Diamondback 7th Edition User's Manual

Owner’s Manual
for multi-speed bicycles
7th Edition, 2004
IMPORTANT:
This manual contains important safety,
performance, and service information.
Read it before you take the first ride
on your new bicycle,
and keep it for reference.
Additional safety, performance and service information for
specific components such as suspension or pedals on your
bicycle, or for accessories such as helmets or lights that you
purchase, may also be available. Make sure that your dealer
has given you all the manufacturers’ literature that was
included with your bicycle or accessories.
If you have any questions or do not understand something,
take responsibility for your safety and consult with your dealer
or the bicycle’s manufacturer.
GENERAL WARNING:
Like any sport, bicycling involves risk of injury and
damage. By choosing to ride a bicycle, you assume the
responsibility for that risk, so you need to know — and
to practice — the rules of safe and responsible riding
and of proper use and maintenance. Proper use and
maintenance of your bicycle reduces risk of injury.
Because it is impossible to anticipate every situation or
condition which can occur while riding, this Manual makes
no representation about the safe use of the bicycle under
all conditions. There are risks associated with the use of
any bicycle which cannot be predicted or avoided, and
which are the sole responsibility of the rider.
This Manual contains many “Warnings” and “Cautions”
concerning the consequences of failure to maintain or inspect
your bicycle and of failure to follow safe cycling practices.
• The combination of the ! safety alert symbol and
the word WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, could result in serious
injury or death.
• The combination of the ! safety alert symbol and
the word CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or
moderate injury, or is an alert against unsafe practices.
• The word CAUTION used without the safety alert
symbol indicates a situation which, if not avoided, could
result in serious damage to the bicycle or the voiding of
your warranty.
Many of the Warnings and Cautions say “you may
lose control and fall”. Because any fall can result in
serious injury or even death, we do not always repeat the
warning of possible injury or death.
Contents
GENERAL WARNING
A special note to parents
1. First
A. Bike Fit
B. Safety First
C. Mechanical Safety Check
D. First ride
2. Safety
A. The Basics
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
3. Fit
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Riding Safety
Off Road Safety
Wet Weather Riding
Night Riding
Extreme, Stunt, Or Competition Riding
Changing Components
Or Adding Accessories
Standover Height
Saddle Position
Handlebar Height And Angle
Control Position Adjustments
Brake Reach
p. 1
p. 4
4. Tech
A. Wheels
p. 5
p. 5
p. 5
p. 6
1. Wheel Quick Release
2. Removing And Installing
Quick Release Wheels
3. Removing And Installing Bolt-on Wheels
B. Seatpost Quick Release
C. Brakes
D. Shifting Gears
E. Pedals
F. Bicycle Suspension
G. Tires and Tubes
p. 7
p. 8
p. 9
p. 9
p. 10
p. 11
5. Service
A. Service Intervals
p. 12
B. If Your Bicycle Sustains An Impact
p. 16
p. 16
p. 17
p. 19
p. 20
p. 21
p. 23
p. 25
p. 26
p. 27
p. 29
p. 31
NOTE:
This manual is not intended as a comprehensive use, service,
repair or maintenance manual. Please see your dealer for all
service, repairs or maintenance. Your dealer may also be able
to refer you to classes, clinics or books on bicycle use, service,
repair or maintenance.
p. 12
p. 13
p. 14
p. 15
p. 15
A special note for parents:
As a parent or guardian, you are responsible for the
activities and safety of your minor child, and that includes
making sure that the bicycle is properly fitted to the child;
that it is in good repair and safe operating condition;
that you and your child have learned and understand
the safe operation of the bicycle; and that you and your
child have learned, understand and obey not only the
applicable local motor vehicle, bicycle and traffic laws,
but also the common sense rules of safe and responsible
bicycling. As a parent, you should read this manual, as
well as review its warnings and the bicycle’s functions
and operating procedures with your child, before letting
your child ride the bicycle.
! WARNING: Make sure that your child always wears
an approved bicycle helmet when riding; but also make
sure that your child understands that a bicycle helmet is
for bicycling only, and must be removed when not riding.
A helmet must not be worn while playing, in play areas,
on playground equipment, while climbing trees, or at
any time while not riding a bicycle. Failure to follow this
warning could result in serious injury or death.
1. First
B.Safety First
1. Always wear an approved helmet when riding your
bike, and follow the helmet manufacturer’s instructions
for fit, use and care.
2. Do you have all the other required and
recommended safety equipment? See Section 2. It’s
your responsibility to familiarize yourself with the laws
of the areas where you ride, and to comply with all
applicable laws.
3. Do you know how to correctly operate your wheel
quick releases? Check Section 4.A.1 to make sure.
Riding with an improperly adjusted wheel quick release
can cause the wheel to wobble or disengage from the
bicycle, and cause serious injury or death.
4. If your bike has toeclips and straps or clipless (“stepin”) pedals, make sure you know how they work (see
Section 4.E). These pedals require special techniques
and skills. Follow the pedal manufacturer’s instructions
for use, adjustment and care.
5. Do you have “toe overlap”? On smaller framed
bicycles your toe or toeclip may be able to contact
the front wheel when a pedal is all the way forward
and the wheel is turned. Read Section 4.E. If you have
toeclip overlap.
6. Does your bike have suspension? If so, check Section
4.F. Suspension can change the way a bicycle performs.
Follow the suspension manufacturer’s instructions for use,
adjustment and care.
NOTE: All operators must read and understand all sections
of this owner’s manual before their initial operation of the
bicycle. If after reading this manual in its entirety you have
any questions, please contact your authorized dealer
for clarification or an explanation of specific topics that
you are unsure about. Please note that not all bicycles
have all of the features described in this Manual. Ask your
dealer to point out the features of your bicycle.
A. Bike Fit
1. Is your bike the right size? To check, see Section 3.A.
If your bicycle is too large or too small for you, you may
lose control and fall. If your new bike is not the right size,
ask your dealer to exchange it before you ride it.
2. Is the saddle at the right height? To check, see
Section 3.B. If you adjust your saddle height, follow the
Minimum Insertion instructions in Section 3.B.
3. Are saddle and seatpost securely clamped?
A correctly tightened saddle will allow no saddle
movement in any direction. See Section 3.B.
4. Are the stem and handlebars at the right height for
you? If not, see Section 3.C.
5. Can you comfortably operate the brakes? If not,
you may be able to adjust their angle and reach. See
Section 3.D and 3.E.
6. Do you fully understand how to operate your
new bicycle? If not, before your first ride, have your
dealer explain any functions or features which you do
not understand.
C. Mechanical Safety Check
Routinely check the condition of your bicycle before
every ride.
Nuts, bolts & straps: Make sure nothing is loose. Lift the
front wheel off the ground by two or three inches, then
let it bounce on the ground. Anything sound, feel or look
loose? Do a visual and tactile inspection of the whole
bike. Any loose parts or accessories? If so, secure them. If
you’re not sure, ask someone with experience to check.
Tires & Wheels: Make sure tires are correctly inflated
(see Section 4.G.1). Check by putting one hand on
the saddle, one on the intersection of the handlebars
and stem, then bouncing your weight on the bike
while looking at tire deflection. Compare what you see
with how it looks when you know the tires are correctly
inflated; and adjust if necessary.
Tires in good shape? Spin each wheel slowly and look
for cuts in the tread and sidewall. Replace damaged
tires before riding the bike.
Wheels true? Spin each wheel and check for brake
clearance and side-to-side wobble. If a wheel wobbles
side to side even slightly, or rubs against or hits the brake
pads, take the bike to a qualified bike shop to have the
wheel trued.
Sections 4.C). Squeeze the brake levers. Are the brake
quick-releases closed? All control cables seated and
securely engaged? Do the brake pads contact the
wheel rim squarely and make full contact with the rim?
Do the brake pads touch the wheel rim within an inch of
brake lever movement? Can you apply full braking force
at the levers without having them touch the handlebar?
If not, your brakes need adjustment. Do not ride the bike
until the brakes are properly adjusted by a professional
bicycle mechanic.
Quick Releases: Make sure the front wheel, rear wheel
and seat post quick releases are properly adjusted and
in the locked position. See Section 4.A and 4.B.
Handlebar and saddle alignment: Make sure the
saddle and handlebar stem are parallel to the bike’s
center line and clamped tight enough so that you can’t
twist them out of alignment. See Sections 3.B and 3.C.
Handlebar ends: Make sure the handlebar grips
are secure and in good condition. If not, have your
dealer replace them. Make sure the handlebar ends
and extensions are plugged. If not, plug them before
you ride. If the handlebars have bar end extensions,
make sure they are clamped tight enough so you
can’t twist them.
! CAUTION: Wheels must be true for the brakes to work
effectively. Wheel truing is a skill which requires special
tools and experience. Do not attempt to true a wheel
unless you have the knowledge, experience and tools
needed to do the job correctly.
! WARNING: Loose or damaged handlebar grips
or extensions can cause you to lose control and fall.
