®
®
LAYLA LapTop
LAYLA 24
®
GINA 24
™
MIA
™
MIAMIDI
Owner’s Manual Version 3.1.1 for Macintosh
Important Safety Instructions
1. Read Instructions - Be sure to read all of the safety and operating instructions
before operating this product.
2. Retain Instructions - The safety instructions and owner's manual should be
retained for future reference.
3. Heed Warnings - All warnings on your Echo product and in the Owner's
Manual should be followed.
4. Follow Instructions - All operating and use instructions should be followed.
5. Moisture - Water and moisture are detrimental to the continued good health of
your Echo product. Do not install or operate your Echo product near sources of
water or moisture such as sinks, damp basements, leaky roofs, etc.
6. Heat – Your Echo product should be situated away from sources of heat such as
heaters or radiators.
7. Power Sources - This unit should be operated only from the type of power
source indicated in this documentation or on your Echo product. If you are unsure
about the type of power at your location, contact your local power company.
8. Grounding – (Does not apply to Gina24, Mia, or MiaMIDI) Precautions should
be taken so that the grounding capabilities of the unit are not undermined. This
equipment is provided with a cord with an equipment grounding conductor and
grounding plug. This plug must be plugged into an outlet that is properly installed
and grounded in accordance with all local rules and ordinances. Do not modify the
plug provided with the equipment. If the plug will not fit into your outlet, have a
proper outlet installed by a qualified electrician.
9. Power Cord Protection – (Does not apply to Gina24, Mia, or MiaMIDI) Power
supply cords should be routed so that they are unlikely to be walked on or pinched
by items placed upon or against them. Pay particular attention to protecting the
plugs, outlets, and the point at which the cord exits your Echo product.
10. Servicing - Do not attempt to service this unit yourself, as opening the case
will expose you to hazardous voltage or other dangers. All servicing should be
referred to qualified service personnel.
11. Damage Requiring Service - Unplug this unit and refer it to a qualified
service technician when any of the following occur:
a) Objects have fallen or liquid has spilled into the unit
b) The product has been exposed to rain or water
c) The product does not operate normally or when a marked change in
performance is noticed
d) The product has been dropped or damaged in any way
Sending in your registration card – or registering online at http://www.echoaudio.com/support/register.php allows us to register key information so that we may handle problems faster and inform you of advance information
on upgrades and other news. Thanks in advance for filling out your registration card and sending it to us. We hope
you enjoy your Echo product.
Limited Warranty
Echo Digital Audio Corporation warrants this product, when purchased at an Authorized Echo Dealer in the United
States of America, to be free of defects in materials and manufacturing workmanship for a period of one year from
the date of original purchase. During the warranty period Echo shall, at its option, either repair or replace any
product that proves to be defective upon inspection by Echo. Final determination of warranty coverage lies solely
with Echo. Echo reserves the right to update any unit returned for repair, and reserves the right to change or
improve the design of the product at any time without notice.
This is your sole warranty. Echo does not authorize any third party, including any dealer or sales representative, to
assume any liability on behalf of Echo or to make any warranty for Echo.
Service and repairs of Echo products are to be performed only at the factory (see below) unless otherwise
authorized in advance by the Echo Service Department. Unauthorized service, repair or modification will void this
warranty.
To obtain factory service:
Contact Echo Digital Audio Corporation at (805) 684-4593, 9AM to 4PM Monday through Friday (Pacific Time).
If necessary, you will be given a return authorization number. Products returned without an RA number will be
refused. Echo may, at its option, require proof of the original date of purchase in the form of a dated copy of the
original authorized dealer’s invoice or sales receipt. Pack the product in its original shipping carton and attach a
description of the problem along with your name and a phone number where Echo can contact you if necessary.
Ship the product insured and freight prepaid to:
Echo Digital Audio Corporation
6450 Via Real Suite 1
Carpinteria, CA 93013
DISCLAIMER AND LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
Echo makes no other warranties, express, implied, or otherwise, regarding Echo products, and specifically disclaims
any warranty for merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. The exclusion of implied warranties is not
permitted in some states and the exclusions specified herein may not apply to you. This warranty provides you with
specific legal rights. There may be other rights that you have which vary from state to state.
In no event will Echo be liable for any lost profits, or for any consequential, direct or indirect damages, however
caused and on any theory of liability, arising from this warranty and sale.
©2003 by Echo Digital Audio Corporation
6450 Via Real Suite 1
Carpinteria, CA 93013
Echo®, Layla®24, Layla LapTop®, Gina®24, Mia™, and MiaMIDI™ are trademarks of Echo Digital Audio
Corporation.
ADAT® is a registered trademark of Alesis Corporation.
Apple®, Extensions Manager™, iTunes®, Mac®, Macintosh®, Mac OS®, PowerBook®, Quicktime®, and Sound
Manager™ are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE RECEIVED IN THE BOX
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
7
7
8
CHECKING OUT YOUR MAC
9
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
11
INSTALLING THE PCI CARD FOR DESKTOP COMPUTERS
INSTALLING THE CARDBUS ADAPTER FOR POWERBOOKS
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION – MAC OS 8/9
ASIO DRIVER INSTALLATION & CONFIGURATION – MAC OS 8/9
OMS SETUP – MAC OS 8/9 (LAYLA24 ONLY)
11
14
15
17
18
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION – MAC OS X
22
SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION – MAC OS X
24
LAYLA LAPTOP
27
AUDIO CONNECTIONS
29
CONNECTING TO LAYLA24’S RACK-MOUNT AUDIO INTERFACE
CONNECTING TO GINA24’S AUDIO INTERFACE
CONNECTING TO MIA
CONNECTING TO MIAMIDI
THE MAC OS 8/9 CONSOLE – LAYLA24 AND GINA24
RUNNING THE CONSOLE
THE CONSOLE WINDOW
MENUS
SHORTCUTS
THE MAC OS 8/9 CONSOLE – MIA AND MIAMIDI
RUNNING THE CONSOLE
THE CONSOLE WINDOW
MENUS
SHORTCUTS
THE MAC OS X CONSOLE
SETTINGS DIALOG
29
33
36
38
40
40
40
44
44
45
45
45
49
49
50
51
SYNCHRONIZING MULTIPLE DEVICES
52
ASIO DIRECT MONITORING – MAC OS 8/9
55
ASIO CONTROL PANEL – MAC OS 8/9
57
CONTACTING CUSTOMER SERVICE
59
APPENDIX A: GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
60
APPENDIX B: ASIO AUDIO SOFTWARE FAQ
63
ECHO24 ASIO DRIVER AND ASIO 2.0
63
APPENDIX C: INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL RECORDING
64
APPENDIX D: SPECIFICATIONS
71
Introduction – all products
Introduction
Thank you for choosing Echo Digital Audio. We think you’ll find your Echo
product to be an extremely flexible, high-performance tool for your computerbased hard disk recording system.
What You Should Have Received in the Box
When you opened the box, you should have found the following:
• A PCI card wrapped in an anti-static cover OR a CardBus Adapter
• An audio interface box (Layla24 and Gina24 only)
• Four adhesive backed rubber feet (Layla24 and Gina24 only)
• Four mounting screws with collars (Layla24 only)
• An interface cable (Layla24 and Gina24 only)
Please note: The cable included with the Gina24 system is a shielded audio
cable that has been custom manufactured to exacting standards. Use of any
other cable, such as a computer printer cable, will substantially reduce the
system’s overall audio quality.
• A power cable (Layla24 only)
• An Esync cable (Gina24 only)
• A MIDI-S/PDIF breakout cable (MiaMIDI only)
• A CD-ROM containing:
•
•
•
•
Windows 98/Me/2000/XP Drivers
Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Drivers
.PDF Users Guide
Demo versions of digital audio recording, editing, and processing
software from a variety of manufacturers
• Quick Start Guide
7
Introduction – all products
Introduction – all products
System Requirements
In order to use Layla24, Gina24, Mia, or MiaMIDI you’ll need the following:
An Apple brand Macintosh computer with:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PCI architecture expansion slots (PCI version 2.1)
A 604 or higher processor (G3 or G4 highly recommended)
A minimum 128Mb RAM (more highly recommended)
Mac OS 8.6 or higher -or- Mac OS X 10.1.3 or higher
A fast, high-capacity IDE, SCSI or firewire hard disk drive.
If you use Mac OS 8/9 – Audio software that supports ASIO.
If you use Mac OS X – Audio software that supports CoreAudio.
Peripheral audio equipment, such as a mixer, microphones, studio monitors,
musical instruments, etc.
Note: Echo will not be able to supply technical support for any non-Apple
brand Macintosh clone computers. In addition, your Echo hardware may not
work properly if you have a processor upgrade card installed.
In order to use Layla LapTop you’ll need the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An Apple Macintosh laptop G3 or G4 computer
Mac OS 8.6 or higher -or- Mac OS X 10.1.3 or higher
A minimum 128Mb RAM (more highly recommended)
A fast, high-capacity IDE, SCSI or firewire hard disk drive.
If you use Mac OS 8/9 – Audio software that supports ASIO.
If you use Mac OS X – Audio software that supports CoreAudio
Peripheral audio equipment, such as a mixer, microphones, studio monitors,
musical instruments, etc.
8
Introduction – all products
Checking out your Mac - all products
Checking out your Mac
Before you install anything, you should double-check that your Mac is
compatible with your new hardware.
