Last Updated: 2/22/10
Homer H. Dubs
The History of the Former Han Dynasty
Wang Mang
(r. A.D. 9-23)
367. The Libation Officer for the Masters and Companions to the Heir-Apparent Guarantor of
His Perfection 保成師友祭酒 seems to have been the full title of the Libation Officer for the
Masters and Companions to the Heir-apparent, q.v., established in 11 A.D. This office was held
by Man Ch’ang and Tang Lin. Cf. Hs 99B.22a, 99C.1a.
367. Established Thru Virtue, Marquis 建德侯 was a noble title given by Wang Mang in 17 A.D.
to T’ang Lin. Chien Tê 建德 was also the name of a brother of the King of Nan-yüeh who in 112
B.C. was made Marquis of Chu-yang. Cf. Hs 99C.1a, 17.15a, Mh II, 503, n.3. (Look up Hs V, n
130 {sic!})
367. Marquis Enfeoffed Thru Virtue 封德侯 was a noble title given in 17 A.D. to Chi Ch’un. Cf.
Hs 99C.1a.
367. Chi Ch’un, 紀逡 style Wang-szu, title, Marquis Enfeoffed Thru Virtue, was a man from the
Lang-ya Commandery who became known for his Confucian scholarship and uprightness. Wang
Mang made him Libation Officer for the Remonstrants and Consultants and in May/June 17 A.D.
enfeoffed him as marquis because of his virtue and scholarship, granting him a special rank equal
to that of the three highest ministers, by which time he was an old man. Pan Ku enumerates him
among the pure and famous gentlemen of the time. Cf. Hs 72.25a, 99C.1a.
367. T’ang Lin 唐林, style, Tzu-kao, title, the Marquis Established Through Virtue, was a
Confucian from the P’ei Commandery who became a disciple of Hsü Shang, who considered
Tang Lin to be distinguished among his disciples for his virtuous conduct. Wang Mang made
him Supervisor of the Masters of Writing and Chief Master of Writing. In 11 A.D., he was made
the Attacher of the Indifferent in the suite of the Heir-apparent. In 17 A.D., he was Libation
Officer for the Masters and Companions of the Heir-apparent, Guarantor of His Perfection, and
was enfeoffed as marquis, with a special rank as equal to the highest ministers. At that time he
was already aged. He frequently offered memorials and admonitions, was upright, loyal,
straight-forward, and self-controlled. Cf. Hs 99B.18a, 99C.1a, 72.35a, sub Pal Hsüan, ch. 67 sub
Yün Chang, ch. 77 sub Sun Pao, ch. 82 sub Fu Hsi, ch. 86 sub Shih Tan, 88.13a sub Chou K’an.
369. The Grandee in Charge of Goods 掌貨大夫 was suborinate to the Communicator in the
time of Wang Mang and had charge of paying the nobles their allowances. Cf. Hs 99C.1b.
369. Earl 伯 was the third ranking of noble titles established by Wang Mang in 8 A.D. An earl
was nominally given an annual allowance of 400,000 cash. Cf. Hs 99A.31a, 99C.1b.
369. Viscount 子 was the fourth ranking of noble titles established by Wang Mang in 8 A.D.,
following the supposed classical precedents. A viscount was nominally given an annual
allowance of 200,000 cash. Cf. Hs 99A.31a, 99C.1b.
369. Baron 男 was the fifth ranking of noble titles established by Wang Mang in 8 A.D.,
following supposed classical precedent. A baron was nominally given an annual allowance of
200,000 cash. Cf. Hs 99A.31a, 99C.1b. Previous to that time, the phrase seems to have meant
merely “a man.”
370. Feng Chang 馮常 was in 17 A.D. the Communicator and was dismissed by Wang Mang for
protesting against the six monopolies. Cf. Hs 99C.2a.
370. The Upholders of the Laws at the Emperor’s Right and Left for the Extirpation of
Wickedness 左右刺姦 were officials appointed by Wang Mang in 17 A.D. to perform the duties
previously performed by the Han dynasty’s Inspectors of Regional Divisions (q.v.). Cf. Hs
99C.2a; HHs Mem. 16.6a.
370. Hou Pa 侯霸, style, Chun-fang, title, Marquis Ai of Tse-Hsiang was a Confucian scholar
who served under Wang Mang and rose to the highest position under Emperor Kuang-wu. He
came from Mi in the Ho-nan Commandery. An ancestral relative, Hou Yüan, had been a eunuch
and was good at arguing and so had secured a position. In the time of Emperor Yüan, he had
assisted Shih Hsien and had been in charge of the Palace Writers, with the title of Grand Master
of Ceremonies. Emperor Ch’eng gave Hou Pa a position as a Member of the Suite of the (nonexisitent) Heir-apparent. Hou Pa was severe and dignified in his appearance. His family had
accumulated the equivalent of a thousand catties of gold and so he did not care for his property.
He gave himself sincerely to the love of studying and took for his master Fang Yüan, the Grand
Administrator of the Chiu-chiang Commandery, who was a distinguished expert on the Ku-liang
Commentary. Huang Pa himself studied the Ku-liang Commentary and became Fang Yüan’s
Head Lecturer.
At the beginning of Wang Mang’s reign, Ch’en Ch’ung, a Director of Mandates for the
Five Majestic Principles recommended Hou Pa for his virtuous conduct, and he was promoted to
be the Ruler of the prefecture of Sui. The borders of the prefecture were extensive and it
bordered on the Yangtze valley, so that it contained many vagabonds who were robbers and
brigands. When Hou Pa arrived, he immediately tried and executed its valiants and knavish
persons, and by sections arrested the robbers in the hills, so that the prefecture became free from
robberies and peaceful. He was twice promoted and in 17 A.D. became an Administrator of the
Laws at the Emperor’s Right & Left For the Extirpation of Wickedness. Later he became the
Grand Governor of the Huai-p’ing (the former Lin-huai) Commandery.
When Wang Mang was defeated, Hou Pa protected and saved his commandery. When in
23 A.D., a messenger was sent to summon Hou Pa, the people, old and weak, clasped hands,
howling and weeping and blocking the messenger’s carriage; some blocked the road and lay
down in front of it. All begged the messenger to allow Hou Pa to remain another year. The
messenger thought that if Hou Pa were summoned away, the Lin-huai Commandery would fall
into disorder, so did not dare to give him the imperial message. After the King of Huai-yang was
defeated, the roads were blocked.
In 28 A.D. Emperor Kuang-wu summoned Hou Pa to meet him at Shou-ch’un and
installed him as the Chief Master of Writing. At that time there were no old laws and ceremonies
at the court and few old courtiers. Hou Pa was skilled in ancient matters, so he collected what
records were remaining and memorialized in detail the practises of good government used in
former times, which would be useful for the present age, and they were thereupon all put into
practise. It was due to the efforts of Hou Pa that each Spring there was a generous imperial edict
of amnesty to minor criminals, together with the observance of the ordinances for the four
seasons. The next year, 29 A.D., he became Grand Master over the Masses, following Fu Chan
and was enfeoffed as a Kuan-nei Marquis. He died in 37 A.D. Emperor Kuang-wu sorrowed for
him and lamented in person, granting him a laudatory edict and posthumously enfeoffing him as
Marquis Ai of Tse-hsiang with the income of an estate of 2600 households. The officials and
people of the Lin-huai Commandery built a temple to him and sacrificed to him at the four
seasons. Cf. HHs Mem. 16.6a-7a.
370. Commandants’ Commanderies 尉郡 was the name given by Wang Mang in 14 A.D. to the
six commanderies formed out of the previous three capital commanderies, including the city of
Ch’ang-an and surrounding territory. For the names and limits of these commanderies, cf.
HFHD III.341, n 24.2.
370. Ch’ang-chou 長州(洲) was a place in the state of Wu, where there was a royal park, on an
island in the Yangtze River. According to the Yüan-ho chün-hsien chih (viii cent.), 26.16a, the
park was 70 li southwest of Ch’ang-chou. According to the Shina Rekidai chimei yoran, p. 427,
the T’ang time Ch’ang-chou (established as a prefecture in 696) was located at the present Wu
(Soochow), Kiangsu. Cf. Hs 51.27b, 99C.2a.
370. Kua-t’ien Yi 瓜田儀 was a bandit chieftain of the Lin-huai Commandery who arose in 17
A.D. and established himself in the fastnesses of Ch’ang-chou in the K’uai-chi Commandery.
Cf. Hs 99C.2a, 13a. Fu Ch’ien testifies to this curious double surname. In 21 A.D. he was
persuaded to surrender to Wang Mang by Li Sheng, but died before he actually surrendered.
Wang Mang had him buried, built a tomb mound and temple for him and gave him the
posthumous name of Baron Shang of Kua-ming.
370. Lü, Mother 呂母 was a wealthy woman of Hai-ch’ü (q.v.) in the Lang-ya Commandery,
whose son in 14 A.D. was a prefectural official and had been executed by the Ruler of the
prefecture for a minor crime. She went into the business of selling liquor, and also bought
swords and clothes, lending them to young men who came to purchase. After several years her
wealth was considerably decreased, and the young people wanted to repay her, but she wept and
told about her son, and about her plan for revenge. They agreed, and in this way she secured
several tens or a hundred men. Then with Mother Lü they went upon the sea and summoned
escaped men, until their mob numbered several thousand. Mother Lü called herself their
General, and in 17 A.D. led her troops back, attacked, and routed Hai-ch’ü and captured its
Ruler. The officials knocked their heads to the ground and begged for the Ruler’s life, but
Mother Lü said, “My son committed a small crime for which he should not have died, but he was
killed by the Ruler. He who kills a person should die. Why do you beg for the Ruler any more?”
Thereupon she had him beheaded. She used his head as a sacrifice on the tomb mound of her
son, and returned to the sea. Cf. Hs 99C.2a; HHs Mem. 1.8b-9a, sub Liu P’eng-tzu.
371. Hai-ch’ü 海曲 {36-37/3-8} was a prefecture and city of the Lang-ya Commandery, and was
located, according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih, 10 li west of the present Jih-chao in
southeastern Shantung. Cf. Hs 28Aiii.4a.
375. The Southern Mountains 南山 {15-16:5/3-4} were the mountains south of Ch’ang-an. They
were also called the終南山and 秦嶺. Other mountains were also called by this name, such as the
eastern outrunners of the K’un-lun Mts. Cf. Hs 99C.3a.
377. The Highest Class of the Highest Ministers 上公 was an honorary rank in the civil
bureaucracy, in which rank Wang Mang in 9 A.D. counted the Four Coadjutors, i.e., the Grand
Master, the Grand Tutor, the State Teacher, and the State General. Cf. Hs 99B.2a. The term
comes from Chou-li 21.1a (Biot II, I, passage trans. in HFHD III,202, .21.2), where the Shangkung are the Chiefs of the four quarters of the country and as such rank higher than the Kung,
who are merely royal ministers. In the Chou-1i passage Shang-kung may be translated ‘high
dukes’ but in Han times when the bureaucracy, not the nobility, dominated the country, a
different translation must be used.
377. A t’ung 同 was Wang Mang’s name for the estate of a duke. It was nominaly 100 li square,
comprising 10,000 sq. li. Cf. Hs 99B.19a.
377. The Ku-ch’eng Commandery 穀城郡 {36-37:2/5} was probably the name Wang Mang gave
to the estate of the Duke of Eminent Merits, Wang Tsung, for Hs 99C.3b says he should be
buried at his former estate, Ku-ch’eng Commandery. Hs 28 Ai.77a sub Shih-p’ing in Tung
Commandery, says that Wang Mang called it Kung-ch’ung (i.e., Eminent Merits), so that this
place was the estate of that Duke, and during the time of his dukedom may have temporarily
been called a commandery, just as the estates of marquises were called prefectures. The city of
Ku-ch’eng (q.v.) was near. The Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih locates Shih-p’ing 20 li west of the
present place by the same name, in western Shantung.
377. Wang Hui-tsung 王會宗was the same as Wang Tsung 王宗 q.v.
377. Wang Fang 王妨 was an older sister of Wang Tsung, a granddaughter of Wang Mang, and
the wife of Wang Hsing, General of the Guard. She made magical imprecations against her
mother-in-law, and was driven to suicide in 18 A.D. Cf. Hs 99B.3b.
