ZyXEL Communications ES-315 - V3.70 User`s guide

GS-2724
Ethernet Switch
User’s Guide
Version 3.70
4/2007
Edition 1
www.zyxel.com
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the GS-2724 using the web
configurator or via commands. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP
networking concepts and topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet access.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
"
It is recommended you use the web configurator to configure the Switch.
• Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and product
certifications.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you. Send all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to the following address, or use e-mail instead. Thank you!
The Technical Writing Team,
ZyXEL Communications Corp.,
6 Innovation Road II,
Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan.
E-mail: techwriters@zyxel.com.tw
GS-2724 User’s Guide
3
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
1
"
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The GS-2724 may be referred to as the “Switch”, the “device”, the “system” or the
“product” in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example, [ENTER]
means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the [ENTER] key.
“Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For example,
Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click Maintenance in the navigation
panel, then the Log sub menu and finally the Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value. For
example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may denote “1000000”
or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other words”.
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GS-2724 User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The Switch icon is not an
exact representation of your device.
Switch
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
DSLAM
Firewall
Telephone
Switch
Router
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5
Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
1
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should
service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device. Connect it to the right
supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power source.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.
• Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
• The length of exposed (bare) power wire should not exceed 7mm.
This product is recyclable. Dispose of it properly.
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Safety Warnings
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Safety Warnings
8
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
Introduction and Hardware ................................................................................................... 31
Getting to Know Your Switch ..................................................................................................... 33
Hardware Installation and Connection ....................................................................................... 37
Hardware Overview ................................................................................................................... 41
Basic Configuration ............................................................................................................... 47
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................... 49
Initial Setup Example ................................................................................................................. 59
System Status and Port Statistics .............................................................................................. 65
Basic Setting ............................................................................................................................. 71
Advanced ................................................................................................................................ 83
VLAN ......................................................................................................................................... 85
Static MAC Forward Setup ........................................................................................................ 97
Filtering ...................................................................................................................................... 99
Spanning Tree Protocol ........................................................................................................... 101
Bandwidth Control ....................................................................................................................111
Broadcast Storm Control ..........................................................................................................113
Mirroring ...................................................................................................................................115
Link Aggregation .......................................................................................................................117
Port Authentication .................................................................................................................. 121
Port Security ............................................................................................................................ 127
Classifier .................................................................................................................................. 131
Policy Rule ............................................................................................................................... 137
Queuing Method ...................................................................................................................... 143
VLAN Stacking ......................................................................................................................... 147
Multicast .................................................................................................................................. 153
IP Application ....................................................................................................................... 165
Static Route ............................................................................................................................. 167
RIP .......................................................................................................................................... 169
IGMP ....................................................................................................................................... 171
Differentiated Services ............................................................................................................. 173
DHCP ...................................................................................................................................... 177
Management ......................................................................................................................... 185
Maintenance ............................................................................................................................ 187
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Contents Overview
Access Control ........................................................................................................................ 193
Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................ 205
Syslog ...................................................................................................................................... 207
Cluster Management ................................................................................................................211
MAC Table ............................................................................................................................... 217
IP Table .................................................................................................................................... 219
ARP Table ................................................................................................................................ 221
Routing Table ........................................................................................................................... 223
Configure Clone ....................................................................................................................... 225
CLI and Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................... 227
Introducing Commands .......................................................................................................... 229
User and Enable Mode Commands ........................................................................................ 263
Configuration Mode Commands .............................................................................................. 269
Interface Commands ............................................................................................................... 281
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN Commands ................................................................................. 289
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands ................................................................................ 297
Routing Domain Command Examples .................................................................................... 299
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 301
Appendices and Index ......................................................................................................... 303
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide .......................................................................................................... 3
Document Conventions............................................................................................................ 4
Safety Warnings........................................................................................................................ 6
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 9
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... 11
List of Figures ......................................................................................................................... 23
List of Tables........................................................................................................................... 27
Part I: Introduction and Hardware ........................................................ 31
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your Switch................................................................................................. 33
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 33
1.1.1 Backbone Application ................................................................................................. 33
1.1.2 Bridging Example ....................................................................................................... 34
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example ....................................................................... 34
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples ................................................................ 35
Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and Connection ................................................................................. 37
2.1 Freestanding Installation ..................................................................................................... 37
2.2 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .......................................................................................... 38
2.2.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements .................................................................. 38
2.2.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch .......................................................... 38
2.2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .................................................................................. 39
Chapter 3
Hardware Overview................................................................................................................. 41
3.1 Front Panel Connection ...................................................................................................... 41
3.1.1 Console Port ............................................................................................................. 41
3.1.2 Gigabit Ethernet Ports ............................................................................................... 42
3.1.3 SFP Slots .................................................................................................................. 42
3.2 Rear Panel .......................................................................................................................... 44
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Table of Contents
3.2.1 Power Connector ....................................................................................................... 44
3.2.2 External Backup Power Supply Connector ............................................................... 44
3.3 LEDs
................................................................................................................................ 44
Part II: Basic Configuration................................................................... 47
Chapter 4
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................ 49
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 49
4.2 System Login
.................................................................................................................... 49
4.3 The Status Screen
.......................................................................................................... 50
4.3.1 Change Your Password
.......................................................................................... 54
4.4 Saving Your Configuration ................................................................................................... 54
4.5 Switch Lockout
.................................................................................................................. 55
4.6 Resetting the Switch
......................................................................................................... 55
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File .................................................................................... 55
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator ................................................................................. 57
4.8 Help .................................................................................................................................... 57
Chapter 5
Initial Setup Example.............................................................................................................. 59
5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 59
5.1.1 Configuring an IP Interface ........................................................................................ 59
5.1.2 Configuring DHCP Server Settings ............................................................................ 60
5.1.3 Creating a VLAN ........................................................................................................ 61
5.1.4 Setting Port VID ......................................................................................................... 62
5.1.5 Enabling RIP .............................................................................................................. 62
Chapter 6
System Status and Port Statistics ......................................................................................... 65
6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 65
6.2 Port Status Summary
...................................................................................................... 65
6.2.1 Status: Port Details
................................................................................................ 66
Chapter 7
Basic Setting .......................................................................................................................... 71
7.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 71
7.2 System Information
7.3 General Setup
........................................................................................................... 71
................................................................................................................. 73
7.4 Introduction to VLANs ......................................................................................................... 75
7.5 Switch Setup Screen
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........................................................................................................ 76
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7.6 IP Setup
............................................................................................................................ 78
7.6.1 IP Interfaces ............................................................................................................... 78
7.7 Port Setup ........................................................................................................................... 80
Part III: Advanced................................................................................... 83
Chapter 8
VLAN ........................................................................................................................................ 85
8.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
.................................................................. 85
8.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames ................................................................ 85
8.2 Automatic VLAN Registration ............................................................................................ 86
8.2.1 GARP ......................................................................................................................... 86
8.2.2 GVRP ......................................................................................................................... 86
8.3 Port VLAN Trunking ........................................................................................................... 87
8.4 Select the VLAN Type ........................................................................................................ 87
8.5 Static VLAN ......................................................................................................................... 88
8.5.1 Static VLAN Status .................................................................................................... 88
8.5.2 Static VLAN Details ................................................................................................... 89
8.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
........................................................................................ 89
8.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
8.6 Port-based VLAN Setup
................................................................................ 91
................................................................................................. 92
8.6.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN ................................................................................... 93
Chapter 9
Static MAC Forward Setup ..................................................................................................... 97
9.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 97
9.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
............................................................................... 97
Chapter 10
Filtering.................................................................................................................................... 99
10.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
............................................................................................... 99
Chapter 11
Spanning Tree Protocol........................................................................................................ 101
11.1 STP/RSTP Overview
..................................................................................................... 101
11.1.1 STP Terminology ................................................................................................... 101
11.1.2 How STP Works .................................................................................................... 102
11.1.3 STP Port States ..................................................................................................... 103
11.1.4 Multiple RSTP
...................................................................................................... 103
11.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Main Screen ............................................................................. 104
11.3 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
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11.4 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
........................................................................ 106
11.5 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
11.6 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
........................................................ 107
........................................................... 109
Chapter 12
Bandwidth Control................................................................................................................ 111
12.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
..........................................................................................111
12.1.1 CIR and PIR ............................................................................................................111
12.2 Bandwidth Control Setup ..................................................................................................111
Chapter 13
Broadcast Storm Control ..................................................................................................... 113
13.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup .......................................................................................113
Chapter 14
Mirroring ................................................................................................................................ 115
14.1 Port Mirroring Setup ........................................................................................................115
Chapter 15
Link Aggregation .................................................................................................................. 117
15.1 Link Aggregation Overview ..............................................................................................117
15.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation ..............................................................................................117
15.2.1 Link Aggregation ID ................................................................................................118
15.3 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status ........................................................................118
15.4 Link Aggregation Setup
..................................................................................................119
Chapter 16
Port Authentication............................................................................................................... 121
16.1 Port Authentication Overview ......................................................................................... 121
16.1.1 RADIUS ................................................................................................................. 121
16.2 Port Authentication Configuration .................................................................................... 123
16.2.1 Configuring RADIUS Server Settings
16.2.2 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
................................................................. 123
........................................................................... 124
Chapter 17
Port Security.......................................................................................................................... 127
17.1 About Port Security ......................................................................................................... 127
17.2 Port Security Setup .......................................................................................................... 127
Chapter 18
Classifier................................................................................................................................ 131
18.1 About the Classifier and QoS .......................................................................................... 131
18.2 Configuring the Classifier ............................................................................................... 131
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18.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration ................................................................... 134
18.4 Classifier Example ........................................................................................................... 135
Chapter 19
Policy Rule............................................................................................................................. 137
19.1 Policy Rules Overview .................................................................................................... 137
19.1.1 DiffServ .................................................................................................................. 137
19.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ................................................................................. 137
19.2 Configuring Policy Rules ................................................................................................. 138
19.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration ........................................................................ 141
19.4 Policy Example ................................................................................................................ 142
Chapter 20
Queuing Method.................................................................................................................... 143
20.1 Queuing Method Overview ............................................................................................. 143
20.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing .......................................................................................... 143
20.1.2 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) ........................................................... 143
20.2 Configuring Queuing ........................................................................................................ 144
Chapter 21
VLAN Stacking ...................................................................................................................... 147
21.1 VLAN Stacking Overview ................................................................................................ 147
21.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example ........................................................................................ 147
21.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles ............................................................................................... 148
21.3 VLAN Tag Format ............................................................................................................ 149
21.3.1 Frame Format ........................................................................................................ 149
21.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking ............................................................................................. 150
Chapter 22
Multicast ................................................................................................................................ 153
22.1 Multicast Overview ......................................................................................................... 153
22.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses ........................................................................................... 153
22.1.2 IGMP Filtering ........................................................................................................ 153
22.1.3 IGMP Snooping ..................................................................................................... 153
22.2 Multicast Status .............................................................................................................. 154
22.3 Multicast Setting ............................................................................................................. 154
22.4 IGMP Filtering Profile ..................................................................................................... 156
22.5 MVR Overview ................................................................................................................ 158
22.5.1 Types of MVR Ports ............................................................................................... 158
22.5.2 MVR Modes ........................................................................................................... 158
22.5.3 How MVR Works .................................................................................................... 158
22.6 General MVR Configuration ............................................................................................ 159
22.7 MVR Group Configuration .............................................................................................. 161
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Table of Contents
22.7.1 MVR Configuration Example .................................................................................. 162
Part IV: IP Application.......................................................................... 165
Chapter 23
Static Route ........................................................................................................................... 167
23.1 Configuring Static Routing ............................................................................................. 167
Chapter 24
RIP ......................................................................................................................................... 169
24.1 RIP Overview ................................................................................................................... 169
24.2 Configuring RIP .............................................................................................................. 169
Chapter 25
IGMP....................................................................................................................................... 171
25.1 IGMP Overview ............................................................................................................... 171
25.2 Configuring IGMP ............................................................................................................ 171
Chapter 26
Differentiated Services ......................................................................................................... 173
26.1 DiffServ Overview ........................................................................................................... 173
26.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ................................................................................ 173
26.1.2 DiffServ Network Example .................................................................................... 173
26.2 Activating DiffServ .......................................................................................................... 174
26.3 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings ......................................................................... 175
26.3.1 Configuring DSCP Settings .................................................................................... 175
Chapter 27
DHCP...................................................................................................................................... 177
27.1 DHCP Overview ............................................................................................................. 177
27.1.1 DHCP modes ........................................................................................................ 177
27.2 DHCP Server Status ........................................................................................................ 177
27.3 Configuring DHCP Server .............................................................................................. 178
27.3.1 DHCP Server Configuration Example .................................................................... 180
27.4 DHCP Relay ................................................................................................................... 181
27.4.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information ............................................................................. 181
27.4.2 Configuring DHCP Relay ....................................................................................... 181
27.4.3 DHCP Relay Configuration Example ..................................................................... 182
Part V: Management............................................................................. 185
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Table of Contents
Chapter 28
Maintenance .......................................................................................................................... 187
28.1 The Maintenance Screen
28.2 Firmware Upgrade
.............................................................................................. 187
........................................................................................................ 188
28.3 Restore a Configuration File
......................................................................................... 188
28.4 Backup a Configuration File
......................................................................................... 189
28.5 Load Factory Default ...................................................................................................... 189
28.6 Save Configuration .......................................................................................................... 190
28.7 Reboot System ................................................................................................................ 190
28.8 FTP Command Line ........................................................................................................ 191
28.8.1 Filename Conventions .......................................................................................... 191
28.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure ............................................................................ 191
28.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients .......................................................................................... 192
28.8.4 FTP Restrictions .................................................................................................... 192
Chapter 29
Access Control...................................................................................................................... 193
29.1 Access Control Overview
............................................................................................ 193
29.2 The Access Control Main Screen .................................................................................... 193
29.3 About SNMP .................................................................................................................. 194
29.3.1 Supported MIBs
................................................................................................... 195
29.3.2 SNMP Traps ......................................................................................................... 195
29.3.3 Configuring SNMP ................................................................................................ 195
29.3.4 Setting Up Login Accounts
................................................................................. 196
29.4 SSH Overview ................................................................................................................. 198
29.5 How SSH works ............................................................................................................... 198
29.6 SSH Implementation on the Switch ................................................................................. 199
29.6.1 Requirements for Using SSH ................................................................................. 199
29.7 Introduction to HTTPS ..................................................................................................... 199
29.8 HTTPS Example .............................................................................................................. 200
29.8.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages ..................................................................... 200
29.8.2 Netscape Navigator Warning Messages ................................................................ 201
29.8.3 The Main Screen .................................................................................................... 201
29.9 Service Port Access Control
29.10 Remote Management
......................................................................................... 202
............................................................................................... 203
Chapter 30
Diagnostic.............................................................................................................................. 205
30.1 Diagnostic ....................................................................................................................... 205
Chapter 31
Syslog .................................................................................................................................... 207
31.1 Syslog Overview .............................................................................................................. 207
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Table of Contents
31.2 Syslog Setup .................................................................................................................. 207
31.3 Syslog Server Setup ....................................................................................................... 208
Chapter 32
Cluster Management............................................................................................................. 211
32.1 Cluster Management Status Overview ............................................................................211
32.2 Cluster Management Status ........................................................................................... 212
32.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management ................................................................... 213
32.3 Clustering Management Configuration .......................................................................... 214
Chapter 33
MAC Table.............................................................................................................................. 217
33.1 MAC Table Overview ...................................................................................................... 217
33.2 Viewing the MAC Table ................................................................................................... 218
Chapter 34
IP Table .................................................................................................................................. 219
34.1 IP Table Overview ........................................................................................................... 219
34.2 Viewing the IP Table ........................................................................................................ 220
Chapter 35
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................. 221
35.1 ARP Table Overview ....................................................................................................... 221
35.1.1 How ARP Works .................................................................................................... 221
35.2 Viewing the ARP Table ................................................................................................... 221
Chapter 36
Routing Table ........................................................................................................................ 223
36.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 223
36.2 Viewing the Routing Table .............................................................................................. 223
Chapter 37
Configure Clone .................................................................................................................... 225
37.1 Configure Clone .............................................................................................................. 225
Part VI: CLI and Troubleshooting ....................................................... 227
Chapter 38
Introducing Commands....................................................................................................... 229
38.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 229
38.2 Accessing the CLI ............................................................................................................ 229
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38.2.1 The Console Port ................................................................................................... 229
38.3 The Login Screen ........................................................................................................... 230
38.4 Command Syntax Conventions ....................................................................................... 230
38.5 Changing the Password .................................................................................................. 231
38.6 Privilege Levels ............................................................................................................... 231
38.7 Command Modes ............................................................................................................ 232
38.8 Getting Help ..................................................................................................................... 233
38.8.1 List of Available Commands ................................................................................... 234
38.9 Using Command History .................................................................................................. 235
38.10 Saving Your Configuration ............................................................................................. 235
38.10.1 Configuration File ................................................................................................. 236
38.10.2 Logging Out .......................................................................................................... 236
38.11 Command Summary ...................................................................................................... 236
38.11.1 User Mode ............................................................................................................ 236
38.11.2 Enable Mode ........................................................................................................ 237
38.11.3 General Configuration Mode ................................................................................ 242
38.11.4 interface port-channel Commands ....................................................................... 255
38.11.5 interface route-domain Commands ...................................................................... 258
38.11.6 config-vlan Commands ......................................................................................... 259
38.12 mvr Commands ............................................................................................................. 260
Chapter 39
User and Enable Mode Commands..................................................................................... 263
39.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 263
39.2 show Commands ............................................................................................................. 263
39.2.1 show system-information ...................................................................................... 263
39.2.2 show ip ................................................................................................................... 264
39.2.3 show logging ......................................................................................................... 264
39.2.4 show interface ....................................................................................................... 264
39.2.5 show mac address-table ....................................................................................... 265
39.3 ping ................................................................................................................................. 266
39.4 traceroute ........................................................................................................................ 266
39.5 Copy Port Attributes ........................................................................................................ 267
39.6 Configuration File Maintenance ...................................................................................... 267
39.6.1 Using a Different Configuration File ....................................................................... 268
39.6.2 Resetting to the Factory Default ............................................................................. 268
Chapter 40
Configuration Mode Commands ......................................................................................... 269
40.1 Change the Out of Band Management IP Address ......................................................... 269
40.2 Enabling IGMP Snooping ................................................................................................ 269
40.3 Configure IGMP Filter ...................................................................................................... 270
40.4 Enabling STP ................................................................................................................... 271
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40.5 no Command Examples .................................................................................................. 273
40.5.1 Disable Commands ............................................................................................... 273
40.5.2 Resetting Commands ............................................................................................. 273
40.5.3 Re-enable commands ............................................................................................ 273
40.5.4 Other Examples of no Commands ......................................................................... 274
40.6 Static Route Commands .................................................................................................. 276
40.7 Enabling MAC Filtering .................................................................................................... 276
40.8 Enabling Trunking ............................................................................................................ 277
40.9 Enabling Port Authentication ........................................................................................... 278
40.9.1 RADIUS Server Settings ........................................................................................ 278
40.9.2 Port Authentication Settings ................................................................................... 279
Chapter 41
Interface Commands ............................................................................................................ 281
41.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 281
41.2 Interface Command Examples ........................................................................................ 281
41.2.1 interface port-channel ........................................................................................... 281
41.2.2 bpdu-control .......................................................................................................... 281
41.2.3 broadcast-limit ....................................................................................................... 282
41.2.4 bandwidth-limit ...................................................................................................... 282
41.2.5 mirror ..................................................................................................................... 283
41.2.6 gvrp ....................................................................................................................... 284
41.2.7 ingress-check ........................................................................................................ 284
41.2.8 frame-type ............................................................................................................. 284
41.2.9 weight .................................................................................................................... 285
41.2.10 egress set ............................................................................................................ 285
41.2.11 qos priority ............................................................................................................ 286
41.2.12 name .................................................................................................................... 286
41.2.13 speed-duplex ........................................................................................................ 286
41.2.14 test ....................................................................................................................... 287
41.3 Interface no Command Examples ................................................................................... 287
41.3.1 no bandwidth-limit .................................................................................................. 287
Chapter 42
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN Commands .............................................................................. 289
42.1 Configuring Tagged VLAN ............................................................................................... 289
42.2 Global VLAN1Q Tagged VLAN Configuration Commands .............................................. 290
42.2.1 GARP Status .......................................................................................................... 290
42.2.2 GARP Timer .......................................................................................................... 290
42.2.3 GVRP Timer ........................................................................................................... 291
42.2.4 Enable GVRP ......................................................................................................... 291
42.2.5 Disable GVRP ........................................................................................................ 291
42.3 Port VLAN Commands .................................................................................................... 291
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42.3.1 Set Port VID .......................................................................................................... 291
42.3.2 Set Acceptable Frame Type ................................................................................... 292
42.3.3 Enable or Disable Port GVRP ................................................................................ 292
42.3.4 Modify Static VLAN ............................................................................................... 292
42.3.5 Delete VLAN ID ...................................................................................................... 294
42.4 Enable VLAN ................................................................................................................... 294
42.5 Disable VLAN .................................................................................................................. 294
42.6 Show VLAN Setting ........................................................................................................ 294
Chapter 43
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands ........................................................................... 297
43.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 297
43.2 Create Multicast VLAN
.................................................................................................. 297
Chapter 44
Routing Domain Command Examples................................................................................ 299
44.1 interface route-domain ..................................................................................................... 299
Chapter 45
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 301
45.1 Problems Starting up the Switch ...................................................................................... 301
45.2 Problems Accessing the Switch ...................................................................................... 301
45.3 Problems with the Password ........................................................................................... 302
Part VII: Appendices and Index .......................................................... 303
Appendix A Product Specifications....................................................................................... 305
Appendix B Changing a Fuse .............................................................................................. 311
Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ...................................... 313
Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 319
Appendix E Common Services............................................................................................. 329
Appendix F Legal Information .............................................................................................. 333
Appendix G Customer Support ............................................................................................ 337
Index....................................................................................................................................... 341
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GS-2724 User’s Guide
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1 Backbone Application .............................................................................................................. 33
Figure 2 Bridging Application ................................................................................................................ 34
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application ............................................................... 34
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example ...................................................................................... 35
Figure 5 Attaching Rubber Feet ............................................................................................................ 37
Figure 6 Attaching the Mounting Brackets ............................................................................................. 39
Figure 7 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ............................................................................................... 39
Figure 8 Front Panel ............................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 9 Transceiver Installation Example ............................................................................................. 43
Figure 10 Installed Transceiver .............................................................................................................. 43
Figure 11 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example ............................................................................ 43
Figure 12 Transceiver Removal Example .............................................................................................. 43
Figure 13 Rear Panel: AC Model ............................................................................................................ 44
Figure 14 Rear Panel: DC Model ........................................................................................................... 44
Figure 15 Web Configurator: Login ....................................................................................................... 50
Figure 16 Web Configurator Home Screen (Status) .............................................................................. 50
Figure 17 Change Administrator Login Password ................................................................................. 54
Figure 18 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port ........................................................................... 56
Figure 19 Web Configurator: Logout Screen ......................................................................................... 57
Figure 20 Initial Setup Network Example: IP Interface .......................................................................... 59
Figure 21 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN ................................................................................... 61
Figure 22 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID ............................................................................... 62
Figure 23 Port Status .............................................................................................................................. 65
Figure 24 Port Details ............................................................................................................................. 67
Figure 25 System Info ........................................................................................................................... 72
Figure 26 General Setup ....................................................................................................................... 74
Figure 27 Switch Setup ......................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 28 IP Setup .................................................................................................................................. 79
Figure 29 Port Setup ............................................................................................................................. 81
Figure 30 Port VLAN Trunking ............................................................................................................... 87
Figure 31 Switch Setup: Select VLAN Type .......................................................................................... 87
Figure 32 VLAN Status ........................................................................................................................... 88
Figure 33 VLAN Detail ............................................................................................................................ 89
Figure 34 Static VLAN
.......................................................................................................................... 90
Figure 35 VLAN Port Setting ................................................................................................................. 91
Figure 36 Port Based VLAN Setup (All connected) ............................................................................... 94
Figure 37 Port Based VLAN Setup (Port isolation) ................................................................................ 95
Figure 38 Static MAC Forwarding .......................................................................................................... 97
GS-2724 User’s Guide
23
List of Figures
Figure 39 Filtering .................................................................................................................................. 99
Figure 40 MRSTP Network Example ................................................................................................... 103
Figure 41 Spanning Tree Protocol ........................................................................................................ 104
Figure 42 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol .............................................................................................. 105
Figure 43 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status .................................................................................. 107
Figure 44 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol ................................................................................ 108
Figure 45 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status ......................................................................110
Figure 46 Bandwidth Control ................................................................................................................112
Figure 47 Broadcast Storm Control ......................................................................................................113
Figure 48 Mirroring ...............................................................................................................................115
Figure 49 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status ..............................................................................118
Figure 50 Link Aggregation ...................................................................................................................119
Figure 51 RADIUS Server
.................................................................................................................. 121
Figure 52 Port Authentication .............................................................................................................. 123
Figure 53 RADIUS ............................................................................................................................... 123
Figure 54 802.1x .................................................................................................................................. 124
Figure 55 Port Security ........................................................................................................................ 128
Figure 56 Classifier .............................................................................................................................. 132
Figure 57 Classifier: Summary Table ................................................................................................... 134
Figure 58 Classifier: Example .............................................................................................................. 136
Figure 59 Policy .................................................................................................................................... 139
Figure 60 Policy: Summary Table ........................................................................................................ 141
Figure 61 Policy: Example .................................................................................................................... 142
Figure 62 Queuing Method .................................................................................................................. 144
Figure 63 VLAN Stacking Example ..................................................................................................... 148
Figure 64 VLAN Stacking .................................................................................................................... 150
Figure 65 Multicast Status ................................................................................................................... 154
Figure 66 Multicast Setting .................................................................................................................. 155
Figure 67 IGMP Filtering Profile .......................................................................................................... 157
Figure 68 MVR Network Example ....................................................................................................... 158
Figure 69 MVR Multicast Television Example ..................................................................................... 159
Figure 70 MVR .................................................................................................................................... 160
Figure 71 Group Configuration ............................................................................................................ 162
Figure 72 MVR Configuration Example ............................................................................................... 163
Figure 73 MVR Configuration Example ............................................................................................... 163
Figure 74 MVR Group Configuration Example ................................................................................... 164
Figure 75 MVR Group Configuration Example .................................................................................... 164
Figure 76 Static Routing ...................................................................................................................... 167
Figure 77 RIP ...................................................................................................................................... 170
Figure 78 IGMP ................................................................................................................................... 171
Figure 79 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field .................................................................................... 173
Figure 80 DiffServ Network Example .................................................................................................. 174
Figure 81 DiffServ ................................................................................................................................ 174
24
GS-2724 User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 82 DSCP Setting ....................................................................................................................... 175
Figure 83 DHCP Server Status ............................................................................................................ 178
Figure 84 DHCP Server ........................................................................................................................ 179
Figure 85 DHCP Server Network Example ......................................................................................... 180
Figure 86 DHCP Server Configuration Example ................................................................................. 180
Figure 87 DHCP Relay ........................................................................................................................ 181
Figure 88 DHCP Relay Network Example ........................................................................................... 182
Figure 89 DHCP Relay Configuration Example ................................................................................... 183
Figure 90 Maintenance ........................................................................................................................ 187
Figure 91 Firmware Upgrade ............................................................................................................... 188
Figure 92 Restore Configuration ......................................................................................................... 189
Figure 93 Backup Configuration .......................................................................................................... 189
Figure 94 Load Factory Default ............................................................................................................ 190
Figure 95 Reboot System ..................................................................................................................... 190
Figure 96 Access Control .................................................................................................................... 193
Figure 97 SNMP Management Model
................................................................................................ 194
Figure 98 SNMP .................................................................................................................................. 196
Figure 99 Logins .................................................................................................................................. 197
Figure 100 SSH Communication Example ........................................................................................... 198
Figure 101 How SSH Works ................................................................................................................. 198
Figure 102 HTTPS Implementation ...................................................................................................... 200
Figure 103 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer) ...................................................................... 200
Figure 104 Security Certificate 1 (Netscape) ........................................................................................ 201
Figure 105 Security Certificate 2 (Netscape) ........................................................................................ 201
Figure 106 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection .................................................................. 202
Figure 107 Service Access Control ...................................................................................................... 202
Figure 108 Remote Management ........................................................................................................ 203
Figure 109 Diagnostic .......................................................................................................................... 205
Figure 110 Syslog Setup ...................................................................................................................... 208
Figure 111 Syslog Server Setup .......................................................................................................... 209
Figure 112 Clustering Application Example ......................................................................................... 212
Figure 113 Cluster Management Status .............................................................................................. 212
Figure 114 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen .................................... 213
Figure 115 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch ............................................. 214
Figure 116 Clustering Management Configuration
............................................................................. 215
Figure 117 MAC Table Flowchart ........................................................................................................ 217
Figure 118 MAC Table ......................................................................................................................... 218
Figure 119 IP Table Flowchart ............................................................................................................. 219
Figure 120 IP Table ............................................................................................................................. 220
Figure 121 ARP Table ......................................................................................................................... 222
Figure 122 Routing Table Status ......................................................................................................... 223
Figure 123 Configure Clone ................................................................................................................ 225
Figure 124 no port-access-authenticator Command Example ............................................................ 275
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25
List of Figures
Figure 125 Pop-up Blocker ................................................................................................................... 313
Figure 126 Internet Options .................................................................................................................. 314
Figure 127 Internet Options .................................................................................................................. 315
Figure 128 Pop-up Blocker Settings ..................................................................................................... 315
Figure 129 Internet Options .................................................................................................................. 316
Figure 130 Security Settings - Java Scripting ....................................................................................... 317
Figure 131 Security Settings - Java ...................................................................................................... 317
Figure 132 Java (Sun) .......................................................................................................................... 318
Figure 133 Network Number and Host ID ............................................................................................ 320
Figure 134 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting ............................................................................ 322
Figure 135 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting ............................................................................... 323
Figure 136 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example .................................................................... 327
Figure 137 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example .................................................................... 327
Figure 138 Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example .................................................. 328
26
GS-2724 User’s Guide
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1 Front Panel ............................................................................................................................... 41
Table 2 LEDs ......................................................................................................................................... 44
Table 3 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview ....................................................................................... 51
Table 4 Web Configurator Screen Sub-links Details .............................................................................. 52
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links ............................................................................................................. 52
Table 6 Port Status ................................................................................................................................ 65
Table 7 Port Details ............................................................................................................................... 67
Table 8 System Info ............................................................................................................................... 72
Table 9 General Setup ........................................................................................................................... 74
Table 10 Switch Setup ........................................................................................................................... 77
Table 11 IP Setup .................................................................................................................................. 79
Table 12 Port Setup ............................................................................................................................... 81
Table 13 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology ............................................................................................ 86
Table 14 VLAN Status ............................................................................................................................ 88
Table 15 VLAN Detail ............................................................................................................................ 89
Table 16 Static VLAN ............................................................................................................................. 90
Table 17 VLAN Port Setting ................................................................................................................... 92
Table 18 Port Based VLAN Setup ......................................................................................................... 95
Table 19 Static MAC Forwarding ........................................................................................................... 98
Table 20 Filtering ................................................................................................................................... 99
Table 21 STP Path Costs .................................................................................................................... 102
Table 22 STP Port States .................................................................................................................... 103
Table 23 Spanning Tree Protocol ......................................................................................................... 104
Table 24 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol .............................................................................................. 105
Table 25 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status ................................................................................... 107
Table 26 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol ................................................................................. 108
Table 27 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status .......................................................................110
Table 28 Bandwidth Control ..................................................................................................................112
Table 29 Broadcast Storm Control ........................................................................................................114
Table 30 Mirroring .................................................................................................................................116
Table 31 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch .........................................................................................118
Table 32 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch ..........................................................................................118
Table 33 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status ..............................................................................118
Table 34 Link Aggregation ................................................................................................................... 120
Table 35 Supported VSA ..................................................................................................................... 122
Table 36 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute ..................................................................................... 122
Table 37 RADIUS ................................................................................................................................ 123
Table 38 802.1x ................................................................................................................................... 124
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27
List of Tables
Table 39 Port Security ......................................................................................................................... 128
Table 40 Classifier ............................................................................................................................... 132
Table 41 Classifier: Summary Table .................................................................................................... 134
Table 42 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Number ................................................................... 134
Table 43 Common IP Ports .................................................................................................................. 135
Table 44 Policy .................................................................................................................................... 140
Table 45 Policy: Summary Table ......................................................................................................... 141
Table 46 Queuing Method ................................................................................................................... 144
Table 47 VLAN Tag Format ................................................................................................................. 149
Table 48 Single and Double Tagged 802.11Q Frame Format ............................................................. 149
Table 49 802.1Q Frame ....................................................................................................................... 149
Table 50 VLAN Stacking ...................................................................................................................... 150
Table 51 Multicast Status ..................................................................................................................... 154
Table 52 Multicast Setting .................................................................................................................... 155
Table 53 IGMP Filtering Profile ............................................................................................................ 157
Table 54 MVR ...................................................................................................................................... 160
Table 55 Group Configuration .............................................................................................................. 162
Table 56 Static Routing ........................................................................................................................ 167
Table 57 RIP ........................................................................................................................................ 170
Table 58 IGMP ..................................................................................................................................... 172
Table 59 DiffServ ................................................................................................................................. 174
Table 60 Default DSCP-IEEE 802.1p Mapping ................................................................................... 175
Table 61 DSCP Setting ........................................................................................................................ 176
Table 62 DHCP Server Status ............................................................................................................. 178
Table 63 DHCP Server ........................................................................................................................ 179
Table 64 DHCP Relay .......................................................................................................................... 182
Table 65 Maintenance ......................................................................................................................... 187
Table 66 Filename Conventions .......................................................................................................... 191
Table 67 Access Control Overview ...................................................................................................... 193
Table 68 SNMP Commands ................................................................................................................ 194
Table 69 SNMP Traps .......................................................................................................................... 195
Table 70 SNMP .................................................................................................................................... 196
Table 71 Logins ................................................................................................................................... 197
Table 72 Service Access Control ......................................................................................................... 203
Table 73 Remote Management ........................................................................................................... 203
Table 74 Diagnostic ............................................................................................................................. 205
Table 75 Syslog Severity Levels .......................................................................................................... 207
Table 76 Syslog Setup ......................................................................................................................... 208
Table 77 Syslog Server Setup ............................................................................................................. 209
Table 78 ZyXEL Clustering Management Specifications ......................................................................211
Table 79 Cluster Management Status .................................................................................................. 213
Table 80 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example ............................................................................. 214
Table 81 Clustering Management Configuration ................................................................................. 215
28
GS-2724 User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 82 MAC Table ............................................................................................................................ 218
Table 83 IP Table ................................................................................................................................. 220
Table 84 ARP Table ............................................................................................................................. 222
Table 85 Routing Table Status ............................................................................................................. 223
Table 86 Configure Clone .................................................................................................................... 226
Table 87 Command Interpreter Mode Summary ................................................................................. 232
Table 88 Command Summary: User Mode ......................................................................................... 236
Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode ...................................................................................... 237
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode ............................................................................ 242
Table 91 interface port-channel Commands ........................................................................................ 255
Table 92 interface route-domain Commands ....................................................................................... 258
Table 93 Command Summary: config-vlan Commands ...................................................................... 259
Table 94 Command Summary: mvr Commands .................................................................................. 260
Table 95 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your Switch ........................................................................ 301
Table 96 Troubleshooting Accessing the Switch ................................................................................. 301
Table 97 Troubleshooting the Password .............................................................................................. 302
Table 98 Firmware Features ................................................................................................................ 305
Table 99 General Product Specifications ............................................................................................. 307
Table 100 Management Specifications ................................................................................................ 309
Table 101 Physical and Environmental Specifications ......................................................................... 310
Table 102 Power Specifications ........................................................................................................... 310
Table 103 IP Address Network Number and Host ID Example ........................................................... 320
Table 104 Subnet Masks ..................................................................................................................... 321
Table 105 Maximum Host Numbers .................................................................................................... 321
Table 106 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ....................................................................................... 321
Table 107 Subnet 1 .............................................................................................................................. 323
Table 108 Subnet 2 .............................................................................................................................. 324
Table 109 Subnet 3 .............................................................................................................................. 324
Table 110 Subnet 4 .............................................................................................................................. 324
Table 111 Eight Subnets ...................................................................................................................... 324
Table 112 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 325
Table 113 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 325
Table 114 Commonly Used Services ................................................................................................... 329
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List of Tables
30
GS-2724 User’s Guide
P ART I
Introduction and
Hardware
Getting to Know Your Switch (33)
Hardware Installation and Connection (37)
Hardware Overview (41)
31
32
CHAPTER
1
Getting to Know Your Switch
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the Switch.
