Acess ICOM-2S User manual

ACCES I/O PRODUCTS INC
10623 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121
TEL (858)550-9559 FAX (858)550-7322
MODEL ICOM-2S
USER MANUAL
FILE: MICOM-2S.Eb
Notice
The information in this document is provided for reference only. ACCES does not assume any liability arising
out of the application or use of the information or products described herein. This document may contain or
reference information and products protected by copyrights or patents and does not convey any license under
the patent rights of ACCES, nor the rights of others.
IBM PC, PC/XT, and PC/AT are registered trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation.
Printed in USA. Copyright 1995 by ACCES I/O Products Inc, 10623 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121.
All rights reserved.
iii
Warranty
Prior to shipment, ACCES equipment is thoroughly inspected and tested to applicable specifications. However,
should equipment failure occur, ACCES assures its customers that prompt service and support will be
available. All equipment originally manufactured by ACCES which is found to be defective will be repaired
or replaced subject to the following considerations.
Terms and Conditions
If a unit is suspected of failure, contact ACCES' Customer Service department. Be prepared to give the unit
model number, serial number, and a description of the failure symptom(s). We may suggest some simple tests
to confirm the failure. We will assign a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number which must appear on
the outer label of the return package. All units/components should be properly packed for handling and
returned with freight prepaid to the ACCES designated Service Center, and will be returned to the
customer's/user's site freight prepaid and invoiced.
Coverage
First Three Years: Returned unit/part will be repaired and/or replaced at ACCES option with no charge for
labor or parts not excluded by warranty. Warranty commences with equipment shipment.
Following Years: Throughout your equipment's lifetime, ACCES stands ready to provide on-site or in-plant
service at reasonable rates similar to those of other manufacturers in the industry.
Equipment Not Manufactured by ACCES
Equipment provided but not manufactured by ACCES is warranted and will be repaired according to the
terms and conditions of the respective equipment manufacturer's warranty.
General
Under this Warranty, liability of ACCES is limited to replacing, repairing or issuing credit (at ACCES
discretion) for any products which are proved to be defective during the warranty period. In no case is
ACCES liable for consequential or special damage arriving from use or misuse of our product. The customer
is responsible for all charges caused by modifications or additions to ACCES equipment not approved in
writing by ACCES or, if in ACCES opinion the equipment has been subjected to abnormal use. "Abnormal
use" for purposes of this warranty is defined as any use to which the equipment is exposed other than that use
specified or intended as evidenced by purchase or sales representation. Other than the above, no other
warranty, expressed or implied, shall apply to any and all such equipment furnished or sold by ACCES.
iv
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Multipoint Opto-isolated Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COM Port Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line Bias and Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto and Manual Transceiver Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Led Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CE Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-3
Chapter 2: Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
CD Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5-Inch Diskette Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directories Created on the Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-4
Chapter 3: Option Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Communication Modes and Cabling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Chapter 4: Address Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Chapter 5: Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Sample Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-3
5-4
Chapter 6: Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Appendix A: Application Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Balanced Differential Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
RS485 Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
v
List of Figures
Figure 1-1:
Figure 3-1:
Figure 3-2:
Figure A-1:
ICOM-2S Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplified Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ICOM-2S Option Selection Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical RS485 Two-Wire Multidrop Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 4-1:
Table 4-2:
Table 4-3:
Table 4-4:
Table 5-1:
Table 6-1:
Table A-1:
Table A-2:
Standard Address Assignments for 286/386/486 Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ICOM-2S Address Switch Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Address Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard COM Port Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baud Rate Divisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connections Between Two RS422 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS422 Specification Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4
3-1
3-3
A-3
List of Tables
vi
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
5-2
6-1
A-1
A-2
Chapter 1: Introduction
The card is 10 inches long (264 mm) and should be installed in long slots of IBM PC/XT/AT or
compatible computers. If installed in an eight-bit slot, the high interrupts (IRQ 10-15) will not be
available to the ICOM-2S.
Multipoint Opto-isolated Communications
The ICOM-2S Serial Interface Card was designed for multipoint transmission on long communication
lines in noisy environments using RS422 or RS485 differential line drivers. The data lines are
opto-isolated from the computer and from each other to assure communication when large common
mode noise are superimposed. Opto-isolators are provided on the RTS and CTS control lines as well
as the transmit and receive lines. Further, an on-board DC-DC converter provides isolated power for
the line driver and RTS and CTS circuits.