1. Do you have enough memory? With your mouse select “About This
Computer” from the “Apple” menu. Look at the amount of “Built-in
Memory.” You will need at least 128MB to use your Echo hardware
properly. We strongly recommend having at least 256 MB.
2. Is your processor compatible? If you have a G3 or G4, then you can
skip to step three. If you aren’t sure, you can check using the Apple
System Profiler.
For Mac OS 8 or 9, select “Apple System Profiler” from the “Apple”
menu. Under the “System Profile” tab, look at the section entitled
“Hardware overview” and see what kind of processor you have.
For Mac OS X, open the Applications folder on your hard disk. Then,
open the Utilities folder. Double-click on the Apple System Profiler
application.
If you have a PowerPC 604 or higher (G3 or G4), then you can use your
Echo hardware.
Note: Your Echo hardware may not function properly if you have a
processor upgrade card installed.
3. Does your desktop machine have an open PCI slot? Make sure you
have an open PCI slot in your Mac. If you don’t know if you have one
offhand, you will have to open up the Mac and look. Make sure you shut
down the Mac and unplug the power cable before you open it. If you see
an open PCI slot, then you’re OK.
9
Checking out your Mac - all products
Checking out your Mac - all products
4. Have you run Software Update recently? Make sure that you have the
most recent updates for Mac OS installed. This is especially important
for OS X; if OS X is out of date, you may not be able to use your Echo
hardware at all.
If everything looks good, it’s time to move on to the next step.
10
Checking out your Mac - all products
Hardware installation – all products
Hardware Installation
The following steps will guide you through installing your Echo hardware.
Installing the PCI Card for Desktop Computers
Once you have checked your system requirements, verified that there are no
problems with your system, and installed your audio software, it is time to install
the Echo hardware into your computer. Please refer to the section in your
Macintosh manual for installing a PCI card.
IMPORTANT - Unplug your computer and detach all peripherals before
proceeding with the following steps.
1. Remove your computer’s cover. This operation differs from computer to
computer. Refer to your computer’s manual for a further explanation of this step
if necessary.
2. Select the PCI slot into which you will install the card. You may use any of the
available PCI slots in your computer for the card. Remove the bracket covering
the expansion slot where you would like to install your Echo product. If there
was a screw for the bracket, put it in a safe place, as you will need it later to
complete the installation.
3. Insure that you have fully discharged all static electricity from your body
before handling the card. This can be done through the use of a grounding strap
or, more simply, by touching your bare hand to the metal casing of the
computer’s power supply. (For this latter method to work, the computer must be
plugged in, though not turned on.) After you’ve discharged your static, unplug
the computer before proceeding to the next step.
4. Remove the card from its protective anti-static bag. Handle the card carefully
by its edges, and insert it into the selected expansion slot. Insure that the
card’s edge connector (the protruding edge with the gold leads) is seated firmly
into the slot. Centering the card over the slot and using a gentle rocking motion
while pushing downward into the slot generally works well. Be careful not to
force the card into the slot, or bend or twist it while it is being inserted, as this
could result in the card being damaged.
5. Now use the screw that you removed earlier, from the protective back plate, to
attach the metal bracket on the card to the computer’s rear panel. On some
older Macs, the locking mechanisms used to hold down the PCI cards cause
difficulties properly seating the cards. We recommend checking the card and
making sure it is well seated and liable to stay that way. If the card is loose or
being pushed around by the locking mechanism, we recommend loosening the
11
Hardware installation – all products
Hardware installation – all products
hex screws that hold the back-plate of the card to the Mac. The back-plate is the
thin piece of metal connected to the card that sits against the case of your
computer. Another option, if that piece needs a little more play, is to gently
bend it back. Some users have broken the plastic that comes with their Mac to
solve this problem. However, due to Mac warranty issues, we are not able to
recommend this approach.
6. OPTIONAL: (If you have Mia or MiaMIDI, skip this step.) An Esync cable
comes with Gina24, and can be used to daisy chain several 24-bit Echo cards
together. Esync is a proprietary form of super clock that allows you to sync
together multiple 24-bit Echo products. Simply attach the Esync cable to the
two-prong “Esync Out” connector on the Layla24/Gina24 PCI card, and attach
the other end to the “Esync In” connector on your Gina24 PCI card.
7. Replace the computer’s cover, and secure it. Reattach its power supply cord
and reconnect any peripherals that you may have removed prior to beginning the
installation.
8. (Layla24 and Gina24 only) Locate the audio interface box , the interface cable,
and the power cable. Securely mount the interface into your equipment rack
(Layla24 only). If you will not be mounting the box in a rack, remove the
backing from the four rubber feet and place one in each bottom corner of the
interface unit. Then be sure to locate the rack-mount box in a secure location.
Plug one end of the cable into the connector on the Echo PCI card that now
protrudes through the back panel of your computer, and secure the cable using
the built-in screws located on both sides of the connector. Attach the other end
of the cable to the connector on the rear of the interface labeled computer and
fasten the cable securely with the screws. Plug the power cable firmly into the
interface and a power socket, but do not turn on the interface at this time
(Layla24 only).
Caution: Never connect the rack-mount interface to the computer while either
the interface or your computer is turned on.
9. (MiaMIDI only) Now that MiaMIDI is plugged into your computer, you will
need to connect the MIDI-S/PDIF breakout cable to the back of the MiaMIDI
card. Take the breakout cable and plug it into the 7-pin DIN connector labeled
MIDI S/PDIF at the bottom of the PCI card bracket.
10. You can now attach external audio devices to the connectors. Information on
attaching external devices to your particular interface may be found in the
following sections.
11. Layla24 only – Turn on your Layla24 audio interface box.
12
Hardware installation – all products
Hardware installation – all products
12. Turn on your Mac.
13
Hardware installation – all products
Hardware installation – all products
Installing the CardBus Adapter for PowerBooks
Once you verified that there are no problems with your system, it is time to install
Layla LapTop into your PowerBook.
1. Locate the rack-mount interface, the 9-pin interface cable, and the power cable.
Securely mount the interface into your equipment rack. If you will not be
mounting the box in a rack, remove the backing from the four rubber feet and
place one in each bottom corner of the interface unit. Then be sure to locate the
rack-mount box in a secure location.
2. Connect the cable. Before installing the card into the computer, connect the
cable between the card and the rack-mount chassis. Make sure the cable is fully
inserted into the card and that it “clicks” into place. You may have to wiggle it
a bit for this to happen.
3. Insert the LapTop adapter into your computer. Make sure the computer is
turned off. To install the card, insert it into any available CardBus slot. Next,
turn on the audio interface box.
4. You can now attach external audio devices to the connectors. Information on
attaching external devices to your particular interface may be found in the
following sections.
5. Turn on your audio interface box.
6. Turn on your Mac.
Note: There is a known incompatibility with the LapTop adapter and the older “Lombard” PowerBooks (G3, 300400MHz) from Apple. Unfortunately, this is a hardware incompatibility and cannot be resolved. The adapter should
work properly in all other PowerBooks.
14
Hardware installation – all products
Software installation – Mac OS 8/9, all products
Software Installation – Mac OS 8/9
Now that your hardware is installed, you need to install the software.
1. Power up. Turn on your Macintosh.
2. Start the Installer. Insert the Installation CD into your CD-ROM drive. Open
the folder labeled “Mac OS 8 & 9”. Double click the icon labeled Install
Echo24. Click the Continue button.
3. Install the software. Now you will be able to choose where the Echo24
Console software is installed. The default setting will create a folder called
“Echo” on your main hard drive. When you are ready, click the Install button.
The installer will now create the folder where you told it to and place the
Console, the ASIO driver, and this manual inside it.
15
Software installation – Mac OS 8/9, all products
Software installation – Mac OS 8/9, all products
4. Installation completed. You will now see a message telling you that the
installation was successful. Go ahead and click the Quit button. If you do not
see this message, then please turn to Appendix A: General Troubleshooting
Guide in the back of this manual for help.
16
Software installation – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO Driver Installation – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO Driver Installation & Configuration – Mac OS
8/9
Now that you’ve run the Mac OS 8/9 Echo24 Card Installer program, you
will need to manually install the ASIO Echo24 driver. With Mac OS 8/9,
Echo hardware only supports ASIO; Sound Manager is not supported.
1. Find it. Find the ASIO Echo24 file in the newly created Echo folder.
2. Copy it. Create a copy of this file. You will need one copy for every
ASIO based software program you have installed. You can copy it by
dragging it to the desktop (or another folder) while holding down the
option key.
3. Move it. Put a copy of the ASIO Echo24 file into the ASIO Drivers
folder of your ASIO based software program. You will need to do this
separately for each ASIO based software program you have installed.
4. Configure it. You will now need to select and configure the ASIO
Echo24 driver from within your ASIO based software program. Please
refer to the manual for your ASIO based software on how to do this.
This completes the installation of the hardware and software for Gina24,
Mia, and MiaMIDI under OS 8/9. Layla24 users should read the following
section on OMS setup for MIDI.
NOTE: There is currently no MIDI support for MiaMIDI under OS 8/9. To
use the MIDI features of MiaMIDI you will have to use OS X.
17
ASIO Driver Installation – Mac OS 8/9, all products
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
OMS Setup – Mac OS 8/9 (Layla24 Only)
If you want to use MIDI input and output on your Layla24, you will need to
use Opcode’s OMS.
