Siemens Network Router Version: 1.2 User's Manual

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Security Evaluation of the
Siemens Scalance S 612/613 Security Module
escrypt GmbH – Embedded Security
http://www.escrypt.com
Version:
1.2
Date:
19-Aug-05
█ escrypt GmbH
GESCHÄFTSFÜHRER: WILLI MANNHEIMS; PROF. DR.- ING. CHRISTOF PAAR
HANDELSREGISTER: AMTSGERICHT BOCHUM NR. 7877 · ST- NR. 350/5714/0765
SPARKASSE KREFELD · KONTO 12 039 · BLZ 320 500 00
Index
Index
1
Introduction........................................................................................................4
2
Security Services...............................................................................................6
2.1
Assumptions ..............................................................................................6
2.2
System.......................................................................................................6
2.2.1
Firewall ...............................................................................................6
2.2.2
VPN ....................................................................................................7
2.2.3
Removable Media (C-Plug) ................................................................8
2.2.4
Firmware Update ................................................................................9
2.3
2.3.1
First Initiation ....................................................................................10
2.3.2
User Management: ...........................................................................10
2.3.3
Learning ...........................................................................................10
2.4
3
Configuration Management .......................................................................9
Key Management ....................................................................................11
Security Analysis .............................................................................................12
3.1
Network and Protocol Analysis ................................................................12
3.1.1
VPN ..................................................................................................12
3.1.2
Firewall .............................................................................................13
3.1.3
Firmware Update ..............................................................................14
3.1.4
Operating System.............................................................................14
3.1.5
Web Server ......................................................................................14
3.1.6
Time Synchronization and Logging ..................................................15
3.2
Configuration ...........................................................................................15
3.2.1
Configuration Files............................................................................16
3.2.2
Bridge ...............................................................................................16
4
Summary .........................................................................................................17
5
References ......................................................................................................18
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Executive Summary
Executive Summary
The Scalance S 612/S 613 is a security module to protect the communication
between automation networks and to avoid attacks to the networks. The security
module provides the functionality of a firewall and a virtual private network (VPN).
The system is based on the operating system VxWorks and the firewall and VPN
from OpenBSD, the web server and the packet filter for layer 2 were developed by
Siemens.
Reliability and robustness are the crucial aspects for an automation network. The
network must remain running even in the case of failures. The aspect of data
security immediately follows in importance. Security and reliability sometimes
induce different objectives and get in the way of each other. These aspects were
incorporated in the standard configuration. Nonetheless the security module allows
a secure configuration. The device can be installed without changing the existing
network.
The security module fulfils its task well and fully protects an automation network.
The simplicity of the configuration is to be emphasized where the security does not
suffer. The device is built in an extremely robust manner and meets the special
demands of automation networks in an excellent way. In total, the Scalance
module provides a higher quality than most other security modules (also outside of
the industrialization engineering branch).
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1. Introduction
1 Introduction
The Siemens Scalance S 613 is a security module which protects the
communication between automation networks. It provides authentication, data
integrity and confidentiality and protects against data theft and data manipulation.
In automation engineering more and more components are being connected. The
connection with the Office IT world offers possibilities to use known technologies
from the office field for automation networks which arises threats by attacks from
the external network. The protection of the automation networks is necessary in
order to be resistant against malicious attacks from the external network. Figure 1
clarifies this circumstance.
Unlike the office-world, where standardized schemes such as SSL, TLS, and IPsec
are applied, there are no standards providing data security of automation networks
yet. The analyzed security module protects individual components and entire
networks against data theft and manipulation by implementing a firewall and a
virtual private network (VPN).
Figure 1: External network < -> internal network
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1. Introduction
Automation networks demand for a variety of security goals such that only basic
default-rules are preset. Nonetheless, these default rules provide a secure
configuration. The security modules are supposed to be easy to configure and
handle, also by non IT-experts. The security module can still be precisely
configured according to the user’s requirements. With expert knowledge the
configuration can be set manually in the advanced modus. The module can be
installed to an existing automation network without having to change the network
topology or having to configure new network nodes.
The configuration is set on a PC. It is possible to configure several security
modules at the same time over the network. For the replacement of broken devices
the configuration data can be stored on a removable media, the so-called C-Plug. If
a broken module has to be replaced only the removable media needs to be put in
the new module such that it starts working based on a secure configuration
immediately.
The module is based on the operating system VxWorks of WindRiver. Some
components such as packet filter and IPsec were used from OpenBSD, often
quoted as the „most secure operating system”. MiniWeb, a development of
Siemens, is used as a HTTPs server to provide a secure communication channel
for the configuration data between the configuration PC and the security modules.
