Table of Contents
i
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS OBD? ........................................................................
1
YOU CAN DO IT! ..............................................................................
2
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFETY FIRST! .......................................................................
3
ABOUT THE CODE READER
VEHICLES COVERED .............................................................
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS .............................................
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS ............................................................
4
5
6
ONBOARD DIAGNOSTICS
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS .........................................
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) ..............................
OBD2 MONITORS ...................................................................
8
13
16
PREPARATION FOR TESTING
BEFORE YOU BEGIN ..............................................................
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS ...............................................
25
25
USING THE CODE READER
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE ..........................................
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) .............
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS® ...............................................
26
28
30
VEHICLE APPLICATIONS - ABS
VEHICLE APPLICATIONS – MAKES COVERED ...................
32
WARRANTY AND SERVICING
CRAFTSMAN TWO YEAR FULL WARRANTY...........................
REPLACEMENT PARTS ..........................................................
33
33
Craftsman 14063
Introduction
WHAT IS OBD?
WHAT IS OBD?
The Code Reader is designed to work on all OBD2 compliant
vehicles. All 1996 and newer vehicles (cars, light trucks and SUVs)
sold in the United States are OBD2 compliant.
One of the most exciting improvements in the
automobile industry was the addition of onboard diagnostics (OBD) on vehicles, or in more
basic terms, the computer that activates the
vehicle’s “CHECK ENGINE” light. OBD1 was
designed to monitor manufacturer-specific
systems on vehicles built from 1981 to 1995.
Then came the development of OBD2, which is
on all 1996 cars and light trucks sold in the U.S. Like its predecessor,
OBD2 was adopted as part of a government mandate to lower vehicle
emissions. But what makes OBD2 unique is its universal application for
all late model cars and trucks - domestic and import. This sophisticated
program in the vehicle’s main computer system is designed to detect
failures in a range of systems, and can be accessed through a universal
OBD2 port, which is usually found under the dashboard. For all OBD
systems, if a problem is found, the computer turns on the “CHECK
ENGINE” light to warn the driver, and sets a Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC) to identify where the problem occurred. A special diagnostic tool,
such as the Code Reader, is required to retrieve these codes, which
consumers and professionals use as a starting point for repairs.
The Code Reader provides the additional ability to retrieve Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) DTCs from most Chrysler/Jeep, Ford/Mazda,
GM/Isuzu, Honda/Acura and Toyota/Lexus vehicles. Refer to Vehicle
Applications - ABS on page 32 for vehicles covered.
Craftsman 14063
1
You Can Do It!
EASY TO USE - EASY TO VIEW - EASY TO DEFINE
Easy To Use . . . .
„
Connect the Code Reader
vehicle’s test connector.
„
Turn the ignition key "On.” DO NOT start
the engine.
„
The Code Reader will automatically link
to the vehicle’s computer.
to
the
Easy To View . . . .
„
The Code Reader retrieves stored codes
and displays I/M Monitor Status.
„
Codes are displayed on the Code
Reader’s LCD display screen; System
Status is displayed by LED indicators.
Easy To Define . . . .
„
2
Visit www.innova.com for Fault Code
Definitions.
Craftsman 14063
Safety Precautions
SAFETY FIRST
SAFETY FIRST!
This manual describes common test procedures used by experienced
service technicians. Many test procedures require precautions to avoid
accidents that can result in personal injury, and/or damage to your
vehicle or test equipment. Always read your vehicle's service manual
and follow its safety precautions before and during any test or service
procedure. ALWAYS observe the following general safety precautions:
When an engine is running, it produces carbon monoxide, a
toxic and poisonous gas. To prevent serious injury or death
from carbon monoxide poisoning, operate the vehicle ONLY
in a well-ventilated area.
To protect your eyes from propelled objects as well as hot
or caustic liquids, always wear approved safety eye
protection.
When an engine is running, many parts (such as the coolant
fan, pulleys, fan belt etc.) turn at high speed. To avoid serious
injury, always be aware of moving parts. Keep a safe distance
from these parts as well as other potentially moving objects.
Engine parts become very hot when the engine is running.
To prevent severe burns, avoid contact with hot engine
parts.
P RND L
Before starting an engine for testing or trouble-shooting, make
sure the parking brake is engaged. Put the transmission in
park (for automatic transmission) or neutral (for manual
transmission). Block the drive wheels with suitable blocks.
Connecting or disconnecting test equipment when the
ignition is ON can damage test equipment and the vehicle's
electronic components. Turn the ignition OFF before
connecting the Code Reader to or disconnecting the Code
Reader from the vehicle’s Data Link Connector (DLC).
To prevent damage to the on-board computer when taking
vehicle electrical measurements, always use a digital
multimeter with at least 10 MegOhms of impedance.
The vehicle's battery produces highly flammable hydrogen
gas. To prevent an explosion, keep all sparks, heated items
and open flames away from the battery.
Don't wear loose clothing or jewelry when working on an
engine. Loose clothing can become caught in the fan,
pulleys, belts, etc. Jewelry is highly conductive, and can
cause a severe burn if it makes contact between a power
source and ground.
Craftsman 14063
3
About the Code Reader
VEHICLES COVERED
VEHICLES COVERED
The Code Reader is designed to work on all OBD 2 compliant vehicles.
All 1996 and newer vehicles (cars and light trucks) sold in the United
States are OBD 2 compliant. This includes all Domestic, Asian and
European vehicles.
Some 1994 and 1995 vehicles are OBD 2 compliant. To find out if a
1994 or 1995 vehicle is OBD 2 compliant, check the following:
1. The Vehicle Emissions Control Information (VECI) Label. This label
is located under the hood or by the radiator of most vehicles. If the
vehicle is OBD 2 compliant, the label will state “OBD II Certified.”
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
ENGINE FAMILY
DISPLACEMENT
VEHICLE
MANUFACTURER
EFN2.6YBT2BA
2.6L
OBD II
CERTIFIED
THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA AND STATE
OF CALIFORNIA REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO
1999 MODEL YEAR NEW TLEV PASSENGER CARS.
REFER TO SERVICE MANUAL FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
TUNE-UP CONDITIONS: NORMAL OPERATING ENGINE TEMPERATURE,
ACCESSORIES OFF, COOLING FAN OFF, TRANSMISSION IN NEUTRAL
EXHAUST EMISSIONS STANDARDS
CERTIFICATION
IN-USE
SPARK PLUG
TYPE NGK BPRE-11
GAP: 1.1MM
OBD II
CERTIFIED
STANDARD CATEGORY
TLEV
TLEV INTERMEDIATE
CATALYST
2. Government Regulations require that all
OBD2 compliant vehicles must have a
“common”
sixteen-pin
Data
Link
Connector (DLC).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10111213141516
Some 1994 and 1995 vehicles have 16-pin connectors but are not
OBD2 compliant. Only those vehicles with a Vehicle Emissions
Control Label stating “OBD II Certified” are OBD2 compliant.