1. Install OMS. OMS is included on the CD that came with your Echo
product; you’ll find it in the OMS folder inside of the “Mac OS 8 & 9”
folder. Just double-click the installer.
2. Run OMS Setup. Now, you will need to find the Opcode folder on your
hard drive where you installed OMS. Open it and then open the folder
called OMS Applications. Find OMS Setup and double click it.
18
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
3. Create a New Studio Setup. Go to the File menu and click New Studio
Setup. Click OK. A new window will come up. Click Search. OMS will
search for any new equipment, and then you should see Layla24
recognized in a window like this:
19
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
4. Verify that the Echo OMS driver is recognized. The OMS Driver
Setup window recognizes MIDI hardware drivers in your system. If there
is something missing, then refer to your OMS manual and follow the
instructions. If everything is OK, then click OK. Now you will see the
OMS MIDI Device Setup window.
5. Verify that your MIDI devices are recognized. This window
recognizes any MIDI devices (like synthesizers) currently attached to
your system through your MIDI hardware (like Layla24). In the example
you can see that an MU5 Tone Generator is attached to the system
through Layla24. Scroll down and make sure everything is OK. If there is
a problem, or you need to edit your setup, then refer to your OMS manual
for instructions. If all is well, click OK.
20
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
6. Save the new studio setup. Now you will be asked to save the new
studio setup. You can overwrite your old setup with the same name or
create a new one. Click Save when you’re done and you’ll see a window
displaying your new setup.
7. Test it. If you want to test your new setup, go to the Studio menu and
click Test Studio. Your mouse pointer will turn into a musical note. In
the Setup window, click on a tone generator or synthesizer. If it’s turned
on and hooked up properly, then you should hear a sound coming out of
the MIDI device’s outputs. If you do, then you’re all done.
This completes the installation of the hardware and software for Layla24
under OS 8/9.
21
OMS setup – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Software Installation – Mac OS X
Now that your hardware is installed, you need to install the software.
1. Power up. Turn on your Macintosh.
2. Select your operating system: Insert the Installation CD into your CDROM drive. You will need to select the correct folder for your operating
system:
Mac OS X 10.1: Open the “Mac OS X 10.1” folder.
Jaguar: Open the “Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar)” folder.
3. Install the console. Just drag the icon labeled “Echo24 Console” to your
Applications folder; the easiest way to do this is to drag it to the
“Applications” icon at the top of the Finder window.
4. Start the installer. Start the installer by double-clicking the installer icon for
your operating system:
Mac OS X 10.1: Double-click on “Echo24 1.2 for OS X 10.1”.
Jaguar: Double-click on “Echo24 1.2 for Jaguar”.
5. Enter your Administrator password. Once the installer has started, you’ll
need to reassure the Mac that you are allowed to install hardware drivers.
Mac OS X 10.1: Click on the padlock icon to enter your administrator
password.
22
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Jaguar: You will be prompted to enter your administrator password.
Once you’ve entered your password, follow the on-screen prompts. The
installer will load the CoreAudio and CoreMIDI drivers.
23
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Software Configuration – Mac OS X
Now that you have installed the driver software, you can verify that everything is
working properly.
Open the System Preferences and select the Sound panel. Under the “Output” tab,
you should see your Echo hardware listed as a sound output device. If you want to
use your Echo hardware with iTunes or QuickTime, you will need to select it as the
sound output device.
24
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
If you are running Jaguar, you can also check out your hardware with the “Audio
MIDI Setup” application. Go to your Applications folder on your hard disk and
from there to the Utilities folder. Open “Audio MIDI Setup.”
In addition to listing all the audio devices in the system, Audio MIDI Setup lets
you examine the various audio formats supported by the hardware in your Mac.
25
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
If you have a Layla24 or MiaMIDI card, click on the “MIDI Devices” tab. This
will display available CoreMIDI devices. You should see your Layla24 or
MiaMIDI hardware shown as an icon here.
Finally, you can run the OS X console. This is covered in more detail later in this
document.
This completes the installation of the hardware and software for Layla24, Gina24,
Mia, and MiaMIDI under OS X.
26
Software installation – Mac OS X, all products
Layla LapTop
Layla LapTop
Layla LapTop – Mac OS 8/9
When the desktop appears, there should be a “CardBus” icon on the desktop
labeled “Layla24”. This shows the card is recognized and that your Layla24 is
ready to use.
While it is possible to “hot-dock” the card and insert it with the laptop powered up,
it is recommended that the card only be inserted or removed with the power off. If
you have to remove the card with the power on, you must disable it first. To do
this, drag the CardBus icon into the trashcan. Once the icon is no longer visible,
you may remove the card. Failure to disable the card before removing it could
potentially damage the card or the computer.
Layla LapTop – Mac OS X 10.1
While it is possible to “hot-dock” the card and insert it with the laptop powered up,
it is recommended that the card only be inserted with the power off.
Please do not remove the card while your PowerBook is turned on; if you do so,
you may damage either the card or your PowerBook.
27
Layla LapTop
Layla LapTop
Layla LapTop – Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar)
If you are using Layla LapTop with Mac OS X 10.2, you may notice a menu in the
upper right corner of the screen that looks like this:
As of this writing, Layla LapTop is not compatible with this component of Jaguar.
Selecting the “Power off Card” option causes the PowerBook to shut down. In
addition, the card is listed as manufactured by an “Unknown Vendor.”
Otherwise, Layla LapTop works very well with Jaguar. For the time being, please
be sure and shut down your PowerBook before removing Layla LapTop.
We are working with Apple to resolve this issue.
This completes the installation of the hardware and software for Layla LapTop.
28
Layla LapTop
Audio connections – Layla24
Audio connections
Connecting to Layla24’s Rack-mount Audio Interface
The back panel of Layla24’s rack-mount audio interface contains a wide variety of
connections that allow great flexibility in the operation of Layla24. For optimal
performance with Layla24, it is critical to use the appropriate cabling and
connectors.
Analog Inputs and Outputs
Layla24 has eight analog inputs and eight analog outputs on the rear panel. The
input and output connections can accept unbalanced or balanced signals via ¼”
connectors. For more information see “Unbalanced and Balanced Inputs and
Outputs” in Appendix C.
By default, the inputs and outputs are set to receive or send a +4 dBu signal. You
can also select –10 dBV for each individual input and output (see the description of
the console, below).
Layla24’s front panel has a ¼” headphone output jack with a corresponding
volume knob which monitors analog outputs 1 and 2.
29
Audio connections – Layla24
Audio connections – Layla24
The Computer Connector
Next to the analog inputs and outputs is a connector labeled COMPUTER. This
connector is known as a DB-9, and is similar to the serial port on a PC. It is the
point at which the audio interface connects to the Layla24 PCI card inside your
computer.
A cable was supplied with your Layla24 for this purpose. This custom made cable
is manufactured to certain specifications; if you need to replace it, you should only
use a replacement cable from Echo.
ADAT / S/PDIF Optical I/O
Next to the COMPUTER connector is a pair of connectors labeled OPTICAL, IN
and OUT. These connectors are used to transmit digital audio data via an optical
signal.
You can use this port for ADAT (8 channels) or for optical S/PDIF (stereo) I/O.
Note: Layla24 is only capable of transmitting or receiving one type of
digital signal at a time. You must choose either ADAT optical or S/PDIF
(optical or RCA); you cannot use both simultaneously. The Digital Mode
Switch can be found in the Layla24 Console. For more information, refer to
the section of the manual that discusses the console.
30
Audio connections – Layla24
Audio connections – Layla24
S/PDIF
Next to the ADAT connectors is a pair of connectors labeled S/PDIF, IN and
OUT. These connectors are used to transmit digital audio data via an electrical
signal. S/PDIF data can use the full 24-bit sample width used internally on
Layla24.
When connecting devices to the S/PDIF jacks on Layla24, the use of standard
analog RCA audio cables is not recommended. For reliable S/PDIF operation, 75ohm coaxial (RG59) video cables are recommended.
Word Clock
Next to the S/PDIF ports are the Word Clock connectors. These connectors allow
you to synchronize one Layla24 to another Layla24, Layla, Mona or to other
digital audio devices.
The Word Clock I/O uses a BNC connector. As with the S/PDIF I/O, a shielded
75-ohm (RG-59) coaxial video cable should be used. BNC connectors are widely
used in the electronics industry for both video and computer networking. However,
computer networks use 50-ohm (RG-58) coaxial cables and not the 75-ohm (RG59) cable used by video. For reliable word clock operation, use only video grade
cables with Layla24.
31
Audio connections – Layla24
Audio connections – Layla24
MIDI
The last set of connections to the Layla24 interface is for MIDI. The MIDI ports
can be used for receiving MIDI time code (MTC), or sending MIDI signals from
your digital audio/MIDI sequencing software to external sound modules, etc.
MIDI cabling is highly standardized and widely available.
32
Audio connections – Layla24
Audio connections – Gina24
Connecting to Gina24’s Audio Interface
The front and back panels of Gina24’s audio interface contain a wide variety
of connections that allow great flexibility in the operation of Gina24. To
achieve the optimal performance with Gina24, it is critical that the
appropriate cabling and connectors are used.
Analog Inputs and Outputs
Gina24 has two analog inputs and eight analog outputs on the front panel.
The input and output connections can accept balanced or unbalanced jacks
via ¼” connectors. By default, the inputs and outputs are set to receive or
send a +4 dBu signal. You can also select –10 dBV for each individual
input and output (see the description of the console, below).
