Sony Water System 7 User's Manual

After the Sound Forge software is installed and you start it for the first time, the registration wizard appears.
This wizard offers easy steps that allow you to register the software online with Sony Pictures Digital Media
Software and Services. Alternatively, you may register online at www.sony.com/mediasoftware at any time.
Registering your product will provide you with exclusive access to a variety of technical support options,
notification of product updates, and special promotions exclusive to Sound Forge registered users.
Registration Assistance
If you do not have access to the Internet, registration assistance is available during normal weekday business
hours. Please contact our Customer Service Department by dialing one of the following numbers:
Telephone/Fax
Country
1-800-577-6642 (toll-free)
US, Canada, and Virgin Islands
+608-204-7703
for all other countries
1-608-250-1745 (Fax)
All countries
Customer Service/Sales
For a detailed list of Customer Service options, we encourage you to visit
http://mediasoftware.sonypictures.com/support/custserv.asp. Use the following numbers for telephone
support during normal weekday business hours:
Telephone/Fax/E-mail
Country
1-800-577-6642 (toll-free)
US, Canada, and Virgin Islands
+608-204-7703
for all other countries
1-608-250-1745 (Fax)
All countries
http://mediasoftware.sonypictures.com/custserv
Technical Support
For a detailed list of Technical Support options, we encourage you to visit
http://mediasoftware.sonypictures.com/support/default.asp.
• To listen to your support options, please call 608-256-5555.
• Customers who have purchased the full version of Sound Forge receive 60 days of complimentary phone
support. The complimentary support begins the date of your first call. (Registration is required to received
this complimentary support.) Please call (608) 204-7704 if you need assistance with your full version
product. This offer does not apply to Screenblast Sound Forge users.
Sony Pictures Digital Inc.
Media Software and Services
1617 Sherman Avenue
Madison, WI 53704
USA
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
guarantee or commitment on behalf of Sony Pictures Digital Inc. in any way. All updates or additional
information relating to the contents of this manual will be posted on the Sony Pictures Digital Media
Software web site, located at www.sony.com/mediasoftware. The software is provided to you under the terms
of the End User License Agreement and Software Privacy Policy, and must be used and/or copied in
accordance therewith. Copying or distributing the software except as expressly described in the End User
License Agreement is strictly prohibited. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or for any purpose without the express written consent of Sony Pictures Digital Inc.
Sound Forge, ACID, Vegas, Acoustic Mirror, Wave Hammer, XFX, and Perfect Clarity Audio are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Sony Pictures Digital Inc. or its affiliates in the United States and
other countries. All other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners in
the United States and other countries.
Copyright 2003. Sony Pictures Digital Inc.
Program Copyright 2003. Sony Pictures Digital Inc. All rights reserved.
1
Table of Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Introducing Sound Forge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Sample files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Full version of Sound Forge versus Screenblast Sound Forge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Installing Sound Forge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Getting help within Sound Forge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Online help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
What’s This? help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Help on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
About your rights in Sound Forge software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
About Your Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Proper Use of Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Optimizing for Sound Forge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Defragmenting your hard drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Increasing total buffer size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Increasing preload size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Turning off the playback cursor and record counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Turning off the play (output) meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Turning on passive updating for video and time displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Turning on passive updating for time displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Turning on passive updating for video displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Learning the Sound Forge Workspace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Using the mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Using the mouse wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
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The main screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Main screen components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Floating and docking windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
The data window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Displaying data window components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Playbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Toolbars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Docking a toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Floating a toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Displaying a toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Customizing a toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Standard toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Transport bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Navigation toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Views toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Status/Selection toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Regions/Playlist toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Process toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Effects toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Tools toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Levels toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Play Device toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ToolTips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Turning off ToolTips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Command descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Resetting clipping indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Scaling meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Displaying VU/PPM meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Showing labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Holding peaks and valleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Faders and sliders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Envelope graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Displaying the waveform on an envelope graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Stereo files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Working with stereo files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Selecting data in stereo files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
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Creating a project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Getting media files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Using the Open dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Using the Explorer window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Peak files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Working with video files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Playing a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Viewing the current position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Playing a file from a specified point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Playing in Loop Playback mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Playing a selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Viewing selection status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Viewing selection statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Creating a new data window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Active data windows vs. inactive data windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Copying data to a new file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Saving a file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Using the Save As dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Creating custom templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Saving all open audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Saving files as a workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Editing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Copying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Pasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Trimming/Cropping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Using undo and redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Using the Undo/Redo History window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Selecting status formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Experimenting with status formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Configuring the Measures & Beats format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Rendering files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Exporting to Net MD devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Exporting to CLIÉ handheld devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Recovering files after a crash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Recovering files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Deleting recovered files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
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Navigating, Zooming, and Selecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Setting the cursor position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Previewing audio with pre-roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Using the overview bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Understanding the overview bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Navigating in the overview bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Playing audio in the overview bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Navigating with the audio event locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Zooming and magnifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Zooming the time ruler (horizontal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Zooming the level ruler (vertical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Using custom zoom settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Using zooming shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Using the Magnify tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Selecting audio using start and end values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Using the Set Selection dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Selecting audio during playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Fine-tuning a selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Adjusting a selection with the mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Adjusting a selection with the keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Restoring a selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Understanding snapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Snapping to time divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Snapping to zero-crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Snapping the current selection to time divisions or zero-crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Disabling Auto Snap to Zero at high magnifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Creating and using views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Displaying the Views toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Creating views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Changing File Attributes and Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Editing file attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Editing attributes in the Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Editing attributes in the status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Changing the sample rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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Changing the bit depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Increasing bit depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Decreasing bit depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Understanding dither and noise shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Minimizing quantization error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Converting mono/stereo channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Converting from mono to stereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Converting from stereo to mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Using the Channel Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Converting file formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Save as type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Adding summary information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Viewing and editing summary information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Viewing extended summary information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Editing extended summary information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Saving summary information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Including additional embedded information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Using Markers, Regions, and the Playlist/Cutlist . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Why use markers, regions, and the playlist?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Rapid navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Added effects for streaming media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Multiple versions of edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
MIDI synchronization and triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Using markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Inserting markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Naming markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Changing the marker position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Detecting and marking clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Using markers to create regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Using command markers in streaming media files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Defining streaming media commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Defining Scott Studios data commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Inserting command markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Editing command properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Saving command properties as a custom template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Moving the cursor to a command marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Deleting command markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
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Using regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Inserting regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Inserting regions automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Editing regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Creating new files from regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Using the Regions List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Displaying the Regions List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Working with the Regions List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Using the playlist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Displaying the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Adding regions to the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Understanding the playlist display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Customizing the playlist display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Repeating a region during playlist playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Playing from the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Arranging the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Replicating a region in the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Using stop points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Deleting a region from the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Creating a new file from the playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Configuring the playlist as a cutlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Saving a playlist/cutlist file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Opening a playlist/cutlist file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Copying the playlist/cutlist to the clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Recording, Extracting, and Burning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Recording audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Recording manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Recording automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Recording a specific length (punch-in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Choosing a recording mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Adjusting for DC offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Playing back recorded audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Using remote recording mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Synchronizing with other devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Viewing input levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Inserting markers while recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Configuring gap detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Automatically labeling windows and regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Changing blinking status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
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Extracting audio from CDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Previewing CD tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Refreshing the Extract Audio from CD dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Burning CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Correcting the sample rate for CD burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Writing mono tracks to a CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Adding tracks to a CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Closing a CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Proper use of software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Editing, Repairing, and Synthesizing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Crossfading, overwriting, and replicating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Crossfading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Overwriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Replicating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Repeating an operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Using drag-and-drop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Dragging mono selections into stereo destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Snapping to events in drag-and-drop operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Pasting, mixing, and crossfading with drag-and-drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Creating new windows with drag-and-drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Finding and repairing audio glitches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Locating glitches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Repairing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Synthesizing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Generating DTMF/MF tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Generating audio with frequency modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Generating simple waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Processing Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Applying presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Using presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Creating presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Deleting presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Resetting parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Managing presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Previewing processed audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Setting custom preview parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Preview parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Bypassing a process while previewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
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Sound Forge processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Auto Trim/Crop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Using Auto Trim/Crop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Auto Trim/Crop controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Bit-Depth Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Converting a file’s bit depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Channel Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Using the Channel Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Channel Converter controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Estimating DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
DC Offset controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
EQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Fade - Graphic fade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Creating a graphic fade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Creating a custom graphic fade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Graphic Fade Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Fade - Fade In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Fade - Fade Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Insert Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Inserting silence into a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Insert Silence controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Invert/Flip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Mute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Muting an audio selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Normalize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Normalizing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Normalize Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Pan/Expand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Creating a pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Creating a custom pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Pan/Expand controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Resample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Downsampling audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Upsampling audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Resample controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Smooth/Enhance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
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Swap Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Time Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Increasing the volume of a selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Volume control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Applying Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Adding an effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Saving effect settings as a custom preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Adding a chain of effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Applying effects using the Plug-In Chainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Adding plug-ins to a chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Selecting the processing mode for audio tail data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Arranging plug-ins on a chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Bypassing effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Removing plug-ins from a chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Configuring chained plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Saving individual plug-in settings as a custom preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Saving plug-in chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Loading plug-in chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Managing effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Using the Plug-In Manager window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Organizing effects in the DX Favorites menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Using the Preset Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Automating Effect Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Adding an effect automation envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Adding a volume or panning envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Adjusting effect parameters with envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Previewing effect automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Applying effects automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Showing or hiding effect automation envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Enabling or bypassing effect automation envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Removing effect automation envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Adjusting envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Adding envelope points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Flipping an envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Setting fade properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Cutting, copying, and pasting envelope points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Copying an envelope to another data window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Using Acoustic Mirror and Wave Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
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What is Acoustic Mirror? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
The acoustic signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Adding an acoustic signature to an audio file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Adjusting the acoustic signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
The Acoustic Mirror dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
General tab controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Envelope tab controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Summary tab controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Recover tab controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Creating impulse files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
What you need to create custom impulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Recording the impulse in an acoustic space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Recording the impulse through an electronic device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Recovering the impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Trimming the impulse file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Adding summary information to your impulse file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Using the new impulse file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Using impulse files in creative ways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Processing individual audio elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Adding realistic stereo to mono recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Creating special effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Recreating spaces for foley effects and dialog replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Panning with head-related transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Troubleshooting Acoustic Mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Stuttering during real-time previewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Impulses do not recover properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Recovered impulse is too noisy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Error message explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
What is Wave Hammer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Displaying Wave Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
The Wave Hammer dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Compressor tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Volume Maximizer tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Working with MIDI/SMPTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
What is MIDI? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
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MIDI triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Playback versus triggered playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Triggering file playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Triggering region playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Triggering playback from additional internal/external MIDI devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Advantages of external MIDI controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Sound Forge and MIDI timecode synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
Playing regions using MTC from a sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
Playing regions using MTC from an external device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Using Sound Forge to generate MTC for a MIDI sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Using Sound Forge to generate MTC for an external device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
Sampling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Samplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
External samplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Internal samplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Configuring the Sampler Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Creating a sampler configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Open loop versus closed loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
Saving sampler configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Sending and receiving samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Sending a sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Receiving a sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
MIDI unity note and Fine tune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Using the MIDI Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Displaying the MIDI Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Turning on the MIDI Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Configuring the MIDI Keyboard output port and channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Troubleshooting the MIDI Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Specifying instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Generating chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Setting up MIDI/SDS hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Troubleshooting MIDI/SDS with open loop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Setting up SCSI/SMDI hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Troubleshooting SCSI/SMDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Conflicting SCSI IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Periodic transfer failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Sampler is recognized but does not transfer reliably . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
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Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Sustaining and release loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Creating a sustaining loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Creating a sustaining loop with a release loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Looping techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Match endpoint amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Match endpoint waveform slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Match endpoint sound levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Avoid very short loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Editing loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Editing a loop without the Loop Tuner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Editing a loop with the Loop Tuner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Crossfading loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Using the Crossfade Loop tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Creating loops for ACID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Creating an ACID one-shot file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Creating an ACID loop file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Creating an ACID 2.0 disk-based file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Creating an ACID beatmapped file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Using the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Editing loops for ACID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Halving or doubling a loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Shifting a selection left or right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Rotating audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Setting loop tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Saving loop points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Working with Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Viewing video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Using the video strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Previewing files with video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Using an external monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Attaching video to an audio file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Detaching video from an audio file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Setting video options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Video file properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Configuring your video settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Saving a video file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Using Spectrum Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
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Working in the frequency domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Fast Fourier Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Using a spectrum graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Displaying a spectrum graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Monitoring an input and output source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Displaying frequency and amplitude values, notes and statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Navigating a spectrum graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
Changing the graph type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
Changing the zoom level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Working with stereo files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Updating a spectrum graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Viewing multiple spectrum graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Creating and comparing snapshots of the Spectrum Analysis window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Printing the graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Using a sonogram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Displaying a sonogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Displaying frequency and amplitude values, notes and statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Updating a sonogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Monitoring an input and output source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Tuning a sonogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Returning to a spectrum graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Printing the sonogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Adjusting Spectrum Analysis settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Saving spectrum graph settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Project file commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Magnification and view commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Data window edit commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
Cursor movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Selecting data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Navigation and playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Record dialog keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Plug-In Chainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Regions List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Mouse wheel shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
Additional mouse shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
Microsoft Audio Compression Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
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Audio data compression and decompression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Transparent playback and recording of non-hardware supported audio files . 267
SMPTE Timecode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
SMPTE 25 EBU (25 fps, Video) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
SMPTE Drop Frame (29.97 fps, Video) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
SMPTE Non-Drop Frame (29.97 fps, Video) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
SMPTE 30 (30 fps, Audio) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
SMPTE Film Sync (24 fps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Using CSOUND, MTU, IRCAM, BICSF, and EBICSF Files . . . . 271
About IRCAM files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
About BICSF and EBICSF files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Opening files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
BICSF and EBICSF files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
IRCAM, CSOUND and MTU files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Saving files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i
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15
CHAPTER
Introduction
1
Introducing Sound Forge
Thank you for purchasing Sound Forge® and for your continued support of the Sony Pictures Digital family
of products. Sound Forge provides you with the powerful features you have come to expect, as well as a
number of new features designed to make digital audio editing quick and easy.
Sample files
Throughout the manual, you will find references to six sample audio files. The manual directs you to use
these files as you experiment with different Sound Forge features. These files are installed in the same folder
as the application:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Drumhit.pca
Fill.pca
Loop.pca
Musicbed.pca
Saxriff.pca
Voiceover.pca
The files are in Perfect Clarity Audio® (PCA) format, a Sony Pictures Digital proprietary lossless audio
compression format.
Full version of Sound Forge versus Screenblast Sound Forge
This manual is provided to assist users of the full version of Sound Forge as well as Screenblast Sound Forge
users. For this reason, product features exclusive to the full version of Sound Forge are identified throughout
the manual using the following icon:
In addition, Screenblast Sound Forge-only issues are identified and described where appropriate.
Shortcuts
As experienced users of Sound Forge products know, there are often several methods of executing a
command, including menus, shortcut menus, and keystrokes. Throughout this manual, the typical method of
executing a command is identified in the procedure, and alternate methods are identified in a section
indicated by the following icon:
A full list of keyboard and mouse shortcuts appears in the first appendix to this manual. For more information,
see Shortcuts on page 257.
CHP. 1
INTRODUCTION
16
System requirements
The following lists the minimum system requirements for using Sound Forge and Screenblast Sound Forge:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
400 MHz processor
64 MB RAM, 128 MB recommended
60 MB hard-disk space for program installation
Microsoft Windows® 2000 or Windows® XP
Microsoft Windows®-compatible sound card
CD-ROM drive (for installation from a CD only)
Supported CD-Recordable drive (for CD burning only)
DirectX® Media 8.0 Runtime (included on CD-ROM)
Microsoft® Internet Explorer 4.0 or later to view online help (version 5.0 included on CD-ROM)
Installing Sound Forge
The install utility, setup.exe, located on the Sound Forge CD-ROM, creates the necessary folders and copies
all files required to operate Sound Forge.
Note: Sound Forge requires Microsoft DirectX 8.0 or later
and Internet Explorer 4.0 or later. The setup program alerts
you if either is not detected on your system and prompts their
installation from the Sound Forge CD-ROM.
1. Place the Sound Forge CD-ROM in your system’s CD-ROM drive. AutoPlay launches the Setup menu.
Note: If AutoPlay is not turned on, click the Start button
and choose Run. Type “D:\setup.exe”, where D is the drive
letter of your CD-ROM drive.
2. Click Install, and follow the instructions in the dialogs to complete the installation.
Getting help within Sound Forge
You can access two varieties of help within Sound Forge:
• Online help
• What’s This? help (also referred to as context-sensitive help)
Online help
To access online help, choose Contents and Index from the Help menu.
Press
F1
.
Note: To view online help, Internet Explorer 4.0 or later
must be installed on your system. If you purchased the boxed
version of Sound Forge, Internet Explorer version 5.0 is
included on your CD-ROM.
INTRODUCTION
CHP. 1
17
Toolbar
Tabs
Information
pane
The Contents tab provides a list of available help topics. Double-click a closed book ( ) to open the pages,
and then click on a topic page ( ).
The Index tab provides a complete listing of the help topics available. Scroll through the list of available
topics or type a word in the Type in the keyword to find box to quickly locate topics related to that word. Select
the topic and click the
button.
The Search tab allows you to enter a keyword and display all of the topics in the online help that contain the
keyword you have entered. Type a keyword in the Type in the word(s) to search for box and click the
button. Select the topic from the list and click the
button.
The Favorites tab allows you to keep topics that you revisit often in a separate folder. To add a topic to your
favorites, click the
button on the Favorites tab.
What’s This? help
What’s This? help allows you to view pop-up descriptions of controls in dialog boxes.
1. Click the question mark (
question mark icon (
) in the upper-right corner of the dialog box. The cursor changes to a
).
2. Click a control in the dialog box. A pop-up description of the item appears.
Click a control in the dialog box and press
Shift
+
F1 .
Help on the Web
Additional Sound Forge information is available on the Sony Pictures Digital Media Software Web site.
From the Help menu, choose Sony on the Web, and choose the desired location from the submenu. Sound
Forge starts your system’s Web browser and attempts to connect to the appropriate page on the Sony Web
site.
About your rights in Sound Forge software
Sound Forge software is licensed to you under the terms of the End User License Agreement. The End User
License Agreement is first presented to you when you install the software. Please review the End User
License Agreement carefully as its terms affect your rights with respect to the software. For your reference, a
copy of the End User License Agreement for Sound Forge software is located at
http://www.sony.com/mediasoftware.
CHP. 1
INTRODUCTION
18
About Your Privacy
Sony Pictures Digital respects your privacy and are committed to protecting personal information. Your use
of the software is governed by the Software Privacy Policy. A copy of this policy is incorporated into the
registration process and you are asked to agree to its terms prior to accepting the terms of the End User
License Agreement. Please review its contents carefully as its terms and conditions affect your rights with
respect to the information that is collected by the software. For your reference, a copy of the Software
Privacy Policy is located at http://www.sony.com/mediasoftware.
Proper Use of Software
The Sound Forge software is not intended, and should not be used for, illegal or infringing purposes, such as
the illegal copying or sharing of copyrighted materials. Using Sound Forge software for such purposes is,
among other things, against United States and international copyright laws and contrary to the terms and
conditions of the End User License Agreement. Such activity may be punishable by law and may also subject
you to the breach remedies set forth in the End User License Agreement.
INTRODUCTION
CHP. 1
19
CHAPTER
2
Optimizing for
Sound Forge
This chapter contains information on configuring your system to optimize the performance of Sound Forge.
Defragmenting your hard drive
Sound Forge is a disk-based digital audio editor that allows editing operations to be performed on the
system’s hard drive rather than in memory. Because of this, Sound Forge is able to edit large files as well as
retain extensive undo/redo information and clipboard data.This also means that the hard drive specified for
temporary storage must have sufficient free space to store large quantities of data.
With time and usage, hard drives become fragmented, leading to discontiguous files and slow access. This is
particularly true for older hard drives. Since Sound Forge is hard drive intensive, faster disk access equates
better performance. Therefore, the initial step in improving system performance is hard drive
defragmentation. The computer’s operating system is typically equipped with a defragmenting program that
should be run prior to using Sound Forge.
Increasing total buffer size
The total buffer size value determines the amount of RAM used for recording to/playing from the hard drive.
A total buffer size of 512 KB is recommended, but increased buffering may be necessary if you detect gaps
during playback.
Increasing the total buffer size requires additional memory. Combined with a large preload size, this may
result in a delay when starting and stopping playback. For more information, see Increasing preload size on page
20.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Wave tab.
3. Use the Total buffer size slider to configure an appropriate buffer size value and click OK.
CHP. 2
OPTIMIZING FOR SOUND FORGE
20
Increasing preload size
The preload size value determines how much sound data Sound Forge prepares and loads into the sound card
driver prior to starting playback. Preloading occurs between the time you click the Play button ( ) and the
first sound of playback.
Increasing preload size may eliminate the dropouts evident at the beginning of playback that are
characteristic of slow and/or fragmented hard drives. The trade-off for increasing the preload size is a delay
prior to the start of playback. The length of the delay is proportional to the size of the preload.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Wave tab.
3. Use the Preload size slider to configure an appropriate preload size value and click OK.
Note: Certain Windows sound drivers do not support this
option. If you detect noise or dropouts at the start of playback
and the system’s sound drivers do not support preloading,
turn off this option by setting the Preload size to 0.
Turning off the playback cursor and record counter
The playback cursor and record counter options determine whether these displays are updated during
recording and playback. If you detect dropouts and skipping at high sample rates (greater than 44,100 Hz),
turn these displays off to minimize processing overhead.
1. From the Options menus, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Perform tab.
3. Clear the Show the position of the playback cursor and Show the record counter while recording check boxes and
click OK.
Turning off the play (output) meters
Sound Forge’s play meters use a small amount of processing overhead during playback. However, if you
detect dropouts during playback and previous fixes have failed, try turning off these meters.
From the View menu, choose Play Meters. The check mark adjacent to the command is cleared, indicating
that the play meters are turned off.
Turning on passive updating for video and time displays
Passive update options lower the priority of redrawing the video and time displays during playback. When
these options are turned on, the displays update only if there is ample time. Frequently this goes unnoticed,
and enabling these options minimizes playback overhead with little or no inconvenience.
Turning on passive updating for time displays
From the Options menu, choose Time Display, and choose Passive Update from the submenu. A check mark
appears next to the command to indicate that this option is turned on.
OPTIMIZING FOR SOUND FORGE
CHP. 2
21
Turning on passive updating for video displays
From the Options menu, choose Video, and choose Passive Update from the submenu. A check mark appears
next to the command to indicate that this option is turned on.
CHP. 2
OPTIMIZING FOR SOUND FORGE
22
OPTIMIZING FOR SOUND FORGE
CHP. 2
23
CHAPTER
3
Learning the Sound
Forge Workspace
This chapter provides a detailed overview of Sound Forge toolbars and controls.
Using the mouse
The following table defines the mouse-related terms used throughout this manual.
Pointing
Clicking
Right-clicking
Double-clicking
Triple-clicking
Toggle-clicking
Shift-clicking
Ctrl-clicking
Dragging
Slow-dragging
Moving the mouse pointer over an item.
Pointing to an item and quickly pressing and releasing the left mouse button. If there is no left or
right specification, left-clicking is implied.
Pointing to an item and quickly pressing and releasing the right mouse button. Right-clicking is
frequently used to display shortcut menus.
Identical to clicking, but instead of pressing and releasing the mouse button once, it is done twice
in quick succession. Double-clicking always indicates the left mouse button.
Identical to clicking, but instead of pressing and releasing the mouse button once, it is done three
times in quick succession. Triple-clicking always indicates the left mouse button.
Clicking the right mouse button while holding down the left mouse button. This is used to toggle
options and is a shortcut for drag-and-drop editing and using the Magnify tool.
Holding down the Shift key while clicking the mouse. Shift-clicking is typically used to skip
dialogs and quickly repeat operations.
Holding down the Ctrl key while clicking the mouse. Ctrl-clicking is used to modify the operation
of a normal click.
Holding down the left mouse button while moving the mouse pointer and releasing the mouse at
the desired location. Dragging is used to quickly move sections of data between windows, as well
as to adjust sliders, scrollbars, and faders.
Holding down the right and left mouse buttons while adjusting sliders and faders increases the
resolution of the movement. This is useful when making fractional adjustments to parameters.
Tip: Once you are familiar with Sound Forge basics, you
may want to use mouse and keyboard shortcuts. For more
information, see Shortcuts on page 257.
CHP. 3
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
24
Using the mouse wheel
Sound Forge allows you to use your mouse wheel to navigate audio files. The following table briefly describes
the available mouse wheel functionality.
Wheel Up
Wheel Down
Ctrl+Wheel Up
Ctrl+Wheel Down
Shift+Wheel Up
Shift+Wheel Down
Ctrl+Shift+ Wheel Up
Ctrl+Shift+ Wheel Down
Zoom in horizontally
Zoom out horizontally
Zoom in vertically
Zoom out vertically
Scroll left (in 10ths of screen width)
Scroll right (in 10ths of screen width)
Cursor left or current selection point left (if there is a selection)
Cursor right or current selection point right (if there is a selection)
The main screen
When you start Sound Forge, the main screen appears. The main screen’s workspace is where you perform all
audio editing.
Menu bar
Standard toolbar
Transport bar
Play Meters
(docked)
Workspace
Status bar
Main screen components
The following table describes the major components of the main screen.
Menu bar
Standard toolbar
Transport bar
Status bar
Workspace
Play Meters
Displays the menu headings for the available functions.
Provides quick access to some of the most common tasks in Sound Forge (pg. 30).
Provides quick access to basic audio transport functions (pg. 30).
Help and processing information appears on the left side. The boxes on the right side display the
playback sample rate, bit depth, channel configuration (mono/stereo), length of the active data
window, and total free storage space (pg. 83). With the exception of the free storage space box,
you can edit these boxes by double-clicking or right-clicking them. When no data windows are
open, only the free storage space box contains a value.
This is the area located behind the data windows. Audio selections dragged to the workspace
automatically become new data windows. Windows such as the Regions List and Playlist can be
docked along the edges of the workspace.
Displays the level of the output audio signal. These meters can be toggled on/off by choosing
Play Meters from the View menu. Right-clicking the play meters displays a shortcut menu
that allows you to precisely configure the appearance of the meters.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
25
Floating and docking windows
With the many features in Sound Forge, it is easy for the workspace to become cluttered. Docking windows
allows you to keep more windows open while maintaining a greater degree of organization. You can choose
to float or dock the windows listed in the View menu, including the Regions List, Playlist (available only in
the full version of Sound Forge), and Time Display (available only in the full version of Sound Forge)
windows.
You can dock windows individually or in a stack. When stacked, each window has a tab at the bottom with
its name on it. Click the window’s tab to bring it to the top.
Docked
Play
Meters
Docked
Keyboard
Stacked
windows
with tabs
Docking a window
1. Drag a window to the edge of the workspace. The outline of the window changes shape as you approach
the edge.
2. Release the mouse. The window docks against the edge of the workspace.
Preventing a window from docking
Press
Ctrl
while dragging a window to prevent it from docking in the workspace.
Tip: You can choose to reverse this behavior so that windows
will not dock unless you press Ctrl . From the Options
menu, choose Preferences, and clear the Allow floating
windows to dock check box on the General tab.
CHP. 3
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
26
Floating a window
Drag the handle on the left side of a docked window away from the edge of the workspace.
Close window
Expand window
Drag the handle
away from the edge
of the workspace
to float the window.
Hiding the window docking area
You can double-click the separator between the workspace and window docking area to hide the docking
area. You can also use shortcut keys to manage the workspace.
Shortcut key
F11
Shift
Ctrl
+ F11
+ F11
Description
Show/hide window docking area at
bottom of workspace.
Show/hide windows docked on left/
right sides of workspace.
Show/hide all docked windows.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
27
The data window
Data windows contain audio data (as a waveform) as well as a number of controls and commands used to edit
and process audio.
Title bar Time ruler
Overview bar
Edit Tool
Selector
Ruler tags
Level ruler
Waveform display
Time zoom resolution
Time zoom in/out
Maximize width
Level zoom in/out
Playbar
Selection status boxes
Component
Description
Title bar
Displays the file name. If title information is included in the summary of a file, it appears here
instead of the file name. Double-click to maximize and restore the window.
Displays the amplitude of the waveform. Right-click to display the level ruler shortcut menu.
Drag to shift the view up/down when zoomed in vertically.
Displays the current location in the data window as well as ruler tags. Right-click to display the
time ruler shortcut menu. Drag to scroll the data window.
Indicates the position of region end points, loop end points, and markers. Right-click a tag to
display the ruler tag shortcut menu. Drag to edit a tag’s position. Double-click anywhere within a
region to select it.
Toggles through the Edit, Magnify, and Pencil tools. Right-click to display a shortcut menu that
allows you to display or hide data window elements.
Contains audio transport buttons, including Go to Start, Go to End, Stop, Play Normal, Open/
Play Plug-In Chainer (available only in the full version of Sound Forge), Play as Cutlist, and Play
as Sample. For more information on the playbar, please see page 28.
Displays the beginning, end, and length of a selection. If no selection exists, only the cursor
position displays. Double-click the leftmost box to display the Go To dialog. Double-click either of
the other two boxes to display the Set Selection dialog. Right-click to display the status format
shortcut menu.
Displays a graphical representation of an audio file. The horizontal axis represents time, and the
vertical axis represents amplitude. Right-click within this display to open the waveform display
shortcut menu.
Scrolls forward/backward through an audio file to display sections of the file not visible in the
current area of the waveform display.
Allows for quick navigation and playback of any part of an audio file. The overview bar also
indicates the portion of the waveform currently depicted in the waveform display, as well as the
selected region. Click to move the cursor. Double-click to center the cursor in the waveform
display. Right-click to start or pause playback. Drag to activate the audio event locator.
Specifies the number of samples of data represented by each horizontal point on the screen. This
determines the length of time displayed in the data window. Smaller resolution values display
less time.
Changes the zoom resolution for the time (horizontal) axis.
Changes the zoom resolution for the level (vertical) axis.
Resizes the data window to maximize its size within the workspace.
Level ruler
Time ruler
Ruler tags
Edit Tool Selector
Playbar
Selection status boxes
Waveform display
Position scroll bar
Overview bar
Time zoom resolution
Time zoom in/out
Level zoom in/out
Maximize width
CHP. 3
Position
scroll bar
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
28
Displaying data window components
Sound Forge allows you to customize the appearance of individual data windows.
1. From the File menu, choose Properties or press
Alt
+ Enter . The current file’s Properties dialog appears.
2. Click the Display tab.
3. Display/hide specific components by selecting/clearing the corresponding check boxes.
4. Select the Save as the default for all new windows check box if you want to set the new configuration as the
default data window display.
5. Click OK.
Right-click the Edit Tool Selector (upper-left corner of data window) to display or hide
components for the selected data window.
Playbar
The playbar is located in the bottom-left corner of a data window. You can use the playbar to navigate and
play audio files in a variety of ways.
Go to Start: moves the cursor to
the start of the file.
Play Plug-In Chainer: previews the audio processed through
plug-ins when the Plug-In Chainer window is open.
If there is a selection, plays from the beginning of the
selection to the end of the selection.
If the Plug-In Chainer window is not open, the Open Plug-In
Chainer button (
) appears instead.
Go to End: moves the cursor to
the end of the file.
Play as Cutlist: plays the file with the regions in the cutlist
omitted. This button appears only if you treat the playlist as a
cutlist.
Stop: stops playback and
returns the cursor to its position
prior to playback.
Play as Sample: plays the file with the sustaining and release
loops repeating the specified number of times. This button
appears only if you have defined a sample loop.
Play Normal: plays from the
cursor to the end of the file.
If there is a selection, plays from
the beginning of the selection to
the end of the selection.
Current playback mode
When you play a file from the playbar, a small horizontal line appears beneath the selected Play button’s icon
( ). This indicates Sound Forge’s current playback mode, which is the mode used when you click the
transport bar Play ( ) button. For more information, see Transport bar on page 30.
Changing the current playback mode
To change the current playback mode, click a playbar button or press
X
.
Optional Backward and Forward buttons
You can choose to display Rewind ( ) and Forward ( ) shuttle controls on the playbar. From the Options
menu, choose Preferences, and select the Show shuttle controls on Data Window transport check box on the
General tab.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
29
Toolbars
Sound Forge’s toolbars contain buttons used to quickly execute many of the program’s commands and
functions. Toolbars can be dragged throughout the workspace, docked, resized, hidden, and customized.
Docking a toolbar
When you drag a floating toolbar to any edge of the main screen, the toolbar docks on that edge.
Floating a toolbar
When you drag a docked toolbar away from an edge, the toolbar becomes a floating toolbar.
Displaying a toolbar
1. From the View menu, choose Toolbars. The Preferences dialog appears with a list of available toolbars.
2. To display a toolbar, select the corresponding check box and click OK.
Select a check box to
display a toolbar.
Click Customize to add, remove,
or rearrange buttons on a toolbar.
Note: The dialog box pictured above is from the full version
of Sound Forge. If you have Screenblast Sound Forge, you
will not have all of the tabs and options pictured above
available to you.
Customizing a toolbar
1. From the View menu, choose Toolbars. The Preferences dialog appears with a list of available toolbars.
2. Select the check box for a toolbar and click Customize. The Customize Toolbar dialog appears.
3. Use the controls in the Customize Toolbar dialog to add, remove, or rearrange the buttons on the selected
toolbar. Click Reset to restore the toolbar to its default setting.
CHP. 3
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
30
Standard toolbar
The Standard toolbar displays by default when you start Sound Forge. The buttons on this toolbar provide
quick access to many common commands.
New: creates a new data window.
Play Clipboard: plays the audio on the
clipboard.
Open: displays the Open dialog.
Trim/Crop: removes all data from the file that
is not currently selected. This command has no
effect if there is no selected data. This
command does not copy data to the clipboard.
Save: saves the current audio data.
Undo: reverses the last edit operation.
Save As: saves the current file with a new
name or format.
Redo: reverts the previously undone edit
operation.
Render As: renders the current project file to a
media file.
Repeat: repeats the last operation. This
command can be used with most processing
functions. The previous operation’s parameters
are repeated. To specify new parameters, hold
Shift and click this button.
Cut: removes selected audio data and places it
on the clipboard. This command has no effect
if there is no selection.
Edit Tool: selects the Editing tool.
Copy: copies selected audio data to the
clipboard. This command has no effect if there
is no selection.
Magnify Tool: selects the Magnify tool.
Paste: inserts a copy of the clipboard data at
the current insertion point. If there is a
selection, this command replaces the selected
data with the clipboard data.
Pencil Tool: selects the Pencil tool.
Mix: mixes a copy of the clipboard data with
the current audio file. The mix start point is
either the cursor point or the start or end of
the selection in the destination data window.
Envelope Tool: selects the Envelope tool.
Transport bar
The transport bar also displays by default and contains basic audio transport buttons.
Record: records data to a new or existing data
window.
Stop: stops playback and returns the cursor to
its prior position.
Loop Playback: toggles Loop Playback mode on
and off.
Go to Start: moves the cursor to the start of
the file.
Play All: plays the entire file from beginning to
end, regardless of cursor position, selection, or
playlist.
Rewind: moves the cursor backward in the
current file.
Play: plays the file in current playback mode
(Play Normal, Play Plug-In Chainer, Play as
Cutlist, or Play as Sample).
Forward: moves the cursor forward in the
current file.
Pause: pauses playback and maintains the
cursor at its current position.
Go to End: moves the cursor to the end of the
file.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
31
Navigation toolbar
The Navigation toolbar contains buttons used to navigate within the current data window.
Zoom In Full: magnifies the selected area to a
24:1 ratio.
Go To: displays the Go To dialog and allows
you to quickly move the cursor to a specific
point in a file.
Zoom Normal: resets the audio data to its
original magnification.
Cursor Center: centers the display with the
cursor displayed in the center of the data
window.
Zoom Selection: maximizes the selection
vertically and horizontally.
Cursor to Selection Start: moves the cursor to
the beginning of the selection.
Custom Zoom 1: sets the audio data to a
custom time magnification level.
Cursor to Selection End: moves the cursor to
the end of the selection.
Custom Zoom 2: sets the audio data to a
custom time magnification level.
Center Sustaining Start: moves the cursor to
the beginning of the sustaining loop.
Insert Marker: drops a marker at the current
cursor position.
Center Sustaining End: moves the cursor to the
end of the sustaining loop.
Mark In: marks the “in” point of a new
selection.
Center Release Start: moves the cursor to the
beginning of the release loop.
Mark Out: marks the “out” point of a new
selection.
Center Release End: moves the cursor to the
end of the release loop.
Views toolbar
The Views toolbar contains buttons used to store and retrieve data window views.
Toggles views 1-8 between setting and
restoring.
CHP. 3
Stores and recalls specific selection views.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
32
Status/Selection toolbar
The Status/Selection toolbar contains buttons used to specify a file’s status format and control snapping
functions..
Samples: changes the status format to
Samples.
SMPTE EBU: changes the status format to
SMPTE EBU (25 fps). Available only in the full
version of Sound Forge.
Time: changes the status format to Time.
SMPTE Non-Drop: changes the status format
to SMPTE Non-Drop (29.97 fps, Video).
Available only in the full version of Sound
Forge.
Seconds: changes the status format to
Seconds.
SMPTE Drop: changes the status format to
SMPTE Drop (29.97 fps, Video). Available only
in the full version of Sound Forge.
Time and Frames: changes the status format to
Time and Frames.
SMPTE 30: changes the status format to
SMPTE 30 (30 fps, Audio). Available only in
the full version of Sound Forge.
Absolute Frames: changes the status format to
Absolute Frames.
Auto Snap to Zero: forces the ends of
selections to the nearest zero-crossing.
Available only in Screenblast Sound Forge.
Measures and Beats: changes the status format
to Measures and Beats.
Auto Snap to Time: forces the ends of
selections to the nearest whole time division on
the time ruler. Available only in Screenblast
Sound Forge.
SMPTE Film Sync (24 fps): changes the status
format to SMPTE Film Sync (24 fps). Available
only in the full version of Sound Forge.
Regions/Playlist toolbar
The Regions/Playlist toolbar contains the Regions List and Playlist buttons as well as buttons corresponding to
synchronization commands and status displays.
Regions List: displays the Regions List.
Generate MIDI Timecode: configures Sound
Forge to send MIDI timecode through the MIDI
output port. The MIDI output port is specified
on the MIDI/Sync tab of the Preferences dialog.
Playlist: displays the playlist.
Pre-Queue for MIDI Timecode: opens the wave
device and preloads data for the next region to
be played from the playlist.
Trigger from MIDI Timecode: configures
Sound Forge to be triggered by MIDI
commands received through the MIDI input
port. The MIDI input port is specified on the
MIDI/Sync tab in the Preferences dialog. For
more information, see Turning on MIDI input
synchronization on page 202.
Playlist Position display
Displays the current playback position of an audio file being played from the playlist. Right-clicking this box
displays a shortcut menu that allows you to specify a new format.
Sync Status display
Allows you to monitor the status of incoming/outgoing MIDI commands.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
33
Process toolbar
The Process toolbar contains buttons corresponding to all commands located in the Process menu.
CHP. 3
Auto Trim/Crop: removes silence and
automatically fades in/out the end-points of
each phrase.
Insert Silence: inserts user-configurable silence
into audio files.
Bit-Depth Converter: converts a file to a
different bit depth.
Invert/Flip: inverts (or flips) the polarity of the
current selection.
Channel Converter: converts between mono
and stereo formats. Can also intermix the left
and right channels of a stereo file to create
panning effects.
Mute: mutes the current selection.
DC Offset: changes the baseline of an audio
file.
Normalize: normalizes the loudness of an audio
file.
Graphic EQ: opens Sony Pictures Digital’s XFX
Graphic EQ.
Pan/Expand: creates custom pans, expands,
and mixes.
Paragraphic EQ: opens Sony Pictures
Digital’s XFX Paragraphic EQ.
Resample: creates a copy of the audio file with
a new sample rate.
Parametric EQ: opens Sony Pictures Digital’s
XFX Parametric EQ.
Reverse: reverses the current selection.
Graphic Fade: creates user-configurable fades.
Smooth/Enhance: opens Sony Pictures Digital’s
XFX Smooth/Enhance tool.
Fade In: fades-in the selection.
Time Stretch: opens Sony Pictures Digital’s
XFX Time Stretch tool.
Fade Out: fades-out the selection.
Volume: adjusts the volume of an audio file.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
34
Effects toolbar
If you are using the full version of Sound Forge, the Effects toolbar contains buttons corresponding to all
Sound Forge’s built-in XFX™ plug-ins.
Acoustic Mirror: adds environmental coloration
to your existing recordings.
Flange/Wah-Wah: mixes a modulated delay
signal with the original signal.
Amplitude Modulation: applies a sinusoidal or
square-shaped periodic gain to the input signal.
Gapper/Snipper: removes/inserts sections of
silence at regular intervals to create unusual
effects.
Chorus: simulates multiple audio sources from
a single sound.
Noise Gate: removes signals below a set
amplitude threshold.
Multi-Tap Delay: creates a delay with up to
eight delay-taps spaced anywhere within 2.5
seconds of the original sound.
Pitch Bend: creates a modified sound envelope
that corresponds to increasing or decreasing
the pitch of a sound file over time.
Simple Delay: adds a delayed copy of the audio
signal to the file.
Pitch Shift: changes the pitch of a selection
with or without preserving the duration of the
file.
Distortion: simulates the overloading of an
amplifier.
Reverb: simulates the acoustics of different
environments.
Graphic Dynamics: applies compression,
expansion, and limiting to affect the dynamic
range of an audio file.
Vibrato: creates periodic pitch modulation in an
audio file.
Multi-Band Dynamics: allows compression and
limiting to be placed on up to four different
frequency bands.
Wave Hammer: acts as a classic compressor
and volume maximizer.
Envelope: forces the amplitude envelope of a
waveform to match a specified envelope shape.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
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35
Tools toolbar
The Tools toolbar contains buttons corresponding to commands in the Tools menu.
Burn CD: writes the selected audio track to CD.
Replace: replaces selected audio data with
previous adjacent data.
Extract Audio from CD: extracts audio from CD
and opens in Sound Forge for editing.
Interpolate: replaces selected audio with
interpolated audio data based on the selection’s
beginning and end samples.
Auto Region: creates regions in an audio file
according to rapid sound attacks or a specified
time interval.
Sampler: allows you to transfer samples to/
from Sound Forge.
Crossfade Loop: mixes audio occurring before
the loop start point into the end of the loop to
smooth transitions.
Clip Detect: performs clip detection on the
current file or selection. Note: clip detection is
available only in the full version of Sound
Forge.
Extract Regions: extracts all file regions and
saves them as individual files.
Statistics: displays statistics corresponding to
the current file or selection.
Find: searches for clicks and pops, volume
levels, or silent breaks in an audio signal.
DTMF/MF Tones Synthesis: generates dial
tones used by telephone companies.
Preset Manager: backs up and transfers userconfigured presets from effects, processes,
and plug-ins.
FM Synthesis: uses frequency modulation and
additive synthesis to create complex sounds
from simple waveforms. Note: FM synthesis is
available only in the full version of Sound
Forge.
Copy Other Channel: replaces selected audio
with a corresponding selection from the
opposite channel.
Simple Synthesis: generates a simple
waveform of a given shape, pitch, and length.
Levels toolbar
The Levels toolbar displays the audio levels in the left and right channels in the user-specified format. You
can right-click to choose the format from a shortcut menu.
Left
channel level
Right
channel level
ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar
The ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar contains buttons corresponding to commands used when creating
audio loops for Sony Pictures Digital’s ACID® family of products. For more information, see Creating loops for
ACID on page 228.
CHP. 3
Edit ACID Properties: displays the Edit ACID
Properties dialog.
Shift Selection Left: shifts the current selection
to the left so the current start point becomes
the end point.
Edit Tempo: calculates the musical tempo
(beats per minute) based upon the current
selection.
Shift Selection Right: shifts the current
selection to the right so the current end point
becomes the start point.
Double Selection: doubles the size of the
current selection.
Rotate Audio: moves the current selection to
the opposite end of the file.
Halve Selection: divides the current selection in
half.
Selection Grid Lines: toggles the selection grid
line display on/off.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
36
Tempo window
The ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar also contains a Tempo window that appears to the right of the
toolbar buttons. This window calculates and displays the ACID project’s tempo as if the current selection
represents a complete measure.
Play Device toolbar
The Play Device toolbar allows you to choose a playback device on the fly.
Play Device drop-down list
Play Device drop-down list
Choose a playback device from the drop-down list. Use the Play Device drop-down list as a shortcut for
choosing Preferences from the Options menu and choosing a Playback device on the Wave tab.
ToolTips
Hovering the mouse pointer over a button or status bar box for longer than one second displays a small text
box adjacent to the pointer. This text, called a ToolTip, is a brief description of the item’s function. Using
ToolTips is an effective way to quickly familiarize yourself with Sound Forge.
ToolTip
Turning off ToolTips
1. From the View menu, choose Toolbars. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Clear the Show ToolTips check box and click OK.
Command descriptions
When you click and hold a menu item or a button in a toolbar, a brief description of the command appears in
the lower-left corner of the status bar. If you release the mouse button outside of the menu item or toolbar,
Sound Forge does not execute the command.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
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37
Meters
Meters display audio levels in a number of different places in Sound Forge: the Play Meters show audio file
levels; meters in the Record dialog help you adjust levels for recording; and meters in the Wave Hammer®
dialog help you adjust levels when applying this effect. Regardless of where the meters appear, you can
control them in much the same way.
The full version of Sound Forge provides peak and VU/PPM (peak program) meters that you can use to
monitor your audio levels.
The peak meters display instantaneous levels during playback to help you determine the loudest level in your
audio signal and whether the signal is clipping.
Volume unit (VU) and peak program (PPM) meters help you determine the perceived loudness of your
audio signal (peak program meters provide faster response times to volume increases than VU meters). VU/
PPM meters are especially helpful when you’re mastering: comparing two audio files’ VU/PPM readings will
help take the guesswork out of matching levels.
VU/PPM readings should fall near the 0 (or reference) mark. 0 VU is merely a reference level, and your
signal may exceed 0 VU. To prevent clipping, keep an eye on your peak meters. Peak levels should never
exceed 0 dB. To accommodate louder or softer intensity material, you can use the Other tab in the
Preferences dialog to calibrate the VU/PPM meters to their associated levels on the peak meters and adjust
the VU meters’ sensitivity (to access the Preferences dialog, choose Preferences from the Options menu).
Resetting clipping indicators
When audio levels are too high, clipping can occur. A red indicator appears at the top of the meter to show
when audio is clipping. Click to reset the indicator, or right-click the meters and choose Reset Clip from the
shortcut menu.
Clipping
indicator
Click the clipping
indicator to reset it.
You can also detect and mark clipped audio using the detect clipping tool. For more information, see Detecting
and marking clipping on page 95.
Scaling meters
Meters can display a peak range and a VU (volume unit)/PPM (peak program)
scale. To change the meter’s display levels, right-click the meter and do one of the
following:
• Choose Peak Range from the shortcut menu, followed by the desired range from
the submenu.
• Choose VU/PPM Scale from the shortcut menu, followed by the desired scale
from the submenu.
VU and PPM scales are most useful for displaying the average volume of the
signal: the meter represents the RMS average level during playback, and their
attack and decay are not as sensitive as the peak meter.
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LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
38
PPM scales are useful for monitoring peak levels. The meters use a fixed integration time (5 or 10 ms) that is
sensitive to increases in volume, but the meters are less sensitive to decreases in volume than the VU scales,
which produces less meter activity and decreased eyestrain.
