MINIDISC MANUAL
V3.0E
Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. The MiniDisc System
1.1. The Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2. What it is and How it Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3. Serial Copy Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4. Additional Features of the Premastered MD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. The production process of the premastered MD
2.1. MD Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2. MD Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Input components specification
3.1. Sound Carrier Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2. Additional TOC Data / Character Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3. Label-, Artwork- and Print Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.4. MiniDisc Logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4. Sony DADC Austria AG
4.1. The Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5. Appendix
Form Sheets
Introduction
T he quick random access of Compact Disc players has become a necessity for
music lovers. The high quality of digital sound is now the norm. The future
of personal audio must meet the above criteria and more.
That’s why Sony has created the MiniDisc, a revolutionary evolution in the
field of digital audio based on an advanced miniature optical disc.
The MD offers consumers the quick random access, durability and high
sound quality of optical media, as well as superb compactness, shockresistant portability and recordability. In short, the MD format has been
created to meet the needs of personal music entertainment in the future.
Based on a dazzling array of new technologies, the MiniDisc offers a new
lifestyle in personal audio enjoyment.
The Features
1. The MiniDisc System
1.1. The Features
With the MiniDisc, Sony has created a revolutionary optical disc. It offers all the features
that music fans have been waiting for.
Quick Random Access
The MiniDisc offers quick random access to the music selection or phrase of your
choice; something only a disc is capable of.
Total Durability
The MiniDisc can never stretch, break or tangle like cassette tapes. Since the free
floating optical pick-up never touches the surface, scratches are impossible.
Superb Compactness
The MiniDisc itself is only approximately 64 mm in diameter, and the cartridge is
72 x 68 x 5 mm. And because the MiniDisc is smaller, so is the MiniDisc player.
Shock-Resistant Portability
The MiniDisc is resistant against shocks and vibrations. New technology, using an
advanced semiconductor memory, provides almost total shock resistance so there
is no skipping and jitter even while jogging or driving.
Easy to Handle
The disc is protected in a cartridge. It is easy to handle and the ideal sound carrier for
mobile use.
Unsurpassed Digital Sound
The MiniDisc is based on the same noiseless and distortion-free digital recording
technology as the compact disc. So whether you are recording your own or listening
to prerecorded music, you have the optimum in audio quality wherever you go.
Recordable Disc
4 Track Recording: “A disc which records” is every music fan’s dream come true.
The MiniDisc offers about 74 minutes digital recording on one tiny disc.
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What it is and How it works
1.2. What it is and How it Works
Two Kinds of MiniDiscs are Available:
Premastered MiniDiscs for
Music Software
Premastered MiniDiscs are used most commonly
for music and are sold in record stores just the
same as compact cassettes and CDs are.
MiniDiscs, just like CDs, are manufactured in
large volumes by high-speed injection molders,
and the music signals are recorded during replication in the form of pits.
Forget the times when you would worry about
cassette tapes becoming worn out or wrinkled.
Moreover, the discs are encased in a cartridge, so
there is no worry about their being scratched.
The design of the premastered MiniDisc cartridges
is special. Prerecorded music packages require a
label, featuring the artist’s picture or other information – for it is the artwork that most often
captures the buyer’s eye. Therefore the top face
of the cartridge is left completely free for the
label. A window for the laser beam to read the
disc is only necessary on the bottom face.
Recordable MiniDiscs
Magneto-optical (MO) technology forms the heart
of the recordable MiniDisc technology. Not only
are MO discs durable enough to withstand being
rerecorded about 1 million times, they also have a
life expectancy approaching that of CDs.
When recording the MO discs, a laser beam must
be focused onto the magnetic layer from behind
while a magnetic field is applied to the front. For
this reason, the cartridges for recordable MiniDiscs
have a read/write window on both sides.
MiniDisc Pick-up Technology
Optical Pick-up of MD Player:
0
1
0
1
MD
Recording track
Objective Lens
Polarized
beam splitter
High intensity
Photo Detector A
Low intensity
Cross sectional view
of recording track
Laser
Laser
Recordable disc
Premastered disc
The optical pick-up developed for the MD system
has the remarkable ability to read both recordable and premastered MiniDiscs. For recordable
discs, the pick-up detects the magnetic structure
along the track. For premastered optical discs, it
detects the geometric structure along the track.
The MD system is based on the design of the
standard CD pick-up with the addition of a MO
signal readout analyzer and two photodiodes.
During playback of recordable discs a 0.5mW laser
Laser Beam
+
-
MO signal
+
+
Pit signal
Photo Detector B
is focused onto the magnetic layer. The magnetic
signal on the disc affects the polarization of the
reflected beam. The direction of polarization is
converted into light intensity by the MO signal
readout analyzer. Depending on the direction of
polarization one of the two photodiodes will
detect more light. The electrical signals from the
photodiodes are subtracted and depending on
whether the difference is positive or negative, a
“1” or “0” signal is read.
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3
What it is and How it Works
layer in the disc is heated by the laser to a temperature above the Curie point (approximately
200° C), it temporarily looses its coercive force.
As the disc rotates and the irradiated domain
returns to normal temperature, its magnetic orientation is determined by an externally applied
magnetic field. Polarities of “N” and “S” can
thus be recorded, corresponding to digital data
“1” and “0”.