Data Link Connector (DLC) Location
The 16-pin DLC is usually
located under the instrument
panel (dash), within 12 inches
(300 mm) of center of the panel,
on the driver’s side of most
vehicles. It should be easily
accessible and visible from a
kneeling position outside the
vehicle with the door open.
LEFT CORNER
OF DASH
NEAR
CENTER
OF DASH
BEHIND
ASHTRAY
On some Asian and European vehicles the DLC is located
behind the “ashtray” (the ashtray must be removed to access it)
or on the far left corner of the dash. If the DLC cannot be
located, consult the vehicle’s service manual for the location.
4
Craftsman 14063
About the Code Reader
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
7
5
4
6
1
3
2
8
Figure 1. Controls and Indicators
See Figure 1 for the locations of items 1 through 9, below.
1.
E ERASE button - Erases Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) and
"Freeze Frame" data from your vehicle's computer, and resets
Monitor status.
2.
SCROLL button - Scrolls the LCD display to view DTCs when
more than one DTC is present.
3.
LINK button - Links the Code Reader with the vehicle's PCM to
retrieve DTCs from the computer's memory, and to view I/M
Readiness Monitor status.
4.
GREEN LED - Indicates that all engine systems are running
normally (all Monitors on the vehicle are active and performing their
diagnostic testing, and no DTCs are present).
Craftsman 14063
5
About the Code Reader
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
5.
YELLOW LED - Indicates there is a possible problem. A
“Pending” DTC is present and/or some of the vehicle's emission
monitors have not run their diagnostic testing.
6.
RED LED - Indicates there is a problem in one or more of the
vehicle's systems. The red LED is also used to show that DTC(s)
are present. DTCs are shown on the Code Reader’s LCD display. In
this case, the Multifunction Indicator (“Check Engine”) lamp on the
vehicle's instrument panel will light steady on.
7. LCD Display - Displays test results, Code Reader functions and
Monitor status information. See DISPLAY FUNCTIONS, below, for
details.
8. CABLE - Connects the Code Reader to the vehicle's Data Link
Connector (DLC).
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
12
86
5
7
10
2
1
3
11
9
4
Figure 2. Display Functions
See Figure 2 for the locations of items 1 through 13, below.
1.
Vehicle icon - Indicates whether or not the Code Reader is
being properly powered through the vehicle's Data Link Connector
(DLC). A visible icon indicates that the Code Reader is being
powered through the vehicle's DLC connector.
2.
Link icon - Indicates whether or not the Code Reader is
communicating (linked) with the vehicle's on-board computer. When
visible, the Code Reader is communicating with the computer. If the
Link icon is not visible, the Code Reader is not communicating with
the computer.
3.
Computer icon - When this icon is visible it indicates that the
Code Reader is linked to a personal computer. An optional “PC Link
Kit” is available that makes it possible to upload retrieved data to a
personal computer.
4. DTC Display Area - Displays the Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
number. Each fault is assigned a code number that is specific to that
fault.
6
Craftsman 14063
About the Code Reader
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
5. MIL icon - Indicates the status of the Malfunction Indicator Lamp
(MIL). The MIL icon is visible only when a DTC has commanded the
MIL on the vehicle's dashboard to light.
6. Pending icon - Indicates the currently displayed DTC is a "Pending"
code.
7. PERMANENT icon - Indicates the currently displayed DTC is a
“Permanent” code.
8. FREEZE FRAME icon - Indicates that “Freeze Frame” data has been
stored in the vehicle’s computer for the currently displayed DTC.
9. ABS icon - Indicates that the currently displayed DTC is an “ABS”
code.
10. Code Number Sequence - The Code Reader assigns a sequence
number to each DTC that is present in the computer's memory,
starting with "01.” This helps keep track of the number of DTCs
present in the computer's memory. Code number "01" is always the
highest priority code, and the one for which "Freeze Frame" data
has been stored.
11. Code Enumerator - Indicates the total number of codes retrieved
from the vehicle’s computer.
12. Monitor icons - Indicates which Monitors are supported by the
vehicle under test, and whether or not the associated Monitor has
run its diagnostic testing (Monitor status). When a Monitor icon is
solid, it indicates that the associated Monitor has completed its
diagnostic testing. When a Monitor icon is flashing, it indicates that
the vehicle supports the associated Monitor, but the Monitor has not
yet run its diagnostic testing.
The I/M Monitor Status icons are associated with INSPECTION
and MAINTENANCE (I/M) READINESS STATUS. Some states
require that all vehicle Monitors have run and completed their
diagnostic testing before a vehicle can be tested for Emissions
(Smog Check). A maximum of eleven Monitors are used on OBD
2 systems. Not all vehicles support all eleven Monitors. When the
Code Reader is linked to a vehicle, only the icons for Monitors
that are supported by the vehicle under test are visible on the
display.
Craftsman 14063
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7
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
The Introduction of Electronic Engine Controls
Electronic Computer Control Systems make it possible
for vehicle manufacturers to comply with the tougher
emissions and fuel efficiency standards mandated by
State and Federal Governments.
As a result of increased air pollution (smog) in large cities,
such as Los Angeles, the California Air Resources Board
(CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
set new regulations and air pollution standards to deal with
the problem. To further complicate matters, the energy crisis of
the early 1970s caused a sharp increase in fuel prices over a
short period. As a result, vehicle manufacturers were not only
required to comply with the new emissions standards, they also
had to make their vehicles more fuel-efficient. Most vehicles
were required to meet a miles-per-gallon (MPG) standard set by the U.S.
Federal Government.
Precise fuel delivery and spark timing are needed to reduce vehicle
emissions. Mechanical engine controls in use at the time (such as
ignition points, mechanical spark advance and the carburetor)
responded too slowly to driving conditions to properly control fuel
delivery and spark timing. This made it difficult for vehicle manufacturers
to meet the new standards.
A new Engine Control System had to be designed and integrated with
the engine controls to meet the stricter standards. The new system had
to:
„
Respond instantly to supply the proper mixture of air and fuel for any
driving condition (idle, cruising, low-speed driving, high-speed
driving, etc.).
„
Calculate instantly the best time to “ignite” the air/fuel mixture for
maximum engine efficiency.
„
Perform both these tasks without affecting vehicle performance or
fuel economy.
Vehicle Computer Control Systems can perform millions of calculations
each second. This makes them an ideal substitute for the slower
mechanical engine controls. By switching from mechanical to electronic
engine controls, vehicle manufacturers are able to control fuel delivery
and spark timing more precisely. Some newer Computer Control
Systems also provide control over other vehicle functions, such as
transmission, brakes, charging, body, and suspension systems.
8
Craftsman 14063
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
The Basic Engine Computer Control System
The Computer Control System consists of an on-board
computer and several related control devices (sensors,
switches, and actuators).
The on-board computer is the heart of the Computer
Control System. The computer contains several programs
with preset reference values for air/fuel ratio, spark or
ignition timing, injector pulse width, engine speed, etc.
Separate values are provided for various driving conditions,
such as idle, low speed driving, high-speed driving, low load,
or high load. The preset reference values represent the ideal
air/fuel mixture, spark timing, transmission gear selection,
etc., for any driving condition. These values are programmed
by the vehicle manufacturer, and are specific to each vehicle model.