A crystal oscillator is located on the card. This oscillator permits precise selection of baud rate from
50 to 115,200 but the standard opto-isolators are limited to a maximum speed of 38,400 baud. Faster
opto-isolators and custom crystals are available. If your card is modified to handle higher baud rates,
then there will be a "manual addendum" page describing that modification in the front of this manual.
The output transceiver used, type 75176B, is capable of driving extremely long communication lines
at high baud rates. It can drive up to ±60mA on balanced lines and receive inputs as low as ±200mV
differential signal superimposed on common mode noise of ± 12V. However, opto-isolators on the
card provide protection to maximum 500 V. In case of communication conflict, the transceivers
feature thermal shutdown.
COM Port Compatibility
Type NS16550 UARTs are used as the Asynchronous Communication Element (ACE) which include
a 16-byte transmit/receive buffer to protect against lost data in multitasking operating systems, while
maintaining 100% compatibility with the original IBM serial port.
ICOM-2S card is not restricted to the standard DOS addresses of COM1 - COM4. You can select
a base address anywhere within the I/O address range 000 to 3F8 hex and the FINDBASE program
will scan your computer for available addresses.
Line Bias and Termination
For increased noise immunity, the communication lines may be loaded at the receiver and biased at the
transmitter. RS485 communications requires that one transmitter supply a bias voltage to ensure a
known "zero" state when all transmitters are off, and the last receiver input at each end of the network
be terminated to prevent "ringing". The ICOM-2S supports these options with jumpers on the card.
See the Option Selection section for more details.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
1-1
ICOM-2S Manual
Auto and Manual Transceiver Control
RS485 communications requires the transmitter driver to be enabled and disabled as needed, to allow
all cards to share the communications line. The ICOM-2S card has two methods to control the driver:
automatic (Auto) and request to send (RTS) control.
With automatic control, the driver is enabled when data is ready to be transmitted. The driver remains
enabled for the transmission time of one character after data transfer is complete. The ICOM-2S
automatically adjusts it's timing to the baud rate of the data. When operating with Windows programs,
you must use the Auto mode.
With RTS control, your software must set the RTS bit to a logic 1 to enable the driver and logic 0 to
disable the driver.
Led Monitors
Two LED indicators are provided on the ICOM-2S card. The LEDs blink to indicate activity on the
transmitting and receiving lines and are useful for problem diagnosis. The blinking is more visible at
slower speeds as high speed communication blinks the LEDs too fast for the eye to follow.
Communication Modes
Model ICOM-2S supports Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Full-Duplex communications in a variety of 2
and 4-wire cable connections. Simplex is the simplest form of communications with transmissions
occurring only in one direction. Half-Duplex allows traffic to travel in both directions, but only one
direction at a time. In Full-Duplex mode data travels in both directions at the same time. RS485
communication only supports Half-Duplex because the same pair of signal lines are used for
transmitting and receiving.
CE Marking
If your card is CE-marked unit, it meets requirements of EN50081-1:1992 (Emissions),
EN50082-1:1992 (Immunity), and EN60950:1992 (Safety).
1-2
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
Specifications
Communications Interface
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Serial Ports:
Two shielded male D-sub 9-pin IBM AT style connectors
compatible with RS422 and RS485 specifications. Serial
communications ACE used is type NS16550. Transceivers used
are type 75176.
Serial Data Rates:
50 to 38,400 baud.(Optionally up to 230,400 baud with change in
clock and opto isolators), Asynchronous, Type 16550 buffered
UART.
Address:
Continuously mappable within 000 to 3FF (hex) range of AT I/O
bus addresses.
Multipoint:
Compatible with RS422 and RS485 specifications. Up to 32
drivers and receivers allowed on line.
Input Isolation:
500 Volts, from computer and between ports.
Receiver Input Sensitivity:
±200 mV, differential input.
Transmitter Output Drive Capability: 60 mA (100 mA short-circuit current capability).
Environmental
•
•
•
Operating Temperature Range: 0 °C. to +60 °C.
Storage Temperature Range:
-50 °C. to +120 °C.
Humidity:
5% to 95%, non-condensing.
•
Power Required:
•
Size:
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
+5VDC at 150 mA typical, +12 VDC at 200 mA typical., 3 W
total power consumption.
10 " long. (3/4 length) Although designed for a full-length slot,
if the card is installed in a eight-bit XT-style slot the card will
work but higher order IRQs 10-15 will be unavailable.)