The same 0.5mW laser is used for the playback of
premastered optical discs. The amount of light
reflected depends on whether or not a pit exists
on the surface of the disc. If there is no pit, a
high proportion of the light is reflected back
through the beam splitter and analyzer into the
photodiodes. If a pit does exist, some of the light
is diffracted and less light reaches the photodiodes. The electrical signals from the photodiodes
are added up in this case and depending on the
sum, a “1” or “0” is read.
Unlike conventional MO rewrite mechanisms, the
”Sony MD overwrite system” positions a magnetic head directly accross from the laser source on
the opposite side of the disc. A magnetic field
corresponding to the input signal is generated
over the laser spot. The rotation of the disc then
displaces the area to be recorded, allowing the
temperature at the spot to drop back below the
Curie point. At that point, the domain takes on
the polarity of the applied magnetic field regardless of the polarity that previously existed.
Overwrite Technology
In order to meet the requirements of a compact,
lightweight, recordable audio system for personal use, the MD system employs a newly developed Sony magneto-optical (MO) disc that utilizes
magnetic field modulation with direct “overwrite” capability. With MO disc technology, the
recording of data requires the use of a laser and
a polarizing magnetic field. When the magnetic
Head Drive signal
Overwrite Mechanism
1
0
Recording Head
Magnetic field of
Recording Head
Cross section of
MO-Layer with
magnetic pattern
Move direction of Disc
Laser Beam
New
N
S
N
Old
S
Frozen magnetic pattern
after cooling below
Curie Point
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S
N
S
N
Top view
of one Track
Heated area by Laser
above Curie Point
(erased magnetic pattern)
What it is and How it Works
Quick Random Access
Reprogramming the
Order of Music
1. Ordinary Method:
Music Data and Order are Recorded Time-Wise
A: Before Rearranging
Inner Edge
A
BC
DE
F G
H
Outer Edge
Disc Signal Lead in
1
2
3
4
Lead out
B: After Rearranging
1
Lead in
2
3
Lead out
Rearranged Area
2. MiniDisc:
A: Before Rearranging
Disc Signal
Music Data and Order are Recorded Area-Wise
Lead in UTOC
Only Music Data is Recorded
UTOC Data TNO
1
START
A
STOP
B
2
C
D
3
E
F
4
G
H
Lead out
B: After Rearranging (No Change of Music Data)
Connecting two Tracks:
Rearranged Area
Lead in UTOC
Only Music Data is Recorded
UTOC Data TNO
1
Additional Reprogramming the Order:
The ease of quick random access was made possible by the development of the Compact Disc (CD).
The CD instantaneously provides random access to
the beginning of any desired music selection. After
using a CD player, the time to reach the music selection of your choice with cassette tape players
seems extremely cumbersome.
The MiniDisc provides the same high-speed random
access for recordable discs as well as for premastered discs. In addition, the recordable MiniDisc has a
circumferential microgroove or ”pre-groove”, which
is formed when the polycarbonate substrate is injection molded. This pre-groove is the basis for the
tracking servo and spindle servo operation during
recording or playback.
Address information is recorded at intervals of 13.3
milliseconds using a technology that places infinitesimal zigzags on this pre-groove. Therefore, the
disc has all the addresses already notched along the
groove even with no recording. The result is a
START
A
Lead out
STOP
D
2
E
F
3
G
H
TNO
1
START
A
STOP
D
2
G
H
3
E
F
stable and quick random access, as well as a variety
of optional features, including programming of
the playback sequence e.g.: rearranging the
sequence of the titles recorded on the MD without
rerecording of the music information in a matter of
seconds.
This is possible because of the “User TOC Area”,
located around the inner edge of the microgroove,
which only contains the order of the music. This
system is similar to the “directory management
system” of floppy discs. In other words, starting
and ending addresses for all music tracks recorded
on the disc are stored in this area, enabling easy
programming just by rewriting the addresses. This
supports also other features: it is possible to erase
a track out of a sequence and during playback no
gap in the remaining music will be heard. The erased segment is allocated to the free space – it is
possible to record a piece of music independent of
the number of segments used.
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What it is and How it Works
ATRAC Digital Audio Compression
Technology
In order to provide approximately 74 minutes of
music on the 2.5-inch MiniDisc, a digital audio
compression technology called “ATRAC” (Adaptive
Transform Acoustic Coding) has been newly developed. This technology compresses information
down to approximately one fifth of the amount of
data usually required.
In 16-bit linear encoding, currently used in the CD
and DAT formats, with a sampling frequency of
44.1 kHz, the analog signal is sampled approxim
ately once every 0.02 milliseconds. Each sample is
quantized at 16-bit resolution into one of 65536
possible values. Therefore, with CD and DAT, when
the analog signal is converted to digital data in real
time, 16 bits of data are used every 0.02 milliseconds, regardless of the amplitude of the signal and
whether or not a signal is present at all.
Waveform analysis:
Level
512 Samples
0.02 msec
Time
11.6 msec
analyze the waveform
during approx
11.6 msec into
frequency components
Threshold of Hearing:
As sound level diminishes, there is a level below
which the human ear cannot detect. This threshold varies with frequency. The threshold of
audibility is lowest for sounds with a frequency
of approximately 4kHz; that is, sounds close to
this frequency are most easily detected by the
ear. By analyzing the frequency components of
an audio signal, it is possible to identify those
components that lie below the threshold of hearing. Such components can be removed from
the original signal without affecting perceived
sound quality.
Masking Effect:
If two sounds, one loud and the other soft, are
produced simultaneously and they are close to
one another in frequency, the softer sound becomes difficult or even impossible to hear.