1.1 Introduction
Your Switch is a stand-alone layer-3 Gigabit Ethernet switch. By integrating router functions,
the Switch performs wire-speed layer-3 routing in addition to layer-2 switching. The Switch
has 20 Gigabit Ethernet ports and 4 GbE dual personality interfaces for uplink. A dual
personality interface includes one Gigabit port and one slot for mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP
module) with one port active at a time.
With its built-in web configurator, managing and configuring the Switch is easy. In addition,
the Switch can also be managed via Telnet, any terminal emulator program on the console
port, or third-party SNMP management.
See Appendix A on page 305 for a full list of software features available on the Switch.
1.1.1 Backbone Application
The Switch is an ideal solution for small networks where rapid growth can be expected in the
near future. The Switch can be used standalone for a group of heavy traffic users. You can
connect computers and servers directly to the Switch’s port or connect other switches to the
Switch.
In this example, all computers can share high-speed applications on the server. To expand the
network, simply add more networking devices such as switches, routers, computers, print
servers etc.
Figure 1 Backbone Application
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33
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
1.1.2 Bridging Example
In this example application the Switch connects different company departments (RD and
Sales) to the corporate backbone. It can alleviate bandwidth contention and eliminate server
and network bottlenecks. All users that need high bandwidth can connect to high-speed
department servers via the Switch. You can provide a super-fast uplink connection by using a
Gigabit Ethernet/mini-GBIC port on the Switch.
Moreover, the Switch eases supervision and maintenance by allowing network managers to
centralize multiple servers at a single location.
Figure 2 Bridging Application
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example
The Switch is ideal for connecting two networks that need high bandwidth. In the following
example, use trunking to connect these two networks.
Switching to higher-speed LANs such as ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) is not
feasible for most people due to the expense of replacing all existing Ethernet cables and
adapter cards, restructuring your network and complex maintenance. The Switch can provide
the same bandwidth as ATM at much lower cost while still being able to use existing adapters
and switches. Moreover, the current LAN structure can be retained as all ports can freely
communicate with each other.
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application
34
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Stations on a logical network belong to one group. A station can
belong to more than one group. With VLAN, a station cannot directly talk to or hear from
stations that are not in the same group(s) unless such traffic first goes through a router.
For more information on VLANs, refer to Chapter 8 on page 85.
1.1.4.1 Tag-based VLAN Example
Ports in the same VLAN group share the same frame broadcast domain thus increase network
performance through reduced broadcast traffic. VLAN groups can be modified at any time by
adding, moving or changing ports without any re-cabling.
Shared resources such as a server can be used by all ports in the same VLAN as the server. In
the following figure only ports that need access to the server need to be part of VLAN 1. Ports
can belong to other VLAN groups too.
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example
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35
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
36
GS-2724 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
2
Hardware Installation and
Connection
This chapter shows you how to install the hardware and make port connections.
"
Example graphics are shown.
2.1 Freestanding Installation
1 Make sure the Switch is clean and dry.
2 Set the Switch on a smooth, level surface strong enough to support the weight of the
Switch and the connected cables. Make sure there is a power outlet nearby.
3 Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switch to allow air circulation and the
attachment of cables and the power cord.
4 Remove the adhesive backing from the rubber feet.
5 Attach the rubber feet to each corner on the bottom of the Switch. These rubber feet help
protect the Switch from shock or vibration and ensure space between devices when
stacking.
Figure 5 Attaching Rubber Feet
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37
Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
"
"
Do NOT block the ventilation holes. Leave space between devices when
stacking.
For proper ventilation, allow at least 4 inches (10 cm) of clearance at the front
and 3.4 inches (8 cm) at the back of the Switch. This is especially important for
enclosed rack installations.
2.2 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
This section lists the rack mounting requirements and precautions and describes the
installation steps.
2.2.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements
• Two mounting brackets.
• Eight M3 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
• Four M5 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
1
Failure to use the proper screws may damage the unit.
2.2.1.1 Precautions
• Make sure the rack will safely support the combined weight of all the equipment it
contains.
• Make sure the position of the Switch does not make the rack unstable or top-heavy. Take
all necessary precautions to anchor the rack securely before installing the unit.
2.2.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch
1 Position a mounting bracket on one side of the Switch, lining up the four screw holes on
the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the Switch.
38
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
Figure 6 Attaching the Mounting Brackets
2 Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M3 flat head screws through the mounting
bracket holes into the Switch.
3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to install the second mounting bracket on the other side of the
Switch.
4 You may now mount the Switch on a rack. Proceed to the next section.
2.2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
1 Position a mounting bracket (that is already attached to the Switch) on one side of the
rack, lining up the two screw holes on the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the
rack.
Figure 7 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
2 Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M5 flat head screws through the mounting
bracket holes into the rack.
3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to attach the second mounting bracket on the other side of the rack.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
39
Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
40
GS-2724 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
3
Hardware Overview
This chapter describes the front panel and rear panel of the Switch and shows you how to
make the hardware connections.
3.1 Front Panel Connection
The figure below shows the front panel of the Switch.
Figure 8 Front Panel
The following table describes the port labels on the front panel.
Table 1 Front Panel
PORT
DESCRIPTION
MGMT
Connect to a computer using an RJ-45 Ethernet cable for local configuration of the
Switch.
CONSOLE
Only connect this port if you want to configure the Switch using the command line
interface (CLI) via the console port.
20 100/1000
Mbps RJ-45
Gigabit
Ethernet
Ports
Connect these ports to a computer, a hub, an Ethernet switch, or router.
Four Dual
Personality
Interfaces
Each interface has one 1000 Base-T copper RJ-45 port and one Small Form-Factor
Pluggable (SFP) fiber port, with one port active at a time.
•
4 100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 Gigabit Ports:
Connect these Gigabit Ethernet ports to high-bandwidth backbone network
Ethernet switches.
•
4 Mini-GBIC Ports:
Use mini-GBIC transceivers in these slots for fiber-optic connections to backbone
Ethernet switches (see Section 3.1.3 on page 42 for instructions).
3.1.1 Console Port
For local management, you can use a computer with terminal emulation software configured
to the following parameters:
• VT100 terminal emulation
• 9600 bps
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41
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
• No flow control
Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the Switch. Connect the
female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) of your computer.
3.1.2 Gigabit Ethernet Ports
The Switch has 10/100/1000 Mbps auto-negotiating, auto-crossover Gigabit Ethernet ports. In
10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet, the speed can be 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps and
the duplex mode can be half duplex (for 100 Mbps) or full duplex.
An auto-negotiating port can detect and adjust to the optimum Ethernet speed and duplex
mode (full duplex or half duplex) of the connected device.
An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or
crossover Ethernet cable.
3.1.2.1 Default Ethernet Settings
The factory default negotiation settings for the Ethernet ports on the Switch are:
• Speed: Auto
• Duplex: Auto
• Flow control: on
3.1.3 SFP Slots
The Switch comes with SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) slots for mini-GBIC (Gigabit
Interface Converter) transceivers. A transceiver is a single unit that houses a transmitter and a
receiver. The Switch does not come with transceivers. You must use transceivers that comply
with the SFP transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA). See the SFF committee’s INF-8074i
specification Rev 1.0 for details.
SFP transceivers can be standalone interfaces or part of a dual personality interface. Each dual
personality interface has one 1000 Base-T copper RJ-45 port and one Small Form-Factor
Pluggable (SFP) fiber slot for mini-GBIC transceivers, with one port active at a time. The
mini-GBIC ports have priority over the Gigabit ports. This means that if a mini-GBIC port and
the corresponding Gigabit port are connected at the same time, the Gigabit port will be
disabled.
You can change transceivers while the Switch is operating. You can use different transceivers
to connect to Ethernet switches with different types of fiber-optic connectors.
• Type: SFP connection interface
• Connection speed: 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps)
1
42
To avoid possible eye injury, do NOT look into an operating fiber-optic
module’s connectors.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.1.3.1 Transceiver Installation
Use the following steps to install a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1 Insert the transceiver into the slot with the exposed section of PCB board facing down.
Figure 9 Transceiver Installation Example
2 Press the transceiver firmly until it clicks into place.
3 The Switch automatically detects the installed transceiver. Check the LEDs to verify that
it is functioning properly.
Figure 10 Installed Transceiver
3.1.3.2 Transceiver Removal
Use the following steps to remove a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1 Open the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
Figure 11 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example
2 Pull the transceiver out of the slot.
Figure 12 Transceiver Removal Example
GS-2724 User’s Guide
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.2 Rear Panel
The following figures show the rear panels of the AC and DC models. The rear panel contains
a connector for backup power supply (BPS) and the power receptacle. For the DC model, it
also contains the power switch.
Figure 13 Rear Panel: AC Model
Figure 14 Rear Panel: DC Model
3.2.1 Power Connector
Make sure you are using the correct power source as shown on the panel.
To connect the power to the AC model, insert the female end of power cord to the power
receptacle on the rear panel. Connect the other end of the supplied power cord to a 100~240V
AC, 1.5A power outlet. Make sure that no objects obstruct the airflow of the fans.
The DC model requires DC power supply input of -48 VDC to -60 VDC, 1.6A max, no
tolerance. To connect the power to the DC model, insert one end of the supplied power cord to
the power receptacle on the rear panel and the other end to a power outlet. Make sure that no
objects obstruct the airflow of the fans.
3.2.2 External Backup Power Supply Connector
The backup power supply constantly monitors the status of the internal power supply. The
backup power supply automatically provides power to the Switch in the event of a power
failure. Once the Switch receives power from the backup power supply, it will not
automatically switch back to using the internal power supply even when the power is resumed.
3.3 LEDs
The following table describes the LEDs.
Table 2 LEDs
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
BPS
Green
Blinking
The system is receiving power from the backup power supply.
On
The backup power supply is connected and active.
Off
The backup power supply is not ready or not active.
On
The system is turned on.
Off
The system is off.
PWR
44
Green
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Table 2 LEDs (continued)
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
SYS
Green
Blinking
The system is rebooting and performing self-diagnostic tests.
On
The system is on and functioning properly.
Off
The power is off or the system is not ready/malfunctioning.
On
There is a hardware failure.
Off
The system is functioning normally.
Green
On
The port has a successful 10/1000 Mbps connection.
Amber
On
The port has a successful 100 Mbps connection.
Blinking
The port is sending or receiving data.
Off
The port is disconnected or the link failed.
On
The port is in full duplex mode.
Blinking
The port detected a collision event.
Off
The port is in half duplex mode or there is no connection.
On
The port has a successful connection.
Off
No Ethernet device is connected to this port.
Blinking
The port is sending or receiving data.
Off
The port is not sending or receiving data or there is no
connection.
ALM
Red
Gigabit Ethernet Ports
LNK/ACT
FDX
Amber
Mini-GBIC (SFP) Slots
LNK
ACT
Green
Green
MGMT Port
10
100
Green
Amber
On
The link to a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The port is sending or receiving data at 10 Mbps.
Off
The link to a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is down.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The port is sending or receiving data at 100 Mbps.
Off
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is down.
Gigabit Ethernet Ports (Part of Dual Personality Interface)
1000
100
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Green
Amber
Blinking
The port is sending/receiving data.
On
The link to a 10/1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to a 10/1000 Mbps Ethernet network is down.
Blinking
The port is sending/receiving data.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is down.
45
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
46
GS-2724 User’s Guide
P ART II
Basic Configuration
The Web Configurator (49)
Initial Setup Example (59)
System Status and Port Statistics (65)
Basic Setting (71)
47
48
CHAPTER
4
The Web Configurator
This section introduces the configuration and functions of the web configurator.
4.1 Introduction
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Switch setup
and management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later or Netscape
Navigator 7.0 and later versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by
default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
4.2 System Login
1 Start your web browser.
2 Type “http://” and the IP address of the Switch (for example, the default is 192.168.1.1)
in the Location or Address field. Press [ENTER].
3 The login screen appears. The default username is admin and associated default
password is 1234. The date and time display as shown if you have not configured a time
server nor manually entered a time and date in the General Setup screen.
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Figure 15 Web Configurator: Login
4 Click OK to view the first web configurator screen.
4.3 The Status Screen
The Status screen is the first screen that displays when you access the web configurator.
The following figure shows the navigating components of a web configurator screen.
Figure 16 Web Configurator Home Screen (Status)
BC DE
A
A - Click the menu items to open submenu links, and then click on a submenu link to open the
screen in the main window.
B, C, D, E - These are quick links which allow you to perform certain tasks no matter which
screen you are currently working in.
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B - Click this link to save your configuration into the Switch’s nonvolatile memory.
Nonvolatile memory is the configuration of your Switch that stays the same even if the
Switch’s power is turned off.
C - Click this link to go to the status page of the Switch.
D - Click this link to logout of the web configurator.
E - Click this link to display web help pages. The help pages provide descriptions for all of the
configuration screens.
In the navigation panel, click a main link to reveal a list of submenu links.
Table 3 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview
BASIC SETTING
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ADVANCED
APPLICATION
IP APPLICATION
MANAGEMENT
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The following table lists the various web configurator screens within the sub-links.
Table 4 Web Configurator Screen Sub-links Details
BASIC SETTING ADVANCED
APPLICATION
System Info
General Setup
Switch Setup
IP Setup
Port Setup
VLAN
VLAN Status
VLAN Port Setting
Static VLAN
Static MAC Forwarding
Filtering
Spanning Tree Protocol
Status
Spanning Tree
Protocol Configuration
Bandwidth Control
Broadcast Storm Control
Mirroring
Link Aggregation
Status
RSTP
MRSTP
Port Authentication
RADIUS
802.1x
Port Security
Classifier
Policy Rule
Queuing Method
VLAN Stacking
Multicast
Setting
Status
IGMP Filtering Profile
MVR
Group Configuration
IP APPLICATION
MANAGEMENT
Static Routing
RIP
IGMP
DiffServ
DSCP Setting
DHCP Server Status
DHCP Server
DHCP Relay
Maintenance
Firmware Upgrade
Restore Configuration
Backup Configuration
Load Factory Default
Save Configuration
Reboot System
Access Control
SNMP
Logins
Service Access Control
Remote Management
Diagnostic
Syslog
Syslog Setup
Syslog Server Setup
Cluster Management
Status
Configuration
MAC Table
IP Table
ARP Table
Routing Table
Configure Clone
The following table describes the links in the navigation panel.
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Basic Settings
System Info
This link takes you to a screen that displays general system and hardware
monitoring information.
General Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure general identification
information about the Switch.
Switch Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can set up global Switch parameters
such as VLAN type, MAC address learning, IGMP snooping, GARP and priority
queues.
IP Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the IP address, subnet
mask (necessary for Switch management) and DNS (domain name server) and set
up to 64 IP routing domains.
Port Setup
This link takes you to screens where you can configure settings for individual
Switch ports.
Advanced Application
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Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
VLAN
This link takes you to screens where you can configure port-based or 802.1Q VLAN
(depending on what you configured in the Switch Setup menu).
Static MAC
Forwarding
This link takes you to screens where you can configure static MAC addresses for a
port. These static MAC addresses do not age out.
Filtering
This link takes you to a screen to set up filtering rules.
Spanning Tree
Protocol
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the RSTP/MRSTP to
prevent network loops.
Bandwidth
Control
This link takes you to screens where you can cap the maximum bandwidth allowed
from specified source(s) to specified destination(s).
Broadcast Storm
Control
This link takes you to a screen to set up broadcast filters.
Mirroring
This link takes you to screens where you can copy traffic from one port or ports to
another port in order that you can examine the traffic from the first port without
interference
Link Aggregation This link takes you to a screen where you can logically aggregate physical links to
form one logical, higher-bandwidth link.
Port
Authentication
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service), a protocol for user authentication that allows
you to use an external server to validate an unlimited number of users.
Port Security
This link takes you to a screen where you can activate MAC address learning and
set the maximum number of MAC addresses to learn on a port.
Classifier
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to group
packets based on the specified criteria.
Policy Rule
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to perform
special treatment on the grouped packets.
Queuing Method
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure queuing with associated
queue weights for each port.
VLAN Stacking
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure VLAN stacking.
Multicast
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure various multicast features
and create multicast VLANs.
IP Application
Static Routing
This link takes you to screens where you can configure static routes. A static route
defines how the Switch should forward traffic by configuring the TCP/IP parameters
manually.
RIP
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the RIP (Routing
Information Protocol) direction and versions.
IGMP
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the IGMP settings.
DiffServ
This link takes you to screens where you can enable DiffServ, configure marking
rules and set DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mappings.
DHCP
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the DHCP settings.
Management
Maintenance
This link takes you to screens where you can perform firmware and configuration
file maintenance as well as reboot the system.
Access Control
This link takes you to screens where you can change the system login password
and configure SNMP and remote management.
Diagnostic
This link takes you to screens where you can view system logs and test port(s).
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Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
This link takes you to screens where you can setup system logs and a system log
server.
Cluster
Management
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure clustering management
and view its status.
MAC Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses (and types)
of devices attached to what ports and VLAN IDs.
IP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the IP addresses (and types) of
devices attached to what ports and VLAN IDs.
ARP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses – IP
address resolution table.
Routing Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the routing table.
Configure Clone
This link takes you to a screen where you can copy attributes of one port to other
ports.
4.3.1 Change Your Password
After you log in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator
password. Click Management > Access Control > Logins to display the next screen.
Figure 17 Change Administrator Login Password
4.4 Saving Your Configuration
When you are done modifying the settings in a screen, click Apply to save your changes back
to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switch’s power is
turned off.
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Click the Save link in the upper right hand corner of the web configurator to save your
configuration to nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory refers to the Switch’s storage that
remains even if the Switch’s power is turned off.
"
Use the Save link when you are done with a configuration session.
4.5 Switch Lockout
You could block yourself (and all others) from using in-band-management (managing through
the data ports) if you do one of the following:
1 Delete the management VLAN (default is VLAN 1).
2 Delete all port-based VLANs with the CPU port as a member. The “CPU port” is the
management port of the Switch.
3 Filter all traffic to the CPU port.
4 Disable all ports.
5 Misconfigure the text configuration file.
6 Forget the password and/or IP address.
7 Prevent all services from accessing the Switch.
8 Change a service port number but forget it.
"
Be careful not to lock yourself and others out of the Switch. If you do lock
yourself out, try using out-of-band management (via the management port) to
configure the Switch.
4.6 Resetting the Switch
If you lock yourself (and others) from the Switch or forget the administrator password, you
will need to reload the factory-default configuration file or reset the Switch back to the factory
defaults.
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File
Uploading the factory-default configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the
factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all previous configurations
and the speed of the console port will be reset to the default of 9600 bps with 8 data bits, no
parity, one stop bit and flow control set to none. The password will also be reset to “1234” and
the IP address to 192.168.1.1.
To upload the configuration file, do the following:
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
1 Connect to the console port using a computer with terminal emulation software. See
Section 3.1.1 on page 41 for details.
2 Disconnect and reconnect the Switch’s power to begin a session. When you reconnect
the Switch’s power, you will see the initial screen.
3 When you see the message “Press any key to enter Debug Mode within 3
seconds ...” press any key to enter debug mode.
4 Type atlc after the “Enter Debug Mode” message.
5 Wait for the “Starting XMODEM upload” message before activating XMODEM
upload on your terminal.
6 After a configuration file upload, type atgo to restart the Switch.
Figure 18 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port
Bootbase Version: V3.1 | 03/08/2007 18:22:24
RAM:Size = 64 Mbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 65536K OK
DRAM Test SUCCESS !
FLASH: Intel 64M
ZyNOS Version: V3.70(AYC.0)b0 | 03/08/2007 14:39:15
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
............................................................
(Compressed)
Version: GS-2724, start: 500e9030
Length: A37326, Checksum: 2411
Compressed Length: 22F7C8, Checksum: CA3C
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2006 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
initialize mgmt, ethernet address: 00:19:cb:00:11:f9
initialize switch, ethernet address: 00:19:cb:00:11:fa
Initializing switch unit 0...
Initializing switch unit 1...
Initializing VLAN Database...
Initializing IP Interface...
Initializing Advanced Applications...
Initializing Command Line Interface...
Initializing Web Interface...
Press ENTER to continue...
The Switch is now reinitialized with a default configuration file including the default
password of “1234”.
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4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator
Click Logout in a screen to exit the web configurator. You have to log in with your password
again after you log out. This is recommended after you finish a management session for
security reasons.
Figure 19 Web Configurator: Logout Screen
4.8 Help
The web configurator’s online help has descriptions of individual screens and some
supplementary information.
Click the Help link from a web configurator screen to view an online help description of that
screen.
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CHAPTER
5
Initial Setup Example
This chapter shows how to set up the Switch for an example network.
5.1 Overview
The following lists the configuration steps for the example network:
•
•
•
•
•
Configure an IP interface
Configure DHCP server settings
Create a VLAN
Set port VLAN ID
Enable RIP
5.1.1 Configuring an IP Interface
On a layer-3 switch, an IP interface (also known as an IP routing domain) is not bound to a
physical port. The default IP address of the Switch is 192.168.1.1 with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0.
In the example network, since the RD network is already in the same IP interface as the
Switch, you don’t need to create an IP interface for it. However, if you want to have the Sales
network on a different routing domain, you need to create a new IP interface. This allows the
Switch to route traffic between the RD and Sales networks.
Figure 20 Initial Setup Network Example: IP Interface
1
Connect your computer to the MGMT port that is used only for management. Make
sure your computer is in the same subnet as the MGMT port.
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
2 Open your web browser and enter 192.168.0.1 (the default MGMT port IP address) in
the address bar to access the web configurator. See Section 4.2 on page 49 for more
information.
3 Click Basic Setting and IP Setup
in the navigation panel.
4 Configure the related fields in the
IP Setup screen.
For the Sales network, enter
192.168.2.1 as the IP address and
255.255.255.0 as the subnet
mask.
5 In the VID field, enter the ID of
the VLAN group to which you
want this IP interface to belong.
This is the same as the VLAN ID
you configure in the Static
VLAN screen.
6 Click Add to save the settings to
the run-time memory. Settings in
the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is
turned off.
5.1.2 Configuring DHCP Server Settings
You can set the Switch to assign network information (such as the IP address, DNS server,
etc.) to DHCP clients on the network.
For the example network, configure two DHCP client pools on the Switch for the DHCP
clients in the RD and Sales networks.
1 In the web configurator, click IP
Application and DHCP in the
navigation panel and click the
Server link.
2 In the DHCP Server screen,
specify the ID of the VLAN to
which the DHCP clients belong,
the starting IP address pool,
subnet mask, default gateway
address and the DNS server
address(es).
3 Click Add to save the settings to
the run-time memory. Settings in
the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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5.1.3 Creating a VLAN
VLANs confine broadcast frames to the VLAN group in which the port(s) belongs. You can
do this with port-based VLAN or tagged static VLAN with fixed port members.
In this example, you want to configure port 1 as a member of VLAN 2.
Figure 21 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN
1 Click Advanced Application and VLAN in the navigation panel and click the Static
VLAN link.
2 In the Static VLAN screen, select
ACTIVE, enter a descriptive
name in the Name field and enter
2 in the VLAN Group ID field
for the VLAN2 network.
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
"
The VLAN Group ID field in this screen and the VID field in the IP Setup
screen refer to the same VLAN ID.
3 Since the VLAN2 network is connected to port 1 on the Switch, select Fixed to
configure port 1 to be a permanent member of the VLAN only.
4 To ensure that VLAN-unaware devices (such as computers and hubs) can receive frames
properly, clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before
sending.
5 Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory
are lost when the Switch’s power is turned off.
5.1.4 Setting Port VID
Use PVID to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so that the frames
are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
In the example network, configure 2 as the port VID on port 1 so that any untagged frames
received on that port get sent to VLAN 2.
Figure 22 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID
1 Click Advanced Applications
and VLAN in the navigation
panel. Then click the VLAN
Port Setting link.
2 Enter 2 in the PVID field for
port 1 and click Apply to save
your changes back to the runtime memory. Settings in the
run-time memory are lost when
the Switch’s power is turned off.
5.1.5 Enabling RIP
To exchange routing information with other routing devices across different routing domains,
enable RIP (Routing Information Protocol) in the RIP screen.
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1 Click IP Application and RIP in the navigation panel.
2 Select Both in the Direction
field to set the Switch to
broadcast and receive
routing information.
3 In the Version field, select
RIP-1 for the RIP packet
format that is universally
supported.
4 Click Apply to save your
changes back to the run-time
memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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CHAPTER
6
System Status and Port
Statistics
This chapter describes the system status (web configurator home page) and port details
screens.
6.1 Overview
The home screen of the web configurator displays a port statistical summary with links to each
port showing statistical details.
6.2 Port Status Summary
To view the port statistics, click Status in any web configurator screen to display the Status
screen as shown next.
Figure 23 Port Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 Port Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This identifies the Ethernet port. Click a port number to display the Port Details
screen (refer to Figure 24 on page 67).
Name
This is the name you assigned to this port in the Basic Setting, Port Setup screen.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Table 6 Port Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M
for 1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half). It also shows the cable
type (Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports.
State
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the
port (see Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it
displays STOP.
LACP
This fields displays whether LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) has been
enabled on the port.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port.
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port.
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time in hours, minutes and seconds the port has
been up.
Clear Counter
Enter a port number and then click Clear Counter to erase the recorded statistical
information for that port, or select Any to clear statistics for all ports.
6.2.1 Status: Port Details
Click a number in the Port column in the Status screen to display individual port statistics.
Use this screen to check status and detailed performance data about an individual port on the
Switch.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Figure 24 Port Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 Port Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Info
Port NO.
This field displays the port number you are viewing.
Name
This field displays the name of the port.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half duplex). It also shows the
cable type (Copper or Fiber).
Status
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port
(see Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it
displays STOP.
LACP
This field shows if LACP is enabled on this port or not.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Table 7 Port Details (continued)
LABEL
Up Time
DESCRIPTION
This field shows the total amount of time the connection has been up.
Tx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets transmitted.
TX Packet
This field shows the number of good packets (unicast, multicast and broadcast)
transmitted.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets transmitted.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets transmitted.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets transmitted.
Tagged
This field shows the number of packets with VLAN tags transmitted.
Rx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received.
RX Packet This field shows the number of good packets (unicast, multicast and broadcast)
received.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets received.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets received.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets received.
Control
This field shows the number of control packets received (including those with CRC
error) but it does not include the 802.3x Pause packets.
TX Collision
The following fields display information on collisions while transmitting.
Single
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission is inhibited
by exactly one collision.
Multiple
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission was
inhibited by more than one collision.
Excessive
This is a count of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions.
Excessive collision is defined as the number of maximum collisions before the
retransmission count is reset.
Late
This is the number of times a late collision is detected, that is, after 512 bits of the
packets have already been transmitted.
Error Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received that were in
error.
RX CRC
This field shows the number of packets received with CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check)
error(s).
Length
This field shows the number of packets received with a length that was out of range.
Runt
This field shows the number of packets received that were too short (shorter than 64
octets), including the ones with CRC errors.
Distribution
68
64
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64
octets in length.
65-127
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 65 and 127 octets in length.
128-255
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 128 and 255 octets in length.
256-511
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 256 and 511 octets in length.
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Chapter 6 System Status and Port Statistics
Table 7 Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
512-1023
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 512 and 1023 octets in length.
10241518
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 1024 and 1518 octets in length.
Giant
This field shows the number of packets dropped because they were bigger than the
maximum frame size.
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CHAPTER
7
Basic Setting
This chapter describes how to configure the System Info, General Setup, Switch Setup, IP
Setup and Port Setup screens.
7.1 Overview
The System Info screen displays general information (such as firmware version number) and
hardware polling information (such as fan speeds). The General Setup screen allows you to
configure general identification information. The General Setup screen also allows you to set
the system time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you
turn on your Switch. The real time is then displayed in the logs. The Switch Setup screen
allows you to set up and configure global switch features. The IP Setup screen allows you to
configure the Switch’s IP address in each routing domain, subnet mask(s) and DNS (domain
name server) for management purposes.
7.2 System Information
In the navigation panel, click Basic Setting > System Info to display the screen as shown. You
can check the firmware version number and monitor the Switch’s temperature, fan speeds and
voltage in this screen.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Figure 25 System Info
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 System Info
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the Switch for identification purposes.
ZyNOS F/W
Version
This field displays the version number of the Switch's current firmware including the
date created.
Ethernet
Address
This field refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of the Switch.
Hardware Monitor
72
Temperature
Unit
The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit
(Centigrade or Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature
MAC, CPU and PHY refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch’s
printed circuit board.
Current
This shows the current temperature in degrees centigrade at this sensor.
MAX
This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN
This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
Threshold
This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status
This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those
above.
Fan Speed
(RPM)
A properly functioning fan is an essential component (along with a sufficiently
ventilated, cool operating environment) in order for the device to stay within the
temperature threshold. Each fan has a sensor that is capable of detecting and
reporting if the fan speed falls below the threshold shown.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Table 8 System Info (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays this fan's current speed in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MAX
This field displays this fan's maximum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute
(RPM).
MIN
This field displays this fan's minimum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute
(RPM). "<41" is displayed for speeds too small to measure (under 2000 RPM).
Threshold
This field displays the minimum speed at which a normal fan should work.
Status
Normal indicates that this fan is functioning above the minimum speed. Error
indicates that this fan is functioning below the minimum speed.
Voltage(V)
The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and
reporting if the voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current
This is the current voltage reading.
MAX
This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN
This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold
This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still
works.
Status
Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this
point; otherwise Error is displayed.
7.3 General Setup
Use this screen to configure general settings such as the system name and time. Click Basic
Setting > General Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Chapter 7 Basic Setting
Figure 26 General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 General Setup
74
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name consists of up to
64 printable characters; spaces are allowed.
Location
Enter the geographic location of your Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
characters; spaces are allowed.
Contact Person's
Name
Enter the name of the person in charge of this Switch. You can use up to 32
printable ASCII characters; spaces are allowed.
Login
Precedence
Use this drop-down list box to select which database the Switch should use (first) to
authenticate an administrator (user for Switch management).
Configure the local user accounts in the Access Control Logins screen. The
RADIUS is an external server. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have
set up the corresponding database correctly first.
Select Local Only to have the Switch just check the administrator accounts
configured in the Access Control Logins screen.
Select Local then RADIUS to have the Switch check the administrator accounts
configured in the Access Control Logins screen. If the user name is not found,
the Switch then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS server. You
need to configure Port Authentication Radius first.
Select RADIUS Only to have the Switch just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a login username, password and the access privilege.
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Table 9 General Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your timeserver uses. Not all time servers
support all protocols, so you may have to use trial and error to find a protocol that
works. The main differences between them are the time format.
When you select the Daytime (RFC 867) format, the Switch displays the day,
month, year and time with no time zone adjustment. When you use this format, it is
recommended that you use a Daytime timeserver within your geographical time
zone.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
The Switch requests time and date settings from the time server in the following
circumstances:
• When the Switch starts up.
• In 24-hour intervals after starting up.
• When you click Apply in this screen.
None is the default value. Enter the time manually. When you enter the time
settings manually, the Switch uses the new settings when you click Apply. Each
time you turn on the Switch, the time and date will be reset to the default values.
Time Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of your timeserver. The Switch searches for the timeserver for
up to 60 seconds. If you select a timeserver that is unreachable, then this screen
will appear locked for 60 seconds. Please wait.
Current Time
This field displays the time you open this menu (or refresh the menu).
New Time
(hh:min:ss)
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. The new time then appears
in the Current Time field after you click Apply.
Current Date
This field displays the date you open this menu.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
Enter the new date in year, month and day format. The new date then appears in
the Current Date field after you click Apply.
Time Zone
Select the time difference between UTC (Universal Time Coordinated, formerly
known as GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and your time zone from the drop-down list
box.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
7.4 Introduction to VLANs
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can
belong to more than one group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from
devices that are not in the same group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security
among the subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from
accessing the network resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the
printers and hard disks of another user in the same building.
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VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more
manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast
packets go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a
specific broadcast domain.
"
VLAN is unidirectional; it only governs outgoing traffic.
See Chapter 8 on page 85 for information on port-based and 802.1Q tagged VLANs.
7.5 Switch Setup Screen
Click Basic Setting > Switch Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
The VLAN setup screens change depending on whether you choose 802.1Q or Port Based
in the VLAN Type field in this screen. Refer to the chapter on VLAN.
Figure 27 Switch Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Switch Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Choose 802.1Q or Port Based. The VLAN Setup screen changes depending on
whether you choose 802.1Q VLAN type or Port Based VLAN type in this screen.
See Chapter 8 on page 85for more information.
Bridge Control
Protocol
Transparency
Select Active to allow the Switch to handle bridging control protocols (STP for
example). You also need to define how to treat a BPDU in the Port Setup screen.
MAC Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing traffic broadcasts. For MAC address
learning to occur on a port, the port must be active.
Aging Time
Enter a time from 10 to 3000 seconds. This is how long all dynamically learned MAC
addresses remain in the MAC address table before they age out (and must be
relearned).
GARP Timer: Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join
message using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All
message terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values. See the chapter on
VLAN setup for more background information.
Join Timer
Join Timer sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each
port has a Join Period timer. The allowed Join Time range is between 100 and
65535 milliseconds; the default is 200 milliseconds. See the chapter on VLAN setup
for more background information.
Leave Timer
Leave Time sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds.
Each port has a single Leave Period timer. Leave Time must be two times larger
than Join Timer; the default is 600 milliseconds.
Leave All Timer
Leave All Timer sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in
milliseconds. Each port has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All Timer must be
larger than Leave Timer.
Priority Queue Assignment
IEEE 802.1p defines up to eight separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that
contains bits to define class of service. Frames without an explicit priority tag are given the default
priority of the ingress port. Use the next two fields to configure the priority level-to-physical queue
mapping.
The Switch has eight physical queues that you can map to the 8 priority levels. On the Switch, traffic
assigned to higher index queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if
the network is congested.
Priority Level (The following descriptions are based on the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d
standard (which incorporates the 802.1p).
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the
variations in delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems
Network Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include
important business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that
are allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
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Table 10 Switch Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
7.6 IP Setup
Use the IP Setup screen to configure the default gateway device, the default domain name
server and add IP domains. To open this screen, click Basic Setting > IP Setup.
7.6.1 IP Interfaces
The Switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default IP
address is 192.168.1.1. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP
address. The factory default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
On the Switch, as a layer-3 device, an IP address is not bound to any physical ports. Since each
IP address on the Switch must be in a separate subnet, the configured IP address is also known
as IP interface (or routing domain). In addition, this allows routing between subnets based on
the IP address without additional routers.