MiniWeb is based on OpenSSL, it uses RC4, 3DES and provides key lengths of up
to 2048 bit.
Security modules can be combined in groups so that all modules of a group can
communicate with each other through IPsec tunnels. The internal network nodes of
a module and also of other modules can be automatically found without the need to
configure them manually. The Scalance S 612 can protect a network of up to 32
internal nodes. The Scalance S 613 protects up to 64 internal nodes and has an
extended temperature range of -20 ° to +70°. The computer software SOFTNET
Security Client provides a secure IP-based access from a PC to subnets. The
SOFTNET Security Client automatically enables a PC to communicate through a
secure tunnel with a security module. The security modules are supplied by a
redundant voltage supply of 24 Volts of DC voltage.
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2. Security Services
2 Security Services
The security module has two Ethernet interfaces, one to the internal network which
is protected, and the other one to the external network. The interfaces are easily
recognizable by a color marker in green and red color. The processor is an Intel
IXP425, it supports AES, SHA-1, MD5, DES and 3DES in hardware. RSA is
implemented in software.
2.1
Assumptions
Assumptions were made for the security module in a way to suffice the special
needs of automation networks. The internal network is assumed to be confidential.
It is assumed that the authorized users are trustworthy and are trained in order to
operate the module correctly. However, the configuration is supposed to be as
simple as possibly.
Furthermore, it is assumed that the module is physically secure. The module only
provides a basic protection if an attacker has physical hand on the device and can
exchange the device with a manipulated device or exchange the removable media.
There is no content filter available in the security module. For the protection
against malicious contents such as viruses and Trojan horses, etc. a virus scanner
and/or content filter must be added.
To keep the automation network running the reliability and robustness are at first
place even before the security aspects. Hence, with respect to security restrictions
were accepted in some default settings.
2.2
System
The security module is based on a firewall and a virtual private network (VPN). The
firewall works as a packet filter and the VPN is based on IPsec. SSL is only used to
protect the communication for configuration of the Scalance devices. The device
incorporates a bridge that enables installing the security device without having to
change any settings in the existing network regarding the IP addresses, subnet
masks, and routers.
2.2.1 Firewall
In order to protect the internal network, only communication channels between
devices from the external network and the internal network that are defined in
advance are allowed. This task is carried out by a packet filter working on layer 2
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2. Security Services
and 3 on the security module. The packet filter controls the communication
between the internal network and the external network (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: Firewall function of the security module
The firewall offers a packet filter adapted from OpenBSD for IP-packets with
stateful packet inspection. Another packet filter for Non-IP-packets (Ethernet
packets or Layer-2-packets) was developed by Siemens for the security module.
There is also a bandwidth limitation in order to avoid denial of service (DoS)
attacks and cache flooding.
2.2.2 VPN
The module also has the task to connect two or more internal networks to each
other. This happens physically over the external network in such a way that
messages from a protected device to another one are sent over the unprotected
external network through a secure tunnel. In order to safeguard the confidentiality
of the data, the security module can build up a VPN tunnel based on IPsec. When
several bilateral tunnels are combined we call the resulting network a VPN as
represented in Figure 3.
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2. Security Services
Figure 3: VPN-function of the Security-module
For the communication over a VPN the security modules are collected in groups.
For each VPN there is a so called network certificate with corresponding private
key that identifies the VPN. Each security module that belongs to the VPN holds a
certificate which is signed with the private key of the network certificate. The
network certificate is issued by a certification authority (CA) or it is self issued. The
VPNs are based on IPsec and use the IKE protocol for the key management. The
implementation was adapted from OpenBSD.
2.2.3 Removable Media (C-Plug)
The configuration data is stored on a removable media which is also called C-Plug.
A security module can easily be configured by inserting a C-Plug storing an
appropriate configuration. The configuration is then loaded by the security module
and stored in the internal flash memory. The data on the C-Plug is AES encrypted.
The removable media makes replacing a module very simple by exchanging the
hardware device and putting in a removable media for easy configuration. The
removable media is placed on the back of the module behind a cover which can
only be opened with a tool. With that it is more difficult to exchange the card.
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2. Security Services
2.2.4 Firmware Update
The firmware of the security device can be updated. For this purpose, Siemens
supplies an encrypted and digitally signed firmware. The user has to authenticate
to the security module before loading new firmware. The new firmware is
transferred to the security module via HTTPs. The signature of the firmware update
is verified. If the verification is successful, the new firmware is decrypted and stored
as plain data. A security module accepts only new firmware holding a correct
signature. Hence, it is guaranteed that no manipulated flash software is loaded into
the security module but only authentic software. The private key for computing the
signature is only known to Siemens and stored in a secure way such that new
firmware can only be distributed by Siemens. The corresponding public key for the
verification is stored in the EEPROM of each security module. The signature of a
firmware is checked at updating it, while at booting time only a checksum of the
stored firmware is verified. The confidentiality of the firmware is not a security
target but only a barrier if someone wants to reconstruct the firmware.