378. Tai Yün 䠠惲was a Regular Palace Attendant whom Wang Mang sent in 18 A.D. to examine
and punish Wang Fang and Wang Hsing, and in 23 A.D. to question Liu Hsin, Tung Chung, and
Wang She. He died Oct. 6, 23 A.D. defending Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.3b, 23a, 27b. Yen Shihku says this surname is pronounced 帶 or 徒蓋反. Karlgren Grammatica Serica #315a *tad/tȃo/
tai; #62e *d’o/d’uo/t’u; 642q *g’ap/yȃp,/ho also *kȃb/kȃi/kau; di (Karlgren); #877a *tieg/tiei/ti.
378. The Red Planet 赤星 was another name for the planet Mars. Cf. Hs 99C.3b.
378. The Dark Warrior 玄武 was the name for the Northern Palace or the northern constellations
of the Chinese zodiac, viz., Tou 斗, Niu 牛, Nü 女, Wei2 危, Shih 室, and Pi 璧. The Dark
Warrior is the tortoise. Cf. Hs 26.16a; Mh III, 353; Chavannes, Mission archeologique, vol. 11,
pp. 221, 231, fig. 144, 156.
378. The Vermillion Bird 朱雀 or 朱鳥 was a name for the Southern Palace or the southern
constellation of the Chinese zodiac, viz., Ching 井, Kuei 鬼, Liu 柳, Hsing 星, Chang 張, Yi 翼,
and Chen 軫. Cf. Hs 26.9b; Mh. III, 346; Hs 99C.3b.
378. The White Tiger 白虎 was a name for the Western Palace or the Western constellations of
the Chinese zodiac, viz., K’uei 奎, Lou 婁, Wei 胃, Mao 昴, Pi 畢, Tsui 觜, and Shen 參. Cf. Hs
99C.3b; Mh III, 350. The White Tiger was also a name for the constellation Shen, one of the
above seven. Cf. Hs 26.15a = Mh III, 352.
378. The Astrological Bonnet 天文冠 was the bonnet worn by the Directors of Mandates from
the Five Majestic Principles. Wang Mang considered doffing this bonnet to be the crime of
being seriously disrespectful. Cf. Hs 99C.4a.
378. Wang She 王涉, title, Duke of the Straight Path 直道侯 was the son of Wang Ken and a first
cousin of Wang Mang. In 6 B.C. he inherited his father’s title of Marquis of Ch’u-yang. Wang
Mang changed it to the title given above, but in 19 A.D. Wang She is entitled the Marquis of the
Straight Path (the Table entitles him a Duke). At that time he was made the General of the
Guard. In 23 A.D. a Taoist in his house-hold produced a prophecy that the Han dynasty would
revive and the name of the next ruler would be the same as that of Liu Hsiu (which was Liu Hsiu
the same as Emperor Kuang-wu’s name). Wang She feared the Han forces would be successful
and would exterminate him, so plotted with Liu Hsin 劉歆 and Tung Chung 董忠 to abduct
Wang Mang by force and surrender to the Han forces. The plot was discovered and all were
executed. Cf. Hs 99C.4a, 22b, 23a,b, 18.27b; HHs Mem. 3, sub Wei Hsiao.
378. The Straight Path 直道 was the title of the dukedom or marquisate given posthumously to
Wang Ken by Wang Mang. Wang Ken was posthumously entitled Duke Jang (ceding) of the
Straight Path. His son, Wang She, succeeded to this marquisate. The estate was probably
located at the same place as his former marquisate of Ch’ü-yang 曲陽侯 q.v. Cf. Hs 99C.4a.
379. Li Tzu-tu 力子都 was a man from the Tung-hai Commandery who raised troops and became
a leader of the Red Eyebrow bandits. He raided in the Hsü and Yen Provinces. Hs 99C.41a
writes his surname 力; Liu Pin says that it should be written Tiao 刁 and the Tzu-chih t’ungchien 38.12b has so written it; but Li was an ancient surname, a subject of the Yellow Emperor
having been named Li Mu, so that the Han shu reading is probably correct.
379. Fan Ch’ung 樊崇 was the leader of the Red Eyebrows in 19 A.D. He came from the Langya Commandery and first raised troops at Lu, with a mob of more than a hundred men. He went
about and entered the T’ai-shan Commandery. He called himself a San-lao. At that time there
was a great famine in the Ch’ing and Hsi. Provinces, and robbers arose in swarms. They
considered Fan Ch’ung a brave and fierce man, so followed him, and, in the course of a year, his
men were more than ten thousand.
Feng An from the Lang-ya Commandery, Hsü Hsüan, Hsieh Lu, and Yang Yin from the
Tung-hai Commandery also raised troops, which together made several ten-thousands of men,
and also led them to follow Fan Ch’ung. He returned and attacked Chü, but could not take it. So
he went about and robbed in the Ku-mu prefecture. In 21 A.D. he attacked the army of Wang
Mang’s official, T’ien K’uang, and routed it severely, killing more than ten thousand men. Next
he went north into the Ch’ing Province, robbing wherever he went. He returned to the T’ai-shan
Commandery, and stopped and encamped at Nan-ch’eng.
At first, Fan Ch’ung and others had become robbers because of their poverty and distress,
and had no plans of attacking cities or overrunning territory. When their mob became
increasingly great, they bound themselves together by an oath to the effect that whoever killed
another must die, (9b) and whoever wounded another must suffer a like wound. They had no
written documents or banners and flags. The most honorable leaders of their regiments and
companies called themselves San-lao, the next called themselves Official Attendants, the next
Military Officials. Commonly the leaders called themselves Great Men.
When in 22 A.D. Wang Mang sent Lien Tan and Wang K’uang to attack them, Fan
Ch’ung and the others feared that in a battle their men would become confused with the troops of
Wang Mang, so they all reddened their eyebrows, in order that they might recognize each other.
From this circumstance there arose the name, “Red Eyebrows.” Wang Mang’s army was
severely defeated, with the loss of more than ten thousand men; Lien Tan died in battle, and
Wang K’uang fled.
Fan Ch’ung again led more than a hundred thousand troops to again besiege Chü. After
several months, someone said to him, “Chü is your native state. Why do you attack it?” So he
left it.
At that time Mother Lü (q.v.) had died of illness, and her mob was divided and joined the
Red Eyebrows, the Green Calves, and the Bronze Horses. The Red Eyebrows next pillaged
Tung-hai Commandery, where they fought a battle with Wang Mang’s Grand Governor of the Yip’ing Commandery (Wang Mang’s name for the Tung-hai Commandery). They were defeated
and several thousand slain. So they left and robbed in the Ch’u Pei, Ju-nan, and Ying-ch’uan
Commanderies. They returned and entered the Ch’en-liu Commandery, where they attacked and
took Lu-ch’eng by force. Then they turned and went to the P’u-yang Commandery.
It happened that Liu Hsüan, commonly called the Keng-shih Emperor, had made his
capital at Lo-yang, and sent a messenger to get Fan Ch’ung to surrender. When Fan Ch’ung
heard that the house of Han had revived, he stayed his troops, went with more than twenty of his
generals and leaders, and followed the messenger to Lo-yang, where he surrendered to Kengshih. All were enfeoffed as marquises. Since Fan Ch’ung and the others had no estates, and
some members of their bands left, the leaders fled and returned to their camp. They led the Red
Eyebrows to the Ying-ch’uan Commandery, where the mob was divided into two divisions. Fan
Ch’ung and Feng An led one division, Hsü Hsüan, Hsieh Lu, and Yang Yin led the other. They
attacked and killed the Grand Administrator of the Ho-nan Commandery.
Altho the Red Eyebrows had been victorious in several battles, yet they were tired and all
worried and wept, wanting to return eastwards; their mobs would scatter, so they said that it
would be better to go westwards and attack Ch’ang-an.
In the Winter of 24 A.D., Fan Ch’ung and Feng An passed into Kuan-chung thru the Wu
Pass; Hsü Hsüan and the others passed thru the Lu-huan Pass, so that the Red Eyebrows entered
Kuan-chung by two routes. In Feb./Mar. 25, they both reached the Hung-nung Commandery and
fought a succession of battles with the generals of the Keng-shih Emperor, in which they were
victorious. As a result a great many people joined them. Divisions were established, ten
thousand men making one army division. There were thirty divisions. In each division there was
established one San-lao and one Official Attendant. (l0b) Then they advanced to Hua-yin.
In the army there was always a shaman from Ch’i, who beat drums, danced, and offered
sacrifices to King Ching of Ch’eng-yang (Liu Chang, q.v.) in order to beg for blessings and aid.
The shaman raved and said that King Ching was greatly incensed and said, “[My descendant]
must become [the ruler of] the imperial government. Why is he a bandit?” Someone who
laughed at the shaman immediately became ill, so that the army was startled and moved.
At this time Fang Wang’s younger brother, Fang Yang who had a grudge against the
Emperor, Keng-shih, because the latter had killed his older brother, Fang Wang, said to Fan
Ch’ung that the Keng Shih Emperor was disorderly, the government’s ordinances were not
obeyed, hence Fan Ch’ung had been left without a title, even tho he had a million men. Hence,
Fan Ch’ung had merely remained a robber. Fang Wang advised Fan Ch’ung to set another
member of the imperial house upon the throne. Fan Ch’ung and the others agreed, and the
shaman spoke even more vigorously.
They advanced to Cheng. In July/Aug. 25 A.D., they set Liu P’eng-tzu who was in the
camp, upon the imperial throne because he was a descendant of Liu Chang, King Ching, of
Ch’eng-yang. The year-period was called Chien-shih (11b). Fan Ch’ung was made Grandee
The army went to Kao-ling, where it was joined by a rebel general of the Keng-shih
Emperor, Chang Ang, and others, and then they attacked the eastern gate of the capital and
entered the city of Ch’ang-an. After the Keng-shih Emperor had come and surrendered, Liu
P’eng-tzu occupied the Ch’ang-lo Palace. But the Red Eyebrows could not keep from robbing,
and at last Liu P’eng-tzu and his older brother (12b), Liu Kung, became afraid and asked Fan
Ch’ung to be allowed to return the imperial seals and become commoners again. Liu P’eng-tzu
was not allowed to do so, and the Red Eyebrows promised to keep the peace. They did so for
more than 20 days, and the people began to return to Ch’ang-an. Then the Red Eyebrows began
robbing again. When the food in the city was exhausted, the Red Eyebrows collected the
valuables, burnt the palaces and houses, then led their troops westwards. They passed and
worshipped at the Southern Place for the imperial sacrifice. Their number was called a million.
Liu P’eng-tzu went along in the imperial chariot with three horses, followed by several hundred
At the Southern Mountains they robbed cities and towns, and fought a battle with a
general of the Keng-shih Emperor, Chuang Ch’un, at Mei, where they routed and killed Chuang
Ch’un. Then they entered the An-ting and Pei-ti Commanderies, going to Yang-ch’eng and FanHsü.
It happened that there was a great snow and the valleys and pits were all full, so that
many soldiers froze to death. Then the Red Eyebrows returned and dug up the imperial tombs,
taking their valuables. They defiled the corpse of the Empress Dowager née Lü. The Grand
Minister Over the Masses, Teng Yü at that time in Ch’ang-an, and sent troops to attack the Red
Eyebrows at Yu-yi, but was defeated, so he left the city and went to Yün-yang. In October, the
Red Eyebrows again entered Ch’ang-an and stopped at the Kuei Palace.
At this time a robber of the Han-chung Commandery, Yen Ch’en, came out of that
Commandery by the San Pass and encamped at Tu-ling. Fen An led more than a hundred
thousand men to attack him. Teng Yü thought that Feng An’s best troops were outside the
capital, and only Liu P’eng-tzu with the weak were inside the city, so he went in person to attack
Ch’ang-an. But it happened that Hsieh Lu came to the rescue and fought at night in the Kao
Street. Teng Yü’s troops were defeated and fled.
Yen Ch’en joined his troops with those of the Keng-shih Emperor, Li Pao, so that they
had several ten-thousands of men and fought a battle at Tu-ling. Yen Chen and the others were
severely defeated, and the dead numbered more than ten thousand. Li Pao surrendered to Feng
An, but Yen Ch’en gathered his scattered troops and fled.
