ASUS RX3141 User's Manual

RX3141
User’s Manual
Revision 1.01
Oct. 21, 2004
Table of Contents
Introduction ..............................................1
1
2
1.1
Features................................................................................................................1
1.2
System Requirements..........................................................................................1
1.3
Using this Document ............................................................................................2
1.3.2
Typographical conventions ........................................................................2
1.3.3
Special messages ......................................................................................2
2.1
Parts List ...............................................................................................................3
2.2
Hardware Features...............................................................................................3
2.3
Software Features ................................................................................................3
2.5
2.3.1
NAT Features .............................................................................................3
2.3.2
Firewall Features........................................................................................4
2.3.2.1
Stateful Packet Inspection .............................................................4
2.3.2.2
Packet Filtering – ACL (Access Control List)................................4
2.3.2.3
Defense against DoS Attacks........................................................4
2.4.1.1
Application Level Gateway (ALG) .................................................5
2.4.1.2
Log..................................................................................................5
Finding Your Way Around ....................................................................................6
2.4.1
Front Panel .................................................................................................6
2.4.2
Rear Panel..................................................................................................7
2.4.3
Bottom View ...............................................................................................8
Placement Options ...............................................................................................9
2.5.1
Desktop Placement....................................................................................9
2.5.2
Magnet Mount Instructions.........................................................................9
2.5.3
Wall Mount Instructions:.............................................................................9
Quick Start Guide...................................11
3.1
3.2
ii
Notational conventions...............................................................................2
Getting to Know RX3141 .........................3
2.4
3
1.3.1
Part 1 — Connecting the Hardware...................................................................11
3.1.1
Step 1. Connect an ADSL or a cable modem.........................................11
3.1.2
Step 2. Connect computers or a Network. ..............................................11
3.1.3
Step 3. Attach the AC adapter. ................................................................12
3.1.4
Step 4. Power on RX3141, the ADSL or cable modem and power up
your computers.........................................................................................12
Part 2 — Configuring Your Computers..............................................................13
3.3
4
Before you begin ......................................................................................13
3.2.2
Windows® XP PCs: .................................................................................13
3.2.3
Windows® 2000 PCs:..............................................................................13
3.2.4
Windows® 95, 98, and Me PCs ..............................................................14
3.2.5
Windows® NT 4.0 workstations:..............................................................15
3.2.6
Assigning static IP addresses to your PCs .............................................15
Part 3 — Quick Configuration of the RX3141....................................................16
3.3.1
Setting Up the RX3141 ............................................................................16
3.3.2
Testing Your Setup ..................................................................................17
3.3.3
Default Router Settings............................................................................18
Using the Configuration Manager ..........19
4.1
Log into the Configuration Manager...................................................................19
4.2
Functional Layout ...............................................................................................20
4.3
5
3.2.1
4.2.1
Menu Navigation ......................................................................................20
4.2.2
Commonly Used Buttons and Icons........................................................21
Overview of System Configuration.....................................................................22
Router Connection Setup.......................23
5.1
5.2
LAN Configuration ..............................................................................................23
5.1.1
LAN IP Address........................................................................................23
5.1.2
LAN Configuration Parameters................................................................23
5.1.3
Configuring the LAN IP Address..............................................................24
WAN Configuration.............................................................................................25
5.2.1
WAN Connection Mode ...........................................................................25
5.2.2
PPPoE ......................................................................................................26
5.2.2.1
WAN PPPoE Configuration Parameters.....................................27
5.2.2.2
Configuring PPPoE for WAN.......................................................28
5.2.2.3
Configuring PPPoE Multi-session for WAN ................................28
5.2.3
PPPoE Unnumbered................................................................................31
5.2.3.1
WAN PPPoE Unnumbered Configuration Parameters ..............32
5.2.3.2
Configuring PPPoE Unnumbered for WAN ................................33
5.2.4
Dynamic IP ...............................................................................................33
5.2.4.1
5.2.5
Configuring Dynamic IP for WAN................................................33
Static IP.....................................................................................................34
5.2.5.1
WAN Static IP Configuration Parameters ...................................34
5.2.5.2
Configuring Static IP for WAN .....................................................34
iii
6
DHCP Server Configuration...................35
6.1
7
DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol)............................................................35
6.1.1
What is DHCP? ........................................................................................35
6.1.2
Why use DHCP?......................................................................................35
6.1.3
Configuring DHCP Server........................................................................35
6.1.4
Viewing Current DHCP Address Assignments .......................................37
Configuring Static Routes ......................39
7.1
Overview of IP Routes........................................................................................39
7.1.1
7.2
8
9
Static Route ........................................................................................................40
7.2.1
Static Route Configuration Parameters...................................................40
7.2.2
Adding Static Routes................................................................................41
7.2.3
Deleting Static Routes..............................................................................42
7.2.4
Viewing the Static Routing Table.............................................................42
Configuring DDNS .................................43
8.1
DDNS Configuration Parameters.......................................................................44
8.2
Configuring HTTP DDNS Client.........................................................................45
Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings.........47
9.1
Firewall Overview ...............................................................................................47
9.1.1
Stateful Packet Inspection .......................................................................47
9.1.2
DoS (Denial of Service) Protection..........................................................47
9.1.3
Firewall and Access Control List (ACL)...................................................47
9.1.3.1
Priority Order of ACL Rule...........................................................47
9.1.3.2
ACL Rule and Connection State Tracking..................................48
9.1.4
9.2
9.3
9.4
Default ACL Rules....................................................................................48
Router Security Settings.....................................................................................49
9.2.1
Basic Router Security Configuration Parameters ...................................49
9.2.2
DoS Configuration....................................................................................49
9.2.2.1
DoS Protection Configuration Parameters..................................50
9.2.2.2
Configuring DoS Settings ............................................................51
ACL Rule Configuration Parameters .................................................................52
9.3.1
ACL Rule Configuration Parameters.......................................................52
Configuring Inbound ACL Rules ........................................................................55
9.4.1
iv
Do I need to define static routes? ............................................................39
Add Inbound ACL Rules ..........................................................................55
9.4.2
Figure 9.4. Sample Inbound ACL List TableModify Inbound ACL Rules
..................................................................................................................56
9.4.3
Delete Inbound ACL Rules ......................................................................56
9.4.4
Display Inbound ACL Rules.....................................................................57
9.5
Configuring Outbound ACL Rules .....................................................................57
9.5.1
Add an Outbound ACL Rule ....................................................................57
9.5.2
Modify Outbound ACL Rules ...................................................................58
9.5.3
Delete Outbound ACL Rules ...................................................................59
9.5.4
Display Outbound ACL Rules..................................................................59
Configuring Self-Access ACL Rules – (Router Setup Î Self-Access ACL) ......59
9.6
9.6.1
Add a Self-Access Rule ...........................................................................60
9.6.2
Modify a Self-Access Rule.......................................................................60
9.6.3
Delete a Self-Access Rule .......................................................................61
9.6.4
View Configured Self-Access Rules........................................................61
Firewall Log – (Router Setup Î Log)................................................................61
9.7
9.7.1
10
Virtual Sever and Special Application....63
10.1
NAT Overview.....................................................................................................63
10.1.1
NAPT (Network Address and Port Translation) or PAT (Port Address
Translation) ................................................................................................63
10.1.2
Reverse NAPT / Virtual Server................................................................64
10.2
11
Log Format ...............................................................................................62
Configure Virtual Server .....................................................................................64
10.2.1
Virtual Server Configuration Parameters.................................................64
10.2.2
Virtual Server Example ............................................................................66
10.2.3
Special Application Configuration Parameters........................................67
10.2.4
Special Application Example ...................................................................68
System Management.............................70
11.1
Login Password and System-Wide Settings .....................................................70
11.2
Viewing System Information...............................................................................72
11.3
Setup Date and Time .........................................................................................73
11.3.1
11.4
View the System Date and Time .............................................................74
Reset to Factory Default Settings ......................................................................74
11.4.1
Reset to Factory Default Settings using GUI ..........................................74
11.4.2
Reset to Factory Default Settings using the Reset Button .....................75
11.5
Firmware Upgrade..............................................................................................75
11.6
System Reboot ...................................................................................................78
v
11.7
12
. System Configuration Management ................................................................79
11.7.1
Backup System Configuration .................................................................79
11.7.2
Restore System Configuration.................................................................81
IP Addresses, Network Masks, and
Subnets ..................................................83
12.1
IP Addresses.......................................................................................................83
12.1.1
13
12.2
Network classes..................................................................................................84
12.3
Subnet masks .....................................................................................................85
Troubleshooting .....................................87
13.1
14
vi
Structure of an IP address .......................................................................83
Diagnosing Problem using IP Utilities................................................................88
13.1.1
ping ...........................................................................................................88
13.1.2
nslookup ...................................................................................................89
Index ......................................................91
List of Figures
Figure 2.1. Front Panel LEDs...................................................................................................................................6
Figure 2.2. Rear Panel Connectors .........................................................................................................................7
Figure 3.1. Overview of Hardware Connections .................................................................................................. 12
Figure 3.2. Login Screen ....................................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 3.3. System Status Page ........................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 4.1. Configuration Manager Login Screen ................................................................................................ 19
Figure 4.2. Typical Configuration Manager Page................................................................................................. 20
Figure 4.3. System Information Page ................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 5.1. Router Connection Setup Configuration – LAN Configuration.......................................................... 24
Figure 5.2. Network Setup Configuration Page – WAN Configuration................................................................ 25
Figure 5.3. WAN – PPPoE Configuration............................................................................................................. 26
Figure 5.4. WAN – PPPoE Multi-session Example.............................................................................................. 28
Figure 5.5. WAN – PPPoE0 Settings ................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 5.6. WAN – PPPoE1 Settings ................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 5.7. WAN – First ACL Rule Settings (using network address/subnet mask) for Forwarding Packets to
PPPOE1 Session........................................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 5.8. WAN – Second ACL Rule Settings (using domain name) for Forwarding Packets to PPPOE1
Session........................................................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 5.9. WAN – Outbound ACL Rule Settings for PPPoE Multi-session Example........................................ 30
Figure 5.10. WAN – Default Outbound ACL Rule for PPPoE Multi-session Example ....................................... 30
Figure 5.11. WAN – PPPoE Unnumbered Configuration .................................................................................... 31
Figure 5.12. WAN – Dynamic IP (DHCP client) Configuration ............................................................................ 33
Figure 5.13. WAN – Static IP Configuration ......................................................................................................... 34
Figure 6.1. DHCP Server Configuration Page...................................................................................................... 36
Figure 6.2. DHCP Lease Table............................................................................................................................. 37
Figure 7.1. Routing Configuration Page .............................................................................................................. 40
Figure 7.2. Static Route Configuration................................................................................................................. 41
Figure 7.3. Sample Routing Table ....................................................................................................................... 42
Figure 8.1. Network Diagram for HTTP DDNS .................................................................................................... 43
Figure 8.2. HTTP DDNS Configuration Page....................................................................................................... 45
Figure 9.1. Router Security Configuration Page................................................................................................... 51
Figure 9.2. Inbound ACL Configuration Page ...................................................................................................... 55
Figure 9.3. Inbound ACL Configuration Example................................................................................................. 56
Figure 9.4. Sample Inbound ACL List Table................................................................................................. 56
Figure 9.5. Outbound ACL Configuration Page ................................................................................................... 57
Figure 9.6. Outbound ACL Configuration Example.............................................................................................. 58
vii
Figure 9.7. Sample Outbound ACL List Table...................................................................................................... 58
Figure 9.8. Self-Access ACL Configuration Page ................................................................................................ 60
Figure 9.9. Self-Access ACL Configuration Example .......................................................................................... 60
Figure 9.10. Existing Self-Access ACL Rules ...................................................................................................... 61
Figure 9.11 Sample Firewall Log .......................................................................................................................... 62
Figure 10.1 NAPT – Map Any Internal PCs to a Single Global IP Address ........................................................ 63
Figure 10.2 Reverse NAPT – Relayed Incoming Packets to the Internal Host Base on the Protocol, Port
Number or IP Address ................................................................................................................................... 64
Figure 10.3. Virtual Server Example..................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 10.4. Virtual Server Example – Inbound ACL Rule........................................................................... 67
Figure 10.5. Special Application Configuration Page........................................................................................... 68
Figure 10.6. Special Application Example – Outbound ACL Rule....................................................................... 69
Figure 10.7. Outbound ACL Rule Table ............................................................................................................... 69
Figure 11.1. System Administration Configuration Page ..................................................................................... 70
Figure 11.2. System Status Page ......................................................................................................................... 72
Figure 11.3. Date and Time Configuration Page.................................................................................................. 73
Figure 11.4. Factory Reset Page .......................................................................................................................... 74
Figure 11.5. Factory Reset Confirmation.............................................................................................................. 74
Figure 11.6. Factory Reset Count Down Timer.................................................................................................... 75
Figure 11.7. Firmware Upgrade Page .................................................................................................................. 75
Figure 11.8. File Manager ..................................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 11.9. Firmware Upgrade Confirmation...................................................................................................... 76
Figure 11.10. Firmware Upgrade Status .............................................................................................................. 76
Figure 11.11. Firmware Upgrade Count Down Timer.......................................................................................... 77
Figure 11.12. System Reboot Page...................................................................................................................... 78
Figure 11.13. System Reboot Confirmation ......................................................................................................... 78
Figure 11.14. System Reboot Countdown Timer................................................................................................. 78
Figure 11.15. System Configuration Backup Page .............................................................................................. 79
Figure 11.16. System Configuration Backup Page – File Download Dialog....................................................... 79
Figure 11.17. System Configuration Backup Page – Save As Dialog................................................................. 80
Figure 11.18. System Configuration Backup Status ............................................................................................ 80
Figure 11.19. System Configuration Restore Page ............................................................................................. 81
Figure 11.20. System Configuration Restore Page – Choose File Dialog .......................................................... 81
Figure 11.21. System Configuration Restore Status............................................................................................ 82
Figure 13.1. Using the ping Utility ......................................................................................................................... 89
Figure 13.2. Using the nslookup Utility ................................................................................................................. 90
viii
List of Tables
Table 2.1. DoS Attacks.............................................................................................................................................5
Table 2.2. Front Panel Label and LEDs ..................................................................................................................6
Table 2.3. Rear Panel Labels and LEDs .................................................................................................................7
Table 3.1. LED Indicators...................................................................................................................................... 12
Table 3.2. Default Settings Summary................................................................................................................... 18
Table 4.1. Description of Commonly Used Buttons and Icons ............................................................................ 21
Table 5.1. LAN Configuration Parameters............................................................................................................ 23
Table 5.2. WAN PPPoE Configuration Parameters............................................................................................. 27
Table 5.3. WAN PPPoE Unnumbered Configuration Parameters ...................................................................... 32
Table 5.4. WAN Static IP Configuration Parameters ........................................................................................... 34
Table 6.1. DHCP Configuration Parameters ........................................................................................................ 36
Table 7.1. Static Route Configuration Parameters............................................................................................... 40
Table 8.1. DDNS Configuration Parameters ........................................................................................................ 44
Table 9.1. Firewall Basic Configuration Parameters ............................................................................................ 49
Table 9.2. DoS Attack Definition ........................................................................................................................... 50
Table 9.3. ACL Rule Configuration Parameters................................................................................................... 52
Table 10.1. Virtual Server Configuration Parameters .......................................................................................... 65
Table 10.2. Port Numbers for Popular Applications ............................................................................................. 65
Table 10.3. Virtual Server Configuration Parameters .......................................................................................... 67
Table 10.4. Port Numbers for Popular Applications ............................................................................................. 68
Table 12.1. IP Address Structure.......................................................................................................................... 83
ix
RX3141 User’s Manual
1
Chapter 1. Introduction
Introduction
Congratulations on becoming the owner of RX3141. Your LAN (local area network) will now be able to access
the Internet using your high-speed broadband connection such as those with ADSL or cable modem.