Unplugged handlebars or extensions can cut you and
cause serious injury in an otherwise minor accident.
Wheel rims clean and undamaged? Make sure the
rims are clean and undamaged along the braking
surface, and check for excess rim wear.
Brakes: Check the brakes for proper operation (see
D. First Ride
When you buckle on your helmet and go for your first
familiarization ride on your new bicycle, be sure to pick
a controlled environment, away from cars, other cyclists,
obstacles or other hazards. Ride to become familiar with
the controls, features and performance of your new bike.
Familiarize yourself with the braking action of the bike
(see Section 4.C). Test the brakes at slow speed, putting
your weight toward the rear and gently applying the
brakes, rear brake first. Sudden or excessive application
of the front brake could pitch you over the handlebars.
Applying brakes too hard can lock up a wheel, which
could cause you to lose control and fall. Skidding is an
example of what can happen when a wheel locks up.
If your bicycle has toeclips or clipless pedals, practice
getting in and out of the pedals. See paragraph B.4
above and Section 4.E.4.
If your bike has suspension, familiarize yourself with how
the suspension responds to brake application and rider
weight shifts. See paragraph B.6 above and Section 4.F.
Practice shifting the gears (see Section 4.D).
Remember to never move the shifter while pedaling
backward, nor pedal backwards immediately after
having moved the shifter. This could jam the chain and
cause serious damage to the bicycle.
Check out the handling and response of the bike; and
check the comfort.
If you have any questions, or if you feel anything
about the bike is not as it should be, consult your dealer
before riding.
2. Safety
A. The Basics
! WARNING: Many states require specific safety
devices. It is your responsibility to familiarize yourself
with the laws of the state where you ride and to comply
with all applicable laws, including properly equipping
yourself and your bike as the law requires.
Observe all local bicycle laws and regulations.
Observe regulations about licensing of bicycles, riding
on sidewalks, laws regulating bike path and trail use,
helmet laws, child carrier laws, special bicycle traffic
laws, and so on. It’s your responsibility to know and obey
the laws.
1. Always wear a cycling helmet which meets the
latest certification standards and is appropriate for
the type of riding you do. Always follow the helmet
manufacturer’s instructions for fit, use and care of your
helmet. Most serious bicycle injuries involve head injuries
which might have been avoided if the rider had worn
an appropriate helmet.
! WARNING: Failure to wear a helmet when riding may
result in serious injury or death.
2. Always do the Mechanical Safety Check (Section
1.C) before you get on a bike.
3. Be thoroughly familiar with the controls of your
Fig.1
bicycle: brakes (Section 4.C.); pedals (Section 4.E.);
shifting (Section 4.D.)
4. Be careful to keep body parts and other objects
away from the sharp teeth of chainrings, the moving
chain, the turning pedals and cranks, and the spinning
wheels of your bicycle.
5. Always wear:
• Shoes that will stay on your feet and will grip the
pedals. Never ride barefoot or in sandals.
• Bright, visible clothing that is not so loose that it
can be tangled in the bicycle or snagged by objects at
the side of the road or trail.
• Protective eyewear, to protect against airborne
dirt, dust and bugs — tinted when the sun is bright, clear
when it’s not.
6. Don’t jump with your bike. Jumping a bike,
particularly a BMX or mountain bike, can be fun; but it
can put huge and unpredictable stress on the bicycle
and its components. Riders who insist on jumping their
bikes risk serious damage, to their bicycles as well as to
themselves. Before you attempt to jump, do stunt riding
or race with your bike, read and understand Section 2.F.
7. Ride at a speed appropriate for conditions.
Increased speed means higher risk.
• Vehicles slowing or turning, entering the road or
your lane ahead of you, or coming up behind you.
• Parked car doors opening.
• Pedestrians stepping out.
• Children or pets playing near the road.
• Pot holes, sewer grating, railroad tracks, expansion
joints, road or sidewalk construction, debris and other
obstructions that could cause you to swerve into traffic,
catch your wheel or cause you to have an accident.
• The many other hazards and distractions which
can occur on a bicycle ride.
4. Ride in designated bike lanes, on designated bike
paths or as close to the edge of the road as possible,
in the direction of traffic flow or as directed by local
governing laws.
5. Stop at stop signs and traffic lights; slow down and
look both ways at street intersections. Remember that a
bicycle always loses in a collision with a motor vehicle, so
be prepared to yield even if you have the right of way.
6. Use approved hand signals for turning and stopping.
7. Never ride with headphones. They mask traffic
sounds and emergency vehicle sirens, distract you from
concentrating on what’s going on around you, and
their wires can tangle in the moving parts of the bicycle,
causing you to lose control.
8. Never carry a passenger, unless it is a small child
wearing an approved helmet and secured in a correctly
mounted child carrier or a child-carrying trailer.
9. Never carry anything which obstructs your vision
or your complete control of the bicycle, or which could
become entangled in the moving parts of the bicycle.
10. Never hitch a ride by holding on to another vehicle.
11. Don’t do stunts, wheelies or jumps. If you intend
B. Riding Safety
1. You are sharing the road or the path with others
— motorists, pedestrians and other cyclists. Respect
their rights.
2. Ride defensively. Always assume that others do not
see you.
3. Look ahead, and be ready to avoid:
to do stunts, wheelies, jumps or go racing with your bike
despite our advice not to, read Section 2.F, Downhill,
Stunt or Competition Biking, now. Think carefully about
your skills before deciding to take the large risks that go
with this kind of riding.
12. Don’t weave through traffic or make any moves
that may surprise people with whom you are sharing
the road.
13. Observe and yield the right of way.
14. Never ride your bicycle while under the influence
of alcohol or drugs.
15. If possible, avoid riding in bad weather, when
visibility is obscured, at dawn, dusk or in the dark, or when
extremely tired. Each of these conditions increases the
risk of accident.
that people know who you are in case of an accident;
and take along a couple of dollars in cash for a candy
bar, a cool drink or an emergency phone call.
5. Yield right of way to pedestrians and animals. Ride
in a way that does not frighten or endanger them, and
give them enough room so that their unexpected moves
don’t endanger you.
6. Be prepared. If something goes wrong while you’re
riding off-road, help may not be close.
7. Before you attempt to jump, do stunt riding or race
with your bike, read and understand Section 2.F.
Off Road respect
Obey the local laws regulating where and how you
can ride off-road, and respect private property. You
may be sharing the trail with others — hikers, equestrians,
other cyclists. Respect their rights. Stay on the designated
trail. Don’t contribute to erosion by riding in mud or with
unnecessary sliding. Don’t disturb the ecosystem by
cutting your own trail or shortcut through vegetation or
streams. It is your responsibility to minimize your impact on
the environment. Leave things as you found them; and
always take out everything you brought in.
C. Off Road Safety
We recommend that children not ride on rough terrain
unless they are accompanied by an adult.
1. The variable conditions and hazards of off-road
riding require close attention and specific skills. Start
slowly on easier terrain and build up your skills. If your bike
has suspension, the increased speed you may develop
also increases your risk of losing control and falling. Get
to know how to handle your bike safely before trying
increased speed or more difficult terrain.
2. Wear safety gear appropriate to the kind of riding
you plan to do.
3. Don’t ride alone in remote areas. Even when riding
with others, make sure that someone knows where you’re
going and when you expect to be back.
4. Always take along some kind of identification, so
D. Wet Weather Riding
! WARNING: Wet weather impairs traction, braking
and visibility, both for the bicyclist and for other vehicles
sharing the road. The risk of an accident is dramatically
increased in wet conditions.
Under wet conditions, the stopping power of your
brakes (as well as the brakes of other vehicles sharing
straight, unbroken and securely mounted. Have your
dealer replace damaged reflectors and straighten or
tighten any that are bent or loose.
The mounting brackets of front and rear reflectors are
often designed as brake straddle cable safety catches
which prevent the straddle cable from catching on the
tire tread if the cable jumps out of its yoke or breaks.
the road) is dramatically reduced and your tires don’t
grip nearly as well. This makes it harder to control speed
and easier to lose control. To make sure that you can
slow down and stop safely in wet conditions, ride more
slowly and apply your brakes earlier and more gradually
than you would under normal, dry conditions. See also
Section 4.C.
! WARNING: Do not remove the front or rear reflectors
or reflector brackets from your bicycle. They are an
integral part of the bicycle’s safety system.
Removing the reflectors may reduce your visibility to
others using the roadway. Being struck by other vehicles
may result in serious injury or death.
The reflector brackets may protect you from the brake
straddle cable catching on the tire in the event of brake
cable failure. If a brake straddle cable catches on the
tire, it can cause the wheel to stop suddenly, causing you
to loose control and fall.
E. Night Riding
Riding a bicycle at night is many times more dangerous
than riding during the day. A bicyclist is very difficult for
motorists and pedestrians to see. Therefore, children
should never ride at dawn, at dusk or at night. Adults
who chose to accept the greatly increased risk of riding
at dawn, at dusk or at night need to take extra care both
riding and choosing specialized equipment which helps
reduce that risk. Consult your dealer about night riding
safety equipment.