You can configure multiple routing domains on the same VLAN as long as the IP address
ranges for the domains do not overlap. To change the IP address of the Switch in a routing
domain, simply add a new routing domain entry with a different IP address in the same subnet.
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Figure 28 IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default
Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for
example 192.168.1.254.
Domain Name
Server
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP
address and vice versa. Enter a domain name server IP address in order to be able to
use a domain name instead of an IP address.
Default
Management
Specify which traffic flow (In-Band or Out-of-band) the Switch is to send packets
originating from itself (such as SNMP traps) or packets with unknown source.
Select Out-of-band to have the Switch send the packets to the management port
labelled MGMT. This means that device(s) connected to the other port(s) do not
receive these packets.
Select In-Band to have the Switch send the packets to all ports except the
management port (labelled MGMT) to which connected device(s) do not receive
these packets.
Management
IP Address
Use these fields to set the settings for the out-of-band management port.
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Table 11 IP Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Enter the out-of-band management IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal
notation. For example, 192.168.0.1.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default
Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for
example 192.168.0.254
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
IP Interface
Use these fields to create or edit IP routing domains on the Switch.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
192.168.1.1. This is the IP address of the Switch in an IP routing domain.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of an IP routing domain in dotted decimal notation. For
example, 255.255.255.0.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number to which an IP routing domain belongs.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of an entry.
IP Address
This field displays IP address of the Switch in the IP domain.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask of the Switch in the IP domain.
VID
This field displays the VLAN identification number of the IP domain on the Switch.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Note: Deleting all IP subnets locks you out from the Switch.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
7.7 Port Setup
Use this screen to configure the Switch’s port settings. Click Basic Setting > Port Setup in
the navigation panel to display the configuration screen.
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Figure 29 Port Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port index number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable a port. The factory default for all ports is enabled. A
port must be enabled for data transmission to occur.
Name
Enter a descriptive name that identifies this port. You can enter up to 64 alphanumerical characters.
Note: Due to space limitation, the port name may be truncated in
some web configurator screens.
Type
This field displays 10/100/1000M for Gigabit connections.
Speed/Duplex
Select the speed and the duplex mode of the Ethernet connection on this port.
Choices are Auto, 10M/Half Duplex, 10M/Full Duplex, 100M/Half Duplex, 100M/
Full Duplex and 1000M/Full Duplex.
Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate with a peer port
automatically to obtain the connection speed and duplex mode that both ends
support. When auto-negotiation is turned on, a port on the Switch negotiates with the
peer automatically to determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer
port does not support auto-negotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines
the connection speed by detecting the signal on the cable and using half duplex
mode. When the Switch’s auto-negotiation is turned off, a port uses the preconfigured speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus requiring you to
make sure that the settings of the peer port are the same in order to connect.
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Table 12 Port Setup (continued)
82
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth and overflows buffer
memory causing packet discards and frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate
transmission of signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port.
The Switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and backpressure flow
control in half duplex mode.
IEEE802.3x flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal to the
sending port, causing it to temporarily stop sending signals when the receiving port
memory buffers fill.
Back Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to send a "collision"
signal to the sending port (mimicking a state of packet collision) causing the sending
port to temporarily stop sending signals and resend later. Select Flow Control to
enable it.
802.1p Priority
This priority value is added to incoming frames without a (802.1p) priority queue tag.
See Priority Queue Assignment in Table 10 on page 77 for more information.
BPDU Control
Configure the way to treat BPDUs received on this port. You must activate bridging
control protocol transparency in the Switch Setup screen first.
Select Peer to process any BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) received on this port.
Select Tunnel to forward BPDUs received on this port.
Select Discard to drop any BPDU received on this port.
Select Network to process a BPDU with no VLAN tag and forward a tagged BPDU.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
P ART III
Advanced
VLAN (85)
Static MAC Forward Setup (97)
Filtering (99)
Spanning Tree Protocol (101)
Bandwidth Control (111)
Broadcast Storm Control (113)
Mirroring (115)
Link Aggregation (117)
Port Authentication (121)
Port Security (127)
Classifier (131)
Policy Rule (137)
Queuing Method (143)
VLAN Stacking (147)
Multicast (153)
83
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CHAPTER
8
VLAN
The type of screen you see here depends on the VLAN Type you selected in the Switch Setup
screen. This chapter shows you how to configure 802.1Q tagged and port-based VLANs.
8.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN
membership of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were
created. The VLANs can be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The
VLAN ID associates a frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches
need to process the frame across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an
untagged frame and contains two bytes of TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier, residing within the
type/length field of the Ethernet frame) and two bytes of TCI (Tag Control Information, starts
after the source address field of the Ethernet frame).
The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet
switches. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not
be forwarded as it is to an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID,
giving a possible maximum number of 4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID
are independent of each other. A frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a
priority frame, meaning that only the priority level is significant and the default VID of the
ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the 4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to
identify priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN
configurations are 4,094.
TPID
2 Bytes
User Priority
3 Bits
CFI
1 Bit
VLAN ID
12 bits
8.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames
Each port on the Switch is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a frame
from an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch, the Switch first
decides where to forward the frame and then strips off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from
an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the Switch first decides
where to forward the frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default
VID. The default PVID is VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed.
A broadcast frame (or a multicast frame for a multicast group that is known by the system) is
duplicated only on ports that are members of the VID (except the ingress port itself), thus
confining the broadcast to a specific domain.
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8.2 Automatic VLAN Registration
GARP and GVRP are the protocols used to automatically register VLAN membership across
switches.
8.2.1 GARP
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) allows network switches to register and deregister attribute values with other GARP participants within a bridged LAN. GARP is a
protocol that provides a generic mechanism for protocols that serve a more specific
application, for example, GVRP.
8.2.1.1 GARP Timers
Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join
message using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All
message terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.
8.2.2 GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this
function to permit VLANs groups beyond the local switch.
Please refer to the following table for common IEEE 802.1Q VLAN terminology.
Table 13 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology
VLAN PARAMETER TERM
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Permanent VLAN
This is a static VLAN created manually.
Dynamic VLAN
This is a VLAN configured by a GVRP registration/
deregistration process.
Registration Fixed
Fixed registration ports are permanent VLAN members.
Registration
Forbidden
Ports with registration forbidden are forbidden to join the
specified VLAN.
Normal Registration
Ports dynamically join a VLAN using GVRP.
Tagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN tag all outgoing
frames transmitted.
Untagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN don't tag all
outgoing frames transmitted.
Port VID
This is the VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames that
this port received.
Acceptable Frame
Type
You may choose to accept both tagged and untagged
incoming frames, just tagged incoming frames or just
untagged incoming frames on a port.
Ingress filtering
If set, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs
that do not have this port as a member
VLAN Administrative
Control
VLAN Tag Control
VLAN Port
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8.3 Port VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to
pass through that port. This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices
without having to configure the same VLAN groups on intermediary devices.
Refer to the following figure. Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2 (V1 and V2)
on devices A and B. Without VLAN Trunking, you must configure VLAN groups 1 and 2 on
all intermediary switches C, D and E; otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN
group tags. However, with VLAN Trunking enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch
you only need to create VLAN groups in the end devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically
allow frames with VLAN group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are unknown to those
switches) to pass through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Figure 30 Port VLAN Trunking
8.4 Select the VLAN Type
Select a VLAN type in the Switch Setup screen.
Figure 31 Switch Setup: Select VLAN Type
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8.5 Static VLAN
Use a static VLAN to decide whether an incoming frame on a port should be
• sent to a VLAN group as normal depending on its VLAN tag.
• sent to a group whether it has a VLAN tag or not.
• blocked from a VLAN group regardless of its VLAN tag.
You can also tag all outgoing frames (that were previously untagged) from a port with the
specified VID.
8.5.1 Static VLAN Status
See Section 8.1 on page 85 for more information on Static VLAN. Click Advanced
Application > VLAN from the navigation panel to display the VLAN Status screen as shown
next.
Figure 32 VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 VLAN Status
88
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
The Number of
VLAN
This is the number of VLANs configured on the Switch.
Index
This is the VLAN index number. Click on an index number to view more VLAN
details.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN
screen.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a
static VLAN was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.
dynamic: using GVRP
static: added as a permanent entry
other: added in another way, such as via Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR).
Change Pages
Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information
cannot be seen in one screen.
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8.5.2 Static VLAN Details
Use this screen to view detailed port settings and status of the VLAN group. See Section 8.1
on page 85 for more information on static VLAN. Click on an index number in the VLAN
Status screen to display VLAN details.
Figure 33 VLAN Detail
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 VLAN Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Status
Click this to go to the VLAN Status screen.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN
screen.
Port Number
This column displays the ports that are participating in a VLAN. A tagged port is
marked as T, an untagged port is marked as U and ports not participating in a VLAN
are marked as “–“.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a
static VLAN was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.
dynamic: using GVRP
static: added as a permanent entry
other: added in another way, such as via Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR).
8.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
Use this screen to configure and view 802.1Q VLAN parameters for the Switch. See Section
8.1 on page 85 for more information on static VLAN. To configure a static VLAN, click Static
VLAN in the VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 34 Static VLAN
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 16 Static VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ACTIVE
Select this check box to activate the VLAN settings.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes.
VLAN Group ID
Enter the VLAN ID for this static entry; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
90
Control
Select Normal for the port to dynamically join this VLAN group using GVRP. This is
the default selection.
Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of this VLAN group.
Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining this VLAN group.
Tagging
Select TX Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing frames transmitted with
this VLAN Group ID.
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Table 16 Static VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Clear
Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the number to edit the
VLAN settings.
Active
This field indicates whether the VLAN settings are enabled (Yes) or disabled (No).
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
8.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
Use the VLAN Port Setting screen to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) settings on a
port. See Section 8.1 on page 85 for more information on static VLAN. Click the VLAN Port
Setting link in the VLAN Status screen.
Figure 35 VLAN Port Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 VLAN Port Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a
way for switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the
network.
Select this check box to permit VLAN groups beyond the local switch.
Port Isolation
Port Isolation allows each port to communicate only with the CPU management
port and the dual personality GbE interfaces but not communicate with each other.
This option is the most limiting but also the most secure.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Ingress Check
If this check box is selected for a port, the Switch discards incoming frames for
VLANs that do not include this port in its member set.
Clear this check box to disable ingress filtering.
PVID
Enter a number between 1and 4094 as the port VLAN ID.
GVRP
Select this check box to allow GVRP on this port.
Acceptable
Frame Type
Specify the type of frames allowed on a port. Choices are All, Tag Only and Untag
Only.
Select All from the drop-down list box to accept all untagged or tagged frames on
this port. This is the default setting.
Select Tag Only to accept only tagged frames on this port. All untagged frames will
be dropped.
Select Untag Only to accept only untagged frames on this port. All tagged frames
will be dropped.
VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on ports connected to other switches or routers (but not
ports directly connected to end users) to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN
groups to pass through the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
8.6 Port-based VLAN Setup
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based on the
destination MAC address and its associated port.
Port-based VLANs require allowed outgoing ports to be defined for each port. Therefore, if
you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, for example, between conference
rooms in a hotel, you must define the egress (an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port
through which a data packet leaves) for both ports.
Port-based VLANs are specific only to the switch on which they were created.
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"
"
When you activate port-based VLAN, the Switch uses a default VLAN ID of 1.
You cannot change it.
In screens (such as IP Setup and Filtering) that require a VID, you must enter
1 as the VID.
The port-based VLAN setup screen is shown next. The CPU management port forms a VLAN
with all Ethernet ports.
8.6.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN
Select Port Based as the VLAN Type in the Switch Setup screen and then click Advanced
Application > VLAN from the navigation panel to display the next screen.
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Figure 36 Port Based VLAN Setup (All connected)
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Figure 37 Port Based VLAN Setup (Port isolation)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Port Based VLAN Setup
label
Description
Setting Wizard Choose All connected or Port isolation.
All connected means all ports can communicate with each other, that is, there are no
virtual LANs. All incoming and outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most
flexible but also the least secure.
Port isolation means that each port can only communicate with the CPU
management port and cannot communicate with each other. All incoming ports are
selected while only the CPU outgoing port is selected. This option is the most limiting
but also the most secure.
After you make your selection, click Apply (top right of screen) to display the screens
as mentioned above. You can still customize these settings by adding/deleting
incoming or outgoing ports, but you must also click Apply at the bottom of the screen.
Incoming
GS-2724 User’s Guide
These are the ingress ports; an ingress port is an incoming port, that is, a port through
which a data packet enters. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each
other, you must define the ingress port for both ports. The numbers in the top row
denote the incoming port for the corresponding port listed on the left (its outgoing
port). CPU refers to the Switch management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all
Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular port then the Switch cannot
be managed from that port.
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Table 18 Port Based VLAN Setup (continued)
96
label
Description
Outgoing
These are the egress ports; an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through
which a data packet leaves. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each
other, you must define the egress port for both ports. CPU refers to the Switch
management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form
a VLAN with a particular port then the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
9
Static MAC Forward Setup
Use these screens to configure static MAC address forwarding.
9.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on MAC addresses of devices
on your network.
9.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
A static MAC address is an address that has been manually entered in the MAC address table.
Static MAC addresses do not age out. When you set up static MAC address rules, you are
setting static MAC addresses for a port. This may reduce the need for broadcasting.
Static MAC address forwarding together with port security allow only computers in the MAC
address table on a port to access the Switch. See Chapter 17 on page 127 for more information
on port security.
Click Advanced Applications > Static MAC Forwarding in the navigation panel to display
the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 38 Static MAC Forwarding
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Static MAC Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule
without deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address
forwarding rule.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal
character pairs.
Note: Static MAC addresses do not age out.
98
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number.
Port
Enter the port where the MAC address entered in the previous field will be
automatically forwarded.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
rule if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Clear
Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static MAC address rule for a port.
Active
This field displays whether this static MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or
not (No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address that will be forwarded and the VLAN
identification number to which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port
This field displays the port where the MAC address shown in the next field will be
forwarded.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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10
Filtering
This chapter discusses MAC address port filtering.
10.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
Filtering means sifting traffic going through the Switch based on the source and/or destination
MAC addresses and VLAN group (ID).
Click Advanced Application > Filtering in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown next.
Figure 39 Filtering
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 20 Filtering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Make sure to select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate
a rule without deleting it by deselecting this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this rule. This is for
identification only.
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Table 20 Filtering (continued)
100
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Action
Select Discard source to drop frame from the source MAC address (specified in the
MAC field). The Switch can still send frames to the MAC address.
Select Discard destination to drop frames to the destination MAC address (specified
in the MAC address). The Switch can still receive frames originating from the MAC
address.
Select Discard source and Discard destination to block traffic to/from the MAC
address specified in the MAC field.
MAC
Type a MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character
pairs.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose
only.
MAC
Address
This field displays the source/destination MAC address with the VLAN identification
number to which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the VLAN group identification number.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
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CHAPTER
11
Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch supports Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
as defined in the following standards.
• IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch also allows you to set up multiple STP configurations (or trees). Ports can then be
assigned to the trees.
11.1 STP/RSTP Overview
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches,
bridges or routers. It allows a switch to interact with other (R)STP -compliant switches in your
network to ensure that only one path exists between any two stations on the network.
The Switch uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allows faster
convergence of the spanning tree than STP (while also being backwards compatible with STPonly aware bridges). In RSTP, topology change information is directly propagated throughout
the network from the device that generates the topology change. In STP, a longer delay is
required as the device that causes a topology change first notifies the root bridge that then
notifies the network. Both RSTP and STP flush unwanted learned addresses from the filtering
database. In RSTP, the port states are Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
"
In this user’s guide, “STP” refers to both STP and RSTP.
11.1.1 STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree.
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Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. It is assigned
according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the media, the higher
the cost.
Table 21 STP Path Costs
LINK
SPEED
RECOMMENDED
VALUE
RECOMMENDED
RANGE
ALLOWED
RANGE
Path
Cost
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
1 to 65535
Path
Cost
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
1 to 65535
On each bridge, the root port is the port through which this bridge communicates with the root.
It is the port on this switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is
no root port, then this switch has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree
network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the
root among the bridges connected to the LAN.
11.1.2 How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and
the ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that
participate in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports,
eliminating any possible network loops.
STP-aware switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the
bridged LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs
(Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello
BPDU after a predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root
bridge is down. This bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the
network to re-establish a valid network topology.
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11.1.3 STP Port States
STP assigns five port states to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not allowed to go
directly from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient loops.
Table 22 STP Port States
PORT STATE DESCRIPTION
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the
learning process but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and
forwarded.
11.1.4 Multiple RSTP
MRSTP (Multiple RSTP) is ZyXEL’s proprietary feature that is compatible with RSTP and
STP. With MRSTP, you can have more than one spanning tree on your Switch and assign
port(s) to each tree. Each spanning tree operates independently with its own bridge
information.
In the following example, there are two RSTP instances (MRSTP 1 and MRSTP2) on switch
A.
To set up MRSTP, activate MRSTP on the Switch and specify which port(s) belong to which
spanning tree.
"
Each port can belong to one STP tree only.
Figure 40 MRSTP Network Example
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11.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Main Screen
The Switch allows you to configure a single RSTP configuration or you can configure
multiple configurations. See Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information on RSTP. Click
Advanced Application, Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to choose whether
you want to configure multiple or a single Spanning Tree Protocol configuration.
"
This screen is only available if neither RSTP or MRSTP is active. Once you
select RSTP or MRSTP this screen displays the status of your configuration.
Figure 41 Spanning Tree Protocol
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Spanning Tree Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RSTP
This link takes you to the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol configuration screen. See
Section 11.3 on page 104.
MRSTP
This link takes you to the Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol configuration
screen. See Section 11.5 on page 107.
11.3 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Use this screen to configure RSTP settings, see Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information
on RSTP. Click RSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
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Figure 42 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the RSTP Status screen (see Figure 43 on page 107).
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP. Clear this checkbox to disable RSTP.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port.
The Switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root
switch. If all switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list
box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time,
Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to
10 seconds.
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU
before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports)
should receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information
(provided in the last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it
is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to
the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40 seconds.
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Table 24 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states.
This delay is required because every switch must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs
time to listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30
seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP on this port.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a
loop in a switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The
allowed range is between 0 and 255.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
assigned according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media, the higher
the cost-see Table 21 on page 102 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
11.4 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display
the status screen as shown next. See Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information on RSTP.
"
106
This screen is only available after you activate RSTP on the Switch.
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Chapter 11 Spanning Tree Protocol
Figure 43 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to configure RSTP settings. Refer to Section 11.3 on page
104.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
Switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root
switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a
configuration message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and
Forwarding Delay
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that
is, listening to learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
11.5 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MRSTP, select MRSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree
Protocol screen. See Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information on MRSTP.
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Chapter 11 Spanning Tree Protocol
Figure 44 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
108
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the MRSTP Status screen (see Figure 43 on page 107).
Tree
This is a read only index number of the STP trees.
Active
Select this check box to activate an STP tree. Clear this checkbox to disable an
STP tree.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port.
The switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root
switch. If all switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC
address will then become the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list
box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time,
Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to
10 seconds.
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU
before attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports)
should receive BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information
(provided in the last BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it
is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to
the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40 seconds.
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Table 26 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states.
This delay is required because every switch must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs
time to listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30
seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate STP on this port.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a
loop in a switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The
allowed range is between 0 and 255.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
assigned according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media, the higher
the cost-see Table 21 on page 102 for more information.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration this port should participate in.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
11.6 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display
the status screen as shown next. See Section 11.1 on page 101 for more information on
MRSTP.
"
This screen is only available after you activate MRSTP on the Switch.
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Chapter 11 Spanning Tree Protocol
Figure 45 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
110
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to configure MRSTP settings. Refer to Section 11.3 on page
104.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
Switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root
switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a
configuration message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and
Forwarding Delay
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that
is, listening to learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
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CHAPTER
12
Bandwidth Control
This chapter shows you how you can cap the maximum bandwidth using the Bandwidth
Control screen.
12.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
Bandwidth control means defining a maximum allowable bandwidth for incoming and/or outgoing traffic flows on a port.
12.1.1 CIR and PIR
The Committed Information Rate (CIR) is the guaranteed bandwidth for the incoming traffic
flow on a port. The Peak Information Rate (PIR) is the maximum bandwidth allowed for the
incoming traffic flow on a port when there is no network congestion.
The CIR and PIR should be set for all ports that use the same uplink bandwidth. If the CIR is
reached, packets are sent at the rate up to the PIR. When network congestion occurs, packets
through the ingress port exceeding the CIR will be marked for drop.
"
The CIR should be less than the PIR. The sum of CIRs cannot be greater than
or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
12.2 Bandwidth Control Setup
Click Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control in the navigation panel to bring up the
screen as shown next.
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Chapter 12 Bandwidth Control
Figure 46 Bandwidth Control
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 28 Bandwidth Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable bandwidth control on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Ingress Rate
112
Active
Select this check box to activate commit rate limits on this port.
Commit
Rate
Specify the guaranteed bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the
incoming traffic flow on a port. The commit rate should be less than the peak rate. The
sum of commit rates cannot be greater than or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
Active
Select this check box to activate peak rate limits on this port.
Peak
Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the incoming
traffic flow on a port.
Active
Select this check box to activate egress rate limits on this port.
Egress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the outgoing traffic flow on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
13
Broadcast Storm Control
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the broadcast storm control feature.
13.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup
Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and destination lookup
failure (DLF) packets the Switch receives per second on the ports. When the maximum
number of allowable broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached per second, the
subsequent packets are discarded. Enable this feature to reduce broadcast, multicast and/or
DLF packets in your network. You can specify limits for each packet type on each port.
Click Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control in the navigation panel to display
the screen as shown next.
Figure 47 Broadcast Storm Control
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Chapter 13 Broadcast Storm Control
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Broadcast Storm Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable traffic storm control on the Switch. Clear this check
box to disable this feature.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Broadcast (pkt/s) Select this option and specify how many broadcast packets the port receives per
second.
114
Multicast (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many multicast packets the port receives per
second.
DLF (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many destination lookup failure (DLF) packets
the port receives per second.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
14
Mirroring
This chapter discusses port mirroring setup screens.
14.1 Port Mirroring Setup
Port mirroring allows you to copy a traffic flow to a monitor port (the port you copy the traffic
to) in order that you can examine the traffic from the monitor port without interference.
Click Advanced Application > Mirroring in the navigation panel to display the Mirroring
screen. Use this screen to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow to be copied to the
monitor port.
Figure 48 Mirroring
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Chapter 14 Mirroring
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Mirroring
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate port mirroring on the Switch. Clear this check box to
disable the feature.
Monitor
Port
The monitor port is the port you copy the traffic to in order to examine it in more detail
without interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s). Enter the port number of the
monitor port.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
116
Mirrored
Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box.
Choices are Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
15
Link Aggregation
This chapter shows you how to logically aggregate physical links to form one logical, higherbandwidth link.
15.1 Link Aggregation Overview
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one logical higher-capacity
link. You may want to trunk ports if for example, it is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed
links than to under-utilize a high-speed, but more costly, single-port link.
However, the more ports you aggregate then the fewer available ports you have. A trunk group
is one logical link containing multiple ports.
The beginning port of each trunk group must be physically connected to form a trunk group.
15.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation
The Switch adheres to the IEEE 802.3ad standard for static and dynamic (LACP) port
trunking.
The Switch supports the link aggregation IEEE802.3ad standard. This standard describes the
Link Aggregate Control Protocol (LACP), which is a protocol that dynamically creates and
manages trunk groups.
When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically negotiate with
the ports at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP also allows port
redundancy, that is, if an operational port fails, then one of the “standby” ports become
operational without user intervention. Please note that:
• You must connect all ports point-to-point to the same Ethernet switch and configure the
ports for LACP trunking.
• LACP only works on full-duplex links.
• All ports in the same trunk group must have the same media type, speed, duplex mode and
flow control settings.
Configure trunk groups or LACP before you connect the Ethernet switch to avoid causing
network topology loops.
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Chapter 15 Link Aggregation
15.2.1 Link Aggregation ID
LACP aggregation ID consists of the following information1:
Table 31 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY
PORT NUMBER
0000
0000
00
0000
00-00-00-00-00
Table 32 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY
PORT NUMBER
0000
0000
00
0000
00-00-00-00-00
15.3 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation in the navigation panel. The Link
Aggregation Control Protocol Status screen displays by default. See Section 15.1 on page
117 for more information.
Figure 49 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the trunk ID to identify a trunk group, that is, one logical link
containing multiple ports.
Aggregator ID
Link Aggregator ID consists of the following: system priority, MAC address, key, port
priority and port number. Refer to Section 15.2.1 on page 118 for more information on
this field.
1.
118
Port Priority and Port Number are 0 as it is the aggregator ID for the trunk group, not the individual port.
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Chapter 15 Link Aggregation
Table 33 Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enabled Port
These are the ports you have configured in the Link Aggregation screen to be in the
trunk group.
Synchronized
Ports
These are the ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in this trunk
group.
15.4 Link Aggregation Setup
Click Configuration in the Link Aggregation Control Protocol Status screen to display the
screen shown next. See Section 15.1 on page 117 for more information on link aggregation.
Figure 50 Link Aggregation
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Chapter 15 Link Aggregation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Link Aggregation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Active
Select this checkbox to enable Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
System
Priority
LACP system priority is a number between 1 and 65,535. The switch with the lowest
system priority (and lowest port number if system priority is the same) becomes the
LACP “server”. The LACP “server” controls the operation of LACP setup. Enter a
number to set the priority of an active port using Link Aggregate Control Protocol
(LACP). The smaller the number, the higher the priority level.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing
multiple ports.
Active
Select this option to activate a trunk group.
Dynamic
(LACP)
Select this check box to enable LACP for a trunk.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Group
Select the trunk group to which a port belongs.
LACP Timeout Timeout is the time interval between the individual port exchanges of LACP packets in
order to check that the peer port in the trunk group is still up. If a port does not respond
after three tries, then it is deemed to be “down” and is removed from the trunk. Set a
short timeout (one second) for busy trunked links to ensure that disabled ports are
removed from the trunk group as soon as possible.
Select either 1 second or 30 seconds.
120
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
16
Port Authentication
This chapter describes the 802.1x authentication method and RADIUS server connection
setup. See Section 40.9 on page 278 for information on how to use the commands to configure
additional Radius server settings as well as multiple Radius server configuration.
16.1 Port Authentication Overview
IEEE 802.1x is an extended authentication protocol2 that allows support of RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for centralized user profile and
accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
16.1.1 RADIUS
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) authentication is a popular protocol
used to authenticate users by means of an external server instead of (or in addition to) an
internal device user database that is limited to the memory capacity of the device. In essence,
RADIUS authentication allows you to validate an unlimited number of users from a central
location.
Figure 51 RADIUS Server
16.1.1.1 Vendor Specific Attribute
A Vendor Specific Attribute (VSA) is an attribute-value pair that is sent between a RADIUS
server and the Switch. Configure VSAs on the RADIUS server to set the Switch to perform the
following actions on an authenticated user:
• Limit bandwidth on incoming or outgoing traffic
• Assign account privilege levels
2.
At the time of writing, only Windows XP of the Microsoft operating systems supports it. See the Microsoft web site
for information on other Windows operating system support. For other operating systems, see its documentation.
If your operating system does not support 802.1x, then you may need to install 802.1x client software.
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Chapter 16 Port Authentication
"
Refer to the documentation that comes with your RADIUS server on how to
configure a VSA.
The following table describes the VSAs supported on the Switch.
Table 35 Supported VSA
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
Ingress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890 (ZyXEL)
Vendor-Type = 1
Vendor-data = ingress rate (decimal)
Egress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890 (ZyXEL)
Vendor-Type = 2
Vendor-data = egress rate (decimal)
Privilege Assignment
Vendor-ID = 890 (ZyXEL)
Vendor-Type = 3
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
or
Vendor-ID = 9 (CISCO)
Vendor-Type = 1 (CISCO-AVPAIR)
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
where N is a privilege level (from 0 to 14).
Note: If you set the privilege level of a login account differently
on the RADIUS server(s) and the Switch, the user is
assigned a privilege level from the database (RADIUS or
local) the Switch uses first for user authentication.
16.1.1.2 Tunnel Protocol Attribute
You can configure tunnel protocol attributes on the RADIUS server to assign a port on the
Switch to a VLAN (fixed, untagged). This will also set the port’s VID. Refer to RFC 3580 for
more information.
Table 36 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
VLAN Assignment
Tunnel-Type = VLAN(13)
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802(6)
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = VLAN ID
Note: You must also create a VLAN with the specified VID on
the Switch.
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16.2 Port Authentication Configuration
To enable port authentication, first activate IEEE802.1x security (both on the Switch and the
port(s)) then configure the RADIUS server settings.
Click Advanced Application > Port Authentication in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 52 Port Authentication
16.2.1 Configuring RADIUS Server Settings
Use this screen to configure your RADIUS server settings. See Section 16.1.1 on page 121 for
more information on RADIUS servers. From the Port Authentication screen, click RADIUS
to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 53 RADIUS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external RADIUS server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812. You need not
change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external RADIUS server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the
network. This key must be the same on the external RADIUS server and the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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Chapter 16 Port Authentication
16.2.2 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
Use this screen to activate IEEE 802.1x security. From the Port Authentication screen, click
802.1x to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 54 802.1x
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 802.1x
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch
before configuring it on each port.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
124
Active
Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on this port. You must first
allow 802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Reauthenticatio
n
Specify if a subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and
password to stay connected to the port.
Reauthenticatio
n Timer
Specify how often a client has to re-enter his or her username and password to stay
connected to the port.
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Chapter 16 Port Authentication
Table 38 802.1x (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
17
Port Security
This chapter shows you how to set up port security.
17.1 About Port Security
Port security allows only packets with dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured
static MAC addresses to pass through a port on the Switch. See Appendix A on page 305 for
the maximum number of MAC addresses the Switch can learn. There is no other limit on the
maximum number of MAC addresses per port the Switch can learn, as long as the number of
MAC addresses does not exceed the value in Appendix A on page 305.
For maximum port security, enable this feature, disable MAC address learning and configure
static MAC address(es) for a port. It is not recommended you disable port security together
with MAC address learning as this will result in many broadcasts. By default, MAC address
learning is still enabled even though the port security is not activated.
17.2 Port Security Setup
Click Advanced Application > Port Security in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
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Chapter 17 Port Security
Figure 55 Port Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 Port Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable port security on the Switch.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
128
Active
Select this check box to enable the port security feature on this port. The Switch
forwards packets whose MAC address(es) is in the MAC address table on this port.
Packets with no matching MAC address(es) are dropped.
Clear this check box to disable the port security feature. The Switch forwards all
packets on this port.
Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. For MAC address
learning to occur on a port, the port itself must be active with address learning
enabled.
Limited Number
of Learned
MAC Address
Use this field to limit the number of (dynamic) MAC addresses that may be learned
on a port. For example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices with
these five learned MAC addresses may access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device
would have to wait until one of the five learned MAC addresses aged out. MAC
address aging out time can be set in the Switch Setup screen. The valid range is
from “0” to “16384”. “0” means this feature is disabled.
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Chapter 17 Port Security
Table 39 Port Security (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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CHAPTER
18
Classifier
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the packet classifier on the Switch.
18.1 About the Classifier and QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay,
and the networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data
is equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in
network performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as
video-on-demand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source
address, destination address, source port number, destination port number or incoming port
number. For example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol
port (such as Telnet) to form a flow.
Configure QoS on the Switch to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves two separate steps:
1 Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2 Configure policy rules to define actions to be performed for a classified traffic flow
(refer to Chapter 19 on page 137 to configure policy rules).
18.2 Configuring the Classifier
Use the Classifier screen to define the classifiers. After you define the classifier, you can
specify actions (or policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules. To configure policy
rules, refer to Chapter 19 on page 137.
Click Advanced Application > Classifier in the navigation panel to display the configuration
screen as shown.
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Chapter 18 Classifier
Figure 56 Classifier
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 Classifier
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Packet
Format
Specify the format of the packet. Choices are All, 802.3 tagged, 802.3 untagged,
Ethernet II tagged and Ethernet II untagged.
A value of 802.3 indicates that the packets are formatted according to the IEEE 802.3
standards.
A value of Ethernet II indicates that the packets are formatted according to RFC 894,
Ethernet II encapsulation.
Layer 2
Specify the fields below to configure a layer 2 classifier.
132
VLAN
Select Any to classify traffic from any VLAN or select the second option and specify the
source VLAN ID in the field provided.
Priority
Select Any to classify traffic from any priority level or select the second option and specify
a priority level in the field provided.
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Chapter 18 Classifier
Table 40 Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ethernet
Type
Select an Ethernet type or select Other and enter the Ethernet type number in
hexadecimal value. Refer to Table 42 on page 134 for information.
Source
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a source, select the second choice and type a MAC address in valid MAC
address format (six hexadecimal character pairs).
Port
Type the port number to which the rule should be applied. You may choose one port only
or all ports (Any).
Destination
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a destination, select the second choice and type a MAC address in valid MAC
address format (six hexadecimal character pairs).
Layer 3
Specify the fields below to configure a layer 3 classifier.
DSCP
Select Any to classify traffic from any DSCP or select the second option and specify a
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
IP
Protocol
Select an IP protocol type or select Other and enter the protocol number in decimal value.
Refer to Table 43 on page 135 for more information.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will pick
out the packets that are sent to establish TCP connections.
Source
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Socket
Number
Enter a source IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before
you configure the socket numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second
option and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number.
Destination
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Socket
Number
Enter a destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before
you configure the socket numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second
option and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
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Chapter 18 Classifier
18.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the
bottom of the Classifier screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index
field.
"
When two rules conflict with each other, a higher layer rule has priority over
lower layer rule.
Figure 57 Classifier: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Classifier: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
Rule
This field displays a summary of the classifier rule’s settings.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
The following table shows some other common Ethernet types and the corresponding protocol
number.
Table 42 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Number
134
ETHERNET TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
IP ETHII
0800
X.75 Internet
0801
NBS Internet
0802
ECMA Internet
0803
Chaosnet
0804
X.25 Level 3
0805
XNS Compat
0807
Banyan Systems
0BAD
BBN Simnet
5208
IBM SNA
80D5
AppleTalk AARP
80F3
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Chapter 18 Classifier
Some of the most common IP ports are:
Table 43 Common IP Ports
PORT NUMBER
PORT NAME
21
FTP
23
Telnet
25
SMTP
53
DNS
80
HTTP
110
POP3
18.4 Classifier Example
The following screen shows an example where you configure a classifier that identifies all
traffic from MAC address 00:50:ba:ad:4f:81 on port 2.
After you have configured a classifier, you can configure a policy (in the Policy screen) to
define action(s) on the classified traffic flow.
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Chapter 18 Classifier
Figure 58 Classifier: Example
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CHAPTER
19
Policy Rule
This chapter shows you how to configure policy rules.
19.1 Policy Rules Overview
A classifier distinguishes traffic into flows based on the configured criteria (refer to Chapter
18 on page 131 for more information). A policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the
requested treatment in the network.
19.1.1 DiffServ
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that
they receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route
based on the application types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points
(DSCPs) indicating the level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServcompliant network devices to handle the packets differently depending on the code points
without the need to negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition,
applications do not have to request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the
traffic is going.
19.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS)
field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which
can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to
the DSCP values and the configured policies.
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Chapter 19 Policy Rule
19.2 Configuring Policy Rules
You must first configure a classifier in the Classifier screen. Refer to Section 18.2 on page 131
for more information.
Click Advanced Applications > Policy Rule in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
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Chapter 19 Policy Rule
Figure 59 Policy
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Chapter 19 Policy Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the policy.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the active classifier(s) you configure in the Classifier screen.