Therefore, when an audio signal has a high level
component and a low level component at neighbouring frequencies, the latter can be removed
without affecting perceived sound quality.
Moreover, with increasing overall signal amplitude, it becomes possible to remove a greater number of components without audible effect.
Psychoacoustic principles:
Frequency F1
Level
Sampling Distribution and Acoustic Effect
Threshold of
Hearing
Frequency F4
Level
Frequency Fn
F1
50
This method of encoding is far more efficient than
the linear coding technique used for CD and DAT,
yet sound quality remains comparable. The following
underlying psychoacoustic principles are used during
this conversion.
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F4 F6
400
Fn
4k
20k
Sampling from ATRAC and its Level
Level
ATRAC starts with the same 16-bit digital data but
analyzes segments of the data for waveform content
every 11.6 msec. Based on this analysis, ATRAC
extracts and encodes only those frequency components that are actually audible to the human ear.
Masking Effect
Level
Level
F1
50
F4 F6
400
Freq. (Hz)
Fn
4k
20k
What it is and How it Works
Shock-Resistant
Memory
Shock-Resistant Memory
Conventional optical pick-up systems can easily
mistrack when subjected to shock or vibration. In
digital audio CDs, this causes “skipping” or
muting. Resistance to shock and vibration is a virtual prerequisite for true portable personal audio
applications. In the MD system, Sony has solved
this problem with a unique shock-resistant
memory.
While the MD pick-up can read information off
the disc at a rate of 1.4Mbit per second, the
ATRAC decoder requires a data rate of only
0.3Mbit per second for real time playback. This
difference in processing speed enables the use of
a readahead buffer, placed between the pick-up
and the decoder. If a 4Mbit memory chip is used
for the buffer, it can store up to 10 seconds of
digital information. Should the pick-up be jarred
out of position, the correct information continues
to be supplied to the ATRAC decoder from the
buffer memory. As long as the pick-up returns to
the correct position within 10 seconds, the
listener never experiences mistracking or muting.
Since signals enter the buffer memory faster than
they leave it, the buffer will eventually become
full. At that point, the MD player momentarily
stops reading information from the disc; it resumes reading as soon as there is again room in the
memory chip.
Using a concept called sector repositioning, the
MD pick-up has the ability to quickly resume reading from the correct point after being displaced.
When signals are recorded on the MiniDisc (either
recordable MO or premastered optical media),
address information is assigned every 13.3 milliseconds. When a pick-up is shifted out of place,
the MD player quickly recognizes the disruption,
identifies the wrong address, and instantly returns
the pick-up to the correct position.
1.4 Mbit / sec
Optical Pick-up
4 Mbit Memory
0.3 Mbit / sec
Decoder
D/A converter
Amplifier
Digital Music Data
Analog Music Data
Flow of Music Data
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What it is and How it Works
1.3. Serial Copy Management
System (SCMS)
The MD conforms to the SCMS convention (see ISO958 + Amendment 84 (C. O.) 126 and 126A). The
Serial Copy Management System allows to make a
first digital copy from digital sources. Further digital
copies from protected sources are prevented, copies
in the analog domain remain possible.
Sony MiniDisc System
Specifications
Channels:
2 (Stereo)
Frequency Response:
5 - 20.000 Hz
Dynamic Range:
105 dB
Wow- and Flutter:
Unmeasurable
Sampling Frequency:
44.1 kHz
The premastered MD has following additional
advantages:
Coding System:
ATRAC System
• The data is stored in physical pits and is therefore
never erased unless it is mechanically destroyed.
Modulation System:
EFM
Error Correction System:
CIRC
Disc Speed:
1.2 - 1.4 m/sec (CLV)
Record/Playback Time:
about 74 minutes
Cartridge Size:
72 x 68 x 5 mm
Disc Diameter:
64 mm
1.4. Serial Copy Management
System (SCMS)
• The label area is larger than the one of the recordable MD. The entire area of one side can be used
for labeling. The recordable MD has a shutter on
both sides and its label is relatively small.
• The premastered MD contains valuable character
information (e.g. disc & track names) which will
not be transferred during copying.
• The subdata capacity of the premastered MD is
bigger. So it is possible to record more character
information onto the MD.
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MD Production
2. The production process of the premastered MD
➡➡➡➡➡➡
2.1. MD Production
1
2
3
4
5
6
Input
Material
PreMastering
Mastering
Disc
Replication
Cartridge
Assembly
Packaging
1. Input Material
DADC requires following input components from customers:
• A MD master tape or a sound carrier as for CD production (e.g. PQ-encoded U-Matic 1630).
• Print films, as well as colour proofs, for artwork, label- and cartridge print.
• Completely filled in form sheets (sample forms 1, 2 & 3 on pages 14, 15 & 18, form sheets in appendix).
Production can be started as soon as all necessary components have arrived.
2. Premastering
At the premastering studio the CD-Master tape is converted to a MD-Master tape. This means
that the audio information is compressed by a Format Converter using the ATRAC compression
technology. Also the PQ-code is converted to MD specific data and optional subdata (POS*, disc
name, track name) can be added. All information then is recorded onto a MD Master.
3. Mastering
A nickel stamper for MD replication is produced in the same process as for CD. A glass plate is coated
with a thin layer of photo lacquer. A laser spot records the data from the MD Master into the photo
lacquer. The nickel negatives which are produced from the developed plate are used to replicate the MD.