! WARNING: Reflectors are not a substitute for required
lights. Riding at dawn, at dusk, at night or at other times
of poor visibility without an adequate bicycle lighting
system and without reflectors is dangerous and may
result in serious injury or death.
If you choose to ride under conditions of poor
visibility, check and be sure you comply with all local
laws about night riding, and take the following strongly
recommended additional precautions:
• Purchase and install battery or generator
powered head and tail lights which meet all regulatory
requirements and provide adequate visibility.
• Wear light colored, reflective clothing and
accessories, such as a reflective vest, reflective arm
and leg bands, reflective stripes on your helmet, flashing
lights attached to your body and/or your bicycle ... any
reflective device or light source that moves will help you
get the attention of approaching motorists, pedestrians
Bicycle reflectors are designed to pick up and reflect
street lights and car lights in a way that may help you to
be seen and recognized as a moving bicyclist.
! CAUTION: Check reflectors and their mounting
brackets regularly to make sure that they are clean,
10
and other traffic.
• Make sure your clothing or anything you may be
carrying on the bicycle does not obstruct a reflector
or light.
• Make sure that your bicycle is equipped with
correctly positioned and securely mounted reflectors.
While riding at dawn, at dusk or at night:
• Ride slowly.
• Avoid dark areas and areas of heavy or fastmoving traffic.
• Avoid road hazards.
• If possible, ride on familiar routes.
If riding in traffic:
• Be predictable. Ride so that drivers can see you and
predict your movements.
• Be alert. Ride defensively and expect the unexpected.
• If you plan to ride in traffic often, ask your dealer
about traffic safety classes or a good book on bicycle
traffic safety.
seen on motorcycles, and therefore face similar hazards
and risks. Have your bicycle and equipment carefully
inspected by a qualified mechanic and be sure it is
in perfect condition. Consult with expert riders and
race officials on conditions and equipment advisable
at the site where you plan to ride. Wear appropriate
safety gear, including an approved full face helmet,
full finger gloves, and body armor. Ultimately, it is your
responsibility to have proper equipment and to be
familiar with course conditions.
! WARNING: Although many catalogs, advertisements
and articles about bicycling depict riders engaged in
extreme riding, this activity is extremely dangerous,
increases your risk of injury or death, and increases the
severity of any injury. Remember that the action depicted
is being performed by professionals with many years of
training and experience. Know your limits and always
wear a helmet and other appropriate safety gear. Even
with state-of-the-art protective safety gear, you could
be seriously injured or killed when jumping, stunt riding,
riding downhill at speed or in competition.
F. Extreme, Stunt, Or Competition Riding
Whether you call it Aggro, Hucking, Freeride, North
Shore, Downhill, Jumping, Stunt Riding, Racing or
something else: by engaging in this sort of extreme,
aggressive riding you voluntarily assume an increased risk
of injury or death.
Not all bicycles are designed for these types of riding,
and those that are may not be suitable for all types of
aggressive riding. Check with your dealer or the bicycle’s
manufacturer about the suitability of your bicycle before
engaging in extreme riding.
When riding fast down hill, you can reach speeds
! CAUTION: Bicycles and bicycle parts have limitations
with regard to strength and integrity, and this type of
riding can exceed those limitations.
We recommend against this type of riding because
of the increased risks; but if you choose to take the risk,
at least:
• Take lessons from a competent instructor first
• Start with easy learning exercises and slowly develop
your skills before trying more difficult or dangerous riding
11
install, operate and maintain any component or
accessory can result in serious injury or death.
• Do stunts, jumping, racing or fast downhill riding only
in areas designated for this type of riding
• Wear a full face helmet, safety pads and other
safety gear
• Understand and recognize that the stresses imposed
on your bike by this kind of activity may break or damage
parts of the bicycle and void the warranty
• Take your bicycle to your dealer if anything
breaks or bends. Do not ride your bicycle when any
part is damaged.
If you ride downhill at speed, do stunt riding or ride in
competition, know the limits of your skill and experience.
Ultimately, avoiding injury is your responsibility.
G. Changing
Accessories
Components
or
! CAUTION: Changing the components on your bike
may void the warranty. Refer to your warranty, and
check with your dealer before changing the components
on your bike.
3. Fit
NOTE: Correct fit is an essential element of bicycling safety,
performance and comfort. Making the adjustments to
your bicycle which result in correct fit for your body and
riding conditions requires experience, skill and special
tools. Always have your dealer make the adjustments
on your bicycle; or, if you have the experience, skill and
tools, have your dealer check your work before riding.
Adding
There are many components and accessories
available to enhance the comfort, performance and
appearance of your bicycle. However, if you change
components or add accessories, you do so at your own
risk. The bicycle’s manufacturer may not have tested that
component or accessory for compatibility, reliability or
safety on your bicycle. Before installing any component
or accessory, including a different size tire, make sure
that it is compatible with your bicycle by checking with
your dealer. Be sure to read, understand and follow the
instructions that accompany the products you purchase
for your bicycle.
!
! WARNING: If your bicycle does not fit properly, you
may lose control and fall. If your new bike doesn’t fit, ask
your dealer to exchange it before you ride it.
A. Standover Height
Standover height is the basic element of bike fit (see
fig. 2). It is the distance from the ground to the top of
the bicycle’s frame at that point where your crotch is
when straddling the bike. To check for correct standover
height, straddle the bike while wearing the kind of shoes
in which you’ll be riding, and bounce vigorously on your
heels. If your crotch touches the frame, the bike is too
WARNING: Failure to confirm compatibility, properly
12
big for you. Don’t even ride
the bike around the block. A
bike which you ride only on
paved surfaces and never
take off-road should give you
a minimum standover height
clearance of two inches
(5cm). A bike that you’ll ride
on unpaved surfaces should
give you a minimum of three
inches (7.5cm) of standover
height clearance. And a bike
that you’ll use off road should
give you four inches (10cm) or more of clearance.
to reach the pedal, the saddle is
too high. If your leg is bent at the
knee with your heel on the pedal,
the saddle is too low.
Once the saddle is at the
correct height, make sure that the
seatpost does not project from
the frame beyond its “Minimum
Insertion” or “Maximum Extension”
mark (fig. 4).
If your bike has an interrupted
seat tube, as is the case on some
bikes with rear suspension, you
must also make sure that the seat post
is far enough into the frame so that
you can touch it through the bottom
of the interrupted seat tube with the
tip of your finger without inserting your
finger beyond its first knuckle (see fig.
5).
Fig.2
! WARNING: If you plan to use your bike for jumping
or stunt riding, read Section 2.F again.
B. Saddle Position
Correct saddle adjustment is an important factor in
getting the most performance and comfort from your
bicycle. If the saddle position is not comfortable for you,
see your dealer.
The saddle can be adjusted in three directions:
1. Up and down adjustment. To check for correct
saddle height (fig. 3):
• sit on the saddle;
• place one heel on a pedal;
• rotate the crank until the pedal with your heel on
it is in the down position and the crank arm is parallel to
the seat tube.
If your leg is not completely straight, your saddle height
needs to be adjusted. If your hips must rock for the heel
! WARNING: If your seat post projects
from the frame beyond the Minimum
Insertion or Maximum Extension mark
(see fig. 4) or you cannot touch the
bottom of the seat post through the
bottom of the interrupted seat tube with
the tip of your finger without inserting
your finger beyond its first knuckle (see
fig. 5), the seat post may break, which could cause you to
lose control and fall.
2. Front and back adjustment. The saddle can be
adjusted forward or back to help you get the optimal
13
position on the bike. Ask your dealer to set the saddle
for your optimal riding position and to show you how to
make this adjustment.
3. Saddle angle adjustment. Most people prefer a
horizontal saddle; but some riders like the saddle nose
angled up or down just a little. Your dealer can adjust
saddle angle or teach you how to do it.
riding with a saddle which is incorrectly adjusted or
which does not support your pelvic area correctly can
cause short-term or long-term injury to nerves and blood
vessels, or even impotence. If your saddle causes you
pain, numbness or other discomfort, listen to your body
and stop riding until you see your dealer about saddle
adjustment or a different saddle.
Note: If your bicycle is equipped with a suspension seat
post, periodically ask your dealer to check it.
Small changes in saddle position can have a
substantial effect on performance and comfort. To find
your best saddle position, make only one adjustment at
a time.
C. Handlebar Height And Angle
Your bike is equipped either with a “threadless” stem,
which clamps on to the outside of the steerer tube,
or with a “quill” stem, which clamps inside the steerer
tube by way of an expanding binder bolt. If you aren’t
absolutely sure which type of stem your bike has, ask
your dealer.
If your bike has a “threadless” stem, your dealer
may be able to change handlebar height by moving
height adjustment spacers from below the stem to
above the stem, or vice versa. Otherwise, you’ll have
to get a stem of different length or rise. Consult your
dealer. Do not attempt to do this yourself, as it requires
special knowledge.
