Installation and
Operation Manual
BLE100
1GHz Broadband Line Extender
2
IN
5
1
M BL
SE
ED
AS
6
O
4
MEXIC
3
Caution
These servicing instructions are for use by qualified personnel only. To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not perform any servicing other than that
contained in the Installation and Troubleshooting Instructions unless you are qualified to do so. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel.
Special Symbols That Might Appear on the Equipment
This symbol indicates that dangerous voltage levels are present within the equipment. These voltages are not
insulated and may be of sufficient strength to cause serious bodily injury when touched. The symbol may also appear
on schematics.
The exclamation point, within an equilateral triangle, is intended to alert the user to the presence of important
installation, servicing, and operating instructions in the documents accompanying the equipment.
For continued protection against fire, replace all fuses only with fuses having the same electrical ratings marked at
the location of the fuse.
FCC Compliance
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the Installation Manual, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user
will be required to correct the interference at his/her own expense. Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by Motorola could void the
user’s authority to operate this equipment under the rules and regulations of the FCC.
Canadian Compliance
This Class A digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A respects toutes les exigences du Règlement sur le matériel brouilleur du Canada.
Declaration of Conformity
We
Motorola, Inc.
101 Tournament Drive
Horsham, PA 19044, U.S.A.
declare under our sole responsibility that the
STARLINE®
Model BLE100
to which this declaration relates is in conformity with one or more of the following standards:
EMC Standards
EN55022
EN55024
EN50083-2
CISPR-22
CISPR-24
EN60825
EN60950
IEC 60950 + A1: 1992 + A2: 1993 + A3: 1995 + A4: 1996
Safety Standards
EN60065
following the provisions of the Directive(s) of the Council of the European Union:
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC
Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC
Copyright © 2006 by Motorola, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make any derivative work (such as
translation, transformation or adaptation) without written permission from Motorola, Inc.
Motorola reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes in content from time to time without obligation on the part of Motorola to
provide notification of such revision or change. Motorola provides this guide without warranty of any kind, either implied or expressed, including, but
not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Motorola may make improvements or changes in the
product(s) described in this manual at any time.
MOTOROLA, Intelligence Everywhere and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names
are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2006
Contents
Section 1
Introduction
Using This Manual ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3
Related Documentation................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3
Document Conventions................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3
If You Need Help............................................................................................................................................................................... 1-4
Calling for Repairs ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1-5
Section 2
Overview
Ordering Matrix ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-2
Housing............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-3
Gaskets ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-4
Port Locations .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-5
Power Supply ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-6
Forward Path .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-7
Return Path....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-7
Ingress Control Switch.................................................................................................................................................................... 2-8
Options and Accessories................................................................................................................................................................ 2-8
Section 3
Amplifier Setup
Proper Handling Procedures .......................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Field Practice ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Bench Setup ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3-1
Forward Path Alignment.................................................................................................................................................................. 3-2
Before You Begin .................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
STARLINE Cable Equalizers .................................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Example 1........................................................................................................................................................................ 3-3
Example 2........................................................................................................................................................................ 3-3
STARLINE Cable Simulators.................................................................................................................................................. 3-6
Input and Midstage Pads........................................................................................................................................................ 3-7
Flatness Control ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3-7
Directional Coupler Test Points............................................................................................................................................. 3-8
Bode Equalization ................................................................................................................................................................... 3-8
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
ii
Contents
Amplifier Level Control ...........................................................................................................................................................3-9
Manual Gain Control.......................................................................................................................................................3-9
Automatic Drive Unit/QAM Automatic Drive Unit ......................................................................................................3-11
ADU/QADU Pads and Levels .......................................................................................................................................3-12
Return Path Alignment...................................................................................................................................................................3-12
Before You Begin...................................................................................................................................................................3-12
Alignment Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................3-13
Powering and Surge Protection ....................................................................................................................................................3-14
Section 4
Bench Testing
Before You Begin..............................................................................................................................................................................4-1
Test Equipment and Connections ..................................................................................................................................................4-2
Measuring Forward Gain.........................................................................................................................................................4-2
Example: ..........................................................................................................................................................................4-3
Example: ..........................................................................................................................................................................4-3
Testing Return Gain and Response.......................................................................................................................................4-4
Example: ..........................................................................................................................................................................4-4
Completing the Test Procedures ...........................................................................................................................................4-4
Section 5
Installation
Aerial Installation..............................................................................................................................................................................5-1
Pedestal Installation.........................................................................................................................................................................5-3
Section 6
Operating Tips
Using Amplifiers in Lower Frequency Systems ............................................................................................................................6-1
Using Amplifiers in Lower Gain Systems ......................................................................................................................................6-1
Appendix A
Specifications
Model BLE100S................................................................................................................................................................................ A-1
AC Current........................................................................................................................................................................................ A-2
Return Amplifier............................................................................................................................................................................... A-2
ADU Automatic Drive Unit .............................................................................................................................................................. A-2
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Contents
iii
Appendix B
Torque Specifications
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Figures
Figure 1-1 BLE100 – closed ........................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Figure 1-2 BLE100 – open .............................................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Figure 2-1 BLE100 base with electronics module ....................................................................................................................... 2-1
Figure 2-2 BLE100 ordering matrix ............................................................................................................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-3 BLE-HSG/15 housing and dimensions ....................................................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-4 Housing gaskets ........................................................................................................................................................... 2-4
Figure 2-5 Housing ports................................................................................................................................................................ 2-5
Figure 2-6 BLE100 power supply .................................................................................................................................................. 2-6
Figure 2-7 BLE100 block diagram ................................................................................................................................................. 2-7
Figure 2-8 BLE100 options and accessories.............................................................................................................................. 2-10
Figure 3-1 Equalizer slope versus cable....................................................................................................................................... 3-5
Figure 3-2 Frequency versus cable slope .................................................................................................................................... 3-7
Figure 3-3 LDR/9/1G component layout (top-left, bottom-right) ................................................................................................ 3-8
Figure 3-4 ADU .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3-11
Figure 3-5 QADU ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3-11
Figure 4-1 Test equipment connections for bench sweeping .................................................................................................... 4-2
Figure 5-1 Center-conductor pin length ....................................................................................................................................... 5-1
Figure 5-2 Torque sequence .......................................................................................................................................................... 5-2
Tables
Table 2-1 BLE100 options and accessories ................................................................................................................................. 2-8
Table 3-1 Starline Forward Equalizers – SFE-100-* ..................................................................................................................... 3-4
Table 3-2 STARLINE Cable Simulators ......................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Table 3-3 Gain reserve versus ambient temperature .................................................................................................................. 3-9
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Section 1
Introduction
The Motorola 1 GHz STARLINE® series of broadband line extenders, BLE100, accept a single
input and provide 34 dB of operational gain to a single output. The BLE100 series of line
extenders meets Telcordia GR-1098 core voltage surge requirements using surge waveforms as
described in IEEE C62.41. The BLE100 is also FCC, CE, and CCC approved.
Features of the BLE100 include:
ƒ
1003 MHz power doubling technology in enhanced gallium arsenide (E-GaAs)
ƒ
Four different modular diplex filter frequency split options
ƒ
Ergonomics
ƒ
60/90 VAC line power option
ƒ
Thermal and auto-controlled Bode equalization
ƒ
−20 dB directional coupler test points
ƒ
Optional return path ingress control accessories
ƒ
Two-way operation capability
ƒ
15-amp power passing
Figure 1-1 illustrates a closed BLE100 line extender.
Figure 1-1
BLE100 – closed
2
M BL
SE
IN
5
1
ED
AS
6
O
4
MEXIC
3
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
1-2
Introduction
Figure 1-2 illustrates an open BLE100.
Figure 1-2
BLE100 – open
MAN
+24V DC
TEST POINT
-20dB
SFE-100-XX
RCB100
ALIGN DOTS
BLE
100
87
S
J
A
K
N
RC
JXP MID
JXP IN
IN
BODE
FWD
EQ
-20dB
ADU
JXP
CHECK VOLTAGE
SELECTOR
REFER TO MANUAL
H
LDR
L
MAN
AC
TEST
POINT
FUSE
L
-20dB
SRE-X-XX
H
RTN
EQ
JXP
THERM
AUTO
STATUS
MONITOR
ADU
JXP
IN
FUSE
OUT
TDU
JXP OUT
ADU
ICS
-20dB
ASSEMBLED IN MEXICO
STATUS
MONITOR
CAUTION: CONTAINS PARTS AND
ASSEMBLIES SUSCEPTIBLE TO
DAMAGE BY ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE (ESD)
-16dB
REFER TO
MANUAL FOR
FUSE VALUES
Base
Lid
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Introduction
1-3
Using This Manual
The following sections provide information and instructions to bench test, install, and operate
the BLE100.