Most on-board computers are located inside the vehicle behind the dashboard,
under the passenger’s or driver’s seat, or behind the right kick panel. However,
some manufacturers may still position it in the engine compartment.
Vehicle sensors, switches, and actuators are located throughout the
engine, and are connected by electrical wiring to the on-board computer.
These devices include oxygen sensors, coolant temperature sensors,
throttle position sensors, fuel injectors, etc. Sensors and switches are
input devices. They provide signals representing current engine
operating conditions to the computer. Actuators are output devices. They
perform actions in response to commands received from the computer.
The on-board computer receives information inputs from sensors and
switches located throughout the engine. These devices monitor critical
engine conditions such as coolant temperature, engine speed, engine
load, throttle position, air/fuel ratio etc.
The computer compares the values received from these sensors with its
preset reference values, and makes corrective actions as needed so
that the sensor values always match the preset reference values for the
current driving condition. The computer makes adjustments by
commanding other devices such as the fuel injectors, idle air control,
EGR valve or Ignition Module to perform these actions.
TYPICAL COMPUTER
CONTROL SYSTEM
OUTPUT DEVICES
Fuel Injectors
Idle Air Control
EGR Valve
Ignition Module
On-Board
Computer
INPUT DEVICES
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Throttle Position Sensor
Fuel Injectors
Craftsman 14063
,
INPUT DEVICES
Oxygen Sensors
9
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
Vehicle operating conditions are constantly changing. The computer
continuously makes adjustments or corrections (especially to the air/fuel
mixture and spark timing) to keep all the engine systems operating
within the preset reference values.
On-Board Diagnostics - First Generation (OBD1)
With the exception of some 1994 and 1995 vehicles,
most vehicles from 1982 to 1995 are equipped with
some type of first generation On-Board Diagnostics.
Beginning in 1988, California’s Air Resources Board
(CARB), and later the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
required vehicle manufacturers to include a self-diagnostic
program in their on-board computers. The program would be
capable of identifying emissions-related faults in a system. The
first generation of Onboard Diagnostics came to be known as
OBD1.
OBD1 is a set of self-testing and diagnostic instructions
programmed into the vehicle’s on-board computer. The
programs are specifically designed to detect failures in the sensors,
actuators, switches and wiring of the various vehicle emissions-related
systems. If the computer detects a failure in any of these components or
systems, it lights an indicator on the dashboard to alert the driver. The
indicator lights only when an emissions-related problem is detected.
The computer also assigns a numeric code for each specific problem
that it detects, and stores these codes in its memory for later retrieval.
These codes can be retrieved from the computer’s memory with the use
of a “Code Reader” or a “Scan Tool.”
On-Board Diagnostics - Second Generation (OBD2)
In addition to performing all the
functions of the OBD1 System, the
The OBD2 System is
OBD2 System has been enhanced with
an enhancement of the
new Diagnostic Programs. These
OBD1 System.
programs closely monitor the functions
of various emissions-related components and systems (as well as other
systems) and make this information readily available (with
the proper equipment) to the technician for evaluation.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) conducted
studies on OBD1 equipped vehicles. The information that was
gathered from these studies showed the following:
„
10
A large number of vehicles had deteriorating or degraded
emissions-related components. These components were
causing an increase in emissions.
Craftsman 14063
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
„
Because OBD1 systems only detect failed components, the
degraded components were not setting codes.
„
Some emissions problems related to degraded components only
occur when the vehicle is being driven under a load. The emission
checks being conducted at the time were not performed under
simulated driving conditions. As a result, a significant number of
vehicles with degraded components were passing Emissions Tests.
„
Codes, code definitions, diagnostic connectors, communication
protocols and emissions terminology were different for each
manufacturer. This caused confusion for the technicians working on
different make and model vehicles.
To address the problems made evident by this study, CARB and the
EPA passed new laws and standardization requirements. These laws
required that vehicle manufacturers to equip their new vehicles with
devices capable of meeting all of the new emissions standards and
regulations. It was also decided that an enhanced on-board diagnostic
system, capable of addressing all of these problems, was needed. This
new system is known as “On-Board Diagnostics Generation Two
(OBD2).” The primary objective of the OBD2 system is to comply with
the latest regulations and emissions standards established by CARB
and the EPA.
The Main Objectives of the OBD2 System are:
„
To detect degraded and/or failed emissions-related components or
systems that could cause tailpipe emissions to exceed by 1.5 times
the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) standard.
„
To expand emissions-related system monitoring. This includes a set
of computer run diagnostics called Monitors. Monitors perform
diagnostics and testing to verify that all emissions-related
components and/or systems are operating correctly and within the
manufacturer’s specifications.
„
To use a standardized Diagnostic Link Connector (DLC) in all
vehicles. (Before OBD2, DLCs were of different shapes and sizes.)
„
To standardize the code numbers, code definitions and language
used to describe faults. (Before OBD2, each vehicle manufacturer
used their own code numbers, code definitions and language to
describe the same faults.)
„
To expand the operation of the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL).
„
To standardize communication procedures and protocols between
the diagnostic equipment (Scan Tools, Code Readers, etc.) and the
vehicle’s on-board computer.
OBD2 Terminology
The following terms and their definitions are related to OBD2 systems.
Read and reference this list as needed to aid in the understanding of
OBD2 systems.
Craftsman 14063
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11
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
„
Powertrain Control Module (PCM) - The PCM is the OBD2
accepted term for the vehicle’s “on-board computer.” In addition
to controlling the engine management and emissions systems,
the PCM also participates in controlling the powertrain
(transmission) operation. Most PCMs also have the ability to
communicate with other computers on the vehicle (ABS, ride
control, body, etc.).
„
Monitor - Monitors are “diagnostic routines” programmed into the
PCM. The PCM utilizes these programs to run diagnostic tests, and
to monitor operation of the vehicle’s emissions-related components
or systems to ensure they are operating correctly and within the
vehicle’s manufacturer specifications. Currently, up to fifteen
Monitors are used in OBD2 systems. Additional Monitors will be
added as the OBD2 system is further developed.
Not all vehicles support all fifteen Monitors.
12
„
Enabling Criteria - Each Monitor is designed to test and monitor
the operation of a specific part of the vehicle’s emissions system
(EGR system, oxygen sensor, catalytic converter, etc.). A specific
set of “conditions” or “driving procedures” must be met before the
computer can command a Monitor to run tests on its related system.
These “conditions” are known as “Enabling Criteria.” The
requirements and procedures vary for each Monitor. Some Monitors
only require the ignition key to be turned “On” for them to run and
complete their diagnostic testing. Others may require a set of
complex procedures, such as, starting the vehicle when cold,
bringing it to operating temperature, and driving the vehicle under
specific conditions before the Monitor can run and complete its
diagnostic testing.