If your bike has a “quill” stem, you can ask your
dealer to adjust the handlebar height a bit by adjusting
stem height.
A quill stem has an etched or stamped mark on its
shaft which designates the stem’s “Minimum Insertion”
or “Maximum extension”. This mark must not be visible
above the headset.
! WARNING: After any saddle adjustment, be sure that
the saddle adjusting mechanism is properly tightened
before riding. A loose saddle clamp or seat post binder
can cause damage to the seat post, or can cause you
to lose control and fall. A correctly tightened saddle
adjusting mechanism will allow no saddle movement in
any direction. Periodically check to make sure that the
saddle adjusting mechanism is properly tightened.
If, in spite of carefully adjusting the saddle height,
tilt and fore-and-aft position, your saddle is still
uncomfortable, you may need a different saddle design.
Saddles, like people, come in many different shapes,
sizes and resilience. Your dealer can help you select a
saddle which, when correctly adjusted for your body
and riding style, will be comfortable.
!
! WARNING: On some bicycles, changing the stem
or stem height can affect the tension of the front brake
cable, locking the front brake or creating excess cable
WARNING: Some people have claimed that extended
14
slack which can make the front brake inoperable. If the
front brake pads move in towards the wheel rim or out
away from the wheel rim when the stem or stem height is
changed, the brakes must be correctly adjusted before
you ride the bicycle.
E. Brake reach
Many bikes have brake levers which can be
adjusted for reach. If you have small hands or
find it difficult to squeeze the brake levers, your
dealer can either adjust the reach or fit shorter
reach brake levers.
! WARNING: The stem’s Minimum Insertion Mark must
not be visible above the top of the headset. If the stem is
extended beyond the Minimum Insertion Mark the stem
may break or damage the fork’s steerer tube, which
could cause you to lose control and fall.
Your dealer can also change the angle of the
handlebar or bar end extensions.
WARNING: The shorter the brake lever
reach, the more critical it is to have correctly
adjusted brakes, so that full braking power
can be applied within available brake lever
travel. Brake lever travel insufficient to apply
full braking power can result in loss of control,
which may result in serious injury or death.
! WARNING: An insufficiently tightened stem binder
bolt, handlebar binder bolt or bar end extension
clamping bolt may compromise steering action,
which could cause you to lose control and fall. Place
the front wheel of the bicycle between your legs and
attempt to twist the handlebar/stem assembly. If you
can twist the stem in relation to the front wheel, turn the
handlebars in relation to the stem, or turn the bar end
extensions in relation to the handlebar, the bolts are
insufficiently tightened.
4. Tech
It’s important to your safety, performance
and enjoyment to understand how things work
on your bicycle. We urge you to ask your
dealer how to do the things described in this
section before you attempt them yourself, and
that you have your dealer check your work
before you ride the bike. If you have even the
slightest doubt as to whether you understand
something in this section of the Manual, talk to
your dealer.
D. Control position adjustments
The angle of the brake and shift control levers and
their position on the handlebars can be changed. Ask
your dealer to make the adjustments for you.
15
A. Wheels
need to apply to secure the wheel.
! WARNING: The full force of the cam action is needed
to clamp the wheel securely. Holding the nut with one
hand and turning the lever like a wing nut with the other
hand until everything is as tight as you can get it will not
clamp the wheel safely in the dropouts.
NOTE: If you have a mountain bike equipped with
through axle front or rear wheels, make sure that your
dealer has given you the manufacturer’s instructions, and
follow those when installing or removing a through axle
wheel. If you don’t know what a through axle is, ask your
dealer.
1. Wheel Quick Release
a. Adjusting The Quick Release Mechanism
The wheel hub is clamped in place by the force of
the quick release cam pushing against one dropout and
pulling the tension adjusting nut, by way of the skewer,
against the other dropout. The amount of clamping force
is controlled by the tension adjusting nut. Turning the
tension adjusting nut clockwise while keeping the cam
lever from rotating increases clamping force; turning
it counterclockwise while keeping the cam lever from
rotating reduces clamping force. Less than half a turn
of the tension adjusting nut can make the difference
between safe clamping force and unsafe clamping
force.
! WARNING: Riding with an improperly adjusted wheel
quick release can allow the wheel to wobble or fall off
the bicycle, which can cause serious injury or death.
Therefore, it is essential that you:
1. Ask your dealer to help you make sure you know
how to install and remove your wheels safely.
2. Understand and apply the correct technique for
clamping your wheel in place with a quick release.
3. Each time, before you ride the bike, check that the
wheel is securely clamped.
The wheel quick release uses a cam action to
clamp the bike’s wheel in place (see fig. 6). Because of
its adjustable nature, it is critical that you understand how
it works, how to use it properly, and how much force you
b. Front Wheel Secondary Retention Devices
Most bicycles have front forks which utilize a secondary
wheel retention device to keep the wheel from
disengaging if the quick release is incorrectly adjusted.
Secondary retention devices are not a substitute for
correct quick release adjustment.
Secondary retention devices fall into two basic
categories:
(1) The clip-on type is a part which the manufacturer
adds to the front wheel hub or front fork.
(2) The integral type is molded, cast or machined into
16
the outer faces of the front fork dropouts.
Ask your dealer to explain the particular secondary
retention device on your bike.
the wheel; then go to the next step.
(5) Raise the front wheel a few
inches off the ground and tap the top
of the wheel with the palm of your
hand to knock the wheel out of the
front fork.
! WARNING: Do not remove or disable the secondary
retention device. As its name implies, it serves as a backup for a critical adjustment. If the quick release is not
adjusted correctly, the secondary retention device can
reduce the risk of the wheel disengaging from the fork.
Removing or disabling the secondary retention device
may also void the warranty.
Secondary retention devices are not a substitute for
correct quick release adjustment. Failure to properly
adjust the quick release mechanism can cause the
wheel to wobble or disengage, which could cause
you to loose control and fall, resulting in serious injury
or death.
b. Installing a Quick Release Front
Wheel
! CAUTION: If your bike is equipped
with disk brakes, be careful not to
damage the disk, caliper or brake
pads when re-inserting the disk into the
caliper. Never activate a disk brake’s
control lever unless the disk is correctly inserted in the
caliper. See also Section 4.C.
2. Removing and Installing Quick Release Wheels
(1) Move the quick-release lever so that it curves away
from the wheel (fig. 7b). This is the OPEN position.
(2) With the steering fork facing forward, insert the
wheel between the fork blades so that the axle seats
firmly at the top of the slots which are at the tips of the
fork blades — the fork dropouts. The quick-release lever
should be on the left side of the bicycle (fig.7a & b). If
your bike has a clip-on type secondary retention device,
engage it.
(3) Holding the quick-release lever in the OPEN position
with your right hand, tighten the tension adjusting nut
with your left hand until it is finger tight against the fork
dropout (fig. 6).
(4) While pushing the wheel firmly to the top of the
slots in the fork dropouts, and at the same time centering
a. Removing a Quick Release Front Wheel
(1) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the brake’s
quick-release mechanism to open the clearance
between the tire and the brake pads (See Section 4.C
fig. 11 through 15).
(2) Move the wheel’s quick-release lever from the locked
or CLOSED position to the OPEN position (figs. 7a & b).
(3) If your front fork does not have a secondary
retention device go to step (5).
(4) If your front fork has a clip-on type secondary
retention device, disengage it and go to step (5). If your
front fork has an integral secondary retention device,
loosen the tension adjusting nut enough to allow removing
17
the wheel rim in the fork, move the quick-release lever
upwards and swing it into the CLOSED position (fig.
6 & 7a). The lever should now be parallel to the fork
blade and curved toward the wheel. To apply enough
clamping force, you should have to wrap your fingers
around the fork blade for leverage, and the lever should
leave a clear imprint in the palm of your hand.
4.C, figs. 11 through 15).
(3) Pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(4) Move the quick-release lever to the OPEN position
(fig. 7b).
(5) Lift the rear wheel off the ground a few inches
and, with the derailleur still pulled back, push the
wheel forward and down until it comes out of the
rear dropouts.
! WARNING: Securely clamping the wheel takes
considerable force. If you can fully close the quick
release without wrapping your fingers around the fork
blade for leverage, and the lever does not leave a clear
imprint in the palm of your hand, the tension is insufficient.
Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a
quarter turn; then try again.
d. Installing a Quick Release Rear Wheel
NOTE: If your bike is equipped with disk brakes, be careful
not to damage the disk, caliper or brake pads when reinserting the disk into the caliper. Never activate a disk
brake’s control lever unless the disk is correctly inserted
in the caliper.
(5) If the lever cannot be pushed all the way to a
position parallel to the fork blade, return the lever to
the OPEN position. Then turn the tension adjusting nut
counterclockwise one-quarter turn and try tightening the
lever again.
(6) Re-engage the brake quick-release mechanism
to restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance; spin the
wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and
clears the brake pads; then squeeze the brake lever and
make sure that the brakes are operating correctly.