Section 1
Introduction provides a brief description of the product, identifies the information
contained in this manual, and gives the help line telephone number and repair return
information.
Section 2
Overview describes the BLE100 and includes details on the various options and their
functions.
Section 3
Amplifier Setup provides instructions for full configuration and forward- and return-path
alignment.
Section 4
Bench Testing describes the bench test procedures that are recommended before
installing the BLE100.
Section 5
Installation provides instructions for installing the BLE100 and performing field alignment.
Section 6
Operating Tips provides suggestions for handling field-encountered variables and
addressing maintenance tasks.
Appendix A
Specifications lists the applicable technical specifications for the BLE100 and options.
Appendix B
Torque Specifications provides the appropriate torque specifications for the screws,
clamps, connectors, and bolts used in the BLE100.
Abbreviations
and Acronyms
The Abbreviations and Acronyms list contains the full spelling of the short forms used in
this manual.
This installation manual assumes that all channels are standard National Television Standards
Committee (NTSC) analog channels. Refer to catalog specifications for further details pertaining
to signal levels of digital channels above 550 MHz.
This installation manual uses 1003 MHz as the reference frequency unless another frequency is
given. For example, quoted cable loss is understood to be at 1003 MHz.
Related Documentation
This installation manual is complete and you should not require any additional documentation
to install, test, or operate the BLE100 line extender.
Document Conventions
Before you begin to use the BLE100, familiarize yourself with the stylistic conventions used in
this manual:
Bold type
Indicates text that you must type exactly as it appears or indicates a default value
SMALL CAPS
Denotes silk screening on the equipment, typically representing front and rear-panel
controls, I/O connections and indicators (LEDs).
* (Asterisk)
Indicates that there are several versions of the same model number and the information
applies to all models. When the information applies to a specific model, the complete model
number is given.
Italic type
Denotes a displayed variable, a variable that you must type, or is used for emphasis
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
1-4
Introduction
If You Need Help
If you need assistance while working with the BLE100, contact the Motorola Technical Response
Center (TRC):
Inside the U.S.: 888-944-HELP (1-888-944-4357)
Outside the U.S.: 215-323-0044
Motorola Online: http://businessonline.motorola.com
The TRC is on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In addition, Motorola Online offers a
searchable solutions database, technical documentation, and low-priority issue creation and
tracking.
Technical Response Center
Telephone Menu Options
Connected Home Solutions
http://businessonline.motorola.com
888-944-HELP / 215-323-0044
Broadcaster,
Satellite IRD or
Encoder Products
PRESS 2
Video Products
PRESS 1
PRESS 1
Controllers
PRESS 1
Digital
PRESS 2
Headend
PRESS 2
Uplink
Encoder
PRESS 1
Commercial
IRD
PRESS 3
Set-tops
PRESS 2
Analog
Consumer
Products
PRESS 4
Data Networks/
Transmission Products
PRESS 3
PRESS 3
PRESS 2
PRESS 1
Cable Router Cable Modems Transmission
Products
VOIP
Products
Severity Level
1 - Critical Failure
2 - Serious Failure
3 - Lesser Failure
4 - Technical Assistance
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
PRESS 4
Network
Management
PRESS 5
Multiservice
Transport
Products
(MBT/MWT/MEA)
PRESS 1
Consumer
Satellite
C Band
PRESS 2
Broadband
Retail
Support
PRESS 2
PRESS 1
Network
Network
Licensing Management
Products
Issued: 04/2005
Introduction
1-5
Calling for Repairs
If repair is necessary, call the Motorola Repair Facility at 1-800-227-0450 for a Return for
Service Authorization (RSA) number before sending the unit. The RSA number must be
prominently displayed on all equipment cartons. The Repair Facility is open from 8:00 AM to
5:00 PM Central Time, Monday through Friday.
When calling from outside the United States, use the appropriate international access code and
then call 956-541-0600 to contact the Repair Facility.
When shipping equipment for repair, follow these steps:
1
Pack the unit securely.
2
Enclose a note describing the exact problem.
3
Enclose a copy of the invoice that verifies the warranty status.
4
Ship the unit PREPAID to the following address:
BCS Nogales Repair Center
Attn: RSA #_________
6908 East Century Park Drive
Tucson, AZ 85706
US
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Section 2
Overview
The BLE100 is a two-way capable line extender used in CATV distribution systems. The
BLE100 is powered by the 60/90 VAC cable supply and can be configured to pass this power to
additional line extenders. Installation of the return path enables two-way signal flow.
The standard model BLE100 includes an amplifier module with an integrated DC power supply,
which is normally furnished complete in the model BLE-HSG/15 housing, as shown in
Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1
BLE100 base with electronics module
MAN
+24V DC
TEST POINT
-20dB
SFE-100-XX
RCB100
ALIGN DOTS
BLE
100
87
S
J
A
K
N
RC
JXP MID
JXP IN
IN
BODE
FWD
EQ
-20dB
ADU
JXP
CHECK VOLTAGE
SELECTOR
REFER TO MANUAL
H
LDR
L
MAN
AC
TEST
POINT
FUSE
L
-20dB
SRE-X-XX
H
RTN
EQ
JXP
THERM
AUTO
STATUS
MONITOR
ADU
JXP
IN
FUSE
OUT
TDU
JXP OUT
ADU
ICS
-20dB
ASSEMBLED IN MEXICO
STATUS
MONITOR
CAUTION: CONTAINS PARTS AND
ASSEMBLIES SUSCEPTIBLE TO
DAMAGE BY ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE (ESD)
-16dB
REFER TO
MANUAL FOR
FUSE VALUES
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
2-2
Overview
Ordering Matrix
Several models of the BLE100 are available. The BLE100 is fully configured in the Motorola
factory per customer request. You can find the model name on labels on the outside of the
shipping carton, the side of the BLE100 housing, and the side of the electronics module.
Please see the Product Data Sheet on the Motorola on line Product Catalog for available models
and associated part numbers.
Figure 2-2 identifies and describes the model strings.
Figure 2-2
BLE100 ordering matrix
Key
X
Key
H
Gain
E-GaAs (High Output w/34 dB Gain)
Key
X
Station Slope
9 dB (Fmin-1003 MHz)
Return Gain
High (24 dB)
BLE
Key
Bandpass Split
Key
Level Control
Key
Housing*
100S 5-40 MHz/52-1003 MHz
100K 5-42 MHz/54-1003 MHz
X
A
None
ADU-499.25/S
E15
Electronics only (15 amp)
100A 5-65 MHz/85-1003 MHz
Q
QADU-609.00/S
E10
Electronics only (10 amp)
F
Standard (Full Station)
100J 5-55 MHz/70-1003 MHz
100N 5-85 MHz/105-1003 MHz
* Electronics modules available are configured for manual level control only.
The ADU must be ordered and installed separately.
Notes:
1. FTECs and 20A fuses are included in all amplifiers as standard.
2. ICS and status monitor transponders will continue to be customer configurable options.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Overview
2-3
Housing
The BLE100 is furnished in a BLE-HSG/15 aluminum housing that protects the electronics
from weather and dissipates internally generated heat.
Figure 2-3 illustrates the BLE-HSG/15 housing and provides its dimensions.
Figure 2-3
BLE-HSG/15 housing and dimensions
10.6
2
IN
5
1
M BL
SE
ED
AS
6
8.0
O
4
MEXIC
3
4.7
Coaxial cable connections to the housing are made using conventional 5/8 inch × 24 threads
per-inch stinger-type connectors. Four port plugs in the cover enable access to internal test
points without opening the housing.
The BLE-HSG/15 differs from the housing of the 10A BLE (model BLE-75SH and BLE-75JH)
and the JLX series of line extenders. However, you can upgrade the 10A BLE and the JLX
series of line extenders to the 15A BLE100 using the existing housing. To upgrade from 10A to
15A, use the BLE-15A platform assembly kit (P/N 951941-006-00). The BLE-15A kit contains
15A platform assemblies. As an alternative to the kit, you can order the BLE100 electronics
module configured as a 10A unit (see Fig.2-2 BLE100 ordering matrix, Housing).
Two messenger clamps are located on the side of the housing (Figure 2-5) and are secured with
5/16 inch × 24 threads-per-inch stainless steel bolts. The bottom of the housing also contains two
5/16 × 24 threaded holes located on the vertical center-line separated by four inches
center-to-center. Use these holes and the bolts from the messenger clamps for pedestal and
surface-mounting installations.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
2-4
Overview
Gaskets
Each housing is equipped with a recessed woven-wire RF gasket and a silicone-rubber gasket to
provide a seal between the housing base and lid. These gaskets provide efficient ground
continuity, RF shielding, and weather protection. Both gaskets must be in place and in good
condition to ensure proper operation and protection of the station. The weather gasket should be
lightly coated with silicone grease each time the BLE100 is opened. Replace this gasket if it
becomes damaged or deformed.