Li Pao secretly sent a man to tell Yen Ch’en to put forth all his efforts and fight, while he
would work from inside (13b). Yen Ch’en thereupon returned and offered battle. Feng An and
the others emptied their camp and attacked him. Then Li Pao from behind took down all the Red
Eyebrow banners and flags, and changed and set up his own banners and flags. When Feng An
and the others were tired of battle and returned to their camp, they saw that the flags and banners
were all white. They were greatly astounded, and fled in confusion, throwing themselves into
the streams and valleys, so that the dead were more than a hundred thousand men. Feng An
escaped with several thousand men and returned to Ch’ang-an.
At this time there was a great famine in the capital commanderies, and people ate each
other. The city was empty and white bones covered the wastes. Wanderers from time to time
collected in camps to protect themselves, and each camp was firmly defended and would not
surrender so that when the Red Eyebrows would rob, they could secure nothing.
In Dec./Jan. 27, they led their troops eastwards. There still were more than 200,000 of
them. When they were scattered on the roads, Emperor Kuang-wu sent the General Who Routs
the Wicked, Hou Chin, and others to encamp at Hsin-an, and Keng Yen to encamp at Yi-yang. In
Jan./Feb. 27, Teng Yü crossed the Yellow River, going north, and attacked the Red Eyebrows at
Hu, but was again defeated and fled. The Red Eyebrows then came out thru the Pass and turned
south. They attacked Feng Yi, and routed him at Hsiao-ti.
Emperor Kuang-wu heard of it, and so went to Yi-yang in person, in order to intercept
them on the road. He deployed his army in great force. When the Red Eyebrows suddenly met
his great army, they were startled and quaked (14a), not knowing what to do. So they sent Liu
Kung to beg for permission to surrender. Fan Chung led Liu P’eng-tzu, Hsü Hsüan, and more
than thirty others, and with their flesh bared, came to surrender. They presented to the Emperor
the imperial seals and their cords which transmit the imperial authority, the seven-foot sword of
Keng-shih, together with his jade sceptre. Their weapons and armor were collected west of Yiyang, and made a pile as high as the Hsiung-erh Mountain. The Emperor ordered the prefectural
kitchen to feed the bands who were in want. They numbered more than a hundred thousand men
and were all satisfied. The next day he held a great review on the shore of the Lo River. He
ordered Liu P’eng-tzu and his officials to line up and look at them. They did so, and the
Emperor finally arranged that they should each dwell at Lo-yang, and each leader would be
given a residence and two hundred mou of land. That Summer, Fan Ch’ung and Feng An plotted
to rebel, and were executed. Cf. HHs An. 1A sub Emperor Kuang-wu, Mem, 1.9a-14b, sub Liu
P’eng-tzu, also sub Liu Hsüan,Tr. 13; Hs 99C.4a.
379. The Red Eyebrows were a group of bandits who rose about 19 A.D. Fan Ch’ung 樊崇 (q.v.)
became their leader. They numbered by the ten-thousands and seriously disturbed Wang Mang’s
government. When in 22 A.D. Wang Mang sent Lin Tan and Wang K’uang, against them, Fan
Ch’ang feared his men would be confused with Wang Mang’s troops, so he had his men dye their
eyebrows red in order to distinguish them from the government troops. From this circumstance
arose the name of Red Eyebrows. Cf. HHs Mem. 1.9b; Hs 99C.4a.
379. The Grand Astrologers 太史 were subordinates of the Grand Master of Ceremonies. Han
shu 99C.14a says, “The Chief Grand Astrologer...has had charge of [observing] the stars,
[making] the calendar, and of watching for emanations and vicissitudes. He has called fortunate
what is portentous, has confused astrological [phenomena], and has misled the court.” The Hankuan (anonymous) 1b says, “The Expectant Appointees of the Grand Astrologer numbered 37
persons. Six of them had charge of the calendar; three [had charge of] the tortoise divination;
three [had charge of] their quarters; four [had charge of] the sun and its seasons; three [had
charge of] the Book of Changes and the milfoil [divination]; two [had charge of] apotropaic
rituals; nine persons [had charge of] the ? clan’s duties [advice], Mr. Hsü, and Mr. Chang, three
persons to each [authority]; for auspicious laws, for begging for rain, and for dispersing
[untoward] matters, there were two persons each; for medicine there were two persons.”
The HHs Tr. 25.1b, says, “The Chief Grand Astrologer was one person, [ranking] at 600
piculs. The original note says, “He had charge of the heavenly seasons, and the calendar. When
each year was coming to its end, he memorialized the calendar for the new year. When any
kingdom had sacrifices, burials, or marriages, he had charge of memorializing a lucky day
together with the season, festivals, prohibitions and three avoidances. When any kingdom had
portents, [spiritual] responses, visitations, or strange events, he had charge of recording them.
He had one Assistant [Grand Astrologer], and one Ming-t’ang and [one] Spiritual Terrace
Assistant. [The Assistants] ranked at 200 piculs.” The original note says, “Two Assistant [Grand
Astrologers] had charge of the Ming-t’ang and the Spiritual Terrace. The [Assistant for] the
Spiritual Terrace had charge of attending upon the solar, lunar and starry emanations. All were
subordinate to the [Chief] Astrologer.”
The foregoing passages should make plain that this official’s duties were concerned with
religion rather than with history. Cf. M. Granet, Danses et Legendes de la Chine ancienne, p.
64.2; O. Franke, Ursprung d. chines. Geschictheschreibung, p. 277 ff; F. Jager, Asia Major, 9,
1933: 25, n.1; Han-kuan ta-wen, 2.2a,b.
According to Huan T’an’s Hsin-lun, Tung-fang So gave to the Shih chi the title “The
Lord Grand Astrologer’s Book” 太史公書, so that Szu-ma Ch’ien, who was the Chief Grand
Astrologer 太史令, came to be known as the Lord Grand Astrologer 太史公, and that phrase is
used in the Shih chi to denote him or his father (who was his predecessor in that office). Cf. also
Mh I, p. x f; xlviii.
379. The Tzu-ko-t’u 紫閣圖was a writing quoted by Wang Mang in 19 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.4a.
379, n 4.4. The Mi Mt. 峚山 was the place where the Yellow Emperor was supposed to reside,
according to the Shan-hai ching. Cf. Hs 99C.4a.
379. The Ch’ien Mts. 虔山 was the place where, according to the present text of Hs 99C.1a, the
Yellow Emperor was supposed to have his amusements. This reading may be erroneous; cf.
HFHD III.379, n 4.4 to that passage. The Ch’ien Province of Sui to Sung times was located in
the present Kiangsi.
380. The Chung-nan Mts. 終南山 {15-16:5/3-4} were the same as the Southern Mountains in
Shensi (q.v.). Cf. Ch’u-hsüeh chi, ch. 5, sect. 8; Hs 99C.4a, 8a. Wang Mang used this name to
imply that he would become an immortal (from the literal meaning of the name of the mountains
“he comes to his end in the south”).
380. The Grand Ancestral Temple 太廟 was the central room in the Ming-t’ang where Wang
Mang sacrificed to his ancestors. This term appears in Analects III, xv as the name for the
temple to the Duke of Chou in Lu, i.e., the temple to the founder of the ruling line. Until the
separate temples for each of Wang Mang’s ancestors were built, they were sacrificed to in this
room. Cf. Hs 99B.6b; diagram of the Ming-t’ang in Couvreur, Dictionnaire Classique, III ed.,
sub 廟.
381. The Commissioner of the Army (大司馬)護軍 was a subordinate of the Commander-in-chief
whose duty it was to put down rebellions in the south and southwest of China. This title was
established in 1 A.D. and seemingly reestablished in 19 A.D. The duties of this office were the
same as the former Chief Commandant Commissioner of the Army (q.v.). Cf. Hs 19A.22a;
381. Kuo Hsing 郭興 was a Commandant of the Protecting Army subordinate to the
Commander-in-chief who in 19 A.D. was sent against the southwestern barbarians. Cf. Hs
99C.11-b; 12b.
381. Li Yeh 李曅 was a Shepherd of the Yung Division who in 19 A.D. was sent against the
southwestern barbarians by Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.4-b.
381. Jo Tou 若豆was a rebel southwestern barbarian leader in 19 and 23 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.4b,
21a; HHs Mem. 76.14a; RMD, 36d. {sic!}
381. The Third Brother Hsi 羲叔 was a higher subordinate official of the Grand Tutor. In 19
A.D., this official was sent to put down bandits. The Third Brother Hsi was a personage
mentioned in the Book of History, I, ii, 5 (Legge, p. 19) as being in charge of the Summer. Hs
20.15b grades him in the second class, among the benevolent men. The Grand Tutor was a
guarantor for the commanderies in the southern quarter of the empire (Hs 99B.20b); Summer
was equated with the south, hence it was natural that Wang Mang should have given a
subordinate of the Grand Tutor this title. Cf. Hs 99C.4b.
381. Sun Hsi 孫喜 was a Third Brother Hsi subordinate to the Grand Tutor in 19 A.D. and was
sent against the bandits in the lower Yangtze region. Cf. Hs 99C.4b, 13a.
381. Chiang-hu 江湖 (lit. the [Yangtze] River and Lakes) was the region of the Yangtze Valley,
especially the lower Yangtze region. In a note to this phrase in Hs 26.30b, Wang Hsien-ch’ien
says, “The various territories of the Chiu-chiang, Lu-chiang, Yü-chang, and Tan-yang
[Commanderies] all adjoin the [Yangtze] River and the [P’o-yang ] Lake, hence this saying.” In
Hs 26.6a Hou Pa was appointed as the Ruler of Sui which was in northwestern Hupeh, and it is
said that his prefecture was large and bordered on the Chiang-hu, so that the latter term included
the whole Yangtze valley below the gorges.
382. Director of the Army 理軍 was a title given by Wang Mang in 19 A.D. to various inventors
and magicians who professed to be able to cross rivers without boats, feed armies on drugs, fly,
etc. They were given a carriage and horses and told to await mobilization. Cf. Hs 99C.5a.
383. The Ku-tu Marquis of the West 右骨都侯 was one of the highest noble titles in the Hun
empire occupied by persons outside the Hun imperial clan. There was an Eastern and Western
Marquisate by this name. These nobles assisted in the Hun central government. Hsü-pu Tang
held this title. Cf. Hs 94A.7a; de Groot, Die Hunnen, p. 55, 56, 59; Mh I, lxv.
383. Hsü-pu Tang 須卜當, Hun title, Ku-tu Marquis of the West; Chinese title, Duke of Future
Peace and the Shan-yü Hsü-pu, was a high Hun noble, who was a close advisor to the Hun Shanyü, and married Lüan-ti Yün (q.v.), the daughter of a Chinese imperial concubine who had been
sent-to the Hun Shan-yü. She bore him Hsü-pu She. Hsü-pu Tang was able to have a Chinese
seal read and interpreted. (Hs 94B.16b). In 15 A.D. Wang Mang gave Hsü-pu Tang the title
Duke of Future Peace. He and his wife kept peace with the Chinese even after the episode of the
seal, while the Shan-yü raided the Chinese borders. They gave the Chinese information of the
Shan-yü’s movements.
In 19 A.D., Wang Mang had Hsü-p’u Tang, his wife, son, and nephew lured to the
Chinese borders, and then by force conveyed to Ch’ang-an, where he was given the title of the
Shan-yü Hsü-pu, while an army was to be sent out to make him the actual Shan-yü. But the
Chinese army delayed, and the Huns became enraged against Hsü-pu Tang. At this time Hsü-pu
Tang died. Wang Mang then gave Hsü-pu She his father’s title. Cf. Hs 99C.5a; 94B.21a, 21b; de
Groot, Die Hunnen, pp. 267f, 279f, 283, 286f.
383. Wang Hsi6 王歙, title, Marquis of Peace and Alliance By Marriage, was a son of Wang
Ch’iang’s (q.v.) elder brother. About 2 B.C. he was Colonel of the Ch’ang River Encampment
and was sent as an envoy to the Huns. By 14 A.D., he was already marquis, and Hsü-pu Tang
asked to have him sent to the Huns. In 15, he was again sent with the body of the dead son of the
Shan-yü; upon his return, Wang Mang gave him 2,000,000 cash. In 19, he was used to lure Hsüpu Tang (q.v.) to Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99C.5a; 94B.15a, 20b, 21a,b; de Groot, Die Hunnen, pp.
263, 280f, 283, 286f.