(1) Make sure that the rear derailleur is still in its
outermost, high gear, position
(2) Pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(3) Move the quick-release lever to the OPEN position
(see fig. 6). The lever should be on the side of the wheel
opposite the derailleur and freewheel sprockets.
(4) Put the chain on top of the smallest freewheel
sprocket. Then, insert the wheel into the frame dropouts
and pull it all the way in to the dropouts.
(5) Tighten the quick-release adjusting nut until it is
finger tight against the frame dropout; then swing the
lever toward the front of the bike until it is parallel to the
frame’s chainstay or seatstay and is curved toward the
wheel (fig. 7a & fig. 8). To apply enough clamping force,
you should have to wrap your fingers around a frame
c. Removing a Quick Release Rear Wheel
(1) Shift the rear derailleur to high gear (the smallest,
outermost rear sprocket).
(2) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the brake’s
quick-release mechanism to open the clearance
between the wheel rim and the brake pads (see Section
18
tube for leverage, and the lever
should leave a clear imprint in
the palm of your hand.
a. Removing A Bolt-on Front Wheel
(1) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the brake’s
quick-release mechanism to open the clearance
between the tire and the brake pads (see Section 4.C,
figs. 11 through 15).
(2) Using a correct size wrench, loosen the two axle
nuts.
(3) If your front fork has a clip-on type
secondary retention device, disengage
it and go to he next step. If your front
fork has an integral secondary retention
device, loosen the axle nuts enough to
allow wheel removal; then go to the
next step.
(4) Raise the front wheel a few inches off the ground
and tap the top of the wheel with the palm of your hand
to knock the wheel out of the fork ends.
! WARNING: Securely clamping
the wheel takes considerable
force. If you can fully close the
quick release without wrapping
your fingers around the seatstay
or chainstay for leverage, and the lever does not leave
a clear imprint in the palm of your hand, the tension is
insufficient. Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut
clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
The rear wheel must be secured to the bicycle frame
with sufficient force so that it cannot be pulled forward by
the chain, even under the greatest pedaling force. If the
wheel moves under pedaling force, the tire can touch the
frame, which can cause you to loose control and fall.
b. Installing A Bolt-on Front Wheel
(1) With the steering fork facing forward, insert the
wheel between the fork blades so that the axle seats
firmly at the top of the slots which are at the tips of the fork
blades. The axle nut washers should be on the outside,
between the fork blade and the axle nut. If your bike has
a clip-on type secondary retention device, engage it.
(2) While pushing the wheel firmly to the top of the
slots in the fork dropouts, and at the same time centering
the wheel rim in the fork, use the correct size wrench to
tighten the axle nuts enough so that the wheel stays in
place; then use a wrench on each nut simultaneously to
tighten the nuts to 180 - 240 inch pounds.
(3) Re-engage the brake quick-release mechanism
(6) If the lever cannot be pushed all the way to a
position parallel to the chainstay or seatstay tube, return
the lever to the OPEN position. Then turn the adjusting
nut counterclockwise one-quarter turn and try tightening
again.
(7) Push the rear derailleur back into position.
(8) Re-engage the brake quick-release mechanism
to restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance; spin the
wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and
clears the brake pads; then squeeze the brake lever and
make sure that the brakes are operating correctly.
3. Removing And Installing Bolt-on Wheels
19
to restore correct brake pad-to-rim clearance; spin the
wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and
clears the brake pads; then squeeze the brake lever and
make sure that the brakes are operating correctly.
(3) Using the correct size wrench, tighten the axle nuts
enough so that the wheel stays in place; then use a wrench
on each nut simultaneously to tighten the nuts to 240 - 300
inch pounds.
(4) Push the rear derailleur
back into position.
(5) Re-engage the brake
quick-release mechanism to
restore correct brake pad-torim clearance; spin the wheel to
make sure that it is centered in
the frame and clears the brake
pads; then squeeze the brake lever and make sure that
the brakes are operating correctly.
c. Removing A Bolt-on Rear Wheel
! WARNING: If your bike is equipped with an internal
gear rear hub, do not attempt to remove the rear
wheel. The removal and re-installation of internal gear
hubs require special knowledge. Incorrect removal or
assembly can result in hub failure, which can cause you
to lose control and fall.
(1) If your bike has rim brakes, disengage the brake’s
quick-release mechanism to open the clearance
between the tire and the brake pads (see Section 4.C,
figs. 11 through 15).
(2) Shift the rear derailleur to high gear (the smallest
rear sprocket) and pull the derailleur body back with
your right hand.
(3) Using the correct size wrench, loosen the two axle nuts.
(4) Lift the rear wheel off the ground a few inches and,
with the derailleur still pulled back, push the wheel forward
and down until it comes out of the rear dropouts.
d. Installing A Bolt-on Rear Wheel
(1) Shift the rear derailleur to its outermost position and
pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(2) Put the chain on to the smallest sprocket. Then,
insert the wheel into the frame dropouts and pull it
completely in to the dropouts. The axle nut washers
should be on the outside, between the frame and the
axle nut.
B. Seatpost Quick Release
Some bikes are equipped with a quick-release seat
post binder. The seatpost quick-release binder works
exactly like the wheel quick-release (Section 4.A.1) While
a quick release looks like a long bolt with a lever on one
end and a nut on the other, the quick release uses a cam
action to firmly clamp the seat post (see fig. 6).
! WARNING: Riding with an improperly tightened seat
post can allow the saddle to turn or move and cause you
to lose control and fall. Therefore:
1. Ask your dealer to help you make sure you know
how to correctly clamp your seat post.
2. Understand and apply the correct technique for
clamping your seat post quick release.
20
3. Before you ride the bike, first check that the seatpost
is securely clamped.
brake pads is dangerous and can result in serious injury
or death.
2. Applying brakes too hard or too suddenly can lock
up a wheel, which could cause you to lose control and
fall. Sudden or excessive application of the front brake
may pitch the rider over the handlebars, which may
result in serious injury or death.
3. Some bicycle brakes, such as disc brakes (fig. 11)
and linear-pull brakes (fig.12), are extremely powerful.
Take extra care in becoming familiar with these brakes
and exercise particular care when using them.
4. Disc brakes can get extremely hot with extended
use. Be careful not to touch a disc brake until it has had
plenty of time to cool.
5. See the brake manufacturer’s instructions for
installation, operation and care of your brakes. If you do
not have the manufacturer’s instructions, see your dealer
or contact the brake manufacturer.
Adjusting The Seatpost Quick Release Mechanism
The action of the quick release cam squeezes the seat
collar around the seat post to hold the seat post securely
in place. The amount of clamping force is controlled by
the tension adjusting nut. Turning the tension adjusting
nut clockwise while keeping the cam lever from rotating
increases clamping force; turning it counterclockwise
while keeping the cam lever from rotating reduces
clamping force. Less than half a turn of the tension
adjusting nut can make the difference between safe
and unsafe clamping force.
! WARNING: The full force of the cam action is needed
to clamp the seatpost securely. Holding the nut with one
hand and turning the lever like a wing nut with the other
hand until everything is as tight as you can get it will not
clamp the seatpost safely.
1. Brake Controls And Features
It’s very important to your safety that you learn and
remember which brake lever controls which brake on
your bike.
Make sure that your hands can reach and squeeze
the brake levers comfortably. If your hands are too
small to operate the levers comfortably, consult your
dealer before riding the bike. The lever reach may
be adjustable; or you may need a different brake
lever design.
Most brakes have some form of quick-release
mechanism to allow the brake pads to clear the tire
when a wheel is removed or reinstalled. When the brake
quick release is in the open position, the brakes are
! WARNING: If you can fully close the quick release
without wrapping your fingers around the seat post or a
frame tube for leverage, and the lever does not leave
a clear imprint in the palm of your hand, the tension is
insufficient. Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut
clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
C. Brakes
!
WARNING:
1. Riding with improperly adjusted brakes or worn
21
inoperative. Ask your dealer to make
sure that you understand the way the
brake quick release works on your bike
(see figs. 11. 12, 13. 14 & 15) and check
each time to make sure both brakes
work correctly before you get on the
bike.
force. If you feel the wheel begin to lock up, release
pressure just a little to keep the wheel rotating just short of
lockup. It’s important to develop a feel for the amount of
brake lever pressure required for each wheel at different
speeds and on different surfaces. To better understand
this, experiment a little by walking your bike and applying
different amounts of pressure to each brake lever, until
the wheel locks.
When you apply one or both brakes, the bike
begins to slow, but your body wants to continue at
the speed at which it was going. This causes a transfer
of weight to the front wheel (or, under heavy braking,
around the front wheel hub, which could send you
flying over the handlebars).
A wheel with more weight on it will accept greater
brake pressure before lockup; a wheel with less weight
will lock up with less brake pressure. So, as you apply
brakes and your weight is transferred forward, you need
to shift your body toward the rear of the bike, to transfer
weight back on to the rear wheel; and at the same time,
you need to both decrease rear braking and increase
front braking force. This is even more important on
descents, because descents shift weight forward.