4. Disc Replication
The replication process of the MD is the same as for CD. After creating a disc by using high
precision molding technology, the MD is coated with a thin layer of aluminum as reflective media,
and subsequently with protective lacquer to protect it against damage. Then the coated discs are
100% quality inspected.
5. Cartridge Assembly
As the first step in the finishing process, the cartridge is prepared with a paper label glued onto the
front and other information printed in white on the back and spine. After the clamping plate has
been mounted onto the MD, the MD is set into the cartridge halves and the cartridge is welded.
6. Packaging
Packaging is done very similar to CD packaging, with a booklet and a backline card added to the
MD in a special MD jewel case.
* point of sales data.
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MD Components
2.2. MD Components
MARIAH CAREY EMOTIONS
The MD consists of the following components:
➭
Upper
Upper
Cartridge
Cartridge
(e.g.
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
Polycarbonate)
➭
Label
Label
(Paper)
(Paper)
➭
DiscDisc
(e.g.
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
Polycarbonate)
➭
Clamping
Clamping
Plate
Plate
(e.g.
(e.g.
Stainless
Stainless
Steel)
Steel)
Shutter
Shutter
Lock
Lock
(e.g.
(e.g.
POM)
POM)
Shutter
Shutter
(e.g.
(e.g.
POM)
POM)
➭
Lower
Lower
Cartridge
Cartridge
(e.g.
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
Polycarbonate)
➭
Assembled
Assembled
MiniDisc
MiniDisc
WARNING: All Rights Reserved.
R
E
IN
O
BO
L
K
➭
A
B
T
E
KL
C
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
TrayTray
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
Backline
Card
(Paper)
Backline
Card
(Paper)
➭
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Jewel
Case
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
MDMD
Jewel
Case
(e.g.
Polycarbonate)
MD Components
1. Upper Cartridge
The upper cartridge is made of grey plastics (e.g. polycarbonate). Its purpose is to protect the MD
against mechanical damage or dust. The upper cartridge also forms the spine on which the disc ID
information will be printed in white ink.
2. Label
The paper label is glued onto the upper cartridge.
3. Disc
The disc is manufactured in the same way as CDs are. It has a polycarbonate layer which contains
the data. A thin layer of aluminum is used as reflective media, which is protected by a protective
layer against destruction.
4. Clamping Plate
The clamping plate is made of magnetic stainless steel. This steel plate allows to stabilize the MD
from the bottom side with a magnetic chuck. Therefore the MD does not require a hole in the upper
cartridge and so almost the complete surface of the upper cartridge can be used for the label.
5. Shutter Lock:
It is made of plastics (e.g. POM) and locks the shutter in the close position.
6. Shutter:
The shutter is made of plastics (e.g. POM). It closes the opening in the lower cartridge through which
the data is read and it protects the MD against dust and damage.
7. Lower Cartridge:
Also the lower cartridge is made of grey plastics (e.g. Polycarbonate). It contains openings for the
disc-drive and the laser that reads out the data. On the backside, information like artist, titles,
playing time, etc. as well as the catalogue number is printed directly on the cartridge in white ink.
8. MD Jewel Case:
The MD is packaged in a 3-piece Jewel Case, consisting of clear bottom and lid parts and a grey tray.
It contains a booklet and a backline card similar as CD package. The MD Jewel case dimensions are
110 x 91 x 15 mm.
Disc:
Pit
Protective
layer
Reflective
layer
Polycarbonate
1.2mm
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11
Input Components Specifications
music start times with an accuracy down to
one frame.
3.1. Sound Carrier Specifications
DADC offers all necessary facilities to prepare
sound carriers for MD-production. For example PQ-encoding, digital editing for the
common digital tape formats U-Matic and
R-DAT, as well as A/D transfer from 1/4” and
1/2” analog tapes and transfer from CD-R
discs can be done at DADC. However,
PQ-encoded U-Matic tapes in the Sony 1630
format as used for CD-production is the
most common format. DADC can transfer
this tape into the MD format via the ATRAC
Format Converter.
The following pages contain important specifications as well as necessary information sheets
which have to be sent with the tape (Samples on
pages 14 to 18, blank formsheets in Appendix).
Please forward this information to your studio.
General System Specifications
• The maximum recording time on premastered
MD is 78 minutes 16 seconds.
• The maximum track number is 255.
Digital Tapes
• Please send a “label copy” with the tape. On
the label copy the order and duration of the
titles (as it has to be on the MD) should be
indicated by the producer.
• Prepare the "Premastering Instructions" form
(see Appendix, form 1) which describes the
• Please note all noises (kind of noise and time at
which it appears) as well as general quality
notes in the ”Sound & Noise Information”
sheet (form 2).
• Start recording of time code and digital mute at
least one minute before the first track.
• Stop recording of digital mute and time code
not earlier than two minutes after the last track
has ended.
• A pause (digital mute) of at least two seconds
has to be kept in case you want to change the
preemphasis status.
Please note that de-emphasis will be performed
during format conversion at DADC.
Additional Specifications for U-Matic Tapes
• Sampling frequency:
44.1kHz
• Tape format:
3/4" U-Matic NTSC standard
(Sony PCM 1630/1610)
• Time code:
SMPTE non-drop-frame; The time code
has to be locked to the NTSC video-frames
and must be recorded continuously and
without interruption on analog channel 2
of the U-Matic tape. It may not go beyond
23h 59m 59sec 29fr.
• PQ code:
The PQ data has to be stored on analog
channel 1 of the U-Matic tape.