Select the classifier(s) to which this policy rule applies. To select more than one
classifier, press [SHIFT] and select the choices at the same time.
Parameters
Set the fields below for this policy. You only have to set the field(s) that is related to the action(s) you
configure in the Action field.
General
VLAN ID
Specify a VLAN ID number.
Egress Port
Type the number of an outgoing port.
Outgoing
packet
format for
Egress port
Select Tag to add the specified VID to packets on the specified outgoing port.
Otherwise, select Untag.
Priority
Specify a priority level.
DSCP
Specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63.
TOS
Specify the type of service (TOS) priority level.
Metering
You can configure the desired bandwidth available to a traffic flow. Traffic that
exceeds the maximum bandwidth allocated (in cases where the network is
congested) is called out-of-profile traffic.
Bandwidth
Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 1 and
1000000.
Out-ofProfile
DSCP
Specify a new DSCP number (between 0 and 63) if you want to replace or remark the
DSCP number for out-of-profile traffic.
Action
Specify the action(s) the Switch takes on the associated classified traffic flow.
140
Forwarding
Select No change to forward the packets.
Select Discard the packet to drop the packets.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to retain
the frames that were marked to be dropped before.
Priority
Select No change to keep the priority setting of the frames.
Select Set the packet’s 802.1 priority to replace the packet’s 802.1 priority field with
the value you set in the Priority field.
Select Send the packet to priority queue to put the packets in the designated
queue.
Select Replace the 802.1 priority field with the IP TOS value to replace the
packet’s 802.1 priority field with the value you set in the TOS field.
Diffserv
Select No change to keep the TOS and/or DSCP fields in the packets.
Select Set the packet’s TOS field to set the TOS field with the value you configure in
the TOS field.
Select Replace the IP TOS with the 802.1 priority value to replace the TOS field
with the value you configure in the Priority field.
Select Set the Diffserv Codepoint field in the frame to set the DSCP field with the
value you configure in the DSCP field.
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Chapter 19 Policy Rule
Table 44 Policy (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Outgoing
Select Send the packet to the mirror port to send the packet to the mirror port.
Select Send the packet to the egress port to send the packet to the egress port.
Select Send the matching frames (broadcast or DLF, multicast, marked for
dropping or to be sent to the CPU) to the egress port to send the broadcast,
multicast, DLF, marked-to-drop or CPU frames to the egress port.
Select Set the packet’s VLAN ID to set the VLAN ID of the packet with the value you
configure in the VLAN ID field.
Metering
Select Enable to activate bandwidth limitation on the traffic flow(s) then set the
actions to be taken on out-of-profile packets.
Out-of-profile
action
Select the action(s) to be performed for out-of-profile traffic.
Select Drop the packet to discard the out-of-profile traffic.
Select Change the DSCP value to replace the DSCP field with the value specified in
the Out of profile DSCP field.
Select Set Out-Drop Precedence to mark out-of-profile traffic and drop it when
network is congested.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to
queue the frames that are marked to be dropped.
Add
Click Add to inset the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to
the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or
loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
19.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the
bottom of the Policy screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
Figure 60 Policy: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Policy: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the policy index number. Click an index number to edit the policy.
Active
This field displays Yes when policy is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the name you have assigned to this policy.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the name(s) of the classifier to which this policy applies.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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Chapter 19 Policy Rule
19.4 Policy Example
The figure below shows an example Policy screen where you configure a policy to limit
bandwidth and discard out-of-profile traffic on a traffic flow classified using the Example
classifier (refer to Section 18.4 on page 135).
Figure 61 Policy: Example
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CHAPTER
20
Queuing Method
This chapter introduces the queuing methods supported.
20.1 Queuing Method Overview
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is network congestion. Use
the Queuing Method screen to configure queuing algorithms for outgoing traffic. See also
Priority Queue Assignment in Switch Setup and 802.1p Priority in Port Setup for related
information.
Queuing algorithms allow switches to maintain separate queues for packets from each
individual source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.
20.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing
Strictly Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. As traffic comes into
the Switch, traffic on the highest priority queue, Q7 is transmitted first. When that queue
empties, traffic on the next highest-priority queue, Q6 is transmitted until Q6 empties, and
then traffic is transmitted on Q5 and so on. If higher priority queues never empty, then traffic
on lower priority queues never gets sent. SP does not automatically adapt to changing network
requirements.
20.1.2 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR)
Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis and is activated only when a port
has more traffic than it can handle. A queue is a given an amount of bandwidth irrespective of
the incoming traffic on that port. This queue then moves to the back of the list. The next queue
is given an equal amount of bandwidth, and then moves to the end of the list; and so on,
depending on the number of queues being used. This works in a looping fashion until a queue
is empty.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) uses the same algorithm as round robin
scheduling, but services queues based on their priority and queue weight (the number you
configure in the queue Weight field) rather than a fixed amount of bandwidth. WRR is
activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in
that it divides any available bandwidth across the different traffic queues and returns to queues
that have not yet emptied.
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20.2 Configuring Queuing
Click Advanced Application > Queuing Method in the navigation panel.
Figure 62 Queuing Method
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Queuing Method
144
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This label shows the port you are configuring.
Method
Select SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) or WRR (Weighted Round Robin).
Strict Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. When the
highest priority queue empties, traffic on the next highest-priority queue begins. Q3
has the highest priority and Q0 the lowest.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) services queues on a rotating basis
based on their queue weight (the number you configure in the queue Weight field).
Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with smaller weights.
Q0~Q7 Weight
%
When you select WRR, enter the queue weight here. Bandwidth is divided across
the different traffic queues according to their weights. Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Calculate
Click Calculate to make sure the WFQ queuing weights total to 100%; if not an error
message is displayed.
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CHAPTER
21
VLAN Stacking
This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN stacking on your Switch. See the chapter on
VLANs for more background information on Virtual LAN
21.1 VLAN Stacking Overview
A service provider can use VLAN stacking to allow it to distinguish multiple customers
VLANs, even those with the same (customer-assigned) VLAN ID, within its network.
Use VLAN stacking to add an outer VLAN tag to the inner IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames that
enter the network. By tagging the tagged frames (“double-tagged” frames), the service
provider can manage up to 4,094 VLAN groups with each group containing up to 4,094
customer VLANs. This allows a service provider to provide different service, based on
specific VLANs, for many different customers.
A service provider’s customers may require a range of VLANs to handle multiple
applications. A service provider’s customers can assign their own inner VLAN tags on ports
for these applications. The service provider can assign an outer VLAN tag for each customer.
Therefore, there is no VLAN tag overlap among customers, so traffic from different customers
is kept separate.
21.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example
In the following example figure, both A and B are Service Provider’s Network (SPN)
customers with VPN tunnels between their head offices and branch offices respectively. Both
have an identical VLAN tag for their VLAN group. The service provider can separate these
two VLANs within its network by adding tag 37 to distinguish customer A and tag 48 to
distinguish customer B at edge device 1 and then stripping those tags at edge device 2 as the
data frames leave the network.
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Figure 63 VLAN Stacking Example
21.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles
Each port can have three VLAN stacking “roles”, Normal, Access Port and Tunnel (the latter
is for Gigabit ports only).
• Select Normal for “regular” (non-VLAN stacking) IEEE 802.1Q frame switching.
• Select Access Port for ingress ports on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the
VLAN stacking example figure). The incoming frame is treated as "untagged", so a
second VLAN tag (outer VLAN tag) can be added.
"
Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be disabled on a port where you choose
Normal or Access Port.
• Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the
service provider's network. All VLANs belonging to a customer can be aggregated into a
single service provider's VLAN (using the outer VLAN tag defined by SP VID).
"
148
Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be enabled on a port where you choose
Tunnel Port.
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21.3 VLAN Tag Format
A VLAN tag (service provider VLAN stacking or customer IEEE 802.1Q) consists of the
following three fields.
Table 47 VLAN Tag Format
Type
Priority
VID
Type is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates that whether the
frame carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. SP TPID (Service Provider Tag Protocol
Identifier) is the service provider VLAN stacking tag type. Many vendors use 0x8100 or
0x9100.
TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier) is the customer IEEE 802.1Q tag.
• If the VLAN stacking port role is Access Port, then the Switch adds the SP TPID tag to
all incoming frames on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN stacking
example figure).
• If the VLAN stacking port role is Tunnel Port, then the Switch only adds the SP TPID
tag to all incoming frames on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN
stacking example figure) that have an SP TPID different to the one configured on the
Switch. (If an incoming frame’s SP TPID is the same as the one configured on the Switch,
then the Switch will not add the tag.)
Priority refers to the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows the service provider to prioritize traffic
based on the class of service (CoS) the customer has paid for.
• On the Switch, configure priority level of inner IEEE 802.1Q tag in the Port Setup screen.
• "0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
VID is the VLAN ID. SP VID is the VID for the second (service provider’s) VLAN tag.
21.3.1 Frame Format
The frame format for an untagged Ethernet frame, a single-tagged 802.1Q frame (customer)
and a “double-tagged” 802.1Q frame (service provider) is shown next.
Configure the fields as circled in the Switch’s VLAN Stacking screen.
Table 48 Single and Double Tagged 802.11Q Frame Format
DA
DA SA
SPTPI
D
SA
Priority VID
DA
SA
Len/
Etype
Data
FCS Untagged
Ethernet frame
TPID
Priorit
y
VID
Len/
Etype
Data
FCS IEEE 802.1Q
customer
tagged frame
TPID
Priorit
y
VID
Len/
Etype
Data
FCS Double-tagged
frame
Table 49 802.1Q Frame
DA
Destination Address
Priority
802.1p Priority
SA
Source Address
Len/
Etype
Length and type of Ethernet frame
(SP)TPID (Service Provider) Tag Protocol IDentifier
Data
Frame data
VID
FCS
Frame Check Sequence
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21.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking
Click Advanced Applications > VLAN Stacking to display the screen as shown.
Figure 64 VLAN Stacking
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 VLAN Stacking
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable VLAN stacking on the Switch.
SP TPID
SP TPID is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates whether the
frame carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. Choose 0x8100 or 0x9100 from the drop-down
list box or select Others and then enter a four-digit hexadecimal number from 0x0000 to
0xFFFF. 0x denotes a hexadecimal number. It does not have to be typed in the Others text
field.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make
them.
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Table 50 VLAN Stacking (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Role
Select Normal to have the Switch ignore frames received (or transmitted) on this port with
VLAN stacking tags. Anything you configure in SPVID and Priority are ignored.
Select Access Port to have the Switch add the SP TPID tag to all incoming frames
received on this port. Select Access Port for ingress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network.
Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the
service provider's network.
In order to support VLAN stacking on a port, the port must be able to allow frames of 1526
Bytes (1522 Bytes + 4 Bytes for the second tag) to pass through it.
SPVID
SPVID is the service provider’s VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider
ID (from 1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 8 on page 85 for more
background information on VLAN ID.
Priority
On the Switch, configure priority level of inner IEEE 802.1Q tag in the Port Setup screen.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
22
Multicast
This chapter shows you how to configure various multicast features.
22.1 Multicast Overview
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways-Unicast (1 sender to 1
recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets
to just a group of hosts on the network.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group-it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112 and RFC
2236 for information on IGMP versions 1 and 2 respectively.
22.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses
In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of hosts
(multicast group) in a different subnetwork. A multicast IP address represents a traffic
receiving group, not individual receiving devices. IP addresses in the Class D range (224.0.0.0
to 239.255.255.255) are used for IP multicasting. Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by
IANA for special purposes (see the IANA web site for more information).
22.1.2 IGMP Filtering
With the IGMP filtering feature, you can control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port
can join. This allows you to control the distribution of multicast services (such as content
information distribution) based on service plans and types of subscription.
You can set the Switch to filter the multicast group join reports on a per-port basis by
configuring an IGMP filtering profile and associating the profile to a port.
22.1.3 IGMP Snooping
A switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query, Report and Leave (IGMP version 2) packets
transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast hosts to learn the IP
multicast group membership. It checks IGMP packets passing through it, picks out the group
registration information, and configures multicasting accordingly. IGMP snooping allows the
Switch to learn multicast groups without you having to manually configure them.
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The Switch forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it has learned from
IGMP snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports that are members of that
group. IGMP snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly
reduce multicast traffic passing through your Switch.
22.2 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast to display the screen as shown. This screen shows
the multicast group information. See Section 22.1 on page 153 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 65 Multicast Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 Multicast Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
22.3 Multicast Setting
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting link to display the screen as
shown. See Section 22.1 on page 153 for more information on multicasting.
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Figure 66 Multicast Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 Multicast Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP Snooping
Use these settings to configure IGMP Snooping.
Active
Select Active to enable IGMP Snooping to forward group multicast traffic only to
ports that are members of that group.
Host Timeout
Specify the time (from 1 to 16,711,450) in seconds that elapses before the Switch
removes an IGMP group membership entry if it does not receive report messages
from the port.
Leave Timeout
Enter an IGMP leave timeout value (from 1 to 16,711,450) in seconds. This
defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing
an IGMP snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received
from a host.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing
IGMP control packets. Otherwise, select No-Change to not replace the priority.
IGMP Filtering
Select Active to enable IGMP filtering to control which IGMP groups a subscriber
on a port can join.
Unknown
Multicast Frame
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast
frame. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s)
to all ports.
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Table 52 Multicast Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
Multicast Group
Multicast addresses (224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255) are reserved for the local scope.
For examples, 224.0.0.1 is for all hosts in this subnet, 224.0.0.2 is for all multicast
routers in this subnet, etc. A router will not forward a packet with the destination IP
address within this range. See the IANA web site for more information.
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives a frame with a reserved
multicast address. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send
the frame(s) to all ports.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use
this row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-byport basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as
you make them.
Immed. Leave
Select this option to set the Switch to remove this port from the multicast tree
when an IGMP version 2 leave message is received on this port.
Select this option if there is only one host connected to this port.
Group Limited
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is
registered in the specified number of multicast groups, any new IGMP join report
frame(s) is dropped on this port.
IGMP Filtering
Profile
Select the name of the IGMP filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select
Default to prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
IGMP Querier
Mode
The Switch treats an IGMP query port as being connected to an IGMP multicast
router (or server). The Switch forwards IGMP join or leave packets to an IGMP
query port.
Select Auto to have the Switch use the port as an IGMP query port if the port
receives IGMP query packets.
Select Fixed to have the Switch always use the port as an IGMP query port.
Select this when you connect an IGMP multicast server to the port.
Select Edge to stop the Switch from using the port as an IGMP query port. The
Switch will not keep any record of an IGMP router being connected to this port.
The Switch does not forward IGMP join or leave packets to this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
22.4 IGMP Filtering Profile
An IGMP filtering profile specifies a range of multicast groups that clients connected to the
Switch are allowed to join. A profile contains a range of multicast IP addresses (multicast
groups) which you want clients to be able to join. Profiles are assigned to ports (in the
Multicast Setting screen, Section 22.3 on page 154). Clients connected to those ports are then
permitted to join the multicast groups specified in the profile. Each port can be assigned a
single profile only. A profile can be assigned to multiple ports.
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Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile to
display the screen as shown.
Figure 67 IGMP Filtering Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 IGMP Filtering Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the
profile name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP addresses that
you want to belong to the IGMP filter profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IP address for a range of IP addresses that you want to
belong to the IGMP filter profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IP address, enter it in both the Start Address
and End Address fields.
Add
Click Add to save the profile to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast address range.
Delete
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that
you want to remove in the Delete Profile column, then click the Delete button.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the
Delete Rule column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete Profile/Delete Rule check boxes.
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22.5 MVR Overview
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand
(MoD)) that use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.
MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on
the network. While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe
to and unsubscribe from the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves
bandwidth utilization with reduced multicast traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies
multicast group management.
You must enable IGMP snooping to use MVR. However, MVR only responds to IGMP join
and leave control messages from multicast groups that are configured under MVR. Join and
leave reports from other multicast groups are managed by IGMP snooping.
The following figure shows a network example. The subscriber VLAN (1, 2 and 3)
information is hidden from the streaming media server, S. In addition, the multicast VLAN
information is only visible to the Switch and S.
Figure 68 MVR Network Example
22.5.1 Types of MVR Ports
In MVR, a source port is a port on the Switch that can send and receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN while a receiver port can only receive multicast traffic. Once configured, the
Switch maintains a forwarding table that matches the multicast stream to the associated
multicast group.
22.5.2 MVR Modes
You can set your Switch to operate in either dynamic or compatible mode.
In dynamic mode, the Switch sends IGMP leave and join reports to the other multicast devices
(such as multicast routers or servers) in the multicast VLAN. This allows the multicast devices
to update the multicast forwarding table to forward or not forward multicast traffic to the
receiver ports.
In compatible mode, the Switch does not send any IGMP reports. In this case, you must
manually configure the forwarding settings on the multicast devices in the multicast VLAN.
22.5.3 How MVR Works
The following figure shows a multicast television example where a subscriber device (such as
a computer) in VLAN 1 receives multicast traffic from the streaming media server, S, via the
Switch. Multiple subscriber devices can connect through a port configured as the receiver on
the Switch.
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When the subscriber selects a television channel, computer A sends an IGMP report to the
Switch to join the appropriate multicast group. If the IGMP report matches one of the
configured MVR multicast group addresses on the Switch, an entry is created in the
forwarding table on the Switch. This maps the subscriber VLAN to the list of forwarding
destinations for the specified multicast traffic.
When the subscriber changes the channel or turns off the computer, an IGMP leave message is
sent to the Switch to leave the multicast group. The Switch sends a query to VLAN 1 on the
receiver port (in this case, a DSL port on the Switch). If there is another subscriber device
connected to this port in the same subscriber VLAN, the receiving port will still be on the list
of forwarding destination for the multicast traffic. Otherwise, the Switch removes the receiver
port from the forwarding table.
Figure 69 MVR Multicast Television Example
22.6 General MVR Configuration
Use the MVR screen to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver port(s) and a source
port for each multicast VLAN. Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast
Setting > MVR to display the screen as shown next.
"
"
You can create up to three multicast VLANs and up to 256 multicast rules on
the Switch.
Your Switch automatically creates a static VLAN (with the same VID) when you
create a multicast VLAN in this screen.
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Figure 70 MVR
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 54 MVR
160
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable MVR to allow one single multicast VLAN to be
shared among different subscriber VLANs on the network.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification
purposes.
Multicast VLAN
ID
Enter the VLAN ID (1 to 4094) of the multicast VLAN.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) with which the Switch replaces the priority in outgoing
IGMP control packets (belonging to this multicast VLAN).
Mode
Specify the MVR mode on the Switch. Choices are Dynamic and Compatible.
Select Dynamic to send IGMP reports to all MVR source ports in the multicast
VLAN.
Select Compatible to set the Switch not to send IGMP reports.
Port
This field displays the port number on the Switch.
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Table 54 MVR (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Source Port
Select this option to set this port as the MVR source port that sends and receives
multicast traffic. All source ports must belong to a single multicast VLAN.
Receiver Port
Select this option to set this port as a receiver port that only receives multicast
traffic.
None
Select this option to set the port not to participate in MVR. No MVR multicast traffic
is sent or received on this port.
Tagging
Select this checkbox if you want the port to tag the VLAN ID in all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
VLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Active
This field displays whether the multicast group is enabled or not.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Mode
This field displays the MVR mode.
Source Port
This field displays the source port number(s).
Receiver Port
This field displays the receiver port number(s).
802.1p
This field displays the priority level.
Delete
To delete a multicast VLAN(s), select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the
Delete column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
22.7 MVR Group Configuration
All source ports and receiver ports belonging to a multicast group can receive multicast data
sent to this multicast group.
Configure MVR IP multicast group address(es) in the Group Configuration screen. Click
Group Configuration in the MVR screen.
"
A port can belong to more than one multicast VLAN. However, IP multicast
group addresses in different multicast VLANs cannot overlap.
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Figure 71 Group Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast
VLAN ID
Select a multicast VLAN ID (that you configured in the MVR screen) from the dropdown list box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Start Address
Enter the starting IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal
notation.
Refer to Section 22.1.1 on page 153 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
End Address
Enter the ending IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Enter the same IP address as the Start Address field if you want to configure only one
IP address for a multicast group.
Refer to Section 22.1.1 on page 153 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
MVLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Start Address
This field displays the starting IP address of the multicast group.
End Address
This field displays the ending IP address of the multicast group.
Delete
Select Delete Group and click Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Select Cancel to clear the checkbox(es) in the table.
22.7.1 MVR Configuration Example
The following figure shows a network example where ports 1, 2 and 3 on the Switch belong to
VLAN 1. In addition, port 7 belongs to the multicast group with VID 200 to receive multicast
traffic (the News and Movie channels) from the remote streaming media server, S. Computers
A, B and C in VLAN are able to receive the traffic.
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Figure 72 MVR Configuration Example
To configure the MVR settings on the Switch, create a multicast group in the MVR screen and
set the receiver and source ports.
Figure 73 MVR Configuration Example
To set the Switch to forward the multicast group traffic to the subscribers, configure multicast
group settings in the Group Configuration screen. The following figure shows an example
where two multicast groups (News and Movie) are configured for the multicast VLAN 200.
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Figure 74 MVR Group Configuration Example
Figure 75 MVR Group Configuration Example
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P ART IV
IP Application
Static Route (167)
RIP (169)
IGMP (171)
Differentiated Services (173)
DHCP (177)
165
166
CHAPTER
23
Static Route
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes.
23.1 Configuring Static Routing
Static routes tell the Switch how to forward IP traffic when you configure the TCP/IP
parameters manually.
Click IP Application > Static Routing in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 76 Static Routing
The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.
Table 56 Static Routing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification
purposes.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is
always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use
a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network
number to be identical to the host ID.
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Table 56 Static Routing (continued)
168
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
Switch that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router
on the same segment as your Switch.
Metric
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses
hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected
networks. Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need
not be precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good
number.
Add
Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static
route entry.
Active
This field displays Yes when the static route is activated and NO when it is
deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purpose
only.
Destination
Address
This field displays the IP network address of the final destination.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway
Address
This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate
neighbor of your Switch that will forward the packet to the destination.
Metric
This field displays the cost of transmission for routing purposes.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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24
RIP
This chapter shows you how to configure RIP (Routing Information Protocol).
24.1 RIP Overview
RIP (Routing Information Protocol allows a routing device to exchange routing information
with other routers. The Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets.
When set to:
• Both - the Switch will broadcast its routing table periodically and incorporate the RIP
information that it receives.
• Incoming - the Switch will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP packets
received.
• Outgoing - the Switch will send out RIP packets but will not accept any RIP packets
received.
• None - the Switch will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets
received.
The Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the
Switch sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported; but
RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks, unless you
have an unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M send the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that
RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
24.2 Configuring RIP
Click IP Application > RIP in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. You
cannot manually configure a new entry. Each entry in the table is automatically created when
you configure a new IP domain in the IP Setup screen (refer to Section 7.6 on page 78).
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Figure 77 RIP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 RIP
170
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable RIP on the Switch.
Index
This field displays the index number of an IP interface.
Network
This field displays the IP interface configured on the Switch.
Refer to the section on IP Setup for more information on configuring IP domains.
Direction
Select the RIP direction from the drop-down list box. Choices are Outgoing, Incoming,
Both and None.
Version
Select the RIP version from the drop-down list box. Choices are RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP2M.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring the fields again.
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25
IGMP
This chapter shows you how to configure IGMP.
25.1 IGMP Overview
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112 and RFC
2236 for information on IGMP versions 1 and 2 respectively.
The Switch supports IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1), version 2 (IGMP-v2) and version 3
(IGMP-v3). At start up, the Switch queries all directly connected networks to gather group
membership. After that, the Switch periodically updates this information.
25.2 Configuring IGMP
Click IP Application > IGMP in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown next.
Each entry in the table is automatically created when you configure a new IP domain in the IP
Setup screen (refer to Section 7.6 on page 78).
Figure 78 IGMP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 IGMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable IGMP on the Switch.
Note: You cannot enable both IGMP snooping and IGMP at the same
time. Refer to the section on IGMP snooping.
172
Index
This field displays an index number of an entry.
Network
This field displays the IP domain configured on the Switch.
Refer to Section 7.6 on page 78 for more information on configuring IP domains.
Version
Select an IGMP version from the drop-down list box. Choices are IGMP-v1, IGMP-v2,
IGMP-v3 and None.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring the fields again.
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26
Differentiated Services
This chapter shows you how to configure Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on the Switch.
26.1 DiffServ Overview
Quality of Service (QoS) is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in
the flow are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different
priorities to different packet types.
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application
types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the
level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to
handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths
or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request
a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
26.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (ToS)
field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which
can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
Figure 79 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP (6 bits)
DS (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated
according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
26.1.2 DiffServ Network Example
The following figure depicts a simple DiffServ network consisting of a group of contiguous
DiffServ-compliant network devices.
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Figure 80 DiffServ Network Example
Switch A marks traffic flowing into the network based on the configured marking rules.
Intermediary network devices 1 and 2 allocate network resources (such as bandwidth) by
mapping the DSCP values and the associated policies.
26.2 Activating DiffServ
Activate DiffServ to apply marking rules or IEEE 802.1p priority mapping on the selected
port(s).
Click IP Application > DiffServ in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 81 DiffServ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 DiffServ
174
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable DiffServ on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
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Table 59 DiffServ (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port
basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you
make them.
Active
Select Active to enable DiffServ on the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
26.3 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings
You can configure the DSCP to IEEE 802.1p mapping to allow the Switch to prioritize all
traffic based on the incoming DSCP value according to the DiffServ to IEEE 802.1p mapping
table.
The following table shows the default DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping.
Table 60 Default DSCP-IEEE 802.1p Mapping
DSCP VALUE
0–7
8 – 15
16 – 23
24 – 31
32 – 39
40 – 47
48 – 55
56 – 63
IEEE 802.1p
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
26.3.1 Configuring DSCP Settings
To change the DSCP-IEEE 802.1p mapping, click the DSCP Setting link in the DiffServ
screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 82 DSCP Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 DSCP Setting
176
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
0 … 63
This is the DSCP classification identification number.
To set the IEEE 802.1p priority mapping, select the priority level from the drop-down list
box.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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27
DHCP
This chapter shows you how to configure the DHCP feature.
27.1 DHCP Overview
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
computers to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the
Switch as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the Switch provides the
TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If you disable the DHCP service, you must have another
DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computer must be manually configured.
27.1.1 DHCP modes
The Switch can be configured as a DHCP server or DHCP relay agent.
• If you configure the Switch as a DHCP server, it will maintain the pool of addresses and
distribute them to your LAN computers.
• If there is an Ethernet device that performs the DHCP server function for your network,
then you can configure the Switch as a DHCP relay agent. When the Switch receives a
request from a computer on your network, it contacts the Ethernet device (the DHCP
server) for the necessary IP information, and then relays the assigned information back to
the computer.
27.2 DHCP Server Status
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel. The DHCP Server Status screen
displays.
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Figure 83 DHCP Server Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 DHCP Server Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings
apply.
Server Status
This field displays the starting DHCP client IP address.
IP Pool Size
This field displays the size of the DHCP client IP address pool.
Poll Interval(s)
The text box displays how often (in seconds) this screen refreshes. You may
change the refresh interval by typing a new number in the text box and then
clicking Set Interval.
Stop
Click Stop to end status polling.
27.3 Configuring DHCP Server
Use this screen to configure your DHCP server settings. Click IP Application > DHCP >
Server to display the DHCP Server Status screen.
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Figure 84 DHCP Server
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 63 DHCP Server
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings apply.
Client IP Pool
Starting
Address
Specify the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Size of Client
IP Pool
Specify the size, or count of the IP address pool.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask for the client IP pool.
Default
Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default gateway device.
Primary/
Secondary
DNS Server
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. The DNS servers are passed to the
DHCP clients along with the IP address and the subnet mask.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configurations.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields back to the factory defaults.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings
apply.
Type
This field displays Server for the DHCP mode.
DHCP Status
This field displays the starting and the size of DHCP client IP address.
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Table 63 DHCP Server (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
27.3.1 DHCP Server Configuration Example
The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to assign network
information to the DHCP clients in the RD and Sales network.
Figure 85 DHCP Server Network Example
In the DHCP Server screen, configure two DHCP client IP address pools for the two
networks. The following shows an example.
Figure 86 DHCP Server Configuration Example
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27.4 DHCP Relay
Configure DHCP relay on the Switch if the DHCP clients and the DHCP server are not in the
same subnet. During the initial IP address leasing, the Switch helps to relay network
information (such as the IP address and subnet mask) between a DHCP client and a DHCP
server. Once the DHCP client obtains an IP address and can connect to the network, network
information renewal is done between the DHCP client and the DHCP server without the help
of the Switch.
27.4.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information
The Switch can add information to client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server. This
helps provide authentication about the source of the requests. You can also specify additional
information for the Switch to add to the client DHCP requests that it relays to the DHCP
server. Please refer to RFC 3046 for more details.
The DHCP relay agent information feature adds an Agent Information field to the option 82
field of the DHCP headers of client DHCP request frames that the Switch relays to a DHCP
server. The following lists the DHCP relay agent option 82 information that the Switch sends
to the DHCP server:
•
•
•
•
Slot ID (1 byte)
Port ID (1 byte)
VLAN ID (2 bytes)
System name (up to 32 bytes, this is optional)
27.4.2 Configuring DHCP Relay
Configure DHCP relay in the DHCP Relay screen. Click IP Application > DHCP > Relay to
display the screen as shown.
Figure 87 DHCP Relay
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 DHCP Relay
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable DHCP relay.
Remote
DHCP Server
1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Relay Agent
Information
Select the Option 82 check box to have the Switch add information (slot number, port
number and VLAN ID) to client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Information
This read-only field displays the system name you configure in the General Setup
screen.
Select the check box for the Switch to add the system name to the client DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to discard all changes and start configuring the screen again.
27.4.3 DHCP Relay Configuration Example
The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to relay DHCP requests
for the RD and Sales network. There is only one DHCP server that services the DHCP clients
in both networks.
Figure 88 DHCP Relay Network Example
Configure the DHCP Relay screen as shown. Make sure you select the Option 82 check box
to set the Switch to send additional information (such as the VLAN ID) together with the
DHCP requests to the DHCP server. This allows the DHCP server to assign the appropriate IP
address according to the VLAN ID.
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Figure 89 DHCP Relay Configuration Example
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P ART V
Management
Maintenance (187)
Access Control (193)
Diagnostic (205)
Syslog (207)
Cluster Management (211)
MAC Table (217)
IP Table (219)
ARP Table (221)
Routing Table (223)
Configure Clone (225)
185
186
CHAPTER
28
Maintenance
This chapter explains how to configure the maintenance screens that let you maintain the
firmware and configuration files.
28.1 The Maintenance Screen
Use this screen to manage firmware and your configuration files. Click Management >
Maintenance in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
Figure 90 Maintenance
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 Maintenance
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays which configuration (Configuration 1 or Configuration 2) is
currently operating on the Switch.
Firmware
Upgrade
Click Click Here to go to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Restore
Configuratio
n
Click Click Here to go to the Restore Configuration screen.
Backup
Configuratio
n
Click Click Here to go to the Backup Configuration screen.
Load
Factory
Default
Click Click Here to reset the configuration to the factory default settings.
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Table 65 Maintenance (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Save
Configuratio
n
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 1 on the
Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the
Switch.
Reboot
System
Click Config 1 to reboot the system and load Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to reboot the system and load Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Note: Make sure to click the Save button in any screen to save your
settings to the current configuration on the Switch.
28.2 Firmware Upgrade
Make sure you have downloaded (and unzipped) the correct model firmware and version to
your computer before uploading to the device.
1
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong model
firmware may damage your device.
From the Maintenance screen, display the Firmware Upgrade screen as shown next.
Figure 91 Firmware Upgrade
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File
Path text box or click Browse to locate it. After you have specified the file, click Upgrade.
After the firmware upgrade process is complete, see the System Info screen to verify your
current firmware version number.
28.3 Restore a Configuration File
Restore a previously saved configuration from your computer to the Switch using the Restore
Configuration screen.
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Figure 92 Restore Configuration
Type the path and file name of the configuration file you wish to restore in the File Path text
box or click Browse to display the Choose File screen (below) from which you can locate it.
After you have specified the file, click Restore. "config" is the name of the configuration file
on the Switch, so your backup configuration file is automatically renamed when you restore
using this screen.
28.4 Backup a Configuration File
Backing up your Switch configurations allows you to create various “snap shots” of your
device from which you may restore at a later date.
Back up your current Switch configuration to a computer using the Backup Configuration
screen.
Figure 93 Backup Configuration
Follow the steps below to back up the current Switch configuration to your computer in this
screen.
1 Click Backup.
2 Click Save to display the Save As screen.
3 Choose a location to save the file on your computer from the Save in drop-down list box
and type a descriptive name for it in the File name list box. Click Save to save the
configuration file to your computer.
28.5 Load Factory Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
1 In the Maintenance screen, click the Click Here button next to Load Factory Default
to clear all Switch configuration information you configured and return to the factory
defaults.
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2
Click OK to reset all Switch configurations to the factory defaults.
Figure 94 Load Factory Default
3 In the web configurator, click the Save button to make the changes take effect. If you
want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the Switch’s default IP
address (192.168.1.1).
28.6 Save Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings permanently to Configuration 1 on
the Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Alternatively, click Save on the top right-hand corner in any screen to save the configuration
changes to the current configuration.
"
Clicking the Apply or Add button does NOT save the changes permanently.
All unsaved changes are erased after you reboot the Switch.
28.7 Reboot System
Reboot System allows you to restart the Switch without physically turning the power off. It
also allows you to load configuration one (Config 1) or configuration two (Config 2) when
you reboot. Follow the steps below to reboot the Switch.
1 In the Maintenance screen, click the Config 1 button next to Reboot System to reboot
and load configuration one. The following screen displays.
Figure 95 Reboot System
2 Click OK again and then wait for the Switch to restart. This takes up to two minutes.
This does not affect the Switch’s configuration.
Click Config 2 and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load configuration two on the Switch.
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28.8 FTP Command Line
This section shows some examples of uploading to or downloading files from the Switch using
FTP commands. First, understand the filename conventions.
28.8.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (also known as the romfile or ROM) contains the factory default
settings in the screens such as password, switch setup, IP Setup, etc. Once you have
customized the Switch’s settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a filename of
your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension.
Table 66 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL
NAME
Configuration File
config
Firmware
ras
EXTERNA
L NAME
DESCRIPTION
This is the configuration filename on the Switch.
Uploading the config file replaces the specified
configuration file system, including your Switch
configurations, system-related data (including the
default password), the error log and the trace log.
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware on
the Switch.
28.8.1.1 Example FTP Commands
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the
Switch.
ftp> get config config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to a file called “config.cfg” on
your computer.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the Switch only recognizes “config” and “ras”. Be
sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
1
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong model
firmware may damage your device.
28.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure
1
2
3
4
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Enter open, followed by a space and the IP address of your Switch.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
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5 Enter bin to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use put to transfer files from the computer to the Switch, for example, put
firmware.bin ras transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the
Switch and renames it to “ras”. Similarly, put config.cfg config transfers the
configuration file on your computer (config.cfg) to the Switch and renames it to
“config”. Likewise get config config.cfg transfers the configuration file on the
Switch to your computer and renames it to “config.cfg”. See Table 66 on page 191 for
more information on filename conventions.
7 Enter quit to exit the ftp prompt.
28.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP
clients.
General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server
for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or
service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Configuration and firmware files should be transferred in binary mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
28.8.4 FTP Restrictions
FTP will not work when:
• FTP service is disabled in the Service Access Control screen.
• The IP address(es) in the Remote Management screen does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the Switch will disconnect the Telnet session immediately.