Two keys to effective speed control and safe
stopping are controlling wheel lockup and weight
transfer. This weight transfer is even more pronounced
if your bike has a front suspension fork. Front suspension
“dips” under braking, increasing the weight transfer (see
also Section 4.F). Practice braking and weight transfer
techniques where there is no traffic or other hazards
and distractions.
Everything changes when you ride on loose surfaces
or in wet weather. Tire adhesion is reduced, so the wheels
2. How Brakes Work
The braking action of a bicycle is
a function of the friction between the
brake surfaces — usually the brake
pads and the wheel rim. To make
sure that you have maximum friction
available, keep your wheel rims and
brake pads clean and free of dirt,
lubricants, waxes or polishes.
Brakes are designed to control
your speed, not just to stop the bike.
Maximum braking force for each
wheel occurs at the point just before
the wheel “locks up” (stops rotating)
and starts to skid. Once the tire skids,
you actually lose most of your stopping
force and all directional control. You
need to practice slowing and stopping
smoothly without locking up a wheel.
The technique is called progressive
brake modulation. Instead of jerking
the brake lever to the position where
you think you’ll generate appropriate
braking force, squeeze the lever,
progressively increasing the braking
22
have less cornering and braking traction and can lock
up with less brake force. Moisture or dirt on the brake
pads reduces their ability to grip. The way to maintain
control on loose or wet surfaces is to go more slowly to
begin with.
or “faster”, harder to pedal gear. What’s confusing is that
what’s happening at the front derailleur is the opposite of
what’s happening at the rear derailleur (for details, read
the instructions on Shifting the Rear Derailleur and Shifting
the Front Derailleur below). For example, you can select
a gear which will make pedaling easier on a hill (make a
downshift) in one of two ways: shift the chain down the
gear “steps” to a smaller gear at the front, or up the gear
“steps” to a larger gear at the rear. So, at the rear gear
cluster, what is called a downshift looks like an upshift.
The way to keep things straight is to remember that
shifting the chain in towards the centerline of the bike is
for accelerating and climbing and is called a downshift.
Moving the chain out or away from the centerline of the
bike is for speed and is called an upshift.
Whether upshifting or downshifting, the bicycle
derailleur system design requires that the drive chain be
moving forward and be under at least some tension. A
derailleur will shift only if you are pedaling forward.
D. Shifting Gears
Your multi-speed bicycle will have a derailleur
drivetrain (see 2. below), an internal gear hub drivetrain
(see 3. below) or, in some special cases, a combination
of the two.
1. How A Derailleur Drivetrain Works
If your bicycle has a derailleur drivetrain, the gearchanging mechanism will have:
• a rear cassette or freewheel sprocket cluster
• a rear derailleur
• usually a front derailleur
• one or two shifters
• one, two or three front sprockets called chainrings
• a drive chain
! CAUTION: Never move the shifter while pedaling
backward, nor pedal backwards immediately after
having moved the shifter. This could jam the chain and
cause serious damage to the bicycle.
a. Shifting Gears
There are several different types and styles of shifting
controls: levers, twist grips, triggers, combination shift/
brake controls, push-buttons, and so on. Ask your dealer
to explain the type of shifting controls that are on your
bike, and to show you how they work.
The vocabulary of shifting can be pretty confusing.
A downshift is a shift to a “lower” or “slower” gear, one
which is easier to pedal. An upshift is a shift to a “higher”
b. Shifting The Rear Derailleur
The rear derailleur is controlled by the right shifter.
The function of the rear derailleur is to move the
drive chain from one gear sprocket to another. The
smaller sprockets on the gear cluster produce higher
gear ratios. Pedaling in the higher gears requires greater
pedaling effort, but takes you a greater distance with
each revolution of the pedal cranks. The larger sprockets
23
produce lower gear ratios. Using them requires less
pedaling effort, but takes you a shorter distance with
each pedal crank revolution. Moving the chain from a
smaller sprocket of the gear cluster to a larger sprocket
results in a downshift. Moving the chain from a larger
sprocket to a smaller sprocket results in an upshift. In order
for the derailleur to move the chain from one sprocket to
another, the rider must be pedaling forward.
other traffic, until you’ve built up your confidence. Learn
to anticipate the need to shift, and shift to a lower gear
before the hill gets too steep. If you have difficulties with
shifting, the problem could be mechanical adjustment.
See your dealer for help.
! WARNING: Never shift a derailleur onto the largest
or the smallest sprocket if the derailleur is not shifting
smoothly. The derailleur may be out of adjustment and the
chain could jam, causing you to lose control and fall.
c. Shifting The Front Derailleur:
The front derailleur, which is controlled by the left shifter,
shifts the chain between the larger and smaller chainrings.
Shifting the chain onto a smaller chainring makes pedaling
easier (a downshift). Shifting to a larger chainring makes
pedaling harder (an upshift).
d. Which Gear Should I Be In?
The combination of largest rear and smallest front gears
(fig. 16) is for the steepest hills. The
smallest rear and largest front
combination (fig. 21) is for the
greatest speed. It is not necessary
to shift gears in sequence.
Instead, find the “starting gear”
which is right for your level of
ability — a gear which is hard
enough for quick acceleration
but easy enough to let you start
from a stop without wobbling
— and experiment with upshifting
and downshifting to get a feel for
the different gear combinations.
At first, practice shifting where
there are no obstacles, hazards or
2. How An Internal Gear Hub Drivetrain Works
If your bicycle has an internal gear hub drivetrain, the
gear changing mechanism will consist of:
• a 3, 5, 7 or possibly 12 speed internal gear hub
• one, or sometimes two shifters
• one or two control cables
• one front sprocket called a chainring
• a drive chain
a. Shifting Internal Gear Hub Gears
Shifting with an internal gear hub drivetrain is simply
a matter of moving the shifter to the indicated position
for the desired gear. After you have moved the shifter
to the gear position of your choice, ease the pressure
on the pedals for an instant to allow the hub to
complete the shift.
b. Which Gear Should I Be In?
The numerically lowest gear (1) is for the steepest hills.
The numerically largest gear (3, 5, 7 or 12, depending on the
number of speeds of your hub) is for the greatest speed.
Shifting from an easier, “slower” gear (like 1) to a
24
harder, “faster” gear (like 2 or 3) is called an upshift.
Shifting from a harder, “faster” gear to an easier, “slower”
gear is called a downshift. It is not necessary to shift
gears in sequence. Instead, find the “starting gear” for
the conditions — a gear which is hard enough for quick
acceleration but easy enough to let you start from a stop
without wobbling — and experiment with upshifting and
downshifting to get a feel for the different gears. At first,
practice shifting where there are no obstacles, hazards or
other traffic, until you’ve built up your confidence. Learn
to anticipate the need to shift, and shift to a lower gear
before the hill gets too steep. If you have difficulties with
shifting, the problem could be mechanical adjustment.
See your dealer for help.
have sharp and potentially dangerous surfaces. These
surfaces are designed to add safety by increasing grip
between the rider’s shoe and the pedal. If your bicycle
has this type of high-performance pedal, you must take
extra care to avoid serious injury from the pedals’ sharp
surfaces. Based on your riding style or skill level, you may
prefer a less aggressive pedal design, or chose to ride
with shin pads. Your dealer can show you a number of
options and make suitable recommendations.
3. Toeclips and straps are a means to keep feet
correctly positioned and engaged with the pedals.
The toeclip positions the ball of the foot over the pedal
spindle, which gives maximum pedaling power. The
toe strap, when tightened, keeps the foot engaged
throughout the rotation cycle of the pedal. While toeclips
and straps give some benefit with any kind of shoe, they
work most effectively with cycling shoes designed for use
with toeclips. Your dealer can explain how toeclips and
straps work. Shoes with deep treaded soles or welts which
might allow the foot to be trapped should not be used
with toeclips and straps.
E.Pedals
1. Toe Overlap is when your toe can touch the front
wheel when you turn the handlebars to steer while a
pedal is in the forwardmost position. This is common
on small-framed bicycles, and is avoided by keeping
the inside pedal up and the outside pedal down when
making sharp turns. This technique will also prevent the
inside pedal from striking the ground in a turn.
! WARNING: Getting into and out of pedals with
toeclips and straps requires skill which can only be
acquired with practice. Until it becomes a reflex action,
the technique requires concentration which can distract
your attention and cause you to lose control and fall.
Practice the use of toeclips and straps where there are no
obstacles, hazards or traffic. Keep the straps loose, and
don’t tighten them until your technique and confidence
in getting in and out of the pedals warrants it. Never ride
in traffic with your toe straps tight.
! WARNING: Toe Overlap could cause you to lose
control and fall. Ask your dealer to help you determine if
the combination of frame size, crank arm length, pedal
design and shoes you will use results in pedal overlap.
If you have overlap, you must keep the inside pedal up
and the outside pedal down when making sharp turns.
2. Some bicycles come equipped with pedals that
25
If you do not have the manufacturer’s instructions, see
your dealer or contact the manufacturer.