Figure 2-4
Housing gaskets
Weather gasket
(silicone rubber)
MAN
+24V DC
TEST POINT
-20dB
SFE-100-XX
RCB100
ALIGN DOTS
BLE
100
87
S
J
A
K
N
RC
JXP MID
JXP IN
IN
BODE
FWD
EQ
-20dB
ADU
JXP
CHECK VOLTAGE
SELECTOR
REFER TO MANUAL
H
LDR
L
MAN
AC
TEST
POINT
FUSE
L
-20dB
SRE-X-XX
H
RTN
EQ
JXP
THERM
AUTO
STATUS
MONITOR
ADU
JXP
IN
FUSE
OUT
TDU
JXP OUT
ADU
ICS
CAUTION: CONTAINS PARTS AND
ASSEMBLIES SUSCEPTIBLE TO
DAMAGE BY ELECTROSTATIC
DISCHARGE (ESD)
-16dB
RF gasket
(woven wire)
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
-20dB
ASSEMBLED IN MEXICO
STATUS
MONITOR
REFER TO
MANUAL FOR
FUSE VALUES
Overview
2-5
Port Locations
Two housing ports provide connection for coaxial cables. Four port plugs in the cover enable
access to internal test points. All ports are protected by factory-inserted threaded plugs or
plastic cap plugs. Discard the plastic cap plugs when you install the cable connectors.
Figure 2-5 illustrates the housing port locations.
Figure 2-5
Housing ports
2
AS
IN
5
1
MB
SE L
Test ports
ED
Test ports
6
O
4
MEXIC
3
Messenger
clamp bolts
Port 1
Lid
Port 2
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
2-6
Overview
Power Supply
The BLE100 power supply is a separate circuit board mounted to the underside of the amplifier
module and is capable of 60 VAC or 90 VAC powering. The power supply provides a regulated
24 VDC output over an AC input between 38 Vrms and 90 Vrms with a line frequency from
50 Hz through 60 Hz. Potentiometer R25 adjusts the output voltage to 24 VDC, however, this is
set at the factory and field adjustment is not recommended.
Figure 2-6 illustrates the components on the power supply.
Figure 2-6
BLE100 power supply
The power supply also contains a two-position LO/HI selector that sets the start-up voltage for
38 VAC or 55 VAC. The BLE100 is shipped with the selector in the LO position which is the
standard configuration. The selector should be switched to the HI position only for a 90 VAC
system. This sets the start-up voltage at 55 VAC. Because this is only 5 V below 60 VAC, it is
not practical in a 60 VAC system. There is no damage to the amplifier if the selector is not
changed from the standard LO setting. However, changing the selector ensures that the DC
supply does not turn on until the proper input voltage, 38 VAC or 55 VAC, is reached. This
prevents excessive loading of the system power supply during turn-on after a system shutdown.
You must remove the power supply cover to access the selector illustrated in Figure 2-6.
Section 3, “Amplifier Setup” explains changing the setting of this selector to meet system
requirements.
The power supply includes a fast-transfer electronic-crowbar (FTEC) surge protector. The FTEC
is a crowbar circuit that fires at approximately 245 V and presents a short circuit to the line
during periods of overvoltage. After the ac input voltage returns to normal, the FTEC resumes
its open state.
The factory-installed 20-ampere fuse, illustrated in Figure 2-8, provides power-passing to
additional line extenders.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Overview
2-7
Forward Path
The operational gain of the BLE100 amplifiers is 34 dB with 16 dB of return loss. The operating
gain includes provisions for the insertion loss of the input cable equalizer and required reserve
gain to operate the Bode equalizer in the middle of its range. The low-noise figure, pre-amplifier
stage, is a 1 GHz hybrid followed by a power-doubled output stage. Between the two stages is a
JXP-*B pad socket, the Bode board, and the flatness and equalizer board. Because these losses
are located interstage, the noise figure is only significantly impacted by the insertion loss of the
forward cable equalizer or broadband cable simulator, and the input pad if its value is increased
from zero.
Figure 2-7 illustrates the interconnection among these components:
Figure 2-7
BLE100 block diagram
-1.0 dB
SFE
or
SCS
-20 dB
TP
Input
port
-1.7
RF/
dB F
AC RF
AC -1.0
dB R
H
-1.0 dB
L
-1.0 dB
28 dB
JXP-B
~ -3 dB
JXP-B OnBrd
Atten
PP
RC
Manual
-1.0 dB -6.5 dB
LDR
BODE
23 dB
PD
Auto
ADU/
TDU
JXP-B
-1.0 dB
H
-1.0 dB
L
Output
-1.7
port
RF/
dB F
RF AC
-1.0
AC
dB R
OnBrd
Atten
Status
monitor
JXP-B
TP
Return
injection point
-20 dB
-0.4 dB
-0.4 dB
+30.0 dB -0.3 dB
-0.5 dB
Surge
protector
SRE
Therm JXP-B-
LPF
-0.4 dB
ICS
JXP
Surge
protector
TP
-20 dB
-16 dB
TP
-20 dB
AC test
point
Power
supply
24 Vdc
DC test point
Power
Block
Jumper
Fuse
** Plug-in module
FTEC
Return Path
The circuit board of the BLE100 includes the return path. This equips the BLE100 to pass
signals in the return or upstream direction. The standard circuit board contains all components
including the diplex filters with extended return bandwidth for the amplifier input and output.
Optional SRE-*-* return equalizers compensate for cable attenuation and are available in 1 dB
increments for S-split, and 2 dB increments for all other splits, from 0 dB through 12 dB.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
2-8
Overview
The input and output of the return path each include a JXP-*B pad facility. You can also use
either pad socket as a test point or a signal injection point. The return output pad value is
normally selected to control the return signal level into the next upstream amplifier. Select an
appropriate return input pad to attenuate excessive input signal.
The return-input test point and the return-output test point are −20 dB directional couplers.
Both test points present 75-ohm source impedance and do not require special test probes.
Ingress Control Switch
The ingress control switch (ICS) provides return-path signal attenuation or cutoff in the
BLE100. This is accomplished through the frequency agile LIFELINE® status-monitoring
module, which you can purchase directly from AM Networks. (Figure 2-8 illustrates the location
of the optional ICS).
The ICS provides a means of isolating sources of ingress from a centralized location. Using a
downstream command through the LIFELINE status-monitoring system, you can attenuate the
return path through the line extender by 6 dB or by 38 dB. By reducing the ingress level at the
headend or monitoring point, you can further isolate the ingress source.
After an ingress source is isolated to the last possible amplifier, node, or line extender, you can
shut the return path off at that location. This limits the impact of the ingress on the remainder
of the network while eliminating the source of ingress.
Options and Accessories
The factory ships the BLE100 as a fully functional unit, but you must configure it appropriately
for the field-location requirements. You must install the correct forward equalizer or broadband
cable simulator and input pad to place the unit into service. Section 3, “Amplifier Setup”
provides information to assist you in this task. Use model JXP-*B pads to control field signal
levels. To compensate for temperature, install the automatic drive unit (ADU) or QAM
automatic drive unit (QADU) before placing the BLE100 in service. You can install other items,
such as return thermal attenuators or ingress control switches at your discretion, but these
options do not render the BLE100 inoperative if they are not included.
Table 2-1 provides a comprehensive list of options and accessories for the BLE100. See
Section 3, “Amplifier Setup,” or the Motorola online product catalog for additional information.
Table 2-1
BLE100 options and accessories
Model
Description
Function
QADU-*
QAM Automatic Drive Unit
This board automatically controls amplifier output levels
that change with cable attenuation and hybrid output.
The selection of an appropriate pilot frequency is
required.
ADU-*
Automatic Drive Unit
This board automatically controls amplifier output levels
that change with cable attenuation and hybrid output.
The selection of an appropriate pilot frequency is
required.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Overview
2-9
Model
Description
Function
SFE-100-*
Starline Forward Equalizer
This 1 GHz equalizer compensates for cable properties
in 1 dB increments from 0 dB through 22 dB. The
appropriate value must be installed.
SRE-*-*
Starline Return Equalizer
This bandwidth specific equalizer compensates for
cable attenuation in 1 dB increments from 0 dB through
12 dB for S-split (2 dB increments for all other splits).
The appropriate value must be installed.
SCS-*
Starline Cable Simulator
This simulator compensates for cable properties. The
appropriate value must be installed.
JXP-*B
Fixed attenuator
This pad attenuates excessive input signal and can be
used to adjust amplifier gain. It is available in 1 dB
increments from 0 dB through 26 dB. The appropriate
value must be installed.
JXP-TH*C
Thermal attenuators
This option compensates for gain changes with
temperature in the return path.