Displaying VU/PPM meters
Sound Forge provides peak and VU/PPM (peak program) meters that you can use to monitor your audio
levels.
You can toggle the display of the meter’s VU/PPM scale on and off. Right-click the meter and choose Show
VU/PPM from the shortcut menu.
Adjusting the VU meters’ sensitivity
Unlike peak meters — which read instantaneous changes in your audio signal — the VU/PPM meters read a
portion of the signal and calculate the average level. The size of the signal that the meters read is determined
by the meters’ integration time.
To set the amount of data surrounding the cursor that will be used to calculate levels in the VU meters,
specify a value in the VU meter integration time box on the Other tab of the Preferences dialog (to access the
Preferences dialog, choose Preferences from the Options menu).
The PPM scales use a fixed integration time:
Scale
Integration time
UK PPM
EBU PPM
DIN PPM
Nordic PPM
10 ms
10 ms
5 ms
5 ms
Showing labels
Right-click the meters and choose Show Labels from the shortcut menu to toggle the meter dB markings on
and off.
Holding peaks and valleys
Right-click the meters to access the Hold Peaks and Hold Valleys commands in the shortcut menu.
• Choose Hold Peaks to display a marker on the meters indicating the highest reading.
• Choose Hold Valleys to display a marker on the meters indicating the lowest reading.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
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39
Controls
A major step in mastering Sound Forge is becoming familiar with the controls used to set and adjust feature
parameters, including faders, sliders, and envelope graphs.
Faders and sliders
Faders and sliders are frequently used to edit effect and process parameters. To use either control, drag the
control to the desired position and release.
Fader
Drag to set value
Slider
Resetting fader and slider values
Double-click to return the control to its default value.
Fader and slider shortcuts
There are numerous keyboard shortcuts available when using faders and sliders.
•
, , , and
change the value in small increments.
• Page Up and Page Down change the value in larger increments.
• Home and End set the control to its maximum and minimum values respectively.
• Hover the mouse over the fader or slider control and move the mouse wheel to change the value in larger
increments. Press Ctrl while using the mouse wheel to change the value in small increments.
Envelope graphs
Envelope graphs are used to configure the shape of frequency or amplitude envelopes applied to audio
waveforms.
Envelope point
Envelope
Time axis
Amplitude or frequency axis
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LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
40
Understanding the envelope graph
To use the envelope graph, you must first understand what it represents. In the previous example, the
horizontal axis represents time, with the leftmost point representing the start of the selection and the
rightmost point representing the end of the selection. The vertical axis represents either amplitude or
frequency, depending upon the operation.
Moving an envelope point
1. Drag an envelope point to a new position.
2. Release the mouse button. The point is repositioned and the envelope adjusts.
Moving multiple envelope points
1. Starting in an unused area of the envelope graph, drag the mouse to create a selection box containing all
points to be moved.
Select the envelope points
2. Release the button. The selected envelope points are displayed with a white square center.
3. Drag any of the selected envelope points to the desired position. The pointer displays as a multi-
directional arrow and the selected points move together.
4. Release the mouse button. The entire envelope graph adjusts.
Reposition multiple envelope points
Changing the fade curve between two points
To change the type of fade between two envelope points, right-click an envelope segment and choose a fade
type (Linear Fade, Fast Fade, Slow Fade, Smooth Fade, Sharp Fade, and Hold) from the shortcut menu.
Selecting or clearing all envelope points
Press
Ctrl + A
to select or clear all envelope points.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
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41
Adding an envelope point
1. Hover over the envelope.
Place the pointer on the envelope
and double-click to add a point.
2. Double-click the mouse. A point is added to the envelope graph and can be positioned as needed. For
more information, see Moving an envelope point on page 40.
Deleting an envelope point
Right-click the point to be deleted and choose Delete from the shortcut menu. The point is deleted and the
envelope adjusts.
Delete all points
Delete all envelope points by clicking the Reset Envelope button.
Displaying the waveform on an envelope graph
Certain envelope graphs (such as in the Graphic Fade dialog) allow you to view the audio waveform on the
graph. If the selection is small, the waveform automatically displays. Otherwise, selecting an option from the
Show wave drop-down list displays the waveform.
Displaying stereo waveforms
The Show Wave drop-down list allows you to specify how stereo files display in the envelope graph.
Specify the channel
to be displayed
Stereo files
When a data window displays a stereo file, the upper half of the data window shows the left channel and the
lower half shows the right channel.
Working with stereo files
When playing, editing, or processing stereo files, you can select the left channel, the right channel, or both
channels. However, certain processing tasks cannot be performed on an individual channel of a stereo file.
For more information, see Single-channel editing on page 44.
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LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
42
Selecting data in stereo files
When editing a stereo file, the waveform display is divided into three sections. The mouse pointer location
determines which channel (or channels) is selected.
• The upper quarter of the data window selects the left channel.
• The lower quarter of the data window selects the right channel.
• The middle half of the data window selects both channels.
Left channel only
Both channels
Right channel only
1. Open a stereo file.
2. Select the Edit tool by choosing Tool from the Edit menu and Edit from the submenu.
Press
Ctrl
+
D
or click the Edit Tool button (
) on the Standard toolbar.
3. Position the tool near the top of the left channel and notice its appearance. The tool displays as
. This
indicates that only audio data in the left channel will be selected.
4. Position the tool in the middle portion of the data window and notice its appearance. The tool displays as
a standard cursor. This indicates that it will select a mono file or both channels of a stereo file.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
43
5. Position the tool near the bottom of the right channel and notice its appearance. The tool displays as
.
This indicates that only audio data in the right channel will be selected.
Cursor selects only the
left channel
Cursor selects
both channels
Cursor selects only the
right channel
Toggling channel selections
Once you place the cursor or create a selection in a stereo file, you can cycle through channel options (left,
right, both) by pressing Tab .
Previewing channels
The single channel selection option allows you to preview channels in a stereo file individually.
1. Open a stereo file and select all data.
2. Click the Play Normal button (
3. Press
Tab
. The left channel is selected.
4. Click the Play Normal button (
5. Press
Tab
). Only the mono left channel plays.
. The right channel is selected.
6. Click the Play Normal button (
CHP. 3
). The file plays in stereo.
). Only the mono right channel plays.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
44
Single-channel editing
Stereo files are held together by the nature of their stereo format. Because of this, you cannot perform certain
editing operations (such as cut or paste) on a single channel of a stereo file.
Channel lengths must remain equal in stereo files. Frequently, this issue can be side-stepped by copying a
single channel of a stereo file to the clipboard. Once this mono selection is located on the clipboard, you can
do any of the following:
•
•
•
•
Paste it into a mono file.
Paste it into both channels of a stereo file.
Mix it into a single channel of a stereo file.
Mix it into both channels of a stereo file.
Note: When mixing mono clipboard data to a stereo file, the
Mono to Stereo dialog prompts you to mix it to the right, left,
or both channels.
LEARNING THE SOUND FORGE WORKSPACE
CHP. 3
45
CHAPTER
Getting Started
4
Sound Forge is a state-of-the-art digital audio editing tool for users from all musical backgrounds. It is an
extremely deep program, containing features that may only be required by the most advanced or specialized
users. Nonetheless, a firm grasp of Sound Forge basics is essential. This chapter is designed to provide you
with information on Sound Forge fundamentals.
Creating a project
You can use project files in Sound Forge to organize and work with your media files nondestructively. When
you save a project file, Sound Forge creates a .frg file and a subfolder that contains your media file and all of
the temporary files created while working on your project. This file is not a multimedia file, but is used to
render the final file after editing is finished. When you copy, cut, paste, and otherwise edit your project, the
process is nondestructive—meaning you can edit without worrying about corrupting your source files.
Within the project file, you can also undo any past operations, including those occurring before your last
save. Once you are finished working with a project file, you can save your work to a media file using the
Render As option on the File menu.
Note: To use the advanced undo/redo capabilities mentioned
above, you must have the Allow Undo past Save check box
selected on the File tab of the Preferences dialog. To access
the Preferences dialog, choose Preferences from the Options
menu.
1. From the File menu, choose Save As to save the current data window to a project file. The Save As dialog
appears.
2. Using the Save in drop-down list, locate the folder where you want to save the project.
3. From the Save as type drop-down list, choose Sound Forge Project File (*.frg).
4. In the File name box, enter a name for the file.
5. Click the Save button.
Sound Forge creates a .frg file with the name you specified, and creates a folder with a similar name
(projectname_frg, for example) in the same location for the temporary files.
Important: The associated project folder created by Sound
Forge should not be deleted, as this will cause your project file
to be unusable.
CHP. 4
GETTING STARTED
46
Getting media files
Sound Forge can open a variety of audio and video files. There are three main methods for locating,
previewing, and opening media files:
• From the File menu, choose Open to display the Open dialog.
-or• From the View menu, choose Explorer to display the Explorer window.
-orThese methods are explained in greater detail in the following sections.
Note: To have Sound Forge automatically remove pulldown
fields when opening 24 fps progressive-scan DV video files,
select the Allow pulldown removal when opening 24p DV check
box on the Video tab of the Preferences dialog. To open your
24p DV video files as 29.97 fps interlaced video (60i), clear
this check box.
Using the Open dialog
1. From the File menu, choose Open. The Open dialog appears.
Click the Open button (
).
Select to Preview Files
File Information Display
The Open dialog contains several features that allow you to locate and open audio files. These features are
detailed below.
Files of type
Recent
Auto play
Merge L/R to stereo
GETTING STARTED
Use this drop-down list to specify the file format that Sound Forge displays in
the system. Sound Forge supports a variety of file formats.
Tip: Choose the CD Audio (*.cda) option from this list to extract audio tracks
from a CD.
Use this drop-down list to locate recently accessed folders.
Select this check box to automatically preview files as you select them in the
Open dialog.
Select this check box to merge two mono files to left and right channels of a
stereo file when opening.
CHP. 4
47
2. Locate and select a media file using the Look in drop-down list at the top of the dialog.
3. To preview the file before adding it to your project, click the Play button.
Note: If you have the Auto play check box selected, your file
will automatically begin previewing when you select it.
4. Click Open. Sound Forge opens the file and displays a data window containing the waveform.
File displays in the data window
Using the Explorer window
In addition to using the Explorer window for locating, previewing and opening media, you can drag files or
regions from the Explorer window to an open data window to paste, mix, or crossfade the data. Click the
right mouse button while dragging to toggle mix, crossfade, and paste drag-and-drop modes. You can also
extract audio from a CD.
Previewing media
The Explorer window allows you to easily preview files before you open them. The Explorer window has a
mini-transport bar with Play, Stop, and Auto Preview buttons (
). When you preview a file, its stream is
sent to the play meters on the main workspace (for audio files) or to the Video Preview window (for video
files).
Note: To preview video files, you must have the Video
Preview window open. To display the Video Preview
window, choose Video Preview from the View menu.
1. Select a file in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Play button (
) to listen to the file.
3. Click the Stop button (
) or select a different file to stop previewing the file.
Tip: To automatically preview selected files, click the Auto
Preview
button (
) on the Explorer window’s transport bar.
Opening media
To open a media file into a new data window from the Explorer window, double-click the file. To open a
media file in a specific data window, drag the media file from the Explorer window to the data window.
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GETTING STARTED
48
Extracting audio from CD
The Explorer window allows you to easily extract audio from a CD into a data window. Each audio track on
the CD is extracted into a separate data window.
1. Use the Explorer window to browse to and select your CD drive. The CD’s audio tracks display in the
right pane of the Explorer window.
2. Select the track(s) you want to extract.
3. Drag the track(s) to the main Sound Forge workspace. Sound Forge begins extracting the selected tracks
into individual data windows.
4. To stop the extraction process, you can click the Cancel button on the status bar to stop the whole process
or on the individual data windows to stop extracting a specific track.
Tip: To extract a single audio track into a new data window,
double-click the track in the right pane of the Explorer
window.
Using Explorer views
You can control the information that is displayed in the Explorer window by clicking the Views button (
and selecting a view. These options are explained below:
Item
Tree View
Region View
Summary View
Details
All Files
)
Description
Displays all of the available drives and folders that you may choose
from to find files.
Displays any regions that have been defined in the selected media file.
Displays a short description of the selected media file at the bottom of
the Explorer window.
Displays the file size, date and when the file was last created or last
modified.
Displays all file types in the active folder.
Peak files
When you first open a file, Sound Forge scans the entire file and creates a peak file. The peak file is stored
with the same name and in the same location as the audio file, but it is given an .sfk extension. Sound Forge
automatically updates this peak file whenever the original file is edited.
If you modify a file in an application other than Sound Forge, you can regenerate the peak file by choosing
Rebuild Peak Data from the Special menu.
GETTING STARTED
CHP. 4
49
Working with video files
Sound Forge has the ability to open and save many video file formats. The video files cannot be edited
within Sound Forge, but this functionality allows you to attach, detach, and edit audio for the video. Once
you’ve edited the audio, you can preview the audio and video together.
When you open a media file containing video, the data window displays the video portion in a video strip
above the audio.
For more information, see Working with Video on page 235.
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GETTING STARTED
50
Playing a file
After you open a file, you can play it by clicking the Play All button (
information, see Transport bar on page 30.
) on the transport bar. For more
Viewing the current position
As a file plays, Sound Forge indicates the current playback position in the data window in three ways:
• A cursor travels across the visible portion of the data window.
• The current playback position in relation to the entire file appears in the overview bar.
• The first selection status box in the playbar displays the current position in the user-specified format. For
more information, see Selecting status formats on page 64.
Overview bar current position
Cursor position
Status box value
Playing a file from a specified point
Sound Forge also allows you to begin playback from any point in a file.
1. Click to position the cursor in the data window. A flashing cursor (spanning the height of the waveform
display) displays.
2. Click the Play button (
) on the transport bar. The file plays from the cursor position.
If you do not hear playback, you may have inadvertently created a small selection. To determine if you
created a selection, examine the status boxes in the bottom-right corner of the data window.
Status boxes
• If only the first box contains a value, there is no selection.
• If all three boxes contain values, a selection has been created. Clear the selection by clicking anywhere
in the data window.
For more information, see Viewing selection status on page 51.
GETTING STARTED
CHP. 4
51
Playing in Loop Playback mode
You can play an entire file or a selection in Loop Playback mode. In Loop Playback mode, Sound Forge plays
the audio in a continuous loop.
Click the Loop Playback button (
Press
Q
) on the transport bar to turn Loop Playback mode on and off.
.
Playing a selection
You can play specific portions of audio data by creating selections in the waveform display.
1. Drag the mouse within the data window. Notice that the waveform is selected as the mouse is dragged.
2. Click the Play button (
). Only the selection plays.
Selection status boxes
Create a selection on the waveform
Viewing selection status
When a selection exists, the selection status boxes in the bottom-right corner of the data window contain
values. These values indicate the start, end, and length of the selection.
No selection
Cursor Position
Selection
Beginning Value
End Value
Selection Length
Selecting the status format
You can display status values in any format supported by Sound Forge. For more information, see Selecting
status formats on page 64.
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GETTING STARTED
52
Viewing selection statistics
Choosing Statistics from the Tools menu displays a Statistics dialog showing information about the current
selection or, if there is no selection, on the entire file. The following table describes all statistical categories
displayed in the Statistics dialog.
Cursor position
Sample value at cursor
Maximum/minimum
sample position and
sample value
RMS power
The cursor position (in samples) from the start of the audio file.
The actual number stored by a single sample. The maximum allowed sample value is
often referred to as 100% or 0 dB.
The maximum and minimum sample values and the locations (in samples) where they
occur.
These values may help determine if clipping will occur in the audio file. These values can
also be used to determine the noise level of a signal for use with Noise Gate (a built-in
XFX plug-in installed with the full version of Sound Forge). For example, to determine
the noise amplitude of a file, run Statistics on a region of noisy silence.
The Root Mean Square of the sample values relative to the RMS value of a maximumamplitude square wave (the loudest possible recording).
On short intervals, this value relates to the volume level of the audio file. If used on a
large selection with large volume variation, this value becomes less meaningful.
Average value (DC Offset) The sum of all sample values in the selected region divided by the number of samples. If
this value is not zero, it usually indicates a DC offset in the recording process.
Zero crossings
The number of times per second that the waveform fluctuates from a negative to a
positive value.
This value can be used as a rough estimate of the frequency of the audio data for very
simple waveforms.
Creating a new data window
1. From the File menu, choose New. The New Window dialog appears.
New Window dialog
2. Complete the New Window dialog:
• From the Sample rate drop-down list, choose a sample rate.
• From the Bit-depth drop-down list, choose a bit depth.
• Select the desired Channels radio button.
For more information, see Editing file attributes on page 83.
3. Click OK. A new data window with the specified attributes appears.
Tip: Sound Forge automatically names new windows. You
can customize this automatic naming feature to suit your
needs. For more information, see Customizing automatic
labeling on page 93.
GETTING STARTED
CHP. 4
53
Active data windows vs. inactive data windows
When multiple data windows are displayed on the workspace, only the window currently being edited is
active, and all operations affect this window exclusively.
Activating a window
To activate a data window, click anywhere within it. The title bar changes to the color defined as the active
window color and the previously active window is deactivated.
Note: Choosing Focus to Data Window from the View
menu also results in the focus being returned to the current
data window.
Copying data to a new file
You can create new audio files by copying data to a new data window.
1. Open an audio file and create a selection.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Copy. The selection is copied to the clipboard.
Click the Copy button (
) in the Standard toolbar.
3. Create a new data window. For more information, see Creating a new data window on page 52.
4. From the Edit menu, choose Paste. The selected data is pasted in the new data window.
Click the Paste button (
) in the Standard toolbar.
Saving a file
You can save a file in a variety of formats, including popular audio formats such as WAV and AIFF, and
streaming media formats such as Windows Media® Audio and RealMedia™. You can save a file using a
standard template, or you can customize the settings to suit your needs. Once you create custom settings, you
can save those settings as a template.
Sound Forge also provides an option to save all open files at once or to save all open files as a workspace file.
1. From the File menu, choose Save.
When saving a new file, the Save As dialog appears. If the file was previously saved, choosing Save
automatically saves the file without your input.
2. From the Save as type drop-down list, choose a file format.
3. In the File name box, enter a name for the file.
4. Select other options in the Save As dialog as needed and click Save. For more information, see Using the
Save As dialog on page 54.
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GETTING STARTED
54
Using the Save As dialog
The Save As dialog allows you to save an audio file with a new name, in an alternate format, or with new
attributes.
Select file type
Select recent directories
Select template
Template description
Select saving metadata option
Select video options
Save as type
The Save as type drop-down list allows you to choose any format supported by Sound Forge.
Recent
The Recent drop-down list allows you to access frequently used folders.
Template
The Template drop-down list provides a list of standard templates for saving your files. Select a template from
the list, or click Custom to customize the settings. For more information, see Creating custom templates on page
55.
Description
The Description box displays the attributes of the selected template.
Save metadata with file
Select the Save metadata with file check box to save marker, region, playlist, sampler, loop, and summary
information with the file. If the file type selected in the Save as type drop-down list doesn’t support metadata,
Sound Forge prompts you to save the metadata in an external file with an .sfl extension. For more
information, see Using Markers, Regions, and the Playlist/Cutlist on page 91, Adding summary information on page
89, and Saving loop points on page 233.
Stretch video to fill output frame (do not letterbox)
This option applies to file types that contain a video stream. Selecting the Stretch video to fill output frame (do
check box stretches the source video frame if the destination frame rate differs. When this
option is turned off, letterboxing or pillarboxing occurs. For more information, see Saving a video file on page
242.
not letterbox)
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Fast video resizing
This option applies to file types that contain a video stream. Selecting the Fast video resizing check box speeds
the process of saving video. When this option is turned off, the time required to save the file can increase
dramatically. Clear this check box only when you have critical material where nothing but the highest
quality video rendering will do. For more information, see Saving a video file on page 242.
Creating custom templates
If the file type you select supports it, you can create custom settings for saving files by clicking the Custom
button.
Note: If a file type supports custom templates, a Custom
button displays next to the Template drop-down list after you
choose the file type.
When you click the Custom button, a Custom Template dialog appears. Adjust the settings for the different
template properties as needed. For help on the different settings, click the What’s This Help button ( ) and
click a control, or click a control and press Shift + F1 .
When you are finished editing the template properties, click the OK button.
Saving custom templates
You can save a custom template to use again by entering a template name in the Template box (in the
Custom Template dialog) and clicking the Save Template button ( ).
Deleting custom templates
You can delete a custom template by selecting the template from the Template drop-down list (in the Custom
Settings dialog) and clicking the Delete Template button ( ).
Saving all open audio files
Choosing Save All from the File menu automatically prompts you to save all open audio files on the current
workspace.
Note: Pressing
Shift while choosing the Save All command
automatically saves all open files without prompting you to
approve each save.
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56
Saving files as a workspace
To accommodate complex editing scenarios, Sound Forge allows you to save the entire workspace as an
alternative to saving individual files. Workspaces are saved as Sound Forge Workspace (SFW) files. When
you open a workspace file, Sound Forge restores all files to their previous sizes, positions, and magnification.
Sound Forge also restores each file’s current cursor position, custom views, and plug-ins in the Plug-In
Chainer. For more information, see Creating and using views on page 80 and Adding a chain of effects on page 170.
Saving the current workspace
1. From the File menu, choose Workspace, and choose Save As from the submenu. The Save Workspace
dialog appears.
2. Browse to the folder where the file will be saved.
3. Enter a name for the file in the File name box and click Save.
Opening a workspace
1. From the File menu, choose Workspace, and choose Open from the submenu. The Open Workspace dialog
appears.
2. Browse to the folder containing the desired SFW file.
3. Select the desired file and click Open.
Editing audio
New Sound Forge users should remember that even the most complex editing is derived from a few simple
operations: copy, paste, cut, delete (clear), trim/crop, and mix. The following table provides a brief
description of Sound Forge’s basic editing operations.
Copy
Paste
Cut
Delete (Clear)
Trim/Crop
Mix
GETTING STARTED
Copies data from the window to the clipboard.
Inserts the contents of the clipboard into the window at the current cursor position. If a
selection exists in the data window, the pasted data replaces the current selection.
Deletes data from the window and copies it to the clipboard.
Deletes data from the window, but does not copy it to the clipboard.
Deletes all data in the window with the exception of the selection.
Mixes data from the clipboard with the data in the current window, starting at the
current cursor position or the start of the current selection.
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Copying
You can copy audio data from a data window to the clipboard without changing the original file. Once audio
data is on the clipboard, you can paste it into existing files or use it to create new files.
Copying data to the clipboard
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
Note: This file is located in the same folder as the
application.
2. Create a selection containing “Wow.”
3. From the Edit menu, choose Copy. The selected data is copied to the clipboard.
Click the Copy button (
) or press
Ctrl + C
.
Create a selection in the waveform
Copy the selection
Data is copied to the clipboard,
but the waveform is unchanged
Previewing clipboard contents
To preview the contents of the clipboard, choose Clipboard from the View menu, and choose Play from the
submenu.
Tip: You can display detailed information on the size and
attributes of the clipboard contents by choosing Clipboard
from the View menu and Contents from the submenu.
Recycling clipboard contents
Once audio data is on the clipboard, you can paste or mix it into an infinite number of windows. Data
remains on the clipboard until you replace it with new data.
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Pasting
Once audio data is on the clipboard, you can paste or mix it into an existing data window or use it to create
a new data window.
Pasting data in an existing data window
1. Move the cursor to the beginning of the Voiceover.pca file by clicking the Go To Start button (
) in the
playbar. For more information, see Playbar on page 28.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Paste. Sound Forge inserts the clipboard data into the file and the data for
“Wow” appears on the left side of the waveform.
Click the Paste button (
) or press
Ctrl + V
.
Clipboard contents
are pasted Into
the data window
3. To confirm that the data has been pasted into the file, click the Play All button (
). “Wow. Wow. Sound
editing just gets easier and easier” plays back.
Pasting in a new data window
To use data from the clipboard to create a new data window, go to the Edit menu, choose Paste Special, and
choose Paste to New from the submenu. Sound Forge creates a new window containing the clipboard data in
a single step.
Cutting
Cutting allows you to remove a section of audio data from a data window and store it on the clipboard until
you paste or mix it into another file. When deciding between cut and copy, consider the following:
• Copying data has no effect on the original file.
• Cutting data modifies the original file.
Cutting data from a window
1. Create a selection containing the second “Wow” (there should be two if you are following the examples)
in Voiceover.pca.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Cut. Sound Forge removes the selected data from the file and places it on the
clipboard.
Click the Cut button (
3. Click the Play All button (
GETTING STARTED
) or press
Ctrl + X
.
). “Wow. Sound editing just gets easier and easier” plays back.
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Create a selection
Cut the selection
Selection is removed
from the data
window and placed
on the clipboard
Previewing a cut
Sound Forge allows you to preview cuts prior to performing the edit. This option allows you to determine if
you made the selection accurately and if the results are desirable.
1. Create a selection anywhere in Voiceover.pca.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Preview Cut/Cursor. Sound Forge ignores the selection and plays the audio
before and after the selection to allow you to preview the cut.
Press
+K.
Ctrl
Configuring cut pre-roll and post-roll lengths
Frequently, the default pre-roll and post-roll lengths are insufficient to evaluate the accuracy of an edit. For
this reason, Sound Forge allows you to configure pre-roll and post-roll lengths.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Other tab.
3. Configure the Pre-roll and Post-roll values in the Cut preview configuration area of the dialog and click OK.
Deleting
Deleting a selection permanently removes it without replacing the data currently residing on the clipboard.
To delete data, choose Delete (Clear) from the Edit menu.
Press
Delete
.
Note: If the Treat as Cutlist command (available in the
Special menu, Playlist/Cutlist submenu) is selected, deleting
a selection creates a region in the Cutlist window, but does
not remove the selection. For more information, see
Configuring the playlist as a cutlist on page 110.
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60
Trimming/Cropping
Trimming allows you to retain a selection while deleting all surrounding data.
1. Create a selection containing “Wow, sound editing just gets easier” in Voiceover.pca, but do not select
the second “and easier.”
2. From the Edit menu, choose Trim/Crop. Only “Wow, sound editing just gets easier” remains in the data
window.
Create a selection
Trim/Crop the selection
Only the selected audio remains
Mixing
Mixing is a powerful editing function that allows two sounds to be combined into a single waveform.
1. Open and play the Drumhit.pca file. The file contains a snare drum and crash cymbal sound.
2. Verify that the Drumhit.pca window is active and choose Select All from the Edit menu. The entire
waveform is selected.
3. From the Edit menu, choose Copy.
Click the Copy button (
) or press
Ctrl + C
.
4. Activate the Voiceover.pca data window and click the Go To Start button (
) on the playbar. The
cursor moves to the start of the file.
5. From the Edit menu, choose Paste Special, and choose Mix from the submenu. The Mix dialog appears.
Click the Mix button (
GETTING STARTED
).
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61
Set both faders to 0dB
6. Verify that the Source and Destination volume faders are set to 0 dB and click OK. The drum hit is mixed
equally with the spoken passage.
Both waveforms are combined
Preview the file and notice that, unlike pasting, mixing does not change the length of the file.
Using undo and redo
Sound Forge encourages experimentation by allowing you to easily undo/redo edit operations, even prior to
your last save operation.
• You can undo any edit operation by choosing Undo from the Edit menu.
• You can redo any undone edit operation by choosing Redo from the Edit menu.
Important: The ability to undo past save is available only in
the full version of Sound Forge, and is disabled by default. To
enable this functionality, choose Preferences from the
Options menu, click the File tab, and select the Allow Undo
past Save check box. When this option is enabled, Sound
Forge will retain your undo/redo history until you close the
file or exit Sound Forge.
Click the Undo ( ) button on the Standard toolbar or press
on the Standard toolbar or press Ctrl + Shift + Z .
CHP. 4
Ctrl + Z
. Click the Redo (
) button
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62
Using the Undo/Redo History window
The Undo/Redo History window may seem confusing at first, but you will find it invaluable once you have
mastered it. This window allows the audio file to be auditioned in various versions by undoing/redoing
multiple operations.
To display the Undo/Redo History window, choose Undo/Redo History from the View menu.
Press
Alt + 7
.
Note: The undo/redo history for an audio file is retained
until you close the file or exit Sound Forge. If you want to
retain undo/redo history indefinitely, you should work with a
Sound Forge project (.frg) file.
Play
buttons
Performed operations
Undone operations
Undoing and redoing
1. Verify that the Voiceover.pca data window is active and choose Undo/Redo History from the View menu.
The Undo/Redo History window appears. If you have performed the previous procedures, the window
should look like the figure below:
Current Undo/Redo History window
Notice that the Mix operation appears at the top of the Undo pane. The most recent operations always
display at the top of the appropriate list.
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63
2. In the Undo pane, click the
corresponding to the Mix operation. The audio file plays without the drum
track.
Play the pre-mix file
3. Select the Mix operation and choose Undo from the Edit menu. The drum track is extracted from the
Voiceover.pca data window and the Mix operation moves to the Redo pane.
Choose Undo from the Edit menu
4. In the Redo pane, click the
corresponding to the Mix operation. The audio file plays with the mixed
drum track.
5. Select the Mix operation again and choose Redo from the Edit menu. The drum track is remixed into the
Voiceover.pca waveform and the Mix operation is returned to the Undo pane.
6. Select the Trim/Crop operation in the Undo pane and click
. Only the Mix operation is undone and
moved to the Redo pane. This is due to the fact that operations can only be undone or redone in the order
originally performed.
7. Double-click the Cut operation in the Undo pane. The Cut and Trim/Crop operations are both undone in
the waveform and moved to the Redo pane.
Double-click the Cut operation
To quickly undo/redo operations in the Undo/Redo History window, double-click the operation.
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64
Clearing the Undo/Redo History for the current file
Clearing the current file’s Undo/Redo History frees up disk space by deleting the file’s temporary undo/redo
files. However, deleting these temporary files prevents you from undoing changes made to the file since it
was last saved (or beyond, if you have the Allow Undo past Save check box enabled on the File tab of the
Preferences dialog). To clear the undo/redo history for the current file, go to the Special menu, choose
Undo/Redo History, and choose Clear from the submenu.
Note: A file’s undo/redo history is also automatically cleared
when you close the file or exit Sound Forge.
Clearing the Undo/Redo History for all open files
Sound Forge also allows you to simultaneously clear the undo/redo history for all open files. Once again,
however, you cannot undo any previous changes once these histories are deleted. To clear the undo/redo
history for all open files, go to the Special menu, choose Undo/Redo History, and choose Clear All from the
submenu.
Selecting status formats
The status format determines how Sound Forge displays a file’s position and length information. The
following table briefly describes status formats that Sound Forge supports (hh=hours, mm=minutes,
ss=seconds, and ff=frames).
Format name
Description
Format
Samples
Time
Seconds
Time & Frames
Absolute Frames
Number of samples
Hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds
Seconds and fractions of seconds
Hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
Frames and fractions of frames
Numbered (starting with zero)
hh:mm:ss.sss
sssss.sss (to three decimal places)
hh:mm:ss.ff
Numbered (starting with zero, to
three decimal places)
measures:beats.quarters
hh:mm:ss:ff
Measures & Beats
SMPTE Film Sync (24 fps)
Measures, beats, and quarter beats
SMPTE at 24 frames per second for
synchronizing with film
SMPTE EBU (25 fps, Video)
SMPTE at 25 frames per second for
European Broadcasting Union
SMPTE Non-Drop (29.97 fps, Video) SMPTE at 29.97 frames per second
SMPTE Drop (29.97 fps, Video)
SMPTE at 29.97 frames per second using
dropped frame numbers
SMPTE 30 (30 fps, Audio)
SMPTE at 30 frames per second
hh:mm:ss:ff
hh:mm:ss:ff
hh:mm:ss:ff
hh:mm:ss:ff
For more information, see SMPTE Timecode on page 269.
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Experimenting with status formats
You can experiment with the Voiceover.pca file to see how status formats affect values in the status display
boxes.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. From the Options menu, choose Status Format, and choose Samples from the submenu.
3. Select all data in the Voiceover.pca window by choosing Select All from the Edit menu. Notice the
selection status boxes.
• The first selected sample is sample 0.
• The last selected sample is 220,506.
• The total number of samples in the selection is 220,507.
4. From the Options menu, choose Status Format, and choose Time from the submenu. Notice that status
values change from samples to hours, minutes, and seconds.
5. From the Options menu, choose Status Format, and choose SMPTE Non-Drop (29.97 fps, Video) from the
submenu. Notice that status values change to hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
6. Experiment with each status format and make note of how each format displays.
Note: Selecting a new format changes the status format for
the current data window only.
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To quickly change a file’s status format, right-click any of the data window’s status display boxes
and choose a new format from the shortcut menu.
Choose a format from the shortcut menu
Configuring the Measures & Beats format
Choosing the Measures & Beats format allows you to specify the beats per minute and beats per measure
values used to calculate measures and beats.
Changing a file’s beat values
1. From the Special menu, choose Edit Tempo. The Edit Tempo dialog appears.
2. Enter an appropriate value in the Tempo in beats per minute box.
3. Enter an appropriate value in the Number of beats in a measure box and click OK.
Alternately, you can make a selection in the file equal to one measure, and then enter the number of beats in
the sample measure in the Selection length in beats box. Sound Forge automatically calculates the Tempo in
beats per minute value based on the selection length and number of beats.
Changing the default beat values
The previous procedure changes the beat values for the current audio file only. Use the following steps to
change Sound Forge’s default beat values.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Status tab.
3. Enter an appropriate value in the Default beats per measure box.
4. Enter an appropriate value in the Default beats per minute box and click OK.
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Rendering files
Once you are finished editing a Sound Forge project (.frg) file, you can save it to any type of media file
supported by Sound Forge. You can render a file using a standard template, or you can customize the settings
to suit your needs. Once you create custom settings, you can save those settings as a template.
1. From the File menu, choose Render As.
2. From the Save as type drop-down list, choose a file format.
3. In the File name box, enter a name for the file.
4. Select other options in the Render As dialog as needed and click Save.
The Render As dialog looks and behaves just like the Save As dialog. For more information on using this dialog,
see Using the Save As dialog on page 54.
Exporting to Net MD devices
You can export your audio files from Sound Forge to your Net MD device.
1. From the File menu, choose Export to Net MD.
2. Type information about your project:
a. In the Name of track box, type the name you want to use to identify your audio file on your Net MD
device.
b. In the Name of artist box, type the artist name you want to associate with this track on your device.
c. In the Name of genre box, type the genre you want to associate with this track on your device.
d. In the Comment for track box, type any comments you want to associate with this track on your device.
3. Click the Export button. Sound Forge converts your project to the appropriate format for your device and
begins transferring when conversion is complete.
Exporting to CLIÉ handheld devices
You can export your audio files in MP3 format and transfer them to your Sony® CLIÉ® handheld device, all
in one step.
1. From the File menu, choose Export as MP3 to CLIÉ. The Export current project to CLIÉ dialog box
displays.
2. In the Rendered file name box, type the name you want to use for your rendered MP3 file.
3. In the Choose Sony device drop-down list, choose the CLIÉ device to which you want to transfer your file.
4. In the Choose MP3 template drop-down list, choose the audio settings you want to use for your file.
5. Click the Export button. Sound Forge renders your MP3 file and transfers the file to your device.
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Recovering files after a crash
If Sound Forge terminates improperly, you can recover all open and unsaved audio files not opened in readonly mode. When Sound Forge opens a file, it automatically creates temporary files that it uses to save any
changes made to the file. The original file remains unchanged until it is saved. If Sound Forge terminates
improperly, the temporary files remain on your hard drive and can be used to recover any unsaved changes
made prior to the crash.
Tip: You can specify the folder used to store temporary files
by choosing Preferences from the Options menu and
designating a Temporary files and record folder location on the
Perform tab.
Recovering files
Click the Recover button to restore the changes and undo history
for the files listed in the Files that can be recovered list.
Deleting recovered files
Click the Cancel button to delete the temporary files. The original
media files remain unchanged.
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CHAPTER
5
Navigating,
Zooming, and
Selecting
This chapter introduces some of Sound Forge’s navigation and selection features.
Setting the cursor position
While you can click anywhere in the waveform to position the cursor, there are times when you may need to
position the cursor more precisely. You can use the Go To dialog to move the cursor to a specific point in an
audio file and center it in the data window.
Tip: You can also use a variety of keyboard shortcuts to
position the cursor. For more information, see Cursor
movement on page 260.
Go To dialog
1. Choose Go To from the Edit menu.
You can also use the following methods:
•Right-click the waveform, choose Cursor, and choose Go To from the submenu.
•Double-click the leftmost selection status box.
•Press Ctrl + G .
2. Set the cursor position using one of the following methods:
• From the Go To drop-down list, choose a preset.
• From the Input format drop-down list, choose a format and enter an appropriate value in the Position box.
3. Click OK. The cursor is placed at the specified position in the data window.
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Previewing audio with pre-roll
Many audio editing operations depend upon accurate placement of the cursor in the data window. The Precommand allows you to preview audio data leading up to the current cursor position. This
command is extremely useful when recording punch-ins. For more information, see Recording a specific length
(punch-in) on page 117.
roll to Cursor
Sound Forge designates a 1.5 second pre-roll. However, you can change this value if necessary. For more
information, see Configuring cut pre-roll and post-roll lengths on page 59.
1. Place the cursor anywhere in the data window.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Pre-roll to Cursor. Sound Forge plays the audio leading up to the cursor and
stops at the cursor.
Press
Ctrl + Shift + K .
Using the overview bar
When navigating or editing a file, the overview bar changes to reflect the current position in the file.
Title bar
Overview bar
Time ruler
The overview bar represents the length of the entire file zoomed out to its maximum position. By observing
the overview bar, you can determine the following:
• The section of the audio file currently displayed in the data window.
• The location and size of a selection in relation to the audio file and data window.
• The current cursor location.
Understanding the overview bar
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file and verify that the waveform display is zoomed completely out (1:512 in this
case).
The entire overview bar is bracketed
Notice that the entire overview bar is bracketed, indicating that the entire file appears in the data
window.
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2. Place the mouse pointer over the word “Wow,” and click. A small vertical marker, representing the
cursor, appears in the overview bar.
Small marker in the overview bar
3. Create a selection containing the word “Wow.” A shaded block, sized in relation to the size of the
selection within the entire audio file, appears in the overview bar.
A shaded block in the overview bar
4. Click the Zoom In button (
) twice. The bracketed area in the overview bar becomes incrementally
smaller as less of the waveform appears in the data window.
Zooming in on a selection
decreases the size of the
bracketed area
However, the selection remains the same size and does not move. This allows you to quickly locate a
selection, even when another section of an audio file is displayed.
Navigating in the overview bar
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Click the Zoom In button (
) until you reach a 1:32 zoom ratio.
3. Click outside the bracketed region in the overview bar.
Clicking in the overview bar
outside the bracketed area
places the cursor beyond the
visible data window
The cursor position changes, but the cursor is located beyond the scope of the data window.
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4. Double-click anywhere in the overview bar.
The cursor is centered
in the data window
The cursor position updates and centers in the data window.
Playing audio in the overview bar
To make navigating a file from the overview bar easier, Sound Forge allows you to start audio playback from
the overview bar.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Right-click the overview bar. Playback of the file begins from the cursor location.
3. Right-click the overview bar again. Playback pauses.
4. Right-click the overview bar once more and immediately left-click at several random positions in the
overview bar. Each time you click the mouse in the overview bar during playback, the cursor jumps to the
new location and playback continues. The feature is useful for quickly navigating a file and locating
general events.
Navigating with the audio event locator
Dragging the mouse within the overview bar initiates playback of small audio loops adjacent to the cursor
position. This is not technically a scrub function, but it serves a similar purpose. It allows you to audition
brief audio segments and quickly locate specific events within a file.
Configuring the audio event locator
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Other tab.
3. In the Audio event locator section, edit the Pre-roll and Loop time values as desired and click OK.
Zooming and magnifying
Since there are considerably more samples in a sound file than horizontal points (pixels) on the screen, many
data samples must be represented by each horizontal point when audio data displays in the data window.
Depending upon the editing operation, you may want to view the entire file at once or a small portion of
data in greater detail. For this reason, Sound Forge allows you to utilize two varieties of zooming: time ruler
zooming and level ruler zooming.
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Zooming the time ruler (horizontal)
The current time ruler magnification ratio appears in the lower-right corner of the data window above the
status boxes.
Time ruler zooming controls
Zoom ratio
Zoom Out
Zoom Spinner
Zoom In
Understanding the zoom ratio
The zoom ratio determines the number of samples represented by each horizontal point on the screen. The
zoom ratio is a value of X:Y, where X is the number of horizontal points and Y is the number of samples. If
the ratio is 1:1, each point on the screen represents one sample. At this zoom ratio, a brief but detailed
selection of time displays.
Waveform at 1:1 zoom ratio
Conversely, if the zoom ratio is 1:1024, 1,024 samples are represented by each point on the screen and a
greater length of time displays.
For very precise editing, you may want to zoom in more tightly than a 1:1 ratio. The full version of Sound
Forge allows up to a 24:1 ratio, where 24 points on the screen represent one sample. This high level of zoom
may be useful when editing with the Pencil tool. For more information, see Repairing audio glitches manually
with the Pencil tool on page 140.
Sample
Waveform at 24:1 zoom ratio
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Changing the zoom ratio
To edit the zoom ratio, use the Zoom In/Out spin control located adjacent to the zoom ratio display.
• Clicking the magnifying glass buttons increases/decreases the zoom ratio by single-step increments.
• Dragging the spin control increments the zoom ratio quickly in the corresponding direction.
Right-clicking the waveform display allows you to quickly access time ruler zoom commands from
the shortcut menu.
Using the time zoom shortcut
Note: When Sound Forge opens a file, the horizontal
magnification is set to the value specified by the Normal zoom
setting in the Display tab in the Preferences dialog. To
access the Preferences dialog, choose Preferences from the
Options menu.
ratio
Using zoom time commands
If you prefer using commands, you can control the time magnification from the View menu. The following
table briefly describes the available time zoom commands. You can access these commands from the View
menu by choosing Zoom Time and choosing the desired command from the submenu.
In Full
If you are using the full version of Sound Forge, this command increases the zoom ratio
to represent each audio sample with 24 screen pixels (24:1 zoom ratio). If you are using
Screenblast Sound Forge, this command increases the zoom ratio to represent each audio
sample with 1 screen pixel (1:1 zoom ratio).
Returns the file to its default zoom ratio.
Changes the zoom ratio to display the entire file within the data window.
Changes the zoom ratio to maximize the display and center the selection within the data
window.
Sets the zoom ratio to a custom setting. For more information, see Using custom zoom
settings on page 75.
Normal
Out Full
Selection
Custom Zoom X:Y
Zooming the level ruler (vertical)
Zooming along the level ruler displays a larger vertical waveform and allows for more precise editing at low
audio amplitudes.
Level ruler zooming controls
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Zoom Spin Control
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Changing the level zoom
To edit the level ruler zoom, use the Zoom In/Out spinner control located above the playbar.
• Clicking the magnifying glass buttons increases/decreases the level ruler zoom by single-step increments.
• Dragging the spin control increments the level ruler zoom quickly in the corresponding direction.
At high zoom levels, only low-level samples are visible because the peaks of the waveform move beyond the
vertical scope of the data window. Consider the following data windows.
Level zoom out maximum
Level zoom in maximum
Both data windows display the same audio file at a 1:1 zoom ratio. The window on the left shows the level
ruler zoomed to its maximum out position. The window on the right shows the level ruler zoomed to its
maximum in position. Notice that wave peaks clearly visible in the left window are out of display range in
the right window.
Using zoom level commands
If you prefer using commands, you can control the level magnification from the View menu. The following
table briefly describes the three available zoom level commands. You can access these commands from the
View menu by choosing Zoom Level and choosing the desired command from the submenu.
Out Full
Window
Selection
Decreases the zoom level to minimize the display of the file’s amplitude.
Changes the level zoom to display the entire waveform amplitude in the data window.
Maximizes the display of the selection (vertically and horizontally) in the data window.
Formatting the level ruler
You can configure the level ruler to display in decibels or percent by right-clicking the ruler and choosing
Label in Percent or Label in dB from the shortcut menu.
Using custom zoom settings
You can create two custom time zoom settings for quick access to time magnification levels that you use
frequently.
Creating custom zoom settings
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Display tab.
3. Select time magnification settings from the Custom zoom ratio 1 and Custom zoom ratio 2 drop-down lists.
4. Click OK.
Zooming to custom settings
From the View menu, choose Zoom Time, and choose a custom zoom setting from the submenu.
Click a Custom Zoom button (
keypad.
CHP. 5
or
) on the Navigation toolbar or press
1
or
2
on the numeric
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Using zooming shortcuts
Zooming to a selection
1. Create a selection. If no selection is created, this function is not available.
2. Right-click the waveform and choose Zoom Selection from the shortcut menu. Sound Forge calculates the
minimum zoom ratio that allows the full selection to display in the window, then zooms and centers the
selection in the data window.
To reverse this function, right-click the waveform, choose Zoom, and choose Out Full from the submenu.
Zooming the window
Right-click the level ruler and choose Zoom Window from the shortcut menu. Sound Forge calculates the
maximum zoom level that allows the loudest portion of the selection to display in the window and adjusts
the entire sound file.
To reverse this function, right-click the level ruler and choose Zoom Out Full from the shortcut menu.
Zooming out full
To quickly display all data in a data window, right-click the waveform, choose Zoom, and choose Out Full
from the submenu. This command sets the zoom ratio and zoom level to the lowest values required to display
all data in the window.
To reverse this function, go to the View menu, choose Zoom Time, and choose Normal from the submenu.
Zooming in full
To quickly set the zoom factor to its maximum magnification, right-click the waveform and choose Zoom In
Full from the shortcut menu. The maximum magnification available is 24:1 in the full version of Sound Forge
and 1:1 in Screenblast Sound Forge.
To reverse this function, right-click the waveform and choose Zoom Normal from the shortcut menu.
Optimizing time and level ruler scaling
To optimize both the time ruler and level ruler display of a selection, double-click the level ruler. Doubleclicking the level ruler a second time restores both displays to their default levels.
Using the Magnify tool
The Magnify tool provides an additional way to magnify a section of an audio file. You can access the
Magnify tool in three ways:
• From the Edit menu, choose Tool, and choose Magnify from the submenu.
• Click the Magnify Tool button ( )on the Standard toolbar.
• Click the Edit Tool Selector in the upper-left corner of the data window until the Magnify tool appears.
To temporarily use the Magnify tool, hold
Ctrl
while creating a selection.
When you select the Magnify tool, the cursor displays as
. You can use this tool to create a selection box
indicating how audio data is magnified. By using the Magnify tool and toggle-clicking the mouse, you can
toggle between time zoom, level zoom, and simultaneous time/level zoom.
For more information, see Using the mouse on page 23.
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Zooming the time ruler with the Magnify tool
1. Drag the Magnify tool on the waveform to make a small selection box.
2. Toggle-click the mouse until the selection box is the same height as the data window.
3. Drag the Magnify tool to create a time zoom selection and release the mouse button. The zoom ratio of
the selection increases.
Selection box spans the height of the window
The selection is time zoomed
Zooming the level ruler with the Magnify tool
1. Drag the Magnify tool on the waveform to make a small selection box.
2. Toggle-click the mouse until the selection box is the full width of the data window.
3. Drag the Magnify tool to create a level zoom selection and release the mouse button. The zoom ratio of
the selection increases.
Selection box spans the width of the window
The selection is level zoomed
Zooming both time and level with the Magnify tool
1. Drag the Magnify tool on the waveform to make a small selection box.
2. Toggle-click the mouse until the selection displays as a box.
3. Drag the Magnify tool to create a time/level zoom selection and release the mouse button. The level zoom
and time zoom of the selection increase.