This User Manual will show you how to set up the RX3141, and how to customize its configuration to get the
most out of this product.
1.1
f
f
f
f
f
f
1.2
Features
LAN: 4-port Gigabit switch, jumbo frame supports up to 9Kbyte.
WAN: 10/100Base-T Ethernet provides Internet access for all computers on your LAN
Firewall & NAT (Network Address Translation) functions provide secure Internet access for your LAN
Automatic network address assignment through DHCP Server
Services including IP route, DNS and DDNS configuration
Configuration program accessible via a web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or newer.
System Requirements
In order to use the RX3141 for Internet access, you must have the following:
f ADSL or cable modem and the corresponding service up and running, with at least one public Internet
address assigned to your WAN
f One or more computers each containing an Ethernet 10Base-T or 100Base-T or 1000Base-T network
interface card (NIC)
f (Optional) An Ethernet hub/switch, if you want to connect the router to more than four computers on
an Ethernet network.
f For system configuration using the web-based GUI: web browser such as Microsoft IE 6.0 or newer.
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.3
1.3.1
RX3141 User’s Manual
Using this Document
Notational conventions
f Acronyms are defined the first time they appear in the text.
f For brevity, RX3141 is sometimes referred to as the “router” or the ”gateway”.
f The terms LAN and network are used interchangeably to refer to a group of Ethernet-connected
computers at one site.
f Sequence of mouse actions is denoted by the “Δ character. For instance, Router Setup Î
Connection means double click the Router Setup menu and then click the Connection submenu.
1.3.2
Typographical conventions
f Boldface type text is used for items you select from menus and drop-down lists, and text strings you
type when prompted by the program.
1.3.3
Special messages
This document uses the following icons to call your attention to specific instructions or explanations.
Note
Definition
Provides clarification or non-essential information on the current
topic.
Explains terms or acronyms that may be unfamiliar to many
readers. These terms are also included in the Glossary.
Provides messages of high importance, including messages
relating to personal safety or system integrity.
WARNING
2
RX3141 User’s Manual
2
2.1
Chapter 2. Getting to Know
Getting to Know RX3141
Parts List
In addition to this document, RX3141 should come with the following:
f
f
f
f
2.2
The System unit, RX3141
AC Adapter
User Manual
Compact Disk of Multi-language Quick installation Guide
Hardware Features
f LAN
•
4-port Gigabit switch
•
Auto speed negotiation
•
9KB jumbo frame support
• 4K MAC address table w/ auto learning and aging
f WAN
2.3
2.3.1
•
10/100M Ethernet
•
Auto MDI/MDIX
Software Features
NAT Features
RX3141 provides NAT to share a single high-speed Internet connection and to save the cost of multiple
connections required for the hosts on the LAN segments connected to it. This feature conceals network
address and prevents them from becoming public. It maps unregistered IP address of hosts connected to the
LAN with valid ones for Internet access. RX3141 also provides reverse NAT capability, which enables users to
host various services such as e-mail servers, web servers, etc. The NAT rules drive the translation
mechanism. The following types of NAT are supported by RX3141.
f NAPT (Network Address and Port Translation) – Also called IP Masquerading or ENAT (Enhanced
NAT). Maps many internal hosts to only one globally valid IP address. The mapping usually contains a
pool of network ports to be used for translation. Every packet is translated with the globally valid IP
address; the port number is translated with a free pool from the pool of network ports.
f Reverse NAPT – Also called inbound mapping, port mapping, or virtual server. Any packet coming to
the router can be relayed to an internal host based on the protocol, port number and/or IP Address
specified in the rule. This is useful when multiple services are hosted on different internal hosts.
3
Chapter 2. Getting to Know
2.3.2
RX3141 User’s Manual
Firewall Features
The firewall as implemented in RX3141 provides the following features to protect your network from being
attacked and to prevent your network from being used as the springboard for attacks.
f
f
f
f
2.3.2.1
Stateful Packet Inspection
Packet Filtering (ACL)
Defense against Denial of Service Attacks
Log
Stateful Packet Inspection
The RX3141 Firewall uses “stateful packet inspection” that extracts state-related information required for the
security decision from the packet and maintains this information for evaluating subsequent connection
attempts. It has awareness of application and creates dynamic sessions that allow dynamic connections so
that no ports need to be opened other than the required ones. This provides a solution which is highly secure
and that offers scalability and extensibility.
2.3.2.2
Packet Filtering – ACL (Access Control List)
ACL rule is one of the basic building blocks for network security. Firewall monitors each individual packet,
decodes the header information of inbound and outbound traffic and then either blocks the packet from
passing or allows it to pass based on the contents of the source address, destination address, source port,
destination port, and protocol defined in the ACL rules.
ACL is a very appropriate measure for providing isolation of one subnet from another. It can be used as the
first line of defense in the network to block inbound packets of specific types from ever reaching the protected
network.
The RX3141 Firewall’s ACL methodology supports:
f Filtering based on destination and source IP address, port number and protocol
f Use of the wild card for composing filter rules
f Filter Rule priorities
2.3.2.3
Defense against DoS Attacks
The RX3141 Firewall has an Attack Defense Engine that protects internal networks from known types of
Internet attacks. It provides automatic protection from Denial of Service (DoS) attacks such as SYN flooding,
IP smurfing, LAND, Ping of Death and all re-assembly attacks. For example, the RX3141 Firewall provides
protection from “WinNuke”, a widely used program to remotely crash unprotected Windows systems in the
Internet. The RX3141 Firewall also provides protection from a variety of common Internet attacks such as IP
Spoofing, Ping of Death, Land Attack, and Reassembly attacks.
The type of attack protections/detections provided by the RX3141 is listed in Table 2.1.
4
RX3141 User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Getting to Know
Table 2.1. DoS Attacks
2.4.1.1
Type of Attack
Name of Attacks
Re-assembly attacks
Bonk, Boink, Teardrop (New Tear), Overdrop,
Opentear, Syndrop, Jolt, IP fragmentation overlap
ICMP Attacks
Ping of Death, Smurf, Twinge
Flooders
Logging only for ICMP Flooder, UDP Flooder, SYN
Flooder
Port Scans
Logging only for TCP SYN Scan
Attack packets dropped: TCP XMAS Scan, TCP Null
Scan, TCP Stealth Scan
Protection with PF Rules
Echo-Chargen, Ascend Kill
Miscellaneous Attacks
IP Spoofing, LAND, Targa, Winnuke
Application Level Gateway (ALG)
Applications such as FTP open connections dynamically based on the respective application parameter. To go
through the firewall on the RX3141, packets pertaining to an application, require a corresponding allow rule. In
the absence of such rules, the packets will be dropped by the RX3141 Firewall. As it is not feasible to create
policies for numerous applications dynamically (at the same time without compromising security), intelligence
in the form of Application Level Gateways (ALG), is built to parse packets for applications and open dynamic
associations. The RX3141 NAT provides a number of ALGs for popular applications such as FTP, and
Netmeeting.
2.4.1.2
Log
Events in the network, that could be attempts to affect its security, are recorded in the RX3141 system log file.
The log maintains a minimum log details such as, time of packet arrival, description of action taken by Firewall
and reason for action.
5
Chapter 2. Getting to Know
2.4
2.4.1
RX3141 User’s Manual
Finding Your Way Around
Front Panel
The front panel contains LED indicators that show the status of the unit.
1
○
2
○
6
○
3
○
4
○
5
○
Figure 2.1. Front Panel LEDs
Table 2.2. Front Panel Label and LEDs
LED Label
Color
Status
Indication
1
○
POWER
Green
ON
OFF
RX3141 is powered on
RX3141 is powered off
2
○
1–4
3
○
STATUS
Identifies the LAN port LEDs. Status of
each LAN port is indicated by 3 LEDs:
STATUS, SPEED and DUPLEX.
Green
ON
Blinking
OFF
4
○
SPEED
Green
Amber
ON
ON
OFF
Speed is 1000Mbps
Speed is 100Mbps
Speed is 10Mbps or no link is
established.
5
○
DUPLEX
Amber
ON
The LAN port is operating in full-duplex
mode.
The LAN port is operating in halfduplex mode and collision is
occurring.
The LAN port is operating in half
duplex mode and no collision is
detected.
Blinking
OFF
6
○
6
Ethernet link is established and active
Data is transmitted or received via the
connection
No Ethernet link
Identifies the WAN port LED
WAN
3
○
STATUS
Green
ON
OFF
Ethernet link is established and active.
No Ethernet link is established.
4
○
SPEED
Green
ON
Blinking
Speed is 100Mbps
Green: Data is transmitted or received
via the connection
RX3141 User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Getting to Know
LED Label
5
○
DUPLEX
Color
Status
Indication
Amber
ON
Blinking
Speed is 10Mbps
Data is transmitted or received via the
connection
OFF
No link is established.
ON
The LAN port is operating in full-duplex
mode.
The LAN port is operating in half
duplex mode and no collision is
detected.
Amber
OFF
2.4.2
Rear Panel
The rear panel contains the ports for the unit's data and power connections.
7
○
8
○
9
10
○
○
Figure 2.2. Rear Panel Connectors
Table 2.3. Rear Panel Labels and LEDs
Label
Indication
7 1–4
○
LAN Ports: connects to your PC's Ethernet port, or
to the uplink port on your LAN's hub/switch, using
the Ethernet cable.
8 WAN
○
WAN Port: connects to your WAN device, such as
ADSL or cable modem.
9 RESET
○
Reset Button
1. Reboots the device
2. Resets the system configuration to the factory
defaults if pressed for more than 5 seconds.
10 POWER
○
Power Input Jack: connects to the supplied AC
adapter
7
Chapter 2. Getting to Know
2.4.3
Bottom View
RX3141 User’s Manual
11
○
11 ○
12
○
11
○
12 ○
11
○
11 Wall Mount Slots: You may use these slots to hang RX3141 on the wall to save space. Depending on your
○
particular requirement by taking into account the location of the power outlet, power cord length, Ethernet
cable length and etc., you can hang RX3141 in 4 different orientations: front panel up, rear panel up, left
side up or right side up.
12 Magnets: The magnets allow you to place RX3141 on any metal surface to save space.
○
8
RX3141 User’s Manual
2.5
Chapter 2 Getting to Know
Placement Options
Depending on your environment, you may choose one of the three supported placement options for RX3141 –
desktop placement, magnet mount and wall mount.
2.5.1
Desktop Placement
You may place RX3141 on any flat surface. The space-saving design of RX3141 occupies only a small area
on your desk.
2.5.2
Magnet Mount Instructions
Place RX3141 onto any metal surface that attracts magnet, such as most desktop computer housings,
cabinets and etc.
2.5.3
Wall Mount Instructions:
1. Attach two screws on the wall, separated by 115mm if you want the front or rear panel facing
upward, 76mm if you want left or right side facing upward. Make sure that the two screws are
leveled. Note that there are four wall mount slots and you may choose any adjacent slots for wall
mounting.
115mm or 76mm
2. Line up the wall mount slots with the screws and maneuver RX3141 so that both screws are
inserted into the wall mount slots as indicated in the following figures.
Screws
Screws
Wall
mount
slots
Wall
mount
slots
Maneuver the switch so that both screws
are inserted into the wall mount slots.
Line up the wall mount slots w/ both screws.
9
RX3141 User’s Manual
3
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
Quick Start Guide
This Quick Start Guide provides basic instructions for connecting the RX3141 to a computer or a network and
to the Internet.
f Part 1 provides instructions to set up the hardware.
f Part 2 describes how to configure Internet properties on your computer(s).
f Part 3 shows you how to configure basic settings on the RX3141 to get your LAN connected to the
Internet.
After setting up and configuring the device, you can follow the instructions on page 17 to verify that it is working
properly.
This Quick Start Guide assumes that you have already established ADSL or cable modem service with your
Internet service provider (ISP). These instructions provide a basic configuration that should be compatible with
your home or small office network setup. Refer to the subsequent chapters for additional configuration
instructions.
3.1
Part 1 — Connecting the Hardware
In Part 1, you connect the device to an ADSL or a cable modem (which in turn is connected to a phone jack or
a cable outlet), the power outlet, and your computer or network.
WARNING
Before you begin, turn the power off for all devices. These
include your computer(s), your LAN hub/switch (if applicable),
and the RX3141.
Figure 3.1 illustrates the hardware connections. Please follow the steps that follow for specific instructions.
3.1.1
Step 1. Connect an ADSL or a cable modem.
For the RX3141: Connect one end of the Ethernet cable to the port labeled WAN on the rear panel of the
device. Connect the other end to the Ethernet port on the ADSL or cable modem.
3.1.2
Step 2. Connect computers or a Network.
If your LAN has no more than 4 computers, you can use an Ethernet cable to connect computers directly to
the built-in switch on the device. Note that you should attach one end of the Ethernet cable to any of the port
labeled 1 – 4 on the rear panel of the router and connect the other end to the Ethernet port of a computer.
If your LAN has more than 4 computers, you can attach one end of an Ethernet cable to a hub or a switch
(probably an uplink port; please refer to the hub or switch documentations for instructions) and the other to the
Ethernet switch port (labeled 1 – 4) on the RX3141.
Note that either the crossover or straight-through Ethernet cable can be used to connect the built-in switch and
computers, hubs or switches as the built-in switch is smart enough to make connections with either type of
cables.
11
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
3.1.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
Step 3. Attach the AC adapter.
Attach the AC adapter to the POWER input jack on the back of the device and plug in the adapter to a wall
outlet or a power strip.
3.1.4
Step 4. Power on RX3141, the ADSL or cable modem and power up your
computers.
Plug the AC adapter to the power input jack of RX3141. Turn on your ADSL or cable modem. Turn on and
boot up your computer(s) and/or any LAN devices such as wireless AP, hubs or switches.
Internet
Cable or ADSL Modem
RX3141i
Ethernet
cable
Wireless AP
Figure 3.1. Overview of Hardware Connections
You should verify that the LEDs are illuminated as indicated in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1. LED Indicators
This LED:
...should be:
POWER
Solid green to indicate that the device is turned on. If this light
is not on, check if the AC adapter is attached to the RX3141
and if it is plugged into a power source.
1–4
STATUS
LED
Solid green to indicate that the device can communicate with
your LAN or flashing when the device is sending or receiving
data to/from your LAN computer(s).
WAN
Solid green to indicate that the device has successfully
established a connection with your ISP or flashing when the
device is sending or receiving data to/from the Internet.
If the LEDs illuminate as expected, the RX3141 is working properly.