FTEC
Fast Transfer Electronic
Crowbar
This accessory is used for overvoltage protection.
BLE-LID/SM
Deep housing cover
This optional cover is required to contain the LIFELINE
status monitor module which is available from AM
Networks.
BLE-RCB100
Response Correction Board
This optional board compensates for system roll-off at
1 GHz. The BLE100 is shipped with a jumper in this
location which you can replace when additional
response correction is required.
JXP-RPC
Return Path Correction board
This optional board provides additional flatness
response correction in the return path for systems that
must meet especially stringent return path flatness
requirements.
ICS-II
Ingress Control Switch
This option enables remote monitoring, isolation, and
reduction of ingress on the return path by providing
signal attenuation of 6 dB or cutoff of 38 dB typical. The
unit is shipped with a jumper in this location. The
LIFELINE status monitoring module (available from AM
Networks) must be installed to control the ICS.
Figure 2-8 illustrates the location of options and accessories in the BLE100.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
2-10
Overview
Figure 2-8 illustrates the location of options and accessories in the BLE100.
Figure 2-8
BLE100 options and accessories
Forward
equalizer or
Cable simulator
(SFE- 100 - * or SCS- *)
TP
forward
input
Midstage
pad
(JXP MID)
Input Drive control
pad
select jumper
(JXP IN) MAN/AUTO
LDR
Optional
RCB (JXP Manual
level
jumper
shown)
(MAN)
DC
test
point
Bode
board
ADU/QADU
pad
TP
(ADU JXP) forward
output
(use for
Diplex
status
filter
monitor)
SFE-100-XX
SRE-X-XX
TP
return
output
Diplex Power
filter
block
ADU/
QADU
AC
Return
test
output
point
pad
(JXP OUT)
20 A
fuse
Return
Optional
Status Return
equalizer
thermal
monitor hybrid
(SRE - * - *)
pad
connector
(JXP THERM)
Auto
level
(ADU)
Optional
ICS
(JXP
jumper
shown)
From
Return
TP
status
pad
return
monitor (JXP IN)
input
If you are not using an ADU/QADU, you can select manual control of the Bode board. Figure 2-8
illustrates the location of the MAN/AUTO jumper on the main circuit board.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Section 3
Amplifier Setup
This section provides instructions on how to properly handle and configure the BLE100. It also
describes the proper forward and return path alignment procedures. It is recommended that you
read this entire section before you install the BLE100.
Proper Handling Procedures
The following information is useful in reducing GaAs RF amplifier failures caused by
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) or Electrical Over Stress (EOS).
Many electronic components are vulnerable to ESD and EOS. Improper handling during service
and installation can subject the BLE100 to performance degradation or failure. All closed
operational units are equally protected. Compliance with proper handling procedures can
significantly reduce ESD and EOS related failures.
To avoid excessive signal level which causes EOS, follow the procedures listed below:
Field Practice
Proper field procedures include:
ƒ
Installing the system design value forward equalizer and a high value (20 dB or above)
input pad before you install or remove the electronics chassis or activate the system. This
significantly reduces RF signal level and avoids possible EOS which can damage the
hybrids.
ƒ
Leaving the input pad location open if a high value pad is not available. A more accurate
forward input test point reading is achieved with a high value pad installed.
ƒ
Avoiding handling of the hybrids. If you need to remove or install the hybrids, follow proper
ESD grounding practices as stated under Bench Setup.
Bench Setup
Proper bench handling practices include:
ƒ
Grounding of the test bench with ESD matting on the work surface and wearing a wrist
strap connected to a continuous ground monitor checker. These practices are particularly
important when handling hybrids.
ƒ
Terminating all unused ports with a 75-ohm load.
ƒ
Securing all electronics module cover screws or removing the cover completely. Loose screws
can cause the BLE100 to oscillate and degrade performance.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-2
Amplifier Setup
To successfully setup the BLE100, you need to perform the following tasks:
ƒ
Forward path alignment
ƒ
Return path alignment
ƒ
Check powering and surge protection options
Forward Path Alignment
You must perform the following BLE100 alignment procedures for proper performance in the
forward path:
ƒ
Select the appropriate cable equalizer or cable simulator
ƒ
Select the appropriate input and midstage pads
ƒ
Verify proper flatness control
ƒ
Verify proper level control
Before You Begin
Before you begin to set-up the amplifier and perform forward-path alignment, please read the
following instructions and recommendations.
For proper forward alignment obtain:
ƒ
RF output levels and tilts of all BLE100s in the forward or return path
ƒ
RF input level for the BLE100 being set up (from system design or as-built map)
ƒ
A carrier at the system’s highest frequency. It can be modulated or continuous wave (CW)
and should be inserted in the headend at standard video levels. This carrier is used to
simplify field set-up.
It is recommended that you:
ƒ
Install the system design value SFE-100-* and a high value (20 dB or above) input pad
(JXP IN) before you install or remove the electronics chassis or apply power to the BLE100.
Leave the JXP IN pad location open if a high value pad is not available. A more accurate
forward input test point reading is achieved with a high value pad installed.
ƒ
Do not remove the electronics chassis cover while the BLE100 is powered.
ƒ
Do not use wire jumpers to bypass the SFE-100-* location.
ƒ
Recognize that actual pad and SFE-100-* values may differ slightly from their design
values. This is caused by factors such as walkout errors, worst-case data utilization during
design and temperature variation from 70°F.
ƒ
Secure the electronics chassis in the housing base and torque to 18-22 in-lbs. to facilitate
heat transfer and avoid damage from overheating.
ƒ
If the electronics chassis cover was removed for any reason, shut off the AC power
before you reinstall the cover. Verify that all chassis cover screws are tightened to
10–12 in-lbs.
ƒ
Perform a bench alignment. Pre-aligning the BLE100 response on the bench (Section 4,
“Bench Testing”) for a system signature simplifies field alignment.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Amplifier Setup
3-3
ƒ
Field-sweep the entire bandwidth of the amplifier to correct frequency response for passive
signature and roll-off.
ƒ
Close the housing in accordance with the instructions in Section 5, “Installation.”
STARLINE Cable Equalizers
Select the appropriate model SFE-100-* to compensate for cable attenuation versus frequency
and to obtain the proper output tilt. The BLE100 is equipped with the LDR/9/1G interstage
equalizer and flatness board that compensates for cable attenuation. Any cable or passive slope
beyond that of the LDR must be compensated for by selecting and installing the appropriate
SFE-100-* cable equalizer.
Equalizers are available in 1 dB increments from 0 dB through 22 dB. The following examples
describe how to choose the correct equalizer.
Example 1
The amplifier location includes 20 dB of cable (at 1 GHz) between its input and the preceding
amplifier. Consider cable loss only. Exclude any flat loss due to splitters or other passive
devices. The internal equalizer, model LDR/9/1G, compensates for approximately 9 dB of cable.
Subtract this cable length from the 20 dB of this example (20 – 9 = 11). The SFE-100-11 is the
proper equalizer in this case. With this equalizer installed, the BLE100 reproduces the output
tilt of the last upstream amplifier.
When selecting an equalizer, choose the next lower value if the exact value is not available or in
cases where the calculated value makes two choices possible.
Example 2
The BLE100 is used in a link following a fiber node with flat output. There is 18 dB of cable
between the node and the line extender, plus passive losses that are assumed to be flat. Which
is the proper equalizer to achieve the 10 dB of output tilt?
In this case, calculate the equalizer value by using the following method:
SLOPEeq = TILTout + SIGlo – SIGhi – SLOPEieq
where:
SLOPEeq = required SFE-100 slope
TILTout
SIGlo
= required amplifier output tilt
SIGhi
= signal input level at 1 GHz
= signal input level at channel 2
SLOPEieq = interstage equalizer slope (9 dB)
From various references, such as manufacturer’s catalogs, you can determine that 18 dB of cable
at the operating frequency of 1003 MHz is 4 dB of loss at 54 MHz. This suggests that the
channel 2 signal input level to the line extender is 14 dB greater (18 – 4 = 14) at channel 2 than
it is at 1003 MHz. Our example assumes that the high-end frequency level into the amplifier is
+15 dBmV.
Substituting this information in equation (1) provides the following result:
10.0 dB + 29 dB – 15.0 dB – 9.0 dB = 15 dB
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-4
Amplifier Setup
The slope of the required equalizer is 15 dB. Table 3-1 and Figure 3-1 show that 15 dB of slope
is caused by approximately 20 dB of cable at 1003 MHz. Therefore the correct equalizer is model
SFE-100-20.
When selecting an equalizer, choose the next lower value if the exact value is not available or in
cases where the calculated value makes two choices possible.