Selection displays as a box
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The selection time and level are zoomed
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Selecting audio using start and end values
You can select audio by dragging the mouse or by using keyboard shortcuts (pg. 261). For the sake of accuracy,
however, it is often useful to create selections by entering specific start and end point values. The Set Selection
dialog allows you to create selections in this way or by choosing a preset selection from the Selection dropdown list.
1. For users of the full version of Sound Forge: from the Edit menu, choose Selection, and choose Set from
the submenu.
For users of Screenblast Sound Forge: from the Edit menu, choose Selection.
The Set Selection dialog appears.
Press
Ctrl + Shift
+
D
.
2. From the Input format drop-down list, choose the format to be used for creating the selection. The values in
the Start, End, and Length boxes change to reflect the specified format.
3. Configure the selection by entering appropriate values in the Start and End or the Start and Length boxes.
4. If you are working with a stereo file, choose Left, Right, or Both from the Channel drop-down list.
5. Click OK.
Using the Set Selection dialog
The following sections briefly describe additional controls located in the Set Selection dialog.
Set Selection dialog
Play
Clicking Play plays the current selection.
Play looped
Selecting the Play looped check box allows you to play the selection in Looped Playback mode.
Snap Zero
Clicking Snap Zero forces the Start and End values of the selected area to the next zero-crossing.
Snap Time
Clicking Snap Time forces the Start and End values of the selected area to a whole time division as designated
by the markings on the data window’s time ruler.
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Zero-crossing preference
When using a Snap-Zero command, you can configure Sound Forge to snap to positive slope, negative slope,
or either slope zero-crossings.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences, and click the Editing tab.
2. From the Snap to zero-crossing slope drop-down list, choose the desired slope and click OK.
Selecting audio during playback
Sound Forge allows you to create selections during playback using the Mark In and Mark Out commands.
These commands place temporary markers in the data window, which are then used to create the selection.
While you can place these markers by choosing Mark In and Mark Out from the Special menu, the keyboard
equivalents are more useful.
1. Play the audio file in the current data window.
2. During playback, press
I
where the selection will begin.
3. Press
O where the selection will end. Sound Forge creates a selection using the in and out points you
identified.
Fine-tuning a selection
After creating a selection, you may discover that the start or end point has not been positioned properly. In
cases like this, you can try to reselect the data, but it can be difficult to accurately create selection points. For
this reason, Sound Forge provides a number of tools designed to help you fine-tune selections.
If you find that the selection jumps unexpectedly as you fine-tune it, snapping may be turned on. For more
information, see Understanding snapping on page 80.
Adjusting a selection with the mouse
You can fine-tune selection start and end points by dragging the edge of the selection to a new location.
1. Open a file and create a selection in the waveform.
2. Position the mouse pointer over one of the selection edges. The pointer displays as a bi-directional arrow
(
).
3. Drag the selection edge to a new position.
Drag the edge of the selection to a new position.
4. Release the mouse button. The selection updates.
Adjusting a selection with the keyboard
Using the keyboard, you can quickly and accurately select data or update a selection. For more information,
see Selecting data on page 261.
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Restoring a selection
If you lose a selection while editing, you can restore it by choosing Toggle Selection from the Special menu
or by pressing Backspace .
Understanding snapping
If, when extending a selection, the end points seem to “jump” to a different position, an auto snap option is
turned on.
Snapping to time divisions
Auto Snap to Time ensures that all start and end points reside on whole time divisions. To turn this option
on, choose Auto Snap to Time from the Options menu. A check mark appears adjacent to the command to
indicate that the option is turned on.
Snapping to zero-crossings
Auto Snap to Zero ensures that all start and end points reside on zero-crossings. To turn this option on,
choose Auto Snap to Zero from the Options menu. A check mark appears adjacent to the command to
indicate that the option is turned on.
To turn Auto Snap to Zero on and off, press
Ctrl + B
.
Snapping the current selection to time divisions or zero-crossings
You can force a selection to snap to time divisions or zero-crossings. From the Edit menu, choose Selection,
and choose either Snap to Time or Snap to Zero from the submenu. To snap just the active edge of a selection
(the edge where the cursor flashes), choose either Snap Edge to Time or Snap Edge to Zero from the submenu.
Disabling Auto Snap to Zero at high magnifications
When editing an audio file displayed at a high magnification, you may wish to turn off the Auto Snap to Zero
option. This allows you to position a selection’s start and end points exactly where you choose.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences, and click the Editing tab.
2. Select the Disable auto-snapping below 1:4 zoom ratios check box and click OK.
Creating and using views
Views are used to save and recall selections, zoom ratios, and waveform display positions. Sound Forge can
retain eight different views for any audio file, each containing any or all of the following elements:
•
•
•
•
Selection
Cursor position
Magnification
Position scroll bar placement
Tip: Views are discarded when you close the file. To save
views with a file, save the file as part of a workspace. For
more information, see Saving files as a workspace on page 56.
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Displaying the Views toolbar
1. From the View menu, choose Toolbars.
2. Select the Views check box and click OK. The Views toolbar appears.
Views toolbar
Creating views
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file and create a selection containing “Wow.”
2. Click the Set button (
) on the Views toolbar. A view can now be created.
Click the Set button
3. Click
. The selection is saved as view 1 and
is underscored to indicate that a view was created.
The 1 button is underscored
to indicate that a view was created.
4. Create a new selection anywhere in the audio file, preferably at an increased magnification.
5. Click the Set button (
) followed by
6. Click
. The view 1 selection displays.
7. Click
. The view 2 selection displays.
CHP. 5
. The selection is saved as view 2.
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83
CHAPTER
Changing File
Attributes and
Formats
6
This chapter deals with the file attributes and formats Sound Forge supports. This chapter also discusses file
summary information.
Editing file attributes
When you open or create a file, its attributes display in the first three boxes of the status bar at the bottom of
the main screen. The file attributes are sample rate, bit depth, and channels (mono or stereo).
File attributes in the status bar
Sample rate
Bit
depth
Channels
File length
Free storage
available
You can edit audio file attributes in the Properties dialog or in the status bar.
Editing attributes in the Properties dialog
You can edit file attributes in the Properties dialog.
1. From the File menu, choose Properties. The Properties dialog appears.
You can also access the Properties dialog by doing any of the following:
•Double-click a format box.
•Right-click the waveform display and choose Properties.
•Press Alt + Enter .
2. Click the Format tab.
3. Edit the file attributes as needed and click OK.
Edit attributes in the Properties dialog
Editing attributes in the status bar
You can quickly edit individual file attributes by right-clicking the status value to be changed and choosing a
new value from the shortcut menu.
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Changing the sample rate
The sample rate is the number of samples per second, measured in hertz (Hz), used to record audio. When
creating a new file in the full version of Sound Forge, you can specify sample rates from 2,000 Hz to
192,000 Hz. When creating a new file in Screenblast Sound Forge, you can specify sample rates from 2,000
Hz to 48,000 Hz. Typical sample rates are stored as presets in the Sample rate drop-down list. In addition,
Sound Forge can increase or decrease the sample rate of an existing audio file.
1. Open and play the Voiceover.pca file.
Note: This file is located in the same folder as the
application.
2. Right-click the Sample Rate status box and choose 48,000 from the shortcut menu.
3. Play the file. Notice that the pitch is higher and the duration is slightly shorter.
4. Right-click the Sample Rate status box and choose 8,000 from the shortcut menu.
5. Play the file. Notice that the pitch is lower and the duration is longer.
Changing the sample rate of a file also changes the pitch and duration. To change the sample rate of a file
while preserving its duration and pitch, use the Resample command. For more information, see Resample on
page 163.
Changing the bit depth
Bit depth refers to the number of bits used to represent a sound. Sound Forge can increase or decrease a file’s
bit depth.
Increasing bit depth
Increasing the bit depth does not improve the quality of a
file, but it allows subsequent processing to be performed
with increased precision.
Note: The maximum bit-depth allowed for a sound file in
Screenblast Sound Forge is 16 bit.
1. Open a file with a small bit depth.
2. From the Process menu, choose Bit-Depth Converter.
The Bit-Depth Converter dialog appears.
3. From the Bit depth drop-down list, choose a larger value
and click OK.
Note: When increasing a file’s bit depth, the Dither and
Noise shaping
controls should be set to None and Off,
respectively.
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Decreasing bit depth
To maximize storage space, larger sound files (24- and 16-bit) are frequently converted to smaller (16- and 8bit) files using Sound Forge. However, representing a sound file at a decreased bit depth results in audible
distortion referred to as quantization error.
Note: The maximum bit-depth allowed for a sound file in
Screenblast Sound Forge is 16-bit.
1. Open a 16-bit file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Bit-Depth Converter. The Bit-Depth Converter dialog appears.
3. From the Bit depth drop-down list, choose 8 bit.
4. If desired, choose an option from the Dither drop-down list. For more information, see Dither on page 85.
5. If desired, choose a Noise shaping type. For more information, see Noise shaping on page 85.
6. Click OK.
Note: There are no rules regarding maintaining audio
quality when decreasing bit depth. Experiment with the Dither
and Noise shaping controls to determine the optimum settings
for each audio file.
Understanding dither and noise shaping
You can adjust Dither and Noise shaping settings when decreasing a file’s bit depth.
Dither
The Dither value determines the randomness of the dither (generated noise) used to mask quantization
distortion resulting from conversion to a lower bit depth. This drop-down list requires you to select from
several shapes, each of which roughly describes the pattern that would be produced if you plotted a graph
with the dither amplitude on the X-axis and the probability of the dither values on the Y-axis.
As is frequently the case when working with audio, you should experiment with dither values to yield the
best results. However, keep the following information in mind:
• Rectangular eliminates distortion products caused by conversion to a lower bit depth, but the noise level is
more likely to be dependent on the signal.
• Triangular eliminates the distortion products as well as any noise floor modulation, but results in a slightly
higher noise level. The option typically works well in conjunction with noise shaping.
• Highpass Triangular behaves like triangular dither, but shifts its noise into higher frequencies. This is
typically the best option when used in conjunction with noise shaping.
• Gaussian does not perform as well as Rectangular and Triangular dither, but may be suitable for certain audio.
Noise shaping
The Noise shaping value determines the aural positioning of quantization noise. Using this control, you can
shift the noise into audio registers that are less perceptible to human hearing. This lowers the perceived
noise floor and creates the illusion of cleaner audio.
• High-pass contour noise shaping attempts to push all quantization noise and error into high frequencies.
• Equal-loudness contour noise shaping attempts to push the noise under an equal-loudness type of curve.
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Noise shaping dangers
Noise shaping places quantization noise near the audio’s Nyquist frequency, a value equal to one-half of the
file’s sample rate. Consider the following:
• A file with a sample rate of 44.1 kHz has a Nyquist frequency of 22.05 kHz (at the high end of human
hearing). Applying noise shaping to this file results in audio perceived to be cleaner than it actually is.
• A file with a sample rate of 22 kHz has a Nyquist frequency of 11 kHz (well within the sensitive range of
human hearing). Applying noise shaping to this file results in audio that is perceived to be noisier than it
actually is. Ironically, this defeats the entire purpose of noise shaping.
For this reason, we do not recommend using noise shaping on files with sample rates less than 44.1 kHz.
Minimizing quantization error
There are at least three methods of minimizing quantization error when decreasing a file’s bit depth: noise
gating, compression, and normalization.
Noise gating
Frequently, low-level signals become noise when a file’s bit depth is decreased. For this reason, it is preferable
to have complete silence between sounds in an audio file.
1. From the Effects menu, choose Noise Gate. The Noise Gate dialog appears.
Specify a noise gate
2. Choose a noise gate preset from the Preset drop-down list and click OK. A noise gate is applied to the
audio, negating its low-level signals.
Compressing
Decreasing the dynamic range of a sound file makes it easier to represent with decreased bit depth.
1. For users of the full version of Sound Forge: from the Effects menu, choose Dynamics, and choose
Graphic
from the submenu. The Graphic Dynamics dialog appears.
For users of Screenblast Sound Forge: from the Effects menu, choose Dynamics. The Dynamics dialog
appears.
2. Choose a preset with a small amount of compression (2:1 or less) from the Preset drop-down list and click
OK.
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Normalizing
Normalizing a file prior to decreasing its bit depth ensures that the entire dynamic range is used. In addition,
normalization lowers the signal-to-noise ratio.
1. From the Process menu, choose Normalize.
The Normalize dialog appears.
Note: The Normalize dialog pictured here is from
the full version of Sound Forge. If you are using
Screenblast Sound Forge, not all of the controls
pictured here will be available to you.
2. Select the Peak level radio button.
3. Set the Normalize to fader to 0 dB (peak) and
click OK.
Applying compression and normalization
simultaneously
1. From the Process menu, choose Normalize. The Normalize dialog appears.
2. Select the Average RMS power radio button.
3. Specify Apply dynamic compression in the If clipping occurs drop-down list and click OK.
Converting mono/stereo channels
The channels setting indicates whether a file contains one (mono) or two (stereo) channels. Sound Forge
can convert mono files to stereo or stereo files to mono.
Converting from mono to stereo
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
Note: This file is located in the same folder as the
application.
2. Right-click the Channels status box and choose Stereo from the shortcut
menu. The Mono To Stereo dialog appears.
3. Select the Left Channel radio button and click OK. Sound Forge places the
mono data in the upper half of the data window (left channel) and silence in
the right channel.
For more information, see Specifying the audio destination on page 88.
4. Play the file. “Wow, sound editing just gets easier and easier” plays in only
the left channel.
Tip: If your sound card supports only mono data, stereo files
can be played by specifying the Sound Mapper as the
playback device. To do this, choose Preferences from the
Options menu. Click the Wave tab and specify Microsoft
Sound Mapper from the Playback drop-down list.
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Specifying the audio destination
The Destination radio buttons in the Mono To Stereo dialog allow you to specify where the mono audio data
is placed in a stereo file. The following table describes the available data destinations.
Left Channel
Right Channel
Both Channels
The mono data is placed in the left channel. The right channel is set to silence.
The mono data is placed in the right channel. The left channel is set to silence.
The mono data is copied into both channels.
Converting from stereo to mono
1. Open the Saxriff.pca file.
Note: This file is located in the same folder as the
application.
2. Right-click the Channels status box (indicating Stereo) and choose Mono
from the shortcut menu. The Stereo To Mono dialog appears.
3. Select the Mix Channels radio button and click OK. The left and right
channels combine into a mono channel.
For more information, see Specifying the audio source on page 88.
Specifying the audio source
The Source radio buttons in the Stereo To Mono dialog allow you to specify what stereo data is used to create
the mono file. The following table describes the available data sources.
Left Channel
Right Channel
Mix Channels
Mono data is taken only from the left channel of the stereo file.
Mono data is taken only from the right channel of the stereo file.
Mono data is created by mixing both channels of the stereo file.
Using the Channel Converter
You can also use the Channel Converter to convert files between mono and stereo formats. Using the
Channel Converter provides the added flexibility of independent level settings for each channel, thereby
allowing you to intermix the channels of a stereo file to create pan effects. To use this tool, choose Channel
Converter from the Process menu. For more information, see Channel Converter on page 152.
Converting file formats
The previous sections have described changing a file’s sample rate, bit depth, and channel configuration.
Using Sound Forge, you can also convert a file’s format and compression settings.
To demonstrate this, open the Voiceover.pca file and choose Save As from the File menu. Notice the Save as
Type and Template drop-down lists. For more information, see Using the Save As dialog on page 54.
Save as type
When the Save As dialog appears, the Save as type drop-down list defaults to the Sound Forge project file
(.frg) format. However, using the Save as type drop-down list, you can specify any file type supported by
Sound Forge.
Template
The Template drop-down list provides standard settings for saving your audio file. If the templates do not
match your particular needs, click the Custom button to create custom settings.
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Adding summary information
Specific audio file types allow you to store text fields of summary information in addition to the audio and
video data. File types offering this feature include WAV, AVI, ASF, and RealMedia™ file formats. You can
view and edit these text fields using Sound Forge.
Viewing and editing summary information
The Summary tab is used to view and edit the summary
information stored in the file.
1. From the File menu, choose Properties. The Properties dialog
appears.
2. Click the Summary tab.
3. Edit the summary information as needed and click OK.
Viewing extended summary information
1. From the File menu, choose Properties. The Properties dialog
appears.
2. Click the Summary tab. The Summary dialog appears.
3. Click the Extended button. The Extended Summary dialog appears. The dialog is divided into two
sections: the Fields pane and the Contents pane.
The Fields pane
The Fields pane displays the following components for each available field:
•
•
•
•
A check box to turn the field on or off.
The abbreviation of the field type.
A short description of the field.
An indication of the field’s current status.
Full field indicator
Field description
Field abbreviation
On/Off check box
Empty field indicator
The Contents pane
Located immediately below the Fields pane, the Contents pane displays the current contents of the selected
field.
Extended summary field contents
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Editing extended summary information
1. Select the field to be edited in the Fields pane. Its contents display in the Contents pane.
2. Enter the new information in the Contents pane and click OK.
Turning summary fields on and off
Adjacent to each field in the Fields pane is a check box used to turn the corresponding field on and off when
saving files in applicable formats.
Note: If a field is turned on but contains no information, it is
not saved with the file.
Setting new default summary information
Clicking the Default button in the Extended Summary dialog saves the text in the summary fields as a default
setting. Sound Forge uses this default summary information when you create a new file or when you click the
Load button in the Properties dialog for an existing file.
Tip: The Creation date field (ICRD) is always filled with the
current date for new files.
Saving summary information
You can save files containing summary information that have been edited in Sound Forge with or without
summary information.
1. From the File menu, choose Save As. The Save As dialog appears.
2. Select the Save metadata with file check box and click OK.
Note: If you save to a file type that doesn’t support
metadata, this check box is unavailable.
Including additional embedded information
Some file formats allow non-text data (such as embedded bitmaps and metafiles) to be embedded in files. If
you use Sound Forge to edit a file containing data created in another application, Sound Forge tracks the
embedded data and places it back in the file when it is saved in its original format.
Saving additional embedded information
To save additional embedded information, choose Save As from the File menu and select the Save metadata
with file check box. If the file type does not support metadata, Sound Forge prompts you to save the metadata
in an external file with an .sfl extension.
Removing additional embedded information
To save a file without additional embedded information, choose Save As from the File menu and clear the
Save metadata with file check box.
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CHAPTER
7
Using Markers,
Regions, and the
Playlist/Cutlist
This chapter describes the use of markers, command markers, the Regions List, and the playlist/cutlist. These
tools allow you to tag and organize audio data and make audio editing more efficient. Sound Forge can save
marker, Regions List, and playlist/cutlist information as metadata in most file types. You also have the option
of saving the Regions List and playlist/cutlist to an external file. For more information, see Save metadata with
file on page 54.
Why use markers, regions, and the playlist?
There are at least four reasons for you to master the use of these features:
•
•
•
•
Rapid navigation
Added effects for streaming media
Multiple versions of edits
MIDI synchronization and triggering
Rapid navigation
The most obvious use of the Regions List is for dissecting an audio file into multiple regions. Once created,
regions can be selected and played in the data window. You are also able to tag important time positions with
markers. This allows you to navigate large files and locate important audio events.
Added effects for streaming media
Command markers allow you to add interactivity to media streamed over the Internet by inserting metadata
into streaming media files. As your file plays, any number of other actions can be triggered, including
opening a Web page in a browser or displaying caption text.
Multiple versions of edits
The playlist and cutlist allow you to try out different edits before committing to them. You can add regions
to the playlist or cutlist and then rearrange and audition them endlessly without requiring Sound Forge to
perform an edit on the file.
Another advantage is that you can quickly save regions organized in the playlist or cutlist as a new file based
on the finished arrangement.
MIDI synchronization and triggering
You can trigger regions created in Sound Forge using MIDI or SMPTE timecode. This feature is used for
synchronizing audio files to sequencers, MIDI controllers, or any other time-based media. For example, a
MIDI trigger can be assigned to an audio file in Sound Forge and triggered by a sequencer along with other
MIDI instruments. For more information, see Triggering region playback on page 203.
You can also assign SMPTE times to special effect audio files. This allows you to match audio to the action
on the screen.
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Using markers
A marker is a tag placed in an audio file that is used as a reference point. Markers make navigating a file
easier and more efficient.
Inserting markers
1. Click to position the cursor in the waveform.
2. From the Special menu, choose Insert Marker. Sound Forge places a marker in the waveform at the exact
location of the cursor.
Press
M
.
The marker is placed
in the waveform
Inserting markers using the ruler shortcut menu
The ruler shortcut menu allows you to insert and name a marker in a single step.
1. Click to position the cursor in the waveform.
2. Right-click the ruler and choose Insert Marker/Region from the shortcut menu. The Insert Marker/Region
dialog appears.
3. Enter a name for the marker in the Name box and click OK. The new marker appears in the waveform.
Inserting markers during playback
To insert markers in real time during playback, press
M
.
Inserting markers during recording
To insert markers during recording, click the Drop Marker button (
more information, see Inserting markers while recording on page 125.
) in the Record dialog or press
M
. For
Naming markers
When you insert a marker, Sound Forge automatically names it for you. You can customize this automatic
labeling feature, or you can name markers manually.
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Customizing automatic labeling
You can customize the way that Sound Forge names new files, markers, or regions.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Editing tab.
3. Click the Automatic Labeling button. The Automatic Labeling dialog appears.
Automatic Labeling dialog
4. Adjust the labeling controls as desired. For help on the different controls in the dialog, click the What’s
This? Help button
(
) and click a control.
5. Click OK to close the Automatic Labeling dialog.
6. Click OK to close the Preferences dialog.
Naming markers manually
You can name markers to make them easily identifiable.
1. Right-click a marker and choose Edit from the shortcut menu. The Edit Marker/Region dialog appears.
Select Edit from
the shortcut menu
Enter a name
for the marker
2. Enter a name or description for the marker in the Name box and click OK. The marker is named in the
waveform display.
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The marker is labeled in
the waveform
Changing the marker position
You can change a marker’s position by dragging it to a new location or by updating its position to the current
cursor location. You can also enter precise values to move a marker to a specific location.
Changing the marker position using drag-and-drop
1. Drag the marker to a new position on the data window ruler.
Drag the marker to the new position
2. Release the mouse button. The marker is dropped at its new location.
Changing the marker position using update
1. Position the cursor where you want the marker to be.
2. Right-click the marker and choose Update from the shortcut menu. The marker moves to the cursor
position.
Changing the marker position using the Edit Marker/Region dialog
1. Right-click a marker and choose Edit from the shortcut menu. The Edit Marker/Region dialog appears.
2. Enter a new marker position value in the Start box and click OK. The marker position updates.
Enter the marker
position value
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Detecting and marking clipping
The clip indicators in the play meters help you determine whether clipping occurs in your file, and you can
use the Find command to find audio that matches levels you specify. For more control, however, you can use
the detect clipping tool.
From the Tools menu, choose Detect Clipping to scan a selection of audio for clipping and add markers where
clipping occurs.
Markers can be quickly selected from the list in the Go To dialog. Also, markers are displayed in the Regions
List for quick playback.
1. Select the audio you want to scan.
2. From the Tools menu, choose Detect Clipping. The Detect Clipping dialog is displayed.
3. Choose a setting from the Preset drop-down list or adjust the controls as necessary.
a. Drag the Threshold slider to determine the sound level you want to find.
b. Set a value in the Clip Length box to specify how many sequential samples must meet the Threshold
setting to constitute clipping.
4. Click the OK button.
Sound Forge scans the selection and adds a marker whenever there are a number of sequential samples
(determined by the Clip Length setting) with the same value above the Threshold setting.
Tip: Use Detect all clip-related plateaus from the Preset
drop-down list to detect clipped peaks that may exist in your
file after decreasing the levels in the file. You can then use the
Pencil tool or the Clipped Peak Restoration tool in the Sony
Pictures Digital Noise Reduction plug-in to restore the clipped
peaks.
Using markers to create regions
Once you have placed markers in a waveform, you can use them to create regions. For more information, see
Inserting regions based on marker positions on page 102.
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Using command markers in streaming media files
Command markers add interactivity to media streamed over the Internet by inserting metadata into
streaming media files. As your file plays, any number of other actions can be programmed to occur. These
commands are a part of the Windows Media Audio, Windows Media Video, and RealMedia streaming
formats. Most frequently, these actions add text or open a related Web site.
Command markers can also indicate when an instruction (function) occurs in a WAV file being used in a
radio broadcast environment (Scott Studios data). The following two sections define the markers for both
streaming media and Scott Studios files.
Note: While streaming media files can be played on any hard
drive or CD-ROM, they require a special streaming media
server (provided by your ISP) to stream properly across the
Internet.
Important: Windows Media Player 9 will ignore metadata
commands unless the Run script commands when present
check box is selected on the Security tab of the player's
Preferences dialog. Be sure to instruct your audience to select
this check box before playing your file.
Defining streaming media commands
In a streaming media file, command markers can be used to display headlines, show captions, link to Web
sites, or any other function you define. Some command types are exclusive to either the Windows Media
files or RealMedia files.
Command
Player type
Description
URL
Windows Media
and RealMedia
Text
Windows Media
Indicates when an instruction is sent to the user’s internet browser to change the
content being displayed. With this command, you enter the URL that displays at a
specific time during the file’s playback.
Displays text in the captioning area of the Windows Media Player located below the
video display area. You enter the text that displays during playback.
Title
RealMedia
Note: To view captions during playback in Windows Media Player 9, choose Captions
and Subtitles from the Windows Media Player Play menu, and then choose On if
Available from the submenu.
Displays the entered text on the media player’s title bar.
Note: When rendering Windows Media files, title information is based on the settings
on the Summary tab of the Sound Forge Project Properties dialog or the Index/
Summary tab of the Custom Template dialog. The summary information from the
Project Properties dialog will be used if information has been specified in both places.
Author
RealMedia
To view this information during playback, choose Now Playing Options from the
Windows Media Player View menu and select the items you want to display.
Displays the entered text (Author’s name) when a user selects About This
Presentation from the RealPlayer shortcut menu.
Note: When rendering Windows Media files, author information is based on the
settings on the Summary tab of the Sound Forge Project Properties dialog or the
Index/Summary tab of the Custom Template dialog. The summary information from
the Project Properties dialog will be used if information has been specified in both
places.
To view this information during playback, choose Now Playing Options from the
Windows Media Player View menu and select the items you want to display.
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Command
Player type
Description
Copyright
RealMedia
Displays the entered copyright information when a user selects About This
Presentation from the RealPlayer’s shortcut menu or Properties from the Windows
Media Player shortcut menu.
Note: When rendering Windows Media files, copyright information is based on the
settings on the Summary tab of the Sound Forge Project Properties dialog or the
Index/Summary tab of the Custom Template dialog. The summary information from
the Project Properties dialog will be used if information has been specified in both
places.
HotSpotPlay
RealMedia
HotSpotBrowse
HotSpotSeek
RealMedia
RealMedia
To view this information during playback, choose Now Playing Options from the
Windows Media Player View menu and select the items you want to display.
Displays the RealMedia file you specify when users click the RealPlayer video display or
Properties from the Windows Media Player shortcut menu.
Displays the Web page you specify when users click the RealPlayer video display.
Jumps to the time you specify when users click the RealPlayer video display.
Defining Scott Studios data commands
For WAV files using Scott Studios data, command markers can be used to define information about the
WAV file.
Command
Description
SCOTT EOM
Calculates when the next queued clip starts playing in a Scott Studios system. For more information,
please refer to your Scott Studios documentation.
Sets the beginning of a file in a Scott Studios system without performing destructive editing. For more
information, please refer to your Scott Studios documentation.
SCOTT Cue In
Inserting command markers
1. Position the cursor where you want to place the command marker.
2. From the Special menu, choose Insert Command. The Command Properties dialog appears.
Press
C
.
3. Complete the Command Properties dialog:
• From the Template drop-down list, select a custom
template. For more information, see Saving command
properties as a custom template on page 98.
• From the Command drop-down list, select the type of
command you wish to create or type a custom
command.
• Enter parameters to define the behavior of the
command in the Parameter box.
• Specify the timing of the command in the Position box.
Sound Forge automatically sets this value to the current
cursor position.
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4. Click OK. The new command marker appears in the data window.
Command marker
Editing command properties
Right-click a command marker and choose Edit from the shortcut menu to open the Command Properties
dialog and edit the marker.
Saving command properties as a custom template
If you plan to use a command more than once, you can save command properties as a template. You can then
reuse the command properties by selecting the template from the Template drop-down list.
1. Create a command and complete the Command Properties dialog.
2. Click in the Template box and enter a name for the template.
3. Click the Save Template button (
).
Tip: Sound Forge saves your metadata command templates
in the cmdtemp.xml file in the Sound Forge program folder.
You can edit this file directly to modify your templates.
Moving the cursor to a command marker
Click the command marker to place the cursor at the current command marker position.
Deleting command markers
1. Place the mouse pointer on the command marker. The pointer changes to a hand icon (
).
2. Right-click to display a shortcut menu.
3. From the shortcut menu, choose Delete. The command marker is removed.
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Using regions
Regions identify ranges of time and provide a way to subdivide an audio file. A region is defined as the area
between two region tags. Regions can function as semi-permanent time selections that can be saved with the
file. You can add regions to the playlist and use regions to create new files.
Inserting regions
Sound Forge offers multiple methods of inserting regions including a menu command, drag-and-drop, a time
ruler shortcut, and a keyboard shortcut. The following sections briefly describe the methods of creating
regions. To work through these procedures, use the Fill.pca file. This file is located in the Sound Forge folder.
Inserting regions using menu commands
1. Open the Fill.pca file.
2. From the View menu, choose Regions List. The Regions List displays. For more information, see Using the
Regions List on page 104.
3. Create a selection containing the final drum hit near the end of the waveform display.
4. From the Special menu, choose Insert Region. The Insert Marker/Region dialog appears.
Name the region
New region is added
to the Regions List
5. Enter a name for the region in the Name box and click OK. The selection appears in the Regions List.
In addition, notice that region tags now display in the data window. These tags indicate the region’s name
and position within the original file.
Region tags in
data window
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Inserting regions using drag-and-drop
One of the easiest ways to insert a region is to drag a selection from a data window into the Regions List.
1. Create a selection containing the opening drum roll in Fill.pca.
Create a selection
2. Drag the selection from the data window to the Regions List. The Insert Marker/Region dialog appears.
3. Name the region and click OK.
Inserting regions using the time ruler shortcut
1. Create another selection in the waveform display.
2. Right-click the time ruler and choose Insert Marker/Region from the shortcut menu. The Insert Marker/
Region dialog appears.
3. Name the region and click OK.
Inserting regions using the keyboard
1. Create a selection in the waveform display.
2. Press
R
. The Insert Marker/Region dialog appears.
3. Name the region and click OK.
Inserting regions automatically
In addition to the previously described methods, you can also insert regions automatically.
Inserting regions while recording
The most efficient way of inserting regions is to do it while recording your audio. This is especially useful
when working on a project that you will piece together from multiple takes. To create regions while
recording, specify Multiple takes creating Regions from the Mode drop-down list in the Record dialog. For more
information, see Multiple takes creating Regions on page 120.
Tip: Sound Forge automatically names regions for you while
recording. You can customize this automatic labeling feature.
For more information, see Customizing automatic labeling on
page 93.
Inserting regions based on rapid sound attacks
1. Open the Fill.pca file.
2. From the Tools menu, choose Auto Region. The Auto Region dialog appears.
3. Clear the Build regions using the current tempo check box.
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4. Specify a preset from the Preset drop-down list or configure a new setting using the dialog’s active
parameters shown in the table below.
Parameter
Description
Attack sensitivity
Release sensitivity
Minimum level
Minimum beat duration
Determines the sensitivity of the attack-detection algorithm to rapid volume increases.
Determines the minimum decrease in sound level required to create a region end point.
Determines the threshold audio level required to create a new region.
Specifies the minimum length, in seconds, that must elapse before a new region can be
created.
Requires a region end when the sound level drops by the factor specified by the Release
sensitivity value.
Use release point for end
of region
5. Click OK. Sound Forge inserts regions in the audio file based on the dialog parameters.
Regions based on
rapid sound attacks
Note: Sound Forge automatically adds all regions created
using the Auto Region tool to the Regions List and playlist.
Inserting regions based on musical time intervals
When you select the Build regions using the current tempo check box, Sound Forge inserts regions according to
the current beats per minute setting. You can change a file’s tempo information (including the measures,
beats, and beats per minute settings) by choosing Edit Tempo from the Special menu. For more information,
see Changing a file’s beat values on page 66.
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
Note: This file is located in the same folder as the
application.
2. From the Tools menu, choose Auto Region. The Auto Region dialog box appears.
3. Select the Build regions using the current tempo check box.
4. Enter desired values in the Measures and Beats boxes:
• To create a region on every beat, set Measures to 0 and Beats to 1.
• To create a region at every measure, set Measures to 1 and Beats to 0.
5. Click OK. Sound Forge creates regions in the data window based on the Measures value, the Beats values,
and the current beats per minute setting.
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Inserting regions based on marker positions
Sound Forge can automatically insert regions by using all markers in the audio file as region boundaries.
Regions created this way are added to the Regions List, but not to the playlist.
1. Open the Fill.pca file.
2. Play the file and drop several markers using the
M
key.
Markers created in
data window
3. From the Special menu, choose Regions List, and choose Markers to Regions from the submenu. Sound
Forge prompts you to verify whether the markers should be used to create regions.
4. Click Yes. Sound Forge creates regions and adds them to the Regions List.
Editing regions
You can edit regions from the data window or the Regions List.
Editing regions in the data window
1. Drag the desired region tag to a new position. Both associated region tags are highlighted and the name of
the region appears in the lower-left corner of the status bar.
Drag the region tag to a new position
2. Release the mouse button. The region’s values update in the Regions List.
Tip: To move both region tags at once, press
Alt
while
dragging.
Editing regions using the shortcut menu
Right-clicking a region tag displays a shortcut menu that provides you with the following commands: Select,
Delete, Edit, Split, Update.
Command
Description
Select
Delete
Edit
Split
Selects the entire region.
Deletes the region, but leaves the audio data intact.
Displays the Edit Marker/Region dialog.
With the cursor placed within a region, this command splits the region into two new
regions at the cursor and updates the Regions List.
Moves the region tags to the current waveform selection.
Update
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Editing regions in the Regions List
You can also edit regions by double-clicking the region name in the Regions List. For more information, see
Using the Regions List on page 104. This displays the Edit Marker/Region dialog, which also allows you to
specify triggers. For more information, see MIDI triggers on page 201.
Right-clicking anywhere in the Regions List displays a shortcut menu containing many commands
previously discussed, as well as Replicate and Copy onto Clipboard.
Command
Description
Replicate
Copy onto Clipboard
Duplicates the selected region and places the copy in the Regions List.
Copies the selected region’s information onto the clipboard, allowing it to be pasted into
text editors such as Notepad.
Creating new files from regions
Sound Forge allows you to quickly create a new file from each region in a file. Sound Forge names each
region by appending a numerical value to a user-specified prefix.
1. Open an audio file and create several regions in it.
2. From the Tools menu, choose Extract Regions. The Extract Regions dialog appears and all current regions
appear in the Regions to extract pane.
3. Select the regions to be extracted.
Extract Regions dialog
4. If the path in the Destination folder box is not appropriate, click the Browse button and browse to the
desired destination folder.
5. Enter the desired prefix in the File name prefix box.
6. If desired, clear the Use Long File Names for destination file names check box and enter an appropriate
numeric value in the Start file counter index box.
Note: Clearing the Use Long File Names for destination file
names check box forces file names to conform to the 8.3
naming convention.
7. Click Extract.
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Using the Regions List
The Regions List contains information pertaining to all regions in the current data window. Sound Forge can
save the Regions List information as metadata in most file types. You also have the option of saving the
Regions List to an external playlist file.
Displaying the Regions List
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. From the View menu, choose Regions List. The Regions List for Voiceover.pca appears.
Press
Alt
+
2
.
Working with the Regions List
By default, the Regions List displays the following information for each region in the current data window:
•
•
•
•
A small Play button ( ) dedicated to the region.
The name of the region.
The region’s start point.
The region’s end point.
Regions List
Play Button
Region Name
Region Start
Region End
Configuring the Regions List display
If you do not wish to use the default display of the Regions List, you can specify alternate display options.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Playlist tab.
3. Specify a display format from the Regions List display format drop-down list and click OK. The Regions List
display format is updated.
Specify a Region List display format
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Changing region order
By default, the Regions List displays regions in alphabetical order by name, but you may also specify an
alternate order.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Playlist tab.
3. Clear the Sort the Regions List alphabetically check box and click OK.
Saving a Regions List file
You can save a file's Regions List to an external file. This offers the flexibility of using multiple Regions Lists
for the same audio file.
1. From the Special menu, choose Regions List, and choose Save As from the submenu.
Right-click the Regions List and choose Save As from the shortcut menu.
2. Use the Save As Regions/Playlist dialog to specify a folder and filename.
3. Click Save.
Opening a Regions List file
Importing a Regions List file offers the flexibility of using multiple Regions List files for the same audio file.
Opening a new Regions List file clears the current Regions List. Make sure you have saved the current
Regions List before continuing.
1. From the Special menu, choose Regions List, and choose Open from the submenu.
Right-click the Regions List and choose Open from the shortcut menu.
2. Use the Open Regions/Playlist dialog to locate an existing file.
3. Specify the type of regions you want to import from the Files of type drop-down list:
• Choose Playlist File (.sfl) to import a Sound Forge regions/playlist file.
• Choose Session 8 File (.prm) to import a file that supports both Session 8 and Sound Forge regions.
• Choose Windows Media Script File (.txt) to import a file that includes Windows Media script commands.
• Choose Wave File (.wav) to import markers and regions from another audio file.
Note: In Screenblast Sound Forge, the only type of Regions
List file you can import is Windows Media Script File
(*.txt).
4. Click Open.
Copying the Regions List to the clipboard
Editing a Regions List in a text editor allows you to make an annotated list that you can print for reference.
From the Special menu, choose Regions List, and then choose Copy onto Clipboard. The list is copied to the
Windows clipboard.
Right-click the Regions List and choose Copy onto Clipboard from the shortcut menu.
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Using the playlist
Once you create regions, you can arrange them in the playlist. Unlike the Regions List, which displays its
contents in alphabetical or chronological order, the playlist displays and plays its regions in a user-specified
arrangement. In addition, you can rearrange and audition regions endlessly in the playlist without
performing a destructive edit when you save the file.
As with the Regions List, Sound Forge can save the playlist information as metadata in most file types. You
also have the option of saving the playlist to an external playlist file.
Displaying the playlist
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. From the View menu, choose Regions List. The Regions List window for Voiceover.pca appears.
3. From the View menu, choose Playlist. The Playlist window for Voiceover.pca appears.
To display the Playlist window, press
Alt
+
3
.
Playlist
Notice that the file contains regions, but the playlist is empty. You must add regions to the playlist before
arranging them.
Adding regions to the playlist
You can add regions from the Regions List to the playlist using commands or drag-and-drop. You can also
add regions to the playlist directly from the data window.
Adding regions to the playlist using commands
1. Select a region in the Regions List.
2. From the Special menu, choose Playlist/Cutlist, and choose Add from the submenu. Sound Forge adds the
region to the playlist.
Adding regions to the playlist using drag-and-drop
1. Select a region in the Regions List.
2. Drag the region into the playlist.
3. Release the mouse button.
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Understanding the playlist display
When you add a region to the playlist, its appearance is similar to its appearance in the Regions List, with
the exception of the Count (Cnt) column. Located to the left of the Name column, the Count (Cnt) column
displays the number of times the corresponding region plays before the playlist proceeds to the next region.
Playlist
Play
Count
Button
Region Name
Start Time
End Time
Customizing the playlist display
Like the Regions List, you can specify what values are displayed in the playlist.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Playlist tab.
3. Specify a display from the Playlist display format drop-down list and click OK. The playlist display format
updates.
Repeating a region during playlist playback
You can specify the number of times a region repeats during playlist playback.
1. Right-click a region in the playlist and choose Edit from the shortcut menu. The Edit Playlist dialog
appears.
To display the Edit Playlist dialog, double-click a region in the playlist.
2. Enter a new value in the Play count box and click OK. The selected region’s Count column updates.
To change the Count value quickly, select a region and use the
decrement the value.
+
and
-
keys to increment/
Change the Play count in the Edit Playlist dialog
Enter a new
Play count value
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Playing from the playlist
The playlist displays the sequential order in which regions play. To play a region, click the corresponding
Play button ( ). Playback begins with the selected region and continues through the end of the playlist,
playing a region multiple times when instructed by the Count value.
Note: Playback is interrupted if a stop point is present. For
more information, see Using stop points on page 109.
Click a Play button to play
through the end
of the playlist
Arranging the playlist
Once you have added regions to the playlist, you can arrange them using drag-and-drop.
Drag-and-drop regions to
rearrange the playlist
Replicating a region in the playlist
A major advantage of arranging with the playlist is the ability to repeat a region in multiple places without
actually copying the audio data. This feature is called replicating.
1. Right-click the region to be replicated and choose Replicate from the shortcut menu. The region is
replicated in the playlist.
Select Replicate from the shortcut menu
2. Drag the replicated region to its new position in the playlist.
Replicate a region by holding
Ctrl
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while dragging the region to a new position in the playlist.
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Using stop points
You can attach stop points to regions in the playlist. When Sound Forge encounters a stop point during
playback, it repeats the corresponding region the number of times specified by the Count value and halts
playback.
Creating a stop point
1. Select a region in the playlist.
2. Right-click the mouse and choose Stop Point from the shortcut menu. A check mark appears adjacent to
the command in the shortcut menu and a stop point (indicated by a red circle) appears in the playlist. In
the following illustration, playback stops before the “Sound editing just gets easier” region.
Create a stop point in the playlist
Deleting a stop point
Right-click a region in the playlist and choose Stop Point from the shortcut menu. The corresponding check
mark is cleared from the shortcut menu and the stop point is deleted from the playlist.
You can quickly add or remove a stop point from the playlist by selecting a region and pressing
*
.
Deleting a region from the playlist
You can delete regions from the playlist without affecting the audio file by right-clicking the region and
choosing Delete from the shortcut menu.
To delete a region from the playlist, select the region and press
Delete
.
Creating a new file from the playlist
After you have auditioned and arranged all regions in the playlist, Sound Forge can create a new file based
on the playlist arrangement. To create a new file from the playlist, right-click the playlist and choose Convert
to New from the shortcut menu.
Note: If the original file has both audio and video
components (such as an AVI file), the new file created from
the playlist contains the audio portion only.
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Configuring the playlist as a cutlist
When trimming lengthy recordings, configuring the playlist as a
cutlist can sometimes decrease editing time. In Play as Cutlist
mode, Sound Forge plays the original file, but ignores all regions
placed on the cutlist. Click the Play as Cutlist button ( ) on the
playbar to enter Play as Cutlist mode.
Treating the playlist as a cutlist
1. From the View menu, choose Playlist. The Playlist window
appears.
2. Right-click the playlist and choose Treat as Cutlist from the
shortcut menu. A check mark appears adjacent to the
command in the shortcut menu and the cutlist displays. The
Play as Cutlist button (
) appears in the playbar.
Adding regions to the cutlist
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file and the cutlist.
2. Select the “Silence” region and drag it to the cutlist. The region is added to the cutlist and the selection
area in the waveform display is shaded.
Select the region in the data window and press
Delete
to add it to the cutlist.
New region is added to the cutlist
3. Click the Play as Cutlist button (
) on the data window’s playbar. The file plays with the cutlisted region
omitted.
Creating a new file from the cutlist
Once all superfluous regions are placed in the cutlist, you can create a new audio file and Regions List from
the remaining regions by right-clicking the cutlist and choosing Convert to New from the shortcut menu.
Deleting all cutlist regions
To delete all regions in the cutlist, right-click the cutlist and choose Delete Cut Regions from the shortcut
menu.
Reverting to playlist function
To use the cutlist as a playlist again, right-click the cutlist and choose Treat as Cutlist from the shortcut
menu. The check mark is cleared from the corresponding command in the shortcut menu and the playlist
function is restored.
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Saving a playlist/cutlist file
You can save a file's playlist/cutlist to an external file. This offers the flexibility of using multiple playlists for
the same file.
1. From the Special menu, choose Playlist/Cutlist, and choose Save As from the submenu.
Right-click the playlist/cutlist and choose Save As from the shortcut menu.
2. Use the Save Regions/Playlist dialog to specify a folder and filename.
3. Click Save.
Opening a playlist/cutlist file
Importing a playlist file offers the flexibility of using multiple playlists for a file. Opening a new playlist file
clears the current playlist. Make sure you have saved the current playlist before continuing.
1. From the Special menu, choose Playlist/Cutlist, and choose Open from the submenu.
Right-click the playlist/cutlist and choose Open from the shortcut menu.
2. Use the Open Regions/Playlist window to browse to an existing regions file.
3. Specify the type of file you want to import from the Files of Type drop-down list:
• Choose Playlist File (.sfl) to import a Sound Forge regions/playlist file.
• Choose Session 8 File (.prm) to import a file that supports both Session 8 and Sound Forge regions.
• Choose Windows Media Script File (.txt) to import a file that includes Windows Media script commands.
• Choose Wave File (.wav) to import markers and regions from another sound file.
4. Click Open.
Copying the playlist/cutlist to the clipboard
Editing a playlist/cutlist in a text editor allows you to make an annotated list that you can print for reference.
From the Special menu, choose Playlist/Cutlist, and then choose Copy onto Clipboard. The list is copied to
the Windows clipboard.
Right-click the playlist/cutlist and choose Copy onto Clipboard from the shortcut menu.
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USING MARKERS, REGIONS, AND THE PLAYLIST/CUTLIST
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113
CHAPTER
Recording,
Extracting, and
Burning
8
This chapter describes recording audio in Sound Forge, extracting audio from a CD, and writing audio to a
CD.
Recording audio
Sound Forge has two central methods for recording: manual (normal) and automatic. In normal recording,
you choose your settings and control your recording session while you’re sitting at your PC. With automatic
recording, you can choose your settings and set your trigger parameters for recording automatically—
whether you’re at your PC or not.
Recording manually
You can record into an existing data window or create a new window at the time of recording.
1. From the Special menu, choose Transport, and choose Record from the submenu. The Record dialog
appears.
You can also open the Record dialog by clicking the Record button (
pressing Ctrl + R .
) on the transport bar or
Title bar
Recording attributes
Recording method
Record to
new window
Remote recording
Recording device
Set selection
Recording mode
Meters and
meter reset
Punch-in spinners
DC adjust
Transport bar
Recording time
Pre/post roll
Prerecording buffer
Note: The Record dialog shown above is from the full
version of Sound Forge. If you are using Screenblast Sound
Forge, not all of the controls displayed above will be available
to you.
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2. From the Method drop-down list, choose Normal.
3. Choose the destination data window for your recording. By default, Sound Forge records into the active
data window. If this is not where you want to record, use one of the following methods to prepare for
recording:
• To record into a different data window, click the Window button and choose a data window from the
Record destination window drop-down list. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
-or• To record into a new window, click the New button in the Record dialog and specify the attributes
(sample rate, bit depth, and channels) for the new file. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
4. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
5. From the Mode drop-down list, choose a recording mode. For more information, see Choosing a recording
mode on page 119.
6. If necessary, set a start time, duration, or end time for your recording. By default, Sound Forge will begin
recording at the current cursor position. To record to a different cursor position, use one of the following
methods:
• Type a new cursor position in the Start field. If you chose the Punch In recording option in the Mode
drop-down list, you can also type values in the End or Length fields to define your recording period.
-or• Click the Go To button ( ) and change the cursor position. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
For more information, see Setting the cursor position on page 69.
7. Click the Arm button ( ) to have recording begin as soon as possible after you click the Record button
( ).
Arming Sound Forge prior to recording opens the wave device and loads all recording buffers in order to
minimize the amount of time between clicking the Record button and when the recording starts. This
optional step can allow for more accurate takes when recording in Punch-In mode.
8. If desired, select the Prerecord buffer check box and specify the amount of time to buffer prior to recording
when Sound Forge is armed for recording. A prerecording buffer helps to ensure you won't miss a perfect
take if you're a bit slow to click the Record button.