12
RX3141 User’s Manual
3.2
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
Part 2 — Configuring Your Computers
Part 2 of the Quick Start Guide provides instructions for configuring the network settings on your computers to
work with the RX3141.
3.2.1
Before you begin
By default, the RX3141 automatically assigns all required network settings (e.g. IP address, DNS server IP
address, default gateway IP address) to your PCs. You need only to configure your PCs to accept the network
settings provided by the RX3141.
Note
In some cases, you may want to configure network settings
manually to some or all of your computers rather than allow the
RX3141 to do so. See “Assigning static IP addresses to your PCs”
in page 15 for instructions.
f If you have connected your PC via Ethernet to the RX3141, follow the instructions that correspond to
the operating system installed on your PC.
3.2.2
Windows® XP PCs:
1. In the Windows task bar, click the <Start> button, and then click Control Panel.
2. Double-click the Network Connections icon.
3. In the LAN or High-Speed Internet window, right-click on icon corresponding to your network
interface card (NIC) and select Properties. (Often this icon is labeled Local Area Connection).
The Local Area Connection dialog box displays with a list of currently installed network items.
4. Ensure that the check box to the left of the item labeled Internet Protocol TCP/IP is checked, and
click <Properties> button.
5. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click the radio button labeled Obtain an
IP address automatically. Also click the radio button labeled Obtain DNS server address
automatically.
6. Click <OK> button twice to confirm your changes, and close the Control Panel.
3.2.3
Windows® 2000 PCs:
First, check for the IP protocol and, if necessary, install it:
1. In the Windows task bar, click the <Start> button, point to Settings, and then click Control
Panel.
2. Double-click the Network and Dial-up Connections icon.
3. In the Network and Dial-up Connections window, right-click the Local Area Connection icon,
and then select Properties.
The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box displays a list of currently installed network
components. If the list includes Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), then the protocol has already been
enabled. Skip to step 10.
4. If Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) does not display as an installed component, click <Install> button.
13
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
RX3141 User’s Manual
5. In the Select Network Component Type dialog box, select Protocol, and then click <Add> button.
6. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in the Network Protocols list, and then click <OK> button.
You may be prompted to install files from your Windows 2000 installation CD or other media. Follow
the instructions to install the files.
7. If prompted, click <OK> button to restart your computer with the new settings.
Next, configure the PCs to accept IP addresses assigned by the RX3141:
8. In the Control Panel, double-click the Network and Dial-up Connections icon.
9. In Network and Dial-up Connections window, right-click the Local Area Connection icon, and
then select Properties.
10. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then
click <Properties> button.
11. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click the radio button labeled Obtain an
IP address automatically. Also click the radio button labeled Obtain DNS server address
automatically.
12. Click <OK> button twice to confirm and save your changes, and then close the Control Panel.
3.2.4
Windows® 95, 98, and Me PCs
1. In the Windows task bar, click the <Start> button, point to Settings, and then click Control
Panel.
2. Double-click the Network icon.
In the Network dialog box, look for an entry started w/ “TCP/IP ->” and the name of your network
adapter, and then click <Properties> button. You may have to scroll down the list to find this entry.
If the list includes such an entry, then the TCP/IP protocol has already been enabled. Skip to step 8.
3. If Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) does not display as an installed component, click <Add> button.
4. In the Select Network Component Type dialog box, select Protocol, and then click <Add> button.
5. Select Microsoft in the Manufacturers list box, and then click TCP/IP in the Network Protocols
list, box and then click <OK> button.
You may be prompted to install files from your Windows 95, 98 or Me installation CD or other
media. Follow the instructions to install the files.
6. If prompted, click <OK> button to restart your computer with the new settings.
Next, configure the PCs to accept IP information assigned by the RX3141:
7. In the Control Panel, double-click the Network icon.
8. In the Network dialog box, select an entry started with “TCP/IP ->” and the name of your network
adapter, and then click <Properties> button.
9. In the TCP/IP Properties dialog box, click the radio button labeled Obtain an IP address
automatically.
10. In the TCP/IP Properties dialog box, click the “Default Gateway” tab. Enter 192.168.1.1 (the
default LAN port IP address of the RX3141) in the “New gateway” address field and click <Add>
button to add the default gateway entry.
11. Click <OK> button twice to confirm and save your changes, and then close the Control Panel.
12. If prompted to restart your computer, click <OK> button to do so with the new settings.
14
RX3141 User’s Manual
3.2.5
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
Windows® NT 4.0 workstations:
First, check for the IP protocol and, if necessary, install it:
1. In the Windows NT task bar, click the <Start> button, point to Settings, and then click Control
Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, double click the Network icon.
3. In the Network dialog box, click the Protocols tab.
The Protocols tab displays a list of currently installed network protocols. If the list includes TCP/IP
Protocol, then the protocol has already been enabled. Skip to step 9.
4. If TCP/IP does not display as an installed component, click <Add> button.
5. In the Select Network Protocol dialog box, select TCP/IP, and then click <OK> button.
You may be prompted to install files from your Windows NT installation CD or other media. Follow
the instructions to install the files.
After all files are installed, a window displays to inform you that a TCP/IP service called DHCP can
be set up to dynamically assign IP information.
6. Click <Yes> button to continue, and then click <OK> button if prompted to restart your computer.
Next, configure the PCs to accept IP addresses assigned by the RX3141:
7. Open the Control Panel window, and then double-click the Network icon.
8. In the Network dialog box, click the Protocols tab.
9. In the Protocols tab, select TCP/IP, and then click <Properties> button.
10. In the Microsoft TCP/IP Properties dialog box, click the radio button labeled Obtain an IP
address from a DHCP server.
11. Click <OK> button twice to confirm and save your changes, and then close the Control Panel.
3.2.6
Assigning static IP addresses to your PCs
In some cases, you may want to assign IP addresses to some or all of your PCs directly (often called
“statically”), rather than allowing the RX3141 to assign them. This option may be desirable (but not required) if:
f You have obtained one or more public IP addresses that you want to always associate with specific
computers (for example, if you are using a computer as a public web server).
f You maintain different subnets on your LAN.
However, during the first time configuration of your RX3141, you must assign an IP address in the 192.168.1.0
network for your PC, say 192.168.1.2, in order to establish connection between the RX3141 and your PC as
the default LAN IP on RX3141 is pre-configured as 192.168.1.1. Enter 255.255.255.0 for the subnet mask and
192.168.1.1 for the default gateway. These settings may be changed later to reflect your true network
environment.
On each PC to which you want to assign static information, follow the instructions on pages 13 through 15
relating only to checking for and/or installing the IP protocol. Once it is installed, continue to follow the
instructions for displaying each of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties. Instead of enabling dynamic
assignment of the IP addresses for the computer, DNS server, and default gateway, click the radio buttons that
enable you to enter the information manually.
Note
Your PCs must have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the RX3141’s
LAN port. If you manually assign IP information to all your LAN PCs, you can follow the
instructions in the section 5.1.1 to change the LAN port IP address accordingly.
15
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
3.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
Part 3 — Quick Configuration of the RX3141
In Part 3, you log into the Configuration Manager on the RX3141 and configure basic settings for your router.
Your ISP should provide you with the necessary information to complete this step. Note the intent here is to
quickly get the RX3141 up and running, instructions are concise. You may refer to corresponding chapters for
more details.
3.3.1
Setting Up the RX3141
Follow these instructions to setup the RX3141:
1. Before accessing the Configuration Manager in RX3141, make sure that the HTTP proxy setting
is disabled in your browser. In IE, click “Tools” Î “Internet Options…” Î “Connections” tab Î
“LAN settings…” and then uncheck “Use proxy server for your LAN …”
2. On any PC connected to one of the four LAN ports on the RX3141, open your Web browser, and
type the following URL in the address/location box, and press <Enter>:
http://192.168.1.1
This is the predefined IP address for the LAN port on the RX3141.
A login screen displays, as shown in Figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2. Login Screen
If you have problem connecting to the RX3141, you may want to check if your PC is configured to
accept IP address assignment from the RX3141. Another method is to set the IP address of your PC
to any IP address in the 192.168.1.0 network, such as 192.168.1.2.
3. Enter your username and password, and then click
to enter the Configuration Manager.
The first time you log into this program, use these defaults:
Note
Default Username:
admin
Default Password:
admin
You can change the password at any time (see section 11.1 Login
Password and System-Wide Settings ).
The System Information page displays each time you log into the Configuration Manager (shown in
Figure 3.3).
16
RX3141 User’s Manual
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
Figure 3.3. System Status Page
4. Follow the instructions described in Chapter 5 "Router Connection Setup” to set up the LAN and
WAN settings for RX3141.
After completing the basic configuration for RX3141, read the following section to determine if you can access
the Internet.
3.3.2
Testing Your Setup
At this point, the RX3141 should enable any computers on your LAN to use the RX3141’s ADSL or cable
modem connection to access the Internet.
To test the Internet connection, open your web browser, and type the URL of any external website (such as
http://www.asus.com). The LED labeled WAN should be blinking rapidly and may appear solid as the device
connects to the site. You should also be able to browse the web site through your web browser.
If the LEDs do not illuminate as expected or the web page does not display, see Appendix 13 for
troubleshooting suggestions.
17
Chapter 3. Quick Start Guide
3.3.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
Default Router Settings
In addition to handling the DSL connection to your ISP, the RX3141 can provide a variety of services to your
network. The device is pre-configured with default settings for use with a typical home or small office network.
Table 3.2 lists some of the most important default settings; these and other features are described fully in the
subsequent chapters. If you are familiar with network configuration settings, review the settings in Table 3.2 to
verify that they meet the needs of your network. Follow the instructions to change them if necessary. If you are
unfamiliar with these settings, try using the device without modification, or contact your ISP for assistance.
Before you modifying any settings, review Chapter 4 for general information about accessing and using the
Configuration Manager program. We strongly recommend that you contact your ISP prior to changing the
default configuration.
Table 3.2. Default Settings Summary
Option
DHCP (Dynamic
Host
Configuration
Protocol)
Default Setting
DHCP server enabled with the
following pool of addresses:
LAN Port IP
Address
Static IP address: 192.168.1.1
18
192.168.1.100 through
192.168.1.149
subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Explanation/Instructions
The RX3141 maintains a pool of private IP
addresses for dynamic assignment to your
LAN computers. To use this service, you
must have set up your computers to
accept IP information dynamically, as
described in Part 2 of the Quick Start
Guide. See section 6.1 for an explanation
of the DHCP service.
This is the IP address of the LAN port on
the RX3141. The LAN port connects the
device to your Ethernet network. Typically,
you will not need to change this address.
See section 5.1.1 LAN IP Address for
instructions.
RX3141 User’s Manual
4
Chapter 4. Using the Configuration Manager
Using the Configuration Manager
The RX3141 includes a preinstalled program called the Configuration Manager, which provides an interface to
the software installed on the device. It enables you to configure the device settings to meet the needs of your
network. You access it through your web browser from any PC connected to the RX3141 via the LAN or the
WAN ports.
This chapter describes the general guides for using the Configuration Manager.
4.1
Log into the Configuration Manager
The Configuration Manager program is preinstalled on the RX3141. To access the program, you need the
following:
f A computer connected to the LAN or WAN port on the RX3141 as described in the Quick Start Guide
chapter.
f A web browser installed on the computer. The program is designed to work best with Microsoft
Internet Explorer® 6.0 or later.
You may access the program from any computer connected to the RX3141 via the LAN or WAN ports.
However, the instructions provided here are for computers connected via the LAN ports.
1. From a LAN computer, open your web browser, type the following in the web address (or
location) box, and press <Enter>:
http://192.168.1.1
This is the predefined IP address for the LAN port on the RX3141. A login screen displays, as shown
in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1. Configuration Manager Login Screen
2. Enter your username and password, and then click
.
The first time you log into the program, use these defaults:
Default Username:
admin
Default Password:
admin
Note
You can change the password at any time (see section 11.1 Login
Password and System-Wide Settings ).
The System Information page displays every time you log into the Configuration Manager (shown in
Figure 4.3 on page 22).
19
Chapter 4. Using the Configuration Manager
4.2
RX3141 User’s Manual
Functional Layout
Typical Typical Configuration page consists of several elements – banner, menu, menu navigation tips,
configuration, and on-line help. You can click on any menu item to expand/contract any menu groups or to
access a specific configuration page. The configuration pane is where you interact with the Configuration
Manager to configure the settings for RX3141. Menu navigation tips show how the current configuration can
be accessed via the menus.
Banner
Menu navigation tips
Menu
Configuration
Online Help
Figure 4.2. Typical Configuration Manager Page
4.2.1
20
Menu Navigation
f To expand a group of related menus: double click the menu or the icon,
.
f To contract a group of related menus: double click the menu or the icon,
f To open a specific configuration page, click the menu or the icon, .
.
RX3141 User’s Manual
4.2.2
Chapter 4. Using the Configuration Manager
Commonly Used Buttons and Icons
The following buttons or icons are used throughout the application. The following table describes the function
for each button or icon.
Table 4.1. Description of Commonly Used Buttons and Icons
Button/Icon
Function
Stores any changes you have made on the current page.
Adds a new configuration to the system, e.g. a static route or a firewall ACL rule and etc.
Modifies existing configuration in the system, e.g. a static route or a firewall ACL rule and etc.
Redisplays the current page with updated statistics or settings.
Selects the item for editing.
Trash - Deletes the selected item.
Browse
Undo
Cancel
OK
Open
Save
Folder Off
Folder On
Item
21
Chapter 4. Using the Configuration Manager
4.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
Overview of System Configuration
To view the overall system configuration, log into the Configuration Manager, and then click Status menu.
Figure 4.3 shows sample information available in the System Information page.
Figure 4.3. System Information Page
22
RX3141 User’s Manual
5
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
Router Connection Setup
This chapter describes how to configure the basic settings for your router so that the computers on your LAN
can communicate with each other and have access to the Internet. Network setup consists of LAN and WAN
configurations.
5.1
5.1.1
LAN Configuration
LAN IP Address
If you are using RX3141 with multiple PCs on your LAN, you must connect your LAN to the Ethernet ports on
the built-in Ethernet switch. You must assign a unique IP address to each device residing on your LAN. The
LAN IP address that identifies the RX3141 as a node on your network must be in the same subnet as the PCs
on your LAN. The default LAN IP address for the RX3141 is 192.168.1.1.
Definition
A network node can be thought of as any interface where a
device connects to the network, such as the RX3141’s LAN port
and the network interface cards on your PCs. See Appendix 12 for
an explanation of subnets.
You can change the default IP address to reflect the true IP address that you want to use with your network.
5.1.2
LAN Configuration Parameters
Table 5.1 describes the configuration parameters available for LAN IP configuration.
Table 5.1. LAN Configuration Parameters
Setting
Description
Host Name
For identification only.
IP Address
The LAN IP address of the RX3141. This IP address is used by your
computers to identify the RX3141’s LAN port. Note that the public IP address
assigned to you by your ISP is not your LAN IP address. The public IP
address identifies the WAN port on the RX3141 to the Internet.
Subnet Mask
The LAN subnet mask identifies which parts of the LAN IP Address refer to
your network as a whole and which parts refer specifically to nodes on the
network. Your device is preconfigured with a default subnet mask of
255.255.255.0.
23
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
5.1.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
Configuring the LAN IP Address
Follow these steps to change the default LAN IP address.