Table 3-1 helps you choose the correct equalizers and also lists insertion loss at various
frequencies:
Table 3-1
Starline Forward Equalizers – SFE-100-*
Frequency (MHz) versus Insertion Loss (dB)
Equalizer
Value
Equalizer
Slope
50
200
300
450
550
650
750
870
1003
22
16.7
17.7
12.4
10.0
7.1
5.4
3.9
2.5
1.0
1.3
20
15.2
16.2
11.4
9.2
6.5
5.0
3.6
2.3
1.0
1.3
18
13.7
14.7
10.3
8.4
6.0
4.6
3.4
2.2
1.0
1.3
16
12.1
13.1
9.3
7.6
5.4
4.2
3.1
2.1
1.0
1.3
14
10.6
11.6
8.2
6.7
4.9
3.8
2.8
1.9
1.0
1.3
12
9.1
10.1
7.2
5.9
4.3
3.4
2.6
1.8
1.0
1.3
10
7.6
8.6
6.2
5.1
3.8
3.0
2.3
1.7
1.0
1.3
8
6.1
7.1
5.1
4.3
3.2
2.6
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.3
6
4.6
5.6
4.1
3.5
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.4
1.0
1.3
4
3.0
4.0
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.0
1.3
2
1.5
2.5
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.3
SFE-100-*
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Amplifier Setup
3-5
Figure 3-1 illustrates a graph of the equalizer slope versus equalizer value information
presented in Table 3-1. The amount of cable equals the equalizer value.
Figure 3-1
Equalizer slope versus cable
Slope versus Cable
22
20
18
dB of Cable
16
14
12
1 GHz
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
6
12
10
8
dB of Equalizer Slope
14
16
18
When selecting an equalizer, choose the next lower value if the exact value is not available or in
cases where the calculated value makes two choices possible.
Because of errors in cable attenuation, slope in passive devices, and other independent
variables, you may need to change the final value of the equalizer before you install the
BLE100.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-6
Amplifier Setup
STARLINE Cable Simulators
STARLINE cable simulators, model SCS-*, are used in place of fixed equalizers in systems
where: (1) the amplifiers are located close together, (2) there are large amounts of flat loss from
passive components, or (3) it is necessary to compensate for reverse cable tilt. The simulators fit
in the same location as the equalizers.
Table 3-2 and Figure 3-2 help you choose the correct simulators.
Table 3-2
STARLINE Cable Simulators
SCS-*
1
2
3
4
Frequency
5
6
7
8
9
10
Cable slope in dB
40 MHz
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
45 MHz
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
50 MHz
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
72 MHz
-0.1
-0.2
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.7
108 MHz
-0.1
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.8
-0.9
-1.0
-1.2
-1.3
150 MHz
-0.2
-0.5
-0.7
-0.9
-1.2
-1.4
-1.6
-1.9
-2.1
-2.3
211 MHz
-0.3
-0.7
-1.0
-1.4
-1.7
-2.1
-2.4
-2.8
-3.1
-3.5
250 MHz
-0.4
-0.8
-1.2
-1.7
-2.1
-2.5
-2.9
-3.3
-3.7
-4.1
300 MHz
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-1.9
-2.4
-2.9
-3.4
-3.9
-4.4
-4.9
350 MHz
-0.6
-1.1
-1.7
-2.2
-2.8
-3.3
-3.9
-4.4
-5.0
-5.5
400 MHz
-0.6
-1.2
-1.8
-2.5
-3.1
-3.7
-4.3
-4.9
-5.5
-6.2
450 MHz
-0.7
-1.4
-2.0
-2.7
-3.4
-4.1
-4.7
-5.4
-6.1
-6.8
550 MHz
-0.8
-1.6
-2.4
-3.2
-4.0
-4.8
-5.5
-6.3
-7.1
-7.9
750 MHz
-1.0
-2.0
-3.0
-4.0
-5.0
-6.0
-7.0
-8.0
-9.0
-10.0
870 MHz
-1.1
-2.2
-3.3
-4.4
-5.5
-6.7
-7.8
-8.9
-10.0
-11.1
1003 MHz
-1.2
-2.5
-3.7
-4.9
-6.2
-7.4
-8.7
-9.9
-11.1
-12.4
50 MHz loss (typical)
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Amplifier Setup
3-7
The information in Table 3-2 is shown as a graph in Figure 3-2:
Figure 3-2
Frequency versus cable slope
1
0
-1
SCS-1
-2
SCS-2
Cable slope (dB)
-3
-4
SCS-3
-5
SCS-4
-6
SCS-5
-7
SCS-6
-8
-9
SCS-7
-10
SCS-8
-11
SCS-9
-12
870
750
550
450
400
350
300
250
211
150
108
72
50
45
40
Frequency (MHz)
1003
SCS-10
-13
Input and Midstage Pads
Install Model JXP-*B pads to attenuate the signal per system design drawings. Generally, this
consists of attenuating excessive input levels. You should pad the input to system levels for
unity gain. Select and install the specified pad in the socket labeled JXP-IN on the chassis cover.
You can use the midstage pad (JXP-MID) to adjust the gain level and achieve the gain
specification. Refer to Section 6, “Operating Tips,” for midstage padding information and
recommendations.
Flatness Control
The LDR/9/1G circuit board includes flatness controls and a fixed cable equalizer for 1003 MHz.
This equalizer, plus the contribution of the hybrid gain stages, produces approximately the dB
of slope indicated by the model number (9 dB of tilt with an LDR/9/1G).
You can adjust the LDR variable resistors and capacitors to flatten the response across the
operating band. Use C1, C2, R1, and R2 on the LDR board shown in Figure 3-3 for low-end
flatness response. The low-end flatness controls compensate for the roll-off caused by the diplex
filters. Adjust C3 and R3 for a flat response across the mid-band. Adjust C7, C8, and R8 for a
flat response across the band. Adjust C6 for maximum gain at the high end.
ƒ
C1 produces a peak that is centered just below the lowest forward frequency and varied in
amplitude by R1.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-8
Amplifier Setup
ƒ
C2 produces a peak that is centered approximately 50 MHz above the lowest forward
frequency and varied in amplitude by R2.
ƒ
C3 produces a peak that is centered approximately 300 MHz above the lowest forward
frequency and varied in amplitude by R3. This adjustment provides more mid-band
alignment flexibility.
ƒ
C6 adjusts for maximum gain at Fmax (1003 MHz).
ƒ
C7 and R8 adjust for the flattest response in the mid- to upper-portion of the band.
ƒ
C8 adjusts for the flattest response in the low-to mid-range of the band.
L4, on the bottom of the LDR board, may slightly tune the upper portion of the response.
Excessive spreading of L4 will cause insertion loss to increase.
Figure 3-3
LDR/9/1G component layout (top-left, bottom-right)
Directional Coupler Test Points
Accurate −20 dB directional-coupler test points are available at the input and at the output of
the BLE100. Because these test points are 75-ohm source impedance, they do not require special
test probes.
After the output hybrid, a second directional coupler provides signal to the optional ADU board.
This signal is used only when the ADU board is installed. It is not necessary to terminate this
port when the ADU is not installed. Do not remove the ADU pad even if there is no ADU
installed. Removing the pad affects the test point at port OUT.
Bode Equalization
The Bode board, which is an electronically controlled equalizer, receives its control input from
either the ADU or QADU control board. The response of the Bode board compensates for cable
attenuation changes due to temperature. If necessary, you can control the Bode board manually
using the potentiometer labeled Manual Level (MAN) in Figure 2-8.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Amplifier Setup
3-9
Amplifier Level Control
Signal levels vary in a cable system primarily because cable attenuation changes with
temperature. Other components such as passives and amplifier hybrids are also affected by
temperature changes. To automatically compensate for these signal level fluctuations and
control output level, you must select the optional ADU/QADU. For improved output level
stability, use of the ADU/QADU is recommended.
When necessary and appropriate, you can also use manual gain control. The BLE100 gain is
then determined by the potentiometer marked MAN on the electronics chassis cover.
Manual Gain Control
To use manual gain control:
1
Verify that the electronics chassis is installed correctly.
2
Ensure that there is continuity in the forward path by installing the design-value input
equalizer and design value input JXP-*B attenuator.
3
Ensure that the drive control select jumper is in the MAN position.
4
Use a signal-level meter to measure the high band-edge carrier input level at the input test
point: 750 MHz = channel 116, 870 MHz = channel 136, 1003 MHz = channel 158.
This carrier should be at standard analog level, non-scrambled.
5
Verify that the input level agrees with the design specification input.
If the level is different from design, adjust accordingly. For example: the design level is
19 dBmV at the highest frequency and the design pad value is JXP-3B. If the actual
measured level is 21 dBmV, then you must change the pad to a JXP-5B.
If the actual levels are significantly different from the design levels, it is recommended that
you investigate or consult system management before proceeding.
6
Connect the signal-level meter to the output test point and tune the meter to the high-end
channel.