When you click the Record button, Sound Forge starts recording and commits the sound data in the buffer
to disk. For example, if you set a 15-second buffer, recording effectively begins 15 seconds before you click
the Record button.
Note: The prerecord buffer is unavailable in punch-in mode.
9. If necessary, select the DC Adjust check box and calibrate the DC offset adjustment. For more information,
see Adjusting for DC offset on page 121.
10.Click the Record button (
Press
Alt
+
R
) in the Record dialog. Recording begins.
. For more information, see Record dialog keyboard shortcuts on page 262.
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Stop button displays
Recording message
Time Recorded value increases
11.Click the Stop button (
) to stop recording.
12.Click the Close button to close the Record dialog.
Recording automatically
In addition to the normal recording method, Sound Forge also has three automatic recording methods:
Time, Threshold, and MIDI Timecode. These recording methods enable you to trigger recording to begin
from Sound Forge automatically, using a specified device, with no intervention necessary. You can set up
multiple automatic recording sessions to take place at different times, and set a session’s recurrence level for
one time, daily, or weekly. For your recording sessions to take place, the Sound Forge application must be
started and armed for recording.
Triggering by time
1. From the Special menu, choose Transport, and then choose Record from the submenu.
Click the Record button (
) on the transport bar or press
Ctrl
+
R
.
2. From the Method drop-down list, choose Automatic: Time.
3. Choose the destination data window for your recording. By default, Sound Forge records into the active
data window. If this is not where you want to record, use one of the following methods to prepare for
recording:
• To record into a different data window, click the Window button and choose a data window from the
Record destination window drop-down list. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
-or• To record into a new window, click the New button in the Record dialog and specify the attributes
(sample rate, bit depth, and channels) for the new file. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
4. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
5. From the Mode drop-down list, choose a recording mode. For more information, see Choosing a recording
mode on page 119.
6. Set the timer:
a. Click the Add button (
) to create a timer setting. The Record Timer Event dialog is displayed.
b. Type a name in the Name field to create a name to identify the preset.
c. Choose a setting from the Recurrence drop-down list to indicate whether you want to record one time
only or repeat the selected recording day and time at a regular interval.
d. Use the Start date, Start time, and Duration boxes to indicate when you want to start and stop recording.
e. Click OK to close the dialog and return to the Record dialog.
7. Click the Arm button (
CHP. 8
). Sound Forge is armed for recording to begin when your timed events occur.
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8. To end timed recording, click the Stop button (
).
9. Click the Close button to close the Record dialog.
Triggering by a set threshold
When you’re using threshold-triggered recording, you can choose to record continuously: set a buffer size,
and Sound Forge will record to fill the buffer, discarding the oldest data as new data is recorded. If you want
to save data from the buffer, you can save it to disk.
1. From the Special menu, choose Transport, and then choose Record from the submenu.
Click the Record button (
) on the transport bar or press
Ctrl
+
R
.
2. From the Method drop-down list, choose Automatic: Threshold.
3. Choose the destination data window for your recording. By default, Sound Forge records into the active
data window. If this is not where you want to record, use one of the following methods to prepare for
recording:
• To record into a different data window, click the Window button and choose a data window from the
Record destination window drop-down list. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
-or• To record into a new window, click the New button in the Record dialog and specify the attributes
(sample rate, bit depth, and channels) for the new file. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
4. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
5. From the Mode drop-down list, choose a recording mode. For more information, see Choosing a recording
mode on page 119.
6. Drag the Threshold slider control to set the audio level at which you want recording to begin. Sound Forge
monitors the audio levels until they reach the level you choose, and then begins recording.
7. Drag the Release slider control to set the amount of time the audio level should be below your Threshold
level before Sound Forge stops recording.
8. Select the Automatically rearm after record check box if you want Sound Forge to be able to immediately
record again after your initial threshold recording. Sound Forge will return to monitoring audio levels
after each recording if this check box is selected.
9. Select the Prerecord buffer check box and type a value in the edit box to maintain a set amount of time in
a buffer when Sound Forge is armed for recording. A safety buffer helps to ensure you won’t miss a perfect
take if you set the threshold a bit too high.
When the prerecord buffer is enabled, Sound Forge starts recording when the audio input reaches the
threshold level and commits the sound data in the buffer to disk. For example, if you set a 15-second
buffer, recording effectively begins 15 seconds before the input reaches the set threshold level.
10.Click the Arm button (
). Sound Forge is armed for recording to begin when audio levels reach your set
threshold.
11.To end audio monitoring and recording, click the Stop button (
).
12.Click the Close button to close the Record dialog.
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Triggering by MIDI timecode
Note: You can specify a MIDI input port in the MIDI/Sync
tab in the Preferences dialog (from the Options menu,
choose Preferences). For more information, see
Synchronizing with other devices on page 124.
1. From the Special menu, choose Transport, and then choose Record from the submenu.
Click the Record button (
) on the transport bar or press
Ctrl
+
R
.
2. From the Method drop-down list, choose Automatic: MIDI Timecode.
3. Choose the destination data window for your recording. By default, Sound Forge records into the active
data window. If this is not where you want to record, use one of the following methods to prepare for
recording:
• To record into a different data window, click the Window button and choose a data window from the
Record destination window drop-down list. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
-or• To record into a new window, click the New button in the Record dialog and specify the attributes
(sample rate, bit depth, and channels) for the new file. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
4. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
5. From the Mode drop-down list, choose a recording mode. For more information, see Choosing a recording
mode on page 119.
6. Select the MIDI timecode start check box and enter the timecode at which Sound Forge should begin
recording.
7. Select the MIDI timecode end check box and enter the timecode at which Sound Forge should stop
recording. If this check box is cleared, recording will continue until you click the Stop button (
8. Click the Arm button (
).
). Sound Forge is armed for recording to begin when your timecode location is
reached.
9. To end recording, click the Stop button (
).
Note: Recording will end automatically at the specified
timecode location if you selected the MIDI timecode end check
box.
10.Click the Close button to close the Record dialog.
Recording a specific length (punch-in)
You can make a selection in an audio file and record over it, or you can specify a punch-in location at the
time of recording.
Recording over a selection
1. Select the audio that you wish to record over. For more information, see Fine-tuning a selection on page 79.
2. Click the Record button (
) in the transport bar. The Record dialog appears.
3. From the Method drop-down list, choose Normal.
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4. Choose the destination data window for your recording. By default, Sound Forge records into the active
data window. If this is not where you want to record, use one of the following methods to prepare for
recording:
• To record into a different data window, click the Window button and choose a data window from the
Record destination window drop-down list. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
-or• To record into a new window, click the New button in the Record dialog and specify the attributes
(sample rate, bit depth, and channels) for the new file. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
5. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
6. From the Mode list, choose Punch-In (record a specific length). The Start, End, and Length boxes show the
values for the selection you made in the data window.
The values in the Start, End, and Length
boxes reflect the current selection.
7. Click the Arm button (
8. Click the Record button (
9. Click the Stop button (
) to prepare for recording. For more information, see Arming to record on page 119.
) in the Record dialog.
) to stop recording.
10.Click the Close button to close the Record dialog.
Specifying a punch-in location at the time of recording
1. Click the Record button (
) in the transport bar. The Record dialog appears.
2. From the Method drop-down list, choose Normal.
3. Choose the destination data window for your recording. By default, Sound Forge records into the active
data window. If this is not where you want to record, use one of the following methods to prepare for
recording:
• To record into a different data window, click the Window button and choose a data window from the
Record destination window drop-down list. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
-or• To record into a new window, click the New button in the Record dialog and specify the attributes
(sample rate, bit depth, and channels) for the new file. Click OK to return to the Record dialog.
4. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
5. From the Mode list, choose Punch-In (record a specific length).
6. Enter values in the Start, End, and Length boxes for the punch-in location in the data window.
Tip: Click the Selection button for more options in creating a
punch-in selection. For more information, see Selecting audio
using start and end values on page 78.
7. Click the Arm button (
) to prepare for recording. For more information, see Arming to record on page 119.
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119
8. Click the Record button (
9. Click the Stop button (
) in the Record dialog.
) to stop recording.
10.Click the Close button to close the Record dialog.
Arming to record
When you click the Record button ( ) in the Record dialog, recording does not begin immediately. Sound
Forge must perform a number of important functions prior to recording the input signal. The Arm button
( ) gives Sound Forge the time to prepare, allowing it to begin recording the instant you click the Record
button. When you click the Arm button, Sound Forge opens the recording device and loads all recording
buffers. This ensures that the time lapse between clicking the Record button and actual recording is
minimized.
Tip: This feature is recommended when recording punch-ins.
Choosing a recording mode
You can choose any of several recording modes in the Record dialog’s Mode drop-down list. Sound Forge
recording modes include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Automatic retake (automatically rewind)
Multiple takes creating Regions - available only in the full version of Sound Forge
Multiple takes (no Regions)
Create a new window for each take - available only in the full version of Sound Forge
Punch-In (record a specific length)
Select a recording mode
Note: The Record dialog shown above is from the full
version of Sound Forge. If you are using Screenblast Sound
Forge, not all of the controls displayed above will be available
to you.
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Automatic retake (automatically rewind)
Automatic retake mode
is the easiest method of recording. Recording begins at the position displayed in the
box when you click the Record button ( ) and continues until you click the Stop button ( ). When
you stop recording, the start position resets to the beginning of the take, allowing for immediate review and
retake.
Start
Note: Automatic retake is the default mode when recording
into an empty data window or when recording with no data
selected in the current data window.
Multiple takes creating Regions
mode allows you to record several takes with each take defining a region in the
Regions List. Recording begins at the position displayed in the Start box when you click the Record button
( ) and continues until you click the Stop button ( ). When you stop recording, the stop position
becomes the start position for the next take, which can be recorded immediately. For more information, see
Using the Regions List on page 104.
Multiple takes creating Regions
Multiple takes (no Regions)
Multiple takes (no Regions) mode also allows several takes to be recorded without these takes being defined as
regions. Like the previous mode, recording starts at the position displayed in the Start box when you click the
Record button ( ) and continues until you click the Stop button ( ). When you stop recording, the stop
position becomes the start position for the next take, which can be recorded immediately.
Create a new window for each take
Create a new window for each take is
similar to Multiple takes creating Regions, but creates a new data window for
each take. This is useful when recording audio data in which you will save each take as an individual file.
Punch-In (record a specific length)
mode is used to record over a specific selection in an existing data window. Specifying Punch-In
activates the Start, End, and Length boxes. Recording begins at the position displayed in the Start box when
you click the Record button ( ) and continues until one of the following occurs:
Punch-In
• You click the Stop button ( ).
• The cursor in the data window reaches the position displayed in the End box.
• The length of the recorded data equals the value in the Length box.
Punch-In mode makes it possible to record over a specific section of audio without the risk of affecting the
remainder of the audio file. You can preview the punch-in region by clicking the Play button ( ).
Note: Punch-In is the default mode when recording with a
selection in the data window.
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Adjusting for DC offset
The DC adjust check box instructs Sound Forge to compensate for DC offsets generated by your system’s
sound card during recording. A DC offset of approximately 30 dB is not uncommon for sound cards (even
with very low noise floors) and this displays in the record meter as -60 dB. This does not mean that the
system is losing 30 dB of resolution, but for the meters to accurately display ranges to -90 dB, you must
calibrate the DC adjust.
DC adjust
Calibrating the DC adjustment
Before using the DC adjust feature, you must calibrate it for the selected recording device.
1. Select the DC adjust check box. The Calibrate button activates along with displays labeled Left and Right.
Select the DC adjust check box to activate the Calibrate button
2. Click the Calibrate button. Sound Forge listens to the selected recording device, calculates the offset, and
displays the Left and Right offset values in sample amplitude.
Recalibrating the DC adjustment
If you have multiple sound cards, you should recalibrate the DC adjust each time you select a new recording
device. Certain sound cards must also be recalibrated each time the sample rate changes or when switching
between mono and stereo recording.
Tip: You can recalibrate at any time, even during recording.
However, it is preferable to perform recalibration with silence
at the record inputs.
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Playing back recorded audio
Audition your recorded audio by playing it back in the Record dialog. Click the Play button ( ) to begin
playback and click the Stop button ( ) to end playback. You can use the other buttons on the minitransport bar in the Record dialog to navigate to different locations in the file.
Mini-transport bar in Record dialog
Go to
Go to end of file
Arm
Go to start of last take
Go to start of file
Drop marker
Play
Record
Adjusting pre/post-roll for punch-in and automatic retake recording playback
Once you have recorded a punch-in or an automatic retake, you can audition it with user-configured pre-roll
and post-roll to evaluate the performance. This option allows you to indicate the amount of sound data that
should be played preceding or following your recorded take when you review your takes. Reviewing with preand post-roll helps you review your takes in context.
1. Select the Review pre/post-roll check box. The two corresponding boxes become active.
2. Enter appropriate pre-roll and post-roll values in the respective boxes.
Enter pre- and post-roll values
Note: In Automatic retake mode, the post-roll control is
unavailable.
3. Click the Play button (
). The punch-in segment plays with the configured pre-roll and post-roll.
Note: Regardless of the data window’s current status
format, pre-roll and post-roll values are measured in seconds.
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Using remote recording mode
Click the Remote button to put Sound Forge into Remote Recording mode. In this mode, the Record
Remote dialog replaces the Sound Forge workspace. The Remote Record dialog remains the topmost
window regardless of the number of open applications. Remote recording is particularly useful when using an
application that controls the input source, such as a mixer, CD audio, or MIDI sequencing.
Remote Record dialog
on the desktop
The Record Remote dialog is a condensed, fully functional version of the Record dialog.
Remote Record dialog
Accessing record features while in remote recording mode
You can access all the features accessible in the Record dialog by right-clicking the title bar of the Remote
Record dialog.
Returning to the Sound Forge workspace
Click the Back button to return to the Sound Forge workspace and the Record dialog.
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Synchronizing with other devices
Click the Sync Out button to configure synchronization options for recording in conjunction with other
devices or applications that respond to MIDI/SMPTE timecode.
Record Synchronization dialog
Verifying the input and output devices
Prior to attempting synchronized recording, you must verify that the correct input and output devices are
configured in Sound Forge.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the MIDI/Sync tab.
3. Verify that the correct input and output devices are selected in the Input and Output drop-down lists and
click OK.
Selecting the SMPTE format
To configure the SMPTE format used in the Record Synchronization dialog, choose Status Format in the
Options menu and choose the desired format from the submenu.
Sending MTC/SMPTE to an output device
1. Click the Sync Out button. The Record Synchronization dialog appears.
2. Select the Enable MTC/SMPTE Output Synchronization check box. The corresponding Start and Pre-roll check
boxes are activated.
3. Select the Start check box and enter the starting value of the SMPTE code in the corresponding box.
Select the Start check box
and enter a start value
If necessary, select the
Pre-roll check box and
enter a pre-roll value
4. If necessary, select the Pre-roll check box and use the corresponding box to specify how much SMPTE
output will be generated prior to the recording start point.
5. Click the Close button. The Record dialog appears and Sound Forge is ready to record and output MTC/
SMPTE code.
Tip: When recording tracks from a tape deck that can
perform a chase lock, you can use the Pre-roll value to
compensate for the time the deck needs to rewind and begin
chasing prior to the synchronization start time.
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Viewing input levels
The input meters on the Record dialog show the level of the incoming signal. For recording purposes, the
incoming audio should remain primarily in the yellow, only occasionally entering the red.
Right-click the meters and choose Show VU/PPM from the shortcut menu to toggle the display of VU/PPM
meters in the Record dialog.
Click the Reset button (or press
Alt + T
) to reset clip indicators or held peaks or valleys.
You can work with the record input meters in much the same way you do with other meters in Sound Forge.
For more information, see Meters on page 37.
Setting the record level
The values displayed above the record meters are useful for maximizing the input level during recording. It is
particularly important to record input signals as loud as possible when planning to decrease the bit depth.
This maximizes the dynamic range.
However, the input signal must never exceed the range of values that can be recorded digitally. When the
input signal exceeds the safe digital recording range, the waveform peaks are clipped, resulting in audible
digital distortion.
1. Open the Record dialog.
2. From the Device drop-down list, choose the device to use for recording.
3. Apply the input signal to be recorded. The meters display levels relative to the signal.
4. Slowly increase the level of the input signal until the peak value is the -6 dB range. If the peak reaches
0 dB, the wave is clipped and a Clip indicator appears above each meter.
If clipping occurs, decrease the level of the input signal until the record level is maximized without clipping.
Scaling the record meters
Like the play meters, the record meters can be scaled to various dynamic ranges by right-clicking the meters
and choosing Peak Range or VU/PPM scale from the shortcut menu and then choosing the desired range from
the submenu.
For typical recording situations, the -42 to 0 dB range is the most practical. However, when recording very
low-level audio signals, you should consider the -90 to 0 dB range. Scaling the record meter to this range is
also a good method of gauging the noise level in the system.
Updating the meters
Right-click the meters and choose Aggressive Update from the shortcut menu to increase the priority of
updating the meters. This results in more accurate metering, but increased CPU usage.
Inserting markers while recording
Click the Drop Marker button (
window during recording.
Press
M
) in the Record dialog’s mini-transport bar to insert a marker in the data
.
You can then use the Markers to Regions command to convert markers into regions. For more information, see
Inserting regions based on marker positions on page 102.
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Configuring gap detection
During recording, Sound Forge continually listens for gaps (or drop-outs) that occasionally occur when
working with digital audio. Depending upon the gap detection mode, Sound Forge ignores the gap and
continues recording, marks the gap and continues recording, or stops recording.
To configure gap detection, right-click the Record dialog, choose Gap Detection from the shortcut menu, and
choose the desired gap detection mode (Ignore, Mark, or Stop) from the submenu.
Automatically labeling windows and regions
Sound Forge can automatically name files and regions for you as you record. This automatic labeling feature
is particularly useful when recording in Multiple takes creating Regions mode or Create a new window for each
take mode. For more information, see Choosing a recording mode on page 119.
Right-click the Record dialog and choose Automatic Labeling from the shortcut menu to access the
Automatic Labeling dialog. For more information, see Customizing automatic labeling on page 93.
Changing blinking status
The Recording and Pre-Roll messages located to the right of the mini-transport bar in the Record dialog can
display within a flashing or solid red frame.
To toggle between the blinking status settings, right-click the Record dialog and choose Blinking Status from
the shortcut menu. A check mark displays adjacent to the command to indicate that the frame is configured
to flash.
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Extracting audio from CDs
Sound Forge allows you to extract 44,100 Hz, 16-bit, stereo data from CD.
Tip: Double-click a .cda file in the Explorer window (or drag
it to the workspace) to extract a CD track without opening
the Extract Audio from CD dialog (available only in the full
version of Sound Forge). You can also extract audio from the
Open dialog by choosing CD Audio (*.cda) from the Files of
type drop-down list in the Open dialog.
1. Insert a CD in the CD-ROM drive.
2. From the File menu, choose Extract Audio from CD. Sound Forge identifies the system’s CD-ROM drive(s).
The Extract Audio from CD dialog appears. If the system is equipped with multiple CD-ROM drives, you
must select the desired drive from the Drive drop-down list near the bottom of the dialog.
Extract Audio from CD dialog
3. From the Action drop-down list, choose the method you want Sound Forge to use for extracting the CD
audio:
• Read by track - Use this option to select the tracks you want to extract from the CD. Each track is
extracted into a unique data window.
• Read entire disc - Use this option to automatically extract all tracks on the disc. The entire CD is
extracted into a single data window.
• Read by range - Use this option to extract audio from a specified range of time. Type appropriate values
in the Start and End (or Length) boxes. The range of audio is extracted into a single data window.
4. Select extraction options as needed:
• Select the Create regions for each track check box to add each extracted track to the file’s Regions List.
• Select the Create markers for each index change check box to place markers in the extracted file at all
points where indices occur in the original track.
5. From the Speed drop-down list, choose the speed at which you want to extract the audio. If you
experience any problems extracting audio, you can try decreasing the selected speed, or you can click
Configure to adjust the Audio extract optimization setting.
Note: To eject the CD at any time prior to beginning the
extraction process, click the Eject button.
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6. Click OK. Sound Forge begins extracting data from the CD and displays a progress meter.
Previewing CD tracks
In the Extract Audio from CD dialog, select a track and click the Play button to preview a track prior to
extracting it from the CD. To end the preview, click Stop.
Refreshing the Extract Audio from CD dialog
Click the Refresh button after you insert a new CD in the system’s CD-ROM drive. This allows you to view
the contents of the new CD without closing and reopening the Extract Audio from CD dialog.
Burning CDs
Sound Forge allows you to write audio to CD if your system is configured with a supported CD-R/RW drive
and the necessary drivers. Sound Forge burns CDs using the track-at-once method, meaning that additional
tracks can be added to the CD over a period of time. Once all desired tracks are added, you must close the
CD before it can be played in a consumer CD player. However, once you have closed a CD, you can no
longer add tracks to it.
Correcting the sample rate for CD burning
Sample rates deviating from 44,100 Hz cause CD track lengths to be miscalculated. When attempting to
write a file to CD that deviates from the 44,100 Hz sample rate, Sound Forge prompts you to change the
sample rate. Selecting Yes automatically resamples audio to 44,100 Hz.
In addition, you can use the Resample tool to change the sample rate of a file prior to burning the CD. For
more information, see Resample on page 163.
Writing mono tracks to a CD
If you attempt to write mono audio tracks to a CD, Sound Forge prompts you to create a stereo file by
copying the mono data to both channels.
Adding tracks to a CD
You should always save your audio files prior to writing them to CD.
1. From the Tools menu, choose Burn Track-at-Once Audio CD. The Burn Track-at-Once Audio CD dialog
appears. The bottom of the dialog displays the length of the current audio file and the amount of time
remaining on the CD currently in the CD-R/RW.
Note: If there is no CD in the current drive, only the Drive
and Speed drop-down menus and the Close button are
available in this dialog. If you insert a disc or select a different
drive after this dialog appears, it takes a moment for Sound
Forge to recognize the disc and make all options available.
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Burn Track-at-Once Audio CD dialog
2. Choose a setting from the Action drop-down list:
• Burn audio begins recording audio to your CD when you click the Start button. You will need to close the
disc before it can be played in a audio CD player.
• Test, then burn audio performs a test to determine whether your files can be written to the CD recorder
without encountering buffer underruns. Recording begins after the test if it is successful.
• Test only performs a test to determine whether your files can be written to the CD without encountering
buffer underruns. No audio is recorded to the CD.
• Close disc closes your disc without adding any audio when you click the Start button. Closing a disc
allows your files to be played on an audio CD player.
• Erase RW disc erases your rewritable CD when you click the Start button. You should use this option if
your rewritable CD already has data on it.
3. Select your burning options:
• Erase RW disc before burning: If you’re using a rewritable CD, select this check box to erase the CD before
you begin burning.
• Close disc when done burning: Select this check box to close the CD after burning. Closing a disc allows
your files to be played on an audio CD player.
Note: You can close the disc using a separate step later. For
more information, see Closing a CD on page 130.
• Eject disc when done: Select this check box to eject the CD automatically when burning has completed.
• Burn selection only: Select this check box to burn only the audio within the loop region.
4. From the Drive drop-down list, choose the CD-R/RW drive that you want to use to burn your CD.
5. From the Speed drop-down list, choose the speed at which you want to burn. Max will use your drive’s
fastest possible speed; decrease the setting if you have difficulty burning.
6. Click the Start button.
Important: Clicking Cancel after Sound Forge begins
writing to CD renders the CD unusable.
After Sound Forge writes the audio to CD, the CD Operation dialog indicates whether the writing was
successful.
7. Click OK to clear the message.
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Closing a CD
Closing the CD allows you to listen to it in an audio CD player. However, you cannot add tracks to a CD
once it is closed.
1. From the Tools menu, choose Burn Track-at-Once Audio CD. The Burn Track-at-Once Audio CD dialog
appears.
2. From the Action drop-down list, choose Close Disc.
3. If desired, select the Eject disc when done check box to eject the CD automatically when the disc has been
closed.
4. Click the Start button. Sound Forge begins closing the CD and displays a progress meter in the dialog.
After Sound Forge closes the CD, the CD Operation dialog indicates whether the closing was successful.
5. Click OK to clear the message.
Proper use of software
Sound Forge software is not intended, and should not be used for, illegal or infringing purposes, such as the
illegal copying or sharing of copyrighted materials. Using Sound Forge software for such purposes is, among
other things, against United States and international copyright laws and contrary to the terms and
conditions of the End User License Agreement. Such activity may be punishable by law and may also subject
you to the breach remedies set forth in the End User License Agreement.
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CHAPTER
9
Editing, Repairing,
and Synthesizing
Audio
This chapter introduces some of Sound Forge’s advanced editing, repair, and synthesis features.
Crossfading, overwriting, and replicating
Earlier in this manual, paste and mix were described as ways of adding clipboard contents to the current data
window. As your audio editing projects become more elaborate, you may discover the need for three more
sophisticated paste operations: crossfade, overwrite, and replicate.
Crossfading
Crossfading is a variation on pasting that joins two selections of audio data that would be awkward or
distracting if pasted together. In crossfading, the destination data decreases in volume (fades out) as the
source data increases in volume (fades in). A crossfade is the audio equivalent of the filmmaker’s dissolve.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca and Musicbed.pca files.
2. Select all data in the Voiceover data window.
3. Copy the selection. The data is placed on the clipboard.
4. Place the cursor at the approximate middle of the Musicbed data window. This is where the crossfade will
begin.
5. From the Edit menu, choose Paste Special, and choose Crossfade from the submenu. The Crossfade dialog
appears.
You can also display the Crossfade dialog by right-clicking the data window and choosing
Crossfade or by pressing Ctrl + F .
6. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Normal crossfade and click OK.
7. Play the Musicbed.pca file. Notice that the volume of the musicbed decreases while the voiceover volume
increases.
Overwriting
Overwriting allows you to replace the current selection with the contents of the clipboard. Sound Forge
overwrites with two basic guidelines:
• If the selection is longer than the clipboard contents, data is overwritten from the beginning of the
selection for the length of the clipboard contents only. The remainder of the selection remains in the data
window.
• If the clipboard contents are equal to or longer than the selection, data is overwritten for the length of the
selection only.
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Overwriting a selection
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Create a selection containing “Wow.”
3. Copy the selection. The data is placed on the clipboard.
Copy the selection
Create a second selection
4. Create a selection of approximately the same length containing the final “...and easier.”
5. From the Edit menu, choose Paste Special, and choose Overwrite from the submenu or right-click the data
window and choose Overwrite from the shortcut menu. Sound Forge overwrites the selection with the
clipboard contents.
Overwrite the selection
Note: If any of the selection data remains, it is because the
length of the clipboard contents was less than the length of the
selection.
Replicating
Replicating allows you to overwrite a selection with several copies of the clipboard contents. When
replicating, you must specify whether Sound Forge uses partial copies of the clipboard contents or only
complete copies.
• Allowing Sound Forge to use partial copies of the clipboard content completely overwrites the selected
area.
• Forcing Sound Forge to use complete copies of the clipboard content prevents a portion of the selection
from being overwritten unless the selection length is an exact multiple of the length of the clipboard
contents.
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Replicating a selection
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Create a selection containing “Wow.”
3. Copy the selection. The data is placed on the clipboard.
Copy the selection
4. Create a selection containing “Sound editing just gets easier.”
Create a second selection
5. From the Edit menu, choose Paste Special and choose Replicate from the submenu. The Replicate dialog
appears.
6. Select the Copy partials radio button and click OK. Sound Forge overwrites the selection with multiple
copies of the clipboard contents. A partial copy of the clipboard contents is used where appropriate.
The clipboard contents are replicated
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Repeating an operation
Once you perform an operation on an audio file, you can quickly repeat it with the same parameters by
choosing Repeat from the Edit menu. This allows you to reapply the same effect, process, or function to a
different section of audio using the same parameters.
Note: In the Edit menu, the Repeat command displays in
conjunction with the name of the previous function.
Repeat an operation by doing any of the following:
•Hold Shift while choosing the command from its menu.
•Press Ctrl + Y .
•Click the Repeat button ( ) on the Standard toolbar.
Using drag-and-drop
Once you are familiar with Sound Forge, you can take advantage of using drag-and-drop to perform many
common tasks. Drag-and-drop operations make controlling Sound Forge faster and more intuitive and allow
for increased editing power. The three major drag-and-drop editing operations are paste, mix, and crossfade.
Dragging mono selections into stereo destinations
When pasting, mixing, or crossfading a mono selection into a stereo file, you can mix the selection to both
channels by dropping it on the destination data window’s center line. Otherwise, the selection is mixed into
the left or right channel exclusively.
Snapping to events in drag-and-drop operations
A major advantage of drag-and-drop editing is the ability to snap to markers, regions, time increments, or
other events in the destination window. All drag-and-drop operations can be configured to snap (or align) to
points in the destination file based on the events established within that file.
The following table describes all events that drag-and-drop selections snap to in the destination file.
Cursor
Start of block snaps to cursor position.
Selection
Start of block snaps to start or end points of a selection.
Start
Start of block snaps to start of file.
End
Start of block snaps to end of file.
Markers
Start of block snaps to marker.
Regions Start and End Markers Start of block snaps to region start or end.
Time, Measures, etc.
Start of block snaps to labeled divisions on time ruler.
Video Frames
Start of block snaps to the start of video frames appearing in the video strip.
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Pasting, mixing, and crossfading with drag-and-drop
You can drag an audio selection and paste, mix, or crossfade it into another data window.
Pasting
1. Open the Voiceover.pca and Drumhit.pca files.
2. Select all audio data in Drumhit.pca.
Create a selection in
the source window
Hold the Alt key and
drag the selection into
the destination window
3. Hold the
Alt
key and drag the selection to the Voiceover data window.
• A vertical dotted line representing the leading edge of the source selection appears in the destination
window.
• The letter “P” appears in the box adjacent to the pointer.
4. Use the mouse to position the dotted line in the destination window where the source data will be pasted.
Drag the selection to
the destination window
Drag-and-drop
paste indicator
Selection is pasted into
the destination window
5. Release the mouse button. The selection is pasted into the destination window.
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Mixing
1. Open the Voiceover.pca and Drumhit.pca audio files.
2. Select all audio data in the Drumhit data window.
3. Drag the selection to the Voiceover data window.
• A shaded region representing the source selection appears in the destination window.
• An “M” appears in the box adjacent to the pointer.
Drag-and-drop
mix indicator
4. Position the leading edge of the shaded region in the Voiceover data window where the mixing of the
selection will begin.
5. Release the mouse button. The Mix dialog appears.
6. Verify that both Volume levels are set to 0 dB and click OK.
Selection is mixed into
the destination window
Toggling the Mix/Paste/Crossfade functions
An alternate way of specifying a mix, paste, or crossfade is the mouse toggle method.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca and Drumhit.pca files.
2. Select all audio data in the Drumhit data window.
3. Drag the selection to the Voiceover data window.
• A shaded region representing the source selection appears in the destination window.
• A letter appears in the box adjacent to the pointer.
4. Continue holding the left mouse button while clicking the right mouse button. The letter in the box and
the appearance of the selection region change to indicate the current drag-and-drop mode.
5. Release the left mouse button. The source audio data is pasted, mixed, or crossfaded into the destination
data.
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Creating new windows with drag-and-drop
Drag-and-drop also allows you to create a new data window from a selection.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Create a selection containing “Wow.”
3. Drag the selection to an empty area of the Sound Forge workspace and drop it. Sound Forge creates a new
data window containing the selection data with the attributes of the original file.
Finding and repairing audio glitches
Glitches are commonly the result of analog audio editing, analog to digital transfer, or electronic noise.
Sound Forge provides you with a tool for locating audio glitches and three distinct tools for repairing them:
channel, interpolate, and replace. In addition, you can repair audio glitches manually using the Pencil tool.
Locating glitches
The Find tool allows you to quickly locate glitches, specific volume levels, or silence in a file. The Find tool’s
glitch algorithm locates glitches by examining the file for instances where the waveform matches the
specified threshold slope and sensitivity criteria. The cursor then moves to the location of the glitch to allow
you to repair it. This tool only locates one glitch at a time. Therefore, it may be necessary to execute this
command several times on a file to locate all glitches.
1. Open any audio file containing glitches.
2. From the Tools menu, choose Find. The Find dialog appears.
3. From the Find drop-down list, choose Glitch.
4. Adjust the Threshold slope fader to configure the minimum slope that constitutes a glitch.
• A high value detects only glitches with steep slopes.
• A lower value detects glitches with both steep and more gradual slopes.
5. Adjust the Sensitivity fader to determine the sensitivity of the detection algorithm.
• A high value results in any part of the waveform with a slope greater than the Threshold slope being
detected as a glitch.
• A lower value forces the algorithm to verify that the slope is indeed a glitch, and not simply a portion of
the smooth waveform.
6. Click OK. Sound Forge locates the first glitch in the file and marks its location with the cursor.
Tip: If you can hear glitches that the Find tool does not
locate, decrease the Threshold slope and increase the
Sensitivity.
Locating additional glitches using the same settings
Once you have configured the settings in the Find dialog, you can find the next glitch in the file without
viewing the Find dialog. To find the next glitch using the current settings, hold Shift while choosing Find
from the Tools menu or hold Shift while clicking the Find button ( ) on the Tools toolbar.
Using the Shift key in this way is not limited to finding glitches. You can hold Shift and choose any
command from a menu to repeat the command with the same settings. For more information, see Repeating an
operation on page 134.
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Repairing audio
Sound Forge provides several ways to repair audio glitches.
Copying the other channel
For glitches in a single channel of a stereo file, Sound Forge can replace the glitched section of damaged
channel with the corresponding data from the “good” channel.
Damaged data in the right channel is
replaced with data from the left channel
Note: This method only works if both channels contain
similar audio.
1. Open the stereo file containing the glitch.
2. Create a selection in the channel containing the glitch, three or four times longer (maximum 50 ms) than
the glitch itself.
3. From the Tools menu, choose Repair, and choose Copy Other Channel from the submenu. Sound Forge
replaces the selected data with the corresponding data from the “good” channel. In addition, Sound Forge
creates rapid crossfades at the beginning and end of the replacement selection to prevent a new glitch
from being created.
Tip: If this method fails to repair the glitch, undo it and apply
Copy Other Channel
again, this time using a longer selection.
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Interpolating new audio
This is the most basic method of repairing glitches. Sound Forge simply interpolates new audio data based on
the data at the beginning and end of the selection. This method results in a straight line connecting the
beginning and end of the selection. Interpolation should only be used to repair small (less than 2 ms)
glitches.
Interpolated data
Data is interpolated within the selection
1. Open the file containing the glitch.
2. Right-click the data window and choose Zoom from the shortcut menu, and choose In Full from the
submenu. If you are using the full version of Sound Forge, the file displays at a 24:1 zoom ratio. If you are
using Screenblast Sound Forge, the file displays at a 1:1 zoom ratio.
3. Create a selection containing the glitch.
Tip: To improve the accuracy of this feature, the selection
should be as small as possible while still containing the glitch.
4. From the Tools menu, choose Repair, and choose Interpolate from the submenu. Sound Forge replaces the
glitch data with interpolated data.
Replacing audio with preceding data
The Replace tool allows you to repair audio files by replacing the damaged data with the data immediately
preceding it. This repair method is useful for repairing longer glitches such as needle drops and scratches.
Selection data
Replacement data
Selection is replaced with data preceding it
1. Open the file containing the glitch.
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2. Create a 5 to 50 ms selection containing the damaged audio.
Note: The maximum allowed replace time is 0.5 seconds.
3. From the Tools menu, choose Repair, and choose Replace from the submenu. Sound Forge replaces the
selection with the selection of identical length immediately preceding the damaged data. In addition,
Sound Forge creates rapid crossfades at the beginning and end of the replacement selection to prevent a
new glitch from being created.
Repairing audio glitches manually with the Pencil tool
The Pencil tool is for users who prefer to repair their audio glitches manually. This tool allows you to repair
waveform glitches by redrawing the damaged waveform section. However, the Pencil tool can only be used
when a file’s waveform displays at a zoom ratio of 1:32 or lower.
1. Open the file containing the glitch.
2. Zoom in tightly on the glitch.
3. Select the Pencil tool using any of the following methods:
• From the Edit menu, choose Tool, and choose Pencil from the submenu.
• Click the Pencil Tool button ( ) in the Standard toolbar.
• Click the Edit Tool Selector in the top-left corner of the data window until the Pencil tool appears.
4. Drag to draw a new waveform section. The new section is integrated into the original waveform, replacing
the section containing the glitch.
Repairing audio using Vinyl Restoration plug-in
Sound Forge includes an ExpressFX™ plug-in called Vinyl Restoration that you can use to remove surface
noise from old recordings. For more information on this plug-in, please see the Sound Forge online help file
(accessible from the Help menu by choosing Contents and Index).
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Synthesizing audio
Sound Forge allows you to generate custom tones and waveforms for use in your audio projects.
Generating DTMF/MF tones
You can use Sound Forge to generate standard dial tones used by telephone companies.
1. From the Tools menu, choose Synthesis, and choose DTMF/MF Tones from the submenu. The DTMF/MF
Tones dialog appears.
DTMF/MF Tones Dialog
2. Enter the phone number to be generated in the Dial string edit box, including pause characters.
Note: Sound Forge ignores unknown characters.
3. Use the Amplitude fader to set the peak level of the waveform.
4. Select the Tone style to generate radio button corresponding to the tone to be generated.
• DTMF (Dual Tone Multi-Frequency) signals are used by standard push-button telephones and are
generated using combinations of 679, 770, 852, 941, 1209, 1336, 1477, and 1633 Hz sine waves.
• MF signals are used internally by the telephone networks and are generated with a combination of 700,
900, 1100, 1300, 1500, and 1700 Hz sine waves.
5. Specify the output length (in seconds) of each tone in the Single tone length box.
6. Specify the length (in seconds) of silence between tones in the Break length box.
7. Specify the pause length (in seconds) to be inserted for a pause character in the Pause length box.
8. Select the Fade the edges of each tone check box to help prevent glitching.
9. Specify the pause character in the Pause character box.
10.Use the Insert new tone sequence at drop-down list to specify where the generated tone is placed in the
audio file.
11.Click OK.
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Generating audio with frequency modulation
Sound Forge’s FM Synthesis feature can be used to create complex sounds from simple waveforms using
frequency modulation (FM).
In frequency modulation, the frequency of a waveform (carrier) is modulated by the output of another
waveform (modulator) to create a new waveform. If the frequency of the modulator is low, the carrier is
detuned slowly over time. If the frequency of the modulator is high, the carrier is modulated so quickly that
numerous additional frequencies (or sidebands) will be created.
Using the FM Synthesis tool, up to four waveforms (operators) can be used in a variety of configurations.
Depending on the configuration, a waveform can be a carrier, a modulator, or a simple, unmodulated
waveform.
FM Synthesis dialog
Generating a waveform
1. From the Tools menu, choose Synthesis, and choose FM from the submenu. The FM Synthesis dialog
appears.
2. Specify the length (in seconds) of the generated waveform in the Total output waveform length box.
3. Use the Configuration slider to configure the arrangement and number of operators used to generate the
waveform. For more information, see Specifying the number and arrangement of operators on page 143.
4. Modify individual operators as needed. For more information, see Modifying an operator on page 143.
5. From the Insert waveform at drop-down list, choose a position to determine where the generated waveform
is placed in the file.
6. Click OK.
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Specifying the number and arrangement of operators
Dragging the Configuration slider changes the graphical representation of the arrangement and number of
operators used to generate the waveform. When configuring your waveform, keep the following guidelines in
mind:
• The outputs of horizontally joined operators are simply mixed. The outputs of the bottom operators are
mixed to form the final output. Mixing unique simple waveforms is referred to as additive synthesis.
• Operators joined vertically are FM carrier-modulator pairs. The bottom operator is the carrier and the top
operator is the modulator.
• Operators without other operators directly above are simple waveform generators.
• When three or more operators are stacked, the top operator modulates the operator below it, which
modulates the following operator, and so on.
Modifying an operator
1. Select the Current radio button corresponding to the operator to be modified.
2. Use the envelope graph to modify the amplitude of the operator over time. For more information, see
Envelope graphs on page 39.
3. From the Operator shape drop-down list, choose a waveform shape.
4. Specify the frequency of the operator in the Frequency box.
Tip: If Frequency is set to 0.00, a DC (zero-frequency)
waveform is produced regardless of the waveform specified.
Note: When you choose Filtered Noise from the Operator
shape drop-down list, Frequency determines the highfrequency content of the noise.
5. Use the Feedback slider to determine the amount of the operator's output that is used to modulate itself. If
the operator is also being modulated by another waveform, the feedback path and the modulator output
are mixed together to modulate the carrier.
6. Use the Amplitude fader to determine the output gain that is applied to the current operator after the
amplitude envelope.
Note: If the operator is a modulator, this control (along with
the envelope) determines the amount of frequency
modulation applied to the carrier. If the amplitude of a
modulator is high, harsh audio may result.
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Generating simple waveforms
The Simple Synthesis tool is used to generate simple waveforms of a given shape, pitch, and length.
Simple Synthesis dialog
1. From the Tools menu, choose Synthesis, and choose Simple from the submenu. The Simple Synthesis
dialog appears.
2. From the Waveform shape drop-down list, choose a shape to specify the shape of a single period of the
current operator's waveform.
3. In the Length box, specify the length (in seconds) of the generated waveform.
4. In the Start Frequency box, specify the frequency of the waveform.
5. If you want to sweep a range of frequencies, select the End Frequency check box and specify an ending
frequency in the box.
Select the Log Sweep check box if you want to sweep the range logarithmically; when the check box is
cleared, the sweep is linear.
6. Use the Amplitude fader to set the peak level of the waveform.
Note: When you choose Noise in the Waveform shape drop-
down list, the amplitude is affected by the specified cutoff
frequency.
7. From the Insert new waveform at drop-down list, choose a position to determine where the waveform is
placed in the data window.
8. Click OK.
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CHAPTER
Processing Audio
10
This chapter provides descriptions of processing presets and previews as well as an overview of all functions
in the Sound Forge Process menu.
Applying presets
Many Sound Forge dialogs contain drop-down lists of presets used to quickly apply processes and effects.
Presets are especially useful when learning Sound Forge, as they allow you to hear the results of processing as
well as view the control settings used to produce these results.
Note: All information regarding presets in this chapter is
applicable to DirectX Plug-Ins (effects) from Sony Pictures
Digital.
Using presets
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Fade, and choose Graphic from the submenu. The Graphic Fade dialog
appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose the -20 dB exponential fade out preset. Notice that the dialog’s
controls change to reflect the -20 dB exponential fade out.
4. Click the Preview button. The following occur:
• The Preview button changes to a Stop button.
• The effect previews on a brief selection of audio.
For more information, see Previewing processed audio on page 146.
5. From the Preset drop-down list, choose the -3 dB exponential fade out preset. Notice that the dialog’s
controls update to reflect the new preset and the effect automatically previews.
6. Select the Bypass check box. The original audio previews with no effects. For more information, see
Bypassing a process while previewing on page 148.
7. Clear the Bypass check box and click OK. The -3 dB exponential fade out preset is applied to the audio file.
Note: Sound Forge does not apply an effect or process to the
audio data until you click OK.
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Creating presets
You can also create custom effects and save them as presets.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Fade, and choose Graphic from the submenu. The Graphic Fade dialog
appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose the -3 dB exponential fade out preset. The dialog’s controls change to
reflect the preset.
4. Drag any of the graphic fade points to a new position.
Edit the graphic
fade and click the
Save As button
5. Click Save As. The Save Preset dialog appears.
6. Enter a name for the preset and click OK. Sound Forge saves the new preset and adds it to the dialog’s
drop-down list.
Deleting presets
To delete a preset, choose it from the Preset drop-down list and click Delete. Built-in presets cannot be
deleted.
Resetting parameters
To reset all dialog controls to their default settings, right-click the dialog and choose Reset All from the
shortcut menu.
Managing presets
Once you have created custom presets, you can use the Sound Forge Preset Manager to back up, transfer, or
delete custom presets from any of the effects, processes, tools and plug-ins installed in Sound Forge. You can
also use the Preset Manager to manage your ACID® and Vegas® presets. For more information, see Using the
Preset Manager on page 177.
Previewing processed audio
You can preview the effect that a process has on a file by using the Preview button. This button is found in
most audio processing dialogs. You can use previews to fine-tune effect parameters without leaving the
dialog. More importantly, using previews reduces wasted processing time.
Setting custom preview parameters
You can customize the preview parameters to satisfy your editing preferences. You can save custom
previewing settings for the current process alone or for all processes.
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Customizing previews for the current process
1. Right-click the dialog and choose Configuration from the shortcut menu. The Preview Configuration
dialog appears.
2. Edit the preview parameters as desired. For more information, see Preview parameters on page 147.
3. Click OK. The preview parameters are updated and retained until you close the current dialog.
Customizing previews for all processes
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Previews tab.
3. Edit the preview parameters as desired. For more information, see Preview parameters on page 147.
4. Click OK. Sound Forge updates and saves the new preview parameters for all effects.
Preview parameters
The following sections briefly describe the configurable preview parameters.
Note: If you are using Screenblast Sound Forge, you can
only access these preview parameters from the Preview
Configuration window. For more information, see
Customizing previews for the current process on page 147.
Limit previews to
Selecting the Limit previews to check box allows you to specify
the preview length by entering a value in the corresponding box.
Pre-roll
Selecting the Pre-roll check box allows you to specify how many
seconds of unprocessed audio play prior to the processed
selection.
Post-roll
Selecting the Post-roll check box allows you to specify how many
seconds of unprocessed audio play following the processed
selection.
Tip: Pre-roll and Post-roll can be toggled on and off by right-
clicking the dialog and choosing the appropriate command
from the shortcut menu.
Fade out last 10 milliseconds
Selecting the Fade out last 10 milliseconds check box fades the last 10 milliseconds of a preview. This typically
eliminates the pops that occasionally accompany the end of a preview buffer.
Loop preview continuously
Selecting the Loop preview continuously check box plays the preview in an infinite loop.
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Reactive previewing
Selecting the Reactive previewing check box allows you to update previews in real time by manipulating the
dialog’s controls.
Tip: You can temporarily suspend reactive previewing by
pressing
Shift
.
Bypassing a process while previewing
You are also able to A/B test an effect by using the Bypass check box to switch between previewing the
processed and unprocessed audio file.
• When you select the Bypass check box, Sound Forge plays the unprocessed audio file when you click the
Preview button.
• When you clear the Bypass check box, Sound Forge plays the processed audio file when you click the
Preview button.
The Preview button and
the Bypass check box
Sound Forge processes
The remainder of this chapter describes the functions located in the Process menu.
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Auto Trim/Crop
Auto Trim/Crop removes silence from an audio file. In addition, this function automatically fades the
endpoints of a phrase.
Using Auto Trim/Crop
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Auto Trim/Crop. The Auto Trim/Crop dialog appears.
Auto Trim/Crop dialog
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Phrase Concatenator 1 and click OK. Sound Forge prompts you to
approve the deletion of the current Regions List.
4. Click Yes. The Auto Trim/Crop function deletes silence in the file and creates new regions based on the
preset’s parameters. For more information, see Auto Trim/Crop controls on page 149.
Auto Trim/Crop controls
The following controls are located in the Auto Trim/Crop dialog.
Function drop-down list
The Function drop-down list contains five presets.
Preset
Description
Keep edges outside of the
selection
Remove edges outside of
the selection
Remove silence between
phrases (creates regions)
Remove data beyond loop
points
Remove data from start
and limit file length
Removes silence within the selection, but retains all data outside of the selection.
Removes silence within the selection and deletes all data beyond the selection.
Removes silence within the selection and creates regions from individual phrases. For
more information, see Minimum inter-phrase silence on page 150.
Removes all data beyond the selected loop. For more information, see Minimum length
following loop end on page 150.
Allows you to specify an amount of sound to be deleted from the beginning of each file
and specify a maximum length for converted files. If a file is longer than this length,
Sound Forge trims it. This preset is useful for creating sample clips.