Gina24’s front panel also has a ¼” headphone output jack with a
corresponding volume knob which monitors analog outputs 1 and 2.
The Computer Connector
On the back panel of the Gina24 audio interface box is a connector labeled
COMPUTER. It is the point at which the audio interface connects to the
Gina24 PCI card inside your computer.
33
Audio connections – Gina24
Audio connections – Gina24
A cable was supplied with your Gina24 for this purpose. This custom made
cable is manufactured to certain specifications; if you need to replace it, you
should only use a replacement cable from Echo.
Please Note: The Gina24 cable is NOT interchangeable with Darla24
or Gina (20-bit) cables.
ADAT / S/PDIF optical I/O
Next to the COMPUTER connector is a pair of connectors labeled
OPTICAL, IN and OUT. These connectors are used to transmit digital
audio data via an optical signal.
You can use this port for ADAT (8 channels) or for optical S/PDIF (stereo)
I/O.
Note: Gina24 is only capable of transmitting or receiving one type of
digital signal at a time. You must choose either ADAT optical or
S/PDIF (optical or RCA); you cannot use both simultaneously. The
Digital Mode Switch can be found in the Gina24 Console. For more
information, please refer to the console section of this manual.
34
Audio connections – Gina24
Audio connections – Gina24
S/PDIF
Next to the ADAT connectors is a pair of connectors labeled S/PDIF, IN
and OUT. These connectors are used to transmit digital audio data via an
electrical signal. S/PDIF data can use the full 24-bit sample width used
internally on Gina24.
When connecting devices to the S/PDIF jacks on Gina24, the use of standard
analog RCA audio cables is not recommended. For reliable S/PDIF
operation, 75ohm coaxial (RG59) video cables are recommended.
35
Audio connections – Gina24
Audio connections – Mia
Connecting to Mia
Analog Inputs and Outputs
Mia has two analog outputs (OUT1 and OUT2) and two
analog inputs (IN1 and IN2) on the back. The input and
output connections can accept balanced or unbalanced
jacks via ¼” connectors. By default, both the inputs and
outputs are set to receive or send a +4 dBu signal. You
can also select –10 dBV for each individual input and
output (see the description of the console, below).
For optimum performance it is recommended that you use
balanced signals when connecting to Mia’s analog
connectors. Mia uses TRS connectors (tip, ring, sleeve)
for connecting balanced line level signals.
The three sections of a TRS connector are used to
transmit the three components of a balanced signal (T =
plus, R = minus, S = ground). Mia will also accommodate
the two conductor unbalanced style connector.
36
Audio connections – Mia
Audio connections – Mia
S/PDIF Digital Inputs and Outputs
Under the analog connectors is a pair of connectors labeled DOUT and DIN.
These connectors are used to transmit digital audio data via an electrical
signal. S/PDIF data can use the full 24-bit sample width used internally on
Mia.
When connecting devices to the S/PDIF jacks on Mia, the use of standard
analog RCA audio cables is not recommended. For reliable S/PDIF
operation, 75ohm coaxial (RG59) video cables are recommended.
37
Audio connections – Mia
Audio connections – MiaMIDI
Connecting to MiaMIDI
Analog Inputs and Outputs
MiaMIDI has two analog outputs (OUT1 and OUT2) and two
analog inputs (IN1 and IN2) on the back. The input and output
connections can accept balanced or unbalanced jacks via ¼”
connectors. By default, both the inputs and outputs are set to
receive or send a +4 dBu signal. You can also select –10 dBV
for each individual input and output (see the description of the
console, below).
For optimum performance it is recommended that you use
balanced signals when connecting to MiaMIDI’s analog
connectors. MiaMIDI uses TRS connectors (tip, ring, sleeve)
for connecting balanced line level signals.
The three sections of a TRS connector are used to transmit the
three components of a balanced signal (T = plus, R = minus, S =
ground). MiaMIDI will also accommodate the two conductor unbalanced
style connector.
38
Audio connections – MiaMIDI
Audio connections – MiaMIDI
MIDI-S/PDIF Breakout Cable
To connect MIDI or S/PDIF signals to MiaMIDI, you will need to first
connect the breakout cable. The breakout cable looks like this:
MIDI and S/PDIF inputs are on the left side, just under the label “IN”.
Outputs are, obviously, on the right.
To use the breakout cable, connect the 7-pin DIN connector at the other end
of the breakout cable to the connector labeled “MIDI S/PDIF” at the bottom
of the PCI card bracket.
The S/PDIF connectors are used to transmit digital audio data via an
electrical signal. S/PDIF data can use the full 24-bit sample width used
internally on MiaMIDI.
When connecting devices to the S/PDIF jacks on MiaMIDI, the use of
standard analog RCA audio cables is not recommended. For reliable S/PDIF
operation, 75ohm coaxial (RG59) video cables are recommended.
The MIDI ports can be used for receiving MIDI time code (MTC), or
sending MIDI signals from your digital audio/MIDI sequencing software to
external sound modules, etc. MIDI cabling is highly standardized and
widely available.
39
Audio connections – MiaMIDI
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
The Mac OS 8/9 Console – Layla24 and Gina24
A “virtual control surface” application called the Console is included with
the Mac driver. The Console allows you to control the audio I/O and
clocking functions of your Echo hardware, and it brings these controls to a
single easy-to-use location. From the console you can control the output
levels, select synchronization clocks, select the digital mode, and adjust
input monitoring.
Running the console
Once you have run the installer, you will find the console in a folder called
“Echo” on your hard drive. Double-click on the icon labeled “Echo24
Console”.
The console window
The basic metaphor for the console interface is a digital mixing board. It
works in terms of output busses. An output bus is a stereo pair of outputs on
your hardware; for example, analog outputs 1 and 2. The console window
allows you to 1) select an output bus and 2) control what is mixed and sent
to that output bus.
The following may be mixed to an output bus:
•
•
Any analog input
Any digital input
40
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Here’s a picture of the console for Layla24 (Gina24 is similar):
Bus select: The bus select panel is the area outlined in green. Eight
different output busses are shown here: four analog busses in the top row
and four digital busses on the bottom row. Each bus has its own button
marked with either an A or D (Analog or Digital) and a channel number pair.
The highlighted button is the currently active bus. All monitor controls
remain in effect even when not displayed by maintaining a level setting for
each monitor path it controls. Clicking on an output bus button simply
selects the settings that are displayed. In this case, Analog 1-2 (A 1-2) is the
active bus. This means all input monitor parameters such as volume, pan,
and mute apply to the audio coming out Analog outputs 1 and 2 of Layla24.
To select an output bus, click on one of the buttons.
41
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Master output bus control: The master bus control is the area outlined in
purple. At the bottom is the label “Analog out 1-2.” This indicates you are
currently controlling everything mixed to analog outputs 1 and 2. These
channels correspond to the currently selected button on the bus select panel.
The two buttons labeled “+4” are the nominal level select buttons. Since
they both read “+4,” this indicates these outputs are sending a +4dBu
(professional level) signal. To send a –10dBV (consumer level) signal, click
the button. This feature allows you to connect either professional or
consumer gear to each output.
The mute buttons and faders affect everything being mixed to this bus.
Thus, pulling the fader down will make both the input monitors and
playback quieter.
The gang button, marked with a “G,” sets the gang mode. If you are in gang
mode, the mute buttons and nominal level buttons will work together; for
example, clicking the mute on one channel activates the mute button on the
other channel. Also, ganging the faders ties them together so they will
maintain their relative placement with regard to each other.
Analog inputs: The controls for the analog inputs are outlined in red and
have the label “Analog in” at the bottom. There is one strip, or input
monitor, corresponding to each of Layla24’s eight physical analog inputs.
The controls affect the audio going to the currently selected output bus; in
this case audio is sent to outputs Analog 1 and 2.
The topmost control is a button labeled “+4”; this button allows you to select
the nominal level for this analog input. Since the button currently reads
“+4,” it is ready to accept a +4 dBu signal. Click the button to change this
input to –10 dBV mode. This button will affect the level of what you record
as well as the monitor level.
Below the “nominal level” button is the peak meter for this channel, labeled
in decibels. The red segment of the peak meter starts at –3 dB and the yellow
starts at –12 dB. Under the peak meter is the monitor pan slider; this pans
the input channel between the two channels of the output bus. Holding
down the Ctrl key and clicking on a pan slider will set the slider to the center
42
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
position. Note that this does not affect your recording. Below the pan slider
is the monitor mute. This controls whether or not you want this input
channel to be mixed directly out to the currently selected output bus. Again,
this does not affect recording. This is followed by the monitor fader, and it
controls the input monitor level. Like the pan and mute controls, this does
not affect your record level. Also, clicking on the readout below the fader
will allow you to numerically enter a fader setting.
The analog inputs also have gang buttons, and their operation is the same as
the gang button for the master outputs.
Digital inputs: The controls for the digital inputs are outlined in light blue
and have the label “digital in” at the bottom. Their operation is identical to
the analog input controls except the digital input controls don’t include a
nominal level button.
For Layla24 and Gina24, whether you are monitoring the S/PDIF or the
ADAT inputs depends upon the digital mode you have selected. If you are
in either S/PDIF mode, the S/PDIF inputs will come in digital inputs 1 and
2. If you are in ADAT mode, the ADAT signal will come in on all eight
digital inputs.