Track 1
Offset time
≥ 5 frames
Begin Track 1
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Track 2
Track 3
Offset time
≥ 5 frames
Begin Track 2
Begin Track 3
Input Components Specifications
PQ Encoding
• Tape widths: 1/4", 1/2"
Start recording approx. 15 sec. after Time code
start. Please pay special attention to the offsettime of the begin-points. We recommend to use
an offset-time of at least 5 frames to avoid that
the music start is cut off during playback.
• Formats: NAB, CCIR, AES
Definitions
• “Begin” marks the start point of a track. It
defines the address at which the MD player
starts to playback a track.
International Standard Recording Code
(ISRC code) and UPC/EAN code (BAR code)
A disc catalogue number by means of a UPC/EAN
code and the ISRC numbers as assigned by the
IFPI can be recorded on every MD. For this
UPC/EAN code and the ISRC numbers must be
included in the original PQ Code as supplied by
you or it must be specified in the “Premastering
Instructions".
• Noise reduction: Dolby A, Dolby SR
• Reference signals: as standardized e.g: for
15ips CCIR tape:
5sec
5sec
30sec
10sec
10sec
1kHz
1kHz
1kHz
14kHz
63Hz
0dB
0dB
0dB
-10dB
-10dB
left channel
right channel
both channels
both channels
both channels
If it is not possible to send us a tape with these
test tones, please record the tones you have used
for machine adjustment at the last sound-check
of this tape.
If that is impossible as well, we will adjust to
standard reference tones.
• Dolby: If you have used Dolby for noise reduction, your tape has to contain the appropriate
Dolby-test-signal.
CD-WO (CD-Write-Once)
Additional Specifications for
R-DAT Tapes
• Sampling frequency: We recommend to use a
sampling frequency of 44.1 kHz. Nevertheless,
it is also possible to transfer from tapes with
a sampling frequency of 48 kHz.
Do not alter the sampling frequency within one
tape.
• Time code: SMPTE non-drop-frame; Time code
has to be locked to the NTSC video-frames and
must be recorded continuously and without
interruption. It may not go beyond 23h 59m
59sec 29fr.
• PQ code: The PQ code has to started on digital
channel 1 (left channel of the DAT tape). Start
recording approx. 15 sec after time code start.
Please do not send us your original master tapes.
Send us continuously recorded (no assemble
edits) sound checked copies.
Analog Tapes
Please mind the following specifications:
• Acceptable tape speeds:
7.9, 15, 30ips (19, 38, 76cm/s)
CD-WOs have to be recorded without interruption
and in accordance with the “Red Book”. It must
be possible to play them on standard CD-players.
The CD-WOs must not contain uncorrectable
errors (C2 errors). These can be caused e.g. by
damage of the CD-WO (scratches, finger prints
etc.), by defects during recording (medium or
recording device) or by an interrupted recording.
Disc checker print-outs (e.g. Sony CDA-5000 or
Audio Development “CD-CATS”) should be sent
together with the CD-WO, if available. All data on
the CD-WO (audio and PQ data, ISRC code, etc.)
are transferred 1:1 onto the manufactured MDs
Quality of the Sound Carrier
During preparation of the sound carrier, the audio
information has to be carefully sound-checked.
Please note every unusual noise (kind of noise and
time at which it appears) in the ”Sound & Noise
Information” (form 2) during this sound-check.
By providing this information like shown on the
sample form sheets on the following pages a lot of
unnecessary delays in production can be avoided.
If a noise which is not mentioned on this information will be found during quality inspection at
DADC, the production might be delayed.
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13
Premastering Instructions
Premastering Instructions
Form 1
123456789
Catalogue No.:
Customer:
Music Company
Artist:
12
46:44
Total Tracks:
Sample
Total Time:
❏ U-MATIC
Source:
Record Factory
Studio:
Sample Artist
Titel:
8 3 1 3 7428 7 5 1 22
UPC/EAN Code :
❏ DAT
❏ ANALOG
❏ OTHER ................
Type of Recorder: SONY DMR - 4000
EQ:
NR.:
Cal. Tones:
Fs:
❏ MASTER
❏ 1/2"
❏ CCIR
❏ NO NR.:
❏ 63/100 Hz .......dB
❏ 44.1 kHz
❏ MATERIAL
❏ 15 IPS
❏ NAB
❏ DOLBY A
❏ 1 kHz
❏ 44.056 kHz
❏ EMPH ON
❏ 30 IPS
❏ ........
❏ DOLBY SR
❏ 14/10 kHz .......dB
❏ 48 kHz
❏ PQ encoded
S
❏ 1/4"
A
SMPTE
TC
LEVEL
TRK
TIME
Nr.:
min:sec hh:mm:ss:ff L R
04:48
05:36
04:21
04:48
03:20
03:45
dB
-2
V
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dB
REMARKS:
ISRC-Code
Pause,Tracks,Noises..
44
JOB:
REF. 1K (...... dB) = .....dB PCM ❏ DC Offs. Corr.
❏ EQ
❏ EDIT
DIG HR ............dB
❏ A/B EDIT
De Emphasis
❏ ......................
EMPH ❏ on ❏ off
14
Q
800 2 1
TO BE FILLED IN BY DADC-ENGINEER:
-2
Hz
E
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Q
L
5
02:00:00
06:07:03
06:08:02
11:16:21
11:18:07
15:56:04
15:58:23
21:48:01
21:48:01
26:00:00
26:01:17
30:45:01
30:49:12
36:22:12
36:25:24
40:46:03
40:46:07
45:31:04
45:34:18
50:23:20
30:49:12
36:22:12
42:34:17
51:23:25
Hz
EDITS
P
4
04:08
04:30
05:10
04:40
05:50
04:13
EQ
FIL.