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29
Access Control
This chapter describes how to control access to the Switch.
29.1 Access Control Overview
A console port and FTP are allowed one session each, Telnet and SSH share four sessions, up
to five Web sessions (five different usernames and passwords) and/or limitless SNMP access
control sessions are allowed.
Table 67 Access Control Overview
Console Port
SSH
Telnet
One session
Share up to four
sessions
FTP
Web
SNMP
One session
Up to five accounts
No limit
A console port access control session and Telnet access control session cannot coexist when
multi-login is disabled. See Section 38.11.2 on page 237 for more information on disabling
multi-login.
29.2 The Access Control Main Screen
Click Management > Access Control in the navigation panel to display the main screen as
shown.
Figure 96 Access Control
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29.3 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol used to
manage and monitor TCP/IP-based devices. SNMP is used to exchange management
information between the network management system (NMS) and a network element (NE). A
manager station can manage and monitor the Switch through the network via SNMP version
one (SNMPv1) and/or SNMP version 2c. The next figure illustrates an SNMP management
operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
Figure 97 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed switch (the Switch). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed switch into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators
perform network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor
managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a switch. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
Table 68 SNMP Commands
194
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Get
Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
GetNext
Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an
agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an
agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
Set
Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
Trap
Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
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29.3.1 Supported MIBs
MIBs let administrators collect statistics and monitor status and performance.
The Switch supports the following MIBs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SNMP MIB II (RFC 1213)
RFC 1157 SNMP v1
RFC 1493 Bridge MIBs
RFC 1643 Ethernet MIBs
RFC 1155 SMI
RFC 2674 SNMPv2, SNMPv2c
RFC 1757 RMON
SNMPv2, SNMPv2c or later version, compliant with RFC 2011 SNMPv2 MIB for IP,
RFC 2012 SNMPv2 MIB for TCP, RFC 2013 SNMPv2 MIB for UDP
29.3.2 SNMP Traps
The Switch sends traps to an SNMP manager when an event occurs. SNMP traps supported
are outlined in the following table.
Table 69 SNMP Traps
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
Cold Start
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.
1
This trap is sent when the Switch is turned on.
WarmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.
2
This trap is sent when the Switch restarts.
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.
3
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is down.
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.
4
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is up.
authenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.
5
This trap is sent when an SNMP request comes from
non-authenticated hosts.
SNMPv2 Traps
RFC 1493 Traps
newRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1 This trap is sent when the STP topology changes.
topology change
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2 This trap is sent when the STP root switch changes.
29.3.3 Configuring SNMP
From the Access Control screen, display the SNMP screen. You can click Access Control to
go back to the Access Control screen.
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Figure 98 SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Get Community
Enter the get community, which is the password for the incoming Get- and GetNextrequests from the management station.
Set Community
Enter the set community, which is the password for incoming Set- requests from the
management station.
Trap Community
Enter the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
Trap Destination
Enter the IP addresses of up to four stations to send your SNMP traps to.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
29.3.4 Setting Up Login Accounts
Up to five people (one administrator and four non-administrators) may access the Switch via
web configurator at any one time.
• An administrator is someone who can both view and configure changes. The username for
the Administrator is always admin. The default administrator password is 1234.
"
It is highly recommended that you change the default administrator password
(1234).
• A non-administrator (username is something other than admin) is someone who can view
but not configure settings.
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From the Access Control screen, display the Logins screen. You can click Access Control to
go back to the Access Control screen.
Figure 99 Logins
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 Logins
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
This is the default administrator account with the “admin” user name. You cannot change the default
administrator user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password
Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when
shipped).
New Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to confirm Retype your new system password for confirmation
Edit Logins
You may configure passwords for up to four users. These users have read-only access. You can give
users higher privileges via the CLI. For more information on assigning privileges see Chapter 38 on
page 229.
User Name
Set a user name (up to 32 ASCII characters long).
Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to confirm Retype your new system password for confirmation
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on
the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when
you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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29.4 SSH Overview
Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in clear text, SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure
communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure
encrypted communication
between two hosts over an unsecured network.
Figure 100 SSH Communication Example
29.5 How SSH works
The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote
hosts.
Figure 101 How SSH Works
1 Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself
with a host key. The client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key
and server key and sends the result back to the server.
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The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections,
the server public key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.
2 Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of
encryption method to use.
3 Authentication and Data Transmission
After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is
established between the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication
information (user name and password) to the server to log in to the server.
29.6 SSH Implementation on the Switch
Your Switch supports SSH version 2 using RSA authentication and three encryption methods
(DES, 3DES and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the Switch for remote
management and file transfer on port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at a time.
29.6.1 Requirements for Using SSH
You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating
system) that is used to connect to the Switch over SSH.
29.7 Introduction to HTTPS
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web
protocol that encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an applicationlevel protocol that enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an
unauthorized party cannot read the transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the
other party) and data integrity (you know if data has been changed).
It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys.
HTTPS on the Switch is used so that you may securely access the Switch using the web
configurator. The SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the Switch) must always
authenticate itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with
the Switch), whereas the SSL client only should authenticate itself when the SSL server
requires it to do so. Authenticating client certificates is optional and if selected means the SSLclient must send the Switch a certificate. You must apply for a certificate for the browser from
a CA that is a trusted CA on the Switch.
Please refer to the following figure.
1 HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default)
on the Switch’s WS (web server).
2 HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the Switch’s
WS (web server).
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Figure 102 HTTPS Implementation
"
If you disable HTTP in the Service Access Control screen, then the Switch
blocks all HTTP connection attempts.
29.8 HTTPS Example
If you haven’t changed the default HTTPS port on the Switch, then in your browser enter
“https://Switch IP Address/” as the web site address where “Switch IP Address” is the IP
address or domain name of the Switch you wish to access.
29.8.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch’s HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up
asking if you trust the server certificate. Click View Certificate if you want to verify that the
certificate is from the Switch.
You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the
web configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.
Figure 103 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer)
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29.8.2 Netscape Navigator Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch’s HTTPS server, a Website Certified by an
Unknown Authority screen pops up asking if you trust the server certificate. Click Examine
Certificate if you want to verify that the certificate is from the Switch.
If Accept this certificate temporarily for this session is selected, then click OK to continue
in Netscape.
Select Accept this certificate permanently to import the Switch’s certificate into the SSL
client.
Figure 104 Security Certificate 1 (Netscape)
Figure 105 Security Certificate 2 (Netscape)
29.8.3 The Main Screen
After you accept the certificate and enter the login username and password, the Switch main
screen appears. The lock displayed in the bottom right of the browser status bar denotes a
secure connection.
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Figure 106 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection
29.9 Service Port Access Control
Service Access Control allows you to decide what services you may use to access the Switch.
You may also change the default service port and configure “trusted computer(s)” for each
service in the Remote Management screen (discussed later).
From the Access Control screen, display the Service Access Control screen. You can click
Access Control to go back to the Access Control screen.
Figure 107 Service Access Control
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 72 Service Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Services
Services you may use to access the Switch are listed here.
Active
Select this option for the corresponding services that you want to allow to access the
Switch.
Service Port
For Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP or HTTPS services, you may change the default service
port by typing the new port number in the Server Port field. If you change the default
port number then you will have to let people (who wish to use the service) know the
new port number for that service.
Timeout
Type how many minutes a management session (via the web configurator) can be left
idle before the session times out. After it times out you have to log in with your
password again. Very long idle timeouts may have security risks.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
29.10 Remote Management
From the Access Control screen, display the Remote Management screen as shown next.
You can specify a group of one or more “trusted computers” from which an administrator may
use a service to manage the Switch. Click Access Control to return to the Access Control
screen.
Figure 108 Remote Management
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Entry
This is the client set index number. A “client set” is a group of one or more “trusted
computers” from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
Active
Select this check box to activate this secured client set. Clear the check box if you
wish to temporarily disable the set without deleting it.
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Table 73 Remote Management (continued)
204
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Address
End Address
Configure the IP address range of trusted computers from which you can manage this
Switch.
The Switch checks if the client IP address of a computer requesting a service or
protocol matches the range set here. The Switch immediately disconnects the
session if it does not match.
Telnet/FTP/
HTTP/ICMP/
SNMP/SSH/
HTTPS
Select services that may be used for managing the Switch from the specified trusted
computers.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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30
Diagnostic
This chapter explains the Diagnostic screen.
30.1 Diagnostic
Click Management > Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen
to check system logs, ping IP addresses or perform port tests.
Figure 109 Diagnostic
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 Diagnostic
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Log
Click Display to display a log of events in the multi-line text box.
Click Clear to empty the text box and reset the syslog entry.
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Table 74 Diagnostic (continued)
206
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Ping
Type the IP address of a device that you want to ping in order to test a
connection.
Click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP address (in the field to the left).
Ethernet Port Test
Enter a port number and click Port Test to perform an internal loopback test.
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31
Syslog
This chapter explains the syslog screens.
31.1 Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network
to syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a
syslog message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log
related information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level.
The syslog facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your
syslog program for details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 75 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
31.2 Syslog Setup
Click Management > Syslog in the navigation panel to display this screen. The syslog feature
sends logs to an external syslog server. Use this screen to configure the device’s system
logging settings.
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Chapter 31 Syslog
Figure 110 Syslog Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Syslog Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
Select Active to turn on syslog (system logging) and then configure the syslog
setting
Logging Type
This column displays the names of the categories of logs that the device can
generate.
Active
Select this option to set the device to generate logs for the corresponding
category.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server.
Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
31.3 Syslog Server Setup
Click Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup to open the following screen. Use this
screen to configure a list of external syslog servers.
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Figure 111 Syslog Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Syslog Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the device send logs to this syslog server. Clear the
check box if you want to create a syslog server entry but not have the device send
logs to it (you can edit the entry later).
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
Select the severity level(s) of the logs that you want the device to send to this
syslog server. The lower the number, the more critical the logs are.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Clear
Click Clear to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of a syslog server entry. Click this number to edit the
entry.
Active
This field displays Yes if the device is to send logs to the syslog server. No
displays if the device is not to send logs to the syslog server.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this
syslog server.
Delete
Select an entry’s Delete check box and click Delete to remove the entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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Cluster Management
This chapter introduces cluster management.
32.1 Cluster Management Status Overview
Cluster Management allows you to manage switches through one switch, called the cluster
manager. The switches must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be
able to communicate with one another.
Table 78 ZyXEL Clustering Management Specifications
Maximum number of cluster
members
24
Cluster Member Models
Must be compatible with ZyXEL cluster management
implementation.
Cluster Manager
The switch through which you manage the cluster member
switches.
Cluster Members
The switches being managed by the cluster manager switch.
In the following example, switch A in the basement is the cluster manager and the other
switches on the upper floors of the building are cluster members.
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Figure 112 Clustering Application Example
32.2 Cluster Management Status
Click Management > Cluster Management in the navigation panel to display the following
screen.
"
A cluster can only have one manager.
Figure 113 Cluster Management Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 Cluster Management Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays the role of this Switch within the cluster.
Manager
Member (you see this if you access this screen in the cluster member switch directly
and not via the cluster manager)
None (neither a manager nor a member of a cluster)
Manager
This field displays the cluster manager switch’s hardware MAC address.
The Number of
Member
This field displays the number of switches that make up this cluster. The following
fields describe the cluster member switches.
Index
You can manage cluster member switches via the cluster manager switch. Each
number in the Index column is a hyperlink leading to the cluster member switch’s web
configurator (see Figure 114 on page 213).
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This field displays the model name.
Status
This field displays:
Online (the cluster member switch is accessible)
Error (for example the cluster member switch password was changed or the switch
was set as the manager and so left the member list, etc.)
Offline (the switch is disconnected - Offline shows approximately 1.5 minutes after
the link between cluster member and manager goes down)
32.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management
Go to the Clustering Management Status screen of the cluster manager switch and then
select an Index hyperlink from the list of members to go to that cluster member switch's web
configurator home page. This cluster member web configurator home page and the home page
that you'd see if you accessed it directly are different.
Figure 114 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen
32.2.1.1 Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
You can use FTP to upload firmware to a cluster member switch through the cluster manager
switch as shown in the following example.
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Figure 115 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
C:\>ftp 192.168.1.1
Connected to 192.168.1.1.
220 Switch FTP version 1.0 ready at Thu Jan 1 00:58:46 1970
User (192.168.0.1:(none)): admin
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> ls
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for LIST
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3042210 Jul 01 12:00 ras
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
393216 Jul 01 12:00 config
--w--w--w1 owner
group
0 Jul 01 12:00 fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
0 Jul 01 12:00 config-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
226 File sent OK
ftp: 297 bytes received in 0.00Seconds 297000.00Kbytes/sec.
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put 370lt0.bin fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
226 File received OK
ftp: 262144 bytes sent in 0.63Seconds 415.44Kbytes/sec.
ftp>
The following table explains some of the FTP parameters.
Table 80 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example
FTP PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
User
Enter “admin”.
Password
The web configurator password default is 1234.
ls
Enter this command to list the name of cluster member switch’s
firmware and configuration file.
360lt0.bin
This is the name of the firmware file you want to upload to the
cluster member switch.
fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
This is the cluster member switch’s firmware name as seen in the
cluster manager switch.
config-00-a0-c5-01-23-46 This is the cluster member switch’s configuration file name as seen
in the cluster manager switch.
32.3 Clustering Management Configuration
Use this screen to configure clustering management. Click Configuration from the Cluster
Management screen to display the next screen.
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Figure 116 Clustering Management Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 Clustering Management Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clustering Manager
Active
Select Active to have this Switch become the cluster manager switch. A cluster
can only have one manager. Other (directly connected) switches that are set to
be cluster managers will not be visible in the Clustering Candidates list. If a
switch that was previously a cluster member is later set to become a cluster
manager, then its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster Management
Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member summary list
below.
Name
Type a name to identify the Clustering Manager. You may use up to 32
printable characters (spaces are allowed).
VID
This is the VLAN ID and is only applicable if the Switch is set to 802.1Q VLAN.
All switches must be directly connected and in the same VLAN group to belong
to the same cluster. Switches that are not in the same VLAN group are not
visible in the Clustering Candidates list. This field is ignored if the Clustering
Manager is using Port-based VLAN.
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Table 81 Clustering Management Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Clustering
Candidate
The following fields relate to the switches that are potential cluster members.
List
A list of suitable candidates found by auto-discovery is shown here. The
switches must be directly connected. Directly connected switches that are set to
be cluster managers will not be visible in the Clustering Candidate list.
Switches that are not in the same management VLAN group will not be visible in
the Clustering Candidate list.
Password
Each cluster member’s password is its web configurator password. Select a
member in the Clustering Candidate list and then enter its web configurator
password. If that switch administrator changes the web configurator password
afterwards, then it cannot be managed from the Cluster Manager. Its Status is
displayed as Error in the Cluster Management Status screen and a warning
icon ( ) appears in the member summary list below.
If multiple devices have the same password then hold [SHIFT] and click those
switches to select them. Then enter their common web configurator password.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch
loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the
top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
Refresh
Click Refresh to perform auto-discovery again to list potential cluster members.
The next summary table shows the information for the clustering members configured.
216
Index
This is the index number of a cluster member switch.
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This is the cluster member switch’s model name.
Remove
Select this checkbox and then click the Remove button to remove a cluster
member switch from the cluster.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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MAC Table
This chapter introduces the MAC Table screen.
33.1 MAC Table Overview
The MAC Table screen (a MAC table is also known as a filtering database) shows how frames
are forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. It shows what device MAC address,
belonging to what VLAN group (if any) is forwarded to which port(s) and whether the MAC
address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (manually entered in the Static MAC
Forwarding screen).
The Switch uses the MAC table to determine how to forward frames. See the following figure.
1 The Switch examines a received frame and learns the port on which this source MAC
address came.
2 The Switch checks to see if the frame's destination MAC address matches a source MAC
address already learned in the MAC table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, then it forwards the frame
to that port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this MAC address, then the frame is
flooded to all ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestion.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, but the destination port is
the same as the port it came in on, then it filters the frame.
Figure 117 MAC Table Flowchart
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Chapter 33 MAC Table
33.2 Viewing the MAC Table
Click Management > MAC Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 118 MAC Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 MAC Table
218
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Sort by
Click one of the following buttons to display and arrange the data according to that
button type. The information is then displayed in the summary table below.
MAC
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to MAC address.
VID
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Port
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to port number.
Index
This is the incoming frame index number.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device from which this incoming frame came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which this frame belongs.
Port
This is the port from which the above MAC address was learned.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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IP Table
This chapter introduces the IP table.
34.1 IP Table Overview
The IP Table screen shows how packets are forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. It
shows what device IP address, belonging to what VLAN group (if any) is forwarded to which
port(s) and whether the IP address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (belonging to
the Switch).
The Switch uses the IP table to determine how to forward packets. See the following figure.
1 The Switch examines a received packet and learns the port on which this source IP
address came.
2 The Switch checks to see if the packet's destination IP address matches a source IP
address already learned in the IP table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this IP address, then it forwards the
packet to that port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this IP address, then the packet is
flooded to all ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestion.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this IP address, but the destination port is
the same as the port it came in on, then it filters the packet.
Figure 119 IP Table Flowchart
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Chapter 34 IP Table
34.2 Viewing the IP Table
Click Management > IP Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 120 IP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 IP Table
220
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Sort by
Click one of the following buttons to display and arrange the data according to that
button type. The information is then displayed in the summary table below.
IP
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to IP address.
VID
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Port
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to port number.
Index
This field displays the index number.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the device from which the incoming packets came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which the packet belongs.
Port
This is the port from which the above IP address was learned. This field displays CPU to
indicate the IP address belongs to the Switch.
Type
This shows whether the IP address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(belonging to the Switch).
GS-2724 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
35
ARP Table
This chapter introduces ARP Table.
35.1 ARP Table Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC
address, on the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits
long. The ARP Table maintains an association between each MAC address and its
corresponding IP address.
35.1.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the
Switch, the Switch's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and, if it finds the address, sends it
to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the
LAN. The Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts
the known IP address of the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all
ones in the target MAC field (FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The
replying device (which is either the IP address of the device being sought or the router that
knows the way) replaces the broadcast address with the target's MAC address, swaps the
sender and target pairs, and unicasts the answer directly back to the requesting machine. ARP
updates the ARP Table for future reference and then sends the packet to the MAC address that
replied.
35.2 Viewing the ARP Table
Click Management > ARP Table in the navigation panel to open the following screen. Use
the ARP table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s).
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Chapter 35 ARP Table
Figure 121 ARP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 ARP Table
222
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the ARP Table entry number.
IP Address
This is the learned IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with
corresponding MAC address below.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with corresponding IP address above.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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CHAPTER
36
Routing Table
This chapter introduces the routing table.
36.1 Overview
The routing table contains the route information to the network(s) that the Switch can reach.
The Switch automatically updates the routing table with the RIP information received from
other Ethernet devices.
36.2 Viewing the Routing Table
Use this screen to view routing table information. Click Management > Routing Table in the
navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 122 Routing Table Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 Routing Table Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number.
Destination
This field displays the destination IP routing domain.
Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the gateway device.
Interface
This field displays the IP address of the Interface.
Metric
This field displays the cost of the route.
Type
This field displays the method used to learn the route.
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Chapter 36 Routing Table
224
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CHAPTER
37
Configure Clone
This chapter shows you how you can copy the settings of one port onto other ports.
37.1 Configure Clone
Cloning allows you to copy the basic and advanced settings from a source port to a destination
port or ports. Click Management > Configure Clone to open the following screen.
Figure 123 Configure Clone
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Chapter 37 Configure Clone
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 86 Configure Clone
226
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source/
Destination
Port
Enter the source port under the Source label. This port’s attributes are copied.
Enter the destination port or ports under the Destination label. These are the ports
which are going to have the same attributes as the source port. You can enter
individual ports separated by a comma or a range of ports by using a dash.
Example:
• 2, 4, 6 indicates that ports 2, 4 and 6 are the destination ports.
• 2-6 indicates that ports 2 through 6 are the destination ports.
Basic Setting
Select which port settings (you configured in the Basic Setting menus) should be
copied to the destination port(s).
Advanced
Application
Select which port settings (you configured in the Advanced Application menus)
should be copied to the destination ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
P ART VI
CLI and
Troubleshooting
Introducing Commands (229)
User and Enable Mode Commands (263)
Configuration Mode Commands (269)
Interface Commands (281)
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN Commands (289)
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands (297)
Routing Domain Command Examples (299)
Troubleshooting (301)
227
228
CHAPTER
38
Introducing Commands
This chapter introduces commands and gives a summary of commands available.
38.1 Overview
In addition to the web configurator, you can use commands to configure the Switch. Use
commands for advanced diagnosis and troubleshooting. If you have problems with your
Switch, customer support may request that you issue some of these commands to assist them
in troubleshooting.
"
See the web configurator parts of this User’s Guide for background information
on features configurable by the web configurator.
38.2 Accessing the CLI
You can use a direct console connection or Telnet to access the command interpreter on the
Switch.
"
The Switch automatically logs you out of the management interface after five
minutes of inactivity. If this happens to you, simply log back in again.
• By default, multiple command interpreter management session are allowed via either the
console port or Telnet. However, no more than five concurrent login sessions are allowed.
• Use the configure multi-login command in the configuration mode to limit
concurrent logins to one. Console port access has higher priority.
38.2.1 The Console Port
Connect to the Switch’s console port using a terminal emulation software configured to the
following settings:
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
•
•
•
•
•
•
VT100 terminal emulation
9600 bps
No parity
8 data bits
1 stop bit
No flow control
38.2.1.1 Initial Screen
When you turn on your Switch, it performs several internal tests as well as line initialization.
You can view the initialization information using the console port. After the initialization, the
login screen displays (refer to Section 38.3 on page 230).
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2006 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
initialize mgmt, ethernet address: 00:13:49:00:00:01
initialize switch, ethernet address: 00:13:49:00:00:02
Initializing switch unit 0...
Initializing VLAN Database...
Initializing IP Interface...
Initializing Advanced Applications...
Initializing Command Line Interface...
Initializing Web Interface...
Press ENTER to continue...
Use the following steps to Telnet into your Switch.
1 For local management, connect your computer to the RJ-45 management port (labeled
MGMT) on the Switch.
2 Make sure your computer IP address and the Switch’s IP address are on the same subnet.
In Windows, click Start (usually in the bottom left corner), Run and then type telnet
192.168.0.1 (the default management IP address) and click OK.
3 A login screen displays (refer to Section 38.3 on page 230).
38.3 The Login Screen
After you have successfully established a connection to the Switch using a direct console
connection or Telnet, a login screen displays as shown below. For your first login, enter the
default administrator login username “admin” and password “1234”.
Enter User Name : admin
Enter Password : XXXX
38.4 Command Syntax Conventions
The rules of the commands are listed next.
• The command keywords are in courier new font.
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• The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>, for instance, ping
<ip> means that you must specify an IP number for this command.
• The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [], for instance,
configure snmp-server [contact <system contact>] [location <system location>]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
means that the contact and location fields are optional.
“Command” refers to a command used in the command line interface (CI command).
The | symbol means “or”.
The entry <cr> in the command lines refers to carriage return. Press [ENTER] or carriage
return after a command to execute the command.
Use the up or down arrow key to scroll through the command history list.
You may enter a unique part of a command and press [TAB] to have the Switch
automatically display the full command. For example, if you enter “config” and press
[TAB], the full command of “configure” automatically displays.
Each interface refers to an Ethernet port on the Switch. Commands configured after the
interface command correspond to those ports.
Type multiple ports or port ranges separated by a comma. Ranges of port numbers are
typed separated by a dash.
38.5 Changing the Password
This command is used to change the password for Enable mode. By default the same password
is used to enter the command line interface (CLI) and Enable and Config modes of the CLI.
The password you change with this command is required to enter Enable and Config modes of
the CLI.
Syntax:
password <password>
where
password <password>
=
Specifies the new password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters)
users have to type in to enter Enable and Config modes.
38.6 Privilege Levels
You can use a command whose privilege level is equal to or less than that of your login
account. For example, if your login account has a privilege level of 12, you can use all
commands with privilege levels from 0 to 12. 0 privilege level commands are available to all
login accounts.
"
If you use an external RADIUS server to authenticate users, you can use a
VSA (Vendor Specific Attribute) to configure a privilege level for an account on
the RADIUS server. See Section 16.1.1.1 on page 121 for more information.
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Use the following commands to specify privilege levels for login accounts.
Syntax:
logins username <username> password <password>
logins username <username> privilege <0-14>
where
username <username>
=
Specifies a new user (up to 32 alphanumeric characters). Enter
a user name to change the settings of an existing account.
password <password>
=
Specifies the new password (up to 32 alphanumeric
characters) for this user.
privilege <0-14>
=
Assigns a privilege level for the user.
38.7 Command Modes
There are three command modes: User, Enable and Configure. The modes (and commands)
available to you depend on what level of privilege your account has. See Section 38.6 on page
231 for more information on setting up privilege levels.
When you first log into the command interpreter with a read-only account (having a privilege
of 0 to 12), the initial mode is the User mode. The User mode commands are a subset of
Enable mode commands. The User mode command prompt ends with an angle bracket (>).
To enter Enable mode, type enable and enter the administrator password when prompted (the
default is 1234). When you enter Enable mode, the command prompt changes to the pound
sign (#). If you log into the command interpreter as an administrator you automatically enter
Enable mode.
The following table describes command interpreter modes and how to access them.
Table 87 Command Interpreter Mode Summary
MODE
.DESCRIPTION
HOW TO LOGIN/
ACCESS
PROMPT
User
Commands available in this mode are
a subset of enable mode. You can
perform basic tests and display
general system information.
Default login level for a
read-only account.
sysname>
The first part of the prompt is
the system name. In the CLI
examples in this User’s
Guide, the system name is
always “sysname”.
Enable
Commands available in this mode
allow you to save configuration
settings, reset configuration settings
as well as display further system
information. This mode also contains
the configure command which
takes you to config mode.
Default login level for
accounts with a
privilege of 13 or 14.
Read-only accounts
(with a privilege of 012) need to type the
enable command
and enter enable mode
password.
sysname#
Config
Commands available in this mode
allow you to configure settings that
affect the Switch globally.
Type config in
enable mode.
sysname(config)#
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Table 87 Command Interpreter Mode Summary (continued)
.DESCRIPTION
MODE
HOW TO LOGIN/
ACCESS
PROMPT
Command modes that follow are sub-modes of the config mode and can only be accessed from within the config
mode.
Config-vlan
This is a sub-mode of the config mode
and allows you to configure VLAN
settings.
Type vlan followed
by a number (between
1 to 4094). For
example, vlan 10 to
configure settings for
VLAN 10.
sysname(config-vlan)#
Config-interface
This is a sub-mode of the config mode
and allows you to configure port
related settings.
Type interface
sysname(configinterface)#
This is a sub-mode of the config mode
and allows you to configure multicast
VLAN settings.
To enter MVR mode,
enter mvr followed by
a VLAN ID (between 1
and 4094). For
example, enter mvr 2
to configure multicast
settings on VLAN 2.
Config-mvr
port-channel
followed by a port
number. For example,
interface portchannel 8 to
configure port 8 on the
Switch.
sysname(config-mvr)#
Enter exit to quit from the current mode or enter logout to exit the command interpreter.
38.8 Getting Help
The system includes a help facility to provide you with the following information about the
commands:
• List of available commands under a command group.
• Detailed descriptions of the commands.
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
38.8.1 List of Available Commands
Enter “help” to display a list of available commands and the corresponding sub commands.
sysname> help
Commands available:
help
logout
exit
history
enable
show ip <cr>
show hardware-monitor <C|F>
show system-information
ping <ip|host-name> <cr>
ping <ip|host-name> [vlan <vlan-id>][..]
ping help
traceroute <ip|host-name> <cr>
traceroute <ip|host-name> [vlan <vlan-id>][..]
traceroute help
ssh <1|2> <[user@]dest-ip> <cr>
ssh <1|2> <[user@]dest-ip> [command </>]
sysname>
Enter “?” to display a list of commands you can use.
sysname> ?
enable
exit
help
history
logout
ping
show
ssh
traceroute
sysname>
Turn on privileged commands
Exit from the EXEC
Description of the interactive help system
Show a list of previously run commands
Exit from the EXEC
Exec ping
Show system information
SSH client
Exec traceroute
Enter <command> help to display detailed sub commands and parameters.
sysname> ping help
Commands available:
ping <ip|host-name>
<
[ in-band|out-of-band|vlan <vlan-id> ]
[ size <0-1472> ]
[ -t ]
>
sysname>
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Enter <command> ? to display detailed help information about the sub commands and
parameters.
sysname> ping ?
<ip|host-name>
help
destination ip address
Description of ping help
sysname>
38.9 Using Command History
The Switch keeps a list of recently used commands available to you for reuse. You can use any
commands in the history again by pressing the up (y) or down (z) arrow key to scroll through
the previously used commands and press [ENTER]. Use the history command to display the list
of commands.
sysname> history
enable
exit
show ip
history
sysname>
38.10 Saving Your Configuration
After you set the Switch’s settings with the configuration commands, use the write memory
command to save the changes permanently.
"
"
The write memory command is not available in User mode.
You must save your changes after each CLI session. All unsaved configuration
changes are lost once you restart the Switch.
sysname# write memory
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
38.10.1 Configuration File
When you configure the Switch using either the CLI (Command Line Interface) or web
configurator, the settings are saved as a series of commands in a configuration file on the
Switch. You can perform the following with a configuration file:
• Back up configuration once the Switch is set up to work in your network.
• Restore configuration.
• Use the same configuration file to set all Switches (of the same model) in your network to
the same settings.
"
"
You may also edit a configuration file using a text editor.
Make sure you use valid commands. The Switch rejects configuration files with
invalid or incomplete commands.
38.10.2 Logging Out
In User or Enable mode, enter the exit or logout command to log out of the CLI. In Config
mode entering exit takes you out of the Config mode and into Enable mode and entering
logout logs you out of the CLI.
38.11 Command Summary
The following sections summarize the commands available in the Switch together with a brief
description of each command. Commands listed in the tables are in the same order as they are
displayed in the CLI. See the related section in the User’s Guide for more background
information.
38.11.1 User Mode
The following table describes the commands available for User mode.
Table 88 Command Summary: User Mode
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
help
Displays help information.
0
logout
Exits from the CLI.
0
exit
Logs out from the CLI.
0
history
Displays a list of previously command(s) that you
have executed. The Switch stores up to 256
commands in history.
0
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 88 Command Summary: User Mode (continued)
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
enable
Accesses Enable (or privileged) mode. See
Section 38.11.2 on page 237.
0
ip
Displays IP related information.
0
hardware-monitor <C|F>
Displays current hardware monitor information with
the specified temperature unit (Celsius C or
Fahrenheit F).
0
system-information
Displays general system information.
0
<IP|host-name>
Sends Ping request to an Ethernet device.
0
<IP|host-name> [vlan
<vlan-id>]
[size <0-1472>]
[-t]
Sends Ping request to an Ethernet device in the
specified VLAN(s) with the specified parameters.
0
help
Displays command help information.
0
<ip|host-name>
Determines the path a packet takes to a device.
0
<ip|host-name>
[vlan <vlan-id>]
[ttl <1-255>]
[wait <1-60>]
[queries <1-10>]
Determines the path a packet takes to a device in a
VLAN.
0
help
Displays command help information.
0
<1|2> <[user@]dest-ip>
Connects to an SSH server with the specified SSH
version.
0
show
ping
traceroute
ssh
38.11.2 Enable Mode
The following table describes the commands available for Enable mode.
Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
baudrate
<1|2|3|4|5>
Changes the console port speed.
Choices are 1 (9600), 2 (19200),
3(38400), 4 (57600) and 5
(115200).
13
Restarts the system with the
specified configuration file.
13
Accesses Configuration mode.
See Section 38.11.3 on page 242.
13
running-config
tftp <ip>
<remote-file>
Backs up running configuration to
the specified TFTP server with the
specified file name.
13
running-config
interface portchannel <port>
<port-list>
Clones (copies) the attributes
from the specified port to other
ports.
13
boot
config <index>
configure
copy
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode (continued)
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
running-config
interface portchannel <port>
<port-list>
[bandwidth-limit
....]
Copies the specified attributes
from one port to other ports.
13
tftp
config <index>
<ip> <remotefile>
Restores configuration with the
specified filename from the
specified TFTP server to the
specified configuration file on the
router.
13
flash <ip>
<remote-file>
Restores firmware via TFTP.
13
disable
Exits Enable (or privileged) mode.
13
enable
Accesses Enable (or privileged)
mode.
13
Resets to the factory default
settings.
13
Resets to the factory default
settings on a per port basis and
optionally on a per feature
configuration basis.
13
exit
Exits Enable (or privileged) mode.
13
help
Displays help information.
13
history
Displays a list of command(s) that
you have previously executed.
13
igmp-flush
Removes all IGMP information.
13
Disconnects the specified TCP
session.
13
logout
Exits Enable (or privileged) mode.
13
mac-flush
Clears the MAC address table.
13
<port-num>
Removes all learned MAC
address on the specified port(s).
13
logging
Disables syslog logging.
13
Sends Ping request to an Ethernet
device.
13
[vlan <vlanid>][..]
Sends Ping request to an Ethernet
device in the specified VLAN(s).
13
reload
config <index>
Restarts the system and use the
specified configuration file.
13
show
classifier
Displays all classifier related
information.
13
Displays the specified classifier
related information.
13
Displays cluster management
status.
13
erase
running-config
interface portchannel <portlist> [bandwidthlimit...]
kick
no
tcp <Session ID>
ping
<IP|hostname>
[name]
cluster
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
candidates
Displays cluster candidate
information.
13
member
Displays the MAC address of the
cluster member(s).
13
member config
Displays the configuration of the
cluster member(s).
13
member mac <macaddr>
Displays the status of the cluster
member(s).
13
relay
Displays DHCP relay settings.
13
server
Displays DHCP server settings.
13
server <vlnd-id>
Displays DHCP server settings in
a specified VLAN.
13
diffserv
Displays general DiffServ settings.
13
garp
Displays GARP information.
13
Displays current hardware monitor
information with the specified
temperature unit (Celsius C or
Fahrenheit F).
13
Displays the HTTPS information.
13
COMMAND
dhcp
hardware-monitor
<C|F>
https
certificate
Displays the HTTPS certificates.
13
key <rsa|dsa>
Displays the HTTPS key.
13
session
Displays current HTTPS
session(s).
13
timeout
Displays the HTTPS session
timeout.
13
profile [name]
Displays IGMP filtering profile
settings.
13
igmp-snooping
Displays global IGMP snooping
settings.
13
interface <portnumber>
Displays current interface status.
13
interfaces <portlist>
Displays current interfaces status.
13
interfaces config
<port-list>
Displays current interface
configuration.
13
bandwidth-control
Displays bandwidth control
settings.
13
bstorm-control
Displays broadcast storm control
settings.
13
egress
Displays outgoing port
information.
13
igmp-filtering
Displays IGMP filtering settings.
13
igmp-grouplimited
Displays the IGMP group limit.
13
igmp-filtering
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
igmp-immediateleave
Displays the IGMP Immediate
Leave setting.
13
igmp-query-mode
Displays IGMP query mode for the
specified port.
13
COMMAND
Displays IP related information.
13
arp
Displays the ARP table.
13
igmp
DIsplays the IGMP setting.
13
iptable all
[IP|VID|PORT]
Displays the IP address table. You
can sort the table based on the IP
address, VLAN ID or the port
number.
13
iptable count
Displays the number of IP
addresses in the IP table.
13
iptable static
Displays the status IP address
table.
13
route
Displays IP routing information.
13
route static
Displays IP static route
information.
13
tcp
Displays IP TCP information.