Attack threshold
Determines the threshold level for detection of the trim/crop start point: -Inf. indicates complete silence,
and 0 dB indicates maximum amplitude level.
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Release threshold
Determines the threshold level for detection of the trim/crop end point: -Inf. indicates complete silence, and
0 dB indicates maximum amplitude level.
Fade in
Determines the length (in milliseconds) of the fade applied to a section of audio prior to the detected trim/
crop start point.
Fade out
Determines the length (in milliseconds) of the fade applied to a section of audio following the detected trim/
crop end point.
Minimum inter-phrase silence
When you choose the Remove silence between phrases function, the Minimum inter-phase silence value
determines the minimum amount of silence needed between phrases for a new region to be created.
Minimum length following loop end
When you choose the Remove data beyond loop points function, the Minimum length following loop end value
determines the number of samples that must follow a loop.
Bit-Depth Converter
The Bit-Depth Converter is used to increase/decrease the bit depth of a file while concealing the resulting
quantization noise.
• Decreasing a file’s bit depth decreases the overall size of the file, but results in added quantization noise,
which can be masked using dither and noise shaping.
• Increasing a file’s bit depth—while not improving the quality of the audio—allows subsequent audio
processing to be performed with greater accuracy and resolution.
Bit-Depth Converter dialog
Prior to decreasing a file’s bit depth, you should optimize the audio for conversion. For more information, see
Minimizing quantization error on page 86.
Note: There are no rules regarding maintaining audio
quality when decreasing bit- depth. For this reason, you
should always experiment with the Dither and Noise shaping
controls to determine the optimum settings for each file.
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Converting a file’s bit depth
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Bit-Depth Converter.
3. From the Bit depth drop-down list, choose the desired bit depth.
4. If necessary, use the Dither drop-down list to specify the type of dither used to mask the quantization noise
the results from lowering a file’s bit depth. For more information, see Dither on page 151.
5. If desired, use the Noise shaping drop-down list to specify any noise shaping to be applied to the file. For
more information, see Noise shaping on page 152.
Note: When increasing a file’s bit depth, set the Dither and
Noise shaping
controls to None and Off respectively.
Dither
This control allows you to specify the randomness of the dither (generated noise) used to mask quantization
distortion resulting from conversion to a lower bit depth. You can select from several shapes, each roughly
describing the pattern that would be produced if you plotted a graph with the dither amplitude on the X-axis
and the probability of the dither values on the Y-axis.
As is frequently the case when working with audio, experimentation with dither values yields the best
results; however, keep the following information in mind:
• Rectangular eliminates distortion resulting from conversion to a lower bit depth, but the noise level is more
likely to be dependent on the signal.
• Triangular eliminates distortion products as well as any noise floor modulation, but results in a slightly
higher noise level. The option typically works well in conjunction with noise shaping. For more
information, see Noise shaping on page 152.
• Highpass Triangular behaves like triangular dither, but shifts its noise into higher frequencies. This is
typically the best option when used in conjunction with noise shaping. For more information, see Noise
shaping on page 152.
• Gaussian does not perform as well as Rectangular and Triangular dither, but may be suitable for certain audio.
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Noise shaping
Determines the aural positioning of quantization noise. Using this control, you can shift the noise into audio
registers that are less perceptible to human hearing. This lowers the perceived noise floor and creates the
illusion of cleaner audio.
• High-pass contour noise shaping attempts to push all quantization noise and error into high frequencies.
• Equal loudness contour noise shaping attempts to push the noise under an equal loudness-type of curve.
Noise shaping dangers
Noise shaping places quantization noise near the audio’s Nyquist frequency, a value equal to one-half of the
file’s sample rate. Consider the following:
• A file with a sample rate of 44.1 kHz has a Nyquist frequency of 22.05 kHz (at the high end of human
hearing). Applying noise shaping to this file results in audio perceived to be cleaner than it actually is.
• A file with a sample rate of 22 kHz has a Nyquist frequency of 11 kHz (well within the sensitive range of
human hearing). Applying noise shaping to this file results in audio that is perceived to be noisier than it
actually is. Ironically, this defeats the entire purpose of the Noise shape control.
For this reason, we do not recommend using noise shaping on files with sample rates less than 44.1 kHz.
Channel Converter
The Channel Converter is used to convert audio files between mono and stereo formats. In addition to this
basic function, the Channel Converter allows independent level settings for each channel and can therefore
be used to intermix the channels of a stereo file to create pan effects.
Channel Converter dialog
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Using the Channel Converter
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file. Notice that this is a mono file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Channel Converter. The Channel Converter dialog appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Mono to Stereo-100% and click OK. The mono file converts to
stereo with equal levels mixed to the left and right channels.
The file is converted to stereo
Channel Converter controls
The following controls are located in the Channel Converter dialog.
Output channels
These radio buttons determine the number of channels (mono or stereo) in the output file.
New left channel pane
The following three controls are located in the New left channel pane of the Channel Converter dialog.
Control
Description
From left
From right
Invert left channel mix
Determines the amount of the original left channel data mixed into the new left channel.
Determines the amount of the original right channel data mixed into the new left channel.
Selecting the Invert left channel mix check box reverses the polarity of the new left
channel.
New right channel pane
The following three controls are located in the New right channel pane of the Channel Converter dialog.
Control
Description
From left
From right
Determines the amount of the original left channel data mixed into the new right channel.
Determines the amount of the original right channel data mixed into the new right
channel.
Selecting the Invert right channel mix check box reverses the polarity of the new right
channel.
Invert right channel mix
Convert to specified output channels only (no custom mixing)
Selecting the Convert to specified output channels only check box makes all of the dialog’s controls unavailable
and results in the following:
• When converting from mono to stereo, each new stereo channel is an exact copy of the original mono
file.
• When converting from stereo to mono, the new mono channel consists of both of the original stereo
channels mixed at 50% volume.
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DC Offset
Audio that is not centered around the zero baseline in the waveform display is said to have a DC offset. DC
offsets are typically caused by electrical conflicts between the sound card and input device. The DC Offset
function is used to change the baseline of an audio file by adding a constant value to each sample to
compensate for offsets.
DC Offset dialog
Estimating DC Offset
You can estimate the DC offset of an audio file by choosing Statistics from the Tools menu.
Average DC offset
DC Offset controls
The following controls are located in the DC Offset dialog.
Automatically detect and remove
Calculates and corrects the DC offset for each channel individually.
Adjust DC offset by
Allows you to specify a DC offset value manually.
•
•
•
•
-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 for 32-bit data
-8,388,608 to 8,388,607 for 24-bit data
-32,768 to 32,767 for 16-bit data
-128 to 127 for 8-bit data
Compute DC offset from first 5 seconds only
Selecting the Compute DC offset from first 5 seconds only check box specifies that only the first five seconds of
a file are analyzed when measuring the DC offset. Be aware that five seconds is not sufficient if the beginning
of a file has a long fade-in or mute.
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EQ
The EQ options available in the Process menu depend upon whether you are using the full version of Sound
Forge or the Screenblast version.
If you are working with the full version of Sound Forge, three options appear in the EQ submenu: Graphic,
and Parametric. Each of these options launch the appropriate XFX effect. For more information
on using the XFX EQ effects, refer to the Sound Forge online help (from the Help menu, choose Contents
and Index).
Paragraphic,
If you are using Screenblast Sound Forge, two ExpressFX options appear in the EQ submenu: Simple EQ and
Simple EQ allows you to boost or attenuate the signal in three general ranges (bass, mid, and
treble) as well as configure the mix of dry and wet signals. ExpressFX Graphic EQ allows you to boost or
attenuate the signal at ten pre-determined frequencies as well as configure the output gain.
Graphic EQ.
Fade - Graphic fade
Graphic fade allows you to create custom fade envelopes to apply to audio data. You can use up to sixteen
envelope points to create complex graphic fades.
Creating a graphic fade
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. Select the last half of the audio (approximately 5 seconds).
3. From the Process menu, choose Fade, and choose Graphic from the submenu. The Graphic Fade dialog
appears.
4. From the Show wave drop-down list, choose Mono source. The Musicbed.pca waveform displays in the
graph. For more information, see Show wave on page 156.
5. From the Preset drop-down list, choose -6 dB exponential fade out. The fade’s envelope displays in relation
to the waveform in the graph.
Full volume at start of selection
Zero volume at end of selection
The fade envelope
displays on the graph
6. Click OK. Sound Forge applies the specified fade to the selection.
Musicbed.pca with a -6 dB
exponential fade out
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Creating a custom graphic fade
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. Select the first half of the audio (approximately 5 seconds).
3. From the Process menu, choose Fade, and choose Graphic from the submenu. The Graphic Fade dialog
appears.
4. From the Show wave drop-down list, choose Mono source. The Musicbed.pca waveform displays in the
graph. For more information, see Show wave on page 156.
5. Edit the fade envelope using the following controls:
• Click the envelope to create a new point.
• Drag a point to move it to a new position.
• Double-click or right-click a point to delete it.
• Right-click an envelope segment and choose a new fade type from the shortcut menu.
For more information, see Envelope graphs on page 39.
6. Click OK. Sound Forge applies the custom graphic fade to the selected audio.
Graphic Fade Controls
The following controls are located in the Graphic Fade dialog.
Show wave
The Show wave drop-down list provides several settings for drawing the current selection’s waveform on the
envelope graph. This function is available only for small selections.
Reset Envelope
Clicking the Reset Envelope button clears the envelope of all points except the original two.
Fade - Fade In
The Fade In command is used to linearly fade a selection from a volume of -Inf. to a volume of 0 dB. The size
of the selection determines the length of the fade.
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Fade, and choose In from the submenu. Sound Forge applies the fade, and
volume increases over the length of the entire file.
Audio file fades in
from -Inf. to 0 dB
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Fade - Fade Out
The Fade Out command is used to linearly fade a selection from a volume of 0 dB to a volume of -Inf. The
size of the selection determines the length of the fade.
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file and select all audio data.
2. From the Process menu, choose Fade, and choose Out from the submenu. The fade is applied, and the
volume decreases over the length of the entire file.
Audio file fades out
from 0 dB to -Inf.
Insert Silence
The Insert Silence command allows you to place sections of silence in audio files.
Note: You cannot insert silence into a single channel of a
stereo file.
Insert Silence dialog
Inserting silence into a file
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Insert Silence. The Insert Silence dialog appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose 2 second standard CD pause length at start of file and click OK. Sound
Forge inserts two seconds of silence at the start of the file.
Insert Silence controls
The following controls are located in the Insert Silence dialog.
Insert
Determines the length of the silent section.
At
Allows you to specify where the silence is inserted in the audio file.
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Invert/Flip
The Invert/Flip command inverts the audio selection at its baseline, in effect reversing its polarity. Inverting
a file, while creating no audible difference, is occasionally useful for matching sample transitions when
executing certain pastes, mixes, or loops.
1. Create a selection in the data window.
2. From the Process menu, choose Invert/Flip. Sound Forge inverts the selection.
Mute
The Mute command forces the selection to a volume of -Inf. dB (silence).
Muting an audio selection
1. Create a selection in the data window.
2. From the Process menu, choose Mute. Sound Forge mutes the selection.
Create a selection in the data window
Selected audio is muted
Normalize
The Normalize command maximizes the overall volume of a file without introducing clipping. When you
normalize a file, Sound Forge scans the entire file and applies a constant gain to raise the file’s level to a
specified value.
Normalize dialog
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Normalizing Audio
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
Pre-normalized file
2. From the Process menu, choose Normalize. The Normalize dialog appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Normalize to -16 dB and click OK. The file is normalized and its
overall “loudness” increased.
Specify Normalize
to -16 dB from the Preset
drop-down list
Normalized file
Note: The Normalize dialogs pictured above are from the
full version of Sound Forge. If you are using Screenblast
Sound Forge, not all of the controls pictured above will be
available to you.
Normalize Controls
The following controls are located in the Normalize dialog.
Normalize using Peak level
This radio button normalizes the audio file using the maximum (instantaneous) sample values detected. A
constant gain is then applied to the audio.
Normalize using Average RMS power (loudness)
This radio button normalizes the audio file using the detected average RMS value of the audio file. This is
helpful for matching the apparent loudness of a number of individual recordings. For more information, see
Scan settings area on page 160.
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Normalize to
This fader specifies the level to which the highest peak should be set.
• With Peak level, if the peak level is -10 dB and the Normalize to value is -3 dB, a constant boost of 7 dB is
applied to the entire file.
• With Average RMS power, normalizing to 0 dB means boosting the signal until it has the same apparent
loudness as a 0 dB square wave. This results in all the dynamic range of the signal being flattened and all
peaks being either clipped or seriously compressed. For more information, see If clipping occurs on page 161.
Note: As a rule, normalizing using Peak levels to 0 dB is
acceptable, but normalizing using Average RMS power to
anything above -6 dB is not recommended.
Scan settings area
The controls in this area allow you to determine the response of the RMS power scan to the dynamics in the
file.
• The Ignore below fader determines the level of audio data included in the RMS calculation. Data below
the threshold is ignored, effectively eliminating silent sections from RMS calculation. The Ignore below
fader should be set a few dB above perceived silence. If Ignore below is set to -Inf., all audio data is used.
However, if the value is set too high (above -10 dB) the RMS value may never rise above the threshold.
In this case, normalization cannot occur. For this reason, you should evaluate the threshold by clicking
the Scan Levels button. For more information, see Scan Levels on page 160.
• The Attack time value determines how quickly the scan responds to transient peaks.
• The Release time value determines how quickly the scan should stop using transient peak material after it
begins to drop in level. Slower release times result in more data being included in RMS calculation.
• Selecting the Use equal loudness contour check box allows the scan to compensate for the Fletcher-Munson
Equal Loudness Contours. The Fletcher-Munson Equal Loudness Contours illustrate that very low- and
high-frequency audio is less perceptible to the human ear than mid-range audio. Therefore, selecting this
option forces the scan to factor this into RMS calculation.
Scan Levels
Clicking Scan Levels initiates Peak and RMS scans on the audio and displays the RMS level and the highest
peak level detected. When previewing a normalize effect, the entire file must be scanned to preview a even
small selection. Clicking Scan Levels saves the current Peak and RMS values and allows you to preview
different Normalize to settings without re-scanning the entire file.
Current Peak and RMS levels
An asterisk adjacent to a level value indicates that the value is not current. This occurs when the selection is
updated or the dialog is initially opened. To update values, click Scan Levels.
Noncurrent Peak and RMS levels
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If values have never been calculated, two dashes display. Click Scan Levels to calculate values.
Nonexistent Peak and RMS levels
Note: If the RMS level never reaches the Ignore below
threshold, a value of -96 dB displays. If this occurs, decrease
the Ignore below threshold level and rescan.
Use current scan level (do not scan selection)
When you select the Use current scan level check box, Sound Forge uses the current scan levels without
initiating a new scan. This is useful when applying scan levels from a different selection or file to the current
selection, thereby allowing identical gains to be applied to multiple files. This option can also be used to
scan a selection of an audio file containing the loudest or most constant levels and then apply that scan to
normalize the entire file.
If clipping occurs
The If clipping occurs drop-down list is used to specify how the normalize function handles clipping that may
occur when an audio file is processed using the RMS option. This list provides four options.
Option
Description
Apply dynamic
compression
Audio peaks that will result in clipping are limited below 0 dB using non-zero attack and
release times to minimize distortion. This mode is useful for getting loud and clear audio
during mastering.
The selection’s peak amplitude level is normalized to 0 dB, thereby allowing the
maximum possible constant gain without clipping the selection. However, less gain is
applied than would be necessary to achieve the Normalize to RMS level.
Audio is permitted to clip and distort.
Audio peaks that will result in clipping force the normalize function to cease processing
and alert you that clipping will occur at the current level.
Normalize peak value to
0 dB
Ignore (saturate)
Stop processing
Note: When normalizing stereo audio, normalization is
computed on the loudest sample value found in either channel
and identical gain is applied to both channels. If a single
channel is selected in a stereo file, normalization processes
only that channel.
Pan/Expand
Pan/Expand allows you to create panning effects and stereo compression/expansion in selections.
Note: The Expand option is only available in the full version
of Sound Forge.
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Creating a pan
A pan is used to control the apparent position of a sound between the left and right channels of a stereo file.
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. For users of the full version of Sound Forge: from the Process menu, choose Pan/Expand. The Pan/
Expand dialog appears.
For users of Screenblast Sound Forge: from the Process menu, choose Pan, and then choose Graphic.
The Graphic Pan dialog appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Left to right (linear). The pan envelope displays on the graph.
Hard left at start of audio
Hard right at end of audio
The pan envelope
displays on the graph.
4. Click OK. Sound Forge converts the file to stereo and adds a left-to-right pan.
5. Play the file. The audio source seems to move from the left channel to the right channel during playback.
Note: A pan, by nature, cannot be created in a mono file.
Creating a custom pan
Sound Forge allows you to create complex custom panning effects using up to sixteen envelope points.
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. For users of the full version of Sound Forge: from the Process menu, choose Pan/Expand. The Process
dialog appears.
For users of Screenblast Sound Forge: from the Process menu, choose Pan, and then choose Graphic.
The Graphic Pan dialog appears.
3. Configure the pan envelope using the following controls:
• Click the envelope to create a new point.
• Drag a point to move it to a new position.
• Double-click or right-click a point to delete it.
• Right-click an envelope segment and choose a new fade type from the shortcut menu.
For more information, see Envelope graphs on page 39.
4. Click OK. The custom pan is applied to the file.
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Pan/Expand controls
The following controls are located in the Pan/Expand dialog if you are using the full version of Sound Forge,
or the Graphic Pan dialog if you are using Screenblast Sound Forge.
Process mode drop-down list
The Process mode drop-down list contains the following options.
Option
Description
Pan (preserve stereo
separation)
Pan (mix channels before
panning)
Stereo expand
Applies the pan effect without mixing the channels, thereby simulating the spectral
positioning of stereo recordings.
Mixes the left and right channels prior to applying panning effects.
Available only in the full version of Sound Forge. Allows you to contract or expand
the image of stereo audio from dead center (mono) to completely panned wide (no
center channel).
Available only in the full version of Sound Forge. Simulates a recording technique in
Mix mid-side (MS)
recording to left and right which one microphone is pointed directly at the source and used to record the center
(mid) channel, and a second microphone is pointed 90 degrees away from the source
channels
(side) and used to record the stereo image.
For proper playback on most systems, MS recordings must be converted to standard left/
right orientation.
To convert an MS-recorded track to a left/right track in Sound Forge, first ensure that
the center channel is in the left track and the side channel on the right. The MS mix
function is then used to set the width of the stereo image for the converted track.
Output gain
Determines the amount of gain applied to the signal following pan/expand processing.
Show wave
The Show wave drop-down list provides several settings for drawing the current selection’s waveform on the
envelope graph. This function is available only for small selections.
Reset Envelope
Clicking the Reset Envelope button clears all but the two original envelope points.
• For the Pan modes, these two points prevent unintended panning.
• For the Stereo expand and Mix Mid-Side modes, these two points prevent unintended expansion.
Resample
The Resample command allows you to change the
sampling rate of a file without altering its pitch or
duration.
• Resampling to a lower sample rate results in less
frequent samples and a decreased file size, but adds
aliasing noise to the audio. For more information, see
Apply an anti-alias filter during resample on page 165.
• Resampling to a higher sample rate results in extra
samples being created through interpolation and an
increased file size. Like increasing bit depth, upsampling does not improve the quality of an audio file,
but permits subsequent audio processing to be
performed with greater precision.
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Downsampling audio
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. Right-click the data window and choose Properties from the shortcut menu. The Properties dialog
appears. Notice that this file has 44,100 Hz sample rate and a file size of 0.48 MB.
3. Click OK.
4. From the Process menu, choose Resample. The Resample dialog appears.
5. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Resample to 8,000 Hz with anti-alias filter and click OK. The audio is
resampled at 8,000 Hz.
6. From the File menu, choose Save As. Save the resampled file with a new name and close it.
7. Open the resampled file and view its Properties dialog. The sample rate is lower (8,000 Hz) and the file
size is smaller.
8. Play the file. Notice the obvious decrease in audio quality.
Note: Use this new file to perform the following up-sampling
procedure.
Upsampling audio
1. Verify that the file created in the previous procedure is the active data window.
2. From the Process menu, choose Resample. The Resample dialog appears.
3. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Resample to 48,000 Hz with anti-alias filter and click OK. The audio is
resampled at 48,000 Hz.
4. From the File menu, choose Save As. Save the resampled file with a new name and close it.
5. Open the new file and view its Properties dialog. Notice that the sample rate is higher (48,000 Hz) and
the file size is larger.
6. Play the file. Notice that resampling to a higher sample rate produces an audio quality at 48,000 Hz that is
indistinguishable from the quality at 8,000 Hz.
Resample controls
The following controls are located in the Resample dialog.
New sample rate
Determines the sample rate (in Hz) at which Sound Forge resamples the file.
Tip: Processing is quicker when downsampling by an even
multiple (such as when going from 44 kHz to 22 kHz).
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Interpolation accuracy
The Interpolation accuracy value determines the complexity of the interpolation method used during
resampling. Interpolation accuracy is most apparent in high frequencies, but the audible difference between
the values is subtle and often undetectable without the use of test tones.
• A value of 1 is suitable for general-purpose audio.
• A value of 2 or 3 is good for high-end audio applications.
• A value of 4 results in professional-quality audio, but requires substantial processing.
Apply an anti-alias filter during resample
Selecting this check box applies an anti-aliasing filter during the resampling process. Remember that the
maximum frequency that can be represented by a sample rate is one-half of the sampling rate (the Nyquist
frequency). Therefore, high frequencies cannot be accurately represented when downsampling. The antialiasing filter prevents high frequencies from becoming low-frequency distortion.
Tip: It is also advisable to apply an anti-aliasing low-pass
filter to an audio file prior to resampling to a lower sample
rate.
Set the sample rate only (do not resample)
If the Set the sample rate only check box is selected, the playback rate is changed without resampling the data.
This means that the pitch of the original file is not preserved. For this reason, this option is only useful for
quickly converting between two similar sample rates.
Reverse
The Reverse command reverses the audio selection.
1. Open the Musicbed.pca file.
2. From the Process menu, choose Reverse. The reversed audio data displays in the data window.
Original audio data
Reversed audio
Smooth/Enhance
If you are working with the full version of Sound Forge, choosing Smooth/Enhance from the Process menu
starts Sony Pictures Digital’s XFX Smooth/Enhance plug-in. For more information on using the XFX
Smooth/Enhance plug-in, refer to Sound Forge online help (from the Help menu, choose Contents and
Index).
If you are using Screenblast Sound Forge, choosing Smooth/Enhance from the Process menu starts Sound
Forge’s native version of the effect.
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166
Swap Channels
The Swap Channels command allows you to exchange the right and left channels if you are working with a
stereo recording.
Important: This option is only available in Screenblast
Sound Forge. If you're using the full version of Sound Forge,
use the Channel Converter.
Time Stretch
If you are working with the full version of Sound Forge, choosing Time Stretch from the Process menu starts
Sony Pictures Digital’s XFX Time Stretch plug-in. For more information on using the XFX Time Stretch
plug-in, refer to Sound Forge online help (from the Help menu, choose Contents and Index).
If you are using Screenblast Sound Forge, choosing Time Compress/Expand from the Process menu starts the
ExpressFX Time Stretch plug-in. This tool allows you to adjust the length of an audio file using a single
control, the Final length slider. For more information on using the ExpressFX Time Stretch plug-in, click the
Help button in the Time Stretch dialog.
Volume
The Volume command alters the volume of an audio selection.
Volume dialog
Increasing the volume of a selection
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Create a selection containing the word “Wow.”
3. From the Process menu, choose Volume. The Volume dialog appears.
4. From the Preset drop-down list, choose 6 dB boost (200%) and click OK. The specified boost is applied to
the selection.
5. Play the file. The “Wow” data clips and distorts upon playback.
Exercise caution when using the Volume command. Unlike Normalize, Volume performs no preprocessing scans and offers no options for clipping audio data.
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Create a selection
Audio following volume increase
Note: Once audio data is clipped, it cannot be restored by
performing a second Volume operation. The initial Volume
operation must be undone.
Volume control
The Volume dialog contains only one control, Gain.
Gain
Determines the new volume of a selection. Negative decibel values decrease the selection’s volume, while
positive decibel values increase the selection’s volume.
Note: A value of -Inf. corresponds to mute (0%).
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168
PROCESSING AUDIO
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169
CHAPTER
Applying Effects
11
Effects, or plug-ins, can be used to improve the quality of the audio or to create special artistic effects.
Additional DirectX plug-in effects, both from Sony Pictures Digital and other third-party vendors, can also
be used.
Adding an effect
You can choose an effect from the Effects menu to apply to a file or just a portion of a file. If you’ve added
an effect to the DX Favorites menu (available only in the full version of Sound Forge), you can select it
from that location as well. For more information, see Organizing effects in the DX Favorites menu on page 177.
1. Select the data you want to process. If no data is selected, Sound Forge applies the effect to the entire file.
2. From the Effects menu or DX Favorites menu, choose the desired effect. The dialog for the selected
effect appears.
Preset
Plug-In
online help
Effect
controls
Preview/Stop
3. Select a preset from the Preset drop-down list and adjust the parameters in the dialog to achieve the effect
you want. For help on the different controls in the effect dialog, click the Help button or click the What’s
This? Help button ( ) and click a control.
4. Click the Preview button to test out the effect. Adjust the settings as needed and click Stop to end the
preview.
Tip: If the selection you made in the data window needs to be
adjusted, click the Selection button to adjust the selection.
5. Click OK. Sound Forge applies the effect.
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Saving effect settings as a custom preset
Once you have adjusted the parameters in the effect dialog, you may want to save your settings as a custom
preset for later use. You can select the preset from the Preset drop-down list to apply the same settings at a
later time.
1. Adjust the parameters in the effect dialog to achieve the effect you want.
2. Click Save As. The Save Preset dialog appears.
3. Enter a new preset name and click OK. The new preset is added to the Preset drop-down list.
Adding a chain of effects
The Plug-In Chainer allows you to create a chain of DirectX® plug-ins. You can preview each plug-in in the
chain simultaneously in real time as long as your computer has adequate processing power.
You can switch between the Plug-In Chainer window and data windows without leaving the Plug-In
Chainer. This means you can change your selection in the data window or even switch to another data
window—all without closing the Plug-In Chainer window.
Because the Plug-In Chainer offers these advanced features, you may want to use the chainer to create a
single-effect chain instead of applying an effect from the Effects or DX Favorites menu. For more
information, see Adding an effect on page 169.
Preview
Process
Selection
Add
Plug-ins
to chain
Remove
Selected
Plug-in
Chain preset
Effects chain
Effect preset
Effect controls
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Applying effects using the Plug-In Chainer
1. Select the data you want to process. If no data is selected, Sound Forge applies the effect chain to the
entire file.
2. From the View menu, choose Plug-In Chainer. The Plug-In Chainer window appears.
Click the Open Plug-In Chainer button (
) on the data window.
3. To use an existing chain preset, choose the chain from the Chain Preset drop-down list. For more
information, see Saving plug-in chains on page 175. Otherwise, add the desired plug-ins to a new custom
chain. For more information, see Adding plug-ins to a chain on page 172.
4. Configure the parameters of each plug-in. For help on the different plug-in controls, click the Help for PlugIn button
(
) or click a control and press
Shift
+ F1 .
5. Click the Preview button (
) to test the effect chain. If needed, you can select different parts of the audio
in the data window to preview different sections before applying the effect chain. You can also click the
Bypass button ( ) to temporarily bypass the effect. For more information, see Bypassing effects on page 174.
Tip: You can also click the Play Plug-in Chainer button (
)
on the data window to preview the effects chain. Use the Play
Normal button (
) to bypass the effects.
6. If the effect changes the duration of a sound (for example, Reverb or Simple Delay), choose how Sound
Forge processes the audio tail created by the effect. For more information, see Selecting the processing mode
for audio tail data on page 173.
Note: The Insert Tail Data and Mix Tail Data commands
may not function when using third-party reverb plug-ins.You
can use the Insert Silence command to make room for the
tails or apply the reverb in a new data window that has room
for the tails and then mix the processed audio back into your
source file.
7. Click the Process Selection button (
Press
CHP. 11
Ctrl + Shift + P
) to apply the effect chain.
.
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172
Adding plug-ins to a chain
You can add plug-ins to a chain in the Plug-In Chainer in several ways.
Adding a plug-in to a chain from the Plug-In Chainer
1. Click the Add Plug-Ins to chain button (
) on the Plug-In Chainer window. The Plug-In Chooser dialog
appears, listing all available DirectX plug-ins installed on your system.
Press
Ctrl + E
to open the Plug-In Chooser.
Plug-In Chooser dialog
2. Select the desired plug-in(s).
3. Click Add. The selected plug-ins are added to the chain and can be configured and arranged as needed.
Double-click a plug-in to add it to the chain.
Adding a plug-in to a chain from the Plug-In Manager
You can add a plug-in to a chain in the Plug-In Chainer by dragging an effect from the Plug-In Manager
window.
Plug-In Manager window
1. From the View menu, choose Plug-In Manager. The Plug-In Manager window appears.
2. Select the desired plug-in(s).
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173
3. Drag the plug-in(s) from the Plug-In Manager window to the Plug-In Chainer window. The selected plug-
in(s) are added to the chain and can be configured and arranged as needed.
Tip: You can also drag plug-ins or a plug-in chain from the
Plug-In Manager window to a data window. Sound Forge
opens the Plug-In Chainer window with the selected effects in
a new chain.
Selecting the processing mode for audio tail data
Some effects, such as Reverb or Simple Delay, create a “tail” at the end of the selected audio. This tail
consists of the echo or reverb created by the effect that lasts beyond the end of the selection. When you
select a portion of a file and apply the effect using the Plug-In Chainer, you can select one of three buttons
to determine how Sound Forge processes the audio tail:
• Select the Ignore Tail Data button ( ) to ignore the tail. The effect ends abruptly at the end of the
selection.
• Select the Mix Tail Data button ( ) to mix the tail into the adjacent material. This is the most naturalsounding option.
• Select the Insert Tail Data button ( ) to insert the audio tail. All audio to the right of the tail moves over
to accommodate the extra audio.
Press
Ctrl + T
to toggle through the three audio tail data processing modes.
Note: The Insert Tail Data and Mix Tail Data commands
may not function when using third-party reverb plug-ins.You
can use the Insert Silence command to make room for the
tails or apply the reverb in a new data window that has room
for the tails and then mix the processed audio back into your
source file.
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Arranging plug-ins on a chain
You can arrange the order of plug-ins in the chain in either the Plug-In Chainer or the Plug-In Explorer.
Note: The order of plug-ins in a chain can have a dramatic
effect on the final product of audio signal processing.
Arranging plug-in order in the Plug-In Chainer
In the Plug-In Chainer window, drag an effect to a new location in the chain.
Drag a plug-in in the Plug-In Chainer to a new location in the chain.
You can also change the plug-in order by right-clicking a plug-in in the chain and choosing either
Move Left or Move Right from the shortcut menu.
Arranging plug-in order in the Plug-In Explorer
You can drag an effect to a new location in the chain in the Plug-In Explorer in the same way you can in the
Plug-In Chainer. In addition, you can rearrange the chain by selecting a plug-in and clicking the Shift Plug-In
Left button ( ) or the Shift Plug-In Right button ( ) to move it forward or backward in the chain. To access
the Plug-In Explorer, click the Add Plug-Ins to chain button ( ) in the Plug-In Chainer window.
Bypassing effects
You can bypass single effects or all effects in a chain while previewing the file.
Bypassing a plug-in on a chain
To bypass a plug-in, clear its check box in the Plug-In Chainer
window. A bypassed plug-in does not process the audio signal,
allowing you to preview the effect of the remaining plug-ins.
Note: You can bypass multiple plug-ins.
Bypassed plug-in
You can also bypass the plug-in by right-clicking a plug-in in the chain and choosing Bypass from
the shortcut menu.
Bypassing the plug-in chain
To bypass the entire chain, click the Bypass button ( ) in the Plug-In Chainer window. Click the Bypass
button again to restore the chain’s processing of the audio.
Press
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Ctrl + B
.
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175
Removing plug-ins from a chain
To remove a specific plug-in from a chain, select it and click the Remove Selected Plug-In button (
Forge removes the plug-in and adjusts the remaining plug-ins.
Press
press
Ctrl + Tab
). Sound
to select the next plug-in or Ctrl + Shift + Tab to select the previous plug-in, and then
to remove the selected plug-in from the chain.
Ctrl + Delete
You can also remove a plug in by right clicking a plug-in in the chain and choosing Remove from
the shortcut menu.
Configuring chained plug-ins
To configure the parameters of specific plug-in, select it from the chain. The plug-in’s parameters display,
allowing you to adjust all controls as needed. For help on the different plug-in controls, click the Help for
Plug-In button ( ) or click a control and press Shift + F1 .
Saving individual plug-in settings as a custom preset
Once you have adjusted effect parameters in the Plug-In Chainer window, you can save your settings as a
custom preset for later use. You can select a custom saved preset from the Preset drop-down list to apply the
same effect settings at a later time.
You also have the option of saving the entire chain as a chain preset. For more information, see Saving plug-in
chains on page 175.
1. Adjust the effect parameters in the Plug-In Chainer window to achieve the effect you want.
2. Enter a name for the new preset in the Preset box.
3. Click the Save Preset button (
). The new preset is saved in the Preset drop-down list.
Saving plug-in chains
Once you’ve set up an effect chain, you may want to save it for later use. When you save a plug-in chain, you
not only save the order of the effects in the chain but also the parameters of each individual effect.
1. Create an effects chain in the Plug-In Chainer window.
2. Enter a name for the new chain in the Chain Preset box.
3. Click the Save Chain Preset button (
). The new chain is saved in the Chain Preset drop-down list.
Enter a name in the
Chain Preset box.
Press
CHP. 11
Ctrl + S
Click the Save Chain
Preset button to
save the new chain.
, enter a name for the preset, and press
Enter
.
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176
Loading plug-in chains
Once you have saved a plug-in chain, you can easily load it into the Plug-In Chainer.
Loading a plug-in chain from the Plug-In Chainer
Choose a plug-in chain from the Chain Preset drop-down list. The chain loads into the window.
Loading a plug-in chain from the Plug-In Manager
1. From the View menu, choose Plug-In Manager. The Plug-In Manager window appears.
2. Click the DirectX Chains folder in the left side of the window. The folder displays your saved plug-in
chains in the right side of the window.
3. Drag a plug-in chain to the Plug-In Chainer. The chain loads into the window.
Managing effects
Sound Forge provides several tools to help you manage your plug-ins, including the Plug-In Manager, DX
Favorites menu, and the Preset Manager.
Using the Plug-In Manager window
The Plug-In Manager window not only allows you to add plug-ins and saved plug-in chains (pg. 172), but it
provides a way to manage your plug-in files—to rename plug-ins, hide plug-ins, create folders, add plug-ins to
a DX Favorites folder, and perform other standard file management tasks.
Views
Delete
New Folder
Refresh
Up One Level
Plug-In Manager window
Renaming a plug-in
You can customize the names of plug-ins within Sound Forge.
1. Right-click a plug-in in the Plug-In Manager and choose Rename from the shortcut menu.
2. Type a new name and press
Enter .
Hiding a plug-in
Sound Forge automatically makes all DirectX plug-ins on your system available to you. You may want to hide
a plug-in within Sound Forge without removing the plug-in from your system.
1. Right-click a plug-in in the Plug-In Manager and choose Hide from the shortcut menu. Sound Forge
prompts you to confirm that you want to permanently hide the plug-in.
2. Click Yes. The plug-in no longer appears in Sound Forge.
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Organizing effects in the DX Favorites menu
The DX Favorites menu provides easy access to the plug-ins you use most frequently. You can add and
remove plug-ins and folders to organize the menu however you like. You can also allow Sound Forge to add
all plug-ins on your system to the menu. For more information, see Automatically adding and organizing plug-ins
on page 177.
Once you add a plug-in to the DX Favorites menu, you can apply the plug-in to a file by selecting it from
the menu. For more information, see Adding an effect on page 169.
1. From the DX Favorites menu, choose Organize. The Organize Favorites dialog appears.
2. Organize your plug-ins:
• Drag plug-ins to the DX Favorites folder to add them to the DX Favorites menu.
• Create submenus in the DX Favorites menu by clicking the DX Favorites folder and clicking the Create
New Folder button (
). Once you have created a new folder, drag plug-ins to the folder to add them to
the submenu in the DX Favorites menu.
• Remove plug-ins or folders from the DX Favorites menu by selecting the plug-in or folder and clicking
the Delete button ( ). Deleting a plug-in from the DX Favorites folder removes it from the DX
Favorites menu but does not delete the plug-in from your system.
3. Close the Organize Favorites dialog. The new plug-ins and/or submenus appear in the DX Favorites
menu.
Tip: You can also add plug-ins to the DX Favorites menu
using the Plug-In Manager.
Automatically adding and organizing plug-ins
Sound Forge can automatically add all the plug-ins on your computer to your DX Favorites folder and
organize them by the first word in the plug-in name (usually the company name). This replaces any menu
structure you may have created with a rebuilt DX Favorites menu.
1. From the DX Favorites menu, choose Recreate by Plug-In Name. Sound Forge prompts you to confirm the
reorganization of the DX Favorites folder.
2. Click Yes to continue.
Sound Forge creates folders and organizes the plug-ins based on the first word in the names of the plug-ins.
Using the Preset Manager
Once you have created custom presets for effects or effect chains, you can use Sound Forge’s Preset Manager
to back up, transfer, or delete custom presets from any of the effects, processes, tools and plug-ins installed in
Sound Forge. The Preset Manager also functions as a standalone application, meaning that you can use the
Preset Manager outside of Sound Forge to manage ACID and Vegas presets as well.
To display the Preset Manager, choose Preset Manager from the Tools menu. In the Preset Manager, choose
Contents and Index from the Help menu for instructions on how to manage your presets.
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Automating Effect Parameters
When you add an effect that supports automation to the Plug-In Chainer, a list of the effect’s automatable
parameters is displayed on the right side of the window. You can use these controls to add, show/hide, and
enable/bypass automation envelopes.
Plug-in parameters can be edited using the automation envelope in the data window.
Note: Choosing a new effect chain preset will clear the
current effect automation settings.
Adding an effect automation envelope
1. In the Plug-In Chainer, select the button (
) for an effect that includes automatable parameters.
The plug-in's controls are displayed, and a list of the effect's automatable parameters is displayed on the
right side of the Plug-In Chainer.
Tip: The Parameter Chooser is displayed on the right side of
the Plug-In Chainer window when you add a plug-in that
supports automation. Click the Show Parameter Chooser
button ( ) or press Ctrl + H to show or hide the chooser.
2. Select the Automate check box for each parameter you want to control with an envelope. An envelope is
added to the data window for each selected check box.
Adding a volume or panning envelope
Panning envelopes will have no effect on mono source data. Convert mono sound data to stereo before
adding a panning envelope.
1. Click within a data window to give it focus.
2. Press
V
to add a volume envelope, or press
P
to add a panning envelope.
Sound Forge adds an envelope to the data window and adds the Sound Forge Volume or Sound Forge Pan
plug-in to the Audio Plug-In Chainer. If the Plug-In Chainer is not visible, Sound Forge will open it.
Note: If a data window already has a volume envelope,
pressing P or V will hide the envelope.
3. Adjust volume or panning with the envelope in the data window.
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Adjusting effect parameters with envelopes
An envelope is displayed in the data window for each effect parameter that you've chosen to automate.
Envelope points represent plug-in parameter settings at a specific point in time.
You can add points, adjust their positions, and change the fade curves between points to modify effect
parameters and the transitions between them.
Note: When you automate an effect’s frequency parameter
— such as the modulation frequency parameter in the
amplitude modulation effect — you may notice that the
frequency changes are more apparent when moving through
the lower frequencies. This is because frequency scales plugins use a logarithmic scale, but effect automation uses linear
interpolation.To make the automated frequency changes
sound more natural, change the fade curve types to change
the interpolation rates between envelope points. For high-tolow frequency sweeps, use a fast fade curve; for low-to-high
frequency sweeps, use a slow curve.
Previewing effect automation
To hear the results of your effect automation without applying it to the sound file, click the Preview button
( ) in the Plug-In Chainer window.
You can select the Bypass button ( ) in the Plug-In Chainer to bypass all effects in the chain, or clear an
effects check box (
) to bypass individual effects.
You can also click the Play Plug-In Chainer button ( ) in a data window's playbar to hear the effects of a
chain on the data window. Click the Play Normal button ( ) in the playbar to hear the unprocessed sound.
Applying effects automation
To apply effect automation to a data window, click the Process Selection button (
window.
) in the Plug-In Chainer
Showing or hiding effect automation envelopes
1. In the Plug-In Chainer, select the button (
) for an effect that includes automatable parameters.
The plug-in’s controls are displayed, and a list of the effect’s automatable parameters is displayed on the
right side of the Plug-In Chainer.
2. Select the Show check box to display a parameter's envelope, or clear the check box to hide it. Hiding an
envelope simply removes the line from the data window while it retains the playback properties.
Enabling or bypassing effect automation envelopes
1. In the Plug-In Chainer, select the button (
) for an effect that includes automatable parameters.
The plug-in’s controls are displayed, and a list of the effect’s automatable parameters is displayed on the
right side of the Plug-In Chainer.
2. Select the Enable check box to apply an automation envelope to your audio signal, or clear the check box
to ignore it.
When the check box is cleared, an effect automation envelope is ignored and the effect’s initial state is
used for the duration of the data window.
Bypassed envelopes are drawn with a dashed line in the data window.
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Removing effect automation envelopes
Click the Automate None button (
selected plug-in.
) in the Plug-In Chainer to remove all automation envelopes for the
Choose (Empty Chain) or another preset from the Chain Preset drop-down list at the top-left corner of the
Plug-In Chainer to clear the plug-in chain and remove all effect automation envelopes.
Adjusting envelopes
When the Envelope tool ( ) on the main workspace is selected, you can add, remove, select or adjust
envelope points on effect automation envelopes.
The Edit tool ( ) allows you to add, remove, or adjust envelope points, but you cannot select envelope
points with the Edit tool.
By default, a new envelope will contain a single envelope point. If you want to adjust the overall level of an
envelope, drag the envelope up or down. A floating ToolTip will show you the envelope's current setting.
If an envelope has multiple points, you can drag each point, or you can drag envelope segments up or down.
Tips: Hold Ctrl while dragging an envelope point or segment
to adjust the value in fine increments without changing the
envelope points' horizontal positions.
Hold Ctrl+Alt while dragging an envelope point or segment to
adjust the value in normal increments without changing the
envelope points' horizontal positions.
Hold Alt while dragging an envelope point to move the point's
horizontal position without changing its value.
With the Envelope tool, you can drag horizontally to select
multiple envelope points in the selected data window.
Adding envelope points
To create more complex envelopes, you will need to add points. To add an envelope point, double-click the
envelope. You can then drag and position the point as necessary.
To delete a point, right-click it and choose Delete from the shortcut menu.
Flipping an envelope
You can flip an envelope to invert the envelope around its center. Volume, panning, and effect automation
envelopes can be flipped.
Flipping all points
1. Right-click an envelope or a point. A shortcut menu is displayed.
2. Choose Flip All Points from the shortcut menu.
Flipping selected points
1. Create a time selection with the Envelope tool (
) to select the points you want to flip.
2. Right-click an envelope in the time selection. A shortcut menu is displayed.
3. Choose Flip Selected Points from the shortcut menu.
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Setting fade properties
You can adjust the fade curve for each envelope segment individually. To change the fade curve, right-click
an envelope segment and choose a fade command (such as Linear Fade or Fast Fade, for example) from the
shortcut menu.
Cutting, copying, and pasting envelope points
1. Select the Envelope tool (
).
2. Click within a data window to select it.
3. Drag horizontally in a data window to select envelope points.
4. From the Edit menu, choose Cut or Copy.
5. Click to position the cursor where you want to paste envelope points.
Tip: Click within a different data window if you want to
paste envelope points across data windows.
6. From the Edit menu, choose Paste.
Copying an envelope to another data window
1. Select the Envelope tool (
).
2. Click within a data window to select it.
3. From the Edit menu, choose Select All.
4. From the Edit menu, choose Copy.
5. Click within a data window to select it.
Tip: You can paste envelope points to a different envelope
type by selecting the envelope where you want to paste.
6. Click Go to Start (
) if you want the envelope to appear exactly as it was in the original data window, or
click to position the cursor where you want the envelope to start.
7. From the Edit menu, choose Paste.
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183
CHAPTER
Using Acoustic
12
Mirror and Wave
Hammer
This chapter is designed to familiarize you with Sound Forge’s Acoustic Mirror™ and Wave Hammer™
effects. Acoustic Mirror is a powerful digital signal processing tool that allows you to add environmental
coloration to your existing recordings. Wave Hammer is an audio mastering tool that features a classic
compressor and volume maximizer.
Note: Acoustic Mirror and Wave Hammer are only
available in the full version of Sound Forge.
What is Acoustic Mirror?
Acoustic Mirror represents an advance in reverb technology in that it incorporates the acoustical responses
of a given environment or venue into your audio files. You may never play Carnegie Hall, but that does not
mean that your recordings can’t sound like it. Taking this concept even further, Acoustic Mirror allows you
to simulate the signal response of vintage musical equipment. Imagine the money you’ll save not having to
buy those paired U-47s.
The acoustic signature
Acoustic Mirror creates its effects through the use of the environment’s acoustic signature, or impulse
response. These acoustic signatures are saved as impulse files and given the extension .wav or .sfi. Acoustic
Mirror includes an extensive library of high-quality impulse files. In addition, Acoustic Mirror allows you to
collect your own acoustic signatures and create custom impulse files.
Adding an acoustic signature to an audio file
1. Open and play the Saxriff.pca file.
Note: This file is located in the same folder as the
application.
2. From the Effects menu, choose Acoustic Mirror. The Acoustic Mirror dialog appears.
Note: You must have an active file in the Sound Forge
workspace to start Acoustic Mirror.
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184
Acoustic Mirror dialog
3. Click the Browse button located next to the Impulse field and locate the Acoustic Mirror Impulse Files folder
on the Sound Forge CD.
4. Double-click the folder. Several impulse subfolders display.
5. Double-click the Large venues folder. Several impulse files display.
6. Double-click Stadium, Camp Randall 50 yrd line.sfi. Sound Forge adds this impulse file’s acoustic signature to
the Saxriff.pca file and returns you to the Acoustic Mirror dialog.
7. Click Preview. The processed file plays and the sax riff is virtually placed in a football stadium-sized venue.
8. Select or clear the Bypass check box to toggle between the processed and unprocessed audio.
Adjusting the acoustic signature
Once you add an acoustic signature to a file, you can use the controls of the Acoustic Mirror dialog to
precisely configure the reverb effect. More importantly, you can preview configuration changes as quickly as
you make them.
1. Open a file and display the Acoustic Mirror dialog.
2. Verify that the Real-time check box is selected.
3. From the Impulse drop-down list, choose the desired impulse file and click Preview. The processed audio
file plays. Notice that all dialog controls are set to their default values.
4. Drag the Dry Out fader up. Notice the audible change in output as the balance between the Wet Out and
Dry Out
values changes.
Tip: If you are experiencing difficulty previewing processing
in real-time, decrease the Quality/speed value.
5. Drag the Response delay slider to the right. Notice the audible change in the reverb’s delay.
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The Acoustic Mirror dialog
The Acoustic Mirror dialog contains four tabs: General, Envelope, Summary, and Recover. Each tab contains
controls that allow you to precisely configure the effect as well as recover custom impulses. Notice that the
Acoustic Mirror dialog contains the preset and preview controls found in all of the Sound Forge process and
effect dialogs. For more information, see Applying presets on page 145 and Previewing processed audio on page 146.
General tab controls
The following sections describe all controls located in the General tab.