1-3
ICOM-2S Manual
Figure 1-1: ICOM-2S Block Diagram
(Only one serial channel shown)
1-4
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
Chapter 2: Installation
The software provided with this card is contained on either one CD or multiple diskettes and must be
installed onto your hard disk prior to use. To do this, perform the following steps as appropriate for
your software format and operating system. Substitute the appropriate drive letter for your CD-ROM
or disk drive where you see d: or a: respectively in the examples below.
CD Installation
DOS/WIN3.x
1.
2.
3.
4.
Place the CD into your CD-ROM drive.
Type ??? to change the active drive to the CD-ROM drive.
Type ???????? to run the install program.
Follow the on-screen prompts to install the software for this card.
WIN95/98/NT
1.
2.
3.
Place the CD into your CD-ROM drive.
The CD should automatically run the install program after 30 seconds. If the install program
does not run, click START | RUN and type d:install, click OK or press ? .
Follow the on-screen prompts to install the software for this card.
3.5-Inch Diskette Installation
As with any software package, you should make backup copies for everyday use and store your
original master diskettes in a safe location. The easiest way to make a backup copy is to use the DOS
DISKCOPY utility.
In a single-drive system, the command is:
???????????????
You will need to swap disks as requested by the system.
In a two-disk system, the command is:
???????????????
This will copy the contents of the master disk in drive A to the backup disk in drive B.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
2-1
ICOM-2S Manual
To copy the files on the master diskette to your hard disk, perform the following steps.
1.
Place the master diskette into a floppy drive.
2.
Change the active drive to the drive that has the diskette installed. For example, if the diskette
is in drive A, type ??? .
3.
Type ???????? and follow the on-screen prompts.
Directories Created on the Hard Disk
The installation process will create several directories on your hard disk. If you accept the installation
defaults, the following structure will exist.
[CARDNAME]
Root or base directory containing the SETUP.EXE setup program used to help you configure jumpers
and calibrate the card.
DOS\PSAMPLES:
DOS\CSAMPLES:
Win32\language:
A subdirectory of [CARDNAME] that contains Pascal samples.
A subdirectory of [CARDNAME] that contains "C" samples.
Subdirectories containing samples for Win95/98 and NT.
WinRisc.exe
A Windows dumb-terminal type communication program designed for RS422/485 operation.
Used primarily with Remote Data Acquisition Pods and our RS422/485 serial communication
product line. Can be used to say hello to an installed modem.
ACCES32
This directory contains the Windows 95/98/NT driver used to provide access to the hardware registers
when writing 32-bit Windows software. Several samples are provided in a variety of languages to
demonstrate how to use this driver. The DLL provides four functions (InPortB, OutPortB, InPort, and
OutPort) to access the hardware.
This directory also contains the device driver for Windows NT, ACCESNT.SYS. This device driver
provides register-level hardware access in Windows NT. Two methods of using the driver are
available, through ACCES32.DLL (recommended) and through the DeviceIOControl handles provided
by ACCESNT.SYS (slightly faster).
2-2
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
SAMPLES
Samples for using ACCES32.DLL are provided in this directory. Using this DLL not only makes
the hardware programming easier (MUCH easier), but also one source file can be used for both
Windows 95/98 and WindowsNT. One executable can run under both operating systems and still
have full access to the hardware registers. The DLL is used exactly like any other DLL, so it is
compatible with any language capable of using 32-bit DLLs. Consult the manuals provided with
your language's compiler for information on using DLLs in your specific environment.
VBACCES
This directory contains sixteen-bit DLL drivers for use with VisualBASIC 3.0 and Windows 3.1 only.
These drivers provide four functions, similar to the ACCES32.DLL. However, this DLL is only
compatible with 16-bit executables. Migration from 16-bit to 32-bit is simplified because of the
similarity between VBACCES and ACCES32.
PCI
This directory contains PCI-bus specific programs and information. If you are not using a PCI card,
this directory will not be installed.
SOURCE
A utility program is provided with source code you can use to determine allocated resources at
run-time from your own programs in DOS.
PCIFind.exe
A utility for DOS and Windows to determine what base addresses and IRQs are allocated to installed
PCI cards. This program runs two versions, depending on the operating system. Windows 95/98/NT
displays a GUI interface, and modifies the registry. When run from DOS or Windows3.x, a text
interface is used. For information about the format of the registry key, consult the card-specific
samples provided with the hardware. In Windows NT, NTioPCI.SYS runs each time the computer
is booted, thereby refreshing the registry as PCI hardware is added or removed. In Windows 95/98/NT
PCIFind.EXE places itself in the boot-sequence of the OS to refresh the registry on each power-up.