4. Clipless pedals (sometimes called “step-in pedals”)
are another means to keep feet securely in the correct
position for maximum pedaling efficiency. They have a
plate, called a “cleat,” on the sole of the shoe, which
clicks into a mating spring-loaded fixture on the pedal.
They only engage or disengage with a very specific
motion which must be practiced until it becomes
instinctive. Clipless pedals require shoes and cleats which
are compatible with the make and model pedal being
used.
Many clipless pedals are designed to allow the rider
to adjust the amount of force needed to engage or
disengage the foot. Follow the pedal manufacturer’s
instructions, or ask your dealer to show you how to make
this adjustment. Use the easiest setting until engaging
and disengaging becomes a reflex action, but always
make sure that there is sufficient tension to prevent
unintended release of your foot from the pedal.
F. Bicycle Suspension
Many bicycles are equipped with suspension systems.
There are many different types of suspension systems
— too many to deal with individually in this Manual. If
your bicycle has a suspension system of any kind, be
sure to read and follow the suspension manufacturer’s
setup and service instructions. If you do not have the
manufacturer’s instructions, see your dealer or contact
the manufacturer.
! WARNING: Failure to maintain, check and properly
adjust the suspension system may result in suspension
malfunction, which may cause you to lose control and
fall.
If your bike has suspension, the increased speed
you may develop also increases your risk of injury. For
example, when braking, the front of a suspended
bike dips. You could lose control and fall if you do not
have experience with this system. Learn to handle your
suspension system safely. See also Section 4.C.
!
WARNING: Clipless pedals are intended for use with
shoes specifically made to fit them and are designed to
firmly keep the foot engaged with the pedal. Using shoes
which do not engage the pedals correctly is dangerous.
Practice is required to learn to engage and disengage
the foot safely. Until engaging and disengaging the
foot becomes a reflex action, the technique requires
concentration which can distract your attention and
cause you to lose control and fall. Practice engaging
and disengaging clipless pedals in a place where there
are no obstacles, hazards or traffic; and be sure to follow
the pedal manufacturer’s setup and service instructions.
!
WARNING: Changing suspension adjustment can
change the handling and braking characteristics of your
bicycle. Never change suspension adjustment unless
you are thoroughly familiar with the suspension system
manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations, and
always check for changes in the handling and braking
26
characteristics of the bicycle after a suspension adjustment
by taking a careful test ride in a hazard-free area.
Pressure.
! WARNING: Never inflate a tire
beyond the maximum pressure
marked on the tire’s sidewall.
Exceeding
the
recommended
maximum pressure may blow the
tire off the rim, which could cause
damage to the bike and injury to
the rider and bystanders.
Suspension can increase control and comfort by
allowing the wheels to better follow the terrain. This
enhanced capability may allow you to ride faster; but
you must not confuse the enhanced capabilities of the
bicycle with your own capabilities as a rider. Increasing
your skill will take time and practice. Proceed carefully
until you have learned to handle the full capabilities of
your bike.
The best and safest way to
inflate a bicycle tire to the correct
pressure is with a bicycle pump
which has a built-in pressure gauge.
!
CAUTION: Not all bicycles can be safely retrofitted
with some types of suspension systems. Before retrofitting
a bicycle with any suspension, check with the bicycle’s
manufacturer to make sure that what you want to do is
compatible with the bicycle’s design.
! WARNING: There is a safety risk in using gas station
air hoses or other air compressors. They are not made
for bicycle tires. They move a large volume of air very
rapidly, and will raise the pressure in your tire very rapidly,
which could cause the tube to explode.
G. Tires and Tubes
1. Tires
Bicycle tires are available in many designs and
specifications, ranging from general-purpose designs
to tires designed to perform best under very specific
weather or terrain conditions. If, once you’ve gained
experience with your new bike, you feel that a different
tire might better suit your riding needs, your dealer can
help you select the most appropriate design.
The size, pressure rating, and on some highperformance tires the specific recommended use, are
marked on the sidewall of the tire (see fig. 17). The part
of this information which is most important to you is Tire
Tire pressure is given either as maximum pressure
or as a pressure range. How a tire performs under
different terrain or weather conditions depends largely
on tire pressure. Inflating the tire to near its maximum
recommended pressure gives the lowest rolling
resistance; but also produces the harshest ride. High
pressures work best on smooth, dry pavement.
Very low pressures, at the bottom of the recommended
pressure range, give the best performance on smooth,
slick terrain such as hard-packed clay, and on deep,
loose surfaces such as deep, dry sand.
27
Tire pressure that is too low for your weight and the riding
conditions can cause a puncture of the tube by allowing the
tire to deform sufficiently to pinch the inner tube between the
rim and the riding surface.
of the valve stem with
the end of a key or other
appropriate object.
The
Presta
valve
(fig. 18) has a narrower
diameter and is only
found on bicycle tires.
To inflate a Presta valve
tube using a Presta
headed bicycle pump, remove the valve cap; unscrew
(counterclockwise) the valve stem lock nut; and push down
on the valve stem to free it up. Then push the pump head
on to the valve head, and inflate. To inflate a Presta valve
with a Schraeder pump fitting, you’ll need a Presta adapter
(available at your bike shop) which screws on to the valve
stem once you’ve freed up the valve. The adapter fits into
the Schraeder pump fitting. Close the valve after inflation.
To let air out of a Presta valve, open up the valve stem lock
nut and depress the valve stem.
! CAUTION: Pencil type automotive tire gauges can be
inaccurate and should not be relied upon for consistent,
accurate pressure readings. Instead, use a high quality dial
gauge.
Ask your dealer to recommend the best tire pressure for
the kind of riding you will most often do, and have the dealer
inflate your tires to that pressure. Then, check inflation as
described in Section 1.C so you’ll know how correctly inflated
tires should look and feel when you don’t have access to a
gauge. Some tires may need to be brought up to pressure
every week or two.
Some special high-performance tires have unidirectional
treads: their tread pattern is designed to work better in
one direction than in the other. The sidewall marking of a
unidirectional tire will have an arrow showing the correct
rotation direction. If your bike has unidirectional tires, be sure
that they are mounted to rotate in the correct direction.
! WARNING: Patching a tube is an emergency repair. If you
do not apply the patch correctly or apply several patches,
the tube can fail, resulting in possible tube failure, which
could cause you to loose control and fall. Replace a patched
tube as soon as possible.
2. Tire Valves
There are primarily two kinds of bicycle tube valves: The
Schraeder Valve and the Presta Valve. The bicycle pump you
use must have the fitting appropriate to the valve stems on
your bicycle.
The Schraeder valve (fig. 18) is like the valve on a car tire.
To inflate a Schraeder valve tube, remove the valve cap and
clamp the pump fitting onto the end of the valve stem. To
let air out of a Schraeder valve, depress the pin in the end
5. Service
! WARNING: Technological advances have made bicycles
and bicycle components more complex, and the pace of
innovation is increasing. It is impossible for this manual to
28
provide all the information required to properly repair
and/or maintain your bicycle. In order to help minimize
the chances of an accident and possible injury, it is
critical that you have any repair or maintenance which
is not specifically described in this manual performed
by your dealer. Equally important is that your individual
maintenance requirements will be determined by
everything from your riding style to geographic location.
Consult your dealer for help in determining your
maintenance requirements.
correctly. Since that will require the time of a mechanic,
there may be a modest charge for this service.
A. Service Intervals
Some service and maintenance can and should be
performed by the owner, and require no special tools or
knowledge beyond what is presented in this manual.
The following are examples of the type of service you
should perform yourself. All other service, maintenance
and repair should be performed in a properly equipped
facility by a qualified bicycle mechanic using the correct
tools and procedures specified by the manufacturer.
! WARNING: Many bicycle service and repair tasks
require special knowledge and tools. Do not begin any
adjustments or service on your bicycle until you have
learned from your dealer how to properly complete them.
Improper adjustment or service may result in damage to
the bicycle or in an accident which can cause serious
injury or death.
1. Break-in Period: Your bike will last longer and work
better if you break it in before riding it hard. Control
cables and wheel spokes may stretch or “seat” when
a new bike is first used and may require readjustment
by your dealer. Your Mechanical Safety Check (Section
1.C) will help you identify some things that need
readjustment. But even if everything seems fine to
you, it’s best to take your bike back to the dealer for a
checkup. Dealers typically suggest you bring the bike
in for a 30 day checkup. Another way to judge when
it’s time for the first checkup is to bring the bike in after
three to five hours of hard off-road use, or about 10 to 15
hours of on-road or more casual off-road use. But if you
think something is wrong with the bike, take it to your
dealer before riding it again.
2. Before every ride: Mechanical Safety Check
(Section 1.C)
3. After every long or hard ride: if the bike has been
exposed to water or grit; or at least every 100 miles:
If you want to learn to do major service and repair
work on your bike, you have three options:
1. Ask your dealer for copies of the manufacturer’s
installation and service instructions for the components
on your bike, or contact the component manufacturer.