Playback strips: The controls for the level of audio being played by an
application are outlined in orange and have the label “playback” at the
bottom. Notice you cannot pan or otherwise redirect here; if you are playing
out of analog 1 and 2 from your application, it will only be sent to that same
bus.
Clock and digital mode settings: The area within the yellow outline on the
upper right lets you select your sync source and digital mode. If a given
clock is detected, the green indicator next to the clock button will light up.
You will only be allowed to select clocks that have been detected. Also, you
may only select the digital mode if the there aren’t any applications actively
playing or recording.
Note: Sample rates above 48kHz will not be available while ADAT mode is
selected. This is because ADAT does not support sample rates higher than
48kHz.
43
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Menus
You can set your S/PDIF output format by selecting File/Preferences. This
lets you configure your card for professional or consumer format S/PDIF
output. Some S/PDIF devices need to see one format or another; if you are
having trouble connecting a S/PDIF device to the digital output of your Echo
card, try changing this setting.
The “Active Card” menu is used when you have more than one Echo card;
use this menu to switch between the different cards.
Shortcuts
Shift-drag: Holding down the Shift key and dragging a fader will invert the
current gang state. If a fader is ganged, shift-dragging will treat the fader as
if it were unganged and vice versa.
Quick 0 dB: Holding down the Command key and clicking on a fader will
set that fader to 0 dB.
Center pan: Holding down the Command key and clicking on a pan slider
will set the slider to the center position.
44
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Layla24 and Gina24
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
The Mac OS 8/9 Console – Mia and MiaMIDI
A “virtual control surface” application called the Console is included with
the Mac driver. The Console allows you to control the audio I/O and
clocking functions of your Echo hardware, and it brings these controls to a
single easy-to-use location. From the console you can control the output
levels, select synchronization clocks, select the digital mode, and adjust
input monitoring.
Running the console
Once you have run the installer, you will find the console in a folder called
“Echo” on your hard drive. Double-click on the icon labeled “Echo24
Console”.
The console window
The basic metaphor for the console interface is a digital mixing board. It
works in terms of output busses. An output bus is a stereo pair of outputs on
your hardware; for example, analog outputs 1 and 2. The console window
allows you to 1) select an output bus and 2) control what is mixed and sent
to that output bus.
The following may be mixed to an output bus:
•
•
•
Any analog input
Any digital input
Any virtual output
Mia/MiaMIDI’s most unique feature is the virtual outputs – audio software
is presented with eight separate outputs. Using the console, you can
configure Mia/MiaMIDI’s on-board digital mixer to mix those eight outputs
to any of the analog or digital outputs in any combination. You therefore
have eight virtual outputs that are mixed down to the four physical outputs.
45
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Here’s a picture of the console for Mia/MiaMIDI:
Bus select: Let’s start with the area within the green outline on the right.
This is the bus select panel. Two different output busses are shown here: the
analog output bus on top, and the digital output bus on the bottom row.
Click on the label below the meters to select the bus.
Master output bus control: Now, let’s consider the area in the purple
outline on the lower right. This is the master bus control.
At the top of this area you will see the label “Analog out 1-2”. This
indicates that you are currently controlling everything that will be mixed out
46
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
to analog outputs 1 and 2, which corresponds to the green “A 1-2” on the
bus select panel.
The two buttons labeled “+4” are the nominal level select buttons. Since
they both read “+4”, this indicates that these outputs are sending a +4 dBu
signal. To send a –10 dBV signal, click the button.
The mute buttons and faders affect everything being mixed to this bus; that
is, pulling the fader down will make both the input monitors and playback
quieter.
Below each fader is a readout displaying the current fader setting. You may
click on the readout and enter a gain value directly.
Analog inputs: Next up is the area all the way to the left within the red
outline. This area is divided up into two vertical strips. These are the
controls for the analog inputs. Since Mia/MiaMIDI only has two analog
inputs, only two strips are shown. The controls on these strips have to do
both with what you record and what you are listening too right now (i.e. the
input monitor).
The topmost control is a button labeled “+4”; this button will allow you to
select the nominal level for this analog input. Since the button currently
reads “+4”, it is ready to accept a +4 dBu signal. Click the button to change
this input to –10 dBV mode. This button will affect the level of what you
record as well as the monitor level.
Below that is the peak meter for this channel. The red segment of the peak
meter starts at –3 dB and the yellow starts at –12 dB.
Next is the monitor pan knob; this pans the input channel between the two
channels of the output bus. Note that this does not affect what you record.
Next is the monitor mute. This controls whether or not you want this input
channel to be mixed directly back out to the currently selected output bus.
Again, this does not affect recording.
47
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
This is followed by the monitor fader. This controls the input monitor level.
Once again, this does not affect your record level.
The button marked “G” between each fader is the gang button. If you click
on the gang button, that pair of faders will be in gang mode and will move
together when you move one or the other.
Digital inputs: These are within the light blue outline. They work just like
the analog inputs, but represent Mia/MiaMIDI’s S/PDIF inputs.
Playback strips: The area within the orange outline controls the level of
audio being played by an application. These control the eight virtual outputs
that Mia/MiaMIDI’s ASIO driver presents to audio applications. Use the
faders, mutes, and pans to mix the virtual outputs out to the physical outputs.
Note that Mia/MiaMIDI defaults to virtual output 1/2 routed to the analog
outputs and virtual output 3/4 routed to the digital outputs. If you don’t
want to use the virtual output feature, just use output 1/2 as your analog
outputs and 3/4 for your digital outputs.
Clock setting: The area within the yellow outline on the upper right lets
you select your sync source and digital mode. If a given clock is detected,
the green indicator next to the clock button will light up. You will only be
allowed to select clocks that have been detected.
48
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Menus
You can set your S/PDIF output format by selecting File/Preferences. This
lets you configure your card for professional or consumer format S/PDIF
output. Some S/PDIF devices need to see one format or another. If you are
having trouble connecting a S/PDIF device to the digital output of your Echo
card, try changing this setting.
The “Active Card” menu is used when you have more than one Echo card;
use this menu to switch between the different cards.
Shortcuts
Shift-drag: Holding down the Shift key and dragging a fader will invert the
current gang state. If a fader is ganged, shift-dragging will treat the fader as
if it were unganged and vice versa.
Quick 0 dB: Holding down the Command key and clicking on a fader will
set that fader to 0 dB.
Center pan: Holding down the Command key and clicking on a pan slider
will set the slider to the center position.
49
Console – Mac OS 8/9, Mia and MiaMIDI
Console – Mac OS X, all products
The Mac OS X Console
A “virtual control surface” application called the Console is included with
the Mac driver. The console for Mac OS X is very similar to the console for
Mac OS 8/9; the main difference is that the console has a different visual
appearance that is more consistent with the OS X Aqua interface.
Since the two are so similar, please refer to the OS 8/9 console chapters for
more information on how to use the OS X console.
The only real difference between the two consoles is that the OS X console
supports the digital input auto mute for Gina24 and Layla24 (please see next
page).
50
Console – Mac OS X, all products
Console – Mac OS X, all products
Settings dialog
The settings dialog for the OS X console lets you set the S/PDIF output
format and the digital input auto-mute.
The S/PDIF format lets you select the format of the outgoing S/PDIF status
bits. Different S/PDIF receivers need to see the S/PDIF status bits formatted
in either consumer or professional format; if you are having trouble
connecting the S/PDIF output on your Echo hardware, try changing this
setting.
The digital input auto-mute automatically silences the S/PDIF and ADAT
inputs when they are not synchronized to an external clock. This avoids
problems where extremely loud digital noise is heard when signals at
differing sample rates are sent to the digital-in or when a digital cable is
unplugged. If you are having trouble receiving signal on your digital inputs,
uncheck this box.
51
Console – Mac OS X, all products
Synchronizing multiple devices
Synchronizing Multiple Devices
Layla24, Gina24, Mia, and MiaMIDI are designed to work alongside other
audio equipment. If you are planning on using your card with other audio
equipment, please note the following:
The Mac drivers included in this package support multiple Echo cards within
the same system. In addition, your new Echo hardware will operate
alongside other Echo products. Echo hardware can also peacefully coexist
with audio equipment from other manufacturers, but be aware that operating
alongside another product is not the same as operating with it. In order for
accurate synchronization to occur, the other audio product(s) in your system
must support a synchronization mode that is compatible with your particular
Echo hardware. Without such synchronization, the individual pieces of
equipment will act independently of each other. This scenario may be fine
for some musical applications; however, it is not appropriate for situations
where sample-accurate synchronization is required or that will be affected by
clock drift.
Let’s take a brief look at the various synchronization types.
Word Clock – This is a synchronization signal that connects to the BNC
connector labeled Word Clock on Layla24’s back panel. This
synchronization clock runs at the selected sample rate. Think of it as a kind
of electronic metronome, which clicks back and forth at the digital sample
rate. It is one of the most widely used forms of synchronization in digital
audio. Layla24 is always generating Word Clock on its Word Clock output
BNC connector. Although it can generate Word Clock at any sample rate it
is set to, Layla24 can only sync to Word Clock if the master device is set to a
sample rate between 30kHz and 100kHz. Otherwise you will get noise
and/or loss of sync.
52
Synchronizing multiple devices
Synchronizing multiple devices
S/PDIF – The Sony/Phillips Digital Interchange Format is a serial bitstream that has a clock signal embedded in the data stream. When recording
from an S/PDIF source, whether via optical cables or RCA cables, Echo
products will utilize the synchronization clock that is embedded in the
S/PDIF while it decodes the bitstream. Your Echo digital audio system can
only sync to S/PDIF clock if the master device is set to a sample rate
between 30kHz and 50kHz. Otherwise you will get noise and/or loss of
sync.