383. Peace and Alliance By Marriage, Marquis of 和親侯 was a noble title given in 14 A.D. by
Wang Mang to Wang Hsi (q.v.), because his first cousin, Lüan-ti Yin (q.v.) and her husband were
keeping peace between the Chinese and Huns. Cf. Hs 99C.5a; 94B.20b. “Peace and alliance by
marriage between the imperial houses” was the term regularly used for the ideal relationship
between the Chinese and Huns; cf. Hs 5.3a, 4a, 8.17b, 28Bii.18a. The seat of the marquisate was
probably the former T’ang in the former kingdom of Chung-shan, for this place was renamed
Ho-ch’in by Wang Mang. It was located northeast of the present T’ang Hopeh.
383. Shan-yü4 善于 (lit. “Good to [us]”) was the title given by Wang Mang to the emperor of the
Huns, who had formerly been called (in Chinese) the Shan-yü 禪于 (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.5a.
383. Hsü-pu, Shan-yü 善于須卜. The Shan-yü Hsü-pu was the reign title proposed by Wang
Mang for Hsü-pu Tang, whom Wang Mang proposed to put upon the Hun imperial throne. Hsüpu Tang died soon afterwards and the Chinese armies failed to start; Wang Mang however
probably continued the title in the person of Hsü-pu Tang’s son, She. Cf. Hs 99C.5a; 94B.21b.
383. Future Peace, Duke of 後安公 was the title given by Wang Mang in 15 A.D. to Hsü-pu
Tang, because he and his wife, Lüan-ti Yin, kept peace between the Huns and Chinese. At the
same time Hsü-pu Tang’s son, Hsü-pu She, was made Marquis of Future Peace. When about 19
A.D. Hsü-pu Tang died, Wang Mang made Hsi-pu She the Duke of Future Peace. Cf. Hs
99C.5a; 94.B.21b.
383. Kao Street 槀 or 藁街 was the street in Ch’ang-an on which was located the government
Lodge for Barbarians, according to Hs 70.10b. Yen Shih-ku says this Lodge was like the
“[Grand] Herald’s Lodge for Guests” of his time. Ts’ui Hao (381-450) said that the first word of
this street’s name should be written “Camel “, and equated it with the “Bronze Camel Street” 銅
駝街. But Yen Shih-ku replies that the Bronze Camel Street was in Lo-yang, not in Ch’ang-an.
The San-fu huang-t’u 6.7a says that this Lodge was inside Ch’ang-an. Chin Shao quotes a lost
passage from the San-fu huang-t’u that the Lodge was inside a city gate of Ch’ang-an. Cf. also
Hs 99C.5a.
383. Cheng-shih 徵氏. Cheng was a surname given in 19 A.D. by Wang Mang to Chuang Yü
and Lien Tan. It there seems to mean “make a military expedition,” for Wang Mang was about to
send them out on an expedition against the Huns and entitled them the Two Generals Making a
Military Expedition 二徵將軍. Cf. Hs 99C.5b.
383. The Two Generals Making a Military Expedition 二徵將軍 was a title given in 19 A.D. by
Wang Mang to Chuang Yu and Lien Tan when he ordered them to attack the Huns, execute the
Hun Shan-yü, Lüan-ti Hsing and set up Hsü-pu Tang as Shan-yü. At the same time he gave both
these generals the surname Cheng, which is the second word in this title. Cf. Hs 99C.5b.
384. Lüan-ti Yü 欒鞮輿, title, the Shan-yü Hu-tu-erh-shih-tao-kao-jo-ti, was the son of the Shanyü Hu-han-Hsieh by his fifth Yen-chih. In 8 B.C. he was made Sage King of the West. In 9
A.D., as the younger brother of the Shan-yü, he was sent to the Chinese court to make presents to
the Emperor and to beg for the Shan-yü’s former seal. In 15, he was made Lu-li King of the
East, while an older brother became Shan-yü. He later became Sage King of the East (the Hun
Heir-apparent) and in 18 A.D. became the Shan-yü. Jo-ti 若鞮 was the Hun word which
corresponded to the Chinese word “filial” 孝 in the Chinese emperor’s posthumous names. As
Wang Mang became weaker and weaker in his relations with foreign powers and civil war
further enfeebled the Chinese, Lüan-ti Yü became more and more proud, until he was as
independent as the early Shan-yü Mao-tun. He died in 46 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.5b, 21a, 99B.10b,
17b, 20b, 21b; HHs Mem. 79.3a; de Groot, Die Hunnen, pp. 251, 268, 280, 285, 286-8.
384. The Kuang Stables 橫廄 were in the Western part of Ch’ang-an from which Wang Mang
wanted the expedition of 19 A.D. to start. They were probably located near the Kuang Gate, near
which were three imperial palaces. For the pronunciation of this word, cf. sub Kuang Gate. Cf.
Hs 99C.5b.
384. Po Ch’i 白起, title, Baronet of Wu-an, was a famous general of the state of Ch’i, who
achieved important victories in eastern China and also captured the capital of Ch’u, Ying, but
was finally executed because of the jealousy he excited.
He came from Mei in the present Shensi. In 294 B.C., he was Junior Chief of the
Multitude and a general and attacked the state of Hanh at Hsin-ch’eng. In 293, he became a
Junior Chieftain of Conscripts and attacked Han and Weih at Yi-ch’üeh, 240,000 heads. He also
captured their General, Kung-sun Hsi, and took five cities by storm. He was promoted to be
State Commandant. He crossed the Yellow River, took An-yi in Han, and went east to the Ch’ien
River. In 292, Po Ch’i and his guest, Ch’ing Ts’o, attacked Yüan-ch’eng and took it by storm. In
286, he attacked Chao and took Kuang-liang-ch’eng by storm. In 279 he attacked Ch’u and took
Yen and Teng, five cities in all. In 278 he attacked Ch’u and took Ying by storm. He burnt Yiling and then went east to Ching-ling. The King of Ch’u fled out of Ying and moved east to the
state of Ch’en, and the state of Ch’in made the Nan Commandery out of Ying and its
surroundings. Po Ch’i was promoted to be Baronet of Wu-an. He pacified the Wu and Ch’ienchung Commanderies.
In 273, Po Ch’i attacked Wei and took Hua-yang by storm, making Mang Mao flee,
capturing the general of the three states made from Chin, and taking 130,000 heads. He fought a
battle with the General of Chao, Chia Yen, and drowned 20,000 men in the Yellow River. In 264,
Po Ch’i attacked Hsing-ch’eng of Hanh and took five cities by storm, taking 50,000 heads. In
263, Po Ch’i attacked Nan-yang. In 262, he made an expedition against King Yeh of Han, and
King Yeh surrendered the Shang-tang Commandery to Ch’in. The roads were closed, and the
Administrator of the Commandery, Feng T’ing, however plotted to surrender his commandery to
the state of Chao, on the theory that this action would bring the anger of Ch’in upon Chao, would
bring Chao and Han together, and that Han and Chao together could stop the might of Ch’in.
King Hsiao-ch’eng of Chao received the people and made Feng T’ing the Baronet of Hua-yang.
In 261, Ch’in attacked Kou-shih and Lin of Hanh and took these cities by storm. In 260,
Ch’in sent the Junior Chief of the Multitude, Wang Ch’i, to attack Han and take the Shang-tang
Commandery, but the people of Shang-tang had fled to Chao, and the state of Chao garrisoned
Ch’ang-p’ing in order to assist the people of Shang-tang. So in the fourth month, Wang Ch’i
attacked Chao. Lien Po was made the Chao general. After some defeats, he fortified his army
encampment, but he would not come out to fight. The Chancellor of Ch’in however tricked the
King of Chao to replace Lien Po as general. Po Ch’i was made the Ch’in First Ranking General.
The Chao army fought, but unsuccessfully and so retired and guarded its entrenchments. The
Ch’in army cut off food from the Chao army, and the Ch’in king came in person to the Ho-nei
Commandery to give each commoner the first step in noble rank. All men of the fifteenth year
and over were sent to Ch’ang-p’ing to keep Chao from sending succor or food to its army. By
the 9th month the Chao army had had no food for 46 days, and the men all thought of killing
each other, eating, and attacking the Ch’in fortifications. The Chao General went out to fight;
the Ch’in army shot and killed him and defeated his army. Its leader with 400,000 men
surrendered to Po Ch’i. Po Ch’i considered that the people hated Ch’in and that the people of
Shang-tang had fled to Chao, so he concluded that it would be best to massacre the Chao army,
for fear that these men would cause trouble. It was done. 248 of the younger ones were sent
back to Chao. Altogether 450,000 heads were taken.
In 259, the King of Chao sent Su Tai, the younger brother of Su Ch’in, to the Chancellor
of Ch’in with rich presents, and succeeded in making the Chancellor jealous of Po Ch’i on the
ground that Po Chi’s accomplishments had been so great that he outshone the Chancellor, and
would inevitably be given the latter’s position. He suggested that the Chancellor prevent Po Ch’i
from getting any more fame. Accordingly the Chancellor had the fighting stopped; Han and
Chao both ceded cities to Ch’in and the Ch’in army was dismissed. Hence Po Ch’i was
estranged from the Chancellor.
When, later in the year, the Ch’in army was again sent out, Po Ch’i was ill and could not
take any office. In 258, Wang Ling attacked Han-tan with little success, and the Ch’in army sent
to aid Wang Ling was defeated. Po Ch’i’s illness was better, and the King of Ch’in wanted to
send Po Ch’i to take Wang Ling’s place. But Po Ch’i advised against the attempt to take Hantan, saying that the victory at Ch’ang-p’ing had cost more than half of the Ch’in army; the nobles
of the other states would relieve Han-tan and Ch’in would be defeated. The King of Ch’in was
not persuaded and sent his Chancellor to persuade Po Ch’i; the latter had to refuse on account of
illness. So Wang Ch’i was sent in his place. Han-tan was besieged, but Ch’u and Wei relieved it
and most of the Ch’in army were lost.
Po Ch’i said, “Ch’in would not listen to your subject’s plans; what is going to be done
now?” The King of Ch’in heard of it and became incensed, and forced Po Ch’i to arise. Po Ch’i
then firmly pronounced himself ill. So he was deprived of his marquisate, made a common
soldier, and exiled to Yin-mi in the present Kansuh. He was ill and could not travel, so he
remained in his place to the third month. When the army of Ch’in was in straits, and messengers
were daily coming from it, the King of Ch’in sent a man to tell Po Ch’i that he could no longer
remain in Hsien-yang.
When Po Ch’i had gone ten li out of the Western Gate of Hsien-yang to Tu, the
Chancellor reported the King that Po Ch’i was still tormented by desire and was not yielding, so
that it would be best to send him a sword to commit suicide. When Po Ch’i was about to cut his
own throat, he said, “What crime have I committed against Heaven that I should have come to
this state?” After a long while, he said, “I must be dying because at the battle of Ch’ang-p’ing,
when several hundred-thousands of the Chao army surrendered, I deceived and buried them all.
That was enough that I should die.” Thereupon, he committed suicide. This happened in Sept./
Oct. 257 B.C. The people of Ch’in pitied him and the villages and towns all sacrificed to him.
The foregoing is the story told by Szu-ma Ch’ien. Liu Shao (Shryock, Study of Human
Abilities, p. 110), however, calls Po Ch’i a military hero. Cf. Sc`73; Mh II, IV, IV, Ind. sub. Po
385. Tung Chung1b 董忠, title, Earl Making Portents Descend 降符伯, was a man whom Wang
Mang made his Commander-in-chief in 19 A.D. In 23 A.D., when the Han forces had been
successful, he plotted with Wang She and Liu Hsin to use his forces to abduct Wang Mang and
surrender to the Han forces. The plot was discovered and all were executed. Cf. Hs 99C.5b,
19a, 22b, 23a,b; HHs Mem. 3 sub Wei Ao, Mem 26, sub Ch’en Yüan.
385. Making Portents Descend, Earl 降符伯 was the title given by Wang Mang to Tung Chung.
Cf. Hs 99C.5b.
385. Yi-p’ing 翼平 was the name of one of Wang Mang’s smaller commanderies, with its
headquarters at the city of Yi-p’ing t’ing, which latter was the name given by Wang Mang to the
Former Han prefecture of Shou-kuang. It had an office for the salt monopoly. This city was
located, according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih, east of the present Shou-kuang, in northern
Shantung. Cf. Hs 99C.5b; 28Aii.84.