This program also provides some COM configuration when used with PCI COM ports. Specifically,
it will configure compatible COM cards for IRQ sharing and multiple port issues.
WIN32IRQ
This directory provides a generic interface for IRQ handling in Windows 95/98/NT. Source code is
provided for the driver, greatly simplifying the creation of custom drivers for specific needs. Samples
are provided to demonstrate the use of the generic driver. Note that the use of IRQs in near-real-time
data acquisition programs requires multi-threaded application programming techniques and must be
considered an intermediate to advanced programming topic. Delphi, C++ Builder, and Visual C++
samples are provided.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
2-3
ICOM-2S Manual
Findbase.exe
DOS utility to determine an available base address for ISA bus , non-Plug-n-Play cards. Run this
program once, before the hardware is installed in the computer, to determine an available address to
give the card. Once the address has been determined, run the setup program provided with the
hardware to see instructions on setting the address switch and various option selections.
Poly.exe
A generic utility to convert a table of data into an nth order polynomial. Useful for calculating
linearization polynomial coefficients for thermocouples and other non-linear sensors.
Risc.bat
A batch file demonstrating the command line parameters of RISCTerm.exe.
RISCTerm.exe
A dumb-terminal type communication program designed for RS422/485 operation. Used primarily
with Remote Data Acquisition Pods and our RS422/485 serial communication product line. Can be
used to say hello to an installed modem. RISCTerm stands for Really Incredibly Simple
Communications TERMinal.
Installing the Card
The ICOM-2S card can be installed in a long slot of an IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible computer.
Before carefully read the Option Selection and Address Selection chapters of this manual and
configure the card according to your requirements. You can find an unused base address with the
FINDBASE program provided on the CD that came with your card. Finally, our setup program will
lead you through the process of setting the options on the ICOM-2S. The setup program does not set
the options on the card, these must be set by jumpers on the card.
Be especially careful with address selection. If the addresses of two installed functions overlap you
will experience unpredictable computer behavior.
2-4
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
To Install the Card
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Turn off computer power.
Remove the computer cover.
Remove the blank I/O backplate.
Install jumpers for selected options from either the Option Selection of this manual or the
suggestions of our ICOM2SET setup software program.
Select the base address on the card for either the Address Selection of this manual or the
suggestions of our FINDBASE setup software program.
Install the card in an I/O expansion slot.
Install the I/O cable.
Inspect for proper fit of the card and cable and tighten screws. Make sure that the card
mounting bracket is properly screwed into place and that there is a positive chassis ground.
Turn the computer ON and observe the LED indicators. The LEDs will blink when there is
any activity on the communication lines.
Turn the computer OFF and replace the computer cover.
Note
If installed in an eight-bit slot, IRQs 10-15 will be unavailable.
Two DB9 connectors are provided on the mounting bracket for input/output connections. To ensure
that there is minimum susceptibility to EMI and minimum radiation, it is important that the card
mounting bracket be properly screwed into place and that there be a positive chassis ground. Also,
proper EMI cabling techniques (cable connect to chassis ground at the aperture, shielded twisted pair
wiring, etc.) be used for input/output wiring.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
2-5
Chapter 3: Option Selection
The following paragraphs describe the functions of the various jumpers on the ICOM-2S card. Refer
to the Figure 3-2, Option Selection Map for the locations of these jumpers on the card.
CTS
The CTS bit is used to indicate that the device connected to the ICOM-2S is ready to accept data from
the ICOM-2S. Status can be tested by reading bit 4 of the MSR(modem status register) from the
UART. The CTS line does not affect the operation of the card.
Terminations and Bias
A transmission line should be terminated at the receiving end in its characteristic impedance. Installing
a jumper at the location labeled LD applies a 136? load across the input for RS422 mode and across
the transmit/receive input/output for RS485 operation. When noise is a potential problem on long
lines, the terminating resistor should be divided and its center point grounded to help reduce noise
voltage pickup. To accomplish this, also install a jumper at the position marked LD GND for 68-ohm
termination resistance on the positive and negative branches of the receiving line.
In RS485 operations, where there are multiple terminals, only the RS485 ports at each end of the
network should have terminating resistors as described above. If the card is to have an ungrounded
load, do as above except do not install the
LDGND jumper.
(See Appendix A,
Application Considerations.) Also, for RS485
operation, there must be a bias on the RX+ and
RX- lines. If the ICOM-2S card is to provide
that bias, install jumpers at the locations
labeled +BIAS and -BIAS.