1. Log into Configuration Manager, and then double click Router Setup Î Connection menu. The
Router Connection Setup configuration page is then displayed as shown in Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1. Router Connection Setup Configuration – LAN Configuration
2. (Optional) Enter the host name for RX3141. Note that the host name is used for identification only
and is not used for any other purpose.
3. Enter the LAN IP address and subnet mask for the RX3141 in the spaces provided.
4. Proceed to the WAN Configuration section for instructions on setting up the WAN port if you have
not yet done so.
5. Click
to save the settings. If you are using an Ethernet connection for the current
session, and change the IP address, the connection will be terminated.
6. You will see the following message displayed as shown below.
7. You will then be prompted to log back into the Configuration Manager once the timer elapses.
24
RX3141 User’s Manual
5.2
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
WAN Configuration
This section describes how to configure WAN settings for the WAN interface on the RX3141 that
communicates with your ISP. You’ll learn to configure IP address, DHCP and DNS server for your WAN in this
section.
5.2.1
WAN Connection Mode
Four modes of WAN connection are supported by the RX3141 – PPPoE (multi-session), PPPoE unnumbered,
dynamic IP and static IP. You may select one of the WAN connection modes required by your ISP from the
Connection Mode drop-down list in Network Setup Configuration page as shown in Figure 5.2.
Connection
Mode dropdown list
Figure 5.2. Network Setup Configuration Page – WAN Configuration
25
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
5.2.2
RX3141 User’s Manual
PPPoE
PPPoE connection is most often used by ADSL service providers.
Connection
Mode dropdown list
Figure 5.3. WAN – PPPoE Configuration
26
RX3141 User’s Manual
5.2.2.1
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
WAN PPPoE Configuration Parameters
Table 5.2 describes the configuration parameters available for PPPoE connection mode.
Table 5.2. WAN PPPoE Configuration Parameters
Setting
Description
Connection Mode
Select PPPoE from the connection mode drop-down list.
PPPoE Session
Select the PPPoE session ID for this PPPoE session. Note that only two
simultaneous PPPoE sessions are supported.
Enable
Check or uncheck this box to activate this PPPoE session.
Connection on Demand
Check “Enable” or “Disable” radio button to enable/disable this option.
Disconnect after Idle (min)
Enter the inactivity timeout period at which you want to disconnect the Internet
connection when there is no traffic. A value of 0 means no activity time out.
Note that SNTP service may interfere with this function if there are activities
from the service.
User Name and Password
Enter the username and password you use to log into your ISP. (Note: this is
different from the information you used to log into Configuration Manager.)
Service Name
Enter the service name provided by your ISP. Service name is optional but
may be required by some ISP.
IP Address
Enter a static IP address here only when your service provider requires a
static IP for PPPoE connection. This IP address must be provided by your
service provider. Most service providers do not require user to use a static IP
for PPPoE connection.
Primary/Secondary DNS
Server
IP address of the primary and/or secondary DNS are optional as PPPoE will
automatically detect the DNS IP addresses configured at your ISP. However,
if there are other DNS servers you would rather use, enter the IP addresses
in the spaces provided.
Status
On: PPPoE connection is active.
Off: PPPoE connection is inactive.
Connecting: RX3141 is trying to connect to your ISP using PPPoE connection
mode.
Manual
Disconnect/Connect
Click the Disconnect or Connect button to disconnect or connect to your
service provider using the PPPoE connection mode.
27
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
5.2.2.2
RX3141 User’s Manual
Configuring PPPoE for WAN
Follow the instructions below to configure PPPoE settings:
1. Open the Router Connection configuration page by double clicking the Router Setup Î
Connection menu.
2. Select PPPoE from the WAN Connection Mode drop-down list as shown in Figure 5.3.
3. Select PPPoE session ID from the PPPoE session ID drop-down list. Currently, two sessions are
supported.
4. Enter the user name and password provided by your ISP.
5. (Optional) Enter the service name if required by your ISP.
6. Enter appropriate connection settings for “Disconnect after Idle (min)” and “Connect on
Demand”.
7. Click
5.2.2.3
to save the settings.
Configuring PPPoE Multi-session for WAN
Follow the instructions below to configure PPPoE multi-session settings for the PPPoE multi-session example
as shown in Figure 5.4.
myService
Internet
211.0.0.0/8
*.myserv.net
ISP
PPPoE1
PPPoE0
RX3141
Figure 5.4. WAN – PPPoE Multi-session Example
1. Open the Router Connection configuration page by double clicking the Router Setup Î
Connection menu.
2. Configure PPPoE settings as you normally would for each PPPoE session as described in
section 5.2.2.2 “Configuring PPPoE for WAN”. Note that maximum of two PPPoE sessions are
supported. The following figures show the settings for the two PPPoE sessions.
28
RX3141 User’s Manual
Figure 5.5. WAN – PPPoE0 Settings
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
Figure 5.6. WAN – PPPoE1 Settings
3. Configure firewall outbound ACL rules to forward the designated traffic to each intended PPPoE
session. Please refer to section 9.5 “Configuring Outbound ACL Rules” for instructions on setting
up ACL rules. Figure 5.7 and Figure 5.8 show the settings for the two outbound ACL rules – one
specify the destination network using the network address and subnet mask and the other using
the domain name. Only one of the two ACL rules is needed. However, if you intend to use IP
address and the domain name to access the myService network, you’ll need to configure both
rules.
Figure 5.7. WAN – First ACL Rule Settings (using
network address/subnet mask) for Forwarding
Packets to PPPOE1 Session
Figure 5.8. WAN – Second ACL Rule Settings
(using domain name) for Forwarding Packets to
PPPOE1 Session
4. Verify that you have all the rules properly configured as indicated in the “Existing Outbound ACL”
table as shown in Figure 5.9. Note that the third rule is the default outbound ACL rule that allows
all the outbound traffic to go through the firewall. You’ll have to configure this rule (see the default
outbound ACL settings in Figure 5.10) if you had deleted. The third rule is used to forward all the
outbound traffic to PPPoE0 session except those intended for PPPoE1 session.
29
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
RX3141 User’s Manual
Figure 5.9. WAN – Outbound ACL Rule Settings for PPPoE Multi-session Example
Figure 5.10. WAN – Default Outbound ACL Rule for PPPoE Multi-session Example
30
RX3141 User’s Manual
5.2.3
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
PPPoE Unnumbered
Some of the ADSL service providers may offer PPPoE unnumbered service. Choose this connection mode if
your ISP provides such service.
Connection
Mode dropdown list
Figure 5.11. WAN – PPPoE Unnumbered Configuration
31
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
5.2.3.1
RX3141 User’s Manual
WAN PPPoE Unnumbered Configuration Parameters
Table 5.3 describes the configuration parameters available for PPPoE unnumbered connection mode.
Table 5.3. WAN PPPoE Unnumbered Configuration Parameters
32
Setting
Description
Connection Mode
Select PPPoE Unnumbered from the connection mode drop-down list.
Traditionally, each network interface must have a unique IP address.
However, an unnumbered interface does not have to have a unique IP
address. This means that when this option is selected, the WAN and the LAN
use the same IP address. Network resources are therefore conserved
because fewer network IP addresses are used and routing table is smaller.
Enable NAPT
Check or uncheck this box to enable NAPT for this connection.
Connect on Demand
Check “Enable” or “Disable” radio button to enable/disable this option.
Disconnect after Idle
(min)
Enter the inactivity timeout period at which you want to disconnect the Internet
connection when there is no traffic. A value of 0 means no activity time out.
Note that SNTP service may interfere with this function if there are activities
from the service.
IP Address
Enter a static IP address here for the PPPoE unnumbered connection. This
IP address must be provided by your service provider.
Unnumbered network
address
Enter the network address provided by your ISP.
Unnumbered netmask
Enter the subnet mask provided by your ISP.
User Name and
Password
Enter the username and password you use to log into your ISP. (Note: this is
different from the information you used to log into Configuration Manager.)
Service Name
Enter the service name provided by your ISP. Service name is optional but
may be required by some ISPs.
Status
On: PPPoE unnumbered connection is active.
Off: No PPPoE unnumbered connection is inactive.
Connecting: RX3141 is trying to connect to your ISP using PPPoE
unnumbered connection mode.
Manual
Disconnect/Connect
Click the Disconnect or Connect button to disconnect or connect to your
service provider using the PPPoE unnumbered connection mode.
RX3141 User’s Manual
5.2.3.2
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
Configuring PPPoE Unnumbered for WAN
Follow the instructions below to configure PPPoE unnumbered settings:
1. Open the Router Connection configuration page by double clicking the Router Setup Î
Connection menu.
2. Select PPPoE Unnumbered from the WAN Connection Mode drop-down list as shown in Figure
5.11.
3. Enter user name and password provided by your ISP..
4. (Optional) Enter the service name if required by your ISP.
5. Enter appropriate connection settings for “Disconnect after Idle (min)” and “Connect on
Demand”.
to save the settings.
6. Click
5.2.4
Dynamic IP
Dynamic IP is most often used by the cable modem service providers.
Connection
Mode dropdown list
Figure 5.12. WAN – Dynamic IP (DHCP client) Configuration
5.2.4.1
Configuring Dynamic IP for WAN
Follow the instructions below to configure dynamic IP settings:
1. Open the Router Connection configuration page by double clicking the Router Setup Î menu.
2. Select Dynamic from the Connection Mode drop-down list as shown in Figure 5.12. Note that the
IP addresses for the primary and/or the secondary DNS servers are automatically assigned by
the DHCP server of your ISP.
3. Click
to save the settings.
33
Chapter 5 Router Connection Setup
5.2.5
RX3141 User’s Manual
Static IP
Connection
Mode dropdown list
Figure 5.13. WAN – Static IP Configuration
5.2.5.1
WAN Static IP Configuration Parameters
Table 5.4 describes the configuration parameters available for static IP connection mode.
Table 5.4. WAN Static IP Configuration Parameters
Setting
Description
Connection Mode
Select Static from the connection mode drop-down list.
IP Address
WAN IP address provided by your ISP.
Subnet Mask
WAN subnet mask provided by your ISP. Typically, it is set as 255.255.255.0.
Gateway Address
Gateway IP address provided by your ISP. It must be in the same subnet as
the WAN on the RX3141.
Primary/Secondary
DNS Server
You must at least enter the IP address of the primary DNS server. Secondary
DNS server is optional
5.2.5.2
Configuring Static IP for WAN
Follow the instructions below to configure static IP settings:
1. Open the Router Connection configuration page by double clicking the Router Setup Î
Connection menu.
2. Select Static from the Connection Mode drop-down list as shown in Figure 5.13.
3. Enter WAN IP address in the IP Address field. This information should be provided by your ISP.
4. Enter Subnet Mask for the WAN. This information should be provided by your ISP. Typically, it is
255.255.255.0.
5. Enter gateway address provided by your ISP in the space provided.
6. Enter the IP address of the primary DNS server. This information should be provided by your ISP.
Secondary DNS server is optional.
7. Click
.
34
to save the settings
RX3141 User’s Manual
6
6.1
6.1.1
Chapter Error! Reference source not found.. Error! Reference source not found.
DHCP Server Configuration
DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol)
What is DHCP?
DHCP is a protocol that enables network administrators to centrally manage the assignment and distribution of
IP information to computers on a network.
When you enable DHCP on a network, you allow a device — such as the RX3141 — to assign temporary IP
addresses to your computers whenever they connect to your network. The assigning device is called a DHCP
server, and the receiving device is a DHCP client.
Note
If you followed the Quick Start Guide instructions, you either
configured each LAN PC with an IP address, or you specified that
it will receive IP information dynamically (automatically). If you
chose to have the information assigned dynamically, then you
configured your PCs as DHCP clients that will accept IP
addresses assigned from a DCHP server such as the RX3141.
The DHCP server draws from a defined pool of IP addresses and “leases” them for a specified amount of time
to your computers when they request an Internet session. It monitors, collects, and redistributes the addresses
as needed.
On a DHCP-enabled network, the IP information is assigned dynamically rather than statically. A DHCP client
can be assigned a different address from the pool each time it reconnects to the network.
6.1.2
Why use DHCP?
DHCP allows you to manage and distribute IP addresses throughout your network from the RX3141. Without
DHCP, you would have to configure each computer separately with IP address and related information. DHCP
is commonly used with large networks and those that are frequently expanded or otherwise updated.
6.1.3
Configuring DHCP Server
Note
The RX3141 is configured as a DHCP server on the LAN side,
with a predefined IP address pool of 192.168.1.100 through
192.168.1.149 (subnet mask 255.255.255.0). To change this
range of addresses, follow the procedures described in this
section.
First, you must configure your PCs to accept DHCP information assigned by a DHCP server:
1. Open the DHCP Server Configuration page, shown in Figure 6.1, by double clicking Advanced
Î DHCP Server menu.
35
Chapter 6
RX3141 User’s Manual
Figure 6.1. DHCP Server Configuration Page
2. Enter the information for the IP Address Pool (Begin/End Address), Subnet Mask, Lease Time
and Default Gateway IP Address, fields; others, such as Primary/Secondary DNS Server IP
Address and Primary/Secondary WINS Server IP Address are optional. However, it is
recommended that you enter the primary DNS server IP address in the space provided. You may
enter the LAN IP or your ISP’s DNS IP in the primary DNS Server IP Address field. Table 6.1
describes the DHCP configuration parameters in detail.
Table 6.1. DHCP Configuration Parameters
36
Field
Description
Enable
Check or uncheck this box to enable or disable DHCP server service for your
LAN.
IP Address Pool
Begin/End
Specify the lowest and highest addresses in the DHCP address pool.
Lease Time
The amount of time in seconds the assigned address will be used by a device
connected on the LAN.
Default Gateway IP
Address
The address of the default gateway for computers that receive IP addresses
from this pool. The default gateway is the device that the DHCP client
computers first contacted to communicate with the Internet. Typically, it is the
RX3141’s LAN port IP address.
Primary/Secondary
DNS Server IP
Address
The IP address of the Domain Name System server to be used by computers
that receive IP addresses from this pool. The DNS server translates common
Internet names that you type into your web browser into their equivalent
numeric IP addresses. Typically, the server(s) are located with your ISP.
However, you may enter LAN IP address of the RX3141 as it will serve as
DNS proxy for the LAN computers and forward the DNS request from the
RX3141 User’s Manual
Field
Chapter Error! Reference source not found.. Error! Reference source not found.
Description
LAN to DNS servers and relay the results back to the LAN computers. Note
that both the primary and secondary DNS servers are optional.
Primary/Secondary
WINS Server IP
Address (optional)
3. Click
6.1.4
The IP address of the WINS servers to be used by computers that receive IP
addresses from the DHCP IP address pool. You don’t need to enter this
information unless your network has WINS servers.
to save the DHCP server configurations.
Viewing Current DHCP Address Assignments
When the RX3141 functions as a DHCP server for your LAN, it keeps a record of any addresses it has leased
to your computers. To view a table of all current IP address assignments, just open the DHCP Server
Configuration page and click on the link “Current DHCP Lease Table” located at the bottom of the
configuration page. A page displays similar to that shown in Figure 6.2.
The DHCP lease table lists any IP addresses leased and the corresponding MAC addresses.