Impulse
The Impulse drop-down list allows you to specify an impulse file from a list of those previously used. Clicking
Browse displays the Open Impulse File dialog and allows you to locate an impulse file from your local system
or network.
Response width
You can use the Response width slider to create some simple stereo expansion and stereo collapsing effects.
This control’s default setting of 50 represents normal stereo operation and is recommended to maintain the
stereo field of the impulse response. A higher setting expands the stereo field, but may result in an unnatural
sounding effect. Lowering this setting narrows the stereo field. A setting of 0 is essentially mono.
Response delay
The Response delay slider controls the time, in milliseconds, that elapses between the dry signal and the
processed output. This control can be used to create interesting effects and add new dimensions to an
acoustic signature. Configuring this control with a positive value results in the processed output following
the dry output. A negative value results in the processed output preceding the dry signal, or a pre-delay.
Pan (left to right)
The Pan slider controls the balance between the left and right channels in stereo files. The default value is 0
and indicates a typical center position.
Dry Out
The Dry Out fader controls the amount of unprocessed signal mixed into the output.
Wet Out
The Wet Out fader controls the amount of processed signal mixed into the output.
Apply envelope and limit decay to (seconds)
When you select this check box, the length of the impulse is limited to the time specified in the adjacent
box. Limiting the length of an impulse file shortens the decay of the reverberation and decreases the amount
of processing required.
In addition, selecting this check box results in the impulse fading according to the Envelope Graph configured
on the dialog’s Envelope tab. For more information, see Envelope Graph on page 186.
Low-shelf start frequency/High-shelf start frequency
Acoustic Mirror offers high- and low-shelving filters to allow you to tailor the frequency response of the
impulse. Notice that you can adjust the cutoff frequency and boost/attenuation of each filter independently.
Convert mono to stereo
Selecting the Convert mono to stereo check box converts a mono signal to stereo output. If the impulse file is
in stereo, selecting this check box imparts a pseudo-stereo effect on the mono input.
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Quality/speed
The Quality/Speed slider allows you to strike a balance between the quality and speed of the audio processing.
Lowering this value immediately affects the frequency response of the impulse. The processed signal sounds
dull and high frequencies sound unnatural. At very low values, the length of the impulse is shortened. When
this control is set to a high value, the audio quality is excellent, but the processing takes longer.
If you are experiencing difficulty previewing processing in real-time, decrease the Quality/speed value.
However, you must return this value to 5 prior to actually processing the file to output the highest possible
quality.
Envelope tab controls
The following sections describe all controls located on the Envelope tab.
Envelope tab
Impulse
This control is identical to the Impulse drop-down list on the General tab. This allows you to view the
envelope graphs for the specified impulse file. For more information, see Impulse on page 185.
Dry Out
This control is identical to the Dry Out fader on the General tab. For more information, see Dry Out on page 185.
Wet Out
This control is identical to the Wet Out fader on the General tab. For more information, see Wet Out on page
185.
Apply envelope and limit decay
This control is identical to the Apply envelope and limit decay check box on the General tab. For more
information, see Apply envelope and limit decay to (seconds) on page 185.
Envelope Graph
Selecting the Apply envelope and limit decay check box turns on the Envelope Graph. You can use the envelope
graph to decrease the length of the specified impulse file, which consequently decreases the reverberation
decay time and processing time. You can also use the envelope graph to apply fades to the specified impulse
file.
Envelope graph
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The horizontal axis of the graph represents the time of the impulse file and the vertical axis represents peak
amplitude in dB. Specifying an impulse file from the Impulse drop-down list automatically displays its
envelope in the graph.
Note: If the impulse file is greater than 6 seconds in length, it
does not display in the envelope graph.
Envelope points
Envelope points are used in the envelope graph to specify a fade curve. The fade amount can vary from 0%
to 100%. You can create, delete, and arrange envelope points just as you can in all of Sound Forge’s envelope
graphs. For more information, see Envelope graphs on page 39.
Note: The fade value at any point in a curve does not use
the same vertical logarithmic (dB) scale used for displaying
the impulse file.
Adjusting the impulse length
Drag the vertical Envelope Endpoint line to the desired location. The Envelope Endpoint repositions and the
length of the impulse adjusts.
Repositioning the envelope endpoint line
Reset
Clicking this button resets the envelope points to 100%, indicating no fade.
Package Impulse into Preset
Clicking this button creates a link between the current preset and the selected impulse file, along with
encoding the impulse information. You can use the Preset Manager to share presets and the accompanying
impulse files between computers without losing information. For more information, see Using the Preset
Manager on page 177.
Summary tab controls
The Summary tab provides information about the impulse file. The following section describes all controls
located on the Summary tab.
Impulse
This control is identical to the Impulse drop-down list on the General tab. For more information, see Impulse on
page 185.
Dry Out
This control is identical to the Dry Out fader on the General tab. For more information, see Dry Out on page
185.
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Wet Out
This control is identical to the Wet Out fader on the General tab. For more information, see Wet Out on page
185.
Quality/speed
This control is identical to the Quality/speed check box on the General tab. For more information, see Quality/
speed on page 186.
Recover tab controls
The Recover tab is used in creating your own impulse files. For more information, see Creating impulse files on
page 189. The following section describes all controls located on the Recover tab.
Recorded file
The Recorded file box allows you to select the file containing the test tone recorded in the field. You can
enter the path directly into the box or click Browse to locate and select a file.
Test file used
The Test file used box allows you to select the file that was used as a test tone. You can enter the path directly
into the box or click Browse to locate and select a file.
Note: You should use one of the test files included in the
Acoustic Mirror Impulse Files\Test Tones
folder on the Sound
Forge CD-ROM.
Impulse output
The Impulse output box allows you to specify where the recovered impulse response file is saved. You can
enter the path directly into the box or click Browse to locate and select a folder.
Remove very low frequencies
When you select this check box, Acoustic Mirror removes very low frequencies (which are typically
comprised of noise) from the impulse response. This increases the impulse response’s signal-to-noise ratio.
Recover Impulse
Clicking the Recover Impulse button starts the impulse recovery process. After the process is complete,
Acoustic Mirror creates an impulse file and saves it in the folder specified in the Impulse output file box.
Impulse recovery mode
You can choose from three Impulse recovery mode options to determine the method Acoustic Mirror uses to
recover the impulse: Use the start and end of the recorded file as timing spikes, Auto-detect timing spikes, or Do not
use timing spikes. Each of these modes is described below.
Use the start and end of the recorded file as timing spikes
This option specifies that the beginning and end of the recorded file are used as timing spikes. This option is
recommended for the best results during impulse recovery.
You must trim the file as close to the timing spikes as possible for this method of recovery to work most
effectively. The first sample of the file should contain the start of the first spike and the last sample of the file
should contain the start of the second spike. Therefore, most of the second spike is deleted.
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Auto-detect timing spikes
This option specifies that the timing spikes exist near the start and end of the recorded file and that they
should be auto-detected. Timing spikes are used to correct for clock or tape speed mismatches. If you have
not trimmed the recorded file so that the timing spikes are at the very beginning and end, select this option
for the best results.
With this option, you need only ensure that the first spike occurs within one second of the start of the file
and that the second spike exists in the file. To improve detection accuracy, you can also boost the level of
the start and end spikes in the recorded file.
Tip: If the spike’s level is close to the noise floor, select the
Use the beginning and end of the recorded file as timing spikes
option.
Do not use timing spikes
This option specifies that no timing spikes are used. This is the least desirable option as no timing
information is used. To use this option, you must trim the recorded file so that the test tone starts and ends at
the start and end of the file, with no blank audio before or after. This option should only be used if the
timing spikes are lost in the recording or if you are certain that the play and record clocks are synchronized
(such as when using an ADAT).
Creating impulse files
You can obtain impulse responses from anything that accepts test tone input and supports recording the
output. This includes physical spaces as well as electronic audio equipment. Creating custom impulse files
requires planning, work, and additional audio equipment.
Note: Impulses derived from electronic devices that produce
nonlinear effects such as overdrives, distortion pedals, pitch
shifters, harmonic enhancers, chorus pedals, or flange pedals
cannot be modeled in Acoustic Mirror. While they produce
interesting effects, the acoustic signature cannot be correctly
replicated.
What you need to create custom impulses
The equipment required to create custom impulses depends upon whether you want to create the impulse
from a physical acoustic space or from a piece of equipment. Regardless of the method, you need a playback
device that reproduces test tones and a recording device that has microphone or line-level inputs. Be aware
that the quality of the impulse is directly affected by the quality of your playback and recording devices. The
flatter your system’s response, the more accurate the impulse response.
Recovering an impulse from an acoustic space
To recover an impulse from an acoustic space, you need the following equipment:
• A playback device and speakers
• A stereo pair of microphones to record the test tone
• A recording device for recording the signal captured by the microphones
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Recovering an impulse from an electronic device
To recover an impulse from an electronic device, you need the following equipment:
• A playback device that connects to the device’s inputs
• A recording device that connects to the device’s outputs
Recording the impulse in an acoustic space
Once you have assembled the required equipment, you are ready to begin recording the impulse. The
following sections describe the typical impulse recording procedure.
Transferring the test tone
The first step in recording the impulse is to transfer the desired test tone to your playback device. The Sound
Forge CD-ROM contains two test tones: a 24-second test tone and a 48-second test tone. We typically
recommend that you use the 24-second tone because longer tones result in greater signal-to-noise ratios. The
48-second tone should be used in particularly noisy environments or when the decay time of the acoustic
space is greater than six seconds.
Tip: There are spikes at the beginning and end of each test
tone. You should include the spikes in the recording to simplify
the recovery of the impulse in the later stages of the process.
Placing equipment
When recording the test tone in an acoustic space, you must determine where to place your playback system,
speakers, microphones, and recording system to produce optimal results. Microphone placement is crucial to
the quality of the impulse. The distance between the speakers and the microphone is the perceived distance
of audio processed with the impulse you create. For example, if you record the test tone with the speakers
positioned 100 feet from the microphones, all sounds processed with the resulting impulse sound as if they
are originating 100 feet from the listener.
Setting levels
After the devices are positioned, you should begin playback of the test tone. The test tone should be played
as loudly as possible (or practical) to produce the best signal-to-noise ratio. With the test tone playing at
optimum volume, set the levels on the recording device. Recording devices levels should also be set as high
as possible, but not permitted to clip or distort. Safe levels are determined by whether you are recording to an
analog or digital medium.
Recording the test tone
Begin recording on the recording device and begin playback of the test tone. Remember to include the spikes
at the beginning and end of the test tone. Record the test tone several times using the initial setup, then
move the microphones and record the test tones several more times. Continue moving the microphones and
recording until you have exhausted the space’s acoustic possibilities. Recording impulses in this manner
provides you with several distinct impulses for each space.
Recording the impulse through an electronic device
The recording process is similar if you are recording the output of an electronic device, but there are no
speakers or microphones to be placed.
Using the appropriate cables, connect the playback system’s outputs to the electronic device’s inputs and the
electronic device’s outputs to the recording system’s inputs. Once the devices are connected, play the test
tone through the electronic device and record its output on the recording system.
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Other impulses
Any number of methods can be used to create an impulse, including starter pistols, clap boards, or even a
sharp hand clap. The drawback of these “impulse generators” is that they add their own coloration to the
sound. For best results, we recommend using the test tones included on the CD-ROM.
Recovering the impulse
Once you have recorded your test tones, they must be processed and converted into impulse responses. The
following sections describe the typical impulse recovery procedure.
Trimming the test tone
1. Open your test tone file (the “room processed” output test tone) in Sound Forge.
2. Locate the first timing spike and delete all audio before it. Cut as close to the beginning of the timing
spike as possible, but do not delete the spike itself.
3. Locate the second timing spike and delete all data from the start of the second spike to the end of the file.
Again, cut as close to the start of the timing spike as possible.
You should now have an audio file with a spike at the beginning, a test tone, and silence.
4. Save the test tone file.
Naming, configuring, and recovering the impulse
1. From the Effects menu, choose Acoustic Mirror. The Acoustic Mirror dialog appears.
2. Click the Recover tab.
Recover tab
3. Enter the name and path of your impulse file in the Recorded File box or click Browse and locate the file.
4. Enter the name of the original test tone file in the Test file used box.
5. Enter the desired name for the impulse response file to be created in the Impulse output box. If necessary,
click Browse and specify the folder in which the impulse file will be saved.
6. Select the Remove very low frequencies check box.
7. If the recorded file was trimmed exactly to the start and end spikes using the procedure described
previously, choose Use start and end of the recorded file as timing spikes from the Impulse recovery mode dropdown list. For more information, see Trimming the test tone on page 191.
8. Click the Recover Impulse button to begin recovering the impulse.
After processing is complete, you can open the impulse file in Sound Forge and perform any necessary
trimming or editing. For more information, see Trimming the impulse file on page 192.
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Trimming the impulse file
After the impulse file is recovered, it may still require minor trimming. In general, you should try to make the
impulse response as short as possible to increase processing speed when using Acoustic Mirror. Impulse files
greater than 131,071 samples (about 3 seconds) in length require substantial processing time. When possible,
trim the impulse response to less than 65,535 samples (about 1.5 seconds). In addition, we recommend
fading the tail of the impulse. Of course, this is not always an option when dealing with spaces that produce
extended reverberations.
1. Open the recovered impulse file in Sound Forge and play it.
2. Delete any silence or low-level noise that occurs before or after the actual audio data. Typically there are
between 900 and 1100 samples of data at the beginning of the impulse that should be removed.
3. Save the trimmed impulse response file using the standard WAV format.
Tip: To prevent phase problems when mixing the dry and wet
signals, you may also want to verify the phase of the impulse
file. The file should begin by going positive (above the
centerline). If the impulse file has a negative (below the
centerline) phase, choose Invert/Flip from the Process
menu.
Adding summary information to your impulse file
If you plan on sharing impulses with other Sound Forge users, we recommend adding summary information
and BMP images to your files.
1. Open the impulse file in Sound Forge.
2. From the File menu, choose Properties. The Properties dialog appears.
3. Click the Summary tab.
4. Enter the appropriate information in each box.
5. Click the Picture button. The Open Picture dialog appears.
6. Locate the desired image and click Open. The image is linked to the impulse file.
7. Click OK.
Note: If you are using a palletized display setting (256 colors
or less) and attach a bitmap to an impulse file, the bitmap
colors are distorted when viewed in Acoustic Mirror. This is
because Sound Forge converts the bitmap using the default
palette at the time of attachment, which is not optimal. For
this reason, you should set the display settings to at least a 16bit palette prior to attaching bitmaps to impulse files.
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Properties dialog with an attached image
Using the new impulse file
To use your new impulse file, open the Acoustic Mirror dialog and choose it from the Impulse drop-down list
as you would any other impulse file. If you performed the previous procedures properly, the custom impulse
file should realistically recreate the reverberation characteristics of the electronic device or acoustic space.
Using impulse files in creative ways
Now that you understand the use and creation of impulse files, you may want to begin using Acoustic Mirror
in more interesting ways than simply applying an impulse to an audio file. The following sections describe
some creative and advanced uses for Acoustic Mirror technology that can contribute to the professionalism
of your work.
Processing individual audio elements
Instead of applying an impulse file to an entire song, try applying an impulse to individual elements of the
song. Applying an impulse to specific notes, chords, riffs, or phrases can quickly change the dynamics of a
song. This technique is possible because Acoustic Mirror automatically mixes the tail of processed audio
with the adjacent unprocessed audio.
Adding realistic stereo to mono recordings
You can give mono recordings realistic stereo characteristics by selecting the Convert mono to stereo check
box in the General tab of the Acoustic Mirror dialog when applying the specified impulse file. The stereo
image produced using this method is virtually indistinguishable from an actual stereo recording.
If you choose to use Acoustic Mirror for stereo simulation, you may find the output too reverberant. If this is
the case, decrease the Apply envelope and limit decay value. Frequently, setting this value to as little as 0.1
seconds provides stereo realism without adding a distracting amount of reverb.
Creating special effects
Processing an audio file using a non-impulse WAV file can produce any number of unexpected and
interesting special effects. To demonstrate this concept, create several short (less than 12 seconds) audio
files using the FM Synthesis tool and save them as individual WAV files. Now choose any of these files from
the Impulse drop-down list and preview the results.
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We have included several short files on the Sound Forge CD-ROM to allow you to experiment with this
technique. After some experimentation, you should begin to notice a few general rules regarding this use of
Acoustic Mirror:
•
•
•
•
Impulse files that cover the entire frequency spectrum prevent the output from sounding too filtered.
Using a frequency sweep as an impulse creates a frequency-dependent delay effect.
Panning within the impulse causes the stereo image of the output to flutter between channels.
Using staccato sounds (such as drum hits) creates a variety of echo effects.
Recreating spaces for foley effects and dialog replacement
Frequently, dialogue recorded in the field is rendered unusable by ambient noise. If you are shooting in the
field and realize that overdubbing will be necessary, you should create an impulse in each filming location.
This allows you to overdub dialog during post-production that is indistinguishable from dialog recorded on
location.
If you intend to use Acoustic Mirror as a film/video post-production tool, there are some factors to keep in
mind:
• Distance information is determined by the distance between the source and the microphone when
creating the impulse. Record multiple impulses at various distances for each location to create realistic
dialog effects when matching audio processing to approximate camera positioning.
• The frequency response of the human ear changes as the volume of a sound increases. As a result, impulses
created from a significant distance may sound unusual at high volumes.
• Placing a microphone off center allows you to create directional information in the recovered impulse. For
example, placing a microphone to the left of the speaker produces an impulse that approximates a source
located on the left side of the screen.
Panning with head-related transfer functions
A head-related transfer function (HRTF) contains the frequency and phase response information required to
make a sound seem to originate from a specific direction in a three-dimensional space. The Acoustic Mirror
Impulse Files\HRTF Impulses folder on the Sound Forge CD-ROM contains a collection of impulse files that
contain directional cues.
To achieve optimal results using these impulse files, the original file should be mono and playback should be
monitored using headphones. To begin, convert the mono file to stereo by replicating the mono signal in
each channel. After the audio is converted to stereo, choose an impulse file from the HRTF Impulses folder.
You will notice that the HRTF Impulses folder is further divided into Left and Right directories. Opening the
desired folder displays the available impulse files, all of which are named based on their elevation (up or
down) and azimuth (left or right) angles in degrees. The following table provides some examples:
File Name
Impulse positioning
0E000L
0E090L
0E090R
90E000L
0E180L
-20E120L
Straight ahead
Far left
Far right
Directly above your head
Directly behind you
Below, behind, and to your left
Note: Refer to Readme.doc in the HRTF Impulses folder for
more information.
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Troubleshooting Acoustic Mirror
The following sections describe problems that may be encountered when working with Acoustic Mirror.
Stuttering during real-time previewing
It is not uncommon to experience problems when previewing Acoustic Mirror’s processing in real-time. The
following sections contain several suggestions to remedy the situation.
Lower the Quality/speed setting
Lower the value of the Quality/speed control on the General page. When previewing lengthy impulse
responses, a setting of 1 or 2 may be necessary; however, the quality suffers. This setting should always be
returned to 5 prior to processing to maintain effect quality.
Increase the DirectX buffering size
1. Open the Acoustic Mirror dialog.
2. Right-click an empty area of the dialog outside of the four tabs and choose Configuration from the shortcut
menu. The Real-Time Preview Configuration dialog appears.
3. Reconfigure the Buffers to process per second and Total playback buffers controls. Typically, lowering the
Buffers to process per second
value and increasing the Total playback buffers value reduces gapping during
real-time previewing.
Close all memory-intensive applications
Real-time previewing may be limited by any additional applications operating on the desktop. To avoid this
situation, close all memory-intensive applications prior to using Acoustic Mirror.
Add additional RAM to the system
We recommend at least 32 MB of RAM to operate Sound Forge and its related tools.
Add a faster floating point arithmetic processor
Many high-speed processors are still lacking in speed when processing floating point arithmetic. We
recommend using high-speed processors that provide exceptional floating point arithmetic for reliable realtime previewing.
Impulses do not recover properly
If you experience problems recovering custom impulse recordings, verify each of the following:
• Verify that you have trimmed the recorded test tone based on the mode chosen from the Impulse recovery
mode drop-down list. For more information, see Trimming the test tone on page 191.
• Verify that the second spike is present in the recorded test tone if the Auto-detect timing spikes options is
specified.
• Verify that the file specified in the Test file used box is the exact test tone used to make to field recording
and that neither its length or data has been changed.
• If the impulse still does not recover properly in Auto-detect timing spikes mode, use Sound Forge to
normalize the spikes in the recorded test tone file. This should aid the auto-detect algorithm in detecting
the timing spikes and recovering the impulse.
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Recovered impulse is too noisy
To maximize the impulse’s signal-to-noise ratio, you should verify that the field recording’s noise floor is not
too high. When recording in noisy environments, increase the test tone’s amplitude until the test tone is at
least 25 dB louder than the noise floor. At least 40 dB of signal-to-noise is recommended for optimal
impulses. If you cannot avoid noise when recording in the field, Sony Pictures Digital’s Noise Reduction can
salvage a session.
Speaker nonlinear distortion can also cause noisy impulses. The most common source of nonlinear distortion
is loudspeaker harmonics. Most speakers display substantial harmonic distortion at low frequencies. For
example, when you play a 60 Hz tone, the speaker vibrates at 60 Hz, but also outputs lower-level audio at
multiples of 60 Hz (120, 180, etc.). The impulse recovery method greatly minimizes these low-frequency
distortions; however, inexpensive tweeters often display substantial high-frequency distortion that can
disrupt the recovery process. When possible, use high-quality components and do not overdrive the speakers.
Error message explanations
The following sections briefly describe error messages that may be encountered when using Acoustic Mirror.
The selected file is not a valid test file
The file specified in the Test file used box is not a test tone file included on the Sound Forge CD-ROM.
The level of the first spike is low. Do you wish to use it as a timing spike?
This typically means that no actual timing spike was detected. Verify that the first spike is within one second
of the start of the recorded file. If the recording is noisy and the spike is not very pronounced, you can aid
detection by muting the audio immediately before and after the spike.
An error occurred reading the test tone file
Either the test tone file was not found or is not a valid test tone file. Always use a test tone file provided on
the Sound Forge CD-ROM.
The selected Recorded file is much smaller than the test tone size
This may indicate that the test tone or the recorded file specified in the Recover tab is not correct. Verify that
the length of the recorded file roughly the same size as the test tone file.
The end spike was not found
Verify that the spike following the test tone is present in the recorded file when recovering impulses in Autodetect timing spikes mode.
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What is Wave Hammer?
Sony Pictures Digital’s Wave Hammer DirectX plug-in is an audio mastering tool consisting of a classic
compressor and a volume maximizer.
Wave Hammer can be used in any Microsoft DirectX-compatible host application (for example, Sound
Forge and ACID Pro), and the quality and functionality of Wave Hammer is the same in each host
application; however, the method of previewing effects is different. Consult your host application’s
documentation to determine the available previewing methods.
Displaying Wave Hammer
To display Wave Hammer, choose Wave Hammer from the Effects menu.
The Wave Hammer dialog
The Wave Hammer controls are divided into two tabs: Compressor and Volume Maximizer.
Compressor tab
The controls on the Compressor tab are used to compress the audio signal. When applied properly,
compression reduces the dynamic range of audio and allows you increase overall loudness. Compression has
various uses. For example, applying heavy compression at a low threshold to electric guitar produces
distortion.
Compressor tab
Threshold
The Threshold fader is used to adjust the audio level at which compression is applied. Audio with levels
higher than the Threshold value are compressed, while audio at levels lower than this value pass through the
compressor uninterrupted.
Ratio
The Ratio slider determines the amount of compression applied to audio signals surpassing the threshold. A
ratio of 1:1 applies no compression to audio surpassing the threshold, while a ratio of 2:1 requires a 2 dB
increase in actual volume to raise the processed volume 1 dB. A ratio of Inf:1 is considered a limiter.
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Output gain
The Output gain fader allows you to determine how much the audio signal is boosted following its
compression.
Attack time
The Attack time slider allows you to determine how soon after rising above the threshold the audio signal is
attenuated.
Release time
The Release time slider allows you to determine how soon after falling below the threshold the audio signal
attenuation is interrupted.
Smart release
The Smart Release slider allows you to configure the compressor to automatically increase the release time for
sustained notes and decrease the release time for sharp transients. Setting this value higher increases the
internal variability of the specified Release value.
Generally, louder overall audio levels can be achieved with lower Release values. However, low Release
values can also lead to an increase in “pumping” artifacts. Configuring a Smart Release value increases the
release time during sustained sounds, thereby preventing release changes from occurring too rapidly.
Scan mode
The Scan mode radio buttons allow you to specify whether Peak or RMS mode is used to determine the
loudness of an audio file, which in turn determines the amount of compression that is applied. When
compressing in Peak mode, the compressor applies compression where it detects audio signal peaks that
surpass the threshold.
However, when compressing using RMS mode, the compressor processes the audio using the detected
average RMS value of the entire file. The Root Mean Square (RMS) of audio is a measure of its intensity
over a period of time. Therefore, the RMS power of audio corresponds to the loudness perceived by a listener
when measured over small intervals of time. As a result, rapid transient peaks may not be processed when
compressing in RMS mode.
Auto gain compensate
When you select the Auto gain compensate check box, Wave Hammer boosts the compressor output by a
constant amount derived from the Threshold and Ratio settings. This option prevents a loss in overall level
when compressing audio.
Tip: When using the Auto gain compensate option, the
Output gain fader should be used to fine tune the signal output
level.
Use longer look-ahead
When you select the Use longer look-ahead check box, the compressor scans farther ahead in the incoming
audio to determine how much compression is needed. This results in compression being applied before the
threshold-surpassing audio actually occurs, thereby allowing for a slower Attack time value. However, the precompression effect (fades that occur prior to attacks) of this option may be distracting.
Smooth saturation
Selecting the Smooth saturation check box lowers the amount of distortion caused when applying heavy
compression. When this option is turned on, the compressed audio sounds warmer and not overly bright.
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Input/Output meter
This meter allows you to monitor the level of the incoming and outgoing signals. When the Input button
appears, the meters display the incoming signal level. Clicking Input toggles the button to an Output button
and displays the outgoing signal level. Clicking Output returns you to the incoming signal display.
Attenuation meter
This meter allows you to monitor the audio signal attenuation derived from the current settings.
Volume Maximizer tab
The controls on the Volume Maximizer tab are used to limit the peak amplitude of an audio file or to boost the
overall level without clipping the waveform and distorting the audio.
Volume Maximizer tab
Threshold
The Threshold fader is used to adjust the audio level at which the volume maximizer activates. Audio with
levels higher than the Threshold value are affected, while audio at levels lower than this value pass through
the volume maximizer uninterrupted.
Output level
The Output level fader allows you to determine the level to which peaks above the Threshold setting are
boosted or cut.
Release time
The Release time slider allows you to determine how soon after falling below the threshold the audio signal
attenuation is interrupted.
Use longer look-ahead
When you select the Use longer look-ahead check box, the volume maximizer scans farther ahead in the
incoming audio to determine the amount of limiting that is needed. This results in limiting being applied
before the threshold-surpassing audio actually occurs. However, the pre-limiting effect (fades that occur
prior to attacks) of this option may be distracting.
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Input/Output meter
This meter allows you to monitor the level of the incoming and outgoing signals. When an Input button
appears, the meters are displaying the incoming signal level. Clicking Input toggles the button to an Output
button and displays the outgoing signal level. Clicking Output returns you to the incoming signal display.
Attenuation meter
This meter allows you to monitor the audio signal attenuation derived from the current settings.
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CHAPTER
13
Working with
MIDI/SMPTE
This chapter describes using Sound Forge in conjunction with internal and external MIDI devices.
Note: MIDI/SMPTE features are only available in the full
version of Sound Forge.
What is MIDI?
The musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) is a set of commands or a language that music software and
hardware use to communicate. The most common way to utilize MIDI is to have a device, such as a MIDI
sequencer, generating and sending MIDI commands to another device, such as a synthesizer.
MIDI triggers
You can use numerous internal and external devices to generate MIDI commands and trigger audio playback
in Sound Forge.
Playback versus triggered playback
Procedures in this section use the Sound Forge MIDI Keyboard as the MIDI device for triggering audio
playback.
For more information, see Using the MIDI Keyboard on page 214.
Simple playback
When you click the Play button in the transport bar or playbar, the audio file in the active data window plays
and you hear the audio. MIDI is not involved.
Triggered playback
When the MIDI keyboard triggers playback of the same file, the following occurs:
• The MIDI Keyboard transmits MIDI commands to the MIDI router.
• The MIDI router transmits the MIDI commands to Sound Forge’s MIDI input port.
• The audio file plays.
Note: In the case of triggered playback, MIDI commands
may come from any software or hardware device that
generates MIDI.
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Triggering file playback
Using the MIDI Keyboard or any other MIDI device to trigger audio playback in Sound Forge involves three
separate procedures:
• Configuring the MIDI device (in this case, the MIDI Keyboard).
• Enabling MIDI input synchronization.
• Configuring the MIDI trigger.
Configuring the MIDI device
1. From the View menu, choose Keyboard. The MIDI Keyboard appears.
On/Off
Voice
Note/Chord
Output Channel
MIDI Out
Octave
Output Velocity
2. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
3. Click the MIDI Out button (
) and choose the appropriate MIDI router from the menu.
Choose the MIDI router from the menu
4. Set the keyboard’s Output channel value to 1. The MIDI device is configured.
Turning on MIDI input synchronization
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the MIDI/Sync tab.
3. From the Input drop-down list, choose the appropriate MIDI router and click OK.
Configuring the MIDI trigger
1. From the Options menu, choose MIDI Triggers. The MIDI Triggers
dialog appears.
2. Select Play All from the Event list box.
3. In the Trigger section, select the Note radio button. The Channel and Note
boxes activate.
4. Enter 1 in the Channel box.
5. Enter C4 in the Note box and click OK.
Sound Forge is now configured to play the Voiceover.pca file when it
receives a C4 Note-On command on MIDI Channel 1.
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Starting playback
1. From the Options menu, choose MIDI In/Out, and choose Trigger from MIDI Timecode from the submenu. A
check mark appears adjacent to the command, indicating that it is active and Sound Forge is ready to
receive MIDI commands.
2. Click the C4 key on the MIDI Keyboard.
Click the C4 key to begin playback
The Voiceover.pca file plays in its entirety.
Resetting MIDI triggers
Once set, MIDI triggers are not permanent. They can be edited or deleted as needed.
1. From the Options menu, choose MIDI Triggers. The MIDI Triggers dialog appears.
2. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Reset all triggers to (none) and click OK.
Triggering region playback
Frequently, it is preferable to use a MIDI device to control the triggering of the individual regions within a
file. As in the previous example, the MIDI Keyboard will be used to demonstrate this function.
Note: Before performing this procedure, reset all triggers.
For more information, see Resetting MIDI triggers on page
203.
Configuring region playback triggers
1. Display and configure the MIDI Keyboard. For more information, see Configuring the MIDI device on page
202.
2. Set up the MIDI input synchronization. For more information, see Turning on MIDI input synchronization on
page 202.
3. Open the Voiceover.pca file and display its Regions List.
4. Double-click the “Wow” region. The Edit Marker/Region dialog appears.
5. From the Trigger drop-down list, choose MIDI: Note On - Play.
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Double-click the
“Wow” region
Specify MIDI: Note-On Play
6. Enter 1 in the Channel box and C-4 in the Note box.
7. Click OK. A small musical note appears adjacent to the “Wow” region in the Regions List to indicate that a
trigger has been configured.
A small musical note
indicates a region trigger
8. Repeat steps 4 through 7, providing each region with a unique MIDI trigger.
Using region playback triggers
1. From the Options menu, choose MIDI In/Out, and choose Trigger from MIDI Timecode from the submenu. A
check mark appears adjacent to the command, indicating it is active and Sound Forge is ready to receive
MIDI commands.
2. Click C4 on the MIDI Keyboard. The “Wow” region plays.
3. Click other trigger keys on the MIDI Keyboard and observe how this feature can be used to play regions
on cue or quickly rearrange an audio file.
Note: Sound Forge can play only one region at any given
time. Overlapping causes the active region’s playback to be
interrupted and the new region’s playback to begin.
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Triggering playback from additional internal/external MIDI devices
The basic concepts of MIDI routing and triggering from the Sound Forge MIDI Keyboard described in
previous sections apply to any hardware or software device capable of generating MIDI commands. Follow
the same basic steps to trigger playback:
• Install and configure the MIDI controller (refer to the product-specific documentation for installation
procedures).
• Set up MIDI input synchronization. For more information, see Turning on MIDI input synchronization on
page 202.
• Configure the MIDI triggers to respond to the corresponding controls on the controller. For more
information, see Configuring the MIDI trigger on page 202.
Advantages of external MIDI controllers
In addition to simple playback, MIDI commands can be used to control a wide array of Sound Forge’s
navigation and editing functions. In fact, a quick look at the Event drop-down list in the MIDI Triggers
dialog can provide you with an idea of the power of MIDI commands used in conjunction with Sound Forge.
Using external MIDI controller presets
Sound Forge comes equipped with system presets supporting the sequencer, cursor, dial, and function
buttons on the following external MIDI controllers:
• Roland MCR-8 Multi-Controller
• JLCooper Media Control Station 2
The system presets for these controllers allow you to do the following:
•
•
•
•
Move the cursor using the controller’s dial.
Drop markers by clicking the dial.
Zoom in and out of the waveform using the cursor keys (vertically and horizontally).
Start and stop audio playback using the sequencer controls.
Note: Users of the aforementioned external MIDI
controllers need not limit themselves to Sony Pictures
Digital’s default configurations.
Dropping markers/creating regions with an external MIDI controller
When triggering Sound Forge with an external MIDI controller, you should turn off the Always ask for Region
This allows Sound Forge to label these units with defaults and prevents playback
from being interrupted by dialogs.
and Loop names option.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the General tab.
3. Clear the Always ask for Region and Loop names check box and click OK.
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Sound Forge and MIDI timecode synchronization
MIDI timecode (MTC) is a method of using SMPTE timing signals to synchronize multiple devices.
Although MIDI timecode is typically used to synchronize audio and video, it can also be used to synchronize
playback devices. Sound Forge also has the ability to synchronize to external MTC or generate MTC for
other devices to follow. For more information, see SMPTE Timecode on page 269.
With Sound Forge you can also specify start times of regions in the Regions List to synchronize digital audio
with additional timed events. For example, if a MIDI sequencer generates SMPTE timecode, Sound Forge
can synchronize to it with its own SMPTE timecode and initiate region playback at specified times.
MTC synchronization versus Note-On MIDI triggering
Synchronizing to MTC is similar to synchronizing to other MIDI events and can be used in many of the
same situations. The major advantage of MTC synchronization is that it allows for accurate SMPTE start
times to be specified within Sound Forge. However, MTC synchronization requires more of your system’s
processing power.
When triggering a limited number of sounds in Sound Forge from a sequencer, it is preferable to use NoteOn MIDI Triggering. For more information, see Triggering file playback on page 202.
Playing regions using MTC from a sequencer
Triggering region playback in Sound Forge from a sequencer using MTC involves three procedures:
• Configuring the regions.
• Enabling MIDI input synchronization.
• Configuring the sequencer.
Configuring the regions
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file and view the Regions List and Playlist windows.
2. Select the “Wow” region in the Regions List and drag it to the playlist. The “Wow” region is added to the
playlist.
The “Wow” region is added to the playlist.
3. Double-click the “Wow” region in the playlist. The Edit Playlist dialog appears.
4. From the Trigger drop-down list, choose SMPTE: Play at Time. The SMPTE time box activates.
5. Enter an appropriate SMPTE start time using the hours:minutes:seconds:frames format and click OK. A
small musical note appears adjacent to region in the playlist to indicate that a start time for this region’s
playback is configured.
A small musical note
indicates a start time
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Turning on MIDI input synchronization
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the MIDI/Sync tab.
3. Specify the MIDI input that corresponds to the output port of the sequencer and click OK.
4. From the Options menu, choose MIDI Triggers. The MIDI Triggers dialog appears.
5. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Reset all triggers to (none). This prevents other MIDI commands
from creating additional triggers.
6. Click OK.
7. From the Options menu, choose MIDI In/Out, and choose Trigger from MIDI Timecode from the submenu.
A check mark appears adjacent to the command to indicate that Sound Forge is ready and waiting for
synchronization to MTC.
Configuring the sequencer
1. Set the sequencer’s MIDI output port to correspond with Sound Forge’s MIDI input port.
2. Turn on the sequencer’s MTC output. If the sequencer supports generating MTC, it is now ready to sync.
3. Press the sequencer’s Play button. Sound Forge’s MIDI In status box displays the same SMPTE time as the
sequencer’s SMPTE time. At the specified SMPTE time, Sound Forge starts playback of the region
without interrupting the sequencer’s output to other devices.
Playing regions using MTC from an external device
When using a hardware device that generates MTC, the configuration procedure is basically the same as
outlined above. Simply specify the device’s MTC output driver as Sound Forge’s MIDI input port in the
Preferences dialog’s MIDI/Sync tab.
Using Sound Forge to generate MTC for a MIDI sequencer
Sound Forge can also be used as a tool to generate MTC for other devices to follow. However, it is important
to understand that Sound Forge only generates MTC while playing a file or from a playlist. Using Sound
Forge to generate MTC involves two procedures:
• Configuring Sound Forge.
• Configuring the sequencer.
Configuring Sound Forge
1. Open an audio file.
2. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
3. Click the MIDI/Sync tab.
4. Specify the Sound Forge MIDI output that corresponds to the input port of the sequencer and click OK.
5. From the Options menu, choose MIDI Triggers. The MIDI Triggers dialog appears.
6. From the Preset drop-down list, choose Reset all triggers to (none). This prevents other MIDI commands
from creating additional triggers.
7. Click OK.
8. From the Options menu, choose MIDI In/Out, and choose Generate MIDI Timecode from the submenu. A
check mark appears adjacent to the command, indicating that Sound Forge is ready to generate MTC.
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Configuring the sequencer
1. Specify the sequencer’s MIDI input port that corresponds to Sound Forge’s MIDI output port.
2. Set the sequencer’s SMPTE offset time value as needed.
Note: Sound Forge uses 00:00:00:00 as its output start
point, but certain sequencers recommend a SMPTE offset
time of at least four seconds to ensure synchronization.
3. Turn on the sequencer’s MTC input.
4. If required by the sequencer, press the Play button. The sequencer does not begin playback, but switches to
“Waiting for MTC” mode.
5. Start playback of the file in Sound Forge. When the SMPTE offset time is satisfied, the sequencer locks to
and follows the MTC generated by Sound Forge.
Using Sound Forge to generate MTC for an external device
To use Sound Forge to send MTC to an external device, follow the previous instructions, but configure
Sound Forge’s MIDI output port to send directly to the device’s MIDI driver.
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CHAPTER
Sampling
14
Used in conjunction with the Sampler Tool, Sound Forge’s powerful editing capabilities allow you to create,
edit, and transfer samples between external and internal samplers. This chapter describes the procedures
used to transfer (dump) samples between the computer and sampler with the Sampler Tool.
Note: The Sampler Tool is available only in the full version
of Sound Forge.
Samplers
Samplers are devices that produce on-demand playback of audio samples at varying pitches. For the purposes
of this manual, we will concentrate on two basic varieties: external samplers and internal samplers.
External samplers
External samplers are typically capable of recording samples or transferring prerecorded samples into their
memory. Sound Forge supports two methods of transferring samples to external samplers:
• MIDI Sample Dump Standard (SDS)
• SCSI MIDI Device Interface (SMDI)
MIDI Sample Dump Standard (SDS)
The MIDI SDS is used to send and receive digital samples using normal MIDI hardware and cable
connections. Due to the limited bandwidth of the MIDI protocol and the large amount of data required by
digital samples, a MIDI SDS transfer can be time consuming. Furthermore, SDS is limited to mono samples,
though certain samplers allow two mono samples to be joined as a stereo sample.
SCSI MIDI Device Interface (SMDI)
The SCSI MIDI Device Interface (SMDI) allows music hardware and software to communicate using SCSI
hardware and cables. Because SCSI hardware has a greater bandwidth than MIDI, SMDI transfers are
considerably faster than SDS transfers. In addition, SMDI supports mono and stereo sample transfers.
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Internal samplers
Internal samplers are cards installed in your system that, unlike typical sound cards, actually allow sounds to
be downloaded into memory and played at varying pitches to simulate a musical instrument.
Using an unsupported internal sampler
If you have an internal sampler not directly supported by the Sampler Tool, you have two options:
• Use the MIDI SDS transfer protocol.
• Use an open loop transfer.
Note: If you have a Windows-compatible internal sampler,
contact the manufacturer about supporting SDS in Windows
drivers.
Configuring the Sampler Tool
Configuring the Sampler Tool is fairly straightforward, especially if the desired configuration exists in the list
of presets.
1. From the Tools menu, choose Sampler. The Sampler dialog appears.
The Sampler dialog
2. From the Configuration drop-down list, choose the desired configuration. If the desired configuration is not
listed, you must create it in the Sampler Configuration dialog. For more information, see Creating a sampler
configuration on page 211.
3. Enter a value in the Logical send/receive sample number box.
This value determines the number that the sampler uses as its location reference when sending or
receiving samples. This number can be biased for specific samplers with the Sample bias option in the
Sampler Configuration dialog. For more information, see Creating a sampler configuration on page 211.
4. Begin the process of sending or receiving samples. For more information, see Sending and receiving samples on
page 213.
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Creating a sampler configuration
The Sampler Configuration dialog allows you to create new sample configurations that can be saved as
presets and accessed from the Sampler dialog. Creating new custom configurations requires you to specify the
sampler and sample transfer mode. However, the process of creating a custom sampler configuration differs
based on which transfer mode is used.
1. From the Tools menu, choose Sampler. The Sampler dialog appears.
2. Click the Configure button. The Sampler Configuration dialog appears.
The Sampler Configuration dialog
3. From the Sampler model drop-down list, choose the appropriate sampler. If the desired sampler is not
included in the drop-down list, choose the generic SMDI or SDS capable sampler option. If the sampler
supports the specified protocol, the Sampler Tool should interface with the sampler.
4. Specify input/output settings for the sampler:
• If your sampler uses MIDI/SDS transfer, select the MIDI radio button and choose input and output ports
in the MIDI In and MIDI Out boxes.
• If your sampler uses SCSI/SMDI transfer, select the SCSI radio button and select your sampler in the
Sampler box.
Note: The Sampler box lists all devices connected to the
selected SCSI host, including devices that are not samplers.
5. If desired, enter a value in the Sample bias box. Sample bias is a user-specified value that is added to the
logical sample number to determine the actual sample number used for sending or receiving.
Additionally, sample bias can be used to define unique biases for multiple projects. For example, when
composing multiple pieces using different samples, it is possible to create unique sampler configurations
for each project. Simply establish a unique sample bias to segregate the samples within the sampler.
6. Enter a value in the MIDI channel box to specify which MIDI channel (1-16) is used when transferring
samples.
7. Select the Open loop check box if you want to send SDS sample data immediately upon clicking the Send
Sample
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button. This is an unconditional transfer of sample data (no handshake).
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212
8. Select the Send request when retrieving samples check box if you want the Sampler Tool to send a request
for the sample to the sampler when you click Get Sample.
Clearing the Send request check box requires that the sample transfer be initiated from the sampler, even
after you click Get Sample. Typically, pressing the appropriate button on the sampler satisfies this request.
9. Select the Wait for request when sending samples check box if you want the Sampler tool to wait for the
sampler to request the sample transfer before sending the sample, even after you click Send Sample.
Typically, pressing the appropriate button on the sampler satisfies this request.
Clearing the Wait for request check box configures the Sampler Tool to send the sample as soon as you
click Send Sample.
Open loop versus closed loop
Open loop describes a unidirectional communication protocol. When the Open loop check box is selected,
the source transmits all data to the destination without listening for instruction from the destination. The
destination has no control over how the data is sent and cannot ask for information to be repeated. This lack
of feedback makes open-loop transfers prone to error.
The Open Loop check box in the
Sampler Configuration dialog
If the Open loop check box is cleared, the communication protocol is referred to as closed loop. A closed loop
allows information to flow in both directions. Using closed-loop transfers, the source sends data in small
packets and the destination, upon receiving the packet, either retains the data or discards the packet and
requests the data to be resent. Using closed-loop protocol, the source does not send the next packet of data
until the destination requests it. This makes closed-loop transfers more reliable than open-loop transfers.
In addition to being less reliable, open-loop transfers are slower than closed-loop transfers, especially when
sending samples using the Sampler Tool. This is due to intentional delays placed between data packets to
compensate for varying sampler speeds. Closed-loop transfers typically guarantee the most efficient timing
between packets.
If possible, avoid using an open loop to receive samples from a sampler. The Sampler Tool cannot control
the flow of data packets and there is a high probability that data will be missed.
Tip: Open-loop transfers can be useful when you do not have
enough cables to connect both the MIDI input and MIDI
output ports.
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Saving sampler configurations
Once you complete a sampler configuration, you can save it as a preset and quickly access it in the future.
1. From the Sampler Configuration dialog, click Save As. The Save Preset dialog appears.
The Save Preset dialog
2. Enter a descriptive name in the New preset name box and click OK. The new configuration is saved and
can now be chosen from the Configuration drop-down list in the Sampler dialog.
Note: To delete a preset, choose it from the Preset drop-
down list and click Delete.
Sending and receiving samples
Once you have accurately configured the sampler setup, you can send and receive samples using the Send
and Get Sample buttons in the Sampler dialog.
Sample
Sending a sample
1. From the Tools menu, choose Sampler. The Sampler dialog appears.
2. From the Configuration drop-down list, choose the sampler configuration.
3. Enter the sample number to be sent in the Logical send/receive sample number box. The Sampler Tool takes
into account the configuration’s sample bias and displays values for the Actual send sample number and
For more information, see Creating a sampler configuration on page 211.
Actual receive sample number.
4. Click Send Sample. Sample transfer starts. A meter in the status bar indicates the progress of the transfer.
You can cancel a transfer at any time by clicking Cancel or pressing
Esc
.
Receiving a sample
1. From the Tools menu, choose Sampler. The Sampler dialog appears.
2. From the Configuration drop-down list, choose the sampler configuration.
3. Enter the sample number to be received in the Logical send/receive sample number box. The Sampler Tool
takes into account the configuration’s sample bias and displays values for the Actual send sample number
and Actual receive sample number. For more information, see Creating a sampler configuration on page 211.
4. Click Receive Sample. Sample transfer starts. A meter in the status bar indicates the progress of the
transfer. You can cancel a transfer at any time by clicking Cancel or pressing
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Esc
.
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MIDI unity note and Fine tune
Once you specify a configuration in the Sampler dialog, the Sampler area near the bottom of the dialog
displays all relevant sampler configuration information.
The bottom pane of the dialog contains two additional parameters: MIDI unity note and Fine tune.
MIDI unity note
The MIDI unity note value indicates the pitch to which the sample is tuned.
Fine tune
The Fine tune value indicates any minor tuning differences (measured in cents) in the sample.
Editing MIDI unity note and Fine tune
Both values can be edited and used with samplers that support tuning information by choosing Edit Sample
from the Special menu.
Note: Sound Forge does not use this information.
Using the MIDI Keyboard
With the MIDI Keyboard, you can control internal/external synthesizers and samplers from Sound Forge.
The MIDI Keyboard can also be used to listen to the sounds on a synthesizer or in the synthesis section of the
sound card.
Displaying the MIDI Keyboard
To display the MIDI Keyboard, choose Keyboard from the View menu. The keyboard can be resized, moved,
or docked within the workspace.
On/Off
Voice
Note/Chord
Output Channel
MIDI Out
Octave
Output Velocity
Turning on the MIDI Keyboard
Clicking any key turns the keyboard on. If you do not hear any sound, verify that the output is connected to
the MIDI Output device.
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Configuring the MIDI Keyboard output port and channel
1. Click the MIDI Out button (
) and choose an output device from the menu.