Note: When recording from a S/PDIF port, you must select S/PDIF as the
input clock. For greater flexibility, this is not done automatically. If you
find that your S/PDIF recordings contain pops or skips, be sure that you
have selected S/PDIF as your input clock.
ADAT – (Layla24/Gina24) The Alesis ADAT optical interface can send
and receive up to 8 simultaneous channels of digital audio data over fiber
optic cables. Unlike wire cables, fiber optic cables do not add noise or
interference. Layla24/Gina24 can send out (or “master”) ADAT clock as
well slave to it. If you want the interface to slave to an ADAT clock, just set
the input clock to the ADAT setting. Layla24/Gina24 can only sync to
ADAT clock if the master device is set to a sample rate between 40kHz and
50kHz. Otherwise you will get noise and/or loss of sync.
Note: To preserve the high audio quality of Layla24/Gina24’s converters it
is best to use the Internal input clock setting instead of synchronizing to an
external ADAT clock, which may add unwanted jitter to the signal.
Esync – Esync is a proprietary form of super clock that is used to
synchronize two or more Echo 24-bit products like Layla24, Gina24, and
Darla24. While Gina24 and Darla24 have both input and output connectors
on their PCI cards, Layla24 only has the Esync output connector.
Layla24/Gina24 are always transmitting Esync clock.
Mia and MiaMIDI do not support the Esync feature.
53
Synchronizing multiple devices
Synchronizing multiple devices
Now let’s take a look at some sample configurations and how you might set
them up from a synchronization standpoint.
Let’s start with a simple example. Suppose that Layla24 is the only audio
device used in your system. Since you have no other devices to synchronize
with, simply select Internal for Layla24’s input clock. Layla24 will then use
its own clock to control its operation.
Now a little more complicated set-up: You have two Layla24s connected.
Simply set Layla24 #1 to Internal for its input clock. Now connect the first
Layla24 to the second one via a BNC cable running from Word Clock Out
on Layla24 #1 to Word Clock In on Layla24 #2. Now select Word for
Layla24 #2’s input sync. The second Layla24 will slave to the first one and
your Layla24s will now operate in unison.
No matter how many devices you are synchronizing, the concept is
essentially the same. You are merely “daisy-chaining” devices together
using compatible clocks. One device will operate as the source of the master
clock, with each successive device using that clock to sync.
54
Synchronizing multiple devices
ASIO Direct Monitoring – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO Direct Monitoring – Mac OS 8/9
Depending on what software you use, you will have different options for
monitoring your audio inputs. The more common type is software
monitoring. With software monitoring, your audio application handles
mixing inputs to outputs internally (i.e., on the PowerPC processor).
Typically, this adds latency, meaning that the audio you hear on the outputs
is delayed from the inputs.
Your Echo hardware has an on-board DSP chip, which can also handle
mixing inputs to outputs. Since this is done on the DSP, it lightens the load
on the PowerPC chip and has virtually no latency. This is referred to as
hardware monitoring. Hardware monitors can be controlled from the
Console.
With the advent of ASIO 2.0, software programs can control the hardware
monitors directly. This is called ASIO Direct Monitoring. The ASIO
driver for your Echo hardware supports Direct Monitoring. However, not all
ASIO based programs support Direct Monitoring. Cubase VST version 4.1
(or higher) is one program that does support Direct Monitoring.
Things can get a little tricky, however, if you try to control your monitors
simultaneously in the console and in your audio software. Your best bet is
to pick one or the other and stick with it. The monitor controls in the
Console and the monitor controls within your audio software can’t
communicate with each other, so your monitors may behave unpredictably if
you switch back and forth during a session.
55
ASIO Direct Monitoring – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO Direct Monitoring – Mac OS 8/9, all products
Here are a few different scenarios for monitoring your inputs:
I want to just listen to my inputs without using any audio software
Run the Console and control your monitors from there.
I want to use Direct Monitoring
Use Direct Monitoring in your software, but don’t use the Console for
monitoring. Only use the Console for clock synchronization.
I want to use software monitoring
Run the Console and mute all the monitors. This will disable hardware
monitoring. Using hardware and software monitoring simultaneously won’t
hurt anything, but you’ll get a noticeable delay effect in your outputs (kind
of like a slapback echo) since the hardware and software monitors have
different latencies.
The best method, therefore, is to mute the monitors in the console and to
control your software monitoring from within your audio application.
No matter which type of monitoring you use, if you choose to use either the
software or hardware monitoring within your ASIO program, this will
determine how you should use the Console. If you use your ASIO program
for monitoring, then you should only use the Console for setting the Input
Clock. If you use both your ASIO program and the Console for monitoring,
the Echo24 ASIO driver will get confused (this is bad).
Finally, please note that when using DirectMonitoring with Mia or
MiaMIDI, any signal that you select to monitor will be automatically sent to
both the analog and digital outputs.
56
ASIO Direct Monitoring – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO control panel – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO Control Panel – Mac OS 8/9
In all ASIO programs you can access the ASIO control panel that lets you
control certain driver settings for your Echo24 card. Each ASIO program
has a different name for it (ASIO Device Control Panel, Hardware Settings,
Driver Setup, etc…) and a different way of accessing it.
The “Allow ASIO 2 Direct Monitoring” checkbox does exactly what it say it
does. If you don’t want the option of using Direct Monitoring, then make
sure this box is unchecked.
The last control is labeled “Buffer size,” which allows you to change the
buffer size so you can get lower latency. Generally, a smaller buffer size will
result in a lower latency. However, the speed of your computer processor
may also affect this. If you have a really slow machine, then using a very
small buffer size may cause you to have breakups in your audio. If this
happens, then just make the buffer size larger until you no longer hear the
breakups.
The topmost setting, “Use 96 kHz capable cards only,” doesn’t apply to just
using one Echo card by itself. This setting only applies in the following
scenario:
•
•
You want to play and record at 88.2 or 96 kHz
You have at least two of the following installed: Gina24, Layla24,
Mona, Mia, or MiaMIDI
57
ASIO control panel – Mac OS 8/9, all products
ASIO control panel – Mac OS 8/9, all products
Say, for example, you have a Layla24 and a Gina24. Congratulations on
your superb taste in purchasing not one but two Echo products.
However, say you set Layla24 to ADAT mode and Gina24 to S/PDIF mode.
In ADAT mode, Layla24 will be limited to 48 kHz, while Gina24 in S/PDIF
mode will be able to go up to 96 kHz.
This, in turn, presents the ASIO driver with a problem. If you’re trying to
use both Layla24 and Gina24 at the same time, should ASIO applications be
allowed to use 96 kHz?
The solution is the check box in the ASIO control panel (which was the
whole point of this discussion, remember?). If you check the box, only the
Gina24 will be listed in your ASIO application since it’s the only hardware
that can currently handle 96 kHz. If you uncheck the box, both Layla24 and
Gina24 will be listed, but your ASIO application won’t be allowed to use 96
kHz.
58
ASIO control panel – Mac OS 8/9, all products
Contacting Customer Service
If you experience any trouble with your Echo hardware please go to the
support area of our website at www.echoaudio.com and check out the
quicktips & troubleshooting FAQ’s we have there. If you can’t find a
solution to your problem there, please fill out the provided technical support
email form. This form will be sent to our technical support staff and they
will respond to you quickly. Please fill out the form completely. The best
way to get the help that you need is by giving us plenty of detailed
information about your computer system, your audio software and the
problem you are having.
We do ask you to please read through this manual and the support area of
our website before contacting us. You may also find an answer to your
problem using the Appendices of this manual.
Thank you for buying an Echo product!
59
Appendix A: General Troubleshooting Guide
Problem: You can’t get Sound Manager on Mac OS 8 or 9 to recognize
your Echo card.
Solution: The current Mac OS 8/9 driver does not support Sound Manager.
It only supports ASIO based programs.
Problem: You’ve installed the OS X driver, but the hardware isn’t listed in
the System Preferences or the Audio MIDI Setup application.
Solution: Your installation of OS X may be out of date. Try running
Software Update; you’ll find it in the System Preferences.
Problem: You upgraded your computer with a processor upgrade card and
now your Echo card doesn’t work.
Solution: Your Echo hardware is not compatible with processor upgrade
cards. It only supports genuine Apple processors without upgrades. You will
have to uninstall the processor upgrade card to get your Echo card to work
again with your computer.
Problem: You are unable to get your DAT recorder to recognize your Echo
hardware’s S/PDIF output.
Solution: Digital information is transmitted in either of two modes,
“professional” or “consumer.” The professional mode is usually
implemented in devices that are likely to be used in professional recording
environments, whereas the consumer mode is commonly implemented on
equipment designed for home use in the consumer market. The primary
difference between the two modes is in the implementation of the SCMS
copy protection bit, which, in the consumer format, prevents the user from
making digital copies of a digital copy. In most professional equipment, this
60
copy protection bit can be turned off or on according to the user’s needs. In
consumer products, the SCMS bit is always enabled.
Unfortunately there is no way for the transmitting device to automatically
detect which format the receiving device is able to accept. If you have a
DAT deck that is not able to read the S/PDIF output from your Echo card,
chances are the card is transmitting in the mode that the deck is not equipped
to handle.