RTS Control
For RS485 operation, installing a jumper at the
location labeled RTS allows the state of the
RTS line to be controlled by the UART. Either
this jumper, or the AUTO (A/B) jumper, must
be installed.
Auto (A/B)
Figure 3-1: Simplified Schematic
Allows the ACE data buffer to automatically
control the transmitter drivers. When operating
with Windows programs, use the Auto mode.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
3-1
ICOM-2S Manual
Simplex or Duplex
The receiver can be set in either Simplex or Duplex by installing jumpers marked SX or DX. Simplex
mode is intended for one-way communication able to transmit or receive. Duplex mode allows
transmission or reception either simultaneous or alternatively as defined in the following paragraph.
Full or Half-Duplex
Full-Duplex allows simultaneous bi-directional communications and is selected by installing the FDX
jumper. Half-Duplex allows bi-directional transmit and receiver communication but only one at a
time, and is required for RS485 communications. Proper selection depends on the wire connections
used to connect the two serial ports. Tx is the transmit wires and Rx is the receive wires.
Communication Modes and Cabling Options
RxRx+
Cable
Card A
Card B
1........... 3
9........... 2
Tx+
Tx-
2........... 9
3........... 1
Mode
Simplex
2-wire Receive Only
Jumpers
DX-FDX
Simplex
2-wire Transmit Only
SX-FDX
Half-Duplex
2-wire with local echo
DX-HDX-RTS Trx+
Trx-
9........... 9
1........... 1
Half-Duplex
2-wire w/o local echo
SX-HDX-RTS Trx+
Trx-
9........... 9
1........... 1
Full-Duplex
4-wire w/o local echo
DX-FDX
2...........
3...........
1...........
9...........
Tx+
TxRxRx+
9
1
3
2
Interrupts
In addition to standard interrupt levels IRQ2 through IRQ7, the ICOM-2S also supports higher
interrupts IRQ10 through IRQ15 (Except for IRQ13). Select the desired level by installing a jumper
in one of these locations. If the ICOM-2S is installed in a short eight-bit slot, the higher interrupts
IRQ10 through IRQ15 will be unavailable to the card.
3-2
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
Switches
S1=COM-A Address
S2=COM-B Address
(This illustration has COM A at the COM 3
address, and COM B at COM 4 address.)
Jumpers
FDX/HDX=Full/Half Duplex
SX/DX=Simplex/Duplex
RTS=Software RTS option
AUTOA, AUTOB=Auto RTS option
BIAS=RS485 Bias Voltage
CTS=Forced CTS signal
LD,LDGND=Transmission Load Jumpers
(See the Option Selection chapter of the
manual or the setup software for
explanations of the above option jumpers)
Connectors
J1=COM-B
J2=COM-A
Figure 3-2: ICOM-2S Option Selection Map
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
3-3
Chapter 4: Address Selection
The ICOM-2S base address can be selected anywhere within an I/O address range 100-3F8 hex,
providing that the address does not overlap with other functions. If in doubt, refer to the table below
for a list of standard address assignments. (The primary and secondary binary synchronous
communication ports are supported by the Operating System.) The base address locator program
FINDBASE provided on CD will assist you to select a base address that will avoid conflict with other
installed computer resources.
Hex Range
000-01F
020-03F
040-05F
060-06F
070-07F
080-09F
0A0-0BF
0C0-0DF
0F0
0F1
0F8-0FF
1F0-1F8
200-207
278-27F
2F8-2FF
300-31F
360-36F
378-37F
380-38F
3A0-3AF
3B0-3BF
3C0-3CE
3D0-3DF
3F0-3F7
3F8-3FF
Usage
DMA Controller 1
INT Controller 1, Master
Timer
8042 (Keyboard)
Real Time Clock, NMI Mask
DMA Page Register
INT Controller 2
DMA Controller 2
Clear Math Coprocessor Busy
Reset Coprocessor
Arithmetic Processor
IDE Fixed Disk
Game I/O
Parallel Printer Port 2
Asynchronous Comm’n (Secondary)
Prototype Card
Reserved
Parallel Printer Port 1
SDLC or Binary Synchronous Comm’n 2
Binary Synchronous Comm’n 1
Monochrome Display/Printer
Local Area Network
Color/Graphic Monitor
Floppy Diskette Controller
Asynchronous Comm’n (Primary)
Table 4-1: Standard Address Assignments for 286/386/486 Computers
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
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I/O bus address switches are marked A3-A9. The following table lists switch label vs. the address line
controlled and the relative weights of each.