Figure 6.2. DHCP Lease Table
37
RX3141 User’s Manual
7
Chapter 7. Configuring Static Routes
Configuring Static Routes
You can use Configuration Manager to define specific routes for your Internet and network data
communication. This chapter describes basic routing concepts and provides instructions for creating static
routes. Note that most users do not need to define static routes.
7.1
Overview of IP Routes
The essential challenge of a router is: when it receives data intended for a particular destination, which next
device should it send that data to? When you define IP routes, you provide the rules that the RX3141 uses to
make these decisions.
7.1.1
Do I need to define static routes?
Most users do not need to define static routes. On a typical small home or office network, the existing routes
that set up the default gateways for your LAN computers and for the RX3141 provide the most appropriate
path for all your Internet traffic.
f On your LAN computers, a default gateway directs all Internet traffic to the LAN port on the RX3141.
Your LAN computers know their default gateway either because you assigned it to them when you
modified their TCP/IP properties, or because you configured them to receive the information
dynamically from a server whenever they access the Internet. (Each of these processes is described
in the Quick Start Guide instructions, Part 2.)
f On the RX3141 itself, a default gateway is defined to direct all outbound Internet traffic to a router at
your ISP. This default gateway is assigned automatically by your ISP whenever the device negotiates
an Internet connection. (The process for adding a default route is described in section 7.2.2 Adding
Static Routes.)
You may need to define static routes if your home setup includes two or more networks or subnets, if you
connect to two or more ISP services, or if you connect to a remote corporate LAN.
39
Chapter 7. Configuring Static Routes
7.2
RX3141 User’s Manual
Static Route
Figure 7.1. Routing Configuration Page
7.2.1
Static Route Configuration Parameters
The following table defines the available configuration parameters for static routing configuration.
Table 7.1. Static Route Configuration Parameters
40
Field
Description
Destination Address
Specifies the IP address of the destination computer or an entire destination
network. It can also be specified as all zeros to indicate that this route should
be used for all destinations for which no other route is defined (this is the
route that creates the default gateway). Note that destination IP must be a
network ID. The default route uses a destination IP of 0.0.0.0. Refer to
Appendix 12 for an explanation of network ID.
Subnet Mask
Indicates which parts of the destination address refer to the network and
which parts refer to a computer on the network. Refer to Appendix 12, for an
explanation of network masks. The default route uses a 0.0.0.0 for subnet
mask.
Gateway
Gateway IP address
Interface
Available option include AUTO, Eth0 (LAN), Eth1 (WAN), PPPoE:0
(unnumbered), PPPoE:1 (1st PPPoE session), PPPoE:2 (2nd PPPoE session).
These options are selectable from the drop-down list. If AUTO is selected, the
router will automatically assign an interface to route the packets based on the
gateway IP address.
RX3141 User’s Manual
7.2.2
Chapter 7. Configuring Static Routes
Adding Static Routes
Figure 7.2. Static Route Configuration
Follow these instructions to add a static route to the routing table.
1. Open the Static Route configuration page by double clicking the Advanced Î Static Route
menu.
2. Enter static routes information such as destination IP address, destination subnet mask, gateway
IP address and the interface in the corresponding fields.
For a description of these fields, refer to Table 7.1. Static Route Configuration Parameters.
To create a route that defines the default gateway for your LAN, enter 0.0.0.0 in both the Destination
IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
3. Click
to add a new route.
41
Chapter 7. Configuring Static Routes
7.2.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
Deleting Static Routes
Figure 7.3. Sample Routing Table
Follow these instructions to delete a static route from the routing table.
1. Open the Static Route configuration page by double clicking the Advanced Î Static Route
menu.
2. Click on the
icon of the route to be deleted in the Routing Table.
WARNING
7.2.4
Do not remove the route for default gateway unless you know
what you are doing. Removing the default route will render the
Internet unreachable.
Viewing the Static Routing Table
All IP-enabled computers and routers maintain a table of IP addresses that are commonly accessed by their
users. For each of these destination IP addresses, the table lists the IP address of the first hop the data should
take. This table is known as the device’s routing table.
To view the RX3141’s routing table, double click the Advanced Î Static Route menu. The Routing Table
displays at the upper half of the Static Route Configuration page, as shown in Figure 7.1:
The Routing Table displays a row for each existing route containing the IP address of the destination network,
subnet mask of destination network and the IP of the gateway that forwards the traffic.
42
RX3141 User’s Manual
8
Chapter 8. Configuring DDNS
Configuring DDNS
Dynamic DNS is a service that allows computers to use the same domain name, even when the IP address
changes from time to time (during reboot or when the ISP's DHCP server resets IP leases). RX3141 connects
to a Dynamic DNS service provider whenever the WAN IP address changes. It supports setting up the web
services such as Web server, FTP server using a domain name instead of the IP address. Dynamic DNS
supports the DDNS clients with the following features:
f Update DNS records (addition) when an external interface comes up
f Force DNS update
Only HTTP DDNS client is supported.
HTTP Dynamic DNS Client
HTTP DDNS client uses the mechanism provided by the popular DDNS service providers for updating the
DNS records dynamically. In this case, the service provider updates DNS records in the DNS. RX3141 uses
HTTP to trigger this update. RX3141 supports HTTP DDNS update with the following service provider:
f www.dyndns.org
Internet
HTTP DDNS Server
(DynDNS)
DynDNS
isr.homeunix.com
ISR
Figure 8.1. Network Diagram for HTTP DDNS
Whenever IP address of the configured DDNS interface changes, DDNS update is sent to the specified DDNS
service provider. RX3141 should be configured with the DDNS username and password that are obtained
from your DDNS service provider.
43
Chapter 8. Configuring DDNS
8.1
RX3141 User’s Manual
DDNS Configuration Parameters
Table 8.1 describes the configuration parameters available for DDNS service.
Table 8.1. DDNS Configuration Parameters
Field
Description
Status
Shows the state of DDNS.
Dynamic DNS
Enable
Click on this radio button to enable the DDNS Service
Disable
Click on this radio button to disable the DDNS Service
Domain Name
Enter the registered domain name provided by your ISP into this field. For example, If the host name of your
RX3141 is “host1” and the domain name is “yourdomain.com”, The fully qualify domain name (FQDN) is
“host1.yourdomain.com”.
Username
Enter the username provided by your DDNS service provider in this field.
Password
Enter the password provided by your DDNS service provider in this field.
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RX3141 User’s Manual
8.2
Chapter 8. Configuring DDNS
Configuring HTTP DDNS Client
Figure 8.2. HTTP DDNS Configuration Page
Follow these instructions to configure the HTTP DDNS:
1. First, you should have already registered a domain name to the DDNS service provider. If you
have not done so, please visit www.dyndns.org for more details.
2. Log into the Configuration Manager, and then click Advanced Î DDNS Service menu to open
the DDNS Configuration page.
3. In the DDNS Configuration page, select “Enable” for the Dynamic DNS.
4. Enter the domain name in the Domain Name field.
5. Enter the username and password provided by your DDNS service providers.
button to send a DNS update request to your DDNS service provider.
6. Click on
Note that DNS update request will also be sent to your DDNS Service provider automatically
whenever the WAN port status is changed.
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RX3141 User’s Manual
9
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
The RX3141 provides built-in firewall/NAT functions, enabling you to protect the system against denial of
service (DoS) attacks and other types of malicious accesses to your LAN while providing Internet access
sharing at the same time. You can also specify how to monitor attempted attacks, and unwanted network
access.
This chapter describes how to configure router security settings, and create/modify/delete ACL (Access
Control List) rules to control the data passing through your network. You will use firewall configuration pages to:
f Configure router security and DoS settings
f Create, modify, delete and view inbound/outbound/self-access ACL rules.
f View firewall log.
Note: When you define an ACL rule, you instruct the RX3141 to examine each data packet it receives to
determine whether it meets criteria set forth in the rule. The criteria can include the network or Internet
protocol it is carrying, the direction in which it is traveling (for example, from the LAN to the Internet or vice
versa), the IP address of the sending computer, the destination IP address, and other characteristics of the
packet data.
If the packet matches the criteria established in a rule, the packet can either be accepted (forwarded towards
its destination), or denied (discarded), depending on the action specified in the rule.
9.1
9.1.1
Firewall Overview
Stateful Packet Inspection
The stateful packet inspection engine in the RX3141 maintains a state table that is used to keep track of
connection states of all the packets passing through the firewall. The firewall will open a “hole” to allow the
packet to pass through if the state of the packet that belongs to an already established connection matches the
state maintained by the stateful packet inspection engine. Otherwise, the packet will be dropped. This “hole”
will be closed when the connection session terminates. No configuration is required for stateful packet
inspection; it is enabled by default when the firewall is enabled. Please refer to section 9.2.1 “Basic Router
Security Configuration Parameters” to enable or disable firewall service on the RX3141.
9.1.2
DoS (Denial of Service) Protection
Both DoS protection and stateful packet inspection provide first line of defense for your network. No
configuration is required for both protections on your network as long as firewall is enabled for the RX3141. By
default, the firewall is enabled at the factory. Please refer to section 9.2.1 “Basic Router Security Configuration
Parameters” to enable or disable firewall service on the RX3141.
9.1.3
9.1.3.1
Firewall and Access Control List (ACL)
Priority Order of ACL Rule
All ACL rules have a rule ID assigned – the smaller the rule ID, the higher the priority. Firewall monitors the
traffic by extracting header information from the packet and then either drops or forwards the packet by looking
for a match in the ACL rule table based on the header information. Note that the ACL rule checking starts from
the rule with the smallest rule ID until a match is found or all the ACL rules are examined. If no match is found,
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Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
RX3141 User’s Manual
the packet is dropped; otherwise, the packet is either dropped or forwarded based on the action defined in the
matched ACL rule.
9.1.3.2
ACL Rule and Connection State Tracking
The stateful packet inspection engine in the firewall keeps track of the state, or progress, of a network
connection. By storing information about each connection in a state table, RX3141 is able to quickly determine
if a packet passing through the firewall belongs to an already established connection. If it does, it is passed
through the firewall without going through ACL rule evaluation.
For example, an ACL rule allows outbound ICMP packet from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.1. When 192.168.1.1
sends an ICMP echo request (i.e. a ping packet) to 192.168.2.1, 192.168.2.1 will respond with an ICMP echo
reply to 192.168.1.1. In the RX3141, you don’t need to create another inbound ACL rule because stateful
packet inspection engine tracks the connection state and allows the ICMP echo reply to pass through the
firewall
9.1.4
Default ACL Rules
The RX3141 supports three types of default access rules:
f Inbound Access Rules: for controlling incoming access to your LAN.
f Outbound Access Rules: for controlling outbound access to external networks for hosts on your LAN.
f Self-Access Rules: for controlling access to the RX3141 itself.
Default Inbound Access Rules
No default inbound access rule is configured. That is, all traffic from external hosts to the internal hosts is
denied.
Default Outbound Access Rules
The default outbound access rule allows all the traffic originated from your LAN to be forwarded to the external
network using NAT.
Default Self Access Rules
The default self access rules allow http, ping, DNS, DHCP access to the RX3141 router from the LAN.
WARNING
48
It is not necessary to remove the default ACL rule from the ACL
rule table! It is better to create higher priority ACL rules to override
the default rule.
RX3141 User’s Manual
9.2
9.2.1
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
Router Security Settings
Basic Router Security Configuration Parameters
Table 9.1 describes the configuration parameters available for basic router security configuration.
Table 9.1. Basic Router Security Configuration Parameters
Field
Description
Firewall
Check or uncheck this box to enable or disable firewall.
NAT
Check or uncheck this box to enable or disable NAT.
Log Port Probing
Connection attempt to closed ports will be logged if this option is enabled.
Stealth Mode
If enabled, RX3141 will not respond to remote peer’s attempt to connect to
the closed TCP/UDP ports.
To configure firewall basic settings, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Router Security configuration page as shown in Figure 9.1 by double clicking on Router
Setup Î Security menu.
2. Check or uncheck individual check box for each security option.
3. Click
9.2.2
to save the settings.
DoS Configuration
The RX3141 has an Attack Defense Engine that protects internal networks from Denial of Service (DoS)
attacks such as IP spoofing, LAND, Ping of Death, smurf and all re-assembly attacks. It can drop ICMP
redirects and IP loose/strict source routing packets. For example, a security device with the RX3141 Firewall
provides protection from “WinNuke”, a widely used program to remotely crash unprotected Windows systems.
For a complete list of DoS protection provided by the RX3141, please see Tables 2.1 and 9.2.
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Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
9.2.2.1
RX3141 User’s Manual
DoS Protection Configuration Parameters
Table 9.2 provides explanation for each type of DoS attacks. You may check or uncheck the check box to
enable or disable the protection or detection for each type DoS attacks.
Table 9.2. DoS Attack Definition
Field
Description
IP Source
Route
Intruder uses "source routing" in order to break into the target system.
IP Spoofing
Spoofing is the creation of TCP/IP packets using somebody else’s IP address. IP
spoofing is an integral part of many network attacks that do not need to see
responses.
Land
Attacker sends out packets to the system with the same source and destination IP
address being that of the target system and causes the target system trying to
resolve an infinite series of connections to itself. This can cause the target system to
slow down drastically.
Ping of Death
An attacker sends out larger than 64KB packets to cause certain operating system
to crash.
Smurf
An attacker issues ICMP echo requests to some broadcast addresses. Each
datagram has a spoofed IP source address to be that of a real target-host. Most of
the addressed hosts will respond with an ICMP echo reply, but not to the real
initiating host, instead all replies carry the IP address of the previously spoofed host
as their current destination and cause the victim host or network to slow down
drastically.
SYN/ICMP/UDP
Flooding
Check or un-check this option to enable or disable the logging for SYN/ICMP/UDP
flooding attacks. These attacks involve sending lots of TCP SYN/ICMP/UDP to a
host in a very short period of time. RX3141 will not drop the flooding packets to
avoid affecting the normal traffic.
TCP
XMAS/NULL/FI
N Scan
A hacker may be scanning your system by sending these specially formatted
packets to see what services are available. Sometimes this is done in preparation
for a future attack, or sometimes it is done to see if your system might have a
service, which is susceptible to attack.
XMAS scan: A TCP packet has been seen with a sequence number of zero and the
FIN, URG, and PUSH bits are all set.
NULL scan: A TCP packet has been seen with a sequence number of zero and all
control bits are set to zero.
FIN scan: A hacker is scanning the target system using a "stealth" method. The goal
of the hacker is to find out if they can connect to the system without really
connecting using the “FIN” scanning. It attempts to close a non-existent
connection on the server. Either way, it is an error, but systems sometimes
respond with different error results depending upon whether the desired service
is available or not.
Teardrop
In the teardrop attack, the attacker's IP puts a confusing offset value in the second
or later fragment. If the receiving operating system does not have a plan for this
situation, it can cause the system to crash.
WinNUKE
Check or un-check this option to enable or disable protection against Winnuke
attacks. Some older versions of the Microsoft Windows OS are vulnerable to this
attack. If the computers in the LAN are not updated with recent versions/patches,
you are advised to enable this protection by checking this check box.