385. T’ien K’uang 田況, was the Leader of a Combination at the Yi-p’ing Commandery, who in
19 A.D. memorialized that the commanderies and prefectures had not correctly reported the
people’s property for taxation purposes, whereupon Wang Mang taxed the people doubly. This
earned T’ien K’uang the curses of the people and led Wang Mang to grant him an earldom and
two million cash. In 21 A.D., he had dared to mobilize troops without orders but was forgiven
and put in charge of the Ch’ing and Hsü Provinces. Wang Mang however became suspicious of
him, and recalled him to the court, after which his troops were defeated and more than tenthousand killed. He was made the Master Commandant Grandee. Cf. Hs 99C.5b, 15a,b; HHs
Mem. 1.9a, sub Liu P’eng-tzu.
385. Su-yeh 夙夜 (literally, “day and night”) was the name given by Wang Mang to the Former
Han prefecture of Pu-yeh (literally, “no night”). He also made it the name of a small
commandery. In this prefecture there was a Mt. Ch’eng, on which was a temple to the Sun, at
which Emperor Hsüan sacrificed. Yen Shih-ku says that the Ch’i ti chi by Yen Mo (fl. dur.
398-408) says, “Anciently the sun appeared at night at Tung-lai, hence the Viscount of Lai set up
this city, and took Pu-yeh as its name.” The Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih locates it 85 li northeast of
the present Wen-teng, in the eastern tip of Shantung. Cf. Hs 99C.5b; 28Aiii.3a.
385. Han Po 韓博 was the Leader of a Combination at the Su-yeh Commandery, who in 19 A.D.
sent a giant to Wang Mang with the intimation that Wang Mang should not be a tyrant. Wang
Mang had him summoned, imprisoned, and executed. Cf. Hs 99C.6a.
386. Chü-wu Pa 巨毋霸 was a giant from eastern Shantung who was sent to Wang Mang in 19
A.D. because his name meant, “Wang Mang should not be a tyrant.” Wang Mang changed his
surname to Chü-mu. Cf. Chü-mu Pa. As a Colonel of an Encampment, he was in Wang Yi’s
army when it was defeated at K’un-yang in 23 A.D. He was 10 feet (7 ft. 7 in. Eng. meas. or
2.31 m.) tall. Stange, Die Monographie über Wang Mang, 226, n.4, mentions a Shantung giant
coming to a German hospital at Ts’ing-tao who was 2.50 m. (or 8 ft. 2-1/2 in.) tall. Cf. Hs
99C.6a; HHs An. 1A.5a.
386. Chü-mu Pa 巨母霸 is the same as Chu-wu Pa. For the change of name, cf. HFHD, III.386
n 6.1 & 6.2.
386. P’eng-lai 蓬萊 was a town not mentioned in the Han shu “Treatise on Geography.” The
Yüan-ho Chün-hsien chih 13.14b however lists it, saying, “The P’eng-lai Prefecture: It was
originally a place belonging to the Han [dynasty’s] Huang Hsien, which was in the Tung-lai
Commandery. Anciently Emperor Wu of the Han [dynasty] made the sacrifices from a distance
to Mt. P’eng-lai at this place [in 104 B.C.; cf. Hs 6.31a]. Because of that he built a city wall and
used P’eng-lai for its name. It is 50 li northeast of Huang Prefecture. In 634, at this place there
was established the P’eng-lai Market-town; in 703, it was cut off from the Huang Prefecture, and
the P’eng-lai Prefecture was established one li south of the Market-town, which is the one
governed by the present Teng-chou.” The Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih says that the Huang of Han
times was southeast of the present Huang, in northeastern Shantung. Cf. also Hs 99C.6a.
386. The Chao-ju Sea 昭如 seems to have been the part of the present Gulf of Chihli north and
east of the present P’eng-lai (Teng-chou). The name does not seem to be found in any
geographical list; Hs 99C.6a says the giant who came to Wang Mang in 19 A.D. came from the
shore of the Chao-ju Sea, southeast of P’eng-lai (q.v.). The Yüan-ho Chün-Hsien chih 13.16b
says, “The Ancient City of the Giant is 20 li north of the [Huang ]Hsien. When Szu-ma [Yi],
King Hsüan [179-251 A.D.] made an expedition against Liao-tung, he founded this city. Ships
transporting grain enter [the sea] from this [place] .… The Temple to the Sea Canal is 24-li north
of [Huang] Hsien, above the City of the Giant.” For the location of Huang, cf. sub P’eng-lai.
388. Generalissimo of the Northern City Wall of Ch’ang-an 北域大將軍 seems to have been a
title held by Wang K’uang in 20 A.D. For a discussion of the textual authority for this
understanding of the title, cf. Hs 99C.6b & HFHD III.388, n 6.9.
389. August Deceased Original Ancestor 皇初祖考 was an epithet applied by Wang Mang to the
Yellow Emperor. Cf. Hs 99A.35b; 99C.6b.
389. Lieutenant General 偏將軍 was a military title lower than General-in-chief and higher than
Major General. Cf. Hs 99C.7a. In 20 A.D. Wang Mang established 125 Lieutenant Generals; all
officials set over commanderies were also entitled Lieutenant Generals.
389. Major General 神將軍 was a military title lower than that of Lieutenant General and higher
than Colonel. Cf. Hs 99C.7a. In 20 A.D., Wang Mang established 1250 Major Generals;
Prefects and Chiefs of Associations became Major Generals.
389. Major 司馬 was a military title lower than Colonel and higher than Captain. In Former Han
times at the imperial capital there were eight encampments, each in charge of a Major. The Later
Han dynasty ranked Majors at 1000 piculs. In 20 A.D., Wang Mang established 37,500 Majors.
Cf. Hs 19A.22b; 99C.7a.
389. Captains 候 were military officers lower than Majors and higher than Centurions and Petty
Officers. In Former Han times, each of the twelve city gates to Ch’ang-an had its Captain; the
Later Han dynasty ranked these officers at 600 piculs. In 20 A.D., Wang Mang established
112,500 Captains. HHs Tr. 24.7b, 8a, says, “In the division of a General-in-chief there are five
regiments 部. A regiment has one Colonel, who [is ranked as] equivalent to 2000 piculs, and one
Army Major, who [is ranked as] equivalent to 1000 piculs. Below the regiment there are
companies 曲. A company has one Army Captain, who [is ranked as] equivalent to 600 piculs.
Below the company there is the squad 屯; a squad has one Chief, who [is ranked as] equivalent
to 200 piculs. Those regiments for which no Colonel is established, have merely one Army
Major. There also are Acting Army Majors, and Acting Captains, both of whom are associates
and seconds [to the titular majors and captains]. For leading detached divisions, there are Majors
of Detached Regiments (Divisions). The number of troops under each [office varies] according
to the time.” The Han regiment may have been supposed to contain over 20,000 men, since in
A.D. 10 Wang Mang proposed to send out 300,000 men (Hs 99B.14b) under 12 divisional
generals (Hs 99B.17a), but perhaps this was not the normal usage.
At the Han limes in the desert, Stein found that each watch-tower was under the charge of
a captain, and in the documents found there, the word for captain came to be used to denote a
watch-tower, so that this officer came to be entitled a 候官. With this meaning, the word is also
written 侯. Cf. Hs 99C.7a; 54.3a; 70.10a; 19A.22b; Stein, Serindia, II, 749, 750, 752;
Chavannes, Documents chinois decouverts, p. 131, 70, xi, xii.
389. The Centurion 千人 was a military officer ranking lower than a captain (q.v.) and higher
than a petty officer. Cf. Hs 99C.7a. In 20 A.D., Wang Mang established 225,000 Centurions.
389. Petty Officer 士吏 was a military officer ranking lower than a centurion and higher than an
ordinary soldier. In 20 A.D. Wang Mang established 450,000 petty officers, one for each three
soldiers. Cf. Hs 99C.7a.
390. Commander-in-chief at the Van 前大司馬 was a military title established by Wang Mang in
20 A.D.Cf. Hs 99C.7a.
390. Commander-in-chief at the Rear 後大司馬 was a military title established by Wang Mang
in 20 A.D.Cf. Hs 99C.7a. Hs 99, 205
390. Commander-in-chief at the Left 左大司馬 was a military title established by Wang Mang in
20 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.7a.
390. Commander-in-chief at the Right 右大司馬 was a military title established by Wang Mang
in 20 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.7a.
390. Commander-in-chief at the Center 中大司馬 was a military title established by Wang Mang
in 20 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.7a.
392. The Office for Watching [the Heavens] 候官 was an office mentioned by Wang Mang in Hs
99C.8a. It must be due to the efforts of this office that so many small solar eclipses were
392. Hsin 心 was a Chinese zodiacal constellation, composed of the three stars τ, α, σ and
Scorpionis, according to J. Ueta, Shih Shen’s Catalogue of Stars, p. 26. Cf. Hs 99C.8a.
395. The Po River 波水 was a stream in the Shang-lin Park near Ch’ang-an. The San-fu huangt’u 4.6b says, “The ten pools: In the Shang-lin Park there are the Eastern Po Pool, the Western
Po Pool... and the Lang Pool.... The Western Po Pool and the Lang Pool are both south of the
ancient city, inside the Shang-lin Park. The Po and the Lang are the names of two rivers, hence
becomes [the names of these] pools.” Cf. Hs 99C.8b. Tou Yung was entitled the General of the
Po River (q.v.); cf. Hs 99C.26a.
395. The Lang Pool 郎池 was a pool on the Lang River in the Shang-lin Park near Ch’ang-an.
Cf. sub Po River.
395. The Chin River 金水 seems not to be mentioned in any place except Hs 99C.9a, where
Wang Mang says he has divined a location for his nine ancestral temples south of the Chin River
and west of the Ming-t’ang. The Shui-ching chu 19.19b, sub the Wei River, says, “The Pa River
also [flows] north and meets with two streams. Further north the old canal comes out on the
right. The Pa River also [flows] further north, where it passes south of Wang Mang’s nine
[ancestral] temples.” Ibid. 19.13a says, “The Wei River [flows] east, where it unites with the old
K’un-ming Canal. From above, the Canal receives [the water from] the eastern mouth of the
K’un-ming Pond. It runs eastwards and passes north of the River Rook Dyke, which is also
called the Ni-kuan Dyke. It also [flows] eastwards and joins with the Hsüeh River, which is also
called the Canal for Water Transport (Ts’ao Canal). It also flows eastwards past the southeast of
the Ch’ang-an Prefecture, and passes south of the Ming-t’ang.” The San-fu huang-t’u says, “The
Ming-t’ang of the Han [dynasty] was 7 li southwest of Ch’ang-an.” From the above data, Shen
Ch’in-han concludes that the Chin River was probably the K’un-ming Canal. Cf. Hs 99C.9a.
397. Tu Lin 杜林, style Po-shan, was a Confucian authority on the Classics who served Wang
Mang and later rose to high position under Emperor Kuang-wu. His home was Mao-ling in the
Yü-fu-feng Commandery. In the time of Emperors Ch’eng and Ai, Tu Lin’s father, Tu Yeh, had
been the Inspector of the Liang Province. When Tu Lu was young, he loved to study and deeply
immersed himself in it; in his home there was a large library and his maternal relatives, Chung
Sung and his son, also delighted in literature. Tu Lin studied with Chang Sung. He became
widely learned and his age called him a comprehensive Confucian scholar.
In 20 A.D., he was a Palace Attendant, Regular Palace Attendant, and Administrator of
the Laws to Wang Mang and oversaw the building of the Nine Ancestral Temples. When Wang
Mang was defeated and the bandits arose, Tu Lin was a commandery official. With his younger
brother Tu Ch’eng and other friends, their children and dependents, he went to live temporarily
in the Ho-Hsi Commandery. The party was captured by bandits on the road, and was about to be
massacred, when the brave speech of Meng Yi, a member of the party, induced the bandits to free
Wei Hsiao had heard of Tu Lin and respected him greatly, so he made him his Librarian.
Later because of his illness he resigned, but Wei Hsiao wanted to compel him to remain, which
he did, Wei Hsiao giving him a laudatory edict. In 30 A.D., Tu Lin’s brother, Tu Ch’eng died,
and Wei Hsiao permitted Tu Lin to take the corpse home. After Tu Lin had left, Wei Hsiao
repented, and sent Yang Hsien to assassinate Tu on the road. The assassin, however, decided not
to kill such a righteous man, and Tu Lin escaped.
