 67, 178 characteristics, 180 coeﬃcients, 60, 64 heat exchangers, 88 visualization, 69 least square ﬁt, 27, 147 manometer, 180 mapping experiments, 49 mass conservation, 1, 7, 177 spectrometer, 144, 180 matrix age, 10 ﬂow, 9 norm, 162 mechanical power, 97 minimum airﬂow rate, xiii mixing, 137, 181 model matrix, 52 multi-zone, 181 airﬂow rates measurements, 6 pressurization, 62 network, 140 neutral height, 72 node by node, 23 nominal time constant, 3, 40, 181 normal distribution, 156 nozzle, 16 NTC anemometers, 17 optimal performance, 125 oriﬁce plate, 16, 181 outdoor air, 181 outdoor airﬂow rate, xiv, 29 passive sampling, 139, 181 passive ways, 78 performance, 125 permeability, 59 photo-acoustic, 144, 182 pipes, 140 piston ﬂow, 177 Pitot tube, 18, 182 planning of experiments, 49 tool, 32 plate heat exchanger, 84 power law, 60, 182 pressure diﬀerence, 99 and energy use, 107 pressurization, 177, 179, 182 multi-zone, 62 single zone, 59 probability function, 155 psychrometric chart, 79 pulse injection, 4, 12, 43, 182 pumps, 140 quadratic law, 60, 183 recirculation, xv, 29, 34, 37, 88, 105 large-ratio, 36 reductive sealing, 61 regression, 148 relative error, 154 rotating heat exchangers, 85 contamination by, 111 sampling, 22, 119, 185 location, 141 methods, 139 sequence, 141 sealing, 61 sensory pollution, 113 signiﬁcance limit, 155 single zone, 1 speciﬁc leakage rate, 67 stack eﬀect, 70, 184 standard conditions, 65 standard deviation, 156 step-down, 43 step-up, 43, 184 Student distribution, 157 supply airﬂow rate, 28 system of equations (errors in), 160 temperature eﬃciency, 87 thermography, 69, 184 time constant, 35 nominal, 40 tracer gas, 1, 18, 134, 184 analyser, 142, 184 constant concentration, 3, 12, 176 constant injection, 3, 12, 43, 177 decay method, 3, 12, 43, 177 density, 138 189 190 Ventilation and Airﬂow in Buildings tracer gas (Continued) injection, 21 mixing of, 137 pulse injection, 4, 12, 182 sampling, 22 techniques, 12 trained panel, 113 transfer of contaminants, 10 units, 132 conversion tables, 171 variance, 52, 156, 160 vectorial norm, 162 velocity traverse, 17 ventilation, xiii, 185 balanced, 175 eﬃciency, xvii, 39, 178, 185 energy, 97 grilles, 19 system, 15 Venturi tube, 16, 185 visualization of air leakage, 69 VOC, 119 volume ﬂow rates, 11 water vapour pressure, 87 well-being, 102 zone, 1, 9, 185

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