M
1
2
3
.......dB
U
3
U
8
U
3
U
4
U
6
U
5
U
9
U
9
U
3
U
7
U
8
U
9
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
0
S
4
S
0
S
8
S
0
S
0
S
8
S
0
T 3
2 1
T 3
3 1
T 3
3 2
T 3
2 1
T 3
2 7
T 3
4 1
T 3
8 1
T 3
8 7
T 3
2 1
T 3
8 7
T 3
8 7
T 3
9 1
8
2
8
2
8
1
8
2
8
3
8
1
8
8
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
DONE BY:
13. 02. 96
DATE:
....................
ENG.:
...................
P.Leitner
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
9 2
Sound & Noise Information
Sound & Noise Information
Form 2
T
R
#
Title:
Artist:
Sample
Catalogue No.:
Sample Artist
123456789
EMP
1
N
2
N
EMP
N
5
6
7
10
12
N
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
05
V
N
T
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
50
01
24
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
N
DO
T
10
19
47
V
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
10
14
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
EMP
N
V
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
E
11
N
05
12
V
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
L
9
05
V
V
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
P
8
50
T
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
M
EMP
10
V
50
V
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
25
A
4 EMP
N
N
S
3
EMP
V
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
8
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
EMP
N
0 ____________ 1 ____________ 2 ____________ 3 ____________ 4 ____________ 5 ____________
REMARKS:
Orig. MT: ANA / DIG. / MIXED
HISS, HUM, FLUTTER:
ROOM N., PLAY N., VOCAL N.:
DATE / ENG. SIGN
13. 02. 96
P. Leitner
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15
Abbreviations for possible noise
Abbreviations for possible noise
16
AE
Abrupt End, Sudden End
I
Instrument Noise
BE
Bad Edit
LCH
Left Channel
BL
Blow Noise, Wind Noise
LFN
Low Frequency Noise
CB
Cut Begin
M
Mouth/Lip Noise
CE
Cut End
MIC
Microphone
CF
Cross Fade
MUS Musician Noise
CL
Click Noise
N
CR
Crackle
OWT On Whole Track
DB
Double Begin
PN
Play Noise
DE
Double End
POP
Pop Noise
DIS Distortion
PT
Print Through
DO Drop Out
R
Room Noise
FI
Fade In
RCH
Right Channel
FL
Flutter
SB
Sudden/Abrupt Begin
FO
Fade Out
SE
Sound Effect
HFN High Frequency Noice
T
Tick Noise
HISS e.g. Tape Hiss
V
Vocal Noise
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Noise
Additional TOC Data / Character Information
3.2. Additional TOC Data/
Character Information
As one of the new features of the MD, character
information can be displayed during playback.
This information is included in the TOC (table of
contents) area of the MD and in subdata areas
(future use) which are available in addition to the
music data.
MD/CD Common Data
1
*P,Q
UPC / EAN
ISRC
This allows to store also data like disc title, track
name, disc recording date and track recording
date in the TOC. For disc title and track names in
total up to 2048 characters are available. This
text information can be recalled during play back
of the MD and then displayed on the character
display of the MD player. It is recommended to
use this feature for UPC/EAN Code, ISRC Code,
disc- and track names.
MD Specific Data
2 Disc**POS
Name
Track Name
CD MASTER TAPE
MD MASTER TAPE
Forming
V: Digital Audio Data
A1: *P, Q, **POS, ISRC
A2: Time Code
3Digital Audio
V: All MD Data
A1:
A2: Time Code
ATRAC
Data
Data to be processed
All TOC data has to be supplied together with
the other production components.
The MD specific character information has to be
filled into the ”Character Information” (form 3)
as shown on sample form next page.
We strongly recommend to fill in this form sheet
by typewriter, or to use computer printouts in
order to avoid misreadings and therefore errors in
the displayed character information.
Please also mind that the given information has
to be 100% verified by the customer as all character information will be stored onto the MD as
indicated in this form sheet.
Attached please find the ASCII characters which
may be used for the character information.
*P, Q (Time Data) will be converted to MD specific Data
**POS for MD is different from POS for CD
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
SP
0
@
P
`
p
1
!
1
A
Q
a
q
2
"
2
B
R
b
r
3
#
3
C
S
c
s
4
$
4
D
T
d
t
5
%
5
E
U
e
u
6
&
6
F
V
f
v
7
'
7
G
W
g
w
8
(
8
H
X
h
x
9
)
9
I
Y
i
y
A
✱
:
J
Z
j
z
B
+
;
K
C
,
<
L
l
D
-
=
M
m
E
.
>
N
^
n
F
/
?
O
_
o
0
1
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
The symbols of this
area may not be used
k
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17
Character Information
Character Information
Form 3
ARTIST:
TITLE:
Emotions
CATALOGUE No:
Mariah Carey
S
UPC/EAN - code:
Disc name
(max. 160 characters)
01-468851-50
No of tracks
Disc Information:
1 3
Page ....... of ......