We have provided a software switch in the driver that allows you to select
which mode is transmitted. To access this switch go to the Console. In the
Options menu select either S/PDIF Pro or S/PDIF Consumer. Select the
appropriate format for your DAT (if you don’t know which one to use,
simply select the one that is not currently checked). Now try recording to
your DAT again.
Important note: No Echo product transmits the SCMS bit; regardless of
which mode is selected.
Problem: When you play an audio file, it plays at an altered pitch.
Solution: When your Echo card is set to sync with an external device, it will
play back at the rate generated by that device. If the sound you are playing
was sampled at 11kHz (for example), but you are synchronized with a
device running at 44.1kHz, the sound will play back at this faster rate. You
have four choices - ignore the altered pitch, switch to your Echo hardware’s
internal clock, change the sample rate of the external device, or use a
different device for the sound playback.
Problem: Your Echo hardware doesn’t seem to recognize the
synchronization clock to which it is connected.
Solution: Although it may seem obvious, the first thing to check is that there
is a physical connection between the device generating the clock and your
Echo audio system. Just because multiple devices are connected to the same
computer doesn’t mean they are synchronized. Next, be sure that you have
selected the desired input clock source in the Console.
61
Problem: Recordings made using the S/PDIF port contain occasional pops
or skips.
Solution: When recording with the S/PDIF port, you must manually select
the S/PDIF clock as the input clock. This can be done using the Console.
Problem: (Layla24 and Gina24) You keep hearing a high-pitched squealing
sound or your S/PDIF or ADAT signal has gone crazy.
Solution: Reset the sample rate of your Echo card. You may have set the
sample rate to 11kHz or 22kHz. Because neither S/PDIF nor ADAT support
these rates, you will have problems syncing until you reset the sample rate to
one within spec (like 44.1 or 48kHz). You can do this through your ASIO
program’s controls or by playing an audio file of the appropriate sample rate
through your Echo hardware’s outputs. Then you will be able to sync
properly.
Problem: The sound cuts in and out, or the left or right channel doesn’t
work.
Solution: You may have a bad audio cable. Try using a different cable in
the problem channel.
Problem: There is no sound unless I pull the audio plug out a little.
Solution: Not all ¼” plugs are made to the exact same dimensions. Try a
plug/cable from a different manufacturer.
62
Appendix B: ASIO Audio Software FAQ
Echo24 ASIO Driver and ASIO 2.0
Q: Can I use all Echo cards together at the same time in my ASIO program?
No. There are two different Echo ASIO drivers. One is for the older Echo
hardware (Layla, Gina, Darla & Darla24). The other is for the new hardware
(Gina24, Layla24, Mia, MiaMIDI, and Mona). However, you can use
multiple cards from either group, just not a combination from both groups.
Q: What does ASIO 2.0 support do for me?
For our purposes, ASIO 2.0 adds ASIO Direct Monitoring. ASIO Direct
Monitoring lets you control the monitoring features of your Echo card (low
latency hardware monitoring) from within your ASIO program. Cubase VST
version 4.1 is the first program to support Direct Monitoring, but other ASIO
programs will probably support this feature in the future.
63
Appendix C: Introduction to Digital Recording
Converting Sound into Numbers
In a digital recording system, sound is represented as a series of numbers,
with each number representing the voltage, or amplitude, of a sound wave at
a particular moment in time. The numbers are generated by an analog-todigital converter, or ADC, which converts the signal from an analog audio
source (such as a guitar or a microphone) connected to its input into
numbers. The ADC reads the input signal several thousand times a second,
and outputs a number based on the input that is read. This number is called a
sample. The number of samples taken per second is called the sample rate.
On playback, the process happens in reverse: The series of numbers is
played back through a digital-to-analog converter, or DAC, which converts
the numbers back into an analog signal. This signal can then be sent to an
amplifier and speakers for listening.
In computers, binary numbers are used to store the values that make up the
samples. Only two characters, 1 and 0, are used. The value of a character
depends on its place in the number, just as in the familiar decimal system.
Here are a few binary/decimal equivalents:
BINARY
0000000000000000
0000000000000001
0000000000000010
0000000000000100
0000000000001000
1111111111111111
DECIMAL
0
1
2
4
8
65,535
Figure A. Binary numbers and their decimal equivalents
Each digit in the number is called a bit, so the numbers in Figure A are
sixteen bits long, and the maximum value which can be represented is
65,535.
64
Sample Size
The more bits that are used to store the sampled value, the more closely it
will represent the source signal. In an 8-bit system, there are 256 possible
combinations of zeroes and ones, so 256 different analog voltages can be
represented. A 16-bit system provides 65,535 possible combinations. A 16bit signal is capable of providing far greater accuracy than an 8-bit signal.
Figure B shows how this works.
Figure B. The more bits there are available, the more accurate the representation of the signal and the
greater the dynamic range.
Your Echo hardware’s analog inputs use 24-bit ADCs, which means that the
incoming signal can be represented by any of over 16 million possible
values. The output DACs are also 24-bit; again, over 16 million values are
possible. The S/PDIF inputs and outputs also support signals with up to 24bit resolution. Your Echo hardware processes signals internally with 24-bit
resolution to insure that there is no degradation to the audio signal as it is
processed through the system.
The number of bits available also determines the potential dynamic range.
Moving a binary number one space to the left multiplies the value by two
(just as moving a decimal number one space to the left multiplies the value
by ten), so each additional bit doubles the maximum value that may be
represented. Each available bit provides 6dB (see decibel section below) of
dynamic range. For example, a 24-bit system can theoretically provide
144dB of dynamic range.
65
Sample Rate
The rate at which the ADC generates the numbers is equally important in
determining the quality of a digital recording. To get a high level of
accuracy when sampling, the sample rate must be greater than twice the
frequency being sampled. The mathematical statement of this is called the
Nyquist Theorem. When dealing with full-bandwidth sound (20Hz−20kHz),
you should sample at greater than 40,000 times per second (twice 20kHz).
Your Echo hardware allows you to sample at rates up to 96,000 times per
second.
If the sampling rate is lower than the frequency you are trying to record,
entire cycles of the waveform will be missed, and the result will not
resemble the proper waveform. When the sample rate is too low, the
resulting sound has diminished high frequency content.
Figure C. Increased sample rates yield a more accurate reproduction of the
source signal.
By the way, the circuits that generate the sample rate must be exceedingly
accurate. Any difference between the sample rate used for recording and the
rate used at playback will change the pitch of the recording, just as with an
analog tape playing at the wrong speed. Also, any unsteadiness, or jitter, in
the sample clock will distort the signal as it is being converted from or to
analog form.
66
Storing Digital Data
Once the waveform has been transformed into digital bits, it must be stored.
When sampling in stereo at 48kHz using a 20-bit word size, the system has
to accommodate 1,920,000 bits per second. Though this is a lot of data, it is
well within the capabilities of personal computers.
Most computer-based digital recording systems record the data directly to
the computer’s hard disk. Today’s hard disks are capable of storing large
amounts of data, though the performance of hard drives can vary
substantially. The speed and size of your hard drive will be a major
determining factor in how many tracks of audio you will be able to
simultaneously record and playback.
Decibels
Audio signal levels are generally expressed in units called “decibels” which
are abbreviated as “dB”. This is a “logarithmic” scale where each doubling
of signal level is represented by an increase of 6dB. Therefore a signal of
6dB is twice as big as a 0dB signal and a signal of 12dB is four times as big
as a 0dB signal.
Since digital audio signals are represented by binary data, each bit of audio
information represents 6dB. A 16-bit number can represent a total range of
96dB and a 24-bit number can represent a total range of 144dB (6 times the
number of bits). It’s much easier to say that one signal is 72dB less than
another instead of saying it is 1/4096 the size of the other one. It also more
accurately represents the way we hear sounds, since the smaller signal in the
above example will still be audible and not appear to be only 1/4096 as loud
when we listen to it.
Just as there are different types of degrees used to represent temperature
(Fahrenheit, Celsius, etc), there are different types of decibels used to
represent the level of analog audio signals. The most common are dBu and
dBV decibels. Both of these represent voltage levels and still double for
every increase of 6dB. It is only the reference point, or 0dB level that is
different. A 0dBV signal has a voltage level of 1.0 volts. A 0dBu signal has
a voltage level of .775 volts. Since .775 is approximately 2dB less than 1.0,
67
converting dBV levels into dBu levels is as simple as subtracting 2dB (2.21
to be exact).
Signals are also occasionally represented with units of dBm. This is an older
unit that measures power instead of voltage levels with 0dBm representing 1
milliwatt. Earlier tube-based audio equipment used standardized input and
output impedances of 600 ohms, so a 0dBm signal was produced with a
voltage of .775 volts. Since most of today’s equipment uses impedances
other than 600 ohms, it is more useful to represent signals by voltages rather
than power and the dBu unit was introduced. A signal level of 0dBu is
identical to a level of 0dBm.
Digital signals, after they are recorded, no longer directly represent any
physical quantity such as voltage or power and 0dB is generally used to
represent a “full-scale” or maximum signal level. All other signal levels are
lower and are expressed as negative decibels. Most meters on digital
equipment have 0dB at the top and range downward from there. A signal
that is 30dB below full scale would simply be referred to as a –30dB signal.