„
Monitor Has/Has Not Run - The terms “Monitor has run” or
“Monitor has not run” are used throughout this manual. “Monitor
has run,” means the PCM has commanded a particular Monitor to
perform the required diagnostic testing on a system to ensure the
system is operating correctly (within factory specifications). The term
“Monitor has not run” means the PCM has not yet commanded a
particular Monitor to perform diagnostic testing on its associated part
of the emissions system.
„
Trip - A Trip for a particular Monitor requires that the vehicle is
being driven in such a way that all the required “Enabling Criteria”
for the Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic testing are met.
The “Trip Drive Cycle” for a particular Monitor begins when the
ignition key is turned “On.” It is successfully completed when all the
“Enabling Criteria” for the Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic
testing are met by the time the ignition key is turned “Off.” Since
each of the eleven monitors is designed to run diagnostics and
testing on a different part of the engine or emissions system, the
“Trip Drive Cycle” needed for each individual Monitor to run and
complete varies.
Craftsman 14063
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
„
OBD2 Drive Cycle - An OBD2 Drive Cycle is an extended set of
driving procedures that takes into consideration the various types of
driving conditions encountered in real life. These conditions may
include starting the vehicle when it is cold, driving the vehicle at a
steady speed (cruising), accelerating, etc. An OBD2 Drive Cycle
begins when the ignition key is turned “On” (when cold) and ends
when the vehicle has been driven in such a way as to have all the
“Enabling Criteria” met for all its applicable Monitors. Only those
trips that provide the Enabling Criteria for all Monitors applicable to
the vehicle to run and complete their individual diagnostic tests
qualify as an OBD2 Drive Cycle. OBD2 Drive Cycle requirements
vary from one model of vehicle to another. Vehicle manufacturers
set these procedures. Consult your vehicle’s service manual for
OBD2 Drive Cycle procedures.
Do not confuse a “Trip” Drive Cycle with an OBD2 Drive Cycle.
A “Trip” Drive Cycle provides the “Enabling Criteria” for one
specific Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic testing. An
OBD2 Drive Cycle must meet the “Enabling Criteria” for all
Monitors on a particular vehicle to run and complete their
diagnostic testing.
„
Warm-up Cycle - Vehicle operation after an engine off period where
engine temperature rises at least 40°F (22°C) from its temperature
before starting, and reaches at least 160°F (70°C). The PCM uses
warm-up cycles as a counter to automatically erase a specific code
and related data from its memory. When no faults related to the
original problem are detected within a specified number of warm-up
cycles, the code is erased automatically.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are
Diagnostic Trouble
meant to guide you to the proper
service procedure in the vehicle’s
Codes (DTCs) are
service manual. DO NOT replace parts
codes that identify a
based only on DTCs without first
specific problem area.
consulting the vehicle’s service manual
for proper testing procedures for that
particular system, circuit or component.
DTCs are alphanumeric codes that are used to identify a
problem that is present in any of the systems that are
monitored by the on-board computer (PCM). Each trouble
code has an assigned message that identifies the circuit,
component or system area where the problem was found.
OBD2 diagnostic trouble codes are made up of five characters:
„
The 1st character is a letter (B, C, P or U). It identifies the “main
system” where the fault occurred (Body, Chassis, Powertrain, or
Network).
„
The 2nd character is a numeric digit (0 thru 3). It identifies the
“type” of code (Generic or Manufacturer-Specific).
Craftsman 14063
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13
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Generic DTCs are codes that are used by all vehicle manufacturers. The standards for generic DTCs, as well as their
definitions, are set by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
Manufacturer-Specific DTCs are codes that are controlled by
the vehicle manufacturers. The Federal Government does not
require vehicle manufacturers to go beyond the standardized
generic DTCs in order to comply with the new OBD2 emissions
standards. However, manufacturers are free to expand beyond
the standardized codes to make their systems easier to
diagnose.
„
The 3rd character is a letter or a numeric digit (0 thru 9, A thru F).
It identifies the specific system or sub-system where the problem is
located.
„
The 4th and 5th characters are letters or numeric digits (0 thru 9, A
thru F). They identify the section of the system that is malfunctioning.
OBD2 DTC EXAMPLE
P0201 - Injector Circuit Malfunction, Cylinder 1
B
C
P
U
-
Body
Chassis
Powertrain
Network
P0201
0 - Generic
1 - Manufacturer Specific
2 - Generic ("P" Codes) and Manufacturer
Specific ("B", "C" and "U" Codes)
3 - Includes both Generic and Manufacturer
Specific Codes
Identifies the system where the problem is
located. "P" Code systems are listed below.
"B", "C" and "U" Code systems will vary.
0 - Fuel and Air Metering; Auxiliary Emission
Controls
1 - Fuel and Air Metering
2 - Fuel and Air Metering (injector circuit
malfunction only)
3 - Ignition System or Misfire
4 - Auxiliary Emission Control System
5 - Vehicle Speed Control and Idle Control
System
6 - Computer Output Circuits
7 - Transmission
8 - Transmission
9 - Transmission
A - Hybrid Propulsion
B - Hybrid Propulsion
C - Hybrid Propulsion
Identifies what section of the system
is malfunctioning
14
Craftsman 14063
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
DTCs and MIL Status
When the vehicle’s on-board computer detects
a failure in an emissions-related component or
system, the computer’s internal diagnostic
program assigns a diagnostic trouble code
(DTC) that points to the system (and subsystem)
where the fault was found. The diagnostic
program saves the code in the computer’s
memory. It records a “Freeze Frame” of conditions present when the fault was found, and lights the Malfunction
Indicator Lamp (MIL). Some faults require detection for two trips in a row
before the MIL is turned on.
The “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” (MIL) is the accepted term
used to describe the lamp on the dashboard that lights to warn
the driver that an emissions-related fault has been found.
Some manufacturers may still call this lamp a “Check Engine”
or “Service Engine Soon” light.
There are two types of DTCs used for emissions-related faults: Type “A”
and Type “B.” Type “A” codes are “One-Trip” codes; Type “B” DTCs are
usually Two-Trip DTCs.
When a Type “A” DTC is found on the First Trip, the following events
take place:
„
The computer commands the MIL “On” when the failure is first found.
„
If the failure causes a severe misfire that may cause damage to the
catalytic converter, the MIL “flashes” once per second. The MIL
continues to flash as long as the condition exists. If the condition
that caused the MIL to flash is no longer present, the MIL will light
“steady” On.
„
A DTC is saved in the computer’s memory for later retrieval.
„
A “Freeze Frame” of the conditions present in the engine or emissions
system when the MIL was ordered “On” is saved in the computer’s
memory for later retrieval. This information shows fuel system status
(closed loop or open loop), engine load, coolant temperature, fuel trim
value, MAP vacuum, engine RPM and DTC priority.
When a Type “B” DTC is found on the First Trip, the following events
take place:
„
The computer sets a Pending DTC, but the MIL is not ordered “On.”
“Freeze Frame” data may or may not be saved at this time
depending on manufacturer. The Pending DTC is saved in the
computer’s memory for later retrieval.
„
If the failure is found on the second consecutive trip, the MIL is
ordered “On.” “Freeze Frame” data is saved in the computer’s
memory.