2.3
Configuration Management
Before the security module can start the work and protect an automation network, it
has to be configured. A tool is used to set the parameters for the configuration of
the security module including switches for the firewall, VPN, and logging. A module
needs at least the IP parameters which are set automatically in the standard
settings. It is possible to configure more than one module at the same time. This
configuration software runs on an external PC and the configuration information is
sent to the modules via HTTPs.
The configuration data is stored in the internal flash memory. The data is stored as
plain data. However, during the data transmission between the configuration PC
and the security module the data is securely communicated. If a C-Plug is put in
the module, the data is stored encrypted in the C-Plug. They are deleted from the
memory of the module after they were stored on the C-Plug.
Users with restricted rights have only a few choices to configure the module. Even
non-IT-Experts are able to configure the module in such a way that failures are
almost impossible. The administrator can configure the module manually in a more
detailed way.
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2. Security Services
2.3.1 First Initiation
At first initialization an IP address is assigned to the Scalance S moduls. After the
IP configuration the modules can also be configured over the network. The first
user to take the module in operation enters a user name and password which puts
him in the position of administrator.
After the security module is turned on or reset, if it does not contain any
configuration data either in the internal flash or on a removable media it does not
allow any communication. Hence, the device is in a state which cannot be used in
any way for an attack from the external network. The communication between
protected devices behind different security modules via the external network must
also explicitly be approved by the configuration.
If the device needs to be reset in case of loss of passwords, there is a reset button
on the back of the module. By pushing it the device is set to the delivery state. This
button is protected by a cover on the back side such that it is not pushed by
mistake. If the device is built in a rack, it first needs to be removed of it after the
back cover can be opened.
2.3.2 User Management:
There are two user groups having different rights: The administrator and the user
with restricted rights. The administrator is able to grant users access to the
modules, the users are able to change configuration settings according to their
rights. The authentication of the user to the security module is carried out by digest
authentication with user-name and password. With this kind of authentication the
password is never sent in plaintext.
2.3.3
Learning
In order to keep the configuration of the modules simple, the automatic learning
was integrated. A module can learn the existence (and with that the addresses) of
further modules and add this information to its own list of reachable modules. In the
same way it can learn which nodes are in the internal network of another module.
A VPN tunnel can only be set up if the end-point is known inducing that also the
module that protects the network with that endpoint needs to be known. The
learning is done automatically or by manual configuration.
For this purpose, the security module provides the security configuration protocol
(SCP). This protocol contains the functions
•
Find further security modules
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2. Security Services
•
Exchange of addresses of the internal networks between security modules
•
Signalizing that a packet was rejected because it was not received via an
IPsec tunnel.
The learning is always initiated if a node wants to communicate with another node
and devices located in the same subnet actively scan by ICMP messages. The
exchange of information about found nodes is sent encrypted over the network.
2.4
Key Management
There are several certificates and keys used by the security module as described
in the following:
•
Firmware: In order to authenticate a new firmware for the updating process it
is digitally signed with RSA. The private key is handled by Siemens only, the
public key for signature verification is stored in the flash memory of each
device. Additionally, the firmware to load is symmetrically encrypted with
3DES. The corresponding key is also stored in the flash memory. All devices
use the same key. If the secret 3DES key is compromised, then the device
must be sent to Siemens where the module is supplied with a new 3DES
key.
•
SSL/configuration: For the communication with SSL for configuration
purposes a server certificate with corresponding private key is issued for
each security module. If this key is compromised or the secret key is lost,
the administrator needs to issue a new certificate.
•
VPN: There are network certificates issued for each VPN. The
corresponding private key is stored on the configuration PC. Every security
module that belongs to the VPN holds a certificate which is signed by the
secret key of the network certificate. A security module has thus a certificate
with private key for every VPN it belongs to. Using this certificate it
authenticates to other security modules establishing a secure
communication tunnel. If a key is compromised, a new certificate must be
issued with the configuration tool.
•
Configuration: The configuration data on the removable media is encrypted
with AES where a global symmetric key is used. If this key is compromised,
a new global key needs to be deployed by a firmware update.
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3. Security Analysis
3 Security Analysis
The security module is designed for the use in automation networks. For
automation networks availability and robustness are of first priority since the
network must be protected against any failure so that the production never stops.