When Emperor Kuang-wu heard that Tu Lin had returned to the capital region, he
summoned him and installed him as an Attendant Secretary and gave him an audience at which
he asked him about the Classics, his old Western friends, and matters in the provinces. Emperor
Kuang-wu liked him and granted him a chariot, horses, clothes, and robes. The officials at the
capital now honored Tu Lin. Some well-known scholars, Cheng Hsing and Wei Hung, studied
with Tu Lin. Previously when Tu Lin was in the Western provinces, he had secured an Ancient
Text Book of History in one roll, written in varnish; even in his difficulties, he always kept it by
him and did not allow it to leave his person. He showed it to Wei Hung and others, and told
them that he had constantly been afraid that the traditional teaching about this Classic would
perish with him, but now he said that Wei Hung and Hsü Hsün would transmit it. Wei Hung and
Hsü Hsün esteemed it; as a consequence the ancient text teaching spread.
In 31, there was a great court discussion about the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, and
officials recommended that Yao, the supposed ancestor of the Han dynasty, should be
worshipped. But Tu Lin held that the Han dynasty did not secure its mandate in response to the
virtue of its supposed ancestor, Yao, but had arisen because of its own merit, and that the former
practises, which did not include the worship of Yao, should be followed. Tu Lin’s advice was
followed. Later, Tu Lin became Director of Service to the Grand Minister Over the Masses in
place of Wang Liang. In 35 the office of Director of Service was abolished and Tu Lin became
Superintendant of the Imperial Household in place of Kuo Hsien and so came close to the
imperial throne. He filled the palace with scholarly Gentlemen. In 38, many courtiers
memorialized that the punishments should be made more severe in order to stop lawlessness; Tu
Lin memorialized to the contrary that the mild laws of the Han dynasty should be restored, and
his advice was accepted.
Later when in 43 A.D. the Imperial Heir-apparent insisted on resigning and was enfeoffed
as the King of Tung-hai, Tu Lin was made a Tutor to the King and went south with him. Some
of the other Tutors went off, but Tu Lin performed his duties, and consequently received rewards.
In the next year (44 A.D.), he became Privy Treasurer and in 47 he was again made
Superintendant of the Imperial Household. In a short time he was made Grand Minister of
Works. At this time many persons were saying that he should become the chancellor, but he died
in 49 A.D., and Emperor Kuang-wu in person attended the mourning for him and attended his
burial. Cf. HHs M. 17.5a-7b; Hs 99C.9b. The Han shu “Treatise on Literature and Arts” lists
two books by Tu Lin on the Ancient Script; cf. Hs 30.24a.
397. Chang Han2 張邯, title, Baron of Brilliant Scholarship, was a man from the Chiu-chiang
Commandery who became an expert on the Ch’i text of the Book of Odes. In 20 A.D. he advised
Wang Mang to make his ancestral temples elaborate and Wang Mang gave him this noble title.
In 23 A.D. he produced a flattering oracle for Wang Mang. He had been the Grand Prolonguer of
Autumn and was made the Grand Minister Over the Masses. He was killed Oct. 4, 23 A.D. Cf.
Hs ch. 88 sub Hou Ts’ang; 99C.9a, 14b, 22b, 24a, 26b; HHs Mem. 7 sub Feng Yi.
398. The Ch’eng-kuang Palace 承光宮 was inside the Shang-lin Park. It was destroyed by
Wang Mang in 20 A.D. to secure building materials. It seems to have only been mentioned in
early literature in Hs 99C.9a.
398. The Pao-yang Palace 包陽宮 was inside the Shang-lin Park. It was destroyed by Wang
Mang in 20 A.D. to secure building materials. It seems to have been mentioned in early
literature only in Hs 99C.9a.
398. The Ch’üan-t’ai Palace 犬臺宮 was in the Shang-lin Park, 28 li west of Ch’ang-an,
according to the San-fu huang-t’u 3.6b. Chiang Ch’ung 江充 was summoned by Emperor Wu to
an audience in this palace. Chin Shao says that outside it there was the Dog-racing Lodge.
Wang Mang destroyed this palace in 20 A.D. to get materials for his Nine Ancestral Temples 九
廟. Cf. Hs 45.11b; 99C.9b.
398. The Ch’u-yüan Palace 儲元宮 was located in the Shang-lin Park, west of Ch’ang-an,
according to the San-fu huang-t’u 3.6b. In Hs 97B.20b it is mentioned as the residence of some
imperial relatives. In 20 A.D., it was destroyed by Wang Mang to secure materials for his Nine
Ancestral Temples. Cf. Hs 99C.9a,b.
398. The Tang-lu Lodge 當路館 was located inside the Shang-lin Park, according to the San-fu
huang-t’u 4.2a. It was destroyed by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. to secure materials for his Nine
Ancestral Temples. Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
398. The Yang-lu Lodge 陽祿館 was located inside the Shang-lin Park, according to the San-fu
huang-t’u 4.2a. It was destroyed by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. to secure material for his Nine
Ancestral Temples. Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
398. The Nine Ancestral Temples 九廟 were the nine temples built by Wang Mang in 20 A.D.
south of Ch’ang-an from materials taken partly from previous Han palaces and lodges to honor
his ancestors in conformity to the classical direction that a king should worship nine ancestors.
They are described and located in Hs 99C.8b-10a, which material is quoted in the San-fu huangt’u 5.6b, 7a. These temples are also mentioned in the Shui-ching chu. Cf. Glossary, sub Chin
River. They were completed by Jan/Feb. 22 A.D. (Hs 99C.16a) and were burnt in the Autumn of
23 A.D. Hs 99C.26b.
398. The Temple to the Aboriginal Founder of the Hsin Dynasty 太初祖廟, the Yellow Emperor
was the first of the Nine Ancestral Temples built by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. for his ancestors. It
is described in 99C.9b.
398. The Temple Facing South to the First Founder of the Hsin Dynasty 始祖昭廟, Emperor Yü
Shun was the second of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. for his
ancestors. Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
398. The Temple Facing North to the Dynastic Founder of the Hsin Dynasty 統祖穆廟, King Hu
of Chen was the third of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. for his
ancestors. This one was built to Kuei Man (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99c.9b.
398. The Temple Facing South to the Epochal Founder of the Hsin Dynasty 世祖昭廟, King
Ching of Ch’i was the fourth of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in 20
A.D. for his ancestors. This one was to Ch’en Ching-chung. Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
398-9. The Temple Facing North to the Kingly Founder of the Hsin Dynasty 王祖穆廟, King
Min of Chi-pei was the fifth of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in 20 A.D.
for his ancestors. This one was to T’ien Ti; cf. sub King Min of Ch’i. Cf. Hs 99C.9b. T’ien Ti
was actually King of Ch’i; but Wang Mang’s fourth ancestral temple was to a King of Ch’i, and
T’ien Ti was the great-grandfather of T’ien An, whom Hsiang Yü made King of Chi-pei; hence
Wang Mang called T’ien Ti, King of Chi-pei
399. The Temple Facing South to the Honored Ancestor of the Hsin Dynasty 尊禰昭廟, King Po
of Chi-nan was the sixth of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. for
his ancestors. This one was to his great-great-grandfather, Wang Sui (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
399. The Temple Facing North to the Honored Ancestor of the Hsin Dynasty 尊禰穆廟, King Ju
of Yüan-ch’eng was the seventh of the nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in 20
A.D. to his ancestors. This one was to his great-grandfather, Wang Ho (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
399. The Temple Facing South to the Affectionate Close Ancestor of the Hsin Dynasty 戚禰昭廟,
King Ch’ing of Yang-p’ing was the eighth of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang
Mang in 20 A.D. to his ancestors. This one was to his grandfather, Wang Ching (q.v.). Cf. Hs
399. The Temple Facing North to the Affectionate Close Ancestor of the Hsin Dynasty 戚禰穆廟,
King Hsien of Hsin-tu was the ninth of the Nine Ancestral Temples (q.v.) built by Wang Mang in
20 A.D. to his ancestors. This one was to his father, Wang Man (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.9b.
399. Wang Chin 王禁, style Chih-chun, title, Marquis Ch’ing of Yang-p’ing, was the father of the
Grand Empress Dowager née Wang and the founder of the Wang family which became so
important in the time of Emperor Ch’eng. For an account of his life and family, cf. sub Wang,
Grand Empress Dowager née. Wang Chin was enfeoffed as marquis on Apr. 9, 48B.C. with the
income of 2600 households, which was later increased to 8000 households. He died in 42 B.C.
Wang Mang entitled him King Ch’ing of Yang-p’ing and erected to him the eighth of his Nine
Imperial Ancestral Temples. Cf. Hs ch. 98, sub Grand Empress Dowager née Wang; ch. 60 sub
Tu Ch’ing ch. 27Bi.13a; 18.19a; 99C.9b; Hu Shih in Journal of the North China Branch of the
Royal Asiatic Society, 59.214.
400. Ma-shih Ch’iu 馬適求 was a man of the Ch’en-liu Commandery who plotted a rebellion in
20 A.D. and was executed with his party. Cf. Hs 99C.10a. Yen Shih-ku is authority for this
double surname.
400. Wang Tana 王丹 was a Higher Subordinate Official of the Grand Minister of Works, who in
20 A.D. discovered and made known the plot of Ma-shih Ch’iu to rebel, and, when the rebellion
was immediately crushed, was in reward made Marquis Supporting the State. Cf. Hs 99C.10a.
There seem to have been at the same time three persons living by this name. HHs Mem.
17.2b-3b gives a biography to a Wang Tanb who held official positions in the times of Emperors
Ai and P’ing, but refused to serve under Wang Mang and was summoned to be Grand Tutor to
the Heir-apparent under Emperor Kuang-wu. There was also a Wang Tane who died in battle
fighting for Emperor Kuang-wu. Hs 18.20a.
400. Supporting the State, Marquis 輔國侯 was a title given by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. to Wang
Tan (q.v.) as reward for discovering and putting down a rebellion. Cf. Hs 99C.10a.
401. T’ang Tsun 唐尊, style Po-kao was a Confucian from the P’ei Commandery who in 20 B.C.
had been the My Forester and was appointed Grand-Tutor by Wang Mang. He distinguished
himself by wearing cheap clothes and using cheap articles in rebuke of the age’s extravagance,
and Wang Mang enfeoffed him as Marquis Tranquillizing Culture. He died with Wang Mang on
Oct. 6, 23 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.l0b, 27b, 72.25a,b, sub Pao Hsüan. 88 sub Chang Shan-fu.
T’ang Tsuna 唐尊; a marquis in the time of Emperor Wu; cf. Hs 16.28b. If he came from
P’ei, he may have been ancestor.
401. Equalizing Culture, Marquis 平化侯 was a title given in 20 A.D. to T’ang Tsun (q.v.) Cf. Hs
402. Chang Pa 張霸 was a man from the Nan Commandery who raised a rebel band in 20 A.D.
in the Lu-ling Mountains of Yun-tu Prefecture. He joined the troops from the lower Yangtze
Region. Cf. Hs 99C.10b.
402. Yang Mu 羊牧 was a man from the Chiang-Hsia Commandery who in 20 A.D. raised
banditti in the Yün-tu prefecture of that commandery, which called themselves the Troops from
the Yangtze Region Below. Cf. Hs 99 C.l0b.403.
402. Wang K’uang1b 王匡, title King of Pi-yang, was a bandit leader who led the Hsin-shih
Troops and became a subordinate of the Keng-shih Emperor.
At the end of Wang Mang’s reign, there was a famine in the south and people went by
crowds into the wilderness and marshes, to dig up things and eat them. Two men of Hsin-shih in
the Chiang-Hsia Commandery, Wang K’uang and Wang Feng, who had previously frequently
settled disputes among the people, were set up by the people in 20 A.D. as leaders of a band of
several hundred men. (lb) Thereupon various outlaws, Ma Wu, Wang Chang, Ch’en Tan, and
others, came and followed them. They attacked the Li-hsiang hamlet and hid in the Lu-lin
Mountains. After several months, they had seven or eight thousand men. In 22 A.D. the
Shepherd of the Ching Province sent 2000 emergency troops to attack them. Wang K’uang and
the others led the men, met and attacked them at Yün-tu, and routed the army of the Shepherd
severely, killing several thousand men, and securing all of his provisions and baggage. Then
they attacked and took Ching-ling by force, and turned about and attacked Yün-tu and An-lu,
kidnapping many women. They returned and entered the Lu-lin Mts. There were now more than
50,000 persons, and the province and commandery could not control them.