Specify the output
device from the
shortcut menu
2. Choose Send Program Changes from the menu if the keyboard will be used to choose instrument voices. A
check mark appears adjacent to the command to indicate that this option is turned on.
3. Configure the MIDI input channel of the selected device to correspond to the keyboard’s output channel.
Note: Most MIDI devices are configurable to accept MIDI
commands on any channel.
Troubleshooting the MIDI Keyboard
If after configuration, the keyboard fails to produce sound, check the following:
• Verify that the output velocity of the keyboard is set to a value greater than 100.
• Verify that the MIDI input channel in the sound module is set to the same channel as the keyboard.
• Verify that the device is configured to receive MIDI input.
• Verify the device output volume level.
• Verify external MIDI connections, if applicable.
Specifying instruments
1. Choose Send Program Changes from the MIDI Out button (
) menu. A check mark appears adjacent to
the command to indicate that this option is turned on. If this option is turned off, patches cannot be
switched.
2. From the Voice drop-down list, choose the new voice and click any key.
Note: Patch names are arranged as specified in the General
MIDI Standard. For synthesizers not using the General
MIDI convention, use the patch number instead of the
instrument name.
Generating chords
You can also generate chords instead of single notes by choosing a chord structure from the keyboard’s Note/
Chord drop-down list. Chords are generated using the specified note as the root of the chord or interval.
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Setting up MIDI/SDS hardware
To use MIDI/SDS protocol with an external sampler that supports MIDI/SDS, you must install a MIDI card
with MIDI input and output ports in the system.
1. Using a MIDI cable, connect the MIDI output port of the sampler to the MIDI input port of the MIDI
card.
2. Connect the MIDI input port of the sampler to the MIDI output port of the card.
Note: This is the same configuration used to connect a
MIDI keyboard to a computer for sequencing.
Internal samplers do not require a MIDI card and MIDI cables; however, an open-loop protocol may be
required when sending samples to an internal sampler. The sampler’s documentation should specify the
requirements for performing SDS transfers if the sampler supports this action.
Troubleshooting MIDI/SDS with open loop
Open-loop transfers, while not recommended for sending or receiving samples, can assist you in
troubleshooting SDS hardware setup problems. If the Sampler Tool does not transfer data to (or from) the
sampler, select the open-loop option and attempt single cable transfers. If open-loop transfers are successful,
but closed-loop transfers are not, any of the following may be the cause:
• The sampler does not support closed-loop transfers (handshaking).
• One or more of the MIDI cables or connections is faulty.
• The MIDI card is not receiving MIDI input (send) or sending MIDI output (receive). Interrupt conflicts
are common for MIDI input.
Setting up SCSI/SMDI hardware
To use the SCSI/SMDI protocol with an external sampler that supports the SCSI/SMDI protocol under
Windows 98SE, Windows Me, Windows 2000, or Windows XP, only a compatible SCSI adapter is needed.
The computer and sampler must be powered-down prior to connecting or disconnecting SCSI cables to
prevent damage to the computer and/or hardware.
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Troubleshooting SCSI/SMDI
A brief description of some common problems encountered with SCSI and samplers follows.
Conflicting SCSI IDs
When connecting devices on a SCSI chain, each device must have a unique device identifier (ID). SCSI
allows for up to eight unique ID values, numbered 0 to 7. Typically, device ID 7 is used for the internal SCSI
controller card, leaving ID 0 through 6 for other devices.
Note: The ID of a bootable SCSI hard drive must be set to
0.
The following table describes a typical SCSI configuration:
ID
Device(s)
0
1
2-6
7
Hard Drive
CD-ROM Drive
Samplers
SCSI Controller Card
Periodic transfer failures
Messages such as “The SCSI Device is not responding” or “A problem was encountered while transferring
the sample” may indicate a problem with a SCSI bus.
1. From the Tools menu, choose Sampler. The Sampler dialog appears.
2. Click Configure. The Sampler Configuration dialog appears.
3. Repeat the selection of the SCSI host. This causes a series of SCSI commands to be executed that may
settle the bus.
If the problem persists, power-down and restart all equipment.
Sampler is recognized but does not transfer reliably
The following are possible causes of unreliable SCSI transfers.
Synchronous transfer mode
Select samplers (the Kurzweil K2000 among them) do not operate properly if there is a SCSI device set to
synchronous transfer mode on the same SCSI chain. SCSI hard drives and CD-ROMs often have the option
of using a synchronous transfer mode. If there is a host versus device synchronous transfer option, select the
host option. Refer to the SCSI device’s documentation for more information.
SCSI termination
If the SCSI chain is not properly terminated, unreliable SCSI transfers may be experienced. Refer to the
SCSI card and SCSI device documentation for more information.
Long or faulty SCSI cables
SCSI cables that are very long or not properly shielded may not operate reliably. In addition, do not use
cables that are not certified SCSI cables.
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Adaptec 1540/1542CF does not recognize a sampler
If the Adaptec 1540/1542CF does not recognize the sampler, a change may be required in the configuration
of the Adaptec controller. Some samplers do not operate when the Reset SCSI Bus at Power-On option of the
Adaptec controller is turned on. This is the default operation for the 1540/1542CF and must be turned off to
allow the system to work with the sampler.
Note: Turning off the Reset SCSI Bus at Power-On option
may keep other devices on the SCSI chain from resetting
correctly when using the system’s soft boot feature. Other
systems may freeze temporarily. To guarantee that devices
are reset when rebooting with this option turned off, use the
system’s reset button or power-down and up to reset the
system.
SCSI/SMDI-compatible menu is not displayed under Windows 98SE and Windows Me
Verify proper SCSI termination and check for multiple devices on the SCSI chain using the same SCSI ID.
If this fails to solve the problem, Adaptec SCSI card users may need to update the system’s mini-port drivers.
Adaptec has a series of updated mini-port drivers available for Windows 98SE and Windows Me on the
Web.
After you download the file, you must create a temporary directory or folder on the system and run the
WIN95MPD.EXE program. Follow the directions in the readme.txt file to update the drivers for the Adaptec
SCSI card.
SAMPLING
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CHAPTER
Looping
15
Sound Forge is an excellent tool for creating loops and provides the perfect compliment to Sony Pictures
Digital’s revolutionary ACID™ line of loop-based music creation tools.
Creating loop regions in files is useful only when you intend to transfer the files to a hardware sampler that
supports the loop regions.
Loops
A loop is a sample or region in an audio file that is repeated during playback. Samples are finite and
frequently very short in length. Therefore, they must be repeated (or looped) to create longer or sustaining
sounds.
Note: Loops can also be used to repeat entire sections of
music in Sound Forge, although the playlist is better suited to
this purpose.
Sustaining and release loops
A sound envelope contains four elements: attack, decay, sustain, and release.
Attack
Decay
Sustain
Release
Typically, the sustain portion of the envelope is looped to lengthen the duration of a sound. This is referred
to as the sustaining loop.
While sustaining loops are useful, it is frequently necessary to create a second loop, taken from later in the
envelope. This allows you to reproduce longer, more complex sounds, such as a piano chord struck with the
sustain pedal depressed. This second type of loop is referred to as the release loop.
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Creating a sustaining loop
1. Open the Drumhit.pca file and create a selection containing the snare hit at the beginning of the
waveform.
Create and preview the selection
2. With the Loop Playback button (
) selected in the transport bar, click the Play Normal button (
) on the
playbar to preview the loop.
3. From the Special menu, choose Insert Sample Loop. The Edit Sample dialog appears.
Press
L
.
4. In the Edit Sample dialog, select the Sustaining radio button. The controls in the middle pane of the dialog
activate.
5. Select the Loop count radio button.
Select the Loop Count radio button
and enter a loop count value
6. Enter a value of 10 in the Loop count box and click OK. The data window displays the appropriate tags in
the ruler to specify the loop’s start and end points. The Play as Sample button (
) appears on the playbar.
Loop start
and end tags
7. Click the Play as Sample button (
) on the playbar. The looped snare selection repeats ten times before
the cymbal crash.
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Creating a sustaining loop with a release loop
To add a release loop to the sustaining loop created in the previous procedure, you must reconfigure the
dialog and rearrange the loop tags in the data window.
Configuring the dialog
1. Right-click either of the loop tags and chose Edit from the shortcut menu. The Edit Sample dialog
appears.
2. In the Edit Sample dialog, select the Sustaining with Release radio button.
3. Verify that the Release radio button is selected in the Loop to edit area of the dialog.
4. Select the Loop count radio button. The edit box is activated.
5. Enter a value of 5 in the Loop count box and click OK. Both loops (sustaining and release) are configured.
Arranging the loop tags
Once the dialog is properly configured to support a release loop, release loop tags are created in the data
window beneath the sustaining loop tags. The sustaining and release loops temporarily contain identical
data.
1. Drag the sustaining loop end tag toward the left side of the data window to reveal the release loop end tag.
Drag the sustaining
loop end tag
Release loop end tag
The release loop end
tag is revealed
2. Drag the sustaining loop start tag toward the right side of the data window. This reveals the release loop
start tag.
3. Arrange the loop tags so that the snare hit is contained within the sustaining loop and the cymbal crash is
contained within the release loop.
Arrange the sustaining and release
loops in the data window
4. Click the Play as Sample button (
) in the playbar. The entire file plays with the snare hit repeated ten
times followed by the cymbal crash five times.
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Looping techniques
Depending upon the source material, creating a natural-sounding loop can be a difficult task. Many factors
beyond your control may produce distracting pops and glitches, thereby calling unwanted attention to the
loop. Although looping skill is largely the product of practice and experimentation, there are some
guidelines to consider.
Match endpoint amplitudes
One of the easiest ways to minimize the occurrence of glitches when creating loops is to select loop
endpoints that have an amplitude of zero. These points are known as zero-crossings. For more information, see
Finding zero-crossings on page 225.
Match endpoint waveform slope
Another technique for reducing loop glitches is to avoid matching loop endpoints where the waveform slope
does not match. If the waveform slope changes drastically, a pop plays when the sample is looped.
Non-matching slope
Matching slope
Note: The data windows pictured above display the Loop
Tuner in the bottom half of the window. For more
information on the Loop Tuner, please see page 223.
Match endpoint sound levels
The overall amplitude (or loudness) approaching the loop’s endpoints should be as similar as possible to
prevent distracting glitches. Unfortunately, it is frequently difficult to avoid this problem, particularly with
rapidly decaying source material. For more information, see Viewing loop amplitude on page 225.
Non-matching amplitude
LOOPING
Matching amplitude
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Avoid very short loops
If the loop is shorter than ~50 ms (1/20 Hz), the pitch of the loop may not equal the sample pitch. Pitchtuning a loop is accomplished by creating short loops with a length equal to 1/frequency. For example, a
sample of pitch 440 Hz corresponds to A5 on the keyboard, meaning the loop can be pitch-tuned 2.27 ms.
However, pitched loops do not sound like the original sample.
Editing loops
The loop you initially create in any situation is rarely perfect. Frequently, loops require some degree of
editing before they are usable.
Editing a loop without the Loop Tuner
Once you create a loop, you can quickly edit its beginning and end (and subsequently its length) by dragging
the markers to a new location. However, this method frequently does not provide the control required to
create seamless loops. In this case, you should edit the loop using the Loop Tuner.
Editing a loop with the Loop Tuner
The Loop Tuner allows you to precisely edit loop points in order to prevent distracting audio glitches. This is
accomplished by greatly magnifying the waveform and displaying the loop tags in relation to one another.
The left side of the Loop Tuner window displays the end of the loop, while the right side displays the start of
the loop. This arrangement allows you to fine-tune loops by viewing a graphical representation of the
junction between the end and the start of a loop.
In addition, the Loop Tuner contains several tools designed to assist you in creating professional-sounding
loops.
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Displaying the Loop Tuner
1. Open the Loop.pca file. A sustaining loop appears in the data window.
2. From the View menu, choose Loop Tuner. The Loop Tuner appears at the bottom of the data window and
displays the waveform of the file’s loop.
Loop Tuner
Loop End window
Loop Start window
Loop End
Position
Loop Start
Position
Lock Loop
Length
Zero-crossing finders
Loop Endpoint
Amplitudes
Play Post-Loop
Play Loop
Play Pre-Loop
Loop Select
Playing loops using the Loop Tuner
The Loop Tuner contains three playback buttons: Play Pre-Loop, Play Loop, and Play Post-Loop.
• Click the Play Pre-Loop button ( ) to start playback of a file from its beginning and stop playback at the
loop start tag.
• Click the Play Loop button ( ) to start playback of the looped region. The number of times the loop plays
is dependent upon the Loop count value in the Edit Sample dialog. Use this button to audition the loop for
pops and glitches. For more information, see Creating a sustaining loop on page 220.
• Click the Play Post-Loop button ( ) to start playback immediately following the loop end point and
continue through the end of the file.
Tip: You can use the Play as Sample button (
) in the
playbar to audition the entire sample with configured loops.
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Switching between the sustain and release loops
When working with a file that contains sustain and release loops, you can quickly toggle between the loops
by clicking the Loop Select button ( ).
When working with a file containing two loops, this button indicates which loop is active.
•
•
indicates that the sustaining loop is active.
indicates that the release loop is active.
Viewing loop amplitude
The sample amplitude at the loop’s start and end points appears in the lower-right corner of the Loop Tuner.
Start Loop Amplitude
End Loop Amplitude
Although it is dependent upon the specific waveform, a good rule of thumb is that the closer these two
amplitude values are, the more natural the resulting loop sounds.
Finding zero-crossings
The Loop Tuner’s zero-crossing finders are used to locate zero-crossings adjacent to the current loop tag
location.
Loop End Zero-Crossing Right
Loop End Zero-Crossing Left
Loop Start Zero-Crossing Right
Loop Start Zero-Crossing Left
The Loop Tuner contains two zero-crossing finders for each of the loop points.
• The left button in each pair locates the zero-crossing to the left of the current location.
• The right button in each pair locates the zero-crossing to the right of the current location.
To use the finders, click the desired button. By experimenting with different locations and repositioning the
start and end points, you can create seamless loops. You can also configure the zero-crossing finders to locate
positive slope crossings, negative slope crossings, or all zero-crossings.
Configuring the zero-crossing finders
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences. The Preferences dialog appears.
2. Click the Editing tab.
3. From the Snap to zero-crossing slope drop-down list, choose the desired slope and click OK.
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Fine-tuning loop points
You can use the Loop Tuner to fine-tune loop points in three ways:
• To move loop points by small amounts, use the Loop Start Position and Loop End Position arrow spinners.
Clicking the up or down arrow increments the loop point by one sample.
• To move loop points by larger amounts, use the mouse to drag the spinner up or down.
• To move loop points by very large amounts, use the mouse to drag the ruler at the top of the Loop Start or
Loop End display.
Click the arrow spinners to
move by one sample
Drag the ruler to move
by large amounts
Locking loop length
The Lock Loop Length button ( ) allows you to freely move the start and end points of a loop without
altering its length. When the button is selected, any editing that moves a loop point affects both loop points,
thereby keeping the loop length constant.
Clicking the Lock Loop Length button a second time turns this feature off and allows loop points to be edited
independently with no regard for the loop’s original length.
Note: The Lock Loop Length button has the same function
as the Lock Loop/Region Length command in the Options
menu.
Crossfading loops
You can use the Crossfade Loop tool to loop audio from difficult source material. It allows you to crossfade
the end of a loop with the beginning of the loop in order to create a smoother, more natural-sounding
transition. In addition, you can configure the Crossfade Loop tool to crossfade the beginning of the audio
loop with the beginning of the post-loop audio on the loop’s final pass. This smooths the occasionally
awkward transition from looped to non-looped audio.
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Using the Crossfade Loop tool
1. Open the Loop.pca file. A sustaining loop appears in the data window.
2. From the Tools menu, choose Crossfade Loop. The Crossfade Loop dialog appears.
3. Drag the Loop slider to configure the percentage of the loop to be crossfaded.
30% loop crossfade
80% loop crossfade
4. If desired, select the Post-Loop check box and drag the slider to configure the percentage of the loop to be
crossfaded into the post-loop audio.
20% post-loop crossfade
90% post-loop crossfade
5. From the Preview mode drop-down list, specify how the Preview button operates: Loop the Loop, Play Loop
through Post-Loop, or Play as One Shot.
6. Preview and tune the crossfade until you cannot detect the loop transitions.
7. Click OK.
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Creating loops for ACID
Sound Forge is an excellent tool for creating and editing loops to be imported into any of the ACID family of
products. You can use Sound Forge to create four different types of files for ACID:
•
•
•
•
One-shot file
Loop file
ACID 2.0 disk-based file
ACID 3.0 or later beatmapped file
Edit Acid Properties dialog
Creating an ACID one-shot file
One-shots are files that do not stretch with tempo or change pitch to match the key of the ACID project.
This behavior makes one-shots particularly suited for audio such as cymbal crashes, sound effects, and short
vocal lines.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Create a selection containing the “Wow” and drag it to the workspace. A new data window is created
containing the “Wow” audio data.
3. From the Special menu, choose Edit ACID Properties. The Edit ACID Properties dialog appears.
4. Select the One-Shot radio button and click OK.
5. From the File menu, choose Save As and save the file with a descriptive name.
Creating an ACID loop file
Loops are musical building blocks and are by far the most common type of file used in ACID. Loops stretch
with an ACID project’s tempo and can be configured to change pitch. When using Sound Forge to create
files for use in ACID, the Edit ACID Properties dialog defaults to the loop setting.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file.
2. Create a selection containing the “And easier” and drag it to the workspace. A new data window is
created containing the “And easier” audio data.
3. From the Special menu, choose Edit ACID Properties. The Edit ACID Properties dialog appears.
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4. Select the Loop radio button. The Root note for transposing and Number of beats boxes activate.
Select the Loop radio button
5. Choose one of the following options:
• If the loop should be transposed when inserted in an ACID project, choose its root note from the Root
note for transposing drop-down list.
• If the loop should not be transposed in an ACID project, choose Don’t transpose from the drop-down list.
6. In the Number of beats box, specify the length of the loop in beats. The default value is four beats.
7. Click OK.
8. From the File menu, choose Save As and save the file with a descriptive name.
Creating an ACID 2.0 disk-based file
ACID 2.0 disk-based files can stretch to comply with an ACID project’s tempo, but require that you specify
the file’s original tempo upon configuration. If the original tempo is not specified in the Edit ACID
Properties dialog, no stretching occurs.
While ACID 2.0 disk-based files can change tempo, they cannot change pitch. Disk-based files are typically
used in ACID 2.0 for extended vocal tracks or other long audio files that do not loop.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file and select the entire waveform.
2. From the Special menu, choose Edit ACID Properties. The Edit ACID Properties dialog appears.
3. Select the ACID 2.0 Disk-Based radio button. The Tempo check box activates.
Select the ACID 2.0 Disk-based radio button
4. If the file should stretch to match the ACID 2.0 project’s tempo, select the Tempo check box. The Tempo
box activates.
5. Specify the file’s original tempo (60-240 bpm) in the Tempo box and click OK. For more information, see
Setting loop tempo on page 233.
6. From the File menu, choose Save As and save the file with a descriptive name.
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Creating an ACID beatmapped file
ACID beatmapped files can change tempo and pitch to match an ACID project. You must specify the file’s
original tempo and root note for transposing upon configuration. If you do not specify these values, no tempo
or key changes occur. Beatmapped files are typically used in ACID 3.0 or later for extended vocal tracks or
other long audio files that do not loop.
1. Open the Voiceover.pca file and select the entire waveform.
2. From the Special menu, choose Edit ACID Properties. The Edit ACID Properties dialog appears.
3. Select the ACID Beatmapped radio button. Complete the information for an ACID beatmapped file:
• Select a value from the Root note for transposing drop-down list so that ACID can transpose the file to
match the project key. Select Don’t transpose from this list to keep the key from being changed.
• Specify the file’s original tempo (40-300 bpm) in the Tempo box so that ACID can stretch the file to
match the project tempo. For more information, see Setting loop tempo on page 233.
• Enter a value in the Downbeat offset (samples) box to indicate the location of the first downbeat.
Select the ACID Beatmapped radio button
4. Click OK.
5. From the File menu, choose Save As and save the file with a descriptive name.
Using the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar
The ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar provides quick access to the commands used to create and edit files
for ACID.
1. From the View menu, choose Toolbars. The Preferences dialog appears with a list of available toolbars.
2. Select the ACID Loop Creation Tools check box and click OK.
Tempo Window
Selection Grid Lines
Rotate Audio
Shift Selection Right
Shift Selection Left
Halve Selection
Double Selection
Edit Tempo
Edit ACID Properties
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Editing loops for ACID
Sound Forge provides a number of tools to prepare audio for use in ACID.
Halving or doubling a loop
These commands allow you to quickly change the size of a selection.
Loop
Half loop
Double loop
Halving a loop
From the Special menu, choose ACID Looping Tools, and choose Halve Selection from the submenu.
Click the Halve Selection button (
) on the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar or press
;
.
Doubling a loop
From the Special menu, choose ACID Looping Tools, and choose Double Selection from the submenu.
Click the Double Selection button (
) on the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar or press
‘
.
Shifting a selection left or right
The shift selection commands allow you to quickly create a new selection adjacent to the current selection
while maintaining the size of the original.
Creating a new selection to the left of the current selection
From the Special menu, choose ACID Looping Tools, and choose Shift Selection Left from the submenu.
Click the Shift Selection Left button (
) on the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar or press
<.
Creating a new selection to the right of the current selection
From the Special menu, choose ACID Looping Tools, and choose Shift Selection Right from the submenu.
Click the Shift Selection Right button (
CHP. 15
) on the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar or press
>.
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232
Rotating audio
You can move the beginning of a loop to the end, or the end of a loop to the beginning by rotating the audio.
From the Special menu, choose ACID Looping Tools, and choose Rotate Audio from the submenu.
Click the Rotate Audio button (
) on the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar or press
:
.
Note: If the selected audio does not originate from the start
or end of a loop, Rotate Audio has no effect.
Rotating the audio has different effects, depending on what is selected.
• If no audio is selected, Rotate Audio transfers the first 25% of the loop to the end of the loop.
Using the Rotate Audio function with no selection
• If audio is selected from the start of a loop, Rotate Audio transfers the selection to the end of the loop.
Using the Rotate Audio function with a selection at the start of a loop
• If audio is selected from the end of a loop, Rotate Audio transfers the selection to the start of the loop.
Using the Rotate Audio function with a selection at the end of a loop
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Setting loop tempo
You can calculate, and if necessary edit, the tempo of your loops. Loop tempo is especially important if the
loop will be used for building a project in any ACID product. For more information, see Creating loops for
ACID on page 228.
Calculating loop tempo
1. Select the loop.
2. From the Special menu, choose Edit Tempo. The Edit Tempo dialog appears.
3. Specify the number of beats the loop represents in the Selection length in beats box.
4. Click the mouse pointer in the Tempo in beats per minute box. The loop tempo calculates and displays.
Calculating loop tempo using the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar
To calculate loop tempo using the ACID Loop Creation Tools toolbar, select the looped audio in the data
window. The tempo pane indicates the loop tempo based on the current Beat Length value.
Loop tempo displays
in the Tempo pane
Saving loop points
To save loop information with the file, select the Save metadata with file check box in the Save As dialog. For
more information, see Save metadata with file on page 54.
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LOOPING
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CHAPTER
Working with Video
16
Sound Forge supports opening and saving Microsoft® Audio and Video Interleave (AVI), Windows
Media® Video (WMV), QuickTime® (MOV), and MPEG video files. Using Sound Forge, you can edit a
video file’s audio track with single-frame accuracy.
Viewing video
You can view the video portion of a file in the data window’s video strip and in the Video Preview window.
Sound Forge also supports viewing video on an external monitor.
Using the video strip
Though Sound Forge does not perform video editing, the video strip display allows you to navigate video
files.
Right-click the Edit Tool Selector
to view the video strip
Video strip
Thumbnail
Small triangle indicates
the location of the frame
on the timeline
By default, the video strip displays when you open a file containing video. If the video strip is not displayed,
right-click the data window’s Edit Tool Selector and choose Video from the shortcut menu. A check mark
appears adjacent to the command and the video strip displays. To hide the video strip, choose Video from the
shortcut menu again.
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Changing video strip height
You can change the video strip height by dragging the thin bar at the bottom of the video strip. To change
the default height for all video files you open in Sound Forge, choose Preferences from the Options menu
and set a Default video strip height on the Display tab.
Drag the bar below the video strip
to change the video strip height.
Enabling frame animation
When playing a video file, you can specify whether frames are animated or displayed as still frames. To turn
on frame animation, right-click the video strip and choose Animate from the shortcut menu. A check mark
appears adjacent to the command to indicate this feature is turned on.
Using the cursor to select a frame
When frame animation is turned on, clicking anywhere within the audio portion of the data window displays
the corresponding video frame in the video strip. To move the cursor by single frames, press Alt + or
Alt +
.
Viewing frame numbers
Sound Forge allows you to display frame numbers on each frame in your video
strip, which can assist you in positioning your audio. As you zoom in more
tightly, each frame in the strip represents one frame in the video.
1. Open a video file and display the video strip.
Frame
number
2. From the Options menu, choose Video, and then choose Number Frames. A
check mark appears next to this option on the menu when the feature is
enabled, and a small box with a number appears at the bottom of each
frame. The small black arrow marks the exact position of the frame.
Right-click the video strip and choose Number Frames from the shortcut menu.
3. Using the data window’s zoom ratio controls, zoom in/out on the waveform several times and observe the
numbering of the video frames.
Tip: Select a frame number format by choosing Preferences
from the Options menu and selecting an option from the
Frame numbering on thumbnails drop-down list on the Video
tab.
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Animating the video strip
During playback of a video file, the video strip can display animated or still frames. This can visually aid in
editing and positioning your audio to match the video. From the Options menu, choose Video, and then
choose Animate Video Strip. A check mark appears next to this option on the menu when the feature is
enabled. When the video strip is animated, the video strip always displays the frame that corresponds to the
cursor position. Press Alt + or to move the cursor one frame.
When frame animation is turned off, the video strip always shows the frame that corresponds to the left edge
of each image in the video strip.
Tip: If you experience slow or stuttering video preview, turn
off animated video to reduce the load on your CPU.
Right-click the video strip and choose Animate from the shortcut menu.
Copying the current video frame to the clipboard
You can use the clipboard to copy the video frame at the current cursor position. From the Options menu,
choose Video, and then choose Copy Frame. The current frame is copied to the clipboard.
Right-click the video strip and choose Copy Frame from the shortcut menu.
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Previewing files with video
If you are working with a media file that contains video, you can use the Video Preview window for
previewing. You must have the Video Preview window displayed to preview the audio stream. You can hide
or display the Video Preview window by choosing Video Preview from the View menu. To begin previewing
the current data window, click the Play All button ( ) on the transport bar.
To display the Video Preview window, press
Alt + 4
.
Video Preview window
Copies the current frame to the clipboard
Sets up previewing on an external monitor
Frame Rate
Current Display Size
Original Frame Size
Button
Frame Number
Description
External monitor Sends the preview out to an external monitor. This only functions if your hardware supports this feature. If you have
not configured your external monitor settings, clicking this button displays the Video tab of the Preferences
dialog, allowing you to choose your external monitor device. For more information on configuring your external
monitor settings, see page 242.
Important: Sound Forge automatically adds pulldown when you preview 24p video on an external monitor.
Note: This feature is available only in the full version of Sound Forge.
Copy frame
Copies the contents of the frame to Windows Clipboard.
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Changing the Video Preview settings
The Video Preview window can be configured in a number of ways to make it more useful. The Video
Preview window can be used on a separate monitor (if your video hardware supports this feature), docked at
the bottom of the workspace, or floated freely on the screen.
You can quickly access settings for the Video Preview window using the shortcut menu. Right-click the
Video Preview window to adjust the following options:
Option
Description
Copy frame
Default
background
Black background
White
background
Integral stretch
Copies the contents of the frame to Windows Clipboard.
Sets the Video Preview window background color to the system default color.
Sets the Video Preview window background color to black.
Sets the Video Preview window background color to white.
When selected, the Video Preview frame will only be stretched by integral amounts. Turning
this setting on usually provides faster drawing.
Display square
Compensates for any spatial distortion due to non-square pixel aspect ratios when viewed on a
pixels
computer monitor.
External monitor Sends the preview out to an external monitor. This only functions if your hardware
supports this feature. If you have not configured your external monitor settings,
clicking this button displays the Video tab of the Preferences dialog, allowing you to
choose your external monitor device.
Important: Sound Forge automatically adds pulldown when you preview 24p video on
an external monitor.
Note: This option is available only in the full version of Sound Forge.
Passive Update
Reduces the overhead needed to update the Video Display window. The Video Display is
updated when the processor is idle.
Show Toolbar
Toggles the display of the toolbar at the top of the window.
Show Status Bar Toggles the information display at the bottom of the window.
Resizing the Video Preview
Double-click the title bar of the Video Preview window to automatically resize the window to fit the current
video file. Double-click the title bar again to resize the window to half its previous size. This smaller size
window allows for faster video frame previewing.
Using an external monitor
Sound Forge provides the option of viewing video on an external monitor. To use this feature, you must
have an OHCI-compliant IEEE-1394 DV interface and a device to convert the DV signal to video, such as a
DV camcorder, deck, or media converter.
Note: Sound Forge automatically adds pulldown when you
preview 24p video on an external monitor.
1. From the Options menu, choose Preferences and click the Video tab.
Click the External Monitor button (
) on the Video Preview window.
2. From the External monitor device drop-down list, select the appropriate device.
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3. Click Properties and adjust the following settings as needed:
• If your source media does not conform to DV standards, choose a setting from the If project format is invalid
for DV output, conform to the following drop-down list. Sound Forge adjusts the video to display properly on
your external monitor.
• If your audio is not synchronized with your external monitor, you can configure an offset for your
hardware. Drag the Sync offset (frames) slider to synchronize audio and video. This setting affects
synchronization for previewing on an external monitor only; audio and video synchronization in the
Sound Forge file is unaffected.
4. Click Close to close the External Monitor dialog.
5. Click OK to close the Preferences dialog.
Attaching video to an audio file
Once you have edited an audio file to your satisfaction, you can attach it to a video file and save it as a video
file.
1. Open the audio file you want to use. For more information, see Getting media files on page 46.
2. From the File menu, choose Properties. The Properties dialog appears.
3. Click the Video tab.
The Video tab of the Properties dialog
4. On the Video page, click the Attach button. The Open dialog appears.
5. Locate and select a video file you want to attach, and click the Open button. The Open dialog closes and
you return to the Video page.
6. Click Apply to attach the video file.
7. To change the field order setting for the video file, choose an option from the Field order drop-down list.
The options are explained below:
Option
None (Progressive)
Lower Field First
Upper Field First
Use
For video to be viewed on a computer monitor.
For DV output
For output that is jittery or shaky, or if specified by your hardware manual.
8. To change the video’s pixel aspect ratio, choose an option from the Pixel aspect ratio drop-down list. The
pixel aspect ratio should be based on the destination and use of the final media file.
9. Click OK to close the Properties dialog.
Note: The file must be saved in a video file format to
permanently attach the video. For more information, see
Saving a video file on page 242.
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Detaching video from an audio file
You can use Sound Forge to detach the video stream from a media file.
1. Open the media file you want to use. For more information, see Getting media files on page 46.
2. From the File menu, choose Properties. The Properties dialog displays.
3. Click the Video tab.
4. On the Video page, click the Detach button.
5. Click OK. The video stream is removed, and the video strip is hidden.
Setting video options
Video file properties
The video properties for a file affect how Sound Forge displays video and renders video when you save the
file. In most situations, you can leave these settings at their default values. However, you can adjust the
video properties of a file as needed.
1. From the File menu, choose Properties.
2. Click the Video tab.
3. Choose a setting from the Field order drop-down list. This setting affects how Sound Forge displays the
video and renders the video when you save the file.
• None (progressive scan) treats video as non-interlaced.
• Upper field first treats video as interlaced and reads the interlaced video as upper field first.
• Lower field first treats video as interlaced and reads the interlaced video as lower field first.
Note: The Field order setting remains in effect only as long
as the file is open; Sound Forge does not retain the setting
when you save or close the file.
4. Choose a setting from the Pixel aspect ratio drop-down list to determine the ratio Sound Forge uses to
display and render the video. In most cases, Sound Forge auto-detects this value for you.
5. Click OK.
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Configuring your video settings
You can use the Video tab on the Preferences dialog to choose your video settings. From the Options menu,
choose Preferences, and then click the Video tab.
The items on this tab are explained below.
Items
Description
Resample source video
Select this check box if you want Sound Forge to interpolate video frames when you
render to a frame rate that is greater than the source file's frame rate.
Choose a setting from the drop-down list to determine how Sound Forge separates the
two fields that make up a video frame when you render to a progressive format:
Blend Fields: Maintains the data in the two fields by blending them together. This
method can produce a smooth, motion-blurred image.
Interpolate: Deletes one field and uses the remaining field to interpolate the deleted
lines. This produces sharper images than Blend Fields but can introduce jagged motion
or stair-stepping artifacts.
If you want Sound Forge to automatically remove pulldown fields when opening 24 fps
progressive-scan DV video files, select this check box. To open your 24p DV video files as
29.97 fps interlaced video (60i), clear this check box.
This drop-down list determines how the frame information is displayed on the video
strip when you have frame number display enabled. To display frame numbers, choose
the Frame number option. To display timecode, choose the Media timecode option.
Allows you to identify an external video device with which Sound Forge can
communicate. This video device is used to display previews on an external monitor.
Important: Sound Forge automatically adds pulldown when you preview 24p video on
an external monitor.
Note: This option is available only in the full version of Sound Forge.
Deinterlace method
Allow pulldown removal when
opening 24p DV
Frame numbering on
thumbnails
External monitor device
Saving a video file
1. From the File menu, choose Save As. The Save As dialog appears.
2. From the Save as type drop-down list, choose a video file format.
3. Name the file in the File name box.
Select or clear Video check boxes as needed
4. Select or clear the following check boxes as needed:
• Stretch video to fill output frame (do not letterbox): Selecting this check box stretches the source video frame
if the destination frame size differs. When this check box is cleared, Sound Forge uses letterboxing or
pillarboxing to keep the frame aspect correct.
• Fast video resizing: Selecting this check box speeds the process of saving video. When this check box is
cleared, the time required to save the file can increase dramatically. Clear this check box only when you
have critical material where nothing but the highest quality video rendering will do.
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5. From the Template drop-down list, select a template for rendering and compressing the file.
You can click Custom to customize the settings in the Custom Settings dialog. For help on the different
settings, click the What’s This Help button ( ) or press Shift + F1 and then click a control. Click OK to
close the Custom Settings dialog and return to the Save As dialog.
Tip: You can save the custom settings to use again by
entering a template name in the Template box and clicking the
button ( ).
Save Template
6. Click Save.
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CHAPTER
17
Using Spectrum
Analysis
This chapter introduces you to the concept of frequency and describes Sound Forge’s Spectrum Analysis.
Spectrum Analysis allows you to examine audio frequencies and overtones using either spectrum graphs or
sonograms.
Note: Spectrum Analysis is available only in the full version
of Sound Forge.
Working in the frequency domain
Unlike the waveform display, which represents audio in the time domain (amplitude vs. time), Spectrum
Analysis allows you to examine audio recordings in the frequency domain.
Consider the following graphic, which depicts the same audio event as a waveform and as a spectrum graph.
Waveform display
Spectrum graph
Data displayed in the frequency domain (whether in the form of a spectrum graph or sonogram) depicts the
amplitudes and frequencies of sine waves that, if mixed, would sound much like the original audio. Since it is
relatively easy to remember what a sine wave sounds like at a specific frequency, it is possible to imagine
what simple waveforms sound like by examining their spectrum.
Learning to “read” the frequency components of a sound in conjunction with their corresponding amplitudes
makes it possible to determine the fundamental frequency of a sound, as well as its overtones. Similarly, you
can identify unwanted noise, thereby allowing filtering to be applied where needed.
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Fast Fourier Transform
A Fourier transform is computationally intensive and for this reason it is common to use a technique called a
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to perform spectral analysis. The FFT utilizes mathematical shortcuts to reduce
the processing time at the expense of putting limitations on the analysis size.
The analysis size, also referred to as the FFT size, indicates the number of samples from the audio signal used
in analysis and also determines the number of discrete frequency bands. When a large number of frequency
bands are used, the bands have a smaller bandwidth and this provides for more accurate frequency readings.
However, since complex sounds have a rapidly changing spectrum, a large analysis size can blur the timechanging frequencies of a sound. For example, when performing FFT analysis of an audio file sampled at
44,100 Hz using an analysis size of 4096, almost 100 milliseconds (44,100/4096) of sound are analyzed. If the
sound is not constant for those 100 milliseconds, it is impossible to focus on the instantaneous spectrum at
smaller time intervals. This is the trade-off between time resolution and frequency resolution encountered
when analyzing audio signals.
Spectrum Analysis allows you to perform precise FFT analysis and displays the resulting data in two graphical
formats: the Spectrum Graph allows real-time monitoring of playback or input, while the Sonogram displays
a playback cursor for real-time preview. Both formats make it easy to navigate data and read audio frequency
and position.
Using a spectrum graph
In the spectrum graph, the horizontal axis represents frequency in Hertz (Hz), while the vertical axis
represents amplitude in decibels (dB).
Displaying a spectrum graph
1. Open an audio file.
2. Select the portion of the waveform you want to analyze. The sound or note you want to analyze should be
in the center of the highlighted area.
3. From the View menu, choose Spectrum Analysis. The Spectrum Analysis window displays.
Spectrum graph
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4. Use the toolbar at the top of the window to set your display options.
Tip: You can also click the Settings button (
) in the
Spectrum Analysis window to set additional options.
The spectrum graph displays the amplitude (in dB) of each frequency component from 0 Hz (DC) to the
Nyquist frequency.
Tip: You can continue to make selections in the audio file
with the Spectrum Analysis window open (just move the
cursor or make selections as you normally would in Sound
Forge). Click the Refresh button in the Spectrum Analysis
toolbar to update the display. If no selection is made, analysis
is performed on the samples immediately following the cursor
position.
Monitoring an input and output source
Click the Real Time Monitoring button ( ) to turn real-time spectrum analysis on or off. Click the down
arrow next to the button and choose Monitor: Input to monitor the device selected in the Record drop-down
list on the Wave tab of the Preferences dialog (to access the Preferences dialog, choose Preferences from the
Options menu).
Real-time output monitoring is not available in sonogram display mode. When you click the down arrow
next to the button and choose Monitor: Output from the menu, Sound Forge will monitor the device selected
in the Playback drop-down list on the Wave tab of the Preferences dialog, and a cursor is displayed in the
graph to indicate the play position.
Note: When Monitor: Output is selected, the post-processing
signal is monitored when you start playback from the Plug-In
Chainer.
Displaying frequency and amplitude values, notes and statistics
As you move the cursor through the spectrum graph, the amplitude and frequency values at the current
position are displayed in a ToolTip next to the cursor and in the Statistics area at the bottom of the
window:
Use the cursor to display
amplitude and frequency
values
Statistics area
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Right-click the graph and choose Show Position from the shortcut menu to toggle the display of ToolTips.
The setting for each graph in a stereo file is independent.
If you want to display the nearest musical note equivalent of the cursor position in a ToolTip, right-click the
graph and choose Show Notes from the shortcut menu:
Use the cursor to display
musical note equivalent
Right-click the Spectrum Analysis window and choose Show Statistics from the shortcut menu to toggle the
display of the Statistics area at the bottom of the Spectrum Analysis window.
Navigating a spectrum graph
After a spectrum graph displays, Grab/Pan mode allows you to scroll vertically and horizontally. To enable
Grab/Pan mode, right-click the Spectrum Analysis dialog and choose Grab/Pan from the shortcut menu. A
check mark appears next to this option when Grab/Pan mode is enabled. The cursor displays as a hand ( ),
and you can drag horizontally or vertically to scroll through the graph.
When you are zoomed into a selection of the spectrum graph, you can drag the horizontal and vertical sliders
to scroll through the graph. The thumbnail image in the lower-left corner of the Spectrum Analysis window
will show you which part of the graph is being displayed.
To turn off Grab/Pan mode, choose Grab/Pan from the shortcut menu again.
Changing the graph type
Click the down arrow next to the Normal Display button (
) and choose Line Graph, Filled Graph, or Bar
Graph from the menu to change the type of graph displayed in the Spectrum Analysis window. A check mark
is displayed next to the selected graph type.
Note: Some video drivers have problems displaying Filled
Graph and Bar Graph modes. If you encounter problems such
as incorrect shading or very slow drawing, use the Line Graph
option or change video drivers.
If you're analyzing a stereo file, you can click the down arrow next to the Normal Display button and choose
to see the right and left channels in a single graph.
Single Graph
Right-click the graph and choose Logarithmic from the shortcut menu to toggle the x-axis between
logarithmic and linear mode. In logarithmic mode, more of the graph is devoted to lower frequencies.
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Changing the zoom level
Zooming can be accomplished in several ways:
1. Drag on the graph to draw a box around the area you want to magnify. You can toggle through mouse
selection mode by right-clicking while holding the left mouse button:
• The first type is a vertical zoom window. This will allow you to zoom to a frequency range.
• The second type is horizontal zoom window. This will allow you to zoom to an amplitude range.
• The third type is a combination of vertical and horizontal zoom. This will allow you to zoom to a
frequency and amplitude range.
2. Right-click the graph and choose Zoom Out Full to view the entire amplitude and frequency range.
3. Right-click the graph and choose Normalize dB to set the Spectrum Graph amplitude range equal to the
maximum and minimum values in the graph.
Working with stereo files
When viewing a spectrum graph for a stereo file, an individual graph displays for each channel. You can
choose to set each channel’s parameters independently or set both channels at once.
1. Open a stereo file.
2. From the View menu, choose Spectrum Analysis. The Spectrum Analysis window appears, containing two
unique graphs.
3. Click the Sync button (
) to synchronize both displays so you can view the same region of the FFT in
both channels. When this option is disabled, you can set each channel’s attributes independently.
4. To see both channels in a single graph, click the down arrow next to the Normal Display button (
) and
choose Single Graph.
Updating a spectrum graph
Select the Auto Refresh button ( ) if you want the Spectrum Analysis display to refresh automatically
updated when you change your selection in the data window.
When the button is not selected, the display is not updated until you click the Refresh button (
).
If you want the graph to refresh automatically during playback or input monitoring, select the Real Time
Monitoring button (
).
Viewing multiple spectrum graphs
Once you create a selection in the data window, you can display up to 64 individual spectrum graphs (each
representing a specific point in time).
1. Open an audio file.
2. From the View menu, choose Spectrum Analysis. The Spectrum Analysis window appears.
3. Click the Settings button (
). The Spectrum Settings dialog appears. For more information, see Adjusting
Spectrum Analysis settings on page 253.
4. Type a number in the Slices displayed box. The Forward and Backward radio buttons activate.
5. Select either the Forward or Backward radio button.
• Selecting the Forward radio button displays the first slice of the selection in the foreground of the
spectrum graph.
• Selecting the Backward radio button displays the last slice of the selection in the foreground of the
spectrum graph.
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6. Click OK.
7. Use the Slice slider to add/remove slice graphs in the Spectrum Analysis dialog.
Use the Slice slider
to add or remove
slice graphs
Creating and comparing snapshots of the Spectrum Analysis window
You can store up to four snapshots to compare multiple spectrum graphs. You can take snapshots from a
single data window or from different data windows.
Note: Snapshots are not available in sonogram display or
when the Slices displayed setting in the Spectrum Settings
dialog is greater than 1.
Taking a snapshot
1. Navigate to the portion of the graph you want to capture.
2. Click the Set button (
), and then click a snapshot button (
) in the Spectrum Analysis toolbar.
Available snapshots buttons are displayed in black, and buttons that are in use are displayed in blue and
underlined.
Showing and hiding snapshots
1. Select a numbered button in the Spectrum Analysis toolbar to display a stored snapshot. All selected
snapshots will be displayed in the Spectrum Analysis window at the same time.
2. Click a selected snapshot button to exclude it from the display.
3. Select the Hide active plot button (
) to hide the current spectrum so you can concentrate on your
snapshots.
Erasing snapshots
You don't need to erase individual snapshots to update or replace them. Simply click the Set button (
and then click a snapshot button ( ) in the Spectrum Analysis toolbar to update its image.
If you want to erase all snapshots, click the Clear all snapshots button (
),
).
Printing the graph
Click the Print button (
statistics data.
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Using a sonogram
The sonogram is another way of displaying spectral data variations over time. In a sonogram, the horizontal
axis represents time, and the vertical axis represents frequency.
Sonogram
The amplitude of each frequency component in the sonogram is represented by the color intensity of each
point in the graph. This method of displaying spectral information is useful for identifying distinctive
spectral patterns created from sounds such as speech, musical instruments, and ambient noise.
Displaying a sonogram
1. Open an audio file and select the portion of audio you want to analyze.
2. From the View menu, choose Spectrum Analysis. The Spectrum Analysis dialog appears.
3. Click the Sonogram button (
) to display your data as a sonogram.
4. Use the toolbar at the top of the window to set your other display options.
Tip: You can also click the Settings button (
) in the
Spectrum Analysis window to set additional options.
If there is no selection in the waveform display window, the sonogram analyzes the sound data from the
current cursor position to the end of the file.
Displaying frequency and amplitude values, notes and statistics
As you move the cursor through the sonogram, the amplitude and frequency values at the current position
are displayed in a ToolTip next to the cursor and in the Statistics area at the bottom of the window:
Use the cursor to display
amplitude and frequency
values
Statistics area
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Right-click the sonogram and choose Show Position from the shortcut menu to toggle the display of
ToolTips. The setting for each sonogram in a stereo file is independent.
If you want to display the nearest musical note equivalent of the cursor position in a ToolTip, right-click the
sonogram and choose Show Notes from the shortcut menu:
Use the cursor to display
musical note equivalent
Right-click the Spectrum Analysis window and choose Show Statistics from the shortcut menu to toggle the
display of the Statistics area at the bottom of the Spectrum Analysis window.
Updating a sonogram
A sonogram updates in the same method as a spectrum graph. For more information, see Updating a spectrum
graph on page 249.
Monitoring an input and output source
Click the Real Time Monitoring button ( ) to turn real-time spectrum analysis on or off. Click the down
arrow next to the button and choose Monitor: Input to monitor the device selected in the Record drop-down
list on the Wave tab of the Preferences dialog (to access the Preferences dialog, choose Preferences from the
Options menu).
Real-time output monitoring is not available in sonogram display mode. When you click the down arrow
next to the button and choose Monitor: Output from the menu, a cursor is displayed in the sonogram to
indicate the play position.
Tuning a sonogram
It is frequently necessary to experiment with the control parameters in the Spectrum Settings dialog to
produce the best possible sonogram. For more information, see Adjusting Spectrum Analysis settings on page 253.
Improving the graph’s contrast
To improve the contrast of the sonogram, decrease the frequency and amplitude ranges as much as possible.
Smoothing the graph’s display
If the graph appears too pixelated, raise the Set sonogram resolution value to 200.
Improving the frequency resolution
For greater frequency resolution, choose a higher value from the FFT size drop-down list.
Reducing the processing time
To reduce processing time, decrease the Set sonogram resolution value and/or choose a lower value from the
FFT size drop-down list.
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Adjusting color intensity
Adjust the sonogram’s color intensity using the Color slider
located directly beneath the sonogram. Notice that the
bottom pane of the dialog depicts the color scale in dB.
Adjust the
color intensity
Tip: This function may be fairly slow if the system lacks a
palletized driver and Video for Windows is not installed.
Returning to a spectrum graph
To return to the spectrum graph, click the Normal Display button (
) in the toolbar.
Printing the sonogram
Click the Print button (
and statistics data.
) to print the contents of the Spectrum Analysis window, including the sonogram
Adjusting Spectrum Analysis settings
From the Spectrum Analysis toolbar, click the Settings button ( ) to display the Spectrum Settings dialog.
The following sections explain the role of each control in audio spectrum analysis.