7
Turn the manual gain reserve (MAN) control (illustrated in Figure 2-8) to maximum (fully
clockwise) and then reduce the output as noted in Table 3-3 below:
Table 3-3
Gain reserve versus ambient temperature
Temperature
Gain Reserve
Above 110°F (43°C)
3 dB
32°F (0°C) to 110°F (43°C)
4 dB
Below 32°F (0°C)
5 dB
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-10
8
Amplifier Setup
Check the amplifier output tilt by measuring the high band- and low band-edge carriers.
ƒ
High = channel 116 (745.25 MHz), channel 136 (865.25 MHz), or channel 158
(997.25 MHz)
ƒ
Low = channel 2 (55.25 MHz) or channel 3 (61.25 MHz)
ƒ
If the tilt is less than required, install a higher value input equalizer.
ƒ
If the tilt is greater than required, install a lower value input equalizer.
ƒ
If the high value equalizer provides too much tilt and the low value equalizer provides
too little tilt, use the lower value equalizer. Under-equalization is preferred to
over-equalization.
If the amplifier was set up using an SCS-*, the JXP input pad must be increased or
decreased by the amount of change made in the SCS-* value. Therefore, to maintain a
proper gain level, it is necessary to adjust the input pad value as follows:
9
ƒ
For each increase in SCS value, decrease the input pad by 1 dB.
ƒ
For each decrease in SCS value, increase the input pad by 1 dB.
ƒ
If you replace an SFE with an SCS, reduce the value of the input pad by the value of the
SCS.
Measure the output level at the highest frequency.
It should be within 1 dB of the system design level. If it is not, you must adjust the
mid-stage pad (JXP MID) accordingly. Refer to Section 6, “Operating Tips,” for mid-stage
padding information and recommendations.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Amplifier Setup
3-11
Automatic Drive Unit/QAM Automatic Drive Unit
The ADU and QADU operate by using surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters to select a pilot
frequency and then monitor the amplitude of this frequency. Any change in signal level is fed
back to the Bode equalizer. It is assumed that the encountered signal level changes are due to
changes in cable attenuation and hybrid output associated with a change in temperature. The
Bode equalizer then changes its insertion loss to maintain a constant output level. The ADU
(illustrated in Figure 3-4) and QADU (illustrated in Figure 3-5) maintain the most precise
output level of the three available methods.
Figure 3-4
ADU
AUTOMATIC
DRIVE UNIT
ADU/ _______________
Pilot frequency
Figure 3-5
QADU
AUTOMATIC
DRIVE UNIT
QADU/ _______________
Pilot frequency
To set-up the ADU/QADU:
1
Position the drive control select jumper temporarily to the MAN position and perform the
complete procedure described in Manual Gain Control if not already completed.
2
Verify that the frequency stamped on the ADU or QADU control unit is the same as the
system pilot frequency. For the ADU, the pilot frequency is a CW or an available NTSC
television channel not scrambled using sync suppression and not a digital channel. For the
QADU, the pilot signal is a QAM modulated digital channel.
3
Position the drive control select jumper to AUTO.
4
Connect a signal-level meter to the FWD OUT test point and tune the meter to the high
band-edge carrier.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-12
5
Amplifier Setup
Turn the auto level control potentiometer (ADU) (illustrated in Figure 2-8) fully clockwise
and then reduce to obtain the level obtained in Step 9 under Manual Gain Control.
ADU/QADU Pads and Levels
This subsection provides information regarding the proper ADU/QADU padding requirements
for the BLE100.
A JXP-*B pad is installed in the input line to the ADU/QADU location. This pad adjusts the
ADU/QADU input level for the standard application of the BLE100. You can change this pad
depending on the operational output of the BLE100.
In the BLE100 analog ADU circuit, a JXP-7B pad is generally recommended. This is the
standard ADU pad value as shipped from the factory and is appropriate for an amplifier output
level range from +43 dBmV to +49 dBmV at 550 MHz. Use a JXP-1B pad for output levels below
+43 dBmV and a JXP-11B for output levels above +49 dBmV.
The standard pad for the QADU is a JXP-0B. This pad value works for a BLE100 output level
from +38 dBmV to +47 dBmV at 550 MHz. Use a JXP-7B when operating above +47 dBmV at
550 MHz.
Motorola does not recommend operating the BLE100 above +46 dBmV at 550 MHz.
Use of an ADU or QADU is recommended for improved output level stability although you can
operate the BLE100 in the manual mode. Select manual mode by placing the drive control select
jumper, illustrated in Figure 2-8, in the MAN position. The gain of the BLE100 is then
determined by the potentiometer marked MAN on the amplifier cover.
Return Path Alignment
The following subsections describe the BLE100 alignment procedures required for proper
performance in the return path.
Before You Begin
Before you begin to set-up the amplifier and perform return-path alignment, please read the
following instructions and recommendations.
For proper return alignment obtain:
ƒ
RF alignment levels and insertion points for all BLE100s
ƒ
RF reference output level of the headend optical receivers
Equipment required for return-path alignment includes:
ƒ
Full complement of JXP-*B pads and Starline Return Equalizers (SRE-*-*)
ƒ
Reverse signal generator — must produce at least one signal within the return bandpass
and have variable output
ƒ
Return sweep or alignment equipment
It is recommended that you:
ƒ
Do not remove the electronics chassis cover when the BLE100 is powered
ƒ
Do not use wire jumpers to bypass the SRE-*-* location
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Amplifier Setup
ƒ
Perform the return optical link set up before performing amplifier set up
ƒ
Specify reverse alignment design levels for a single carrier
ƒ
Consider sweep equipment as a single carrier and operate at design levels
ƒ
Do not include injection point losses in reverse design levels
3-13
If JXP THERM devices (JXP-TH*C) are specified for level control, they should be installed in
the JXP THERM pad facility (illustrated in Figure 2-8).
Alignment Procedure
The return amplifier configuration includes one high-gain (30 dB) return amplifier hybrid, and
an appropriate SRE-*-* equalizer. All components are plug-in and are easily installed.
To align the return path:
1
If the BLE100 is powered, remove all fuses before you perform the following steps.
2
Install the design value pad in the return output pad location (JXP OUT).
3
Install the design value return equalizer, SRE-*-*, in the RTN EQ location.
4
Verify that the return input pad location (JXP-IN) has a 0 dB pad (or JXP-ZX jumper)
installed.
5
If you require an ICS, install it in the ICS location. If you plan to install the ICS later,
install a JXP-2B to simulate the through-loss of the ICS. This eliminates the need to
rebalance the return path if you install the ICS later.
6
Verify that the return output pad socket (JXP OUT), located between the hybrid output and
the SRE-*-*, has a 0 dB pad (or JXP-ZX jumper) installed.
7
Verify that the return thermal pad socket (JXP THERM), located between the hybrid output
and the SRE-*-*, has a 0 dB pad (or JXP-ZX jumper) or JXP-TH*C installed.
8
Set the sweep equipment output level to the amplifier’s design input level. Add insertion
point loss.
9
If required, change the return output pad (JXP OUT) and/or return equalizer to achieve, as
close as possible, a match of the reference level as compared to the node.
10 Verify the sweep response of all insertion points if applicable.
11 Verify that the pad and equalizer values are similar to the map design values.
You can verify proper return alignment by injecting a carrier, at the design level, into any
amplifier at random. Proper alignment is achieved if you observe the reference level at the
headend optical receiver output.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
3-14
Amplifier Setup
Return levels used for alignment are not necessarily operational system levels. These levels
vary from system to system due to differences in equipment, architectures and design
philosophies. For an in-depth analysis and discussion of the return path, refer to Motorola
reference guide Return Path Level Selection, Setup and Alignment Procedure.
Powering and Surge Protection
In conventional applications, the BLE100s are powered through the input port.
CAUTION!
To avoid damage to the hybrids, it is recommended that you remove the input pad (JXP-IN) before you apply power to
the BLE100.
A 20-ampere, blade-type fuse is furnished in the amplifier module and provides overcurrent
protection for AC power applied to the input. You can power the BLE100 from the output
without passing power through to the input port. To block power from the input port, remove
the power-block jumper illustrated in Figure 2-8.
WARNING!
To avoid possible injury to personnel or damage to the equipment, remove 60/90 volt ac power from the system
before you remove any components from the housing.
The BLE100 is shipped from the factory configured for 38 through 90 VAC powering as
described in Section 2, “Overview”. To configure the BLE100 for 55 VAC through 90 VAC
operation:
1
Remove the electronics chassis from the housing.
2
Remove the power-supply cover.
3
Move the LO/HI selector (jumper J1 on the power-supply board) from the LO to HI position.
Figure 2-6 illustrates the jumper location.
4
Re-install the power-supply cover and torque the screws to 10 to 12 in-lbs.