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RX3141 User’s Manual
9.2.2.2
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
Configuring DoS Settings
To configure DoS settings, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Router Security configuration page as shown in Figure 9.1 by double clicking on Router
Setup Î Security menu.
2. Check or uncheck individual check box for each type DoS attack.
3. Click
to save the settings.
Figure 9.1. Router Security Configuration Page
51
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
9.3
RX3141 User’s Manual
ACL Rule Configuration Parameters
9.3.1
ACL Rule Configuration Parameters
Table 9.3 describes the configuration parameters firewall inbound, outbound and self-access ACL rules.
Table 9.3. ACL Rule Configuration Parameters
Field
Description
ID
Add New
Rule Number
Click on this option to add a new ACL rule.
Select a rule from the drop-down list, to modify its settings.
Mave
This option allows you to set a priority for this rule. The RX3141 Firewall acts on packets based on
the priority of the rules. Set a priority by specifying a number for its position in the list of rules:
1 (First)
Other numbers
This number marks the highest priority.
Select other numbers to indicate the priority you wish to assign to the rule.
Action
Allow
Select this button to configure the rule as an allow rule.
This rule when bound to the Firewall will allow matching packets to pass
through.
Deny
Select this button to configure the rule as a deny rule.
This rule when bound to the Firewall will not allow matching packets to
pass through.
Route to (only for outbound ACL)
This field is used for policy routing needed for PPPoE unnumbered or PPPoE multi-session.
Available options include AUTO, ppp0 (unnumbered), ppp1 (1st PPPoE session), ppp2 (2nd PPPoE
session). These options are selectable from the drop-down list. If AUTO is selected, the router will
route the packets based on the information in the routing table.
Log
Select or deselect the check box to enable or disable logging for this ACL rule.
Protocol
This option allows you to select protocol type from a drop-down list. Available settings are All, TCP,
UDP, ICMP, IGMP, AH and ESP.
Source IP
This option allows you to set the source network to which this rule should apply. Use the drop-down
list to select one of the following options:
Any
This option allows you to apply this rule to all the computers in the source
network, such as those on the Internet for the inbound traffic or all the
computers in the local network for outbound traffic.
IP Address
This option allows you to specify an IP address on which this rule will be
applied.
IP Address
52
Specify the appropriate network address
RX3141 User’s Manual
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
Field
Description
Subnet
This option allows you to include all the computers that are connected in an
IP subnet. When this option is selected, the following fields become
available for entry:
Address
Mask
Self (for self access
rule only)
Enter the appropriate IP address.
Enter the corresponding subnet mask.
Indicates the router itself.
Destination IP
This option allows you to set the destination network to which this rule should apply. Use the dropdown list to select one of the following options:
Any
This option allows you to apply this rule to all the computers in the local
network for inbound traffic or any computer in the Internet for outbound
traffic..
IP Address, Subnet
Select any of these options and enter details as described in the Source IP
section above.
Self (for self access
rule only)
Indicates the router itself.
Domain
In order for this option to work, user’s PC must use RX3141 as its DNS
server. The domain name variable / IP addresses association is cleared
after every system restart. Multiple ACL rules can be associated to the same
domain name / IP addresses association.
f Maximum of 30 domain name variables is supported.
f Each domain name variable / IP addresses association is updated
only when the LAN client issues the DNS query to RX3141. For
example, when entering the address “http://www yahoo.com” on
your browser, RX3141 will update the IP address association w/
www.yahoo.com in the internal database referenced by the firewall.
f Each domain name variable can be associated up to 256 IP
addresses.
f Wild card character “*” is allowed in the domain name Its usage is
illurstrated in the following examples:
1. www.google.* : match www.google.com and ww.google.net
and does not match www.google.com.tw
2. www.google.*.*: match www.google.com.tw, and
www.google.com.sg and does not match www.google.com
3. .com.tw : match www.google.com.tw, www.com.tw and does
not match com.tw
4. *.com : match google.com and abc.com and does not match
www.google.com, com
5. *: match any domain name
6. . (a single dot): match any domain name
Source Port
This option allows you to set the source port to which this rule should apply. Use the drop-down list to
select one of the following options:
Any
Select this option if you want this rule to apply to all applications with an
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Field
RX3141 User’s Manual
Description
arbitrary source port number.
Single
This option allows you to apply this rule to an application with a specific
source port number.
Port Number
Range
Enter the source port number
Select this option if you want this rule to apply to applications with this port
range. The following fields become available for entry when this option is
selected.
Start Port
Enter the starting port number of the range
End Port
Enter the ending port number of the range
Destination Port
This option allows you to set the destination port to which this rule should apply. Use the drop-down
list to select one of the following options:
Any
Select this option if you want this rule to apply to all applications with an
arbitrary destination port number.
Single, Range
Select any of these and enter details as described in the Source Port
section above.
ICMP (available only when protocol type is set to ICMP)
This option allows you to select the ICMP message type for the ACL rule. The supported ICMP
message types are:
• Any (default)
54
•
0: Echo reply
•
1: Type 1
•
2: Type 2
•
3: Dst unreach: destination unreachable
•
4: Src quench: source quench
•
5: Redirect
•
6: Type 6
•
7: Type 7
•
8: Echo req:
•
9: Router advertisement
•
10: Router solicitation
•
11: Time exceed: time exceeded
•
12: Parameter problem
•
13: Timestamp request
•
14: Timestamp reply
•
15: Info request: information request
•
16: Info reply: information reply
•
17: Addr mask req: address mask request
•
18: Addr mask reply: address mask reply
RX3141 User’s Manual
9.4
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
Configuring Inbound ACL Rules
By creating ACL rules in Inbound ACL configuration page as shown in Figure 9.2, you can control (allow or
deny) incoming access to computers on your LAN.
Options in this configuration page allow you to:
f
f
f
f
Add a rule, and set parameters for it
Modify an existing rule
Delete an existing rule
View configured inbound ACL rules
Figure 9.2. Inbound ACL Configuration Page
9.4.1
Add Inbound ACL Rules
To add an inbound ACL rule, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Inbound ACL Rule configuration page, as shown in Figure 9.2, by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Inbound ACL menu.
2. Select “Add New” from the “ID” drop-down list.
3. Set desired action (Allow or Deny) from the “Action” drop-down list.
4. Make changes to any or all of the following fields: source/destination IP, source/destination port,
protocol, ICMP message type and log. Please see Table 9.3 for explanation of these fields.
5. Assign a priority for this rule by selecting a number from the “Move to” drop-down list. Note that
the number indicates the priority of the rule with 1 being the highest. Higher priority rules will be
examined prior to the lower priority rules by the firewall.
6. Click on the
button to create the new ACL rule. The new ACL rule will then be
displayed in the inbound access control list table at the bottom half of the Inbound ACL
Configuration page.
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Figure 9.3 illustrates how to create a rule to allow inbound HTTP (i.e. web server) service. This rule allows
inbound HTTP traffic to be directed to the host w/ IP address 192.168.1.28. Note that the newly added inbound
ACL rule is displayed in the Existing Inbound ACL table shown in Figure 9.4.
Figure 9.3. Inbound ACL Configuration Example
9.4.2
Figure 9.4. Sample Inbound ACL List TableModify Inbound ACL Rules
To modify an inbound ACL rule, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Inbound ACL Rule configuration page, as shown in Figure 9.2, by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Inbound ACL menu.
2. Click on the icon of the rule to be modified in the inbound ACL table or select the rule number
from the “ID” drop-down list.
3. Make desired changes to any or all of the following fields: action, source/destination IP,
source/destination port, protocol, ICMP message type and log. Please see Table 9.3 for
explanation of these fields.
4. Click on the
button to modify this ACL rule. The new settings for this ACL rule will
then be displayed in the inbound access control list table at the bottom half of the Inbound ACL
Configuration page.
9.4.3
Delete Inbound ACL Rules
To delete an inbound ACL rule, open the Inbound ACL Rule configuration page by double clicking the Router
Setup Î Inbound ACL menu and then click on the in front of the rule to be deleted.
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9.4.4
Chapter 9. Configuring Firewall/NAT Settings
Display Inbound ACL Rules
To see existing inbound ACL rules, just open the Inbound ACL Rule configuration page by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Inbound ACL menu. The existing inbound ACL rules are displayed at the bottom of the
configuration page.
9.5
Configuring Outbound ACL Rules
By creating ACL rules in outbound ACL configuration page as shown in Figure 9.5, you can control (allow or
deny) Internet or external network access for computers on your LAN.
Options in this configuration page allow you to:
f
f
f
f
Add a rule, and set parameters for it
Modify an existing rule
Delete an existing rule
View configured outbound ACL rules
Figure 9.5. Outbound ACL Configuration Page
9.5.1
Add an Outbound ACL Rule
To add an outbound ACL rule, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Outbound ACL Rule configuration page, as shown in Figure 9.5, by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Outbound ACL menu.
2. Select “Add New” from the “ID” drop-down list.
3. Set desired action (Allow or Deny) from the “Action” drop-down list.
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4. Assign a priority for this rule by selecting a number from the “Move to” drop-down list. Note that
the number indicates the priority of the rule with 1 being the highest. Higher priority rules will be
examined prior to the lower priority rules by the firewall.
5. Select an interface through which to send the packets. Options available are “AUTO”, “ppp0
(unnumbered)”, “ppp1 (PPPoE 0)” and “ppp2 (PPPoE 1)”. Normally select AUTO for router to
determine where to send the traffic for packets matched this ACL rule.
6. Make changes to any or all of the following fields: source/destination IP, source/destination port,
protocol, ICMP message type and log. Please see Table 9.3 for explanation of these fields.
7. Click on the
button to create the new ACL rule. The new ACL rule will then be
displayed in the outbound access control list table at the bottom half of the Outbound ACL
Configuration page.
Figure 9.6 illustrates how to create a rule to allow outbound HTTP traffic. This rule allows outbound HTTP
traffic (destination port 80) to be forwarded to any host on the external network for a host in your LAN w/ IP
address 192.168.1.15. Note that the newly added outbound ACL rule is displayed in the Existing Outbound
ACL table shown in Figure 9.7.
Figure 9.6. Outbound ACL Configuration Example
Figure 9.7. Sample Outbound ACL List Table
9.5.2
Modify Outbound ACL Rules
To modify an outbound ACL rule, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Outbound ACL Rule configuration page, as shown in Figure 9.5, by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Outbound ACL menu.
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2. Click on the icon of the rule to be modified in the outbound ACL table or select the rule number
from the “ID” drop-down list.
3. Make desired changes to any or all of the following fields: action, source/destination IP,
source/destination port, protocol, ICMP message type and log. Please see Table 9.3 for
explanation of these fields.
4. Click on the
button to modify this ACL rule. The new settings for this ACL rule will
then be displayed in the outbound access control list table at the bottom half of the Outbound
ACL Configuration page.
9.5.3
Delete Outbound ACL Rules
To delete an outbound ACL rule, just open the Outbound ACL Rule configuration page by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Outbound ACL menu and then click on the in front of the rule to be deleted:
9.5.4
Display Outbound ACL Rules
Open the Outbound ACL Rule configuration page by double clicking the Router Setup Î Outbound ACL
menu.
9.6
Configuring Self-Access ACL Rules – (Router Setup Î Self-Access ACL)
Self-Access rules control access to/from the RX3141 itself. You may use Self-Access Rule Configuration page,
as illustrated in Figure 9.8, to:
f
f
f
f
Add a Self-Access rule
Modify an existing Self-Access rule
Delete an existing Self-Access rule
View existing Self-Access rules
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Figure 9.8. Self-Access ACL Configuration Page
9.6.1
Add a Self-Access Rule
To add a Self-Access rule, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Self-Access Rule configuration page, as shown in Figure 9.8, by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Self Access ACL menu.
2. Select “Add New” from the “ID” drop-down list.
3. Set desired action (Allow or Deny) from the “Action” drop-down list.
4. Assign a priority for this rule by selecting a number from the “Move to” drop-down list. Note that
the number indicates the priority of the rule with 1 being the highest. Higher priority rules will be
examined prior to the lower priority rules by the firewall.
5. Make desired changes to any or all of the following fields: source/destination IP,
source/destination port, protocol, ICMP message type and log. Please see Table 9.3 for
explanation of these fields.
6. Click on the
button to create the new Self-Access rule. The new rule will then be
displayed in the Existing Self-Access ACL list table at the bottom half of the Self-Access ACL
configuration page.
Example
Figure 9.9 shows a sample self-access ACL configuration to allow TCP port 80 traffic (i.e. HTTP traffic) from
any one to RX3141.
Figure 9.9. Self-Access ACL Configuration Example
9.6.2
Modify a Self-Access Rule
To modify a Self-Access rule, follow the instructions below:
1. Open the Self-Access Rule configuration page, as shown in Figure 9.8, by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Self Access ACL menu.
2. Click on the icon of the Self-Access rule to be modified in the Existing Self-Access ACL table
or select the Self-Access ACL from the ID drop-down list.
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3. Make desired changes to any settings..
4. Click on the
button to save the changes. The new settings for this Self-Access rule
will then be displayed in the Existing Self-Access ACL table located at the bottom half of the
Self-Access ACL configuration page.
9.6.3
Delete a Self-Access Rule
To delete a Self-Access rule, open the Self-Access Rule configuration page by double clicking the Router
Setup Î Self Access ACL menu and then click on the icon of the rule to be deleted.
9.6.4
View Configured Self-Access Rules
To see existing Self-Access Rules, just open the Self-Access ACL configuration page by double clicking
Router Setup Î Self-Access ACL menu.
Figure 9.10. Existing Self-Access ACL Rules
9.7
Firewall Log – (Router Setup Î Log)
You may open the firewall log page by double clicking Router Setup Î Log menu to see any logged events
button
for any security breaches. Figure 9.11 shows a sample firewall log. You may click on the
at the bottom of the Log page to see the updated log messages.
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Figure 9.11 Sample Firewall Log
9.7.1
Log Format
Two types of log are supported by the RX3141 – system security log and firewall access control log. They are
designated by the two keywords, sys and fw respectively. The log format is best explained by
examples:System Security Log Example:
Jan 1 00:01:22 2000 klogd: sys: TCP XMAS/NULL packet from 192.168.1.100.
Explanation: Jan 1 00:01:22 2000 indicates the time of the attack; klogd: sys, this attack is detected by the
system security model; TCP XMAS/NULL, the type of attack detected; 192.168.1.100, source of the attack.
Firewall Access Control Log Example:
Jan 1 00:03:11 2000 klogd: fw: OUTBOUND rule=1 allow icmp from 192.168.1.100 to 211.1.1.1 type=8
code=0 id=512Explanation: Jan 1 00:03:11 2000 indicates the time of the access; klogd: fw, indicates the log
is related to firewall access control; OUTBOUND, the direction of the traffic; rule=1, the rule that matches the
IP information of the traffic; allow, action taken by the firewall; icmp, protocol type of the traffic; 192.168.1.100,
source of the traffic; 211.1.1.1, destination of the traffic; type=8, ICMP message type; code=0, ICMP message
code; id=512, ICMP message ID.
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10
Chapter 11. System Management
Virtual Sever and Special Application
This chapter describes the configuration procedures for:
f Virtual Server
f Special Application
NAT is the technology used to support the above applications.