13
udp
ip
Displays IP UDP information.
13
lacp
Displays LACP (Link Aggregation
Control Protocol) settings.
13
logging
Displays system logs.
13
loginPrecedence
Displays login precedence
settings.
13
logins
Displays login account
information.
13
address-table
<all
[mac|vid|port]>
Displays MAC address table.
You can sort by MAC address,
VID or port.
13
address-table
static
Displays static MAC address
table.
13
address-table
count
Displays the number of entries in
the MAC address table.
13
mac-aging-time
Displays MAC learning aging
time.
13
mac-count
Displays the count of MAC
addresses learnt.
13
mrstp <treeindex>
Displays multiple rapid spanning
tree configuration for the specified
tree.
13
multicast
Displays multicast settings.
13
multi-login
Displays multi-login information
14
mvr
DIsplays all MVR settings.
13
mac
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Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Displays the specified MVR group
settings.
13
Displays all policy related
information.
13
Displays the specified policy
related information.
13
Displays all port authentication
settings.
13
Displays port authentication
settings on the specified port(s).
13
Displays all port security settings.
13
Displays port security settings on
the specified port(s).
13
radius-server
Displays RADIUS server settings.
13
remote-management
Displays all secured client
information.
13
[index]
Displays the specified secured
client information.
13
igmp
Displays global IGMP settings.
13
rip
Displays global RIP settings.
13
Displays current operating
configuration.
13
Displays current operating
configuration on a port by port
basis. Optionally specifies which
settings are displayed.
13
service-control
Displays service control settings.
13
snmp-server
Displays SNMP settings.
13
Displays Spanning Tree Protocol
(STP) settings.
13
Displays general SSH settings.
13
known-hosts
Displays known SSH hosts
information.
13
key
<rsa1|rsa|dsa>
Displays internal SSH public and
private key information.
13
session
Displays current SSH session(s).
13
systeminformation
Displays general system
information.
13
time
Displays current system time and
date.
13
timesync
Displays time server information.
13
trunk
Displays link aggregation
information.
13
vlan
Displays the status of all VLANs.
13
COMMAND
<VID>
policy
[name]
port-accessauthenticator
[port-list]
port-security
[port-list]
router
running-config
interface portchannel <portlist> [bandwidthlimit...]
spanning-tree
config
ssh
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 89 Command Summary: Enable Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Displays the status of the
specified VLAN.
13
Displays VLAN stacking settings.
13
gvrp
Displays GVRP settings.
13
port-isolation
Displays port isolation settings.
13
Connects to an SSH server with
the specified SSH version.
13
Connects to an SSH server with
the specified SSH version and
addition commands to be
executed on the server.
13
<ip|host-name>
[in-band|out-ofband|vlan <vlanid>][ttl <1-255>]
[wait <1-60>]
[queries <1-10>]
Determines the path a packet
takes to a device.
13
help
Displays help information for this
command.
13
memory
Saves current configuration to the
configuration file the Switch is
currently using.
13
Saves current configuration to the
specified configuration file on the
Switch.
13
COMMAND
<vlan-id>
vlan-stacking
vlan1q
ssh
<1|2>
<[user@]dest-ip>
[command </>]
traceroute
write
<index>
38.11.3 General Configuration Mode
The following table lists the commands in Configuration (or Config) mode.
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Changes the administrator
password.
14
bandwidthcontrol
Enables bandwidth control.
13
bcptransparenc
y
Enables Bridge Control Protocol
(BCP) transparency.
13
COMMAND
adminpassword
242
<pw-string>
<confirm-string>
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
<name> <[packetformat
<802.3untag|802.3t
ag| EtherIIuntag|
EtherIItag>]
[priority <0-7>]
[vlan <vlanid>][ethernet-type
<ether-num|ip|ipx|
arp|rarp|
appletalk|decnet|
sna|netbios|dlc>]
[source-mac <srcmac-addr>]
[source-port
<port-num>]
[destination-mac
<dest-mac-addr>]
[dscp <0-63> ]
[ip-protocol
<protocolnum|tcp|udp|icmp|e
gp|rsvp|igmp|
igp|pim|ipsec>
[establish-only]]
[source-ip <srcip-addr> [maskbits <mask-bits>]]
[source-socket
<socket-num>]
[destination-ip
<dest-ip-addr>
[mask-bits <maskbits>]]
[destinationsocket <socketnum>] [inactive]>
Configures a classifier. A
classifier groups traffic into data
flows according to specific
criteria such as the source
address, destination address,
source port number, destination
port number or incoming port
number.
13
help
Displays help information for this
command.
13
<vlan-id>
Enables clustering in the
specified VLAN group.
13
member <macaddress> password
<password-str>
Sets the cluster member.
13
name <cluster
name>
Sets a descriptive name for the
cluster.
13
rcommand <macaddress>
Logs into the CLI of the specified
cluster member.
13
defaultmanagement
<in-band|out-ofband>
Specifies through which traffic
flow the Switch is to send
packets.
13
dhcp
relay
Enables DHCP relay.
13
COMMAND
classifier
cluster
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
helper-address
<remote-dhcpserver1>
<remote-dhcpserver2>
<remote-dhcpserver3>
Sets the IP addresses of up to 3
DHCP servers.
13
information
Allows the Switch to add system
name to agent information.
13
option
Allows the Switch to add DHCP
relay agent information.
13
startingaddress <ipaddr> <subnetmask> size-ofclient-ip-pool
<1-253>
[defaultgateway <ipaddr][primarydns <ip-addr>]
[secondary-dns
<ip-addr>]
Configures a DHCP server for
the specified VLAN. Optionally
specifies the default gateway
and DNS servers for this DHCP
server to assign.
13
Enables DiffServ.
13
Sets the DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1q
mappings.
13
Exits from the CLI.
13
Configures GARP time settings.
13
help
Displays help information.
13
history
Displays a list of previous
command(s) that you have
executed.
13
COMMAND
server <vlan-id>
diffserv
dscp <0-63>
priority <0-7>
exit
garp
join <100-65535>
leave <msec>
leaveall <msec>
hostname
<name_string>
Sets the Switch’s name for
identification purposes.
13
https
cert-regeneration
<rsa|dsa>
Re-generates a certificate.
13
timeout <0-65535>
Sets the HTTPS timeout period.
13
Enables IGMP filtering on the
Switch.
13
Sets the range of multicast
address(es) in a profile.
13
Enables IGMP snooping.
13
igmpfiltering
profile <name>
start-address <ip>
end-address <ip>
igmpsnooping
8021p-priority
244
<0-7>
Sets the 802.1p priority for
13
outgoing igmp snooping packets.
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
COMMAND
interface
ip
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
host-timeout
<1-16711450>
Sets the host timeout value.
13
leave-timeout
<1-16711450>
Sets the leave timeout value
13
unknown-multicastframe
<drop|flooding>
Sets how to treat traffic from
unknown multicast group.
13
reservedmulticast-group
<drop|flooding>
Sets how to treat traffic
belonging to reserved multicast
groups.
13
port-channel
<port-list>
Enables a port or a list of ports
for configuration. See Section
38.11.4 on page 255 for more
details.
13
route-domain <ipaddress>/<maskbits>
Enables a routing domain for
configuration. See Section
38.11.5 on page 258 for more
details.
13
<ip> <mask>
Sets the IP address and subnet
mask of the out-of-band
management port.
13
default-gateway
<ip>
Sets the default gateway’s IP
address for the out-of-band
management port.
13
name-server
<ip>
Sets the IP address of a domain
name server.
13
route
<ip> <mask>
<next-hop-ip>
Creates a static route.
13
<ip> <mask>
<next-hop-ip>
[metric
<metric>] [name
<name>]
[inactive]
Sets the metric of a static route
or deactivates a static route.
13
Enables Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP).
13
Sets the priority of an active port
using LACP.
13
address
lacp
system-priority
<1-65535>
loginPreced
ence
<LocalOnly |
LocalRADIUS |
RADIUSOnly>
Select which database the
Switch should use (first) to
authenticate a user.
13
logins
username <name>
password <pwd>
Configures up to four read-only
login accounts.
14
Assigns a privilege level to user
accounts.
14
Exits from the CLI.
13
Sets learned MAC aging time.
13
username <name>
logout
mac-agingtime
<10-3000>
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245
Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
COMMAND
mac-filter
name <name> mac
<mac-addr> vlan
<vlan-id> drop
<src/dst/both>
inactive
mac-forward
name <name> mac
<mac-addr> vlan
<vlan-id>
interface
<interface-id>
inactive
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Configures a static MAC address
port filtering rule.
13
Disables a static MAC address
port filtering rule.
13
Configures a static MAC address
forwarding rule.
13
Disables a static MAC address
forwarding rule.
13
Enables port mirroring.
13
<port-num>
Enables port mirroring on a
specified port.
13
mode
zynos
Changes the CLI mode to the
ZyNOS format.
13
mrstp
<tree-index>
Activates the specified STP
configuration.
13
priority <061440>
Sets the priority for the specified
tree.
13
hello-time <110> maximum-age
<6-40> forwarddelay <4-30>
Sets hello-time, maximum-age
and forward delay for the
specified tree.
13
Activates STP on the specified
ports.
13
path-cost <165535>
Sets a path cost to the specified
ports.
13
priority <0255>
Sets the priority value to the
specified ports for STP.
13
tree-index <14>
Assigns a specific STP
configuration to the ports.
13
Displays the detailed help for the
mrstp command.
13
Enables multi-login.
14
mirror-port
interface <portlist>
help
multi-login
mvr
<vlan-id>
Enters the MVR (Multicast VLAN
Registration) configuration
mode.
Refer to Section 38.12 on page
260 for more information.
13
no
bandwidth-control
Disable bandwidth control on the
Switch.
13
bcp-transparency
246
13
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
<name>
Disables the classifier. Each
classifier has one rule.
If you disable a classifier you
cannot use policy rule related
information.
13
<name> inactive
Enables a classifier.
13
Disables cluster management on
the Switch.
13
Removes the cluster member.
13
Disables DHCP relay.
13
information
Disables the relay agent
information option 82.
13
option
System name is not appended to
option 82 information field.
13
Disables DHCP server settings.
13
default-gateway
Disables DHCP server default
gateway settings.
13
primary-dns
Disables DHCP primary DNS
server settings.
13
secondary-dns
Disables DHCP server
secondary DNS settings.
13
Disables the DiffServ settings.
13
Resets the session timeout to the
default of 300 seconds.
13
Disables IGMP filtering on the
Switch.
13
profile <name>
Disables the specified IGMP
filtering profile.
13
profile <name>
start-address
<ip> endaddress <ip>
Clears the settings of the
specified IGMP filtering profile.
13
igmp-snooping
Disables IGMP snooping.
13
ip
Sets the management IP
address to the default value.
13
route <ip>
<mask>
Removes a specified IP static
route.
13
route <ip>
<mask> inactive
Enables a specified IP static
route.
13
lacp
Disables the link aggregation
control protocol (dynamic
trunking) on the Switch.
13
logins <name>
Disables login access to the
specified name.
14
COMMAND
classifier
cluster
member <macaddress>
dhcp relay
dhcp server <vlanid>
diffserv
https
timeout
igmp-filtering
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
name <name> mac
<mac-addr> vlan
<vlan-id> drop
<src|dst|both>
inactive
Enables the specified MAC-filter
rule.
13
name <name> mac
<mac-addr> vlan
<vlan-id> drop
<src|dst|both>
Disables the specified MAC filter
rule.
13
name <name> mac
<mac-addr> vlan
<vlan-id>
interface
<interface-id>
Removes the specified MAC
forwarding entry, belonging to a
VLAN group (if any) forwarded
through an interface(s).
13
name <name> mac
<mac-addr> vlan
<vlan-id>
interface
<interface-id>
inactive
Enables the specified MAC
address, belonging to a VLAN
group (if any) forwarded through
an interface(s).
13
Disables port mirroring on the
Switch.
13
COMMAND
mac-filter
mac-forward
mirror-port
mrstp
<treeIndex>
Disables the specified STP
configuration.
13
mrstp
interface
<port-list>
Disables the STP assignment
from the specified port(s).
13
multi-login
Disables another administrator
from logging into Telnet or the
CLI.
14
mvr <vlan-id>
Disables MVR on the Switch.
13
policy <name>
Deletes the policy. A policy sets
actions for the classified traffic.
13
Enables a policy.
13
Disables port authentication on
the Switch.
13
<port-list>
Disables authentication on the
listed ports.
13
<port-list>
reauthenticate
Disables the re-authentication
mechanism on the listed port(s).
13
Disables port security on the
device.
13
<port-list>
Disables port security on the
specified ports.
13
<port-list>
learn inactive
Enables MAC address learning
on the specified ports.
13
<index>
Disables the use of
authentication from the specified
RADIUS server.
13
inactive
port-accessauthenticator
port-security
radius-server
248
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Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
<index>
Clears a secure client set entry
from the list of secure clients.
13
<index> service
<telnet| ftp|
http| icmp|
snmp| ssh|
https>
Disables a secure client set entry
number from using the selected
remote management service.
13
igmp
Disables IGMP on the Switch.
13
rip
Disable RIP on the Switch.
13
ftp
Disables FTP access to the
Switch.
13
http
Disables web browser control to
the Switch.
13
https
Disables secure web browser
access to the Switch.
13
icmp
Disables ICMP access to the
Switch such as pinging and
tracerouting.
13
snmp
Disables SNMP management.
13
ssh
Disables SSH (Secure Shell)
server access to the Switch.
13
telnet
Disables telnet access to the
Switch.
13
trapdestination
<ip>
Disables sending of SNMP traps
to a station.
13
Disables STP.
13
<port-list>
Disables STP on listed ports.
13
key
<rsa1|rsa|dsa>
Disables the secure shell server
encryption key. Your Switch
supports SSH versions 1 and 2
using RSA and DSA
authentication.
13
known-hosts
<host-ip>
Removes the specified remote
hosts from the list of all known
hosts.
13
known-hosts
<host-ip>
[1024|sshrsa|ssh-dsa]
Removes remote known hosts
with the specified public key
(1024-bit RSA1, RSA or DSA).
13
Disables broadcast storm
control.
13
Disables syslog logging.
13
Disables syslog logging to the
specified syslog server.
13
COMMAND
remote-management
router
service-control
snmp-server
spanning-tree
ssh
storm-control
syslog
server <ipaddress>
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
server <ipaddress>
inactive
Enables syslog logging to the
specified syslog server.
13
type [type]
DIsables syslog logging for the
specified log type (sys, link,
config, error or report).
13
Disables timeserver settings.
13
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5
|T6>
Disables the specified trunk
group.
13
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5
|T6> interface
<port-list>
Removes ports from the
specified trunk group.
13
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5
|T6> lacp
Disables LACP in the specified
trunk group.
13
vlan
<vlan-id>
Deletes the static VLAN entry.
13
vlan1q
gvrp
Disables GVRP on the Switch.
13
port-isolation
Disables port isolation.
13
Disables VLAN stacking.
13
Change the password for Enable
mode.
14
COMMAND
timesync
trunk
vlan-stacking
password
250
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Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
COMMAND
policy
<name> classifier
<classifier-list>
<
[vlan<vlan-id>]
[egress-port
<port-num>]
[priority <0-7>]
[dscp <0-63>]
[tos <0-7>]
[bandwidth
<bandwidth>]
[outgoing-packetformat
<tagged|untagged>]
[out-of-profiledscp <0-63>]
[forward-action
<drop|forward>]
[queue-action
<prio-set|prioqueue|prioreplace-tos>]
[diffserv-action
<diff-settos|diff-replacepriority|diff-setdscp>]
[outgoing-mirror]
[outgoing-eport]
[outgoing-nonunicast-eport]
[outgoing-setvlan]
[metering]
[out-of-profileaction <[changedscp][drop][forwar
d] [set-dropprecedence]>]
[inactive]>
portaccessauthenticat
or
<port-list>
reauthenticate
GS-2724 User’s Guide
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Configures a policy. A classifier
distinguishes traffic into flows
based on the configured criteria.
A policy rule ensures that a traffic
flow gets the requested
treatment in the network.
13
Enables 802.1x authentication
on the Switch.
13
Enables 802.1x authentication
on the specified port(s).
13
Sets a subscriber to periodically
re-enter his or her username and
password to stay connected to a
specified port.
13
251
Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Specifies how often a client has
to re-enter the username and
password to stay connected to
the specified port(s).
13
Enables port security on the
device.
13
Enables port security on the
specified port(s).
13
learn inactive
Disables MAC address learning
on the specified port(s).
13
address-limit
<number>
Limits the number of (dynamic)
MAC addresses that may be
learned on a port.
13
MAC-freeze
Adds learned MAC addresses to
the static MAC table and stops
learning any more MAC
addresses.
13
COMMAND
reauth-period
<reauth-period>
portsecurity
<port-list>
queue
priority <0-7>
level <0-7>
Sets the priority level-to-physical
queue mapping.
13
radiusserver
host <index> <ip>
Specifies the IP address of
RADIUS server 1 or RADIUS
server 2 (index =1 or index =2).
13
Sets the port number and key of
the external RADIUS server.
13
Specifies the RADIUS server
timeout value.
13
Specifies the mode for RADIUS
server selection.
13
[auth-port
<socketnumber>] [key
<key-string>]
timeout <1-1000>
mode
<priority|round
-robin>
remotemanagement
<index> start-addr
<ip> end-addr <ip>
service
<telnet|ftp|http|
icmp|snmp>
Specifies a group of trusted
computer(s) from which an
administrator may use a service
to manage the Switch.
13
router
igmp
Enables and enters the IGMP
configuration mode.
13
exit
Leaves the IGMP configuration
mode.
13
non-querier
Sets the Switch into a nonquerier mode. It will not send
igmp query messages.
13
no non-querier
Disables non-querier mode on
the Switch.
13
Enables and enters the RIP
configuration mode.
13
Leaves the RIP configuration
mode.
13
rip
exit
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
ftp <socketnumber>
Allows FTP access on the
specified service port.
13
http <socketnumber> <timeout>
Allows HTTP access on the
specified service port and
defines the timeout period.
13
https <socketnumber>
Allows HTTPS access on the
specified service port.
13
icmp
Allows ICMP management
packets.
13
snmp
Allows SNMP management.
13
ssh <socketnumber>
Allows SSH access on the
specified service port.
13
telnet <socketnumber>
Allows Telnet access on the
specified service port.
13
[contact <system
contact>]
[location <system
location>]
Sets the geographic location and
the name of the person in charge
of this Switch.
13
get-community
<property>
Sets the get community.
13
set-community
<property>
Sets the set community.
13
trap-community
<property>
Sets the trap community.
13
trap-destination
<ip>
Sets the IP addresses of up to
four stations to send your SNMP
traps to.
13
Enables STP on the Switch.
13
COMMAND
servicecontrol
snmp-server
spanningtree
ssh
<port-list>
Enables STP on a specified port. 13
<port-list> pathcost <1-65535>
Sets the STP path cost for a
specified port.
13
<port-list>
priority <0-255>
Sets the priority for a specified
port.
13
hello-time <1-10>
maximum-age <6-40>
forward-delay <430>
Sets Hello Time, Maximum Age
and Forward Delay.
13
help
Displays help information.
13
priority <0-61440>
Sets the bridge priority of the
Switch.
13
known-hosts <hostip> <1024|sshrsa|ssh-dsa> <key>
Adds a remote host to which the
Switch can access using SSH
service.
13
Enables broadcast storm control
on the Switch.
13
stormcontrol
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 90 Command Summary: Configuration Mode (continued)
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
syslog
Enables syslog logging.
13
inactive
Disables syslog logging to the
specified syslog server.
13
level [0 ~ 7]
Sets the IP address of the syslog
server and the severity level.
13
type <type>
facility [local 1
..7]
Sets the log type and the file
location on the syslog server.
13
<Hour:Min:Sec>
Sets the time in hour, minute and
second format.
13
date <month/day/
year>
Sets the date in year, month and
day format.
13
help
Displays help information.
13
timezone <1200|...|1200>
Selects the time difference
between UTC (formerly known
as GMT) and your time zone.
13
<daytime|time|ntp>
Sets the time server protocol.
13
server <ip>
Sets the IP address of your time
server.
13
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6
>
Activates a trunk group.
13
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6
>lacp
Enables LACP for a trunk group.
13
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6
>interface <portlist>
Adds a port(s) to the specified
trunk group.
13
interface <portlist> timeout
<lacp-timeout>
Defines the port number and
LACP timeout period.
13
vlan
<vlan-id>
Enters the VLAN configuration
mode. See Section 38.11.6 on
page 259 for more information.
13
vlan1q
gvrp
Enables GVRP.
13
port-isolation
Enables port-isolation.
13
Enables VLAN stacking on the
Switch.
13
<SPTPID>
Sets the SP TPID (Service
Provider Tag Protocol Identifier).
13
<802.1q|portbased>
Specifies the VLAN type.
13
server <ipaddress>
time
timesync
trunk
vlanstacking
vlan-type
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38.11.4 interface port-channel Commands
The following table lists the interface port-channel commands in configuration mode.
Use these commands to configure the ports.
Table 91 interface port-channel Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
interface
portchannel
<portlist>
Enables a port or a list of ports for
configuration.
13
Enables ingress (pir), cir and
egress limits on the port(s).
13
cir
Enables the guaranteed
bandwidth limits for incoming
traffic on the port(s).
13
cir <Kbps>
Sets the guaranteed bandwidth
allowed for incoming traffic on the
port(s).
13
pir
Enables bandwidth limits allowed
for incoming traffic on the port(s).
13
pir <Kbps>
Sets the maximum bandwidth
allowed for incoming traffic on the
port(s).
13
egress
Enables bandwidth limits allowed
for outgoing traffic on the port(s).
13
egress <Kbps>
Sets the maximum bandwidth
allowed for outgoing traffic on the
port(s).
13
bpdu-control
<peer|tunnel|disc
ard|network>
Sets how Bridge Protocol Data
Units (BPDUs) are used in STP
port states.
13
broadcast-limit
Enables broadcast storm control
limit on the port(s).
13
Specifies the maximum number of
broadcast packets to allow
through the port.
13
diffserv
Enables DiffServ on the port(s).
13
dlf-limit
Enables the Destination Lookup
Failure (DLF) limit.
13
Sets the interface DLF limit in
packets per second (pps).
13
egress set <portlist>
Sets the outgoing traffic port list
for a port-based VLAN.
13
exit
Exits from the interface portchannel command mode.
13
flow-control
Enables interface flow control.
Flow control regulates
transmissions to match the
bandwidth of the receiving port.
13
bandwidth-limit
<pkt/s>
<pkt/s>
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 91 interface port-channel Commands (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Choose to accept both tagged and
untagged incoming frames, just
tagged incoming frames or just
untagged incoming frames on a
port.
13
Enables strict priority queuing
starting with the specified queue
and subsequent higher queues on
the Gigabit ports.
13
gvrp
Enables this function to permit
VLAN groups beyond the local
switch.
13
help
Displays a description of the
interface port-channel commands.
13
Applies the specified IGMP
filtering profile.
13
Enables the IGMP group limiting
feature.
13
Sets the maximum number IGMP
groups allowed.
13
igmp-immediateleave
Enables the IGMP immediate
leave function.
13
igmp-querier-mode
<auto|fixed|edge>
Sets the IGMP query mode for the
port.
13
inactive
Disables the specified port(s) on
the Switch.
13
ingress-check
Enables the device to discard
incoming frames for VLANs that
are not included in a port member
set.
13
intrusion-lock
Enables intrusion lock on the
port(s) and a port cannot be
connected again after you
disconnected the cable.
13
mirror
Enables port mirroring in the
interface.
13
Enables port mirroring for
incoming, outgoing or both
incoming and outgoing traffic.
Port mirroring copies traffic from
one or all ports to another or all
ports for external analysis.
13
Enables the port(s) multicast limit.
13
Sets how many multicast packets
the port(s) receives per second.
13
Sets a name for the port(s). Enter
a descriptive name (up to nine
printable ASCII characters).
13
COMMAND
frame-type
<all|tagged|untag
ged>
ge-spq
igmp-filtering
<q0|q1|...|q7>
profile <profile>
igmp-grouplimited
number <number>
dir <ingress|
egress|both>
multicast-limit
<pkt/s>
name <port-namestring>
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 91 interface port-channel Commands (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
bandwidth-limit
Disables bandwidth limit on the
port(s).
13
bandwidth-limit
<cir>
Disables cir bandwidth limits on
the port(s).
13
bandwidth-limit
<pir>
Disables pir bandwidth limits on
the port(s).
13
bandwidth-limit
<egress>
Disables egress bandwidth limits
on the port(s).
13
broadcast-limit
Disables broadcast storm control
limit on the port(s).
13
diffserv
Disables DiffServ on the port(s).
13
dlf-limit
Disables destination lookup failure
(DLF) on the Switch.
13
egress-set <portlist>
Disables the egress port setting.
13
flow-control
Disables flow control on the
port(s).
13
ge-spq
Disables strict priority queuing on
the Gigabit ports.
13
gvrp
Disable GVRP on the port(s).
13
igmp-filtering
profile
Disables IGMP filtering.
13
igmp-group-limit
Disables IGMP group limitation.
13
igmp-immediateleave
Disables the IGMP immidiate
leave function.
13
inactive
Enables the port(s) on the Switch.
13
ingress-check
Disables ingress checking on the
port(s).
13
intrusion-lock
Disables intrusion-lock on a port
so that a port can be connected
again after you disconnected the
cable.
13
mirror
Disables port mirroring on the
port(s).
13
multicast-limit
Disables multicast limit on the
port(s).
13
vlan-trunking
Disables VLAN trunking on the
port(s).
13
The default PVID is VLAN 1 for all
ports. Sets a PVID in the range 1
to 4094 for the specified interface.
13
Sets the quality of service priority
for an interface.
13
COMMAND
no
pvid <vlan-id>
qos
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priority <0 .. 7>
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 91 interface port-channel Commands (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
Sets the duplex mode (half or
full) and speed (10, 100 or
1000 Mbps) of the connection on
the interface. Selecting auto
(auto-negotiation) makes one port
able to negotiate with a peer
automatically to obtain the
connection speed and duplex
mode that both ends support.
13
Sets the port(s) to use Strict
Priority Queuing.
13
priority <0-7>
Sets the priority of the specified
port(s) in VLAN stacking.
13
role <access |
tunnel>
Sets the VLAN stacking port roles
of the specified port(s).
13
SPVID <vlan-id>
Sets the service provider VID of
the specified port(s).
13
vlan-trunking
Enables VLAN Trunking on ports
connected to other switches or
routers (but not ports directly
connected to end users) to allow
frames belonging to unknown
VLAN groups to pass through the
Switch.
13
weight <wt1>
<wt2> ... <wt8>
A weight value of one to eight is
given to each variable from wt 1 to
wt 8.
13
wrr
Sets the port(s) to use Weighted
Round Robin queuing.
13
COMMAND
speed-duplex
<auto|10-half|10full|100half|100full|1000-full>
spq
vlan-stacking
38.11.5 interface route-domain Commands
The following table lists the interface route-domain commands in configuration mode.
Use these commands to configure the IP routing domains.
Table 92 interface route-domain Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
interface
route-domain
<ip-address>/
<mask-bits>
Enables a routing domain for
configuration.
13
Exits from the interface routingdomain command mode.
13
igmp <v1|v2>
Enables IGMP in this routing
domain.
13
igmp robustnessvariable <2-255>
Sets the igmp robustness
variable on the Switch. This
variable specifies how
susceptible the subnet is to lost
packets.
13
exit
ip
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Table 92 interface route-domain Commands (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
igmp query-interval
Sets the igmp query interval on
the Switch. This variable
specifies the amount of time in
seconds between general query
messages sent by the router.
13
igmp query-maxresponse-time <1-25>
Sets the maximum time that the
router waits for a response to an
general query message.
13
igmp last-memberquery-interval <1-25>
Sets the amount of time in
seconds that the router waits for
a response to a group specific
query message.
13
rip direction
<Outgoing|Incoming|Bo
th|None> version
<v1|v2b|v2m>
Sets the RIP direction in this
routing domain as well as the
version number.
13
ip igmp
Disables IP IGMP in this routing
domain.
13
COMMAND
no
38.11.6 config-vlan Commands
The following table lists the vlan commands in configuration mode.
Table 93 Command Summary: config-vlan Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
vlan
<vlan-id>
Creates a new VLAN group.
13
exit
Leaves the VLAN configuration
mode.
13
fixed <port-list>
Specifies the port(s) to be a
permanent member of this VLAN
group.
13
forbidden <portlist>
Specifies the port(s) you want to
prohibit from joining this VLAN
group.
13
help
Displays a list of available VLAN
commands.
13
inactive
Disables the specified VLAN.
13
<ip-address> <mask>
Sets the IP address of the
Switch in the VLAN.
13
<ip-address> <mask>
manageable
Sets the IP address of the
Switch in the VLAN and allow
remote management to this IP
address.
13
ip address
default-gateway <ip- Sets the default gateway IP
address in this VLAN.
address>
name <name-str>
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Specifies a name for
identification purposes.
13
13
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Chapter 38 Introducing Commands
Table 93 Command Summary: config-vlan Commands (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
fixed <port-list>
Sets fixed port(s) to normal
port(s).
13
forbidden <portlist>
Sets forbidden port(s) to normal
port(s).
13
inactive
Enables the specified VLAN.
13
ip address <ipaddress> <mask>
Deletes the IP address and
subnet mask from this VLAN.
13
ip address defaultgateway
Deletes the default gateway from
this VLAN.
13
untagged <port-list> Specifies the port(s) you want to
tag all outgoing frames
transmitted with this VLAN
Group ID.
13
normal <portlist>
Specifies the port(s) to
dynamically join this VLAN group
using GVRP
13
untagged <portlist>
Specifies the port(s) you don’t
want to tag all outgoing frames
transmitted with this VLAN
Group ID.
13
COMMAND
no
38.12 mvr Commands
The following table lists the mvr commands in configuration mode.
Table 94 Command Summary: mvr Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
mvr <vlanid>
Enters the MVR (Multicast
VLAN Registration)
configuration mode.
13
exit
Exist from the MVR
configuration mode.
13
group <name-str>
start-address
<ip> end-address
<ip>
Sets the multicast group range
for the MVR.
13
inactive
Disables MVR settings.
13
mode <dynamic|
compatible>
Sets the MVR mode (dynamic
or compatible).
13
name <name-str>
Sets the MVR name for
identification purposes.
13
group
Disables all MVR group
settings.
13
group <name-str>
Disables the specified MVR
group setting.
13
inactive
Enables MVR.
13
no
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Table 94 Command Summary: mvr Commands (continued)
DESCRIPTION
PRIVILEG
E
receiver-port
<port-list>
Disables the receiver port(s).An
MVR receiver port can only
receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN.
13
source-port <portlist>
Disables the source port(s).An
MVR source port can send and
receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN.
13
tagged <port-list>
Sets the port(s) to untag VLAN
tags.
13
receiver-port
<port-list>
Sets the receiver port(s).An
MVR receiver port can only
receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN.
13
source-port
<port-list>
Sets the source port(s).An
MVR source port can send and
receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN.
13
tagged <portlist>
Sets the port(s) to tag VLAN
tags.
13
8021p-priority
Sets the 802.1p priority for the
packets belonging to this VLAN
group.
13
COMMAND
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262
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CHAPTER
39
User and Enable Mode
Commands
This chapter describes some commands which you can perform in the User and Enable modes.
39.1 Overview
The following command examples show how you can use User and Enable modes to diagnose
and manage your Switch.
39.2 show Commands
These are the commonly used show commands.
39.2.1 show system-information
Syntax:
show system-information
This command shows the general system information (such as the firmware version and
system up time).
An example is shown next.
sysname# show system-info
System Name
System Contact
System Location
Ethernet Address
ZyNOS F/W Version
RomRasSize
System up Time
Bootbase Version
ZyNOS CODE
Product Model
GS-2724 User’s Guide
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
GS-2724
00:19:cb:00:11:fa
V3.70(AYC.0)b0 | 03/08/2007
2721784
94:49:25 (208e20f ticks)
V3.1 | 03/08/2007
RAS Mar 8 2007 11:23:31
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Chapter 39 User and Enable Mode Commands
39.2.2 show ip
Syntax:
show ip
This command displays the IP related information (such as IP address and subnet mask) on all
Switch interfaces.
The following figure shows the default interface settings.
sysname> show ip
Out-of-band Management IP Address = 192.168.0.1
Management IP Address
IP[192.168.0.1], Netmask[255.255.255.0], VID[0]
IP Interface
IP[192.168.1.1], Netmask[255.255.255.0], VID[1]
sysname>
39.2.3 show logging
Syntax:
show logging
This command displays the system logs. The following figure shows an example.
sysname# show logging
1 Thu Jan 1 00:02:08
2 Thu Jan 1 00:03:14
3 Thu Jan 1 00:03:16
4 Thu Jan 1 00:03:16
5 Thu Jan 1 00:03:16
6 Thu Jan 1 00:03:16
7 Thu Jan 1 00:00:13
8 Thu Jan 1 00:00:14
9 Thu Jan 1 00:00:14
10 Thu Jan 1 00:00:14
11 Thu Jan 1 00:00:04
11 Thu Jan 1 00:00:04
Clear Error Log (y/n):
"
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
PP05 -WARN
INFO
PP0f -WARN
PINI -WARN
PINI -WARN
PINI INFO
PP26 INFO
PP0f -WARN
PINI -WARN
PINI INFO
PP05 -WARN
PP05 -WARN
SNMP TRAP 3: link up
adjtime task pause 1 day
SNMP TRAP 26: Event On Trap
SNMP TRAP 1: warm start
SNMP TRAP 3: link up
main: init completed
adjtime task pause 1 day
SNMP TRAP 26: Event On Trap
SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
main: init completed
SNMP TRAP 3: link up
SNMP TRAP 3: link up
If you clear a log (by entering y at the Clear Error Log (y/n):prompt), you
cannot view it again.
39.2.4 show interface
Syntax:
show interface [port-number]
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This command displays statistics of a port. The following example shows that port 2 is up and
the related information.
sysname# show interface 2
Port Info
Port NO.
Link
Status
LACP
TxPkts
RxPkts
Errors
Tx KBs/s
Rx KBs/s
Up Time
TX Packet
Tx Packets
Multicast
Broadcast
Pause
Tagged
RX Packet
Rx Packets
Multicast
Broadcast
Pause
Control
TX Collison
Single
Multiple
Excessive
Late
Error Packet RX CRC
Length
Runt
Distribution 64
65 to 127
128 to 255
256 to 511
512 to 1023
1024 to 1518
Giant
sysname#
:2
:100M/F
:FORWARDING
:Disabled
:0
:63
:0
:0.0
:0.0
:0:02:33
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:63
:0
:63
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:0
:3
:44
:14
:2
:0
:0
:0
39.2.5 show mac address-table
Syntax:
show mac address-table <all <sort>|static>
Where
<sort> = Specifies the sorting criteria (MAC, VID or port).
This command displays the MAC address(es) stored in the Switch. The following example
shows the static MAC address table.
sysname# show mac address-table static
Port
VLAN ID
MAC Address
CPU
1
00:a0:c5:01:23:46
sysname#
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Type
Static
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Chapter 39 User and Enable Mode Commands
39.3 ping
Syntax:
ping <ip|host-name> < [in-band|out-of-band|vlan <vlan-id> ] [size
-> <0-1472>] [-t]>
where
<ip|host-name>
=
The IP address or host name of an Ethernet device.
[in-band|out-ofband|vlan <vlanid>]
=
Specifies the network interface or the VLAN ID to which the
Ethernet device belongs.
out-of-band refers to the management port while in-band
means the other ports on the Switch.
[size <0-1472>]
=
Specifies the packet size to send.