5
Re-install the electronics chassis in the housing and torque the hold-down bolts to 18 to
22 in-lbs.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Section 4
Bench Testing
Motorola’s recommended procedure for placing a new BLE100 into service is to fully test it on
the bench before it is field installed. There are specific alignment procedures that ensure proper
functioning of all components and simplify final installation. If the BLE100 is properly aligned
on the bench only minor adjustments may be required in the field.
The following subsections provide instructions to bench align the BLE100.
Before You Begin
The BLE100 is shipped with a 20 ampere blade-type fuse in the output port for over current
protection.
CAUTION!
To avoid applying 60/90 Vac to the test equipment during testing, remove the fuse illustrated in Figure 2-8.
Open the housing and remove the chassis cover. Refer to your system drawings or records to
confirm the presence of the required options as described in Section 2, “Overview,” Options and
Accessories.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
4-2
Bench Testing
Test Equipment and Connections
The equipment typically used for testing the BLE100 consists of a network analyzer such as the
HP 8712 or 8713 series, a 60/90 Vac bench power supply, a cable simulator, a Motorola model
SSP-PIN power combiner, and a variety of jumper cables, adapters, and fittings.
CAUTION!
To protect the network analyzer and sweep comparator, you must configure the SSP-PIN power combiner to block ac
power from the input port.
Fabricate a cable simulator that you can configure to provide the desired cable loss in 1 dB
increments up to approximately 30 dB. Then, connect the test equipment as shown in
Figure 4-1:
Figure 4-1
Test equipment connections for bench sweeping
BLE100
under test
AS
Power
combiner
IN
Cable
simulator
6
5
1
MB
SE L
ED
Network
analyzer
2
O
4
MEXIC
3
60/90 Vac
117
Vac
AC power
supply
Sweep
input
Sweep
output
CAUTION!
Before you begin the following subsection, remove the input pad, JXP-IN, to avoid damage to the hybrids before you
apply power.
Measuring Forward Gain
This subsection provides instructions for measuring the full gain and the operational gain and
flatness of the BLE100.
To measure the full gain of the amplifier:
1
Determine whether the power-supply jumper (J1) is positioned for LO or HI operation.
2
Connect the BLE100 to the test equipment as illustrated in Figure 4-1 and apply power.
3
Verify that the dc voltage is 24 V ± 0.4 V and re-install the input pad.
4
Apply the sweep signal and adjust test equipment as needed.
5
Select manual gain by placing the drive control select jumper in the MAN position and turn
the MANUAL LEVEL control (Figure 2-8) fully clockwise.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Bench Testing
6
4-3
Measure the gain at mixed forward frequency using the procedure outlined in the operator
manual provided with the test equipment in use.
To correct this number, add the insertion loss of the SSP-PIN power combiner (0.6 dB at
750 MHz, 0.7 dB at 870 MHz, or 1.1 dB at 1 GHz) the loss of the cable simulator at mixed
forward frequency, and the loss of the cable equalizer (1.0 dB), if it is installed.
Example:
The test equipment indicates a measured gain of 14.5 dB with a BLE87S/* and the cable
simulator is set to 20 dB.
+1.1 dB (power combiner)
+1.0 dB (cable equalizer)
+20.0 dB (cable simulator)
+14.5 dB (measured gain)
+36.6 dB (unit gain)
The result must meet advertised specifications for the unit.
The operational gain of the BLE100 provides reduced gain capability. This enables the unit to
operate in the proper region of the Bode board when it is controlled by the ADU/QADU or TDU
drive units.
To measure the operational gain and flatness of the amplifier:
1
Perform steps 1 through 6 in Measuring Forward Gain above.
2
Estimate the ambient temperature and find the required gain reserve by referring to
Table 3-3. Reduce the gain at the highest frequency by the amount given in the table.
Example:
The ambient temperature is 70°F. The table indicates that the required gain reserve is 4 dB.
Reduce the gain by 4 dB.
The operational gain is the sum of the measured gain after performing Step 2, plus all
losses, such as power combiner, cable loss, equalizer, and cable simulator.
The sweep response is essentially flat at this point. If the response exhibits tilt, the cable
equalizer must be changed. Install a higher equalizer value if the gain is greater at the low
frequencies; install the next lower equalizer value if the gain is less at the low-end
frequencies.
3
Measure the gain excursions from an average value within the bandpass.
The result is the peak-to-valley (P-V) flatness. Some improvement is possible by adjusting
the flatness controls on the LDR/9/1G board as described in Section 3, “Amplifier Setup,”
Flatness Control. Figure 3-3 illustrates the location of these controls on the LDR/9/1G board.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
4-4
Bench Testing
Testing Return Gain and Response
After configuring the return path, you can test the return bandpass to ensure compliance with
specifications. When testing the return amplifier, remember that it is a flat amplifier. Therefore,
the cable simulator must remain in the test set-up and must remain set to the same cable
equivalent as in the forward sweep test. This provides an approximate indication of the
frequency response, which you can achieve in the field.
To test for return gain and response:
1
Reconnect the test equipment and switch the sweep input and sweep output leads of the
BLE100 under test to be opposite of the connection shown in Figure 4-1.
2
Remove the power block at the input port and replace the 20 A fuse at the output port (both
illustrated in Figure 2-8) before you apply power.
3
Re-adjust the test equipment to sweep from 4 MHz through the maximum return band
frequency plus 10 MHz (Example — 50 MHz for S-split).
The expected response is flat. Any tilt, which is due to the return equalizer, must average
out to a flat response in a cascade of amplifiers. A slope adjustment is not available in the
return bandpass.
4
Measure the gain at the maximum return band frequency (40 MHz for S-split).
The amplifier gain is the sum of: the measured gain, the insertion loss of the return cable
equalizer at the maximum return band frequency, the insertion loss of the power combiner,
any pads installed in either the input or output pad locations, plus the cable simulator loss
at the maximum return band frequency. The measured gain must meet advertised
specifications for the return amplifier.
Example:
14.0 dB (measured gain)
+ 1.0 dB (equalizer insertion loss)
+ 1.1 dB (power combiner)
+ 0.0 dB (pads)
+ 4.6 dB (cable simulator at 40 MHz)
+20.7 dB (unit gain)
Completing the Test Procedures
The amplifier is now approximately tailored for a specific field location. Additional adjustments
after installation are minor in nature. Re-install the fuse or power-block removed during
testing.
Complete station records by recording pertinent information. Remove test-equipment
connections and close the housing following instructions provided in Section 5, “Installation,”
Closing the Housing.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Section 5
Installation
The field installation procedures presented in the following subsections assume that the
amplifier was previously tested and bench aligned. Cable power and RF signal must be
available on the system. Although it is desirable to have a full complement of channels available
for balancing, you can adjust the BLE100 adequately with a limited number of channels.
You can install the BLE-HSG/15 on a messenger strand (aerial) or in a pedestal. The following
subsections provide details on each application.
Aerial Installation
The housing is normally mounted horizontally below the strand without the electronics chassis
to avoid possible damage during installation. Connections are made using standard pin-type
connectors with a nominal center-conductor diameter of 0.067 inches. The minimum length of
the center-conductor pin is 1.35 inches and the maximum length is 1.5 inches. Longer pins can
extend past the center-conductor seizure mechanism and degrade the match. Extremely long
pins can result in a short circuit.
Figure 5-1
Center-conductor pin length
1.50” Max.
1.35” Min.
To install the unit:
1
Power-down the cable before you install the housing. This avoids blown fuses, tripped circuit
breakers, and possible personal injury.
2
Mount the housing, and torque the two 5/16-inch messenger clamp bolts (illustrated in
Figure 2-5) to 10 to 12 ft-lbs.
3
Form the customary expansion loops and make all cable connections according to system
design.
4
Tighten the center-conductor seizure screw using a Phillips-head screwdriver. An alternate
method is to use a 3/16-inch socket and a torque wrench. The recommended torque is
12 in-lbs. maximum.
5
To avoid water ingress, ensure that aluminum connectors are torqued to the specifications
recommended by the connector manufacturer.
6
If previously removed, re-install the electronics chassis and fasten it to the housing with the
four captive bolts. Torque to 18 to 22 in-lbs.
7
Remove the input pad (JXP-IN) to avoid damage to the hybrids.
8
Apply power to the unit and allocate a few minutes for warm up.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
5-2
9
Installation
Check the voltage setting (jumper J1, Figure 2-6).
J1 position
Description
LO
The voltage must be greater than 38 V as read with a true rms voltmeter or 42 V when
using a conventional, average reading voltmeter.
HI
The voltage must be greater than 55 V when read with a true rms voltmeter or 61 V
when using a conventional, average reading voltmeter.
10 Check the DC voltage. Verify that it is between 23.6 V and 24.4 V and re-install the input
pad.