„
If the failure is not found on the second Trip, the Pending DTC is
erased from the computer’s memory.
The MIL will stay lit for both Type “A” and Type “B” codes until one of
the following conditions occurs:
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
„
If the conditions that caused the MIL to light are no longer present
for the next three trips in a row, the computer automatically turns the
MIL “Off” if no other emissions-related faults are present. However,
the DTCs remain in the computer’s memory as a history code for 40
warm-up cycles (80 warm-up cycles for fuel and misfire faults). The
DTCs are automatically erased if the fault that caused them to be
set is not detected again during that period.
„
Misfire and fuel system faults require three trips with “similar
conditions” before the MIL is turned “Off.” These are trips where the
engine load, RPM and temperature are similar to the conditions
present when the fault was first found.
After the MIL has been turned off, DTCs and Freeze Frame
data stay in the computer’s memory.
„
Erasing the DTCs from the computer’s memory can also turn off the
MIL. See ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) on
page 28, before erasing codes from the computer’s memory. If a
Diagnostic Tool or Scan Tool is used to erase the codes, Freeze
Frame data will also be erased.
OBD2 MONITORS
To ensure the correct operation of the various emissions-related
components and systems, a diagnostic program was developed and
installed in the vehicle’s on-board computer. The program has several
procedures and diagnostic strategies. Each procedure or diagnostic
strategy is made to monitor the operation of, and run diagnostic tests on,
a specific emissions-related component or system. These tests ensure
the system is running correctly and is within the manufacturer’s
specifications. On OBD2 systems, these procedures and diagnostic
strategies are called “Monitors.”
Currently, fifteen Monitors are supported by OBD2 systems. Additional
monitors may be added as a result of Government regulations as the
OBD2 system grows and matures. Not all vehicles support all fifteen
Monitors. Additionally, some Monitors are supported by “spark ignition”
vehicles only, while others are supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only.
Monitor operation is either “Continuous” or “Non-Continuous,”
depending on the specific monitor.
Continuous Monitors
Three of these Monitors are designed to constantly monitor their
associated components and/or systems for proper operation.
Continuous Monitors run constantly when the engine is running. The
Continuous Monitors are:
Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM)
Misfire Monitor
Fuel System Monitor
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OBD2 MONITORS
Non-Continuous Monitors
The other twelve Monitors are “non-continuous” Monitors. “Noncontinuous” Monitors perform and complete their testing once per trip.
The “non-continuous” Monitors are:
Oxygen Sensor Monitor
Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor
Catalyst Monitor
Heated Catalyst Monitor
EGR System Monitor
EVAP System Monitor
Secondary Air System Monitor
The following Monitors will be standard beginning in 2010. The
majority of vehicles produced before this time will not support
these Monitors
NMHC Monitor
NOx Adsorber Monitor
Boost Pressure System Monitor
Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor
PM Filter Monitor
The following provides a brief explanation of the function of each Monitor:
Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM) - This Monitor
continuously checks all inputs and outputs from sensors,
actuators, switches and other devices that provide a signal to the
computer. The Monitor checks for shorts, opens, out of range value,
functionality and “rationality.”
Rationality: Each input signal is compared against all other
inputs and against information in the computer’s memory to see
if it makes sense under the current operating conditions.
Example: The signal from the throttle position sensor indicates
the vehicle is in a wide-open throttle condition, but the vehicle is
really at idle, and the idle condition is confirmed by the signals
from all other sensors. Based on the input data, the computer
determines that the signal from the throttle position sensor is not
rational (does not make sense when compared to the other
inputs). In this case, the signal would fail the rationality test.
The CCM is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles. The CCM may be either a “One-Trip” or
a “Two-Trip” Monitor, depending on the component.
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Fuel System Monitor - This Monitor uses a Fuel System
Correction program, called Fuel Trim, inside the on-board
computer. Fuel Trim is a set of positive and negative values that
represent adding or subtracting fuel from the engine. This program is
used to correct for a lean (too much air/not enough fuel) or rich (too
much fuel/not enough air) air-fuel mixture. The program is designed to
add or subtract fuel, as needed, up to a certain percent. If the correction
needed is too large and exceeds the time and percent allowed by the
program, a fault is indicated by the computer.
The Fuel System Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles
and “compression ignition” vehicles. The Fuel System Monitor may be a
“One-Trip” or “Two-Trip” Monitor, depending on the severity of the
problem.
Misfire Monitor - This Monitor continuously checks for engine misfires.
A misfire occurs when the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder does not ignite.
The misfire Monitor uses changes in crankshaft speed to sense an engine
misfire. When a cylinder misfires, it no longer contributes to the speed of the
engine, and engine speed decreases each time the affected cylinder(s) misfire.
The misfire Monitor is designed to sense engine speed fluctuations and
determine from which cylinder(s) the misfire is coming, as well as how bad the
misfire is. There are three types of engine misfires, Types 1, 2, and 3.
- Type 1 and Type 3 misfires are two-trip monitor faults. If a fault is sensed
on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as
a Pending Code. The MIL is not commanded on at this time. If the fault is
found again on the second trip, under similar conditions of engine speed,
load and temperature, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and the
code is saved in its long term memory.
- Type 2 misfires are the most severe type of misfire. When a Type 2
misfire is sensed on the first trip, the computer commands the MIL to
light when the misfire is sensed. If the computer determines that a
Type 2 misfire is severe , and may cause catalytic converter damage,
it commands the MIL to “flash” once per second as soon as the
misfire is sensed. When the misfire is no longer present, the MIL
reverts to steady “On” condition.
The Misfire Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles.
Catalyst Monitor - The catalytic converter is a device that is
installed downstream of the exhaust manifold. It helps to oxidize
(burn) the unburned fuel (hydrocarbons) and partially burned fuel
(carbon monoxide) left over from the combustion process. To
accomplish this, heat and catalyst materials inside the converter react
with the exhaust gases to burn the remaining fuel. Some materials
inside the catalytic converter also have the ability to store oxygen, and
release it as needed to oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. In
the process, it reduces vehicle emissions by converting the polluting
gases into carbon dioxide and water.
The computer checks the efficiency of the catalytic converter by
monitoring the oxygen sensors used by the system. One sensor is located
before (upstream of) the converter; the other is located after (downstream
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OBD2 MONITORS
of) the converter. If the catalytic converter loses its ability to store oxygen,
the downstream sensor signal voltage becomes almost the same as the
upstream sensor signal. In this case, the monitor fails the test.
The Catalyst Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles only. The
Catalyst Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first
trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
Heated Catalyst Monitor - Operation of the “heated” catalytic
converter is similar to the catalytic converter. The main difference
is that a heater is added to bring the catalytic converter to its operating
temperature more quickly. This helps reduce emissions by reducing the
converter’s down time when the engine is cold. The Heated Catalyst
Monitor performs the same diagnostic tests as the catalyst Monitor, and
also tests the catalytic converter’s heater for proper operation.