Address Switch Settings
1st Digit
3rd Digit
2nd Digit
Switch Label
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Address Line Controlled
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
Decimal Weight
512
256
128
64
32
16
8
Hexadecimal Weight
200
100
80
40
20
10
8
Table 4-2: ICOM-2S Address Switch Setup
In order to read the address switch setup, assign a binary "1" to switches that are turned OFF and a
binary "0" to switches in the ON position. For example, as illustrated in the following table, switch
selection corresponds to binary 10 1101 1xxx (hex 2D8). The "xxx" represents address lines A2, A1,
and A0 used on the card to select individual registers. See Chapter 5, Programming of this manual.
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
OFF
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
OFF
Binary Representation
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
Conversion Factors
2
1
8
4
2
1
8
Switch Label
Setup
HEX Representation
2
D
8
Table 4-3: Example Address Setup
Review the Address Selection Table carefully before selecting the card address. If the addresses of
two installed functions overlap you will experience unpredictable computer behavior.
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Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
The following table lists standard DOS COM port addresses.
Serial
COM Port
IRQ
Base Hex
Address
COM1
IRQ 4
3F8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
COM2
IRQ 3
2F8
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
COM3
IRQ 4
3E8
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
COM4
IRQ 3
2E8
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
A9
Address Switch Settings
A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3
Table 4-4: Standard COM Port Addresses
Notice that only two interrupts are assigned to four serial ports. "Sharing" interrupts is not a good idea
if both ports are used at the same time.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
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4-4
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
Chapter 5: Programming
Sample Programs
There are sample programs provided with the ICOM-2S card in C, Pascal, QuickBASIC, and several
Windows languages. DOS samples are located in the DOS directory and Windows samples are
located in the WIN32 directory.
Windows Programming
The ICOM-2S card installs into Windows as COM ports. Thus the Windows standard API functions
can be used. In particular:
?
?
CreateFile() and CloseHandle() for opening and closing a port.
SetupComm(), SetCommTimeouts(), GetCommState(), and SetCommState() to set
and change a port’s settings.
?
ReadFile() and WriteFile() for accessing a port.
See the documentation for your chosen language for details.
Under DOS, the process is very different. The remainder of this chapter describes DOS programming.
Initialization
Initializing the chip requires knowledge of the UART's register set. The first step is to set the baud
rate divisor. You do this by first setting the DLAB (Divisor Latch Access Bit) high. This bit is Bit
7 at Base Address +3. In C code, the call would be:
outportb(BASEADDR +3,0x80);
You then load the divisor into Base Address +0 (low byte) and Base Address +1 (high byte). The
following equation defines the relationship between baud rate and divisor:
desired baud rate = (crystal frequency) / (32 * divisor)
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On the ICOM-2S card, the clock frequency to the UART is 1.843 MHz. Below is a table for the
popular divisor frequencies:
Baud Rate
Divisor
Notes
Approx Max Cable
length *
115200
1
2200 ft
57600
2
High-speed opto-couplers required
4000 ft
38400
3
Maximum speed for standard opto-couplers
4000 ft
28800
4
4000 ft
19200
6
4000 ft
14400
8
4000 ft
9600
12
4000 ft
4800
24
4000 ft
2400
48
4000 ft
1200
96
4000 ft
*These are theoretical maximums based on typical conditions and good quality cables.
Table 5-1: Baud Rate Divisors
In C, the code to set the chip to 9600 baud is:
outportb(BASEADDR, 0x0C);
outportb(BASEADDR +1,0);
The second initializing step is to set the Line Control Register at Base Address +3. This register
defines word length, stop bits, parity, and the DLAB.
Bits 0 and 1 control word length and allow word lengths from 5 to 8 bits. Bit settings are
extracted by subtracting 5 from the desired word length.
Bit 2 determines the number of stop bits. There can be either one or two stop bits. If Bit 2 is set
to 0, there will be one stop bit. If Bit 2 is set to 1, there will be two stop bits.
Bits 3 through 6 control parity and break enable.
communications and should be set to zeroes.
They are not commonly used for
Bit 7 is the DLAB discussed earlier. It must be set to zero after the divisor is loaded or else there
will be no communications.
5-2
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
The C command to set the UART for an 8-bit word, no parity, and one stop bit is:
outportb(BASEADDR +3, 0x03)
The third step of the initialization sequence is to set the Modem Control Register at Base Address +4.