For instance, in the chemical industry this is extremely important.
Of course there are also high demands regarding the data security objectives
including data confidentiality, data integrity, and resistance against attacks from the
external network. From the technical point of view the security module meets these
high security goals. In this chapter the technical aspects will be analyzed in detail.
3.1
Network and Protocol Analysis
3.1.1 VPN
The VPN is based on the IPsec protocol family. In the last years this protocol family
was established as an industrial standard for VPNs. Hence, interoperability with
other systems is provided. Within this analysis the interoperability to the IPsecimplementation of the Linux kernel 2.6.x was confirmed. For the VPN functionality
the IKE daemon isakmpd of OpenBSD was used. The IKE-protocol supports the
following algorithms, where the default values are represented in bold:
Phase 1
Authentication
Modes
DH-groups
Encryption
Life cycle
Authentication
RSA , PSK
Main, Aggressive
1 (768 bit key-length), 2 (1024 bit), 5
(1536 bit)
DES, 3DES
999.999.999 seconds
SHA1, MD5
Phase 2
Life cycle
Encryption
Authentication
PFS
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Time (7200s), limit
DES, 3DES, AES
SHA1, MD5
yes, no
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3. Security Analysis
The implementation of the IKE protocol does not show any known security
weaknesses. No known security weaknesses of the OpenBSD-Isakmpd daemon
were found. Additionally, the system incorporates a VPN bridge to transport nonIP-packets through the IPsec-tunnel Broadcast and multicast packets can be
transported and also ISO-protocols. The key length of 1024 bit for the DH group 2
key exchange offers sufficient protection for the next three to five years.
Using the default configuration a VPN tunnel is only established if required. To set
up a VPN the security modules first exchange the necessary information about
their protected nodes. If unencrypted IP communication between internal and
external network is allowed, which is not the default setting, then the security
module that is in the role of the client sends the first packet in plain text. The
security module on the receiving side recognizes that the communication should be
protected by a secure tunnel and initializes the establishing of tunnel
The use of DES as encryption algorithm is critical. In particular, in combination with
the key life span of 31 years in phase 1 it is possible to break the DES key with a
brute force attack (already 1999, DES was broken in a challenge in less than a
day). Since the configuration tool does not set perfect-forward-secrecy (PFS) as
default, the key for the ESP-protocol can then also be determined. This
configuration is not recommended under security relevant aspects. The long life
cycle was chosen due to the reliability of the automation network. PFS is switched
off for the reason of robustness and performance. DES and MD5 as encryption and
hash algorithm, respectively, were included to conform to RFC 2409, which defines
IKE. After the update of RFC 2409 to RFC 4109 in May 2005, the support of DES
and MD5 is no longer necessary.
3.1.2 Firewall
The security module incorporates two packet filters. The packet filter e2f that filters
Ethernet packets was especially developed for the security module. The pf packet
filter was adopted from OpenBSD for filtering IP packets. Here, the statefulinspection-technology is used. The stateful-inspection-technology recognizes IPconnections and allows the filtering of these connections instead of individual
packets. Packets are prioritized with Class-Based-queuing (CBQ) to ensure that
there is always enough bandwidth available for administration protocols such that a
denial-of-service attack is not possible. In order to avoid identification of the
systems behind the security-module, the packet filter carries out a so called
scrubbing of the packets.
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3. Security Analysis
The pf-packet filter of OpenBSD does not include any known weaknesses. A test of
the filter rules set by the configuration tool does not identify any implementation
failures. Also a test of the Layer-2 filter e2f revealed no security weaknesses.
3.1.3 Firmware Update
A new firmware version is provided in an encrypted way and is also digitally signed
by Siemens. Hence, it was not possible to load a manipulated firmware into the
device. For the encryption a global key is used that equals for all devices. Hence,
with some effort is possible to compromise this encryption key by reading it out of a
device. An adversary does not gain much, though, such that the encryption of the
firmware is no relevant security objective.
If the secret key of Siemens is compromised that is used for signing the firmware
any program could be loaded to the security device. Then, all devices need to be
replaced. A mechanism to revoke certificates would be desirable for such a case,
e.g. by using a so called certificate revocation list (CRL). Furthermore, the device
offers a version control of the loaded firmware but does not avoid that an old
version is loaded. For instance, this old version might include known security
weaknesses that can be exploited. Preventing such would contradict the objective
of robustness, though.
3.1.4 Operating System
The access to the security module is an SSL protected web interface. The handling
and upload of the configuration files as well as the download of the logging files is
carried out via that interface. A command line access is not available. No weak
points could be found in the used operating system VxWorks.