11 If necessary, rebalance the amplifier following the instructions in Section 3, “Amplifier
Setup.”
12 Check the tightness of the electronics chassis cover screws (10 to 12 in-lbs.) and electronics
chassis hold-down bolts (18 to 22 in-lbs.).
13 Check the condition of the RF and weather gaskets and replace them if necessary. If needed,
also apply a light coating of silicone grease.
14 Close the housing and use a torque wrench to sequentially and progressively tighten the
housing bolts to a final torque of 6 ft-lb in the sequence specified on the housing cover and
illustrated in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2
Torque sequence
2
M BL
SE
IN
5
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
1
ED
AS
6
O
4
MEXIC
3
Installation
5-3
Pedestal Installation
Pedestal installation is similar to aerial installation with the exception of temperature and
mounting procedure. In an aerial installation, the cable and amplifier are subject to the same
temperature. In contrast, pedestal installation provides a stable temperature environment for
the buried cable while subjecting the elevated amplifier to higher temperatures. The
ADU/QADU, if installed, functions the same as in an aerial installation, and does not require
further attention. See Section 3, “Amplifier Setup,” Amplifier Level Control for additional
information.
To mount the BLE100 on a pedestal:
1
Remove the two 5/16-inch messenger clamps and bolts located on the long side of the
housing.
2
Locate the two 5/16-inch holes 4.0 inches center-to-center cast into the housing base.
3
Use the two 5/16-inch bolts to install the BLE100 to the pre-drilled pedestal mounting plate
and torque to 10 to 12 ft-lbs.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Section 6
Operating Tips
This section describes using amplifiers in lower frequency systems and in lower gain systems.
Using Amplifiers in Lower Frequency Systems
When using the BLE100 in 870 MHz or 750 MHz systems, you must consider the best method
for handling the reduced bandwidth and channel-loading requirement. The following
information helps you determine the best approach.
For distribution systems designed and installed as 1 GHz systems, but carrying a reduced
channel load, there are no further concerns. You can add or remove channels at your discretion.
If the system operates with ADU/QADUs, the pilot channel cannot be disturbed. Reduced
channel loading improves distortion.
For lower-frequency systems, such as 870 MHz or 750 MHz, you will need to take into account
the reduced gain from 1 GHz. Due to the amplifier tilt, there will be some loss in gain from the
published operational specification at 1 GHz. For example, a 34 dB 1 GHz BLE with 14 dB of
output tilt will lose approximately 1.3 dB of gain at 870 MHz, resulting in approximately
32.7 dB of gain at 870 MHz. If you need to adjust tilt, you may accommodate by changing the
forward equalizer (SFE) value. Also, to avoid any additional loss in gain, it is optimal to use the
equalizers that match the system frequency. For an 870 MHz system, the SFE-87-*s are the
best choice, even in a 1 GHz amplifier. Note also, that the equalizer cuts off at the frequency
value for which it is designed. For example, an SFE-87-* cuts off frequencies above 870 MHz.
Therefore, if you have a 1 GHz system and need the equalizer to perform to 1 GHz, you must
use an SFE-100-*.
Using Amplifiers in Lower Gain Systems
There are two pad facilities in the forward path: (1) the pad location (JXP-IN) at the input to the
amplifier, and (2) the midstage pad (JXP-MID) located between the pre-amplifier and the output
hybrid.
The input pad (JXP-IN) is normally changed to accommodate excessive input levels. When
operating at the same output levels, a BLE100 with an input pad has the same carrier-to-noise
(c/n) and distortion performance as a BLE100 without the input pad. Because it only attenuates
excess signal, it has no effect on the overall performance of the BLE100.
If necessary, to achieve the gain specification, you can use the midstage pad (JXP-MID) to
reduce the gain of the BLE100. However, this will affect amplifier performance. This pad
location has minimal impact on the noise figure, therefore, carrier-to-noise performance is
maintained. When operating at the same output levels, the midstage pad forces the
pre-amplifier to operate at a higher output level, thereby degrading station distortion
performance. Due to the superior distortion performance provided by the latest E-GaAs BLEs,
this should not be a major concern assuming the pad value is reasonable.
It is recommended that you contact Motorola’s TRC or your account representative for specific
information regarding use of the midstage pads.
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Appendix A
Specifications
Specifications are valid over the given passband and operating temperature range of −40°F to
+140°F (−40°C to +60°C). Specifications stated are worst case unless otherwise noted, and are
subject to change. Refer to the Motorola CHS web site or contact your account representative for
the latest specifications.
Model BLE100S
Specification
Forward Amplifier
Passband (S-split)
52 through 1003 MHz
Gain
Full
Operational
38 dB (with SFE-100-*)
34 dB (with SFE-100-* and slope reserves)
Flatness
52 through 1003 MHz
±0.70 dB maximum
Level control, automatic
Bode board using ADU/QADU
Gain control
Fixed pads, JXP-∗B
Performance - reference frequency
(MHz)
1003/550/52
at typical output (dBmV)
45/44/37
Channels
79 analog/320 MHz digital (suppressed by 6 dB)
Crossmod
–70 dB
CTB
–76 dB
CSO
–71 dB
Noise figure
at 52 MHz
at 1003 MHz
8 dB (with SFE-1) maximum
8 dB (with SFE-1) maximum
Interstage equalizer, LDR/9/1G
9 ±1 dB
Hum modulation
–65 dB
Return loss, input/output
16 dB minimum at operational level
Test points, input/output
20 ±1.0 dB
Housing dimensions
10.6 L × 8.0 W× 4.7 D inches (26.9 × 20.3 × 11.9 cm)
Weight
7.2 pounds (3.2 kg)
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
A-2
Specifications
AC Current
AC Voltage
One-way
With RA-Kit
90 VAC
0.48 A
0.56 A
75 VAC
0.50 A
0.59 A
60 VAC
0.56 A
0.65 A
53 VAC
0.60 A
0.70 A
45 VAC
0.67 A
0.78 A
38 VAC
0.75 A
0.88 A
Return Amplifier
Parameter
Specification
Passband (S-split)
Gain, station (minimum)
5 through 40 MHz
24 dB
Flatness
±0.50 dB maximum
Level control
Fixed pads, JXP-∗B, input and output
Performance
at typical output
Channels
Crossmod
CTB
CSO
35 dBmV, flat
6 NTSC
–70 dB
–80 dB
–81 dB
Noise figure
6 dB
Power requirements
24 VDC, 125 mA
ADU Automatic Drive Unit
Parameter
Specification
Pilot channel
See current catalog
Adjacent channel frequency
±6 MHz
Minimum BLE100 output at pilot
frequency
+36 dBmV
ALC stiffness
±0.3 output change for ±3.0 dB input change
Power requirement
24 VDC, 75 mA
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Appendix B
Torque Specifications
Torque specifications are valid for all models of the BLE100.
Torque
Fastener
Screw
Size
Wrench
Size
In-lbs
Ft-lbs
N•M
Strand
clamp/pedestal
mounting
5/16-18
1/2 inch
120-144
10-12
13.6-16.3
Housing/lid closure
1/4-20
7/16 inch
72
6.0
8.1
Test point plugs
5/8-24
1/2 inch
25-40
2.1-3.3
2.8-4.5
Seizure screw
#8-32
3/16 inch or
Phillips
12
1.0
1.4
Hybrid
#6-32
Phillips
10-12
0.8-1.0
1.1-1.4
Chassis (electronics
module)
#10-32
5/16 inch
18-22
1.5-1.8
2.0-2.4
Chassis (electronics
module) cover
#6-32
1/4 inch or
Phillips
10-12
0.8-1.0
1.1-1-4
Status monitor
#10-32
triple lead
5/16 inch
24-30
2.0-2.5
2.7-3.4
Power supply cover
#6-32
Phillips
10-12
0.8-1.0
1.1-1.4
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Abbreviations and Acronyms
The abbreviations and acronyms list contains the full spelling of the short forms used in this
manual.
ADU
Automatic Drive Unit
c/n
carrier-to-noise
CSO
Composite Second Order
CTB
Composite Triple Beat
cw
Continuous wave
dB
Decibel
dBmV
Decibels referenced to one millivolt
E-GaAs
Enhanced Gallium Arsenide
FTEC
Fast Transfer Electronic Crowbar
GHz
Gigahertz
ICS
Ingress Control Switch
MHz
Megahertz
NTSC
National Television Standards Committee
QADU
Quadriture Amplitude Modulated (QAM) Automatic Drive Unit
rms
root-mean-square
RSA
Return for Service Authorization
SAW
Surface Acoustic Wave
SCS-*
Starline Cable Simulator
SFE-*-*
Starline Forward Equalizer
SRE-*-*
Starline Return Equalizer
BLE100 Installation and Operation Manual
Visit our website at:
www.motorola.com
527548-001
04/06