[-t]
=
Sends Ping packets to the Ethernet device indefinitely. Press
[CTRL]+ C to terminate the Ping process.
This command sends Ping packets to an Ethernet device. The following example sends Ping
requests to and displays the replies from an Ethernet device with an IP address of
192.168.1.100.
sysname# ping 192.168.1.100
sent rcvd rate
rtt
1
1 100
0
2
2 100
0
3
3 100
0
sysname#
avg
0
0
0
mdev
0
0
0
max
0
0
0
min
0
0
0
reply from
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.100
39.4 traceroute
Syntax:
traceroute <ip|host-name> [in-band|out-of-band|vlan <vlan-id>][ttl
-> <1-255>] [wait <1-60>] [queries <1-10>]
where
266
<ip|host-name>
=
The IP address or host name of an Ethernet device.
[in-band|out-ofband|vlan <vlanid>]
=
Specifies the network interface or the VLAN ID to which the
Ethernet device belongs.
[ttl <1-255>]
=
Specifies the Time To Live (TTL) period.
[wait <1-60>]
=
Specifies the time period to wait.
[queries <1-10>]
=
Specifies how many tries the Switch performs the traceroute
function.
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Chapter 39 User and Enable Mode Commands
This command displays information about the route to an Ethernet device. The following
example displays route information to an Ethernet device with an IP address of
192.168.1.100.
sysname> traceroute 192.168.1.100
traceroute to 192.168.1.100, 30 hops max, 40 byte packet
1:192.168.1.100 (10 ms) (10 ms) (0 ms)
traceroute done:
sysname>
39.5 Copy Port Attributes
Use the copy running-config command to copy attributes of one port to another port or
ports.
Syntax:
copy running-config interface port-channel <port> <port-list>
copy running-config interface port-channel <port> <port-list>
-> [active] [name] [speed-duplex] [bpdu-control] [flow-control]
->
->
->
->
[intrusion-lock] [vlan1q] [vlan1q-member] [bandwidth-limit]
[vlan-stacking] [port-security] [broadcast-storm-control] [mirroring]
[port-access-authenticator] [queuing-method] [igmp-filtering]
[spanning-tree] [mrstp] [port-based-vlan]
where
copy running-config
interface port-channel
<port> <port-list>
=
Copies all of the possible attributes from one port to another port
or ports.
copy running-config
interface portchannel <port>
<port-list>
=
Copies only the specified port attributes from one port to another
port or ports.
[active... ]
An example is shown next.
• Copy all attributes of port 1 to port 2
• Copy selected attributes (active, bandwidth limit and STP settings) to ports 5-8
sysname# copy running-config interface port-channel 1 2
sysname# copy running-config interface port-channel 1 5-8 active
bandwidth-limit spanning-tree
39.6 Configuration File Maintenance
The following sections show how to manage the configuration files.
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Chapter 39 User and Enable Mode Commands
39.6.1 Using a Different Configuration File
You can store up to two configuration files on the Switch. Only one configuration file is used
at a time. By default the Switch uses the first configuration file (with an index number of 1).
You can set the Switch to use a different configuration file. There are two ways in which you
can set the Switch to use a different configuration file: restart the Switch (cold reboot) and
restart the system (warm reboot).
Use the boot config command to restart the Switch and use a different configuration file (if
specified). The following example restarts the Switch to use the second configuration file.
sysname# boot config 2
Use the reload config command to restart the system and use a different configuration file
(if specified). The following example restarts the system to use the second configuration file.
sysname# reload config 2
"
When you use the write memory command without specifying a configuration
file index number, the Switch saves the changes to the configuration file the
Switch is currently using.
39.6.2 Resetting to the Factory Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
1 Enter erase running config to reset the current running configuration.
2 Enter write memory to save the changes to the current configuration file. If you want
to reset the second configuration file, use the write memory command again with the
specified index number.
The following example resets both configuration files to the factory default settings.
sysname# erase running-config
sysname# write memory
sysname# write memory 2
268
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CHAPTER
40
Configuration Mode Commands
This chapter describes how to enable and configure your Switch’s features using commands.
For more background information, see the feature specific chapters which proceed the
commands chapters.
40.1 Change the Out of Band Management IP Address
Use the ip address command to change the IP address of the out of band management port
on the Switch.
Syntax:
ip address <IP Address> <Subnet Mask>
An example is shown next.
• Change the out of band Management IP address to 192.168.1.10
• View updated settings.
sysname(config)# ip address 192.168.1.10 255.255.255.0
sysname(config)# exit
sysname# show ip
Management IP Address
IP[192.168.0.2], Netmask[255.255.255.0], VID[0]
IP Interface
IP[192.168.2.1], Netmask[255.255.255.0], VID[2]
See example in Section 41.2 on page 281 for information on how to change the in band
management IP address for the Switch.
40.2 Enabling IGMP Snooping
To enable IGMP snooping on the Switch. Enter igmp-snooping and press [ENTER]. You
can also set how to treat traffic from an unknown multicast group by typing the unknownmulticast-frame parameter.
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Chapter 40 Configuration Mode Commands
Syntax:
igmp-snooping
igmp-snooping
igmp-snooping
igmp-snooping
igmp-snooping
igmp-snooping
8021p-priority <0-7>
host-timeout <1-16711450>
leave-timeout <1-16711450>
unknown-multicast-frame <drop|flooding>
reserved-multicast-group <drop|flooding>
where
igmp-snooping
=
Enables IGMP snooping on the Switch.
8021p-priority
=
Sets a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the
priority in outgoing IGMP control packets.
host-timeout <116711450>
=
Specifies the time out period of the Switch with respect to
IGMP report queries. If an IGMP report for a multicast
group was not received for a host-timeout period, from a
specific port, this port is deleted from the member list of
that multicast group.
leave-timeout <116711450>
=
Specifies the time that the Switch will wait for multicast
members to respond to a leave report. If no response
happens in the timeout period, the Switch deletes the port
from the multicast group.
unknown-multicastframe <drop|flooding>
=
Specifies whether you want to discard packets from
unknown multicast groups or whether you want to forward
them to all ports.
reserved-multicastgroup <drop|flooding>
=
Specifies whether you want to discard packets in the
reserved multicast groups or whether you want to forward
them to all ports.
An example is shown next.
• Enable IGMP snooping on the Switch.
• Set the host-timeout and leave-timeout values to 30 seconds
• Set the Switch to drop packets from unknown multicast groups.
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
igmp-snooping
igmp-snooping host-timeout 30
igmp-snooping leave-timeout 30
igmp-snooping unknown-multicast-frame drop
40.3 Configure IGMP Filter
Use the following commands in the config mode to configure IGMP filtering profiles.
Syntax:
igmp-filtering
igmp-filtering profile <name> start-address <ip> end-address <ip>
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Chapter 40 Configuration Mode Commands
where
igmp filtering
= Enables IGMP filtering on the Switch
profile <name>
=
Specifies a name (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) for this IGMP
profile. If you want to edit an existing IGMP profile enter the existing
profile name followed by start-address and end-address
parameters.
start-address
=
Specifies the starting multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP
addresses that you want to belong to the IGMP filter profile. IP
address in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 are used for IP
multicasting.
end-address
=
Specifies the ending multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP
addresses that you want to belong to the IGMP filter profile. IP
address in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 are used for IP
multicasting.
An example is shown next.
• Enable IGMP filtering on the Switch.
• Create an IGMP filtering profile filter1 and specify the multicast IP addresses in the range
224.255.255.0 to 225.255.255.255 to belong to this profile.
sysname(config)# igmp-filtering
sysname(config)# igmp-filtering profile filter1 start-address
224.255.255.0 end-address 225.255.255.255
40.4 Enabling STP
Use the spanning-tree or the mrstp commands to enable and configure STP on the
Switch. The difference between the commands is that spanning-tree only allows you to set
up one spanning tree configuration and the mrstp command allows you to set up multiple
ones.
Syntax:
spanning-tree
spanning-tree
spanning-tree
spanning-tree
spanning-tree
priority <0-61440>
hello-time <1-10> maximum-age <6-40> forward-delay <4-30>
<port-list> path-cost <1-65535>
<port-list> priority <0-255>
and
mrstp <treeIndex> <cr>
mrstp <treeIndex> priority <0-61440>
mrstp <treeIndex> hello-time <1-10> maximum-age <6-40> forward-delay
-> <4-30>
mrstp interface <port-list> <cr>
mrstp interface <port-list> path-cost <1-65535>
mrstp interface <port-list> priority <0-255>
mrstp interface <port-list> treeIndex <1-4>
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Chapter 40 Configuration Mode Commands
where
spanning-tree
=
Enables a specific tree configuration.
mrstp <treeIndex>
priority <0-61440>
Enables STP on the Switch.
=
Specifies the bridge priority for the Switch. The lower the
numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port
and designated port. The switch with the highest priority
(lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest
MAC address will then become the root switch.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn
determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
hello-time <1-10>
=
Specifies the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge
Protocol Data Units) configuration message generations by the
root switch.
maximum-age <6-40>
=
Specifies the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait
without receiving a BPDU before attempting to reconfigure. All
switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP
information (provided in the last BPDU) becomes the
designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new
root port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to
the network.
forward-delay <430>
=
Specifies the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait
before changing states. This delay is required because every
switch must receive information about topology changes before
it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a
blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
<port-list> pathcost <1-65535>
=
Enables STP on the specified ports.
<port-list>
priority <0-255>
=
<port-list>
treeIndex <1-4>
=
Specifies the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through
that port. It is assigned according to the speed of the bridge.
Specifies the priority for each port.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than
one port forms a loop in a switch. Ports with a higher priority
numeric value are disabled first.
Specifies which STP configuration these ports will participate
in. (mrstp command only).
An example using spanning-tree command is shown next.
• Enable STP on the Switch.
• Set the bridge priority of the Switch to 0.
• Set the Hello Time to 4, Maximum Age to 20 and Forward Delay to 15 on the Switch.
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• Enable STP on port 5 with a path cost of 150.
• Set the priority for port 5 to 20.
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
15
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
spanning-tree priority 0
spanning-tree hello-time 4 maximum-age 20 forward-delay
spanning-tree 5 path-cost 150
spanning-tree 5 priority 20
40.5 no Command Examples
These are the commonly used command examples that belong to the no group of commands.
The no group commands are commands which are preceded by keyword no. This command
negates the intended action of the command. In most cases the no command disables, resets or
clears settings. There are cases, however, where the no command can activate features. This
section shows some uses of these commands.
40.5.1 Disable Commands
Use the no command to disable features on the Switch.
Syntax:
no spanning-tree
no mirror-port
Disables STP on the Switch.
Disables port mirroring on the Switch.
40.5.2 Resetting Commands
Use the no command to reset settings to their default values.
Syntax:
no https timeout
Resets the https session timeout to default.
An example is shown next. The session timeout is reset to 300 seconds.
sysname(config)# no https timeout
Cache timeout 300
40.5.3 Re-enable commands
The no command can also be used to re-enable features which have been disabled.
Syntax:
no ip route <ip> <mask> inactive
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where
=
<ip> <mask> inactive
Re-enables an ip route with the specified IP address and
subnet mask.
An example is shown next.
• Enable the IP route with the IP address of 192.168.11.1 and subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
This ip route must have already been created and made inactive prior to re-enable
command being applied.
sysname(config)# no ip route 192.168.11.1 255.255.255.0 inactive
40.5.4 Other Examples of no Commands
In some cases the no command can disable a feature, disable an option of a feature or disable a
feature on a port by port basis.
40.5.4.1 no trunk
Syntax:
no trunk <T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
no trunk <T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6> lacp
no trunk <T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6> interface <port-list>
where
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
=
Disables the trunk group.
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
lacp
=
Disables LACP in the trunk group.
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
interface <port-list>
=
Removes ports from the trunk group.
An example is shown next.
• Disable trunk one (T1).
• Disable LAPC on trunk three (T3).
• Remove ports one, three, four and five from trunk two (T2).
sysname(config)# no trunk T1
sysname(config)# no trunk T3 lacp
sysname(config)# no trunk T2 interface 1,3-5
40.5.4.2 no port-access-authenticator
Syntax:
no port-access-authenticator
no port-access-authenticator <port-list> reauthenticate
no port-access-authenticator <port-list>
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where
=
Disables port authentication on the Switch.
<port-list>
reauthenticate
=
Disables the re-authentication mechanism on the listed port(s).
<port-list>
=
Disables authentication on the listed ports.
An example is shown next.
• Disable authentication on the Switch.
• Disable re-authentication on ports one, three, four and five.
• Disable authentication on ports one, six and seven.
Figure 124 no port-access-authenticator Command Example
sysname(config)# no port-access-authenticator
sysname(config)# no port-access-authenticator 1,3-5 reauthenticate
sysname(config)# no port-access-authenticator 1,6-7
40.5.4.3 no ssh
Syntax:
no ssh key <rsa1|rsa|dsa>
no ssh known-hosts <host-ip>
no ssh known-hosts <host-ip> [1024|ssh-rsa|ssh-dsa]
where
key <rsa1|rsa|dsa>
=
Disables the secure shell server encryption key. Your Switch
supports SSH versions 1 and 2 using RSA and DSA
authentication.
known-hosts <host-ip>
=
Removes a specific remote host from the list of all known
hosts.
known-hosts <host-ip>
[1024|ssh-rsa|ssh-dsa]
=
Removes remote known hosts with a specified public key
type (1024-bit RSA1, RSA or DSA).
An example is shown next.
• Disable the secure shell RSA1 encryption key.
• Remove the remote host with IP address 172.165.1.8 from the list of known hosts.
• Remove the remote host with IP address 172.165.1.9 and with an SSH-RSA encryption
key from the list of known hosts.
sysname(config)# no ssh key rsa1
sysname(config)# no ssh known-hosts 172.165.1.8
sysname(config)# no ssh known-hosts 172.165.1.9 ssh-rsa
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40.6 Static Route Commands
You can create and configure static routes on the Switch by using the ip route command.
Syntax:
ip route <ip> <mask> <next-hop-ip>
ip route <ip> <mask> <next-hop-ip> [metric <metric>][name <name>]
--> [inactive]
where
<ip>
=
Specifies the network IP address of the final destination.
<mask>
=
Specifies the subnet mask of this destination.
<next-hop-ip>
=
Specifies the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an
immediate neighbor of your Switch that will forward the
packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router on
the same segment as your Switch.
[metric <metric>]
=
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing
purposes. IP routing uses hop count as the measurement of
cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks.
Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The
number need not be precise, but it must be between 1 and
15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
[name <name>]
=
Specifies a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII
characters) for identification purposes.
[inactive]
=
Deactivates a static route
An example is shown next.
• Create a static route with the destination IP address of 172.21.1.104, subnet mask of
255.255.0.0 and the gateway IP address of 192.168.1.2.
• Assigns a metric value of 2 to the static route.
• Assigns the name “route1” to the static route.
sysname(config)# ip route 172.21.1.104 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2
sysname(config)# ip route 172.21.1.104 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2 metric 2
sysname(config)# ip route 172.21.1.104 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2 name route1
40.7 Enabling MAC Filtering
You can create a filter to drop packets based on the MAC address of the source or the
destination.
Syntax:
mac-filter name <name> mac <mac-addr> vlan <vlan-id> drop <src/dst/both>
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where
name <name>
=
Names the filtering rule.
mac <mac-addr>
=
Specifies the MAC address you want to filter.
vlan <vlan-id>
=
Specifies which VLAN this rule applies to.
drop <src/dst/both>
=
Selects the behavior of the rule.
• src - drop packets coming from the specified MAC
address
• dst- drop packets going to the specified MAC
address
• both - drop packets coming from or going to the
specified MAC address
An example is shown next.
• Create a filtering rule called “filter1”.
• Drop packets coming from and going to MAC address 00:12:00:12:00:12 on VLAN.
sysname(config)# mac-filter name filter 1
sysname(config)# mac-filter name filter 1 mac 00:12:00:12:00:12 vlan 1 drop
both
40.8 Enabling Trunking
To create and enable a trunk, enter trunk followed by the ports which you want to group and
press [ENTER].
Syntax:
trunk <T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
trunk <T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6> interface <port-list>
trunk <T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6> lacp
where
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
=
Enables the trunk.
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6>
interface <port-list>
=
Places ports in the trunk.
<T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6> lacp
=
Enables LACP in the trunk.
An example is shown next.
• Create trunk 1 on the Switch.
• Place ports 5-8 in trunk 1.
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• Enable dynamic link aggregation (LACP) on trunk 1.
sysname(config)# trunk t1
sysname(config)# trunk t1 interface 5-8
sysname(config)# trunk t1 lacp
40.9 Enabling Port Authentication
To enable a port authentication, you need to specify your RADIUS server details and select the
ports which require external authentication. You can set up multiple RADIUS servers and
specify how the Switch will process authentication requests.
40.9.1 RADIUS Server Settings
Configuring multiple RADIUS servers is only available via the command interpreter mode.
Use the radius-server command to set up your RADIUS server settings.
Syntax:
radius-server host <index> <ip>
radius-server host <index> <ip> [acct-port <socket-number>] [key
--> <key-string>]
radius-server timeout <1-1000>
radius-server mode <priority|round-robin>
where
278
radius-server host <index>
<ip>
=
Specifies the IP address of the RADIUS server.
[acct-port <socket-number>]
=
Changes the UDP port of the RADIUS server from
the default (1812).
[key <key-string>]
=
Specifies a password (up to 32 alphanumeric
characters) as the key to be shared between the
RADIUS server and the Switch.
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radius-server timeout <11000>
=
Specifies the timeout period (in seconds) the Switch
will wait for a response from a RADIUS server. If 2
RADIUS servers are configured, this is the total time
the Switch will wait for a response from either server.
mode <priority|round-robin>
=
Specifies the way the Switch will process requests
from the clients to the RADIUS server. (Only
applicable with multiple RADIUS servers
configured.)
priority - When a client sends an authentication
request through the Switch to the RADIUS server.
The Switch will forward the request to the RADIUS
server. If no response within half the timeout period,
it will forward the request to the second RADIUS
server.
round-robin - When a client sends an
authentication request through the Switch to the
RADIUS server. The Switch will forward the request
to the first RADIUS server. If there is no response
within the timeout period, the request times out. The
client sends an authentication request again and the
Switch forwards the request to the second RADIUS
server.
See Section 40.9.2 on page 279 for an example.
40.9.2 Port Authentication Settings
Use the port-access-authenticator command to configure port security on the Switch.
Syntax:
port-access-authenticator
port-access-authenticator <port-list>
port-access-authenticator <port-list> reauthenticate
port-access-authenticator <port-list> reauth-period <reauth-period>
where
port-access-authenticator
=
Enables port authentication on the Switch.
port-access-authenticator
<port-list>
=
Specifies which ports require authentication.
reauthenticate
=
Enables reauthentication on the port.
reauth-period <reauthperiod>
=
Specifies how often a client has to re-enter his or her
username and password to stay connected to the port.
An example is shown next.
• Specify RADIUS server 1 with IP address 10.10.10.1, port 1890 and the string
secretKey as the password. See Section 40.9.1 on page 278 for more information on
RADIUS server commands.
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• Specify the timeout period of 30 seconds that the Switch will wait for a response from the
RADIUS server.
• Enable port authentication on ports 4 to 8.
• Activate reauthentication on the ports.
• Specify 1800 seconds as the interval for client reauthentication.
sysname(config)#
--> secretKey
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
sysname(config)#
280
radius-server host 1 10.10.10.1 acct-port 1890 key
radius-server timeout 30
port-access-authenticator
port-access-authenticator 4-8
port-access-authenticator 4-8 reauthenticate
port-access-authenticator 4-8 reauth-period 1800
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41
Interface Commands
These are some commonly used configuration commands that belong to the interface
group of commands.
41.1 Overview
The interface commands allow you to configure the Switch on a port by port basis.
41.2 Interface Command Examples
This section provides examples of some frequently used interface commands.
41.2.1 interface port-channel
Use this command to enable the specified ports for configuration. Indicate multiple, nonsequential ports separated by a comma. Use a dash to specify a port range.
Syntax:
interface port-channel <port-list>
An example is shown next.
• Enter the configuration mode.
• Enable ports 1, 3, 4 and 5 for configuration.
• Begin configuring for those ports.
sysname# config
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)#
41.2.2 bpdu-control
Syntax:
bpdu-control <peer|tunnel|discard|network>
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where
<peer|tunnel|discard|
network>
=
Type peer to process any BPDUs received on these ports.
Type tunnel to forward BPDUs received on these ports.
Type discard to drop any BPDUs received on these ports.
Type network to process a BPDU with no VLAN tag and
forward a tagged BPDU.
An example is shown next.
• Enable ports 1, 3, 4 and 5 for configuration.
• Set the BPDU control to tunnel, to forward BPDUs received on ports one, three, four
and five.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# bpdu-control tunnel
sysname(config-interface)#
41.2.3 broadcast-limit
Syntax:
broadcast-limit
broadcast-limit <pkt/s>
where
<pkt/s>
=
Enables broadcast storm control limit on the Switch.
=
Limits how many broadcast packet the interface receives per second.
An example is shown next.
• Enable port one for configuration.
• Enable broadcast control.
• Set how many broadband packets the interface receives per second.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1
sysname(config-interface)# broadcast-limit
sysname(config-interface)# broadcast-limit 21
41.2.4 bandwidth-limit
The bandwidth-limit command enables bandwidth control on the Switch.
Syntax:
bandwidth-limit
bandwidth-limit pir <Kbps>
bandwidth-limit cir <Kbps>
bandwidth-limit egress <Kbps>
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where
pir <Kbps>
=
Sets the maximum bandwidth allowed for incoming traffic.
cir <Kbps>
=
Sets the guaranteed bandwidth allowed for incoming traffic.
egress <Kbps>
=
Sets the maximum bandwidth allowed for outgoing traffic
(egress) on the Switch.
An example is shown next.
•
•
•
•
•
Enable port one for configuration.
Enable bandwidth control.
Set the outgoing traffic bandwidth limit to 5000Kbps.
Set the guaranteed bandwidth allowed for incoming traffic to 4000Kbps.
Set the maximum bandwidth allowed for incoming traffic to 8000Kbps.
sysname(config)# interface
sysname(config-interface)#
sysname(config-interface)#
sysname(config-interface)#
sysname(config-interface)#
port-channel 1
bandwidth-limit
bandwidth-limit egress 5000
bandwidth-limit cir 4000
bandwidth-limit pir 8000
41.2.5 mirror
The mirror command enables port mirroring on the interface.
Syntax:
mirror
mirror dir <ingress|egress|both>
where
dir
<ingress|egress|both>
= Enables port mirroring for incoming, outgoing or both
incoming and outgoing traffic.
Port mirroring copies traffic from one or all ports to another
or all ports for external analysis.
An example is shown next.
•
•
•
•
Enable port mirroring.
Enable the monitor port 3.
Enable ports 1, 4, 5 and 6 for configuration.
Enable port mirroring on the ports.
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• Enable port mirroring for outgoing traffic. Traffic is copied from ports 1, 4, 5 and 6 to port
three in order to examine it in more detail without interfering with the traffic flow on the
original ports.
sysname(config)# mirror-port
sysname(config)# mirror-port 3
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,4-6
sysname(config-interface)# mirror
sysname(config-interface)# mirror dir egress
41.2.6 gvrp
Syntax:
gvrp
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this
function to permit VLAN groups beyond the local switch.
An example is shown next.
• Enable the IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN command to configure tagged VLAN for the
Switch.
• Enable ports one, three, four and five for configuration.
• Enable GVRP on the interface.
sysname(config)# vlan1q gvrp
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# gvrp
41.2.7 ingress-check
The ingress-check command enables the device to discard incoming frames for VLANs
that do not have this port as a member.
Syntax:
ingress-check
An example is shown next.
• Enable ports 1, 3, 4 and 5 for configuration.
• Enable ingress checking on the interface.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# ingress-check
41.2.8 frame-type
Syntax:
frame-type <all|tagged|untagged>
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where
<all|tagged|
untagged>
=
Choose to accept both tagged and untagged incoming frames, just
tagged incoming frames or just untagged incoming frames on a port.
An example is shown next.
• Enable ports one, three, four and five for configuration.
• Enable ingress checking on the ports.
• Enable tagged frame-types on the interface.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# ingress-check
sysname(config-interface)# frame-type tagged
41.2.9 weight
Syntax:
weight <wt1> <wt2> ... <wt8>
where
=
<wt1> <wt2> ...
<wt8>
Sets the interface WFQ weighting. A weight value of one to eight is
given to each variable from wt 1 to wt 8.
An example is shown next.
• Enable WRR queuing on ports 2 and 6 to 8.
• Enable port 2 and ports 6 to 8 for configuration.
• Set the queue weights from Q0 to Q7.
sysname# configure
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 2,6-8
sysname(config-interface)# wrr
sysname(config-interface)# weight 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
41.2.10 egress set
Syntax:
egress set <port-list>
where
<port-list>
=
Sets the outgoing traffic port list for a port-based VLAN.
An example is shown next.
• Enable port-based VLAN tagging on the Switch.
• Enable ports one, three, four and five for configuration.
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• Set the outgoing traffic ports as the CPU (0), seven (7) and eight (8).
sysname(config)# vlan-type port-based
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# egress set 0,7,8
41.2.11 qos priority
Syntax:
qos priority <0 .. 7>
where
<0 .. 7>
=
Sets the quality of service priority for a port.
An example is shown next.
• Enable ports one, three, four and five for configuration.
• Set the IEEE 802.1p quality of service priority as four (4).
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# qos priority 4
41.2.12 name
Syntax:
name <port-name-string>
where
<port-name-string>
=
Sets a name for your port interface.
An example is shown next.
• Enable port one for configuration.
• Set a name for the port.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1
sysname(config-interface)# name Test
41.2.13 speed-duplex
Syntax:
speed-duplex <auto|10-half|10-full|100-half|100-full|1000-full>
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where
<auto|10-half|10full|100-half|100full|1000-full>
=
Sets the duplex mode (half or full) and speed (10, 100 or 1000
Mbps) of the connection on the port. Selecting auto (autonegotiation) makes one port able to negotiate with a peer
automatically to obtain the connection speed and duplex mode
that both ends support.
An example is shown next.
• Enable ports one, three, four and five for configuration.
• Set the speed to 100 Mbps in half duplex mode.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1,3-5
sysname(config-interface)# speed-duplex 100-half
41.2.14 test
You can perform an interface loopback test on specified ports. The test returns Passed! or
Failed!
An example is shown next.
• Select ports 3-6 for internal loopback test.
• Execute the test command.
• View the results.
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 3-6
sysname(config-interface)# test 3-6
Testing internal loopback on port 3 :Passed!
Ethernet Port 3 Test ok.
Testing internal loopback on port 4 :Passed!
Ethernet Port 4 Test ok.
Testing internal loopback on port 5 :Passed!
Ethernet Port 5 Test ok.
Testing internal loopback on port 6 :Passed!
Ethernet Port 6 Test ok.
41.3 Interface no Command Examples
Similar to the no commands in the Enable and Config modes, the no commands for the
Interface sub mode also disable certain features. In this mode, however, this takes place on a
port by port basis.
41.3.1 no bandwidth-limit
You can disable bandwidth limit on port 1 simply by placing the no command in front of the
bandwidth-limit command.
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Syntax:
no bandwidth-limit
An example is shown next:
• Disable bandwidth limit on port1
sysname(config)# interface port-channel 1
sysname(config-interface)# no bandwidth-limit
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42
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN
Commands
This chapter describes the IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN and associated commands.
42.1 Configuring Tagged VLAN
The following procedure shows you how to configure tagged VLAN.
1 Use the IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN commands to configure tagged VLAN for the
Switch.
• Use the vlan <vlan-id> command to configure or create a VLAN on the Switch. The
Switch automatically enters the config-vlan mode.Use the inactive command to
deactivate the VLAN(s).
• Use the interface port-channel <port-list> command to enter the configinterface mode to set the VLAN settings on a port, then use the pvid <vlan-id>
command to set the VLAN ID you created for the port-list to that specific port in the PVID
table.
• Use the exit command when you are finished configuring the VLAN.
sysname
sysname
sysname
sysname
sysname
sysname
sysname
sysname
(config)# vlan 2000
(config-vlan)# name up1
(config-vlan)# fixed 5-8
(config-vlan)# no untagged 5-8
(config-vlan)# exit
(config)# interface port-channel 5-8
(config-interface)# pvid 2000
(config-interface)# exit
2 Configure your management VLAN.
• Use the vlan <vlan-id> command to create a VLAN (VID 3 in this example) for
managing the Switch, and the Switch will activate the new management VLAN.
• Use the inactive command to disable the new management VLAN.
sysname (config)# vlan 3
sysname (config-vlan)# inactive
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42.2 Global VLAN1Q Tagged VLAN Configuration Commands
This section shows you how to configure and monitor the IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN.
42.2.1 GARP Status
Syntax:
show garp
This command shows the Switch’s GARP timer settings, including the join, leave and leave all
timers.
An example is shown next.
sysname# show garp
GARP Timer
-----------------------Join Timer = 200
Leave Timer = 600
Leave All Timer = 10000
sysname#
42.2.2 GARP Timer
Syntax:
garp join <msec> leave <msec> leaveall <msec>
where
join <msec>
=
This sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in
milliseconds. Each port has a Join Period timer. The allowed Join Time
range is between 100 and 32767 milliseconds; the default is 200
milliseconds.
leave <msec>
=
This sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in
milliseconds. Each port has a single Leave Period timer. Leave Time
must be two times larger than Join Timer; the default is 600
milliseconds.
leaveall
<msec>
=
This sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in
milliseconds. Each port has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All
Timer must be larger than Leave Timer; the default is 10000
milliseconds.
This command sets the Switch’s GARP timer settings, including the join, leave and leave all
timers.
Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join
message using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All
message terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.
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The following example sets the Join Timer to 300 milliseconds, the Leave Timer to 800
milliseconds and the Leave All Timer to 11000 milliseconds.
sysname (config)# garp join 300 leave 800 leaveall 11000
42.2.3 GVRP Timer
Syntax:
show vlan1q gvrp
This command shows the Switch’s GVRP settings.
An example is shown next.
sysname# show vlan1q gvrp
GVRP Support
--------------------gvrpEnable = YES
sysname #
42.2.4 Enable GVRP
Syntax:
vlan1q gvrp
This command turns on GVRP in order to propagate VLAN information beyond the Switch.
42.2.5 Disable GVRP
Syntax:
no vlan1q gvrp
This command turns off GVRP so that the Switch does not propagate VLAN information to
other switches.
42.3 Port VLAN Commands
You must configure the Switch’s port VLAN settings in config-interface mode.
42.3.1 Set Port VID
Syntax:
pvid <VID>
where
<VID>
=
Specifies the VLAN number between 1 and 4094.
This command sets the default VLAN ID on the port(s).
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The following example sets the default VID to 200 on ports 1 to 5.
sysname (config)# interface port-channel 1-5
sysname (config-interface)# pvid 200
42.3.2 Set Acceptable Frame Type
Syntax:
frame-type <all|tagged|untagged>
where
<all|tagged|
untagged>
=
Specifies all Ethernet frames (tagged and untagged), only tagged
Ethernet frames or only untagged Ethernet frames.
This command sets the specified port to accept all Ethernet frames or only those with an IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tag.
The following example sets ports 1 to 5 to accept only tagged frames.
sysname (config)# interface port-channel 1-5
sysname (config-interface)# frame-type tagged
42.3.3 Enable or Disable Port GVRP
Use the gvrp command to enable GVRP on the port(s). Use the no gvrp command to disable
GVRP.
The following example turns off GVRP for ports 1 to 5.
sysname (config)# interface port-channel 1-5
sysname (config-interface)# no gvrp
42.3.4 Modify Static VLAN
Use the following commands in the config-vlan mode to configure the static VLAN table.
Syntax:
vlan <vlan-id>
fixed <port-list>
forbidden <port-list>
name <name-str>
normal <port-list>
untagged <port-list>
no fixed <port-list>
no forbidden <port-list>
no untagged <port-list>
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where
<vlan-id>
=
The VLAN ID [1 – 4094].
<name-str>
=
A name to identify the SVLAN entry.
<port-list>
=
This is the Switch port list.
• Enter fixed to register the <port-list> to the static VLAN table with <vlan-id>.
• Enter normal to confirm registration of the <port-list> to the static VLAN table with
<vlan-id>.
• Enter forbidden to block a <port-list> from joining the static VLAN table with
<vlan-id>.
• Enter no fixed or no forbidden to change <port-list> to normal status.
• Enter untagged to send outgoing frames without a tag.
• Enter no untagged to tag outgoing frames.
42.3.4.1 Modify a Static VLAN Table Example
The following example configures ports 1 to 5 as fixed and untagged ports in VLAN 2000.
sysname (config)# vlan 2000
sysname (config-vlan)# fixed 1-5
sysname (config-vlan)# untagged 1-5
42.3.4.2 Forwarding Process Example
42.3.4.2.1 Tagged Frames
1 First the Switch checks the VLAN ID (VID) of tagged frames or assigns temporary
VIDs to untagged frames.
2 The Switch then checks the VID in a frame’s tag against the SVLAN table.
3 The Switch notes what the SVLAN table says (that is, the SVLAN tells the Switch
whether or not to forward a frame and if the forwarded frames should have tags).
4 Then the Switch applies the port filter to finish the forwarding decision. This means that
frames may be dropped even if the SVLAN says to forward them. Frames might also be
dropped if they are sent to a CPE (customer premises equipment) DSL device that does
not accept tagged frames.
42.3.4.2.2 Untagged Frames
1 An untagged frame comes in from the LAN.
2 The Switch checks the PVID table and assigns a temporary VID of 1.
3 The Switch ignores the port from which the frame came, because the Switch does not
send a frame to the port from which it came. The Switch also does not forward frames to
“forbidden” ports.
4 If after looking at the SVLAN, the Switch does not have any ports to which it will send
the frame, it won’t check the port filter.
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42.3.5 Delete VLAN ID
Syntax:
no vlan <vlan-id>
where
<vlan-id>
=
The VLAN ID [1 – 4094].
This command deletes the specified VLAN ID entry from the static VLAN table. The
following example deletes entry 2 in the static VLAN table.
sysname (config)# no vlan 2
42.4 Enable VLAN
Syntax:
vlan <vlan-id>
This command enables the specified VLAN ID in the SVLAN (Static VLAN) table.
42.5 Disable VLAN
Syntax:
vlan <vlan-id> inactive
This command disables the specified VLAN ID in the SVLAN (Static VLAN) table.
42.6 Show VLAN Setting
Syntax:
show vlan
This command shows the IEEE 802.1Q Tagged SVLAN (Static VLAN) table.
An example is shown next.
• VID is the VLAN identification number.
• Status shows whether the VLAN is static or active.
• Elap-Time is the time since the VLAN was created on the Switch.
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• The TagCtl section of the last column shows which ports are tagged and which are
untagged.
sysname# show vlan
The Number of VLAN:
3
Idx. VID
Status
Elap-Time
TagCtl
---- ---- -------- ------------ -----------------------1
1
Static
0:12:13
Untagged :1-2
Tagged
:
1
100
Static
0:00:17
Untagged :
Tagged
:1-4
1
200
Static
0:00:07
Untagged :1-2
Tagged
:3-8
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CHAPTER
43
Multicast VLAN Registration
Commands
This chapter shows you how to use Multicast VLAN Registration (mvr) commands.
43.1 Overview
Use the mvr commands in the configuration mode to create and configure multicast VLANs.
"
If you want to enable IGMP snooping see Section 40.2 on page 269.
43.2 Create Multicast VLAN
Use the following commands in the config-mvr mode to configure a multicast VLAN group.