10
(max 255)
5099746885187
Mariah Carey###Emotions
A
Track No. _____
1 Information:
Track name
(max. 160 characters)
DE
92
30212
Emotions
ISRC - code (ISO 3901):
DE
P
2 Information:
Track No. _____
S34
92
38490
And You Don't Remember
L
Track name
(max. 160 characters)
S34
M
ISRC - code (ISO 3901):
9 Information:
Track No. _____
Track name
(max. 160 characters)
DE
S34
92
E
ISRC - code (ISO 3901):
32187
Till The End Of The Time
10 Information:
Track No. _____
ISRC - code (ISO 3901):
Track name
(max. 160 characters)
DE
S34
92
84219
The Wind
Please use # to indicate ”Space characters” in case you want to use more than one ”Space”.
Remarks:
Signature / Date
18
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Label Film
3.3. Label-, Artwork- and Print Films
For unmistakeable reference during production the catalogue number must be indicated on each film outside of the print area for
identification.
I. Label Film
Usually a graphic or picture will be used for the
front side. For clear identification of the final MD it
is necessary to include the catalogue number on the
label. The MD Logo shall not be inserted, as it already appears on the upper cartrigde.
During preparation of the label films please mind
the following:
• Send coated positive offset films with approx. 3
mm bleed only.The registration and cutting marks
must be located outside the bleed.
• The films must not reveal damage of any kind and
must be packed in such a way so as to prevent
folding or creasing (roll container or carton).
• In order to match label and artwork please enclose compulsory proofs regarding colour with all
films.
• Please identify each film with colour specifcation.
All dimensions in mm with a tolerance of ± 0.2 mm
63.8
54.7
R = max. 0.7 mm for all 4 corners
Direction of Texture or Paper Grain
Upper Cartridge
In order to ensure optimum reliability under a variety of different operating and storage conditions DADC uses special paper quality.
D
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19
Booklet
II. a) Artwork Films (Booklet)
The booklet contains similar information as CD
booklets. Optionally the MiniDisc logo can be
inserted. During preparation of the print films for
the booklet please mind the following:
• Send coated positive offset films with approx.
3mm bleed only; the registration and cutting
marks must be located outside the bleed.
• The films must not reveal damage of any kind and
must be packed in such a way so as to prevent
folding or creasing (roll container or carton).
• The catalogue number must appear on the cover
of the booklet
• All pages (except cover outside) must contain
page numbers.
• Please prepare the film layout in such a way that
the booklet is closed on the left-hand side.
• Please enclose compulsory proofs regarding
colour with all films.
• Please identify each film with colour specifcation.
All dimensions in mm with a tolerance of ± 0.2 mm
104.9
72.7
min 10
stitching wire or
non-corrosive staples
DADC will provide artwork in following quality:
Thickness:
max. 1.8 mm measured on folding side.
max. 2.3 mm measured above the stitching wire.
With 70g / m2 paper quality for inner pages this will allow a max. of 32 pages.
Coverpages:
wood-free art paper.
min. 180g/m2, coated on both sides (for booklet cover and one sheet booklet).
20
D
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Backline Card
II. b) Artwork Films (Backline Card)
The backline card contains similar information as
CD backline cards (eg.: artist, disc title, catalogue
no.). The MiniDisc logo (recommended size 7mm)
has to be inserted on both spines of the backline
card, so that it can be easily read at top of the
spine end if the MD is stored upright in a rack
(see drawing below).
During preparation of the print films for the
backline card please mind the following:
• Send coated positive offset films with approx.
3 mm bleed only, the registration and cutting
marks must be located outside the bleed.
• The films must not reveal damage of any kind
and must be packed in such a way so as to
prevent folding or creasing (roll container or
carton).
• The catalogue number must appear on the
backline card.
• Please enclose compulsory proofs regarding
colour with all films.
• Please mark each film emulsion side with the
colour.
• Spine printing should be upright reading when
cover up.
All dimensions in mm with a tolerance of ± 0.2 mm
108.8
1
ARTIST AND TITLE
Direction of Texture or Paper Grain
3
2
11.2
MD Logo:
ARTIST AND TITLE
103.2
ARTIST AND TITLE
1 , 2 ... on this spine you can choose
between position 1 or 2 .
3 .......... on the backside placement and
position of a MD Logo is optional.
86.4
11.2
DADC will provide artwork in following quality:
Wood-free art paper.
160-180g/m2 = 0,15 - 0,16 mm thick.
Coated on both sides.
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21
Cartridge Back-/Spine Print
III. Print Film
(Cartridge Back-/Spine Print)
During preparation of the print film please mind
the following:
It is recommended to print in positive type following information with white ink on the cartridge:
• Combine spine- and backside typesetting on one film.
Spine: artist name and disc title.
Backside: artist name, disc title, catalogue number, track titles and durations, etc.
• Use coated positive screenprinting line films
(min. line width 0.15 mm, high density, emulsion
side up); positioning marks must be located outside the print area.
The MD Logo shall not be inserted, as it already
appears on the lower cartridge.
• The films must not reveal damage of any kind
and must be packed in such a way so as to prevent folding or creasing (roll container or carton).
Print location for the spine is on the cartridge
edge opposite to the loading end.
• Please don't encircle the printing area on the
film.
All dimensions in mm
Print area dimensions:
59.0
3
MARIAH CAREY
Emotions
Character size 7pt
MARIAH CAREY EMOTIONS
1. EMOTIONS
2. AND YOU DON'T REMEMBER
3. CAN'T LET GO
4. MAKE IT HAPPEN
5. IF IT'S OVER
6. YOU'RE SO COLD
7. SO BLESSED
8. TO BE AROUND
8. YOU
9. TILL THE END
9. OF TIME
10. THE WIND
R 12
52.4
5.5
COLUMBIA
14.2
468851 2
BIEM/STEMRA
LC 0162
01-468851-50
WARNING: All Rights Reserved.