3.1.5 Web Server
The security module uses an SSL web server named MiniWeb which is a
development of Siemens. The web server only provides this SSL access. The
MiniWeb server is based on OpenSSL and uses standard cryptographic schemes.
After the login the user gets the message “Siemens AG, security module”. Further
options are not available. An analysis of the configuration tool did not reveal any
information about the used URLs. The certificates of the web server are generated
by the configuration tool automatically. The certificates hold a 1024 bit sized key
and they have a life span of around 32 years. MD5 is used as the hash function.
SSL certificates can also be generated individually with other settings by an
external certificate authority and loaded with the configuration tool.
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3. Security Analysis
The MiniWeb server is well implemented. The SSL implementation does not show
any failures. The only security weakness is the long life span of the certificate and
the use of MD5 for the generation of the certificates. The key length of 1024 bits is
sufficient for the next three to five years.
3.1.6 Time Synchronization and Logging
The security module allows time synchronization based on the (simple-)networktime-protocol (NTP). The NTP protocol is an UDP protocol. The client requests the
time from an NTP server and the server responds with its current time. Since the
UDP protocol is used, the NTP protocol does not offer any protection against IP
spoofing or data manipulation.
The NTP protocol neither provides authenticity nor integrity of the transferred time.
A forgery of the information allows a denial-of-service-attack (DoS) on the VPN
function. Hence, the NTP protocol should be used cautiously.
The logging of the time setting shows weaknesses since expired certificates and
ARP spoofing attacks are not logged. Even the failure of establishing IPsec tunnels
due to the expired certificates were not logged. A modification of the time is logged
only when this is set manually, but not when it is set over NTP. In the default
setting numerous events are not logged.
3.2
Configuration
The security module is configured by means of a security configuration tool
installed on the configuration PC. This tool stores its files encrypted in a database.
The configuration data is transferred from the PC to the security module in an
encrypted manner with SSL. During the first configuration at initialization time a
direct connection between PC and security module is necessary since the
addressing of the security module is made via the MAC address. Afterwards, the
communication is carried out over IP such that no direct connection is required
anymore for configuring the Scalance device. Certificates and keys are then
transferred to the security module by the configuration tool.
It was not possible to break the encryption of the configuration files. A man-in-themiddle attack on the encrypted SSL transfer is not possible. Since no further
access to the security module is available, the communication channel between
configuration PC and security module is secure.
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3. Security Analysis
3.2.1 Configuration Files
The configuration tool transfers the configuration data via SSL. Hence,
eavesdropping of the connection and determination of the data is not possible. The
analysis of the configuration files gives only information about the default settings
of the firewall. The rules defined in the configuration file reveal no failures. The files
are very well documented and do not show any logical mistake.
3.2.2 Bridge
The security module provides bridge functionality in order to ease installation and
configuration. The bridge is in learning mode by default where it detects other
network components. This is done in the same manner as a switch works with the
ARP protocol. There is the possibility to switch off the learning mode and to set the
MAC addresses manually. This is possible in the advanced mode only, though.
It is possible to imitate a protected node outside of the protected internal network
with ARP spoofing in order to let the security module send unencrypted data.
However, this attack only works if the firewall allows unprotected IP-communication
between internal and external network (not default setting).
Although the bridge functionality using the learning mode eases the configuration
of the VPN, this function is also the module’s largest weakness. Using ARP
spoofing an attacker in the local network can imitate a protected network such that
the security module sends unencrypted packets to the unprotected network, or he
can do a man-in-the-middle-attack. This is a weakness in principle and not
especially a weak point of the security module, in particular since the defaultsettings prevent this attack.
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4. Summary
4 Summary
The security module is designed for using it in an automation network in order to
protect the network from data theft and manipulation as well as attacks from the
external network. The reliability of the network is of first priority, the aspect of
security follows right after. Furthermore, the device needs to be easy to configure.
These basic assumptions are reflected in the standard settings.
The security module performs excellent under these assumptions. The module
provides sufficient protection for most applications, although some weaknesses
need to be accepted because of reliability. The module is easy to install and to
configure such that non-IT-experts can use the device. It is possible to configure
the device for almost all demands.
Altogether, we conclude that the security module reaches the high security targets.
The configuration is extremely easy so that the network can be securely configured
with a few settings. False settings are hardly ever possible. The automation branch
requires extremely robust components so that concessions were made. On the
other side the device allows setting up an all around secure network according to
the current state of knowledge. A robust case rounds off the picture.
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5. References
5 References
Functional Specification, Version 1.0, 7.10.2003
Security Target, Version 0.2, 31.10.2003
Instruction Handbook, 1/2005
Design Specification, 19.1.2004
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