10.1 NAT Overview
Network Address Translation allows use of a single device, such as the RX3141, to act as an agent between
the Internet (public network) and a local (private) network. This means that a NAT IP address can represent an
entire group of computers to any entity outside a network. Network Address Translation (NAT) is a mechanism
for conserving registered IP addresses in large networks and simplifying IP addressing management tasks.
Because of the translation of IP addresses, NAT also conceals true network address from privy eyes and
provide a certain degree security to the local network.
10.1.1 NAPT (Network Address and Port Translation) or PAT (Port Address Translation)
Also called IP Masquerading, this feature maps many internal hosts to one globally valid Internet address. The
mapping contains a pool of network ports to be used for translation. Every packet is translated with the globally
valid Internet address and the port number is translated with an un-used port from the pool of network ports.
Figure 10.1 shows that all the hosts on the local network gain access to the Internet by mapping to only one
globally valid IP address and different port numbers from a free pool of network ports.
Figure 10.1 NAPT – Map Any Internal PCs to a Single Global IP Address
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Figure 10.2 Reverse NAPT – Relayed Incoming Packets to the Internal Host Base on the Protocol, Port
Number or IP Address
10.1.2 Reverse NAPT / Virtual Server
Reverse NAPT is also called inbound mapping, port mapping, or virtual server. Any packet coming to the
RX3141 can be relayed to the internal host based on the protocol, port number and/or IP address specified in
the ACL rule. This is useful when multiple services are hosted on different internal hosts. Figure 10.2 shows
that web server (TCP/80) is hosted on PC A, telnet server (TCP/23) on PC B, DNS server (UDP/53) on PC C
and FTP server (TCP/21) on PC D. This means that the inbound traffic of these four services will be directed to
respective host hosting these services.
10.2 Configure Virtual Server
Virtual server allows you to configure up to ten public servers, such as a Web, E-mail, FTP server and etc.
accessible by external users of the Internet. Each service is provided by a dedicated server configured with a
fixed IP Address. Although the internal service addresses are not directly accessible to the external users, the
router is able to identify the service requested by the service port number and redirects the request to the
appropriate internal server.
RX3141 supports only one server of any particular type at a time.
Note
10.2.1 Virtual Server Configuration Parameters
Table 10.1 describes the configuration parameters available for virtual server configuration.
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Table 10.1. Virtual Server Configuration Parameters
Setting
Description
Enable
Select an application from the list of pre-configured applications. The
corresponding protocol and the redirect port range will be automatically
selected. Select “Manual Setting” if you want to configure the settings
yourself. To activate the policy, make sure the check box is checked. For a list
of pre-configured applications, please refer to Table 10.2.
Protocol
This option allows you to select protocol type from a drop-down list. Available settings
are All, TCP, UDP, TCP/UDP, and ESP.
Redirect Port Range
Enter the desired port numbers.
To IP Address
Enter the server IP address.
Table 10.2. Port Numbers for Popular Applications
Application
Service Port Numbers
AOE II(Server)
2300-2400
AUTH
113
Baldurs Gate II
2300-2400
Battle Isle
3004-3004
Counter Strike
27005-27015
Cu See Me
7648-7648, 56800,24032
Diablo II
4000-4000
DNS
UDP 53-53
FTP
TCP 21-21
FTP
TCP 20(ALG)-21
GOPHER
TCP 70-70
HTTP
TCP 80-80
HTTP8080
TCP 8080-8080
HTTPS
TCP 443-443
I-phone 5.0
TCP/UDP 22555-22555
ISAKMP
UDP 500-500
mIrc
6601-700
MSN Messenger
1863 ALG
Need for Speed 5
9400-9400
Netmeeting Audio
TCP 1731-1731
Netmeeting Call
TCP 1720-1720
Netmeeting Conference
UDP 49500-49700
Netmeeting File Transfer
TCP 1503-1503
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Application
Service Port Numbers
Netmeeting or VOIP
1503-1503, 1720 (ALG)
NEWS
TCP 119-119
PC Anywhere
TCP: 5631
PC Anywhere
TCP: 5631, UDP: 5632
POP3
TCP 110-110
Powwow Chat
13223-13223
Red Alert II
1234-1237
SMTP
TCP 25-25
Sudden Strike
2300-2400
TELNET
TCP 23-23
Win VNC
UDP 5800-5900
10.2.2 Virtual Server Example
Following describes the procedure to setup a FTP server:
1. Open the Virtual Server configuration page, as shown in Figure 10.3, by double clicking the
Advanced Î Virtual Server menu.
2. Select FTP from the Enable drop-down list and the check the check box to activate this policy.
Note that the protocol and the redirect port range are automatically selected.
3. Enter the IP address of the FTP server. Note that this IP address is a private IP address.
4. Click
to save the settings.
Figure 10.3. Virtual Server Example
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5. For security concerns, the RX3141 denies all the access requests from the external users unless
a proper inbound ACL rule is setup for each virtual server to allow external users to access the
internal servers set up in the Virtual Server configuration page. For example, if you want to allow
any one in the external network to access the FTP server, define an inbound ACL rule as
configured in Figure 10.4. Note that the destination IP address is the IP address entered in the
“To IP Address” and the destination port is the port numbers entered in the “Redirect Port
Range” in the Virtual Server configuration page. If you want to restrict access to the FTP server
from particular IP addresses, change the settings for the source IP in the inbound ACL rule. For
example, if source IP in the inbound ACL rule is configured as 198.175.2.10, the RX3141 will
deny all the external access to the FTP server except those from this particular IP address. For
detail information about configuring an inbound ACL rule, please refer to the section 9.4
Configuring Inbound ACL Rules.
Same as “To
IP Address”
Same as “Redirect
Port Range”
Figure 10.4. Virtual Server Example – Inbound ACL RuleConfigure Special Application
Some applications use multiple TCP/UDP ports to transmit data. Due to the NAT operation, these applications
cannot work with the router. Special Application setting allows some of these applications to work properly.
Only one PC can use one particular special application at any time.
Note
10.2.3 Special Application Configuration Parameters
Table 10.1 describes the configuration parameters available for Special Application configuration.
Table 10.3. Special Application Configuration Parameters
Setting
Description
Enable
Select an application from the list of pre-configured applications. The
corresponding protocol and the redirect port range will be automatically
selected. Select “Manual Setting” if you want to configure the settings
yourself. To activate the policy, make sure the check box is checked.
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Setting
Description
Application Name
The name identifying the application.
Outgoing (Trigger)
Port Range
The port range this application uses when it sends outbound packets. The
outgoing port numbers act as the trigger. When the router detects the
outgoing packets with these port numbers, it will allow the corresponding
inbound packets with the incoming port numbers specified in the Incoming
Port Range field to pass through the router. For a list of port numbers used
by some popular applications, please refer to Table 10.4.
Incoming Port Range
The port range that the corresponding inbound packet used. For a list of port
numbers used by some popular applications, please refer to Table 10.4.
Table 10.4. Port Numbers for Popular Applications
Application
Outgoing Port Number
Incoming Port Range
Battle.net
6112
6112
DialPad
7175
51200,51201,51210
ICU II
2019
2000-2038, 2050-2051,
2069,2085,3010-3030
MSN Gaming Zone
47624
2300-2400,28800-29000
PC to Phone
12053
12120,12122,24150-24220
Quick Time 4
554
6970-6999
wowcall
8000
4000-4020
10.2.4 Special Application Example
Figure 10.5. Special Application Configuration Page
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Following describes the procedure to setup a special application for Quick Time.
1. Open the Special Application configuration page, as shown in Figure 10.5, by double clicking the
Advanced Î Special Application menu.
2. Select Quick Time from the Enable drop-down list and the check the check box to activate this
policy. Note that the application name, outgoing and incoming port range are automatically
selected.
3. Click
to save the settings.
4. The RX3141 has a default outbound ACL rule to forward all the outbound traffic to the external
networks. This default outbound ACL rule allows any one to use application defined in the Special
Application configuration page. If this is what you want, skip this step. However, for security
concerns or any other reasons, you may want to restrict the use of these applications to a
particular group of users. Then configure an outbound ACL rule to control outbound access as
illustrated in Figure 10.6. This example restricts the access to hosts in the IP address range from
192.168.1.110 to 192.168.1.115. Note that you must remove the default firewall outbound ACL
rule for the access restriction to work because the default outbound ACL rule allows any one to
use any applications setup in the Special Application configuration page. To delete the default
outbound ACL rule, just click the icon in front of the default ACL rule in the Outbound ACL Rule
table located in the Outbound ACL Rule configuration page (as shown in Figure 10.7). For details
on configuring an outbound ACL rule, please refer to the section 9.5 Configuring Outbound
ACL Rules.
Figure 10.6. Special Application Example – Outbound ACL Rule
Default Outbound ACL Rule
Figure 10.7. Outbound ACL Rule Table
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11
RX3141 User’s Manual
System Management
This chapter describes the following administrative tasks that you can perform using the Configuration
Manager:
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
Modify password and system-wide settings
View system information
Modify system date and time
Reset system configuration
Reboot system
Update firmware
Backup/restore system configuration
11.1 Login Password and System-Wide Settings
The first time you log into the Configuration Manager, you use the default username and password (admin and
admin).
Note
This username and password is only used for logging into the
Configuration Manager; it is not the same login password that you
use to connect to your ISP.
Figure 11.1. System Administration Configuration Page
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System Administration configuration page, as shown in Figure 11.1, allows you to change login password and
other global settings for RX3141. Follow the steps below to change password and/or system-wide settings:
1. Open the System Administration configuration page, as shown in Figure 11.1, by double clicking
the Router Setup Î Administration menu.
2. Changing login password
a) Type the new password in the New Password text field and again in the Confirm Password
text field. The password can be up to 16 characters long. When logging in, you must type the
new password in the same upper and lower case characters that you enter here.
3. Clone the MAC address for WAN
a) If you had previously registered a specific MAC address with your ISP for Internet access,
enter the registered MAC address here; otherwise, keep the default setting – the factory
assigned MAC address for the WAN port.
4. Auto logout after idle (min): Click “Enable” radio button and enter in-activity time out period to
enable this option; otherwise, click on the “Disable” radio button, or enter 0 in the text field to
diable this option. When this option is enabled, you will be automatically disconnected from the
router when the idle timer expires during system configuration via your browser. You’ll have to log
into the RX3141 again if you want to continue system configuration.
5. Enable UPnP service: check or uncheck the check box to enable or disable UpnP service.
6. Enable DNS Proxy: Check or uncheck the check box to enable or disable DNS proxy service.
7. Allow Administration from Interface: check or uncheck the check box to enable or disable remote
management via WAN port.
8. Allow Ping Interface: You may check the LAN and/or WAN check box to allow ping to the RX3141
from the LAN or WAN interface. It is recommended that you enable this option for the LAN only.
9. Click on
button to save the settings.
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11.2 Viewing System Information
System Information page displays whenever you log into RX3141. It contains information for the overall
system settings.
Figure 11.2. System Status Page
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11.3 Setup Date and Time
RX3141 keeps a record of the current date and time, which it uses to calculate and report various data.
However, there is no real time clock inside RX3141; RX3141 relies on external time servers to maintain correct
time. RX3141 allows you to configure up to three external time servers. Make sure that the “Enable” check box
is checked to activate the SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) service for time keeping.
Note
Changing the date and time on RX3141 does not affect the date
and time on your PCs.
Figure 11.3. Date and Time Configuration Page
The maintain accurate time for the router:
1. Open the Date and Time configuration page, as shown in,Figure 11.3 by double clicking the
Router Setup Î Timezone menu.
2. Select your time zone from the drop-down list.
3. Check the Enable check box to activate the SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) service.
4. Enter IP addresses for the SNTP servers that will be used to update the system time.
5. Click on
button to save the settings.
You can manually enter the correct time, however the time will be reset to the default time, 1/1/2000 00:00:00,
after system is rebooted or powered off.
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11.3.1 View the System Date and Time
To view the updated system date and time, log into Configuration Manager, click the Router Setup Î
Timezone menu. Note that the system will go back to the default time, 1/1/2000 00:00:00, if SNTP service is
not enabled or none of the configured SNTP servers are not accessible after system is rebooted or powered
off.
11.4 Reset to Factory Default Settings
11.4.1
Reset to Factory Default Settings using GUI
At times, you may want to revert to the factory default settings to eliminate problems resulted from incorrect
system configuration. Follow the steps below to reset system configuration:
1. Log into Configuration Manager by double clicking the Management Î Factory Reset menu.
The Default Settings Configuration page displays, as shown in Figure 11.4.
Figure 11.4. Factory Reset Page
2. Click on
button to set the system configuration back to factory default.
3. A dialog window as shown in Figure 11.5 will pop up to ask for confirmation. Click on the
button to proceed; otherwise, click on the
4.
Figure 11.5. Factory Reset Confirmation
74
button to cancel the action.
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5. RX3141 will then reboot thereafter to make the factory default configuration in effect. Note a
count down timer such as the one shown in Figure 11.6 will display to indicate when the reboot
process will be completed.
Figure 11.6. Factory Reset Count Down Timer
11.4.2 Reset to Factory Default Settings using the Reset Button
Note
Sometimes, you may find that you have no way to access the RX3141, e.g.
you forget your password or the IP address of RX3141. The only way out in
this scenario is to reset the system configuration to the factory default by
pressing the reset button (located on the rear panel the router) for at least 5
seconds. The system configuration will be reverted back to the factory
default settings after RX3141 is rebooted.
11.5 Firmware Upgrade
ASUSTeK may from time to time provide you with an update to the firmware running on the RX3141. All
system software is contained in a single file, called an image. Configuration Manager provides an easy way to
upload the new firmware image. To upgrade the image, follow this procedure:
1. Open the Firmware Upgrade page, as shown in Figure 11.7, by double clicking the Management
Î Firmware Upgrade menu.
Figure 11.7. Firmware Upgrade Page
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2. In the Firmware text box, enter the path and name of the firmware image file. Alternatively, you
may click on
button to open a file manager to search for the firmware image on your
computer.
Figure 11.8. File Manager
3. Click on
button to update the firmware. A dialog window, such as the one below,
will pop up to ask for confirmation of the firmware upgrade. Click the
proceed; otherwise, click the
button to cancel the action.
Figure 11.9. Firmware Upgrade Confirmation
4. Firmware upgrade status and progress will be shown as illustrated in .
Figure 11.10. Firmware Upgrade Status
76
button to
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5. A count down timer will display, as shown in Figure 11.11, after the firmware upgrade is
completed. You’ll be reconnected back to RX3141 when the counter returns to zero. You may
need to manually connect back to the RX3141 if you are not connected back to RX3141
automatically.
Figure 11.11. Firmware Upgrade Count Down Timer
6. When you are reconnected to the RX3141, click Status menu to check if the new firmware is
properly upgraded. Note that you probably need to clear the cache of your web browser to see
the new System Information page. Following is the procedure to clear the browser cache for
Microsoft Internet Explorer:
a) Click on “Tools” menu
b) Click on “Internet Options…” menu
c) Click on “Delete Files…” button to clear the browser cache.
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11.6 System Reboot
1. Open the System reboot page, as shown in Figure 11.12, by double clicking the Management Î
Reboot menu.
button in the reboot the system.