In 23 A.D., there was an epidemic of sickness, and almost half of them died, so they
divided and scattered. (2a) Wang Ch’ang and Ch’eng Tan went west and entered the Nan
Commandery, calling themselves the Troops from the Yangtze Below. Wang K’uang, Wang
Feng, Ma Wu and their branch band leaders, Chu Wei, Chang Ang, and others, went north and
entered the Nan-yang Commandery, calling themselves the Hsin-shih Troops. All of them called
themselves Generals.
In July/Aug., Wang K’uang and the others attacked Sui, but were unable to make it
surrender. Some men of P’ing-lin, Ch’en Mu, and Liao Chan, also collected a band of more than
a thousand men, calling themselves the P’ing-lin Troops, in response to Wang K’uang .
On March 11, 23, after raising Keng-shih, Wang K’uang was made Minister
Tranquilizing the State, with the rank of Above the Highest Ministers. In Sept./Oct. he was sent
to attack Loyang.
In Mar. 24 A.D. he was made King of Pi-yang. In Spr./May 25, he and Chang Ang were
controlling the Ho-tung Commandery and were routed by Teng Yü, and fled back to Ch’ang-an.
Keng-shih sent him to Hsin-feng to guard it. When Chang Ang and others of Keng-shih’s
leaders drove Keng-shih out of Ch’ang-an, Keng-shih went to Hsin-feng. He suspected Wang
K’uang1b of conspiring with Chang Ang and summoned him to come, intending to behead him;
but Wang K’uanglb was afraid and led his troops to Ch’ang-an, where he joined with Chang Ang.
Li Sung and Chao Meng fought with Wang K’uang and Chang Ang in Ch’ang-an for a month
and finally defeated them. Wang K’uanglb then surrendered to the Red Eyebrows at Kao-ling.
He finally surrendered to Kuang-wu’s Master of Writing, Tsung Kuang. When they were all
going eastwards and reached An-yi, he fled on the road, and Tsung Kuang executed him. Cf. Hs
99C:10b; HHs An. 1, Mem. 1 sub Liu Hsüan, Mem. 5 sub. Wang Chang, Mem. 6 sub Teng Yü.
402. The Chiang-hsia Commandery 江夏郡 {32-33:5/8} established by Kao-tsu in 200 B.C. In
Ch’u and Han times, the state of Chiu-chiang was divided and the Heng-shan Commandery was
established;.the territory of the later Chiang-hsia Commandery was then part of Heng-shan. At
that time Heng-shan was subordinate to the state of Ch’u. In 199 B.C., Kao-tsu acquired this
territory along with the rest of the state of Huai-nan. Then this commandery was established. In
164 B.C. it again became part of the state of Heng-shan; in 122 B.C. it again became a separate
commandery and remained so until the end of Former Han times.
In Former Han times its headquarters was An-lu, a city located north of the present
(112°35’E, 31°10’N) in north central Hupeh. In Later Han times, its headquarters were at Hsiling, located near the present Huang-pei, near Hankow. The commandery belonged to the Ching
Province and contained 56,844 households, 219,218 persons, and 14 prefectures. Cf. Hs
403. Yün-tu 雲杜 {32-33:4/7} was a county and city of the Hsia-chiang Commandery, located,
according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung Chih, northwest of the present Mien-yang in southern
403. The Lu-lin [Mts.] 綠林山 were located 20 li southeast of the present Tang-yang, Hupeh.
acc. to Shina chimei rekidai yoran, p. 679. In 20 A.D. various sets of bandits who aided in
overthrowing Wang Mang arose in this place. Cf. Hs 99C.10b. Hans Bielenstein, Restoration of
the Han Dynasty (1), p. 134, states that no geographical work has ever attempted to locate any
Lu-lin Mt. in the Yin-tu prefecture. He translates lu-lin as “the green forests.”
403. The Chung-shui District 中水鄉 {15-16:4/3} was a district in Mei-yang Prefecture 美陽縣
of the Yu-fu-feng Commandery. It was the place where King Wen of the Chou dynasty had
established his capital, at the town of Ch’i. It contained the Kao-ch’üan Palace, which had been
built by the Queen Dowager née Hsüan of the Ch’in state. Mei-yang was located, according to
the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih, southwest of the present Wu-kung, Shensi. Cf. Hs 28Ai.33a,b.
There was also a Chung-shui Prefecture in the Cho Commandery.
403. Shepherd’s Superintendent 牧監 was an office established by Wang Fang in 20 A.D. to
perform the same duties as those performed by Inspectors (q.v.) in Han times. Cf. Hs 99C.10b.
Their rank was that of Officers of the First Class.
403. Associate Shepherds 副牧 were officials established by Wang Mang in 20 A.D. to perform
the same duties as those performed by Inspectors (q.v.) in Han times. Cf. Hs 99C.10b. Their
rank was that of Officers of the First Class. Peet van der Loon thinks that this and the
Shepherd’s Superintendant were one office, with the title Shepherd’s Superintending Associate.
But I see no way of determining, since these officials do not seem to be mentioned again.
403. The Filial and Harmonious Empress 孝睦皇后 was the posthumous name given to Wang
Mang’s wife when she died in 21 A.D. She was a daughter of Wang Hsien, the Marquis of Yich’un, who was not related to Wang Mang. She was a faithful and devoted woman, and bore him
four sons.Yü, Huo, An, and Lin. The first two were executed by Wang Mang before her death;
she cried herself blind. Then Wang Mang sent her youngest son, Lin, to care for her, and later
himself attended upon her in her last illness. She died in Jan. 21 A.D. Cf. Hs 99A.2a; 99B.1a;
99C.10b, 11a.
403. The Ch’ang-shou Park 長壽園 was the name given to a park at the Wei Tomb (q.v.) of
which the Filial and Harmonious Empress, Wang Mang’s wife, was buried. Cf. Hs 99C:10b.
403. Yi-nien, 億年lit. “a hundred thousand years,” was the name given to the tomb of the Filial
and Harmonious Empress, Wang Mang’s wife. It was located west of the Ch’ang-shou Park at
the Wei Tomb, (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.10b.
404. Yüan-pi 原碧 had been in 21 A.D. a female attendant upon Wang Mang’s wife and had been
favored by Wang Mang. She was however later favored by Wang Mang’s son, Lin; the two
feared the adultery would leak out, so they plotted to murder Wang Mang. Suspicion led Wang
Mang to have Yüan-pi arrested; she confessed, and was doubtless executed. Cf. Hs 99C.11a,b.
404. Liu Yin3 劉愔 was a daughter of Liu Hsin1 and the wife of Wang Lin1, the son of Wang
Mang. She was involved in her husband’s plot to murder Wang Mang, and committed suicide in
21 A.D. Cf. Hs 99 C.11a,b.
405. Attendant Officer 從事 is a term used for a subordinate of various officials. In a note to
Tzu-chih t’ung-chien 38.19b, Hu San-Hsing explains this term as meaning “a subordinate
official.” Cf. Hs 99C.11a.
405. Like Delight, Marquis of 同說侯 was a title ascribed under the dates 21 and 23 A.D. to
Wang Lin, son of Wang Shun. This title may be an error, for in 7 A.D. he is said to have been
enfeoffed as Marquis Delighting in Virtue. Cf. Hs 99C.11b, 24a; 99A.30a. His title may have
been changed in the meantime.
407. Wang Hsingb, 王興, title, Duke of Cultivated Merits was a son of Wang Mang, born between
6 and 2 B.C. by an attendant, Huai-neng. He seems to have been the oldest of Wang Mang’s
four children by concubines. Cf. Hs 99C.11b, 12a.
407. Wang K’uanglc, 王匡 title, Duke of Established Merits was a son of Wang Mang, born
between 6 and 2 B.C., by an attendant, Tseng-chih. Cf. Hs 99C.11b, 12a.
407. Wang Yeh6 王曅 title, Baroness of Cultivated Concord was a daughter of Wang Mang by an
attendant, Tseng-chih. She was born between 6 and 2 B.C. Cf. Hs 99C.11b, 12a.
407. Wang Chieh, 王捷, title, Baroness of Attained Concord was a daughter of Wang Mang by an
attendant, K’ai-ming. She was born between 6 and 2 B.C. She married the Hun, Hsü-pu She.
Cf. Hs 99 C.11b, 12a; 94B.21b.
407. Huai-neng 懷能 was an attendant upon Wang Mang whom he bedded between 6 and 2 B.C.
at Hsin-tu, and who bore him a son. Cf. Hs 99C.11b. 52S
407. Tseng-chih 增秩 was an attendant upon Wang Mang whom he favored between 6 and 2 B.C.
and who bore him a son, K’uang and a daughter, Yeh. Cf. Hs 99C.11b.
407. K’ai-ming 開明 was an attendant upon Wang, whom he favored between 6 and 2 B.C. at
Hsin-tu and who bore him a daughter, Chieh. Cf. Hs 99C.11b.
408. Cultivated Merits, Duke of 功脩公 was a title given by Wang Mang to his son, Wang Hsing.
Cf. Hs 99C.12a.
408. Established Merits, Duke of 功建公 was a title given in 21 A.D. by Wang Mang to his son,
Wang K’uang3. Cf. Hs 99C.12a.
408. Cultivated Concord, Baroness of 睦脩任 was a title given in 21 A.D. by Wang Mang to his
daughter, Wang Yeh. Cf. Hs 99 C.12a.
408. Attained Concord, Baroness of 睦逮任 was a title bestowed in 21 A.D. by Wang Mang upon
Chieh, his daughter by an attendant. In Hs 99C.12a this title is written as above; in Hs 94B:21b
it is written 陸逯任. But Hs 99C.12a shows that the titles of Wang Mang’s daughters both began
with 睦; 逮 is pronounced tai and used for ??, so that the reading in Hs ch. 99 is probably
correct. The mistake in Hs ch. 94 antedates the vii cent., for Yen Shih-ku, in a note to ch. 94,
says that the second character is pronounced lu.
408. Li Yen 李焉 was in 21 A.D. the Grand Governor of the Wei-ch’eng Commandery and
plotted with a soothsayer to rebel against Wang Mang. The matter became known and he was
executed. Cf. Hs 99C.12a,b.
408. Wei-ch’eng Commandery 魏成郡 was the name given by Wang Mang to the former Wei
Commandery, q.v. Cf. Hs 28Aii.1a-6a.
408. Wang K’uanglb 王況 was a soothsayer who in 21 A.D. persuaded Li Yen, the Grand
Governor of the Wei-ch’eng Commandery to rebel against Wang Mang by writing a book of
prophecies in more than 100,000 words. The plot was discovered and he was executed. Cf. Hs
99C.12a,b, 13a.
409. Chiang-chung 江中 was a name for the Yangtze valley region. In the Shih chi (Mh II, 293)
it refers to the Hsiang River valley in the present Hunan; in Hs 99C.12a it refers to some place in
the Yangtze valley.
410. The Chief Commandant Seizing Robbers 捕盜都尉 was an office established by Wang
Mang in 21 A.D. to put down the bandits in the capital region. Cf. Hs 99C.12b.
410. The Second Brother Hsi 犧仲 was an official subordinate to the Grand Master in the time of
Wang Mang. Ching Shang held this office. Cf. Hs 99C.12b. The Second Brother Hsi was a
personage mentioned in the Book of History I, ii, 4, (Legge, p. 18 f) as an official of Yao who
was put in charge of Spring. Hs 20.15b ranks him in the second moral class, the benevolent
persons. Since Wang Mang’s Grand Master was in charge of Spring, it was natural that his
subordinate should be entitled the Second Brother Hsi.
410. Ching Shang 景尚 was in 21 A.D. the Second Brother Hsi and was sent to attack the rebels
in the Ch’ing Province. Cf. Hs 99C.12b, 17a. He was killed by the Red Eyebrows in the Spring
of 22 A.D.
410. The Second Brother Ho 和仲 was an official subordinate to the State Master in the time of
Wang Mang. Ts’ao Fang held this office. Cf. Hs 99C.12b. The Second Brother Ho was a
personage mentioned in the Book of History I, ii, 6 (Legge, p. 20) as an official of Yao put in
charge of Autumn. Hs 20.16a ranks him in the second moral class, the benevolent persons.
Since Wang Mang’s State Master was in charge of Autumn, it was natural that his subordinate
should have been entitled the Second Brother Ho.
410. Wang Tang 王黨 was in 21 A.D. a Commandant of the Protecting Army to the General of a
New Beginning 更始將軍護軍 and was sent with troops to attack the rebels in the Hsü Province.