This register controls functions on some cards. Bit 1 is the Request to Send (RTS) control bit. This
bit should be left low until transmission time. (Note: When operating in the automatic RS485 mode,
the state of this bit is not significant.) Bits 2 and 3 are user-designated outputs. Bit 2 may be ignored
on this card. Bit 3 is used to enable interrupts and should be set high if an interrupt-driven receiver
is to be used.
The final initialization step is to flush the receiver buffers. You do this with two reads from the
receiver buffer at Base Address +0. When done, the UART is ready to use.
Reception
Reception can be handled in two ways: polling and interrupt-driven. When polling, reception is
accomplished by constantly reading the Line Status Register at Base Address +5. Bit 0 of this register
is set high whenever data are ready to be read from the chip. Polling is not effective at high data rates
above because the program cannot do anything else when it is polling or data could be missed. The
following code fragment implements a polling loop and uses a value of 13, (ASCII carriage return) as
an end-of-transmission marker:
do
{
while (!(inportb(BASEADDR +5) & 1)); /*Wait until data ready*/
data[i++]= inportb(BASEADDR);
}
while (data[i]!=13); /*Reads the line until null character rec'd*/
Interrupt-driven communications should be used whenever possible and is required for high data rates.
Writing an interrupt-driven receiver is not much more complex than writing a polled receiver but care
should be taken when installing or removing your interrupt handler to avoid writing the wrong
interrupt, disabling the wrong interrupt, or turning interrupts off for too long a period.
The handler would first read the Interrupt Identification Register at Base Address +2. If the interrupt
is for Received Data Available, the handler then reads the data. If no interrupt is pending, control exits
the routine. A sample handler, written in C, is as follows:
readback = inportb(BASEADDR +2);
if (readback & 4)
/*Readback will be set to 4 if data are available*/
data[i++]=inportb(BASEADDR);
outportb(0x20,0x20);
/*Write EOI to 8259 Interrupt Controller*/
return;
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Transmission
RS485 transmission is simple to implement. The AUTO feature automatically enables the transmitter
when data is ready to send so no software enabling procedure is needed.
The following software example is for non-AUTO operation. First the RTS line should be set high
by writing a 1 to Bit 1 of the Modem Control Register at Base Address +4. The RTS line is used to
toggle the transceiver from receive mode to transmit mode and vice versa. It is not carried out on the
line in RS485 and is not used for handshaking. Similarly, the CTS line is not used in RS485 and
should always be enabled by installing a jumper as described earlier.
After the above is done, the card is ready to send data. To transmit a string of data, the transmitter
must first check Bit 5 of the Line Status Register at Base Address +5. That bit is the
transmitter-holding-register-empty flag. If it is high, the transmitter has sent the data. The process
of checking the bit until it goes high, followed by a write is repeated until no data remains. After all
data has been transmitted, the RTS bit should be reset by writing a 0 to Bit 1 of the Modem Control
Register.
The following C code fragment demonstrates this process:
outportb(BASEADDR +4, inportb(BASEADDR +4)|0x02) ;
/*Set RTS bit without altering states of other bits*/
while(data[i]); /*While there is data to send*/
{ /*Wait until transmitter is empty*/
while(!(inportb(BASEADDR +5)&0x20)); /*Wait until transmitter is empty*/
outportb(BASEADDR,data[i]);
i++;
}
outportb(BASEADDR +4, inportb(BASEADDR +4)&0xFD);
/*Reset RTS bit without altering states of other bits*/
5-4
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
Chapter 6: Connector Pin Assignments
The popular 9-pin D subminiature connector is used for interfacing to communication lines. The
connector is equipped with 4-40 threaded standoffs (female screw lock) to provide strain relief.
Pin No.
RS422
1
Rx- Receive Data (Complementary Input)
2
Tx+ Transmit Data (Output)
3
Tx- Transmit Data (Complementary
4
RS485
TRx-
Not Used
5
Gnd Isolated Common (Ground)
6
+5V Isolated 5V Supply
7
RTS Request to Send (Output)
8
CTS Clear to Send (Input)
9
Rx+ Receive Data (Input)
Ground
TRx +
Table 6-1: Connector Pin Assignments
Note
For Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Full-Duplex operation, see the Option Selection chapter of this manual
for pin connection information.
Note
If the unit is CE-marked, then CE-certifiable cabling and breakout methodology (cable shields
grounded at the connector, shielded twisted-pair wiring, etc) must be used.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
6-1
Appendix A: Application Considerations
Introduction
Working with RS422 and RS485 devices is not much different from working with standard RS232
serial devices and these two standards overcome deficiencies in the RS232 standard. First, the cable
length between two RS232 devices must be short; less than 50 feet at. Second, many RS232 errors
are the result of noise induced on the cables. The RS422 standard permits cable lengths up to 5000
feet and, because it operates in the differential mode, it is more immune to induced noise.