2. Click on the
Figure 11.12. System Reboot Page
3. A dialog window will popup, as illustrated in Figure 11.13. Click on the
proceed or click on the
button to
button to cancel.
Figure 11.13. System Reboot Confirmation
Your browser will be reconnected back to the RX3141 when the timer, as illustrated in
4. Figure 11.14, elapses.
Figure 11.14. System Reboot Countdown Timer
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11.7 . System Configuration Management
11.7.1 Backup System Configuration
Follow the steps below to backup system configuration:
1. Open the System Configuration Backup/Restore page, as illustrated in Figure 11.15, by double
clicking the Management Î Backup/Restore menu.
Figure 11.15. System Configuration Backup Page
2. Click the “Backup system configuration” radio button.
3. Click the
button to backup the system configuration.
4. If you are using Microsoft Windows, a “File Download” dialog window will pop up, click on the
button as illustrated in Figure 11.16.
Figure 11.16. System Configuration Backup Page – File Download Dialog
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5. Enter the desired filename for the backup configuration file as illustrated in Figure 11.17and click
on the
button to continue.
Enter desired filename
Figure 11.17. System Configuration Backup Page – Save As Dialog
6. Finally, a message, as shown in Figure 11.18, will display to let you know whether the system
configuration is successfully saved to your computer.
Figure 11.18. System Configuration Backup Status
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11.7.2 Restore System Configuration
Follow the steps below to backup system configuration:
1. Open the System Configuration Backup/Restore configuration page by double clicking the
Management Î Backup/Restore menu.
2. Enter the path and filename of the system configuration file that you want to restore in the text
field.
Figure 11.19. System Configuration Restore Page
button to search for the system configuration file
Alternatively, you may click on the
on your computer. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11.20 will pop up for you to select
the configuration file to restore. Select the desired configuration file, and then click on the
button to continue.
Figure 11.20. System Configuration Restore Page – Choose File Dialog
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3. Click on
RX3141 User’s Manual
button to restore the system configuration.
4. A message will pop up, as illustrated in Figure 11.21, to let you know whether the system
configuration is successfully restored. Note that you must reboot the RX3141 to make the new
system configuration in effect.
Figure 11.21. System Configuration Restore Status
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12
Chapter 12. IP Addresses, Network Masks, and Subnets
IP Addresses, Network Masks, and Subnets
12.1 IP Addresses
This section pertains only to IP addresses for IPv4 (version 4 of
the Internet Protocol). IPv6 addresses are not covered.
Note
This section assumes basic knowledge of binary numbers, bits,
and bytes. For details on this subject, see Appendix 12.
IP addresses, the Internet's version of telephone numbers, are used to identify individual nodes (computers or
devices) on the Internet. Every IP address contains four numbers, each from 0 to 255 and separated by dots
(periods), e.g. 20.56.0.211. These numbers are called, from left to right, field1, field2, field3, and field4.
This style of writing IP addresses as decimal numbers separated by dots is called dotted decimal notation. The
IP address 20.56.0.211 is read "twenty dot fifty-six dot zero dot two-eleven."
12.1.1 Structure of an IP address
IP addresses have a hierarchical design similar to that of telephone numbers. For example, a 7-digit telephone
number starts with a 3-digit prefix that identifies a group of thousands of telephone lines, and ends with four
digits that identify one specific line in that group.
Similarly, IP addresses contain two kinds of information.
f Network ID
Identifies a particular network within the Internet or Intranet
f Host ID
Identifies a particular computer or device on the network
The first part of every IP address contains the network ID, and the rest of the address contains the host ID.
The length of the network ID depends on the network's class (see following section). Table 12.1 shows the
structure of an IP address.
Table 12.1. IP Address Structure
Field1
Class A
Class B
Field2
Network ID
Field4
Host ID
Network ID
Class C
Field3
Network ID
Host ID
Host ID
Here are some examples of valid IP addresses:
Class A: 10.30.6.125 (network = 10, host = 30.6.125)
Class B: 129.88.16.49 (network = 129.88, host = 16.49)
Class C: 192.60.201.11 (network = 192.60.201, host = 11)
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12.2 Network classes
The three commonly used network classes are A, B, and C. (There is also a class D but it has a special use
beyond the scope of this discussion.) These classes have different uses and characteristics.
Class A networks are the Internet's largest networks, each with room for over 16 million hosts. Up to 126 of
these huge networks can exist, for a total of over 2 billion hosts. Because of their huge size, these networks
are used for WANs and by organizations at the infrastructure level of the Internet, such as your ISP.
Class B networks are smaller but still quite large, each able to hold over 65,000 hosts. There can be up to
16,384 class B networks in existence. A class B network might be appropriate for a large organization such as
a business or government agency.
Class C networks are the smallest, only able to hold 254 hosts at most, but the total possible number of class
C networks exceeds 2 million (2,097,152 to be exact). LANs connected to the Internet are usually class C
networks.
Some important notes regarding IP addresses:
f The class can be determined easily from field1:
field1 = 1-126:
Class A
field1 = 128-191:
Class B
field1 = 192-223:
Class C
(field1 values not shown are reserved for special uses)
f A host ID can have any value except all fields set to 0 or all fields set to 255, as those values are
reserved for special uses.
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Chapter 12. IP Addresses, Network Masks, and Subnets
12.3 Subnet masks
Definition
mask
A mask looks like a regular IP address, but contains a pattern of
bits that tells what parts of an IP address are the network ID and
what parts are the host ID: bits set to 1 mean "this bit is part of the
network ID" and bits set to 0 mean "this bit is part of the host ID."
Subnet masks are used to define subnets (what you get after dividing a network into smaller pieces). A
subnet's network ID is created by "borrowing" one or more bits from the host ID portion of the address. The
subnet mask identifies these host ID bits.
For example, consider a class C network 192.168.1. To split this into two subnets, you would use the subnet
mask:
255.255.255.128
It's easier to see what's happening if we write this in binary:
11111111. 11111111. 11111111.10000000
As with any class C address, all of the bits in field1 through field 3 are part of the network ID, but note how the
mask specifies that the first bit in field 4 is also included. Since this extra bit has only two values (0 and 1), this
means there are two subnets. Each subnet uses the remaining 7 bits in field4 for its host IDs, which range from
0 to 127 (instead of the usual 0 to 255 for a class C address).
Similarly, to split a class C network into four subnets, the mask is:
255.255.255.192
or
11111111. 11111111. 11111111.11000000
The two extra bits in field4 can have four values (00, 01, 10, 11), so there are four subnets. Each subnet uses
the remaining six bits in field4 for its host IDs, ranging from 0 to 63.
Sometimes a subnet mask does not specify any additional
network ID bits, and thus no subnets. Such a mask is called a
default subnet mask. These masks are:
Note
Class A:
Class B:
Class C:
255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
These are called default because they are used when a network is
initially configured, at which time it has no subnets.
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13
Appendix
Troubleshooting
This appendix suggests solutions for problems you may encounter in installing or using the RX3141, and
provides instructions for using several IP utilities to diagnose problems.
Contact Customer Support if these suggestions do not resolve the problem.
Problem
Power LED does not
illuminate after
product is turned on.
Troubleshooting Suggestion
Verify that you are using the AC adapter provided with the
device and that it is securely connected to the RX3141 and a
wall socket/power strip.
LINK WAN LED
does not illuminate
after Ethernet cable
is attached.
Verify that an Ethernet cable like the one provided is securely
connected to the Ethernet port of your ADSL or cable modem
and the WAN port of the RX3141. Make sure that your ADSL or
cable modem is powered on. Wait 30 seconds to allow the
RX3141 to negotiate a connection with your broadband modem.
LINK LAN LED does
not illuminate after
Ethernet cable is
attached.
Verify that the Ethernet cable is securely connected to your LAN
hub or PC and to the RX3141. Make sure the PC and/or hub is
turned on.
Internet Access
PC cannot access
Internet
Verify that your cable is sufficient for your network requirements.
A 100 Mbit/sec network (100BaseTx) should use cables labeled
Cat 5. 10Mbit/sec cables may tolerate lower quality cables.
Use the ping utility, discussed in the following section, to check
whether your PC can communicate with the RX3141’s LAN IP
address (by default 192.168.1.1). If it cannot, check the Ethernet
cabling.
If you statically assigned a private IP address to the computer,
(not a registered public address), verify the following:
•
•
•
Check that the gateway IP address on the computer is
your public IP address (see the Quick Start Guide
chapter, Part 2 for instructions on viewing the IP
information.) If it is not, correct the address or configure
the PC to receive IP information automatically.
Verify with your ISP that the DNS server specified for the
PC is valid. Correct the address or configure the PC to
receive this information automatically.
Verify that a Network Address Translation rule has been
defined on the RX3141 to translate the private address
to your public IP address. The assigned IP address must
be within the range specified in the NAT rules. Or,
configure the PC to accept an address assigned by
another device (see section 3.2 "Part 2 — Configuring
Your Computers”). The default configuration includes a
NAT rule for all dynamically assigned addresses within a
predefined pool
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Problem
PCs cannot display
web pages on the
Internet.
Troubleshooting Suggestion
Verify that the DNS server specified on the PCs is correct for
your ISP, as discussed in the item above. You can use the ping
utility, discussed in the following section, to test connectivity with
your ISP’s DNS server.
Configuration Manager Program
If you have not changed the password from the default, try using
You forgot/lost your
“admin” as the user ID and “admin” for the password. Otherwise,
Configuration
you can reset the device to the default configuration by following
Manager user ID or
the instructions provided in section 11.4 “Reset to Factory
password.
Default Settings”. WARNING: Resetting the device removes
any custom settings and returns all settings to their default
values.
Cannot access the
Configuration
Manager program
from your browser.
Use the ping utility, discussed in the following section, to check
whether your PC can communicate with the RX3141’s LAN IP
address (by default 192.168.1.1). If it cannot, check the Ethernet
cabling.
Verify that you are using Internet Explorer 6.0 or newer. Support
for Javascript® must be enabled in your browser. Support for
Java® may also be required.
Verify that the PC’s IP address is defined as being on the same
subnet as the IP address assigned to the LAN port on the
RX3141.
Changes to
Configuration
Manager are not
being retained.
Be sure to click on
button to save any changes.
13.1 Diagnosing Problem using IP Utilities
13.1.1 ping
Ping is a command you can use to check whether your PC can recognize other computers on your network
and the Internet. A ping command sends a message to the computer you specify. If the computer receives the
message, it sends messages in reply. To use it, you must know the IP address of the computer with which you
are trying to communicate.
On Windows-based computers, you can execute a ping command from the Start menu. Click the Start button,
and then click Run. In the Open text box, type a statement such as the following:
ping 192.168.1.1
Click
site, if known.
. You can substitute any private IP address on your LAN or a public IP address for an Internet
If the target computer receives the message, a Command Prompt window displays like that shown in Figure
13.1.
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Figure 13.1. Using the ping Utility
If the target computer cannot be located, you will receive the message “Request timed out.”
Using the ping command, you can test whether the path to the RX3141 is working (using the preconfigured
default LAN IP address 192.168.1.1) or another address you assigned.
You can also test whether access to the Internet is working by typing an external address, such as that for
www.yahoo.com (216.115.108.243). If you do not know the IP address of a particular Internet location, you can
use the nslookup command, as explained in the following section.
From most other IP-enabled operating systems, you can execute the same command at a command prompt
or through a system administration utility.
13.1.2 nslookup
You can use the nslookup command to determine the IP address associated with an Internet site name. You
specify the common name, and the nslookup command looks up the name on your DNS server (usually
located with your ISP). If that name is not an entry in your ISP’s DNS table, the request is then referred to
another higher-level server, and so on, until the entry is found. The server then returns the associated IP
address.
On Windows-based computers, you can execute the nslookup command from the Start menu. Click the Start
button, and then click Run. In the Open text box, type the following:
nslookup
Click
. A Command Prompt window displays with a bracket prompt (>). At the prompt, type the
name of the Internet address you are interested in, such as www.absnews.com.
The window will display the associate IP address, if known, as shown in Figure 13.2.
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Figure 13.2. Using the nslookup Utility
There may be several addresses associated with an Internet name. This is common for web sites that receive
heavy traffic; they use multiple, redundant servers to carry the same information.
To exit from the nslookup utility, type exit and press <Enter> at the command prompt.
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14
Appendix.
Index
Computers
configuring IP information, 10
Configuration Manager
overview, 17
troubleshooting, 106
Connectors
rear panel, 6
Gatewas
in DHCP pools, 41
Gateway
defined, 43
Hardware connections, 9, 10
Host ID, 101
HTTP DDNS, 51
Date and time, changing, 88
Inbound ACL Configuration page, 61
Default configuration, 16
Internet
Default gateway, 43
DHCP
defined, 39
DHCP Address Table page, 40
DHCP client
defined, 39
troubleshooting access to, 105
IP address
in device's routing table, 47
IP addresses
explained, 101
IP configuration
DHCP Lease Table page, 42
static, 13
DHCP server
static IP addresses, 13
defined, 39
Windows 2000, 11
pools, 39
Windows Me, 12
viewing assigned addresses, 41
Windows NT 4.0, 12
DHCP Server Configuration page, 40
Diagnosing problems
after installation, 16
DNS, 41
IP Configuration
Windows XP, 11
IP information
configuring on LAN computers, 10
Dynamically assigned IP addresses, 39
, 44, 45, 46
Eth-0 interface
IP Routes
defined, 16
Ethernet cable, 9
Features, 1
Firmware Upgrade page, 92, 93, 94
Firmware upgrades, 91
Front panel, 5
defined, 43
LEDs, 5
troubleshooting, 105
Login
to Configuration Manager, 17
NAT
91
Appendix 14. Index
defined, 75
NAPT, 75
RX3141 User’s Manual
PC Configuration
static IP addresses, 13
Overload, 75
Ping, 106
PAT, 75
Power adapter, 9
Reverse NAPT, 76
Primary DNS, 36
Virtual Server, 76
Quick Configuration
Navigating, 18
logging in, 14
Netmask. See Network mask
Rear Panel, 6
Network classes, 101
Routing Configuration page, 44, 45, 46
Network ID, 101
Secondary DNS, 36
Network interface card, 1
Static IP addresses, 13
Network mask, 102
Static routes
Notational conventions, 1
adding, 45, 46
nslookup, 107
Statically assigned IP addresses, 39
Outbound ACL Configuration page, 65
Subnet masks, 102
Packet
System Information page, 15
filtering, 53
Pages
for Configuration Manager, 17
DHCP Address Table, 40
System requirements:, 1
DHCP Lease Table, 42
Testing setup, 16
DHCP Server Configuration, 40
Time and date, changing, 88
Firmware Upgrade Upgrade, 92, 93, 94
Troubleshooting, 105
, 44, 45, 46
Typographical conventions, 1
Routing Configuration, 44, 45, 46
Upgrading firmware, 91
System Information, 15
User Password Configuration page, 86
User Password Configuration, 86
Username
Pages Inbound ACL Configuration, 61
Pages Outbound ACL Configuration, 65
Parts
checking for, 3
Password
changing, 85
default, 14, 17
recovering, 106
PC configuration, 10
92
System requirements
default, 14, 17
Web browser
requirements, 1
version requirements, 17
Web browsers
compatible versions, 17
Windows NT
configuring IP information, 12