The Heated Catalyst Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles
only. This Monitor is also a “Two-Trip” Monitor.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Monitor - The Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR) system helps reduce the formation of Oxides
of Nitrogen during combustion. Temperatures above 2500°F cause
nitrogen and oxygen to combine and form Oxides of Nitrogen in the
combustion chamber. To reduce the formation of Oxides of Nitrogen,
combustion temperatures must be kept below 2500°F. The EGR system
recirculates small amounts of exhaust gas back into the intake manifold,
where it is mixed with the incoming air/fuel mixture. This reduces
combustion temperatures by up to 500°F. The computer determines
when, for how long, and how much exhaust gas is recirculated back to
the intake manifold. The EGR Monitor performs EGR system function
tests at preset times during vehicle operation.
The EGR Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles. The EGR Monitor is a “Two-Trip”
Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Evaporative System (EVAP) Monitor - OBD2 vehicles are
equipped with a fuel Evaporative system (EVAP) that helps
prevent fuel vapors from evaporating into the air. The EVAP system
carries fumes from the fuel tank to the engine where they are burned
during combustion. The EVAP system may consist of a charcoal
canister, fuel tank cap, purge solenoid, vent solenoid, flow monitor, leak
detector and connecting tubes, lines and hoses.
Fumes are carried from the fuel tank to the charcoal canister by hoses
or tubes. The fumes are stored in the charcoal canister. The computer
controls the flow of fuel vapors from the charcoal canister to the engine
via a purge solenoid. The computer energizes or de-energizes the purge
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
solenoid (depending on solenoid design). The purge solenoid opens a
valve to allow engine vacuum to draw the fuel vapors from the canister
into the engine where the vapors are burned. The EVAP Monitor checks
for proper fuel vapor flow to the engine, and pressurizes the system to
test for leaks. The computer runs this Monitor once per trip.
The EVAP Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles only. The
EVAP Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip,
the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a Pending
Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time. If the
fault is sensed again on the second trip, the PCM commands the MIL
“On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor - The Oxygen Sensor Heater
Monitor tests the operation of the oxygen sensor’s heater. There
are two modes of operation on a computer-controlled vehicle: “openloop” and “closed-loop.” The vehicle operates in open-loop when the
engine is cold, before it reaches normal operating temperature. The
vehicle also goes to open-loop mode at other times, such as heavy load
and full throttle conditions. When the vehicle is running in open-loop, the
oxygen sensor signal is ignored by the computer for air/fuel mixture
corrections. Engine efficiency during open-loop operation is very low,
and results in the production of more vehicle emissions.
Closed-loop operation is the best condition for both vehicle emissions
and vehicle operation. When the vehicle is operating in closed-loop, the
computer uses the oxygen sensor signal for air/fuel mixture corrections.
In order for the computer to enter closed-loop operation, the oxygen
sensor must reach a temperature of at least 600°F. The oxygen sensor
heater helps the oxygen sensor reach and maintain its minimum
operating temperature (600°F) more quickly, to bring the vehicle into
closed-loop operation as soon as possible.
The Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor is supported by “spark ignition”
vehicles only. The Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor is a “Two-Trip”
Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Oxygen Sensor Monitor - The Oxygen Sensor monitors how
much oxygen is in the vehicle’s exhaust. It generates a varying
voltage of up to one volt, based on how much oxygen is in the exhaust
gas, and sends the signal to the computer. The computer uses this
signal to make corrections to the air/fuel mixture. If the exhaust gas has
a large amount of oxygen (a lean air/fuel mixture), the oxygen sensor
generates a “low” voltage signal. If the exhaust gas has very little
oxygen (a rich mixture condition), the oxygen sensor generates a “high”
voltage signal. A 450mV signal indicates the most efficient, and least
polluting, air/fuel ratio of 14.7 parts of air to one part of fuel.
The oxygen sensor must reach a temperature of at least 600-650°F,
and the engine must reach normal operating temperature, for the
computer to enter into closed-loop operation. The oxygen sensor only
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OBD2 MONITORS
functions when the computer is in closed-loop. A properly operating
oxygen sensor reacts quickly to any change in oxygen content in the
exhaust stream. A faulty oxygen sensor reacts slowly, or its voltage
signal is weak or missing.
The Oxygen Sensor Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles
only. The Oxygen Sensor Monitor is a “Two-Trip” monitor. If a fault is
found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its
memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL
on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Secondary Air System Monitor - When a cold engine is first
started, it runs in open-loop mode. During open-loop operation,
the engine usually runs rich. A vehicle running rich wastes fuel and
creates increased emissions, such as carbon monoxide and some
hydrocarbons. A Secondary Air System injects air into the exhaust
stream to aid catalytic converter operation:
1. It supplies the catalytic converter with the oxygen it needs to oxidize
the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons left over from the
combustion process during engine warm-up.
2. The extra oxygen injected into the exhaust stream also helps the
catalytic converter reach operating temperature more quickly during
warm-up periods. The catalytic converter must heat to operating
temperature to work properly.
The Secondary Air System Monitor checks for component integrity and
system operation, and tests for faults in the system. The computer runs
this Monitor once per trip.
The Secondary Air System Monitor is a “Two-Trip” monitor. If a fault is
found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves this fault in its
memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL
on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Catalyst (NMHC) Monitor - The
non-methane hydrocarbon catalyst is a type of catalytic converter.
It helps to remove non-methane hydrocarbons (NMH) left over from the
combustion process from the exhaust stream. To accomplish this, heat
and catalyst materials react with the exhaust gases to convert NMH to
less harmful compounds. The computer checks the efficiency of the
catalyst by monitoring the quantity of NMH in the exhaust stream. The
monitor also verifies that sufficient temperature is present to aid in
particulate matter (PM) filter regeneration.
The NMHC Monitor is supported by “compression ignition” vehicles only.
The NMHC Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first
trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
NOx Aftertreatment Monitor - NOx aftertreatment is based on a
catalytic converter support that has been coated with a special
washcoat containing zeolites. NOx Aftertreatment is designed to reduce
oxides of nitrogen emitted in the exhaust stream. The zeolite acts as a
molecular "sponge" to trap the NO and NO2 molecules in the exhaust
stream. In some implementations, injection of a reactant before the
aftertreatment purges it. NO2 in particular is unstable, and will join with
hydrocarbons to produce H2O and N2. The NOx Aftertreatment Monitor
monitors the function of the NOx aftertreatment to ensure that tailpipe
emissions remain within acceptable limits.
The NOx Aftertreatment Monitor is supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only. The NOx Aftertreatment Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If
a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault
in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the
MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Boost Pressure System Monitor - The boost pressure system
serves to increase the pressure produced inside the intake
manifold to a level greater than atmospheric pressure. This increase in
pressure helps to ensure compete combustion of the air-fuel mixture.
The Boost Pressure System Monitor checks for component integrity and
system operation, and tests for faults in the system. The computer runs
this Monitor once per trip.
The Boost Pressure System Monitor is supported by “compression
ignition” vehicles only. The Boost Pressure System Monitor is a “TwoTrip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor - The exhaust gas sensor is used
by a number of systems/monitors to determine the content of the
exhaust stream. The computer checks for component integrity, system
operation, and tests for faults in the system, as well as feedback faults
that may affect other emission control systems.
The Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor is supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only. The Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor.
If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the
fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not
command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
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OBD2 MONITORS
PM Filter Monitor - The particulate matter (PM) filter removes
particulate matter from the exhaust stream by filtration. The filter
has a honeycomb structure similar to a catalyst substrate, but with the
channels blocked at alternate ends. This forces the exhaust gas to flow
through the walls between the channels, filtering the particulate matter
out. The filters are self-cleaning by periodic modification of the exhaust
gas concentration in order to burn off the trapped particles (oxidizing the
particles to form CO2 and water). The computer monitors the efficiency
of the filter in trapping particulate matter, as well as the ability of the filter
to regenerate (self-clean).
The PM Filter Monitor is supported by “compression ignition” vehicles
only. The PM Filter Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on
the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
OBD2 Reference Table
The table below lists current OBD2 Monitors, and indicates the following
for each Monitor:
A.
Monitor Type (how often does the Monitor run; Continuous or
Once per trip)
B.
Number of trips needed, with a fault present, to set a pending DTC
C.
Number of consecutive trips needed, with a fault present, to
command the MIL “On” and store a DTC
D.
Number of trips needed, with no faults present, to erase a Pending
DTC
E.
Number and type of trips or drive cycles needed, with no faults
present, to turn off the MIL
F.
Number of warm-up periods needed to erase the DTC from the
computer’s memory after the MIL is turned off
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Name of
Monitor
A
B
C
D
E
F
Comprehensive
Component Monitor
Continuous
1
2
1
3
40
Misfire Monitor
(Type 1 and 3)
Continuous
1
2
1
3 - similar
conditions
80
Misfire Monitor
(Type 2)
Continuous
1
3 - similar
conditions
80
80
Fuel System Monitor
Continuous
1
1 or 2
1
3 - similar
conditions
Catalytic Converter
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Oxygen Sensor
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Oxygen Sensor
Heater Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR)
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Evaporative
Emissions Controls
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Secondary Air
System (AIR) Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
NMHC Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
NOx Adsorber
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Boost Pressure
System Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Exhaust Gas Sensor
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
PM Filter Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
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Preparation for Testing
BEFORE YOU BEGIN - VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Fix any known mechanical problems before performing any test. See
your vehicle's service manual or a mechanic for more information.
Check the following areas before starting any test:
„
Check the engine oil, power steering fluid, transmission fluid (if
applicable), engine coolant and other fluids for proper levels. Top off
low fluid levels if needed.
„
Make sure the air filter is clean and in good condition. Make sure all
air filter ducts are properly connected. Check the air filter ducts for
holes, rips or cracks.
„
Make sure all engine belts are in good condition. Check for cracked,
torn, brittle, loose or missing belts.
„
Make sure mechanical linkages to engine sensors (throttle, gearshift
position, transmission, etc.) are secure and properly connected. See
your vehicle's service manual for locations.
„
Check all rubber hoses (radiator) and steel hoses (vacuum/fuel) for
leaks, cracks, blockage or other damage. Make sure all hoses are
routed and connected properly.
„
Make sure all spark plugs are clean and in good condition. Check
for damaged, loose, disconnected or missing spark plug wires.
„
Make sure the battery terminals are clean and tight. Check for
corrosion or broken connections. Check for proper battery and
charging system voltages.
„
Check all electrical wiring and harnesses for proper connection. Make
sure wire insulation is in good condition, and there are no bare wires.
„
Make sure the engine is mechanically sound. If needed, perform a compression check, engine vacuum check, timing check (if applicable), etc.
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS
Always refer to the manufacturer's service manual for your vehicle
before performing any test or repair procedures. Contact your local car
dealership, auto parts store or bookstore for availability of these
manuals. The following companies publish valuable repair manuals:
„
Haynes Publications - 861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park,
California 91320 Phone: 800-442-9637 Web: www.haynes.com
„
Mitchell 1 - 14145 Danielson Street, Poway, California 92064
Phone: 888-724-6742 Web: www.m1products.com
„
Motor Publications - 5600 Crooks Road, Suite 200, Troy, Michigan
48098 Phone: 800-426-6867 Web: www.motor.com
FACTORY SOURCES
Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Isuzu, Hyundai and Subaru Service Manuals
„
Helm Inc. - 14310 Hamilton Avenue, Highland Park, Michigan
48203 Phone: 800-782-4356 Web: www.helminc.com
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Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Never replace a part based only on the DTC definition. Each DTC has a
set of testing procedures, instructions and flow charts that must be
followed to confirm the location of the problem. This information is found
in the vehicle's service manual. Always refer to the vehicle's service
manual for detailed testing instructions.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test. See
Preparation for Testing on page 25 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See Safety Precautions on page 3 for more information.
1. Turn the ignition off.
2. Locate the vehicle's 16-pin Data Link
Connector (DLC). See page 4 for
connector location.
3. Connect the Code Reader’s cable
connector to the vehicle's DLC. The
cable connector is keyed and will only fit
one way.
„
If you have problems connecting the
cable connector to the DLC, rotate
the connector 180° and try again.
If you still have problems, check the
DLC on the vehicle and on the Code
Reader. Refer to your vehicle's
service manual to properly check the
vehicle's DLC.
„
After the Code Reader’s test connector is properly connected to
should display to confirm
the vehicle's DLC, the Vehicle icon
a good power connection.
4. Turn the ignition on. DO NOT start the
engine.
5. The Code Reader will automatically link
to the vehicle’s computer.
„
The LCD display will show "rEAd.” If
the LCD display is blank, it indicates
there is no power at the vehicle's
DLC. Check your fuse panel and
replace any burned-out fuses.
If replacing the fuse(s) does not correct
the problem, see your vehicle's repair
manual to locate the proper computer
(PCM) fuse/circuit. Perform any
necessary repairs before continuing.
„
26
After 4-5 seconds, the Code Reader will retrieve and display
any Diagnostic Trouble Codes that are in the vehicle's computer
memory.
Craftsman 14063
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
If an Error message is shown on the
Code Reader’s LCD display, it
indicates there is a communication
problem. This means that the Code
Reader is unable to communicate
with the vehicle's computer. Do the
following:
-
Turn the ignition key off, wait 5 seconds and turn the key
back on to reset the computer. Press the LINK
button to
re-link to the vehicle.
- Make sure your vehicle is OBD 2 compliant. See VEHICLES
COVERED on page 4 for vehicle compliance verification
information.
6. Read and interpret the Diagnostic Trouble Codes using the LCD
display and the green, yellow and red LEDs.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier for the user to
determine engine system conditions.
„
Green LED
- Indicates that all
engine systems are "OK" and
running normally. All monitors on the
vehicle are active and are performing
their diagnostic testing, and no
trouble codes are present. A zero will
show on the Code Reader’s LCD
display for further confirmation.