2. Ask your dealer to recommend a book on
bicycle repair.
3. Ask your dealer about the availability of bicycle
repair courses in your area.
Regardless of which option you select, we recommend
that you ask your dealer to check the quality of your
work the first time you work on something and before you
ride the bike, just to make sure that you did everything
29
Clean the bike and lightly oil the chain. Wipe off excess
oil. Lubrication is a function of climate. Talk to your
dealer about the best lubricants and the recommended
lubrication frequency for your area.
4. After every long or hard ride or after every 10 to 20
hours of riding:
• Squeeze the front brake and rock the bike forward
and back. Everything feel solid? If you feel a clunk with
each forward or backward movement of the bike,
you probably have a loose headset. Have your dealer
check it.
• Lift the front wheel off the ground and swing it from
side to side. Feel smooth? If you feel any binding or
roughness in the steering, you may have a tight headset.
Have your dealer check it.
• Grab one pedal and rock it toward and away from
the centerline of the bike; then do the same with the
other pedal. Anything feel loose? If so, have your dealer
check it.
• Take a look at the brake pads. Starting to look worn
or not hitting the wheel rim squarely? Time to have the
dealer adjust or replace them.
• Carefully check the control cables and cable
housings. Any rust? Kinks? Fraying? If so, have your dealer
replace them.
• Squeeze each adjoining pair of spokes on either side
of each wheel between your thumb and index finger. Do
they all feel about the same? If any feel loose, have your
dealer check the wheel for tension and trueness.
• Check to make sure that all parts and accessories
are still secure, and tighten any which are not.
• Check the frame, particularly in the area around all
tube joints; the handlebars; the stem; and the seatpost
for any deep scratches, cracks or discoloration. These are
signs of stress-caused fatigue and indicate that a part is
at the end of its useful life and needs to be replaced.
! WARNING: Like any mechanical device, a bicycle
and its components are subject to wear and stress.
Different materials and mechanisms wear or fatigue from
stress at different rates and have different life cycles. If
a component’s life cycle is exceeded, the component
can suddenly and catastrophically fail, causing serious
injury or death to the rider. Scratches, cracks, fraying
and discoloration are signs of stress-caused fatigue and
indicate that a part is at the end of its useful life and needs
to be replaced. While the materials and workmanship
of your bicycle or of individual components may be
covered by a warranty for a specified period of time by
the manufacturer, this is no guarantee that the product
will last the term of the warranty. Product life is often
related to the kind of riding you do and to the treatment
to which you submit the bicycle. The bicycle’s warranty is
not meant to suggest that the bicycle cannot be broken
or will last forever. It only means that the bicycle is
covered subject to the terms of the warranty.
5. As required: If either brake lever fails the Mechanical
Safety Check (Section 1.C), don’t ride the bike. Have
your dealer check the brakes.
If the chain won’t shift smoothly and quietly from
gear to gear, the derailleur is out of adjustment. See
your dealer.
6. Every 25 (hard off-road) to 50 (on-road) hours of riding:
Take your bike to your dealer for a complete checkup.
B. If Your Bicycle Sustains An Impact:
30
First, check yourself for injuries, and take care of them
as best you can. Seek medical help if necessary.
Next, check your bike for damage. If you see any
damage, don’t ride the bike until it has been repaired.
After any crash, take your bike to your dealer for a
thorough check.
!
WARNING: A crash or other impact can put
extraordinary stress on bicycle components, causing
them to fatigue prematurely. Components suffering from
stress fatigue can fail suddenly and catastrophically,
causing loss of control, serious injury or death.
31
DIAMONDBACK bicycles are distributed by Raleigh America, Inc.
Raleigh America, Inc. Bicycle Limited Warranty
It is the owner’s responsibility to thoroughly read and understand the owner’s manual and regularly examine the product to determine the need for professional, authorized service or replacement. Please consult
an authorized Raleigh America, Inc. bicycle dealership with any questions on use and maintenance. Regardless of the length of the warranty, Raleigh America, Inc. does not infer that the bicycle will last forever
or cannot be broken. All Raleigh/Diamondback framesets and bicycles have a finite, limited useful product life cycle. The length of this useful life cycle will vary by environment, riding conditions, frame material
and construction, riding style, maintenance, and the amount as well as type of use the bicycle or frame is subjected to. A worn out bicycle does not indicate it is warrantable, rather that the bicycle has outlived
(exceeded) its useful product cycle.
Raleigh America, Inc. warrants this new Raleigh America, Inc. bicycle frame against defects in material and workmanship, subject to the following limitations, terms, and conditions:
Item
Warranty Term Length
Steel bicycle frames with wheel size less than 20˝ Lifetime, for as long as the original retail purchaser owns the bicycle*
Steel bicycle frames with 20˝, 24˝, 26˝, or 700c wheels
Lifetime, for as long as the original retail purchaser owns the bicycle*
Alloy bicycle frames with 20˝, 24˝, 26˝, or 700c wheels
Lifetime, for as long as the original retail purchaser owns the bicycle*
Full Carbon Fiber or Carbon fiber/alloy bicycle frames with 20˝, 24˝, 26˝, or 700c wheels
Lifetime, for as long as the original retail purchaser owns the bicycle*
Full Suspension bicycle frames
Five years from the date of original retail purchase to the original purchaser*
Forks, Non-branded
Five years from the date of original retail purchase
Forks, Branded Covered under the fork manufacturer’s warranty. Consult dealer for details.
Components, Non-branded
One year from the date of original retail purchase
Components, Branded Covered under the component manufacturer’s warranty. Consult dealer for details.
Finish and decals
One year from the date of original retail purchase
Suspension parts including but not limited to bushings, pivot bearing, link plates,
One year from the date of original retail purchase under the condition that the
bolts, fasteners, chain stays, seat stays, and shock units
bicycle is regularly maintained as well as operated under normal riding conditions
Labor, frame replacement
One year from the date of original retail purchase
Labor, parts replacement
Thirty days from the date of original retail purchase
1. This warranty only applies to the original retail purchaser and is not transferable.
2. Specific model exceptions to this warranty are noted with the bicycle documentation.
3. Raleigh America, Inc.’s sole obligation during the acceptable duration of this warranty is, AT RALEIGH AMERICA, INC.’S OPTION, to repair or replace the product with a current item that is equivalent in
construction, design, or value.
4. Raleigh America, Inc.’s liability under this limited warranty shall never exceed the amount of the original purchase.
To obtain service under this warranty, you must:
1. Return your fully assembled Raleigh America, Inc. bicycle to an authorized Raleigh America, Inc. bicycle dealer within the United States of America.
A bicycle that has had the components removed can not be evaluated or warranted.
*2. Provide proof of purchase, including but not limited to the retail bill of sale, your credit or debit card receipt, or other satisfactory proof of the date of purchase.
3. The proof of purchase must indicate the bicycle was sold fully assembled and adjusted by an authorized Raleigh America, Inc. dealer within the United States of America.
Sales where the bicycle was delivered in a carton to the end user (e.g. mail order or Internet sales) void the warranty.
This warranty does not apply to damage or failure due to:
1. Accidents, alteration, abuse, neglect.
2. Materials fatigue, normal wear and tear.
3. Improper assembly, maintenance, or installation of parts or accessories not originally intended to be compatible with the bicycle as sold, including but not limited to power assist accessories, forks,
brakes, or tires different from original specification.
This warranty also excludes:
1. Commercial use, racing or competition, stunting, jumping, trick riding, ramp riding, aggressive riding, riding with excessive loads, lack of technical skill, competence, or experience of the user.
2. Bicycle frames, which have been repaired (e.g. welded or bonded), repainted, or had the original decals removed.
3. Frames, forks, wheels, axles, handlebars, and stems, which are bent from just riding along, can be a sign of misuse or abuse and are not covered under this warranty.
4. Personal transportation costs or product freight costs to or from an authorized Raleigh America, Inc. bicycle dealer.
5. Any additional costs associated with the incompatibility of existing parts and the replacement frame or fork.
Warranty replacement frames must be fully assembled by an authorized dealer to maintain the warranty coverage. The warranty for the replacement frame shall be the warranty offered for the equivalent bicycle’s
frame of that model year. If not assembled by the dealer, replacement frames are considered aftermarket frames. After market frames are only warranted for one year from the date of purchase for the original
purchaser. This one-year warranty excludes any issues that can be traced to assembly or component incompatibility.
This warranty is expressly in lieu of all other warranties, and any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose created hereby, are limited to the same duration as the express warranty
herein. Raleigh America, Inc. shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitations of implied warranties, incidental or consequential, so the above
limitations and exclusions may not apply to you.
Retailers and wholesale outlets for Raleigh America, Inc. products are not authorized to modify this warranty in any way.
Raleigh America, Inc.
This warranty gives the original owner specific legal rights. Other additional rights may vary from state to state.
6004 S. 190th Street, Suite 101
Kent, WA 98032 USA - Phone: 253-395-1100
32
warranty revised: 03/25/05