31.7
22
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Character size min. 5pt
min. linewidth 0.15mm
Lower Cartridge
The MiniDisc Logo
3.4. The MiniDisc Logo
This part of the manual provides the rules for
Territory of Usage
use of the trademark logo “MiniDisc” on
The “MiniDisc” logo may be used worldwide,
except in countries where the use of the trademark
“MiniDisc” logo is illegal.
discs which meet the “MD” standard specifications.
“MiniDisc” Logo Specification
Permitted Uses
The “MiniDisc” logo may be used pursuant to a
license agreement with Sony Corporation wherein
the right for usage is guaranteed. The “MiniDisc”
logo can only be applied on the products specified
in such a license agreement, in order to show that
such products meet the “MD” standard specifications and are compatible with each other.
If you need camera-ready artwork for the logo on
your label films please contact our Customer Service
Department or download the logo from our website
”sonydadc.com/downloads/downfra.html“
For the use on MD label and artwork films there are
three versions of the logo, as shown below:
Choose logo A1, A2 or B, depending on the logo
size. (See table below)
Logo A1
Logo A2
Logo B
16mm
7mm - 16mm
4mm - 7mm
D
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23
The MiniDisc Logo
Printing the “MiniDisc” logo in positive, or in reverse (negative) is permitted.
Only one color may be used (also in negative
print, only single colour backgrounds).
Never combine the “MiniDisc” logo with other
characters, figures or logos. Always display it
independently.
Type Style
Location
“MD“ and “MiniDisc” may be used in typed copy
in printed matter when referring to “MiniDisc”
products. When typed, the letters “M” and “D”
should be uppercase (capitals) and the other letters in lower case (not capitalized).
The logo should be displayed at a prominent
place only once. The logo may appear in more
than one place, provided such placement includes a prominent place.
Note: with respect to the logo’s use on premastered discs, it should be displayed as large as
possible on the backline card.
However, for the purpose of protection of the
trademark, “MD” and “MiniDisc” should be
enclosed within quotation marks or written
in bold style in order to be prominent, and a
footnote should clearly indicate that “MD” and
“MiniDisc” are trademarks of Sony Corporation.
24
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Sony DADC Austria
4. Sony DADC –
The Company
Manufacturers of optical storage media in Europe.
With two plants in Salzburg and the worldwide network with subsidiaries in Japan, Hongkong,
Sony DADC Austria AG, is a hundred percent
daughter company of the Sony Corporation, was
founded in 1986 to cater to the requirements of the
European CD market. Since then, the Compact Disc
has emerged as the dominating sound-carrier. In
1996 more than 900 million units were sold in
Europe. The CD has also become the basic technology for other optical storage products like Laser
Disc, MiniDisc, CD-ROM or Play Station Disc that
were introduced on the market.
Australia, USA, Canada, Mexico and Brazil, we
guarantee supply to our customers with the highest
quality and top serviceability.
A separate development division with worldwide networking ensures the step ahead in
production technology and is ready to meet specific
customer requirements. But above all, here we
create the basis for new products in the future so
that we can ensure that the Sony group will be your
With a quantity of more than 300 million CDs shipped annually Sony DADC is one of the leading
partner in the future, too.
Facts and Figures:
Sites:
Factory I - Anif/Salzburg
Factory II - Thalgau/Salzburg
No. of employees:
1997 approx. 950
Capacity:
1997 1,2 mio/day
Production quantity: more than 300 million
annually
Customers:
approx. 2500
(International and European music and film companies, publishers, multimedia and information
providers as well as computer and video game
companies and the majority of software and
hardware manufacturers)
ISO 9002:
Certification 1995
Our products:
Product
Use
Size
Specification
Compact Disc
Audio
12 cm
8 cm
max. playing time 77min.
max. playing time 21min. 50sec.
Laser Disc
Video
30 cm
max.playing time 120min.
(two sides)
CD-ROM
CD-I
Information processing/
Multimedia, Interactive
Entertainment
12 cm
max. 680 MB
8 cm
max. 192 MB
Video CD
Video/Film
12 cm
depending on combination
audio/video/data
MiniDisc
Portable Audio
6,4 cm
playing time approx. 74 min.
PlayStation
Disc
Interactive
Entertainment
12 cm
max. 680 MB
CD EXTRA
Multimedia, Audio,
Video, Data
12 cm
8 cm
max. 74 min. 30 sek.
max. 655 MB
MD Data
like CD-ROM
6,4 cm
max. 140 MB
D
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25
Notice:
This document has been prepared by DADC Austria to provide some
basic information on MiniDisc (MD) for its customers.
Specific focus has been given to details as needed when
ordering MD production at DADC Austria
D
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AUSTRIA
All trademarks used in this brochure were used for editing purposes without intending any violation
of an industrial property right.
Owned by:
Sony DADC Austria AG
Niederalm 282
A-5081 Anif
Printed by:
Sony Music Printing, Haarlem, NL
Published in:
Anif, A
Produced in:
Haarlem, NL
For more information please get in touch with:
Sony DADC Austria AG
Customer Service
Niederalm 282
A-5081 Anif, Austria
Tel.: ++43-6246-880-555
Fax: ++43/6246-880-509
E-mail: sales@dadc.co.at