Spectrum Settings dialog
FFT size
Choose a value from the FFT size drop-down list to determine the size (in samples) of the analysis window
and number of discrete frequencies analyzed. Higher FFT size values produce higher frequency resolution at
the expense of lower time resolution and slower processing.
FFT overlap
The value in the FFT overlap box determines the amount of overlap between FFT analysis windows. Lower
values decrease the number of distinct analysis functions performed, which also decreases processing time.
Higher values provide more analysis, but result in slower processing.
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Smoothing window
Choose a setting from the Smoothing window drop-down list to determine the window function applied to the
input data prior to analysis. This option influences the sharpness of peaks in an FFT graph and the leakage
into neighboring frequencies.
• Choose Rectangle to apply no window. This results in a very sharp peak, but high leakage.
• Choose Triangular (also referred to as a Bartlett or Parzen window) to apply a window that results in less
leakage than the rectangle window.
• Hamming, Hanning, and Blackman windows are commonly used in audio applications.
• Choose Blackman-Harris to obtain the least sideband leakage of the six options. The major drawback of
Blackman-Harris is rounded graph peaks.
Slices displayed
The Slices displayed value determines the number of FFT slices created for the selection. When displaying
multiple slices in the spectrum graph, slices are displayed chronologically forward or backward based on
whether you have the Forward or Backward radio button selected.
Set sonogram resolution
The Set sonogram resolution value determines the number of FFT samplings used in a sonogram. This keeps
the processing time and graph resolution constant. Increasing this value increases the horizontal graph
resolution, but requires more processing time.
When this check box is cleared, the resolution value is determined by the length of the selection and the FFT
overlap value.
Display range
Note: These options are available in Normal display only.
Select the Both, Left, or Right radio button to choose which graph you want to edit.
If you are analyzing a stereo file, select the Sync Graphs check box to synchronize both displays in a stereo file
so you can view the same region of the FFT in both channels.
Select the Logarithmic graphing check box to display the X-axis in logarithmic mode instead of linear mode.
This results in more graph area being devoted to lower frequencies.
Frequency minimum
Determines the lowest frequency displayed in a graph when you select Zoom to Range.
Frequency maximum
Determines the highest frequency displayed in a graph when you select Zoom to Range.
Ceiling
Determines the highest amplitude level displayed in a graph when you select Zoom to Range.
Floor
Determines the lowest amplitude level displayed in a graph when you select Zoom to Range.
Hold peaks during monitoring
Selecting this check box results in the highest value of each frequency being indicated on the spectrum
graph with a small horizontal line. The length of time (in seconds) that the peak is held is determined by the
value entered in the edit box.
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Maintain last monitored view
Selecting this check box “freezes” the appearance of the spectrum graph when playback stops. Clearing this
check box results in the graph resetting to the cursor position when playback stops.
Saving spectrum graph settings
After you configure the controls in the Spectrum Settings dialog, you can save the settings as a custom preset
by clicking Save As and entering a name for the new preset.
Enter a name for the new preset
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APPENDIX
Shortcuts
A
Keyboard shortcuts
Project file commands
Press
Result
Ctrl + N
Create a new data window.
Ctrl + O
Open a sound file or project.
Ctrl + S
Save modified sound data back to the file.
Alt
+ Enter
Display the Properties dialog for the active data window.
Ctrl + W
Close the active data window.
Alt + F4
Exit Sound Forge.
Magnification and view commands
Press
Result
Alt + 0
Set input focus to the waveform display in the active data
window.
Alt + 1
Show/set input focus to the Explorer window.
Alt + 2
Show/set input focus to the Regions List.
Alt + 3
Show/set input focus to the Playlist/Cutlist window.
Alt + 4
Show/set input focus to the Video Preview window.
Alt + 5
Show/set input focus to the Time Display window.
Alt + 6
Show/set input focus to the Play Meters window.
Alt + 7
Show/set input focus to the Undo/Redo History window.
Alt + 8
Show/set input focus to the Spectrum Analysis window.
Alt + 9
Show/set input focus to the Plug-In Chainer window.
Ctrl + Alt + 1
Show/set input focus to the Plug-In Manager window.
Ctrl + Alt + 2
Show/set input focus to the MIDI Keyboard window.
Ctrl + L
Show/set input focus to the Loop Tuner for the active data
window.
Alt + F5
Restore the Sound Forge application window.
Alt + F10
Maximize the Sound Forge application window.
Ctrl + F5
Restore the active data window.
Ctrl + F6
Go to the next data window.
Ctrl + F10
Maximize the active data window.
Ctrl + Enter
Maximize the width of the active data window.
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SHORTCUTS
258
Press
Result
Ctrl + Shift + F6
Go to the previous data window.
Shift + F4
Tile the data windows vertically.
Shift + F5
Cascade the data windows.
F11
Show/hide windows docked at the bottom of the workspace.
Shift + F11
Show/hide windows docked at the sides of the workspace.
Ctrl + F11
Show/hide all docked windows.
V
Insert/show/hide volume envelope.
Shift + V
Insert/remove volume envelope.
P
Insert/show/hide pan envelope.
Shift + P
Insert/remove pan envelope.
F6
Toggle playback scrolling on and off.
Shift + F6
Toggle smooth playback scrolling on and off.
Data window edit commands
Press
Result
D / Shift + D
Select the previous/next editing tool (Edit tool, Magnify tool,
Pencil tool).
Ctrl + D
Select the Edit tool.
Ctrl + A
Select all data in the active window.
Ctrl + C
Copy the selected data onto the clipboard.
Ctrl + E
Paste the clipboard contents into a new data window.
Ctrl + F
Crossfade data from the clipboard with the active window.
Ctrl + K
Preview Cut or Clear in the active window.
Ctrl + Shift + K
Play to cursor with pre-roll.
Ctrl + M
Mix data from the clipboard with the active window.
Ctrl + T
Trim (crop) to the current selection.
Ctrl + V
Paste data from the clipboard into the active window.
Ctrl + X
Move (cut) the selected data onto the clipboard.
Ctrl + Y
Repeat last process, effect, or tool.
Ctrl + Z
Undo the last action.
Ctrl + Shift + Z
Redo the last undone action.
Delete
Clear (delete) the selected data; nothing is placed on the
clipboard.
Note: If the Treat as Cutlist command (available in the Special
menu, Playlist/Cutlist submenu) is selected, deleting a selection
creates a region in the Cutlist window, but does not remove the
selection.
C
Insert a command marker at the current cursor position.
M
Insert a marker at the current cursor position.
Ctrl + B
Toggle Auto Snap to Zero on and off.
V
Insert/show/hide volume envelope.
Shift + V
Insert/remove volume envelope.
P
Insert/show/hide pan envelope.
Shift + P
Insert/remove pan envelope.
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APPENDIX A
259
Press
Result
L
Create a loop from the current selection.
Shift + L
Create a loop from the current selection without displaying the
Edit Sample dialog.
Esc
Stop or cancel the current action (including playback).
F8
Toggle drag-and-drop snapping on and off.
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260
Cursor movement
Press
Cursor moves to
/
Move one pixel right/left.
Ctrl + Alt +
Alt +
/ Ctrl + Alt +
/ Alt +
Move one audio sample right/left.
Previous/next video frame (video files).
Ctrl + G
Display the Go To dialog.
Home
Go to the first sample visible in the waveform display.
End
Go to the last sample visible in the waveform display.
Ctrl + Home
Go to the first sample in the data window.
Ctrl + End
Go to the last sample in the data window.
Page Up
Move 10% of the current view prior to the cursor position.
Page Down
Move 10% of the current view past the cursor position.
Ctrl + Page Up
Move 100% of the current view prior to the cursor position.
Ctrl + Page Down
Move 100% of the current view past the cursor position.
Ctrl +
Move 10 pixels past the cursor position. If regions, loops, or
markers exist in the file, this keystroke moves to the next
region, loop, or marker boundary.
Ctrl +
Move 10 pixels prior to the cursor position. If regions, loops, or
markers exist in the file, this keystroke moves to the previous
region, loop, or marker boundary.
. or \
Center the cursor in the waveform display.
+ (numeric keypad)
Go to the next sample.
- (numeric keypad)
Go to the previous sample.
Ctrl + +
Move 10 samples past the current cursor.
Ctrl + -
Move 10 samples prior to the current cursor.
SHORTCUTS
APPENDIX A
261
Selecting data
Press
To select from cursor to
Ctrl + Shift + D
Show the Set Selection dialog.
Shift
+
/
Shift
+
Shift + Ctrl + Alt +
Select from the cursor to the next/previous screen pixel.
/
Select from the cursor to the next/previous sample.
Shift + Ctrl + Alt +
Shift + Alt +
/ Shift + Alt +
Select from the cursor to the next/previous video frame.
Shift + Home
Select from the cursor to the first sample visible in the
waveform display.
Shift + End
Select from the cursor to the last sample visible in the waveform
display.
Ctrl + Shift + Home
Select from the cursor to the first sample in the data window.
Ctrl + Shift + End
Select from the cursor to the last sample in the data window.
Shift + Page Up
Select from the cursor to 10% of the current view prior to the
cursor position.
Shift + Page Down
Select from the cursor to 10% of the current view past the
cursor position.
Ctrl + Shift + Page Up
Select 100% of the current view prior to the cursor position.
Ctrl + Shift + Page Down
Select 100% of the current view past the cursor position.
Ctrl + Shift +
Select 10 pixels past the cursor position. If regions, loops, or
markers exist in the file, this keystroke selects to the next
region, loop, or marker boundary.
Ctrl + Shift +
Select 10 pixels prior to the cursor position. If regions, loops, or
markers exist in the file, this keystroke selects to the previous
region, loop, or marker boundary.
Shift + numeric keypad +
Select from the cursor to the next sample.
Shift + numeric keypad -
Select from the cursor to the previous sample.
Ctrl + Shift + numeric keypad +
Select 10 samples past the current cursor.
Ctrl + Shift + numeric keypad -
Select 10 samples prior to the current cursor.
T
Shift + T
Z
Snap to time.
Snap edge to time.
Snap to zero.
Shift + Z
Snap edge to zero.
Tab / Shift + Tab
Cycle stereo selection from left channel to right channel to both
channels.
<
Shift current selection to the left by the length of the selection.
>
Shift current selection to the right by the length of the selection.
;
Cut the current selection length in half.
‘
Double the current selection length.
:
Rotate audio.
S or Backspace
Toggle current selection on and off.
L
Create a loop from the current selection.
Shift + L
Create a loop from the current selection without displaying the
Edit Sample dialog.
APPENDIX A
SHORTCUTS
262
Navigation and playback
Press
Result
Ctrl +<Number>
Save a view in cell <Number> where <Number> ranges from 1
to 8.
<Number>
Restore a view using cell <Number> where <Number> ranges
from 1 to 8.
Increase time magnification (zoom in).
Decrease time magnification (zoom out).
Shift +
Increase level magnification.
Shift +
Decrease level magnification.
Ctrl +
Zoom to selection if a selection exists; otherwise Zoom In Full.
Ctrl +
Zoom normal (zooms to default zoom ratio set in Preferences).
1 (on numeric keypad)
Display custom zoom ratio 1.
2 (on numeric keypad)
Display custom zoom ratio 2.
Ctrl + Shift +
Pan data window up if zoomed in vertically.
Ctrl + Shift +
Pan data window down if zoomed in vertically.
5 (on numeric keypad)
Switch cursor to opposite end of selection.
[ or I
Set Mark In at the current cursor position.
] or O
Set Mark Out at the current cursor position.
Ctrl + Spacebar
Play or stop the contents of the data window in default mode.
Shift + F12
Play all.
Ctrl + F12
Play/Pause.
X
Switch play mode between Play Normal, Plug-In Chainer, Play as
Sample, and Play as Cutlist.
Enter
Pause playback and leave the cursor at the current position.
Esc
Stop or cancel the current action (including playback).
Q
Toggle looped playback.
Ctrl + K
Preview cut (skip selection on playback with pre-roll).
Ctrl + Shift + K
Play to cursor with pre-roll.
F6
Toggle playback scrolling on and off.
Shift + F6
Toggle smooth playback scrolling on and off.
F7
Generate MIDI timecode.
Shift + F7
Trigger from MIDI timecode.
Record dialog keyboard shortcuts
Press
Result
Ctrl + R
Open Record dialog.
Alt
Alt
Alt
+R
+P
+T
Play.
Reset clip indicators.
Stop recording or playback.
Esc
Alt
Start recording.
+Z
M
SHORTCUTS
Go to the start of the file.
Insert a marker while recording.
APPENDIX A
263
Plug-In Chainer
Press
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Ctrl
Result
+P
+ Shift + P
+B
+S
+T
Preview audio through plug-in chain.
+E
+ Delete
+ Tab
+ Shift + Tab
+H
Open the Plug-In Chooser dialog to add plug-ins to chain.
Process selection using the plug-in chain.
Bypass the plug-in chain while previewing audio.
Save plug-in chain (package).
Toggle through audio tail processing modes (Ignore Tail Data,
Mix Tail Data, Insert Tail Data).
Remove selected plug-in from chain.
Select the next plug-in in the chain.
Select the previous plug-in in the chain.
Shows/hides the Parameter Chooser.
Regions List
Press
Result
Spacebar
Play or stop playback of the active marker or region.
Enter
Edit the active marker or region.
Delete
Delete the active marker or region.
‘ (grave accent)
Cycle through the Regions List display formats.
R
Create region from the current selection.
Shift + R
Create region without displaying dialog.
Playlist
Press
Result
Spacebar
Play or stop playback of the active playlist entry.
Enter
Edit the active playlist entry.
Delete
Delete the active playlist entry.
+ (plus sign)
Add one to the active playlist entry play count.
- (minus sign)
Subtract one from the active playlist entry play count.
* (asterisk)
Add or remove a Stop Point on the active playlist entry.
/ (forward slash)
Toggle pre-roll on and off for the playlist.
‘ (grave accent)
Cycle through the playlist display formats.
APPENDIX A
SHORTCUTS
264
Mouse wheel shortcuts
Mouse wheel action
Result
Wheel Up
Zoom in horizontally.
Wheel Down
Zoom out horizontally.
Ctrl +Wheel Up
Zoom in vertically.
Ctrl +Wheel Down
Zoom out vertically.
Shift +Wheel Up
Scroll left (in 10ths of screen width).
Shift +Wheel Down
Scroll right (in 10ths of screen width).
Ctrl + Shift +Wheel Up
Cursor left or current selection point left (if there is a selection).
Ctrl + Shift +Wheel Down
Cursor right or current selection point right (if there is a
selection).
Additional mouse shortcuts
Select all
Double-click the waveform display to select the entire sound file. Triple-click when regions, loops, or
markers are present.
Tip: You can turn off the triple-click feature on the Editing
tab of the Preferences dialog.
Zoom time and level
Double-click the level ruler to zoom the current selection vertically and horizontally. If no selection exists,
all waveform data is zoomed.
Magnify mode
To zoom in to a section, select an area while holding
window.
Ctrl
. Sound Forge zooms in on the selection to fill the
Return control value to default
Double-click a slider, fader, or spinner to return the control to its default value.
Fine-tune control value
To fine-tune a slider, fader, or spinner, hold the right and left mouse buttons (or hold
Ctrl
) while dragging.
Preview
Hold Shift and click the Preview button to hear the original audio. This is equivalent to selecting the Bypass
check box.
Hold
Ctrl
and click the Preview button to display the Preview Configuration dialog.
Status bar
Double-click the Sample Rate, Bit Depth, or Channels (Stereo/Mono) box to display the Properties dialog.
Selection Status bar
Double-click the leftmost status selection box to display the Go To dialog. Double-click either of the other
two boxes to display the Set Selection dialog.
SHORTCUTS
APPENDIX A
265
Go to marker
Double-click a marker tag in the ruler to move the cursor to the position of the marker.
Set selection to region/loop
Double-click a region or loop tag in the ruler to change the current selection to the region or loop end
points.
Edit region or marker
Double-click a region or marker in the Regions List to display the Edit Region/Marker dialog.
Edit playlist
Double-click a playlist entry to display the Edit Playlist dialog.
Play Normal button
Hold
Ctrl
and click to preview a Cut operation. Hold
Ctrl
+ Shift and click to play to the cursor with pre-roll.
Slow and fast selection scroll toggle
To create a selection extending past the start or end of the waveform display, hold the left mouse button
while clicking the right mouse button to toggle between fast and slow scrolling.
APPENDIX A
SHORTCUTS
266
SHORTCUTS
APPENDIX A
267
APPENDIX
B
Microsoft Audio
Compression
Manager
The Microsoft Audio Compression Manager (ACM) is a standard interface for audio compression in
Windows. This interface allows applications such as Sound Forge to use compression algorithms provided by
other companies.
Sound Forge fully supports audio compression through the ACM. This allows you to use any ACMcompatible compression. Sound Forge transparently opens compressed WAV files and provides all available
compression formats for WAV files in the Save As dialog.
There are two major components to the ACM:
• Audio data compression and decompression
• Transparent playback and recording of non-hardware supported audio files
Audio data compression and decompression
The first component of the ACM allows audio data to be compressed and decompressed. Audio compression
is used to decrease the amount of data required to represent a sound and results in smaller sound files.
However, there are drawbacks to using audio compression on sound files:
• Most audio compression algorithms degrade sound quality. This is referred to as lossy compression because
information contained in the sound is lost when it is compressed. The amount of sound degradation is
dependent upon the algorithm.
• Compressed audio requires more processing time than uncompressed data. The amount of processing time
is dependent on the algorithm as well as the system’s hardware. Typically, opening and saving compressed
files takes longer than uncompressed files.
• Compressed files are not as portable as uncompressed files. To distribute WAV files in a compressed
format, you must verify that the audience can use them. Also, not all audio software can use compressed
WAV files, which may make using other applications with Sound Forge difficult.
In Sound Forge, any compressed WAV file can be opened if a compatible ACM driver is installed. If no
compatible ACM driver is available for a compressed WAV file, Sound Forge alerts you to the problem.
Saving compressed WAV files is as simple as specifying the compression algorithm in the Format drop-down
list of the Custom Settings dialog. Once a compressed file is saved, Sound Forge automatically saves updates
to the file using the selected compression algorithm. The compression format can be changed later—or
reverted to an uncompressed format—using the Save As dialog.
Transparent playback and recording of non-hardware supported audio files
The second component of the ACM is called the Sound Mapper. It allows playback and recording of audio
data formats that are not directly supported by the sound card. You can select the Sound Mapper as the
Playback and Record devices on the Wave tab of the Preferences dialog. You can perform any additional
configuration of the Sound Mapper from the Windows Control Panel.
APPENDIX B
MICROSOFT AUDIO COMPRESSION MANAGER
268
The Sound Mapper functions as follows. When faced with a sound file recorded at an unusual sample rate
such as 22,257 Hz and a sound card that supports 22,050 Hz, the sound file normally cannot be played. The
sample rate of the file must be changed to 22,050 Hz before it can be played back, but changing the sample
rate without resampling causes a pitch shift. However, the Sound Mapper plays this file without resampling
by mapping the sound to the best format possible and performing the resampling in real time.
In addition, the Sound Mapper plays compressed sound files, even on sound cards that do not support
compression directly. A file compressed with Microsoft ADPCM or The DSP Group’s TrueSpeech plays on
any sound card without first decompressing the file.
The Sound Mapper can, under the right circumstances, record compressed sound files. Compressing sound
data can be computationally expensive, and the amount of time required is dependent upon the specific
compression algorithm and how it is implemented. Decompressing sound data is typically faster than
compressing the same sound data.
It should be noted, however, that Sound Forge does not play and record compressed sound files directly.
Rather, Sound Forge performs all compression and decompression while opening and saving the files. This
limitation is fairly insignificant, and Sound Forge saves compressed sound files using the best possible
quality—something that cannot always be done in real time. Compressed sound files saved with Sound Forge
typically sound better than those recorded with audio compression.
After you save uncompressed audio data to a compressed format, you should audition the file. Sound Forge
performs compression and decompression during opening and saving; therefore, the compressed file is not
accurately represented until it has been reopened.
MICROSOFT AUDIO COMPRESSION MANAGER
APPENDIX B
269
APPENDIX
SMPTE Timecode
C
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) timecode may be one of the most
misunderstood concepts among individuals within the music industry. The problem with SMPTE timecode
formats is that they may mean different things to people in the audio and video fields. What follows is a brief
description of each SMPTE timecode format.
Important: When synchronizing audio to video, it is crucial
that the SMPTE timecode format used in the sequencer or
digital audio workstation is the same as the SMPTE timecode
striped onto the video. This guarantees that the SMPTE times
on the video screen and computer monitor synchronize during
playback.
SMPTE 25 EBU (25 fps, Video)
SMPTE 25 EBU timecode runs at 25 fps (frames per second), and matches the frame rate used by European
Broadcasting Union (EBU) television systems.
SMPTE 25 EBU format is used for PAL DV/D1 video projects.
SMPTE Drop Frame (29.97 fps, Video)
SMPTE Drop Frame timecode runs at 29.97 fps, and matches the frame rate used by NTSC television
systems (North America, Japan).
SMPTE Drop Frame format is used for NTSC DV/D1 video projects.
Both SMPTE Drop and SMPTE Non-Drop run at 29.97 fps. In both formats, the actual frames are not
discarded, but they are numbered differently. SMPTE Drop removes certain frame numbers from the
counting system to keep the SMPTE clock from drifting from real (“wall clock”) time. The time is adjusted
forward by two frames on every minute boundary except 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50. For example, when
SMPTE Drop time increments from 00:00:59.29, the next value is 00:01:00.02.
SMPTE Non-Drop Frame (29.97 fps, Video)
SMPTE Non-Drop Frame timecode runs at a rate of 29.97 fps. This leads to a discrepancy between real
(“wall clock”) time and the SMPTE time, because there is no compensation in the counting system as there
is in SMPTE Drop Frame.
SMPTE Non-Drop format is used for NTSC D1 video projects that are recorded on master tapes striped with
Non-Drop timecode.
APPENDIX C
SMPTE TIMECODE
270
SMPTE 30 (30 fps, Audio)
SMPTE 30 is an audio-only format and runs at exactly 30 fps. SMPTE 30 is commonly used when
synchronizing audio applications such as multitrack recorders or MIDI sequencers. This format is not used
when working with video.
SMPTE Film Sync (24 fps)
The SMPTE Film Sync time format runs at 24 fps (frames per second). This frame rate matches the standard
crystal-sync 16/33 mm film rate of 24 fps.
SMPTE TIMECODE
APPENDIX C
271
APPENDIX
D
Using CSOUND,
MTU, IRCAM, BICSF,
and EBICSF Files
Although Sound Forge supports a large number of sound file formats directly, it does not support the
CSOUND, MTU, IRCAM, BICSF or EBICSF file types. However, you can use the Raw File Type
capabilities of Sound Forge to extract sound data from these file types.
About IRCAM files
The IRCAM or IRCAM-Gross format consists of a 1024-byte header prior to the audio data. This header
contains standard information like the number of channels, sampling rate, and data format, but can also
contain the name of the sample and comments. This format is used by the MTU system and these files are
frequently referred to as MTU files. IRCAM files support two types of data formats: 16-bit linear PCM and
floating point data.
About BICSF and EBICSF files
BICSF and EBICSF files (Berkeley/IRCAM/CARL Sound File or Extended BICSF) are extensions of the
IRCAM format. Instead of using the standard IRCAM header, these files replace the first 28 bytes of the
header with a standard NeXT/Sun header. This allows the IRCAM format to store additional information in
its 1024-byte header, while also allowing the files to be read by software that supports the NeXT/Sun file
format, such as Sound Forge.
Opening files
BICSF and EBICSF files
When reading BICSF and EBICSF files, Sound Forge identifies them as NeXT/Sun files. This is because the
header of the BICSF file has been modified to allow it to be read as a NeXT/Sun file. Sound Forge reads
these files as long as they are in one of the supported NeXT/Sun data formats.
IRCAM, CSOUND and MTU files
To read these formats, users must import them as Raw data files. This is best accomplished by configuring the
parameters in the Raw File Type dialog and saving them as presets. The Raw File import function allows
these files to be opened providing they are stored in 16-bit linear format. Sound Forge does not open floating
point format IRCAM files.
Opening an IRCAM file
1. From the File menu, choose Open. The Open dialog appears.
2. Specify Raw File from the Files of type drop-down list.
3. Select an IRCAM file to open and click OK. The Raw File Type dialog appears.
APPENDIX D
USING CSOUND, MTU, IRCAM, BICSF, AND EBICSF FILES
272
4. Configure the following parameters:
• Specify a sample rate from the Sample rate drop-down list.
• In the Sample type area, select the 16-bit PCM radio button.
• In the Format area, select the Signed radio button.
• Select the appropriate Channels radio button.
• Select the appropriate Byte order radio button.
• Set the Header value to 1024 bytes.
• Set the Trailer value to 0 bytes.
5. Click Save As. The Save Preset dialog appears.
6. Enter a name for the preset in the New preset name box and click OK. The preset is saved and the Raw File
Type dialog appears.
7. Click OK. The file opens.
Remember that the byte order of files generated by CSOUND is not constant. CSOUND executables for PC
generate files that use Little Endian byte ordering, while CSOUND for other platforms tends to generate
files with Big Endian ordering. In addition, MTU files use Big Endian byte ordering. Sony Pictures Digital
recommends initially trying a file in Big Endian.
Note: You may want to save presets for byte ordering, as
well as mono/stereo, when receiving CSOUND files from a
number of source computers.
Saving files
You cannot save these files in their original format. You must select a file format supported by Sound Forge.
To save files for use with software that supports the BICSF/EBICSF format, use the NeXT/Sun format. This
format does not save the additional information found in BICSF/EBICSF files, but allows the data to be read
as a NeXT/Sun file.
USING CSOUND, MTU, IRCAM, BICSF, AND EBICSF FILES
APPENDIX D
i
Index
Audio editing, 56–61, 131–133, 134–136
Copying, 57
Crossfading, 131
Cutting, 58
Deleting, 59
Mixing, 60, 136
Overwriting, 131
Pasting, 58, 135
Replicating, 132
Trimming/Cropping, 60
Symbols
122
A
ACID
Creating loops for, 228–233
Loop Creation Tools toolbar, 35, 230
Acoustic Mirror, 183–196
Adjusting impulse length, 187
Envelope tab, 186
Error messages, 196
General tab, 185
Head-related transfer functions, 194
Impulse, 185
Impulse recovery mode, 188
Limiting length of impulse, 185
Recover tab, 188
Recovering an impulse, 188
Response delay, 185
Response width, 185
Saving the impulse with a preset, 187
Summary tab, 187
Test file, 188
Troubleshooting, 195
Using, 183
Audio file
detaching video, 241
Audio files
Saving all open, 55
Audio glitches
Finding and repairing, 137
Audio Plug-In Chainer
Managing plug-ins, 177
Audio spectrum analysis, 245–253
Audio synthesis, 141–144
DTMF/MF Tones, 141
FM, 142
Simple, 144
Acoustic signature, 183
Adjusting, 184
Auto Region tool
Musical time intervals, 101
Rapid sound attacks, 100
Active data windows, 53
Auto Snap to Time, 80
Adding regions to the playlist, 106
Adding tracks to a CD, 128
Auto Snap to Zero, 80
Disabling at high magnifications, 80
Snapping current selection to zero-crossings, 80
Additional embedded information, 90
Auto Trim/Crop, 149
Adjusting envelopes, 180
Automatic labeling for files, regions, and markers, 93, 126
Animating the video strip, 237
Automatic recording, 115
Applying effects automation, 179
Arm button, 119
Automatic retake, 120
Adjusting pre/post-roll, 122
Arranging the playlist, 108
Automating effect parameters, 178
Attaching video to an audio file, 240
Automation
effects, 179
Attributes, 83
B
BICSF, 271
INDEX
ii
Bit depth
Changing, 84
Converter, 150
For CD burning, 128
Blinking status while recording, 126
Burning CDs, 128
proper use of software, 130
C
Calculating loop tempo, 233
Calibrating DC adjustment for recording, 121
CD
Adding tracks, 128
Bit depth for burning, 128
Burning, 128
Closing the disc, 130
Extracting audio from, 127
Sample rate for burning, 128
Changing the region order, 105
Channel Converter, 88, 152
Convert to specified output channels only, 153
Invert left channel mix, 153
Invert right channel mix, 153
New left channel, 153
New right channel, 153
Output channels, 153
Using, 153
Channel repair, 138
Channels, 87
CLIÉ devices
exporting to, 67
Clipboard
copying cutlist to, 111
copying playlist to, 111
copying Regions List to, 111
Clipped audio
marking, 95
Clipping indicators, 37
Clips
detecting, 95
Configuring
Gap detection, 126
Measures and beats format, 66
MIDI devices, 202
MIDI Keyboard, 215
MIDI triggers, 202
Plug-ins on a chain, 175
Regions List display, 104
Controls
Envelope graphs, 39
Faders and slider, 39
Using the mouse, 23, 79, 264
Convert to New, 109
Converting file formats, 88
Copying, 57
Copying current video frame, 237
Count, 107
Crash recovery, 68
Creating
Automatic regions, 100
CDs, 128
Graphic fades, 155
Impulse files for Acoustic Mirror, 189
Markers, 92
Markers during playback, 92
Markers during recording, 92, 125
Markers for each index change in extracted CD track, 127
New data windows, 52
New files from the playlist, 109
New windows for each recorded take, 120
Pans, 162
Presets, 146
Regions, 99
Regions for each extracted CD track, 127
Regions from markers, 95
Release loops, 221
Sampler configurations, 211
Selections, 78
Selections on the fly, 79
Stop points, 109
Sustaining loops, 220
Views, 81
Closing a CD, 130
Cropping audio, 60
Using Auto/Trim Crop, 149
Command descriptions, 36
Crossfade Loop tool, 226
Command markers
deleting, 98
Editing, 98
Inserting, 97
Scott Studios, 97
Crossfading, 131
Commands for streaming media, 96
Compression, 86
INDEX
CSOUND, 271
Cursor position, 69
Custom graphic fade, 156
iii
Cutlist, 110–111
Adding regions to, 110
copying to the clipboard, 111
Creating a new file from, 110
Deleting all cutlist regions, 110
Opening cutlist files, 111
Reverting to playlist, 110
Saving cutlist files, 111
Cutting, 58
Previewing cuts, 59
D
Data window, 27
Components, 27
Displaying/hiding elements, 28
Overview bar, 70
DC offset, 121
Automatically detect and remove, 154
Calibrating adjustment for recording, 121
Compensating for, 154
Defragmenting the hard disk, 19
Deleting, 59
Command markers, 98
Presets, 146
Recovered files, 68
Regions from the playlist, 109
Stop points in the playlist, 109
DirectX Plug-ins, See Effects
Displaying
Data window elements, 28
Playlist, 106
Regions List, 104
Sonogram, 251
Video strip, 235
Wave Hammer, 197
Dither, 85, 151
Docking windows, 25
Drag-and-drop
Creating new windows, 137
Editing, 134
Mixing, 136
Mono selections to stereo destinations, 134
Pasting, 135
Snapping to events, 134
Dropping Markers, 92
Dropping markers
During recording, 125
Editing
command markers, 98
Drag-and-drop, 134
Loops, 223
Regions, 102
Regions in the Regions List, 103
Sample rate, 84
Sample size, 85
Summary information, 89
Effects, 169, 177
Adding a chain of effects, 170–174
Adding an effect, 169
applying automation, 179
Audio tail data processing mode, 173
Automatically organizing, 177
automating, 178
automating with envelopes, 178
Bypassing effects on a chain, 174
Configuring plug-ins on a chain, 175
DX Favorites menu, 177
Hiding effects, 176
Loading saved chains, 176
managing, 176
Managing effects, 177
Plug-In Manager, 176
Preset Manager, 177
previewing automation, 179
removing automation envelopes, 180
Removing plug-ins from a chain, 175
Renaming effects, 176
Saving chains, 175
Saving settings as a preset, 170, 175
Effects toolbar, 34
Embedded information, 90
Envelope graphs, 39
Envelopes
adding points, 180
adjusting, 180
adjusting effect parameters, 179
bypassing effect automation, 179
copying to another data window, 181
cutting, copying, and pasting points, 181
effect automation, 178
enabling effect automation, 179
flipping, 180
removing effect automation, 180
setting fade properties, 181
showing/hiding effect automation, 179
volume or panning, 178
EQ, 155
DTMF/MF Tones, 141
Error messages for Acoustic Mirror impulse files, 196
DX Favorites menu, 177
Explorer window, 47
Extracting audio from CD, 48
Opening media, 47
Previewing media, 47
views, 48
E
EBICSF, 271
INDEX
iv
Exporting
to CLIÉ devices, 67
to Net MD devices, 67
Getting Media, 46
Glitches
Finding, 137
Repairing by copying the other channel, 138
Repairing by interpolating audio, 139
Repairing by replacing with preceding audio, 139
Repairing with the Pencil tool, 140
Extended summary information, 89
External
MIDI devices, 205
Monitors, 239
Samplers, 209
Go To, 69
Extract Regions, 103
Graphic fade, 155
Creating a custom fade, 156
Resetting the envelope, 156
Showing the waveform, 156
Extracting audio
proper use of software, 130
Extracting audio from CD, 127
Creating markers for each index change, 127
Creating regions for each track, 127
H
Halving/doubling loops, 231
F
Hard disk defragmentation, 19
Fade, 155
Graphic, 155
In, 156
Out, 157
Hardware setup
External monitor, 239
MIDI/SDS, 216
SCSI/SMDI, 216
Fade properties
envelopes, 181
Help
On the Web, 17
Online, 16
What’s This?, 17
Faders and sliders, 39
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), 246
Files
Attributes, 83
Automatically naming, 93, 126
Channels, 87
Converting, 88
Creating from the playlist, 109
Explorer window, 47
Opening, 46
opening, 46
Playing, 50
rendering, 67
Sample rate, 84
Saving, 53
Finding and repairing audio glitches, 137
Fine-tuning selections
Keyboard methods, 79
Mouse methods, 79
Flipping envelopes, 180
Floating windows, 26
FM synthesis, 142
Format conversion, 88
Frame animation, 236
Frame numbering, 236
G
Gap detection, 126
Generating MTC with Sound Forge, 207
INDEX
Hiding
Data window elements, 28
Docked windows, 26
Effects (plug-ins), 176
Video strip, 235
Holding peaks/valleys, 38
I
Impulse files
Adding summary information, 192
Creating, 189
Equipment needed, 189
Equipment placement, 190
Head-related transfer functions, 194
Recording the test tone, 190
Recovering from an acoustic space, 189
Recovering from an electronic device, 190
Recovering the impulse, 191
Setting levels, 190
Transferring the test tone, 190
Trimming impulse files, 192
Trimming the test tone, 191
Using in creative ways, 193
Initiating MIDI playback, 203
Inserting
Command markers, 97
Silence, 157
Installing
Sound Forge, 16
v
Internal
MIDI devices, 205
Samplers, 210
Media files
Auto preview setting, 47
Meters, 37
Disabling, 20
Interpolating audio to repair glitches, 139
Introducing Sound Forge, 15
MIDI, 201–208
Conflicting SCSI IDs, 217
Device configuring, 202
Devices, 205
Fine-tune value, 214
Initiating playback, 203
Input synchronization, 202
Keyboard, 214
Open loop versus closed loop, 212
Periodic transfer failures, 217
Playback and triggered playback, 201
Resetting triggers, 203
Sample Dump Standard (SDS), 209, 216
SCSI MIDI Device Interface (SMDI), 209
SMPTE, 201
Synchronizing when recording, 124
Timecode synchronization, 206–208
Trigger configuring, 202
Triggered playback, 202
Triggers, 201
Unity note, 214
Invert/Flip, 158
IRCAM, 271
K
Keyboard
MIDI, 214
L
Labels
Automatically generating for files, regions, and markers, 93,
126
Level ruler, 74
Levels
Record, 125
Levels toolbar, 35
Loop Tuner, 223
Locking loop length, 226
Zero-crossing finders, 225
MIDI Keyboard, 214
Configuring, 215
Displaying, 214
Generating chords, 215
Specifying instruments, 215
Troubleshooting, 215
Turning on, 214
Looped playback, 51
Loops, 219–233
Creating for ACID, 228–233
Editing, 223
Halving/doubling, 231
Locking loop length, 226
Release, 219
Rotating audio, 232
Saving, 233
Setting tempo, 233
Shifting selections left/right, 231
Sustaining, 219
Minimizing quantization error, 86
Mixing, 60, 136
Monitor for video previewing, 239
Mono to stereo conversion, 87
Mouse shortcuts, 23, 79, 264
Moving markers, 94
M
MTC sync, 206–208
Magnify tool, 76
MTU, 271
Main screen, 24
Multiple takes (no Regions), 120
Markers, 92–98
Automatically naming, 93, 126
clipped audio, 95
Creating, 92
Creating during playback, 92
Creating during recording, 92, 125
Creating regions from, 95, 102
Moving, 94
Naming, 92
Multiple takes creating regions, 120
Measures and Beats
Configuring, 66
Media
getting, 46
Musical time intervals, 101
Mute, 158
N
Naming
Automatically naming files, regions, and markers, 93, 126
Markers, 92
Navigating
In the overview bar, 71
Spectrum graphs, 248
INDEX
vi
Navigation toolbar, 31
Net MD devices
exporting to, 67
New window
Creating, 52
Creating for each recorded take, 120
Creating through drag-and-drop, 137
Noise gate, 86
Noise shaping, 85, 152
Normalize, 87, 158–161
Applying dynamic compression, 87, 161
O
Online help, 16
Via the web, 17
What’s This? help, 17
Open dialog, 46
Opening
Cutlist files, 111
Files, 46
Playlist files, 111
Regions List files, 105
Workspaces, 56
Opening files
Explorer window, 47
Optimization
Hard disk defragmentation, 19
Meters, 20
Passive update, 20
Playback cursor and record counter, 20
Preload size, 20
Total buffer size, 19
Overview bar
Navigating, 71
Playback, 72
Using, 70
Overwriting, 131
P
Pan/Expand, 161
Mix mid-side (MS), 163
Pan (mix channels before panning), 163
Pan (preserve stereo separation), 163
Stereo expand, 163
Pasting, 58, 135
Drag-and-drop, 135
In existing data windows, 58
In new data windows, 58
Peak files, 48
Pencil tool, 140
Play meters, 37
Playbar
Current playback mode, 28
Optional shuttle control buttons, 28
Using, 28
Playing
Files, 50
From a specific point, 50
From the cutlist, 110
From the playlist, 108
Loop Playback mode, 51
Play Device toolbar, 36
Selections, 51
Playlist, 106–111
Adding regions, 106
Arranging, 108
copying to the clipboard, 111
Count, 107
Creating new files from, 109
Deleting regions from, 109
Displaying, 106
Opening playlist files, 111
Playing from, 108
Replicating regions, 108
Saving playlist files, 111
Stop points, 109
Treating as cutlist, 110
Plug-In Chainer, 171
Adding plug-ins, 172
Arranging plug-ins, 174
Audio tail data processing mode, 173
Bypassing plug-ins, 174
Configuring plug-ins, 175
Loading saved chains, 176
managing plug-ins, 176
Plug-In Manager, 176
Preset Manager, 177
Removing plug-ins, 175
Saving chains, 175
Saving settings as a preset, 175
Plug-In Manager, 176
Passive updating of displays, 20
Plug-ins, See Effects
Paste Special, 131
Crossfading, 131
Overwriting, 131
Replicating, 132
Preload size, 20
INDEX
Pre-roll to cursor, 70
Preset Manager, 177
vii
Presets, 145
Creating, 146
Deleting, 146
Managing, 177
Using, 145
Previewing
Cuts, 59
Operations, 146
video, 238
Previewing effect automation, 179
Previews, 146
Bypass, 148
Fade out last 10 milliseconds, 147
Limit previews to, 147
Loop preview continuously, 147
Parameters, 146
Post-roll, 147
Pre-roll, 147
Reactive previewing, 148
Printing
sonogram, 253
spectrum graph, 250
Process toolbar, 33
Processes, 145–167
Auto Trim/Crop, 149
Bit-Depth Converter, 150
Channel Converter, 152
DC Offset, 154
EQ, 155
Fade, 155
Fade In, 156
Fade Out, 157
Insert Silence, 157
Invert/Flip, 158
Mute, 158
Normalize, 158–161
Pan/Expand, 161
Resample, 163
Reverse, 165
Smooth/Enhance, 165
Time Stretch, 166
Volume, 166
Projects
creating, 45
Proper use of software, 130
Punch-In, 117
Adjusting pre/post-roll, 122
Recording mode, 120
Q
Quantization error, 86
RealMedia (.rm) commands, 96
Receiving samples, 213
Recording, 113–126
Acoustic Mirror test tone, 190
Arming to record, 119
automatically, 115
Automatically labeling files and regions, 126
Changing blinking status, 126
DC offset, 121
Gap detection, 126
Inserting markers, 125
Levels, 125
Meters, 125
Modes, 119
normal mode, 113
Playing back recorded audio, 122
Punch-In, 117, 120
Remote recording mode, 123
Synchronizing with other devices, 124
Recovering files after a crash, 68
Recovering the impulse for Acoustic Mirror, 191
Regions, 99–103
Automatically naming, 93, 126
Creating, 99
Creating automatically, 100
Creating from markers, 95
Editing, 102
Extracting, 103
Playback using MTC, 206
Regions List, 103, 104
Changing the region order, 105
Configuring the display, 104
copying to the clipboard, 105
Displaying, 104
Editing regions, 103
Opening Regions List files, 105
Saving Regions List files, 105
Regions/Playlist toolbar, 32
Release loops, 219
Creating, 221
Remote recording mode, 123
Renaming effects (plug-ins), 176
Rendering files, 67
Repairing audio
Copying the other channel, 138
Interpolating audio, 139
Replacing with preceding audio, 139
Using Pencil tool, 140
Vinyl Restoration plug-in, 140
Repeating an operation, 134
Replacing glitches, 139
R
Rapid sound attacks, 100
INDEX
viii
Replicating
Audio, 132
Regions in the playlist, 108
Restoring a selection, 80
Selections
Auto snap to, 80
Creating on the fly, 79
Fine-tuning, 79
Restoring, 80
Selection status boxes, 51
Set Selection dialog, 78
Statistics, 52
Reverse, 165
Sending samples, 213
Rotating audio, 232
Set Selection dialog, 78
Resampling, 163
Downsampling, 164
Upsampling, 164
Setting record levels, 125
S
Sample rate, 84
Editing, 84
For CD burning, 128
Sample size
Editing, 85
Sampling, 209–218
Configuring the sampler, 210
External samplers, 209
Internal samplers, 210
MIDI Keyboard, 214
Open loop versus closed loop, 212
Sample Dump Standard (SDS), 216
Sampler Tool, 210
Saving sampler configurations, 213
SCSI/SMDI hardware and setup, 216
Sending and receiving samples, 213
Save All, 55
Save As, 54, 88
Saving
All open files, 55
Cutlist files, 111
Files, 53
Loop points, 233
Playlist files, 111
Regions List files, 105
Sampler configurations, 213
Summary information, 90
Video files, 242
Workspaces, 56
Scaling Record meters, 125
Scan Levels, 160
Scott Studio
commands, 97
Script commands, 96
SCSI MIDI Device Interface (SMDI), 209
SCSI/SMDI
Hardware setup, 216
Troubleshooting, 217
INDEX
SFK files, 48
Shifting a selection left/right, 231
Simple synthesis, 144
Smooth/Enhance, 165
SMPTE, 201, 269
Snapping, 80
Current selection, 80
Disabling at high magnifications, 80
To time divisions, 80
To zero-crossings, 80
Snapshots
creating and comparing, 250
Sonogram, 251–253
Displaying, 251
Displaying frequency and amplitude values, 251
Displaying notes, 251
Displaying statistics, 251
printing, 253
Tuning, 252
Updating, 252
Sound Forge
Command descriptions, 36
Controls, 39–41
Crash recovery, 68
Data window, 27
Full-version features, 15
Installation, 16
Introduction, 15
Main screen, 24
Playbar, 28
Status formats, 64
Toolbars, 29
ToolTips, 36
Spectrum Analysis
changing spectrum graph zoom level, 249
changing the graph type, 248
printing graph, 250
printing sonogram, 253
Refreshing graphs, 249
settings, 253
snapshots, 250
ix
Spectrum analysis, 245–253
FFT, 246
Sonogram, 251–253
Spectrum graph, 246
Summary information, 89
Editing, 89
Saving, 90
Viewing, 89
Spectrum graph, 246
Ceiling, 254
changing zoom level, 249
Displaying, 246
Displaying frequency and amplitude values, 247
Displaying notes, 247
Displaying statistics, 247
Displaying stereo files, 249
FFT overlap, 253
FFT size, 253
Floor, 254
Hold peaks during monitoring, 254
Maintain last monitored view, 255
Monitoring input/output source, 247, 252
Navigating, 248
printing, 250
Set sonogram resolution, 254
Slices displayed, 254
Smoothing window, 254
snapshots, 250
thumbnail image, 248
updating, 249
Viewing multiple, 249
Sustaining loops, 219, 220
Spectrum graph type
changing, 248
Spectrum graphs
automatically updating, 249
refreshing, 249
Standard toolbar, 30
Statistics, 52
Status boxes, 51
Status formats, 64, 65
Status/Selection toolbar, 32
Step-down conversion, 85
Step-up conversion, 84
Stereo files
Converting to mono, 88
Previewing data, 43
Selecting data, 42
Single channel editing, 44
Working with, 41
Stop points
Creating, 109
Deleting, 109
Streaming media commands, 96
for RealPlayer, 96
for Windows Media, 96
Synchronizing MIDI timecode, 206–208
Synthesizing audio, 141–144
System requirements, 16
T
Tempo
Calculating for loops, 233
Changing a file’s beat values, 66
Creating regions using current tempo, 101
Specifying for ACID loops, 229
Test tone for Acoustic Mirror, 190
Time ruler, 73
Time Stretch, 166
Timecode
SMPTE, 269
Toolbars, 29
ACID Loop Creation Tools, 35, 230
Customizing, 29
Displaying, 29
Effects, 34
Levels, 35
Navigation, 31
Play Device, 36
Process, 33
Regions/Playlist, 32
Standard, 30
Status/Selection, 32
Tools, 35
Transport, 30
Views, 31
Tools
Crossfade Loop, 226
Find, 137
Magnify, 76
Pencil, 140
Sampler, 210
Tools toolbar, 35
ToolTips, 36
Total buffer size, 19
Transport bar, 30
Triggered playback, 201
Triggered region playback, 203
Triggers, 201
Resetting, 203
Trimming audio, 60
Using Auto/Trim Crop, 149
INDEX
x
Trimming impulse files for Acoustic Mirror, 192
Troubleshooting
Acoustic Mirror, 195
MIDI Keyboard, 215
SCSI/SMDI, 217
System performance, 19–21
Tuning a sonogram, 252
U
Undo/Redo, 61
Unity note, 214
Updating
Displays, 20
Sonograms, 252
spectrum graphs
Refreshing spectrum graphs, 249
V
Video, 235–243
Attaching video to audio, 240
detaching from audio file, 241
External monitor, 239
Frame animation, 236
Frame numbering, 236
previewing, 238
Saving, 242
Video preview window, 238
Video strip, 235
Video files
working with, 49
Video frame
copying current, 237
Video Preview window
settings, 239
Video strip
animating, 237
copying current video frame, 237
hiding, 235
showing, 235
Viewing extended summary information, 89
Views, 80
Creating, 81
Views toolbar, 31
Vinyl Restoration, 140
Volume, 166
W
Wave Hammer
Compress tab, 197
Displaying, 197
Limit tab, 199
What’s This? help, 17
INDEX
Windows Media files
Markers and script commands, 96
Workspaces, 56
Writing to CD, 128
Z
Zero-crossings
Finding for loops, 225
Preferences, 79
Snapping current selection to, 80
Snapping to, 80
Zooming, 72
Level ruler, 74
Time ruler, 73
Zoom ratio, 73
Zoom tricks, 76