Nominal Signal Levels and Headroom
Today’s equipment is generally referred to as +4dBu equipment
(professional) or –10dBV equipment (consumer). These levels are the
typical or “nominal” signal levels you can expect to see with professional
(studio) equipment such as mixers or with consumer equipment such as
home stereos and CD players. A +4dBu signal has a voltage level of 1.23
volts and a –10dBV signal has a voltage level of .316 volts.
The above nominal levels represent typical or average levels that are often
exceeded when recording loud signals such as drum beats. The difference
between the nominal level and the loudest signal that can be recorded
without clipping is called “headroom”. Your Echo hardware provides
approximately 14dB of headroom allowing an 18dBu signal (9.8 volts or 28
volts peak to peak) to be recorded.
68
Unbalanced and Balanced Inputs and Outputs
An unbalanced signal, commonly used for guitars and consumer electronics,
contains two components, a ground signal and a “hot” or active signal. The
ground is the barrel of a ¼” connector and the shell of an “RCA” style
connector.
A balanced signal contains two active signals instead of one in addition to
the ground. These are referred to as the “plus” and “minus” signals. A
balanced input amplifier amplifies the difference between these two signals.
Any extraneous noise picked up from power lines or other sources will
appear equally on both the plus and minus inputs. This is called “common
mode” noise since it is common to both signals and the input amplifier will
subtract the noise on the minus input from the noise on the plus input.
If the input amplifier is perfectly balanced and the noise on both plus and
minus is precisely equal, the noise will completely cancel out. In the real
world this is not the case and some of the common mode noise will still
make it through, although at a much reduced level. How well an input
amplifier rejects this common mode noise is called the “common mode
rejection ratio” (abbreviated as CMRR) and is expressed in dB.
Balanced signals connect with either XLR connectors or TRS (tip, ring,
sleeve) connectors. Your Echo hardware uses TRS connectors for
connecting balanced line level signals.
The three sections of a TRS connector are used to transmit the three
components of a balanced signal (T = plus, R = minus, S = ground). Your
Echo hardware can also accommodate the two conductor unbalanced style
connector.
69
Dynamic Range
Dynamic range represents the difference between the maximum signal that
can be recorded and the “noise floor”, or level of noise with no signal
present. A system with a high dynamic range will be quieter than one with a
lower dynamic range. Dynamic range is a very important specification and
Your Echo hardware uses converters that have very high dynamic range.
Theoretically, a 24-bit system has a dynamic range of 144dB and a 16-bit
system has a dynamic range of 96dB. Two questions immediately come to
mind:
1) Why does my Echo hardware only have a dynamic range of 106 dB?
2) For mastering 16-bit CDs with a dynamic range of 96dB, isn’t
anything more than 96dB just overkill?
First, today’s analog to digital converters typically produce a full-scale input
voltage with an input of +7dBu. If they were to have 144dB of dynamic
range, they would have to be capable of resolving signals as small as –
137dBu (7dBu – 144dBu) or approximately 10 nano-volts. That’s 10 onebillionths of a volt! Transistors and resistors produce noise in this range just
by having electrons moving around due to heat. Even if the converters could
be perfectly designed to read these levels, the low noise requirements of the
surrounding circuitry such as power supplies and amplifiers would be so
stringent that they would either be impossible or too expensive to build.
In answering the second question, consider the fact that music is often
compressed or amplified after it is recorded, and that some headroom is
necessary when recording to avoid clipping. The only way that 96dB would
be adequate is if all music were recorded so that the peaks were just under
full-scale and no compressing or amplification was going to be applied after
recording. Any time recorded music is amplified, so is the noise at the low
end. Your Echo hardware has enough dynamic range to allow sufficient
headroom and post-processing to be applied while still keeping the noise
either off the CD completely or down as far as possible.
70
Appendix D: Specifications
Gina24 - Audio Performance
Analog Inputs (x2 balanced TRS):
Frequency Response: 10Hz – 22kHz, ±0.25dB
Dynamic Range: 108dB A-weighted
THD+n: <0.001%, 20Hz–22kHz A-weighted
Nominal Input Level: +4dBu
Maximum Input Level: +18dBu
Input Impedance: 10K
Analog Outputs (x8 balanced TRS):
Frequency Response: 10Hz – 22kHz, ±0.25dB
Dynamic Range: 110dB A-weighted
THD+n: <0.002%, 20Hz–22kHz A-weighted
Nominal Output Level: +4dBu
Maximum Output Level: +18dBu
71
Gina24 - Hardware
Host Interface: PCI bus mastering card
Two balanced ¼” analog inputs with precision 24-bit 128x oversampling
analog-to-digital converters
Eight balanced ¼” analog outputs with high performance 24-bit 128x
oversampling digital-to-analog converters
S/PDIF digital I/O with up to 24-bit resolution
ADAT optical digital I/O
Headphone output with volume control
On-board 24-bit Motorola DSP
24-bit data resolution maintained throughout entire signal path
Multiple sample rates from 8kHz to 96kHz
Esync clock I/O
72
Layla24 - Audio Performance
Analog Inputs (x8 balanced TRS):
Frequency Response: 10Hz – 22kHz, ±0.25dB
Dynamic Range: 110dB A-weighted
THD+n: <0.001%, 20Hz–22kHz A-weighted
Nominal Input Level: +4dBu
Maximum Input Level: +22dBu
Input Impedance: 10K
Analog Outputs (x8 balanced TRS):
Frequency Response: 10Hz – 22kHz, ±0.25dB
Dynamic Range: 115dB A-weighted
THD+n: <0.002%, 20Hz–22kHz A-weighted
Nominal Output Level: +4dBu
Maximum Output Level: +22dBu
73
Layla24 - Hardware
Host Interface: PCI bus mastering card
Eight balanced ¼” analog inputs with precision 24-bit 128x oversampling
analog-to-digital converters
Eight balanced ¼” analog outputs with high performance 24-bit 128x
oversampling digital-to-analog converters
S/PDIF digital I/O with up to 24-bit resolution
ADAT optical digital I/O
Headphone output with volume control
On-board 24-bit Motorola DSP
24-bit data resolution maintained throughout entire signal path
Multiple sample rates from 8kHz to 96kHz
MIDI In/Out/Thru
Word clock I/O
Esync clock Output
74
Mia and MiaMIDI - Audio Performance
Analog Inputs (x2 balanced TRS):
Frequency Response: 10Hz – 22kHz, ±0.5dB
Dynamic Range: 106dB A-weighted
THD+n: <0.001%, 20Hz–22kHz
Nominal Input Level: +4dBu
Maximum Input Level: +18dBu
Input Impedance: 10K
Analog Outputs (x2 balanced TRS):
Frequency Response: 10Hz – 22kHz, ±0.5dB
Dynamic Range: 106dB A-weighted
THD+n: <0.002%, 20Hz–22kHz
Nominal Output Level: +4dBu
Maximum Output Level: +18dBu
75
Mia and MiaMIDI - Hardware
Host Interface: PCI bus card
PCI bus master interface
Two balanced ¼” analog inputs with precision 24-bit 64x oversampling
analog-to-digital converters
Two balanced ¼” analog outputs with high performance 24-bit 128x
oversampling digital-to-analog converters
S/PDIF digital I/O with up to 24-bit resolution
On-board 24-bit Motorola DSP
24-bit data resolution maintained throughout entire signal path
Multiple sample rates from 8kHz to 96kHz
MIDI in/out (MiaMIDI only)
76
A
H
ADAT..................... 30, 34, 53, 62
analog resolution...................... 65
analog-to-digital converter....... 64
ASIO ........................................ 17
ASIO 2.0 ............................ 55, 63
ASIO control panel .................. 57
ASIO driver installation........... 17
ASIO software ......................... 63
ASIO tips ................................. 55
audio software.......................... 63
hardware monitoring.................55
headroom ..................................68
B
memory .......................................9
MIDI .........................................32
MIDI time code...................32, 39
MTC....................................32, 39
multiple Echo cards ..................63
I
interface box, installing ......29, 33
interface cable.............................7
L
latency.................................55, 57
M
balanced ................................... 69
buffer size................................. 57
C
cd-rom, contents......................... 7
consumer mode ........................ 60
consumer output setting ........... 61
contacting customer service..... 59
contents ...................................... 7
N
D
P
decibels .................................. 67
digital data ........................... 67
digital recording ....................... 64
digital-to-analog converter....... 64
Direct Monitoring ........ 55, 57, 63
dynamic range.......................... 70
PCI card, installation .............11
PCI slot .......................................9
processor .....................................9
processor upgrade card .............60
professional mode.....................60
professional output setting........61
E
R
Esync........................................ 53
rack-mount box, installing..12, 14
recording, pops or skips............62
nominal levels...........................68
O
optical .................................30, 34
G
S
G3............................................... 8
G4............................................... 8
S/PDIF . 30, 31, 34, 35, 37, 53, 62
S/PDIF cabling .......31, 35, 37, 39
77
S/PDIF recording ..................... 60
S/PDIF resolution .................... 65
sample rate ......................... 64, 66
sample size ............................ 65
SCMS copy-protection ............ 60
selecting a slot......................... 11
software monitoring ................. 55
Sound Manager ........................ 60
specifications............................ 71
static electricity, discharging 11
synchronization .................. 52, 61
synchronizing multiple devices 52
system requirements................... 8
T
technical support.......................59
troubleshooting guide........................60
TRS ...............................36, 38, 69
U
unbalanced ................................69
W
website ......................................59
Word clock..........................31, 52
78