„
Yellow LED
- Indicates one of
the following conditions:
PENDING CODE PRESENT - If the
yellow LED is lit, it may indicate the
existence of a pending code. Check
the Code Reader’s LCD display for
confirmation. A pending code is
confirmed by the presence of a
numeric code and the word PENDING
on the Code Reader’s LCD display. If
no pending code is shown, the yellow
LED indicates Monitor Status (see the
following).
MONITOR STATUS - If the Code
Reader’s LCD display shows a zero
(indicating there are no DTCs present
in the vehicle's computer), but the
yellow LED is lit, it indicates a
"Monitor Has Not Run" status. This
means that some of the Monitors on
the vehicle have not yet finished their
diagnostic self-testing. This condition
is confirmed by one or more blinking
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Using the Code Reader
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Monitor icons on the LCD display. A blinking Monitor icon means
the Monitor has not yet run and finished its diagnostic self-testing.
All Monitor icons that are solid have completed their diagnostic
self-testing.
„
Red LED
- Indicates there is a
problem with one or more of the
vehicle's systems. The red LED is also
used to show that DTC(s) are present
(displayed on the Code Reader’s LCD
display). In this case, the Multifunction
Indicator (Check Engine) lamp on the
vehicle's instrument panel will light
steady on.
The Code Reader will automatically re-link to the
vehicle's computer every 15 seconds to refresh the
data being retrieved. When data is being refreshed, a
single beep will sound, and "rEAd" will be shown on
the LCD display for 5-6 seconds. The Code Reader will
then beep twice and return to displaying codes. This
action repeats as long as the Code Reader is in communication with the vehicle's computer.
The Code Reader will display a code only if codes are
present in the vehicle's computer memory. If no codes
are present, a "0" will be displayed.
7. If more than one code is present, press and release the SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes.
„
Whenever the SCROLL function is used to view additional
codes, the Code Reader’s communication link with the vehicle's
computer disconnects. To re-establish communication, press the
LINK
button again.
Use the included software or visit the manufacturer's website for Fault
Code Definitions. Match the retrieved DTC(s) with those listed. Read the
associated definition(s), and see the vehicle's service manual for further
evaluation.
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
When the Code Reader’s ERASE function is used to erase
the DTCs from the vehicle's on-board computer, "Freeze
Frame" data and manufacturer-specific enhanced data are
also erased.
If you plan to take the vehicle to a Service Center for repair, DO NOT
erase the codes from the vehicle's computer. If the codes are erased,
valuable information that might help the technician troubleshoot the
problem will also be erased.
Erase DTCs from the computer's memory as follows:
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Using the Code Reader
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
When DTCs are erased from the vehicle's computer memory,
the I/M Readiness Monitor Status program resets status of all
the Monitors to a not run "flashing" condition. To set all of the
Monitors to a DONE status, an OBD 2 Drive Cycle must be
performed. Refer to your vehicle's service manual for
information on how to perform an OBD 2 Drive Cycle for the
vehicle under test.
1. If not connected already, connect the
Code Reader to the vehicle's DLC. (If
the Code Reader is already connected
and linked to the vehicle's computer,
proceed directly to step 4. If not,
continue to step 2.)
2. Turn the ignition on. DO NOT start the
engine.
The
Code
Reader
will
automatically link to the vehicle’s
computer.
3. Press and release the Code Reader’s
ERASE E button. The LCD display will
indicate "SurE" for your confirmation.
„
If you change your mind and do not
wish to erase the codes, press the
LINK
button to return to the code
retrieval function.
„
If you wish to continue, press the
ERASE E button again.
„
If the erase is successful, the LCD
display will show “dOne” for three
seconds. The Code Reader will relink to the vehicle’s computer, and
the LCD display will show “rEAd.”
„
If the erase was not successful, the
LCD display will show “FAIL.” Press
the LINK
button to re-link to the
vehicle’s computer.
Erasing DTCs does not fix the problem(s) that caused the
code(s) to be set. If proper repairs to correct the problem that
caused the code(s) to be set are not made, the code(s) will
appear again (and the check engine light will illuminate) as
soon as the vehicle is driven long enough for its Monitors to
complete their testing.
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Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
RepairSolutions® is a web-based service created to assist both the doit-yourselfer and professional technicians in quickly and accurately
diagnosing and repairing today’s vehicles. RepairSolutions® allows you
to view, save, and email the diagnostic data retrieved from a vehicle’s
on-board computer(s) using the Code Reader. RepairSolutions® also
provides access to an extensive knowledge database including:
„
Verified Fixes – Find the most likely fixes reported and verified by
ASE Technicians for the retrieved DTCs.
„
Step-By-Step Repair Instructions – View available repair
instructions to properly perform the fix.
„
How-To-Repair Videos – Watch repair video tutorials for valuable
repair tips.
„
Technical Service Bulletins – Research known problems reported
by vehicle manufacturers.
„
Safety Recalls – Research known safety concerns applicable to a
vehicle.
And much more. Please visit www.innova.com for additional information.
Hardware Requirements:
„
Code Reader
„
Mini USB Cable (included with tool)
Minimum System Operating Requirements:
„
Windows® PC System
„
Windows® XP, Windows® Vista, or Windows® 7
„
128 MD Ram
„
Pentium III Processor
„
One available USB port
„
Internet Connection
„
Internet Explorer 5.5, Netscape 7.0 or Firefox 1.0 browser
Accessing RepairSolutions®
1. Link your Code Reader to a vehicle and retrieve diagnostic data.
2. Visit www.innova.com, download and install the latest
RepairSolutions® software for your Code Reader. Select the
Support tab, then choose Download.
3. Connect the Code Reader to your PC using a Mini USB cable (cable
included).
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Craftsman 14063
Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
„
Your default web browser launches automatically and connects
to the www.innova.com website.
4. Login to your RepairSolutions® account using your registered Email
Address and Password.
If you have not yet established an account, you must
register for a FREE RepairSolutions® account before
proceeding.
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Vehicle Applications - ABS
VEHICLE APPLICATIONS – MAKES COVERED
The Code Reader has the ability to retrieve and erase ABS codes. Vehicle
makes supported by the Code Reader are shown below. Please visit
www.innova.com for a complete list of vehicles covered.
BUICK
CADILLAC
CHEVROLET
CHRYSLER
DODGE
FORD
GMC
HUMMER
32
JEEP
LEXUS
LINCOLN
MERCURY
OLDSMOBILE
PONTIAC
SCION
TOYOTA
Craftsman 14063
Warranty and Servicing
CRAFTSMAN TWO YEAR FULL WARRANTY
FOR TWO YEARS from the date of purchase, this product is warranted
against any defects in material or workmanship. Defective product will
receive free repair or free replacement if repair is unavailable.
For warranty coverage details, visit the web site: www.craftsman.com
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have
other rights which vary from state to state.
Sears Brands Management Corporation, Hoffman Estates, IL 60179
REPLACEMENT PARTS
OBD2 Car Reader
Mini USB Cable
Quick Reference Guide
MRP #05-3030fsc
MRP #13-0012 Rev. A
MRP #96-0205 Rev. B
For replacement parts, call 1-800-544-4124
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