Connections between two RS422 devices (with CTS ignored) should be as follows:
Device #1
Device #2
Signal
9 pin
25 pin
Signal
9 pin
25 pin
Gnd
5
7
Gnd
5
7
+
9
12
-
+
TX
2
24
RX
-
TX
3
25
RX
1
13
RX+
9
12
TX+
2
24
-
3
25
-
RX
1
1
TX
Table A-1: Connections Between Two RS422 Devices
A third deficiency of RS232 is that more than two devices cannot share the same cable. This is also
true for RS422 but RS485 offers all the benefits of RS422 plus allows up to 32 devices to share the
same twisted pairs. An exception to the foregoing is that multiple RS422 devices can share a single
cable if only one will talk and the others will all receive.
Balanced Differential Signals
The reason that RS422 and RS485 devices can drive longer lines with more noise immunity than
RS232 devices is that a balanced differential drive method is used. In a balanced differential system,
the voltage produced by the driver appears across a pair of wires. A balanced line driver will produce
a differential voltage from ±2 to ±6 volts across its output terminals. A balanced line driver can also
have an input "enable" signal that connects the driver to its output terminals. If the "enable" signal is
OFF, the driver is disconnected from the transmission line. This disconnected or disabled condition
is usually referred to as the "tristate" condition and represents a high impedance. RS485 drivers must
have this control capability. RS422 drivers may have this control but it is not always required.
Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
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A balanced differential line receiver senses the voltage state of the transmission line across the two
signal input lines. If the differential input voltage is greater than +200 mV, the receiver will provide
a specific logic state on its output. If the differential voltage input is less than -200 mV, the receiver
will provide the opposite logic state on its output. A maximum operating voltage range is from +6V
to -6V allows for voltage attenuation that can occur on long transmission cables.
The maximum common mode voltage rating provides good noise immunity from voltages induced on
the twisted pair lines. The signal ground line connection is necessary in order to keep the common
mode voltage within that range. The circuit may operate without the ground connection but may not
be reliable.
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Max.
4V
6V
-4V
-6V
Driver Output Voltage (unloaded)
Driver Output Voltage (loaded)
LD and LDGND
jumpers in
2V
-2V
Driver Output Resistance
50?
Driver Output Short-Circuit Current
±150 mA
Driver Output Rise Time
10% unit interval
Receiver Sensitivity
±200 mV
Receiver Common Mode Voltage Range
±7V
Receiver Input Resistance
4K?
Table A-2: RS422 Specification Summary
To prevent signal reflections in the cable and to improve noise rejection in both the RS422 and RS485
mode, the receiver end of the cable should be terminated with a resistance equal to the characteristic
impedance of the cable. (An exception to this is the case where the line is driven by an RS422 driver
that is never "tristated" or disconnected from the line. In this case, the driver provides a low internal
impedance that terminates the line at that end.)
Note
You do not have to add a terminator resistor to your cables when you use the ICOM-2S card.
Termination resistors for the RX+ and RX- lines are provided on the card and are placed in the circuit
when you install the LD and LDGND jumpers. Moreover, installing the +BIAS and -BIAS jumpers
properly biases these lines. (See the Option Selection section of this manual.)
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Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
RS485 Data Transmission
The RS485 Standard allows a balanced transmission line to be shared in a party-line mode. As many
as 32 driver/receiver pairs can share a two-wire party line network. Many characteristics of the
drivers and receivers are the same as in the RS422 Standard. One difference is that the common mode
voltage limit is extended and is +12V to -7V. Since any driver can be disconnected (or tristated) from
the line, it must withstand this common mode voltage range while in the tristate condition.
RS485 Two-Wire Multidrop Network
The following illustration shows a typical multidrop or party line network. Note that the transmission
line is terminated on both ends of the line but not at drop points in the middle of the line.
Figure A-1: Typical RS485 Two-Wire Multidrop Network
RS485 Four-Wire Multidrop Network
An RS485 network can also be connected in a four-wire mode. In a four-wire network it's necessary
that one node be a master node and all others be slaves. The network is connected so that the master
communicates to all slaves and all slaves communicate only with the master. This has advantages in
equipment that uses mixed protocol communications. Since the slave nodes never listen to another
slave's response to the master, a slave node cannot reply incorrectly.
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Manual MICOM-2S.Eb
Customer Comments
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