Syntax:
mvr
mvr
mvr
mvr
mvr
mvr
mvr
mvr
mvr
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
<vlan-id>
source-port <port-list>
receiver-port <port-list>
inactive
mode <dynamic|compatible>
name <name-str>
tagged <port-list>
group <name-str> start-address <ip> end-address <ip>
exit
where
<vlan-id>
=
The VLAN ID [1 – 4094].
source-port
<port-list>
=
Specifies the MVR source ports which send and receive multicast
traffic.
receiver-port
<port-list>
=
Specifies the MVR receiving ports which only receive multicast
traffic.
name <name-str>
=
A name to identify the multicast VLAN group.
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mode
<dynamic|compati
ble>
=
Specifies dynamic (sends IGMP reports to all source ports in the
multicast VLAN) or compatible (does not send IGMP reports).
group name
<name-str>
=
A name to identify the MVR IP multicast group.
start-address
<ip>
=
Specifies the starting IP multicast address of the multicast group in
dotted decimal notation.
end-address <ip>
=
Specifies the ending IP multicast address of the multicast group in
dotted decimal notation. Enter the same IP address as the startaddress if you want to configure only one IP address for the
multicast group.
• Enter MVR mode. Create a multicast VLAN with the name multiVlan and the VLAN
ID of 3.
• Specify source ports 2, 3, 5 and receiver ports 6-8.
• Specify dynamic mode for the multicast group.
• Configure MVR multicast group addresses by the name of ipgroup.
• Exit MVR mode.
See the following example.
sysname(config)# mvr
sysname(config-mvr)#
sysname(config-mvr)#
sysname(config-mvr)#
--> 224.0.0.255
sysname(config-mvr)#
298
3 name multivlan
source-port 2,3,5 receiver-port 6-8
mode dynamic
group ipgroup start-address 224.0.0.1 end-address
exit
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CHAPTER
44
Routing Domain Command
Examples
44.1 interface route-domain
Syntax:
interface route-domain <ip-address>/<mask-bits>
where
<ip-address>
= This is the IP address of the Switch in the routing domain. Specify
the IP address is dotted decimal notation. For example, 192.168.1.1.
<mask-bits>
= The number of bits in the subnet mask. Enter the subnet mask
number preceded with a “/”. To find the bit number, convert the
subnet mask to binary and add all of the 1’s together. Take
“255.255.255.0” for example. 255 converts to eight 1’s in binary.
There are three 255’s, so add three eights together and you get the
bit number (24).
Use this command to enable/create the specified routing domain for configuration.
An example is shown next.
• Enter the configuration mode.
• Enable default routing domain (the 192.168.1.1 subnet) for configuration.
• Begin configuring for this domain.
sysname# config
sysname(config)# interface route-domain 192.168.1.1/24
cmd interface route domain
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
sysname(config-if)#
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CHAPTER
45
Troubleshooting
This chapter covers potential problems and possible remedies.
45.1 Problems Starting up the Switch
Table 95 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your Switch
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
None of the LEDs
turn on when you
turn on the
Switch.
Check the power connection and make sure the power source is turned on.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem. In this case, you should
contact your vendor.
45.2 Problems Accessing the Switch
Table 96 Troubleshooting Accessing the Switch
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot
access the
Switch using
Telnet.
Make sure the ports are properly connected.
You may have exceeded the maximum number of concurrent Telnet sessions. Close
other Telnet session(s) or try connecting again later.
Check that you have enabled Telnet service access. If you have configured a secured
client IP address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to Chapter 29 on
page 193 for details.
I cannot
access the
web
configurator.
The administrator username is “admin”. The default administrator password is “1234”.
The username and password are case-sensitive. Make sure that you enter the correct
password and username using the proper casing. If you have changed the password
and have now forgotten it, you will need to upload the default configuration file. This
restores all of the factory defaults including the password.
If you have configured more than one IP interface, make sure another administrator is
NOT logged into the web configurator on a different IP interface using the same
account.
Check that you have enabled web service access. If you have configured a secured
client IP address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to Chapter 29 on
page 193 for details.
Your computer’s and the Switch’s IP addresses must be on the same subnet.
See Appendix C on page 313 to check that pop-up windows, JavaScripts and Java
permissions are allowed.
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45.3 Problems with the Password
Table 97 Troubleshooting the Password
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Cannot access the
Switch.
The password field is case sensitive. Make sure that you enter the correct
password using the proper casing.
The administrator username is “admin”. The default administrator password is
“1234”. The username and password are case-sensitive. Make sure that you
enter the correct password and username using the proper casing. If you have
changed the password and have now forgotten it, you will need to upload the
default configuration file. This restores all of the factory defaults including the
password. See Section 4.6.1 on page 55.
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P ART VII
Appendices and
Index
Product Specifications (305)
Changing a Fuse (311)
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions (313)
IP Addresses and Subnetting (319)
Common Services (329)
Legal Information (333)
Customer Support (337)
Index (341)
303
304
APPENDIX
A
Product Specifications
This section describes the general software features of the Switch.
Table 98 Firmware Features
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
IP Routing Domain
An IP interface (also known as an IP routing domain) is not bound to a
physical port. Configure an IP routing domain to allow the Switch to route
traffic between different networks.
VLAN
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be
partitioned into multiple logical networks. Devices on a logical network
belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one group. With
VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not in
the same group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
VLAN Stacking
Use VLAN stacking to add an outer VLAN tag to the inner IEEE 802.1Q
tagged frames that enter the network. By tagging the tagged frames
(“double-tagged” frames), the service provider can manage up to 4,094
VLAN groups with each group containing up to 4,094 customer VLANs.
This allows a service provider to provide different service, based on
specific VLANs, for many different customers.
MAC Address Filter
Filter traffic based on the source and/or destination MAC address and
VLAN group (ID).
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol)
Use this feature to have the Switch assign IP addresses, an IP default
gateway and DNS servers to computers on your network.
IGMP Snooping
The Switch supports IGMP snooping enabling group multicast traffic to
be only forwarded to ports that are members of that group; thus allowing
you to significantly reduce multicast traffic passing through your Switch.
Differentiated Services
(DiffServ)
With DiffServ, the Switch marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route
based on the application types and traffic flow.
Classifier and Policy
You can create a policy to define actions to be performed on a traffic flow
grouped by a classifier according to specific criteria such as the IP
address, port number or protocol type, etc.
Queuing
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is
network congestion. Two scheduling services are supported: Strict
Priority Queuing (SPQ) and Weighted Round Robin (WRR). This allows
the Switch to maintain separate queues for packets from each individual
source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.
Port Mirroring
Port mirroring allows you to copy traffic going from one or all ports to
another or all ports in order that you can examine the traffic from the
mirror port (the port you copy the traffic to) without interference.
Static Route
Static routes tell the Switch how to forward IP traffic when you configure
the TCP/IP parameters manually.
Port Cloning
Port cloning allows you to copy attributes from one port to another port or
ports.
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Appendix A Product Specifications
Table 98 Firmware Features (continued)
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Multicast VLAN Registration
(MVR)
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as
Media-on-Demand (MoD)) using multicast traffic across a network. MVR
allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different
subscriber VLANs on the network.
This improves bandwidth utilization by reducing multicast traffic in the
subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
RIP
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a routing device to exchange
routing information with other routers.
RSTP (Rapid Spanning
Tree Protocol) / MRSTP
(Multiple RSTP)
RSTP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links
between switches, bridges or routers. It allows a switch to interact with
other RSTP-compliant switches in your network to ensure that only one
path exists between any two stations on the network. MRSTP allows you
to configure multiple RSTP configurations and assign ports to each tree.
Link Aggregation
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one
logical higher-capacity link. You may want to trunk ports if for example, it
is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed links than to under-utilize a highspeed, but more costly, single-port link.
Port Authentication and
Security
For security, the Switch allows authentication using IEEE 802.1x with an
external RADIUS server and port security that allows only packets with
dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured static MAC
addresses to pass through a port on the Switch. For redundancy,
multiple RADIUS servers can be configured.
Device Management
Use the web configurator to easily configure the rich range of features on
the Switch.
Firmware Upgrade
Download new firmware (when available) from the ZyXEL web site and
use the web configurator, CLI or an FTP/TFTP tool to put it on the
Switch.
Note: Only upload firmware for your specific model!
306
Configuration Backup &
Restoration
Make a copy of the Switch’s configuration and put it back on the Switch
later if you decide you want to revert back to an earlier configuration.
Cluster Management
Cluster management (also known as iStacking) allows you to manage
switches through one switch, called the cluster manager. The switches
must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be
able to communicate with one another.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Appendix A Product Specifications
The following table lists the product specifications.
Table 99 General Product Specifications
Interface
Layer 2
Features
20 1000Base-Tx ports
4 GbE Dual Personality interfaces (Each interface has one 1000Base-T copper
port and one Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) fiber port, with one port active
at a time.)
One local console, RS-232
One 100Base-Tx port, RJ-45, for out-of-band management
Auto-negotiation
Auto-MDIX
Compliant with IEEE 802.3ad/u/x
Back pressure flow control for half duplex
Flow control for full duplex (IEEE 802.3x)
Rate limiting at 64-Kbps steps
Bridging
8K MAC addresses
Static MAC address filtering by source/destination
Broadcast storm control
Static MAC address forwarding
Switching
Switching fabric: 48 Gbps, non-blocking
Max. Frame size: 1522 bytes
Forwarding frame: IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.1Q, Ethernet II, PPPoE
Prevent the forwarding of corrupted packets
STP
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree capability (4 configurable trees)
QoS
IEEE 802.1p with 8 priority queues per port
Rule-based classification
Rule-based shaping
DSCP
Bandwidth control
Rate limiting in 64-kbps increments
IGMP Snooping
VLAN
Port-based VLAN setting
Tag-based (IEEE 802.1Q) VLAN
Number of VLAN: 4K, 256 static maximum
Supports GVRP
Double tagging for VLAN stacking
Port
Aggregation
Supports IEEE 802.3ad; static and dynamic (LACP) port trunking
Six groups (up to 8 ports each)
Port mirroring
All ports support port mirroring
Support port mirroring per IP/TCP/UDP
Bandwidth
control
Supports rate limiting at 64K increment
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Appendix A Product Specifications
Table 99 General Product Specifications (continued)
Layer 3
Features
IP Capability
IPV4 support
8 IP routing domains
1K IP address table
1K routing entries
Wire speed IP forwarding
Routing
protocols
Unicast: RIP-V1/V2
Multicast: IGMP V1/V2
8 Static Routes
IP services
DHCP server/relay
Performance
Wire-speed throughput
1488000 pps for 1000Base-T, 64-byte packet
148800 pps for 100Base-TX, 64-byte packet
Non-blocking 48-Gbps switching fabric
Availability
IEEE 802.3ad (LACP): 6 groups, 8 ports/groups randomly selected
IEEE 802.1D (STP)
IEEE 802.1w (RSTP)
Supports ZyXEL BPS backup power system
Security
Static MAC address filtering
Limiting number of dynamic addresses per port
IEEE 802.1x port-based authentication
Port based VLAN
802.1Q VLAN
256 static VLAN
GVRP, automatic member registration
SSH
SSL
Wire speed filtering per MAC/IP/TCP/UDP
Wire speed rate limiting per MAC/IP/TCP/UDP
Wire speed mirroring per MAC/IP/TCP/UDP
Access Control List (ACL)
Based on Port
Based on MAC+VLAN ID
Based on IP Address (Source/Destination)
Based on L3 Protocol category
Based on TCP/UDP port number
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Table 100 Management Specifications
System Control
Alarm/Status surveillance
Automatic alarm and status report
Alarm/event history
LED indication for alarm and system status
Performance monitoring
Line speed
Four RMON groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (history, statistics, alarms, and events) for
enhanced traffic management, monitoring, and analysis
Throughput monitoring
Transmit and receive of ICMP packets
Port mirroring and aggregation
Spanning Tree Protocol
IGMP snooping
Firmware upgrade and download through FTP/TFTP
DHCP server/relay
Security and Memory Backup
Login authorization and security levels (Privileges assigned via CLI or via
RADIUS server)
Self diagnostics
Non-volatile memory for system database storage
FLASH memory
Support MIB community string, community access privilege, Trap IP setting
Network Management
CLI through console port and Telnet
RS-232C (DB-9) port for local management
Firmware upgrade, configuration backup/restore via FTP
Text-based configuration profile for massive deployment
Web-based management
iStackingTM/Clustering: up to 24 switches can be managed by one IP
address
SNMP v1/v2c/v3
Trap transmission: up to 4 destinations
RMON groups (history, statistics, alarms and events)
MIB
RFC1155 SMI
RFC1157 SNMP v1
RFC1213 MIB II
RFC2011 IP MIP
RFC2012 TCP MIB
RFC2013 UDP MIB
RFC1493 Bridge MIB
RFC1643 Ethernet MIB
RFC1757 Four groups of RMON
RFC2674 Bridge MIB extension, SNMP v2, SNMP v2c
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Appendix A Product Specifications
Table 101 Physical and Environmental Specifications
LEDs
Per Switch: BPS, PWR, SYS, ALM
Per Gigabit Ethernet/mini-GBIC port: 100, 1000/LNK, ACT
Per mini-GBIC port: LNK, ACT
Per Management port: 10, 100
Dimension
Standard 19” rack mountable
438 mm (W) x 300 mm (D) x 44.45 mm (H)
Weight
4.2 kg
Temperature
Operating: 0º C ~ 45º C (32º F ~ 113º F)
Storage: -25º C ~ 70º C (14º F ~ 158º F)
Humidity
10 ~ 90% (non-condensing)
Safety
UL 60950-1
CSA 60950-1
EN 60950-1
IEC 60950-1
EMC
FCC Part 15 (Class A)
CE EMC (Class A)
Table 102 Power Specifications
MODEL
SPECIFICATIONS
AC
100-240 VAC 50/60 Hz, 1.5 A max.
DC
-48 VDC ~ -60 VDC, 2.2 A max.
Backup power supply into 12 VDC
Fuse: T2A250Vac
1
310
To reduce the risk of fire, replace the fuse only with a fuse of the same type
and rating.
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APPENDIX
B
Changing a Fuse
This appendix shows you how to remove and install fuses for the Switch.
"
If you use a fuse other than the included fuses, make sure it matches the fuse
specifications in the appendix on product specifications.
Removing a Fuse
"
Disconnect all power from the Switch before you begin this procedure.
1 Remove the power cord from the Switch.
2 See the product specifications for the location of the fuse. Use a small flat-head
screwdriver to carefully pry out the fuse housing.
3 A burnt-out fuse is blackened, darkened or cloudy inside its glass casing. A working fuse
has a completely clear glass casing. Pull gently, but firmly, to remove the burnt out fuse
from the fuse housing. Dispose of the burnt-out fuse properly.
Installing a Fuse
1 The Switch is shipped from the factory with one spare fuse included in a box-like section
of the fuse housing. Push the middle part of the box-like section to access the spare fuse.
Put another spare fuse in its place in order to always have one on hand.
2 Push the replacement fuse into the fuse housing until you hear a click.
3 Push the fuse housing back into the Switch until you hear a click.
4 Plug the power cord back into the unit.
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Appendix B Changing a Fuse
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APPENDIX
C
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
"
Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
45.3.0.1 Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or
allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
45.3.0.1.1 Disable pop-up Blockers
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
Figure 125 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the
Privacy tab.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
2 Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen. This
disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 126 Internet Options
3 Click Apply to save this setting.
45.3.0.1.2 Enable pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following
steps.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
2 Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 127 Internet Options
3 Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have blocked)
with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.1.1.
4 Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 128 Pop-up Blocker Settings
5 Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
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6 Click Apply to save this setting.
45.3.0.2 JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check that
JavaScripts are allowed.
1 In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 129 Internet Options
2
3
4
5
6
316
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Scripting.
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Click OK to close the window.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 130 Security Settings - Java Scripting
45.3.0.3 Java Permissions
1
2
3
4
5
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 131 Security Settings - Java
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
45.3.0.3.1 JAVA (Sun)
1 From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2 make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
3 Click OK to close the window.
Figure 132 Java (Sun)
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APPENDIX
D
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also
use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host ID. In the same
way that houses on a street share a common street name, the hosts on a network share a
common network number. Similarly, as each house has its own house number, each host on the
network has its own unique identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network number
to send packets to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on the
network the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for example,
192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is an eight-digit binary
number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in
decimal.
The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets (192.168.1)
are the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
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319
Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Figure 133 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID varies
according to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term “subnet” is short for “subnetwork”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the
IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in bold text)
and host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 103 IP Address Network Number and Host ID Example
1ST OCTET: 2ND
OCTET:
(192)
(168)
3RD
OCTET:
(1)
4TH OCTET
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
00000010
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from
the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of
32 bits.
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits with a “1”
value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the mask are ones and the
remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The following
examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 29-bit subnet
masks.
Table 104 Subnet Masks
BINARY
DECIMAL
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH OCTET
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.248
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible hosts you can
have on your network. The larger the number of network number bits, the smaller the number
of remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 with a
24-bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast
address for that network (192.168.1.255 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the maximum number
of possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 105 Maximum Host Numbers
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOSTS
8 bits
255.0.0.0
24 bits
224
16 bits
255.255.0.0
16 bits
216 – 2
65534
24 bits
255.255.255.0
8 bits
28 – 2
254
3 bits
23
6
29 bits
255.255.255.248
–2
16777214
–2
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask
255.255.255.128.
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 106 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 106 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation (continued)
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the following
example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a group of servers from
the rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three octets of the
address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining octet is the host ID, allowing a
maximum of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 134 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate
sub-networks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or /25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two subnets;
192.168.1.0 /25 and 192.168.1.128 /25.
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now two subnetworks, A and B.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Figure 135 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of 27 – 2 or 126
possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself, all ones is the subnet’s
broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned
to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit address into two
subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host
ID bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01, 10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a host ID of all
zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
Table 107 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 108 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 109 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 110 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and
111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 111 Eight Subnets
324
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 111 Eight Subnets (continued)
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit network
number.
Table 112 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit network
number.
Table 113 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 113 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning (continued)
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this
block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you
are told otherwise. You must also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the Switch.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your Switch that is easy
to remember (for instance, 192.168.1.1) but make sure that no other device on your network is
using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your Switch will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
need to change the subnet mask computed by the Switch unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example) you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the
guidelines above. For more information on address assignment, please refer to RFC 1597,
Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP
Address Space.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
IP Address Conflicts
Each device on a network must have a unique IP address. Devices with duplicate IP addresses
on the same network will not be able to access the Internet or other resources. The devices may
also be unreachable through the network.
Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
More than one device can not use the same IP address. In the following example computer A
has a static (or fixed) IP address that is the same as the IP address that a DHCP server assigns
to computer B which is a DHCP client. Neither can access the Internet. This problem can be
solved by assigning a different static IP address to computer A or setting computer A to obtain
an IP address automatically.
Figure 136 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
Conflicting Router IP Addresses Example
Since a router connects different networks, it must have interfaces using different network
numbers. For example, if a router is set between a LAN and the Internet (WAN), the router’s
LAN and WAN addresses must be on different subnets. In the following example, the LAN
and WAN are on the same subnet. The LAN computers cannot access the Internet because the
router cannot route between networks.
Figure 137 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
GS-2724 User’s Guide
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example
More than one device can not use the same IP address. In the following example, the computer
and the router’s LAN port both use 192.168.1.1 as the IP address. The computer cannot access
the Internet. This problem can be solved by assigning a different IP address to the computer or
the router’s LAN port.
Figure 138 Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example
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APPENDIX
E
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers. For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services,
visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the
service uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is USER-DEFINED, the
Port(s) is the IP protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further
information about port numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the
situations in which this service is used.
Table 114 Commonly Used Services
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is also
used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
UDP
7648
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for example
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out if a
user is logged on.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
329
Appendix E Common Services
Table 114 Commonly Used Services (continued)
330
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
FTP
TCP
TCP
20
21
File Transfer Program, a program to enable
fast transfer of files, including large files that
may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/
server protocol for the world wide web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often used
in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST) User-Defined
2
Internet Group Management Protocol is
used when sending packets to a specific
group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is
used for key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service
uses this protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/
server distributed file service that provides
transparent file sharing for network
environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that
sends out ICMP echo requests to test
whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or
other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL
(GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real
time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Appendix E Common Services
Table 114 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface
to access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and
network servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in
UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/
IP networks. Its primary function is to allow
users to log into remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet
file transfer protocol similar to FTP, but uses
the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather
than TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
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Appendix E Common Services
332
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APPENDIX
F
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
333
Appendix F Legal Information
FCC Warning
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital switch,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a commercial environment. This device generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of
this device in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user
will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
CE Mark Warning:
This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference
in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
Taiwanese BSMI (Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection) A Warning:
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT
APPAREIL A LASER DE CLASS 1
PRODUCT COMPLIES WITH 21 CFR 1040.10 AND 1040.11.
PRODUIT CONFORME SELON 21 CFR 1040.10 ET 1040.11.
Viewing Certifications
1 Go to http://www.zyxel.com.
2 Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3 Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
334
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Appendix F Legal Information
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty
shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act
of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return
Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is
recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of
ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products
will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty
gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to
country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information
at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
GS-2724 User’s Guide
335
Appendix F Legal Information
336
GS-2724 User’s Guide
APPENDIX
G
Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact customer support.
Required Information
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.tw
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.tw
Telephone: +886-3-578-3942
Fax: +886-3-578-2439
Web Site: www.zyxel.com, www.europe.zyxel.com
FTP Site: ftp.zyxel.com, ftp.europe.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science Park,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
Costa Rica
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: soporte@zyxel.co.cr
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.cr
Telephone: +506-2017878
Fax: +506-2015098
Web Site: www.zyxel.co.cr
FTP Site: ftp.zyxel.co.cr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Costa Rica, Plaza Roble Escazú, Etapa El Patio, Tercer Piso, San
José, Costa Rica
Czech Republic
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@cz.zyxel.com
Telephone: +420-241-091-350
Fax: +420-241-091-359
Web Site: www.zyxel.cz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Czech s.r.o., Modranská 621, 143 01 Praha 4 Modrany, Ceská Republika
GS-2724 User’s Guide
337
Appendix G Customer Support
Denmark
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.dk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.dk
Telephone: +45-39-55-07-00
Fax: +45-39-55-07-07
Web Site: www.zyxel.dk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Columbusvej, 2860 Soeborg, Denmark
Finland
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.fi
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.fi
Telephone: +358-9-4780-8411
Fax: +358-9-4780 8448
Web Site: www.zyxel.fi
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Oy, Malminkaari 10, 00700 Helsinki, Finland
France
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@zyxel.fr
Telephone: +33-4-72-52-97-97
Fax: +33-4-72-52-19-20
Web Site: www.zyxel.fr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL France, 1 rue des Vergers, Bat. 1 / C, 69760 Limonest, France
Germany
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.de
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.de
Telephone: +49-2405-690969
Fax: +49-2405-6909-99
Web Site: www.zyxel.de
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH., Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146, Wuerselen,
Germany
Hungary
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.hu
Sales E-mail: info@zyxel.hu
Telephone: +36-1-3361649
Fax: +36-1-3259100
Web Site: www.zyxel.hu
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Hungary, 48, Zoldlomb Str., H-1025, Budapest, Hungary
Kazakhstan
• Support: http://zyxel.kz/support
• Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.kz
338
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Appendix G Customer Support
•
•
•
•
Telephone: +7-3272-590-698
Fax: +7-3272-590-689
Web Site: www.zyxel.kz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Kazakhstan, 43, Dostyk ave.,Office 414, Dostyk Business Centre,
050010, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
North America
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com
Telephone: +1-800-255-4101, +1-714-632-0882
Fax: +1-714-632-0858
Web Site: www.us.zyxel.com
FTP Site: ftp.us.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Inc., 1130 N. Miller St., Anaheim, CA 928062001, U.S.A.
Norway
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.no
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.no
Telephone: +47-22-80-61-80
Fax: +47-22-80-61-81
Web Site: www.zyxel.no
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Nils Hansens vei 13, 0667 Oslo, Norway
Poland
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@pl.zyxel.com
Telephone: +48 (22) 333 8250
Fax: +48 (22) 333 8251
Web Site: www.pl.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, ul. Okrzei 1A, 03-715 Warszawa, Poland
Russia
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support: http://zyxel.ru/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.ru
Telephone: +7-095-542-89-29
Fax: +7-095-542-89-25
Web Site: www.zyxel.ru
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Russia, Ostrovityanova 37a Str., Moscow, 117279, Russia
Spain
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.es
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.es
Telephone: +34-902-195-420
Fax: +34-913-005-345
GS-2724 User’s Guide
339
Appendix G Customer Support
• Web Site: www.zyxel.es
• Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Arte, 21 5ª planta, 28033 Madrid, Spain
Sweden
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.se
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.se
Telephone: +46-31-744-7700
Fax: +46-31-744-7701
Web Site: www.zyxel.se
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg, Sweden
Ukraine
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@ua.zyxel.com
Sales E-mail: sales@ua.zyxel.com
Telephone: +380-44-247-69-78
Fax: +380-44-494-49-32
Web Site: www.ua.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Ukraine, 13, Pimonenko Str., Kiev, 04050, Ukraine
United Kingdom
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.uk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.uk
Telephone: +44-1344 303044, 08707 555779 (UK only)
Fax: +44-1344 303034
Web Site: www.zyxel.co.uk
FTP Site: ftp.zyxel.co.uk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications UK, Ltd.,11 The Courtyard, Eastern Road,
Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 2XB, United Kingdom (UK)
“+” is the (prefix) number you dial to make an international telephone call.
340
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Index
Index
Numerics
802.1P priority 82
A
access control
limitations 193
login account 196
remote management 203
service port 202
SNMP 194
accounts and modes 232
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 221, 225, 226
administrator password 197
aggregator ID 119
aging time 77
alternative subnet mask notation 321
applications
backbone 33
bridging 34
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 35
switched workgroup 34
ARP
how it works 221
viewing 221
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) 221
automatic VLAN registration 86
B
back up, configuration file 189
basic settings 71
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) 102
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 102
C
certifications 333
notices 334
GS-2724 User’s Guide
viewing 334
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) 85
changing the password 54
Class of Service (CoS) 173
classifier 131, 133
and QoS 131
editing 134
example 135
overview 131
setup 131, 133, 134
viewing 134
CLI
syntax conventions 230
cloning a port See port cloning 226
cluster management 211
and passwords 216
cluster manager 211, 215
cluster member 211, 216
cluster member firmware upgrade 213
models 211
network example 211
setup 214
specification 211
status 212
VID 215
web configurator 213
cluster manager 211
cluster member 211
Command Line Interface
introduction 229
Command Line Interface, See also CLI 229
Command Line Interface, See also commands 229
commands 229
accessing 229
and configuration file 236
and passwords 231
configure tagged VLAN example 289
exit 236
forwarding process example 293
getting help 233
interface 281
logging in 230
modes 232
modes summary 232
static VLAN table example 293
summary 236
syntax conventions 230
user mode details 236
using history 235
VLAN 289
341
Index
config mode 232
examples 269
configuration 168
change running config 190
file names 191
saving 235
configuration file 55, 236
and commands 236
backup 189
restore 55, 188
saving 190
configuration, saving 54
console port
commands 229
settings 41, 229
contact information 337
copying port settings, See port cloning 226
copyright 333
CPU management port 93
current date 75
current time 75
customer support 337
D
default gateway 179
DHCP 177
client IP pool 179
modes 177
relay agent 177
server 177
setup 178
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) 177
diagnostics 205
Ethernet port test 206
ping 206
system log 205
Differentiated Service (DiffServ) 173
DiffServ 173
activate 174
DS field 173
DSCP 173
DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping 175
network example 173
PHB 173
disclaimer 333
double-tagged frames 147
DS (Differentiated Services) 173
DSCP
DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping 175
service level 173
what it does 173
342
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) 173
dynamic link aggregation 117
E
egress port 96
enable mode 232
examples 263
Ethernet broadcast address 221
Ethernet port test 206
Ethernet ports, default settings 42
extended authentication protocol 121
external authentication server 121
F
fan speed 72
FCC interference statement 333
feature summary 52
file transfer using FTP 191
filename conventions, configuration 191
filtering 99
rules 99
filtering database, MAC table 217
firmware 72
upgrade 188, 213
flow control 82
back pressure 82
IEEE802.3x 82
frames
tagged 92
untagged 92
front panel 41
FTP 191
file transfer procedure 191
restrictions over WAN 192
fuse 311
replacement 311
G
GARP 86
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) 86
GARP terminology 86
GARP timer 77, 86
general setup 73
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Index
getting help 57
gigabit Ethernet ports 42
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) 75
GVRP 86, 92
and port assignment 92
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) 86, 284
H
hardware installation 37
hardware monitor 72
hardware overview 41
help in command interpreter 233
history in command interpreter 235
HTTPS 199
certificates 199
implementation 199
public keys, private keys 199
HTTPS example 200
I
IANA 326
IEEE 802.1p, priority 77
IEEE 802.1x 121
activate 124
reauthentication 124
IEEE 802.1x, port authentication 121
IGMP 171
setup 171
version 153, 171
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) 153
IGMP filtering 153
profile 156
profiles 155
IGMP snooping 153
MVR 158
ingress port 95
install
fuse 311
installation
freestanding 37
precautions 38
rack-mounting 38
interface commands 281
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, See also IANA
326
introduction 33
GS-2724 User’s Guide
IP
interface 78
routing domain 78
setup 78
IP table 219
how it works 219
L
LACP 117
system priority 120
timeout 120
LEDs 44
limit MAC address learning 128
Link Aggregate Control Protocol (LACP) 117
link aggregation 117
dynamic 117
ID information 118
setup 119
status 118
lockout 55
log 205
login 49
password 54
login account
Administrator 196
non-administrator 196
login accounts 196
configuring via web configurator 196
multiple 196
number of 196
login password 197
M
MAC (Media Access Control) 72
MAC address 72, 221
maximum number per port 128
MAC address learning 77, 97, 128
specify limit 128
MAC table 217
how it works 217
viewing 218
maintenance 187
configuration backup 189
current configuration 187
firmware 188
main screen 187
restoring configuration 188
management 229
343
Index
Management Information Base (MIB) 194
management interface, See also CLI 229
management port 96
MIB
and SNMP 194
supported MIBs 195
MIB (Management Information Base) 194
mini GBIC ports 42
connection speed 42
connector type 42
transceiver installation 43
transceiver removal 43
mirroring ports 115
modes
and accounts 232
in command interpreter 232
monitor port 115, 116
mounting brackets 38
MSA (MultiSource Agreement) 42
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 75
multicast 153
802.1 priority 155
and IGMP 153
IP addresses 153
overview 153
setup 154, 155
multicast group 156
multicast VLAN 161
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol 103
Multiple STP 103
MVR 158
configuration 159
group configuration 161
network example 158
MVR (Multicast VLAN Registration) 158
N
NAT 326
network management system (NMS) 194
no commands examples 273
NTP (RFC-1305) 75
P
password 54
administrator 197
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 173
ping, test connection 206
344
policy 140, 141
and classifier 140
and DiffServ 137
configuration 140
example 142
overview 137
rules 137, 138
viewing 141
policy configuration 141
port authentication 121
and RADIUS 121, 123
and VSA 122
IEEE802.1x 124
port based VLAN type 77
port cloning 225, 226
advanced settings 225, 226
basic settings 225, 226
port details 66
port isolation 92, 95
port mirroring 115, 116, 256
and commands 283
direction 116
egress 116
ingress 116
port redundancy 117
port security 127
limit MAC address learning 128
MAC address learning 127
overview 127
setup 127
port setup 80
port status 65
port VID, default 257
port VLAN trunking 87
port-based VLAN 92
all connected 95
port isolation 95
settings wizard 95
ports
“standby” 117
diagnostics 206
mirroring 115
speed/duplex 81
power
backup power supply connector 44
voltage 73
power status 73
priority level 77
priority, queue assignment 77
product registration 335
product specification 307
PVID 85, 92
PVID (Priority Frame) 85
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Index
Q
QoS and classifier 131
Queue priority 144
Queue weight 144
queue weight 143
queuing 143
SPQ 143
WRR 143
queuing algorithm 144
queuing method 143, 144
calculate 144
R
RADIUS 121
advantages 121
and port authentication 121
network example 121
server 121
settings 123
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
121
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). See STP 101
rear panel 44
reboot 190
registration
product 335
related documentation 3
remote management 203
service 204
trusted computers 204
removing fuses 311
reset 55
resetting 55, 189
to factory default settings 189
restoring configuration 55, 188
RFC 3164 207
RFC 3580 122
RIP
configuration 169
direction 169
overview 169
version 169
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) 169
Round Robin Scheduling 143
routing domain 78
routing table 223
RSTP 101
See also STP 101
GS-2724 User’s Guide
rubber feet 37
S
safety warnings 6
save configuration 54, 190
screen summary 52
Secure Shell See SSH 198
service access control 202
service port 203
SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) 42
show commands, examples 263
Simple Network Management Protocol, See SNMP
194
SNMP 194
agent 194
and MIB 194
communities 196
management model 194
manager 194
MIB 195
network components 194
object variables 194
protocol operations 194
setup 195
traps 195
versions supported 194
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) 101
SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) 143
SSH
encryption methods 199
how it works 198
implementation 199
SSH (Secure Shell) 198
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) 199
standby ports 117
static MAC address 97
static MAC forwarding 97
static routes 167, 168
static VLAN 89
control 90
tagging 90
status 50, 65
LED 44
link aggregation 118
port 65
port details 66
power 73
STP 106, 109
VLAN 88
STP 101
bridge ID 107, 110
345
Index
bridge priority 105, 108
configuration 104, 107
designated bridge 102
forwarding delay 106, 109
Hello BPDU 102
Hello Time 105, 107, 108, 110
how it works 102
Max Age 105, 107, 108, 110
path cost 102, 106, 109
port priority 106, 109
port state 103
root port 102
status 106, 109
terminology 101
subnet 319
subnet mask 320
subnetting 322
switch lockout 55
switch reset 55
switch setup 76
syntax conventions 4
syslog 207
protocol 207
server setup 208
settings 207
setup 207
severity levels 207
system information 71
system log 205
system reboot 190
T
tagged VLAN 85
Telnet
commands 230
logging in 230
management 230
temperature indicator 72
time
current 75
time zone 75
Time (RFC-868) 75
time server 75
time service protocol 75
format 75
trademarks 333
transceiver
installation 43
removal 43
traps, SNMP 195
destination 196
346
trunk group 117
trunking 117
tunnel protocol attribute 122
Type of Service (ToS) 173
U
user mode 232
examples 263
V
Vendor Specific Attribute, see VSA 121
ventilation 38
ventilation holes 38
VID 80, 85, 88, 89, 149
number of possible VIDs 85
priority frame 85
VID (VLAN Identifier) 85
VLAN 75, 85
acceptable frame type 92
automatic registration 86
ID 85
ingress filtering 92
introduction 75
number of VLANs 88
port isolation 92
port number 89
port settings 91
port-based 95
port-based VLAN 92
static VLAN 89
status 88, 89
tagged 85
trunking 87, 92
type 77, 87
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) 75
VLAN commands examples 289
VLAN number 80
VLAN stacking 147, 149
configuration 150
example 147
frame format 149
port roles 148, 151
priority 149
VSA 121, 122
and port authentication 122
GS-2724 User’s Guide
Index
W
warranty 334
note 335
web configurator 49
getting help 57
home 50
login 49
logout 57
navigation panel 51
screen summary 52
weight, queuing 143
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) 143
WRR (Weighted Round Robin Scheduling) 143
Z
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 191
GS-2724 User’s Guide
347
Index
348
GS-2724 User’s Guide