Cf. Hs 99C.12b.
410. Ts’ao Fang 曹放 was in 21 A.D. the Second Brother Ho to the State Master and was sent
with troops to assist Kuo Hsing in attacking the barbarians of Kou-ting. Cf. Hs 99C.12b.
411. The Office for Coinage 鐘官 was subordinate to the Chief Commandant of Waters & Parks.
This Office had one Chief and one Assistant [Chief]. Ju Shun says that it “was the office that
had charge of casting cash.” Wang Mang sent counterfeiters to this office, presumably to work
there. Cf. Hs 19A.20a; 24B.26b; 99C.12b; Han-kuan ta-wen 4:6b.
411. Ch’u Hsia 儲夏 was a man from the Shang-ku Commandery, who in 21 A.D. offered to
induce the bandit Ku-t’ien Yi to surrender. Wang Mang made him a Gentlemen-of-theHousehold, and he succeeded. Cf. Hs 99C:13a.
411. Kua-ning, Baron Shang of, 瓜寧殤 was the posthumous name and title bestowed by Wang
Mang in 21 A.D. upon the bandit Kua-t’ien Yi, when he surrendered and died. The title might be
tentatively translated, “The Baron Dying by Violence, the Peaceful [Mr.] Kua-[t’ien]. Cf. Hs
99C.13a. Hu San-hsing explains that Shang here does not mean to die young, but to die by
violence, as in the title of a poem in Chu-tz’u, ch.2, “Kuo Shang” 國殤. Hung Hsing-tsu
(1090-1155) explains “It means those who die for their country.”
412. Yang-ch’eng Hsiu 陽成脩 was a Gentleman who in 21 A.D. presented to Wang Mang a
mandate from Heaven given by a portent that Wang Mang should marry again after his first wife
had died. Cf. Hs 99C.13a. Hu San-Hsing in a note to the Tzu-chih t’ung-chien 38.20b testifies
to the double surname.
412. Palace Grandees Without Specified Appointment 中散大夫 were officials who with
Internuncios were sent in 21 A.D. by Wang Mang to search for a second wife for him. Cf. Hs
99C.13b. This title possibly corresponded to the Former Han dynasty’s Cavalrymen Without
Specified Appointment (q.v.). The office was continued by the Later Han dynasty under whom it
ranked at 600 piculs. Cf. HHs Tr. 15:6a.
413. The Colonel of Light Chariots 輕車校尉 {HFHD, III.413 renders this title “chief
commandant of of light chariots.” Dubs has corrected it for the Glossary} was an army official
under Wang Mang. The “light chariots” were those anciently used in fighting. Cf. Hs 99C.13b;
HHs Tr. 29.12b.
414. Ch’in Feng, 秦豐 title King Li of Ch’u was a man from the city of Li-ch’iu in the Nan
Commandery, north of the present Yi-ch’eng, in the Ch’ing dynasty’s Hsiang-yang, Hupeh.
When he was young, he was fond of bravery; in 21 A.D. he gathered a group of almost ten
thousand men and pillaged 12 prefectures in the Ching Province. In 25 he called himself King,
taking his name from his natal place. Cf. Hs 99C.l4a; HHs An. 1A.11b, Mem. 3 sub Kung-sun
Shu, Mem. 6 sub Teng Yü, Mem. 7 sub Wu Han, Mem. 12 sub Chu Yu & Fu Chun.
414. Ch’ih Chao-p’ing 遲昭平 was a woman of the P’ing-yüan Commandery, who was
gambling and throwing blocks. In 21 A.D. she gathered a band of several thousand men in the
fastnesses near the mouth of the Yellow River. Cf. Hs 99C.14a.
415. Tsung Hsüan 宗宣 was in 21 A.D. Wang Mang’s Chief Grand Astrologer and was charged
by Kung-sun Lu with having misread portents. Cf. Hs 99C.14a.
415. Brilliant Scholarship, Baron of 明學男 held in 21 B.C. by Chang Han. Cf. Hs 99C.l4b.
415. Sun Yang 孫陽, title, Marquis of Geographical Arrangements 地理侯, was a courtier of
Wang Mang who in 21 A.D. was charged by Kung-sun Lu with having had a share in inventing
the ching system of cultivated fields. Cf. Hs 99C.14b.
415. Geographical Arrangements, Marquis of 地理侯 was a title held by Sung Yang (q.v.) in 21
A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.14b. He evidently was given this title because he had had a share in inventing
the ching system of cultivated fields.
416. Lu K’uang 魯匡, popularly called “a bag of knowledge, was Wang Mang’s Hsi & Ho, who
in 10 A.D. established the six monopolies. As a result of Kung-sun Lu’s remonstrance in 21
A.D., Lu K’uang was demoted to be the Leader of a Confederation at the Wu-yüan
Commandery. Cf. Hs 99C.14b, 24B.24b; HHs Mem. 15 sub Lu Kung.
417. The Seven Highest Ministers 七公 were the three highest ministers (q.v.), together with the
four coadjutors (q.v.), according to the Appendix to the Official ed. ch. 99C. This term was used
in the time of Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.15a.
422. First Class Warrior 元戌(士) {this term appears in the Chinese text at this point but was not
translated} was the fourth of the eleven grades of military noble ranks established by Emperor
Wu in 123 B.C. It seems to have become the name for part of the imperial bodyguard in the
time of Wang Mang. Cf. Mh III, 555, n 4; Hs 24B.8a & note, 99C.16a.
422. Chief Workman 都匠 was a title held by the chief artificer of Wang Mang’s Nine Ancestral
Temples. Cf. Hs 99C.16b.
422. Ch’iu Yen 仇延 was the Chief Workman of Wang Mang’s Nine Ancestral Temples. Upon
their completion in Jan./Feb. 22 A.D., he was enfeoffed as Vassal of the Han-tan Hamlet. Cf. Hs
422. Han-tan Hamlet 邯淡里 was the name of the vassalage title given to Ch’iu Yen the Chief
Workman of Wang Mang’s Nine Ancestral Temples, upon their completion in Jan./Feb., 22, A.D.
Yen Shih-ku says that the title means “abundant and prosperous.” Cf. Hs 99C:16b.
422. The Pa [River] Bridge 霸(水)橋 was, according to the San-fu huang-t’u 6:3b, “a bridge
made to cross the river at the east of Ch’ang-an. When people of the Han [period] escorted
[departing] guests, they went to this bridge, broke a willow, gave it to them, and separated. In
the time of Wang Mang, there was a visitation [of fire] to the Pa [River] Bridge and several
thousand men used water to sprinkle on it, in order to save it, but [the fire] was not extinguished,
and [Wang Mang] changed [the name of] the Pa [River] Bridge to be the Ch’ang-an Bridge.”
For the Han shu account of this fire, cf. Hs 99C.16b, 17a. The Han shu however says the name
was changed to be the Ch’ang-ts’un Bridge (q.v.).
424. The Pa Lodge 霸館 is unidentified; it may have been the same as the Pa-ch’ang Lodge,
which the San-fu huang-t’u 5:9b says was located outside the city of Ch’ang-an. In 22 A.D.,
Wang Mang changed its name to be the Ch’ang-ts’un Lodge 長存館. Cf. Hs 99C.17a.
424. The Ch’ang-ts’un Bridge 長存橋 was the name to which Wang Mang changed the name of
the Pa River Bridge (q.v.) after it burnt down in 22 A.D. The name means “long-preserved” and
was given because Wang Mang believed the date of the fire was a portent that his dynasty would
be long preserved. Cf. Hs 99C.17a.
424. The Ch’ang-ts’un Lodge 長存館 was the name given by Wang Mang in 22 A.D. to the Pa
Lodge (q.v.) for the same reason that he changed the name of the Pa River Bridge to the Ch’angts’un Bridge (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.17a.
426. Equalization and Standards, Marquis of 平均侯 was a title held in 22 A.D. by Lien Tan
(q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.17a. The Bureau of Equalization and Standards was set up in 110 B.C. by
Sang Hung-yang. Wang Mang also established a bureau of Five Equalizations. Cf. Hs 24B.23b.
430. The Troops from the Lower Yangtze Region 下江兵 were a set of bandits under Ch’eng Tan,
Chang An, and Wang Chang (q.v.), who arose in the Lu-lin Mountains of the Yün-tu Prefecture
of the Chiang-Hsia Commandery (present (Hupeh), went west, and up the Yangtze River to Lank’ou in the Nan Commandery, where they took this name for themselves. Cf. Hs 99C.10b, 18a,
HHs Mem. 5.4b. As late as T’ang times, the “Upper Yangtze” was the region above Hsia-k’ou,
the present Hankow, according to Hu San-Hsing, in a note to Tzu-chih t’ung-chien, 185:7b.
430. Chu Wei 朱鮪 was a bandit leader among the Hsin-shih Troops who joined with the Han
rebels. He was largely instrumental in setting up Liu Hsüan as Emperor, whereupon he became
the Keng-shih Emperor’s Commander-in-chief. He later held Lo-yang and stood out as the most
capable of Liu Hsiu’s opponents, so that Liu Hsiu did not ascend the throne until Chu Wei had
been defeated and driven back to Lo-yang. This city was finally besieged by Emperor Kuangwu’s forces and Chu Wei was induced to surrender it to the Emperor, in return for which he was
made a general and enfeoffed as a Marquis.
He came from the state of Huai-yang. In 22 A.D. he was with Wang K’uang2 (q.v.), and
was one of the leaders of the Hsin-shih Troops with him. He insisted upon Liu Hsüan’s being
made Emperor, and in Mar. 23 A.D. was entitled Commander-in-chief. When Liu Yin4d (i.e., Liu
Po-sheng), the elder brother of Emperor Kuang-wu, attempted to prevent the execution of Liu
Tzu, Chu Wei and Li Yi had Liu Yin4d killed. When in Mar. 24, the Keng-shih Emperor proposed
to make all his courtiers kings, Chu Wei protested, saying that according to Kao-tsu’s oath, only
members of the Liu clan should become kings. He was nevertheless made King of Chiao-tung
but refused the appointment, so he was made Commander-in-chief at the Left. Then he was sent
eastwards, where he exercised an arbitrary authority.
In Apr./May, 25, he and Li Sung fought with the Red Eyebrows at Mao-Hsiang, and were
defeated. The Keng-shih Emperor sent him and Li Yi to hold Lo-yang, from which he harassed
the future Emperor Kuang-wu’s troops. When Li Yi thought of going over to Kuang-wu, Chu
Wei had him assassinated. On Sept. 27, 25, he was besieged by Emperor Kuang-wu’s generals at
Lo-yang. One of his generals treacherously admitted Chien T’an and Chu Yen, two of Kuangwu’s generals, and their troops, into the city at dawn, but Chu Wei was alert and by breakfasttime had driven them out. Ts’en Peng once a former subordinate who had become of
Kuang’wu’s generals, persuaded Chu Wei to surrender, when Emperor Kuang-wu swore an oath
that Chu Wei would not be harmed for having murdered the Emperor’s elder brother and would
be allowed to keep his rank and title. On Nov. 5 he surrendered the city, whereupon Emperor
Kuang-wu made it his capital.
When Chu Wei surrendered, he was made the General Pacifying the Ti and was enfeoffed
as Marquis of Fu-kou, and later was changed to be Marquis of Ch’eng tê (a place in north central
Anhui at present Shou-hsien). (HHs Mem. 7.12a) Later he became Privy Treasurer. His tomb,
near the present Chin-hsiang, southeastern Shantung, not far from his fief of Fu-kou and from
Huai-yang, is mentioned in the Shui-ching chu 8.25b. His noble title was perpetuated for many
generations. Cf. Hs 99C.18a, 20a; HHs An. lA.13a, 14a, 16b, 17a; Mem. 1.2a,b,3b, 4a, 4b, 6a,
Mem. 2:3b sub Liu Yung, Mem. 4.4a, 12a sub Liu Yin4d and Liu Tz’u, Mem. 5.3b, 5b sub Li
T’ung and Wang Ch’ang, Mem. 6.17b, 18b sub K’ou Hsün, Mem. 7.3b, 4a, 4b, 10b, 11b, 12a, 9a
sub Feng Yi and Ts’en P’eng and Chia Fu, Mem. 12.4b, 8a, 9b, sub Wang Liang and Liu Lung
and Chien T’an; Wilma Fairbank, in “A Structural Key to Han Mural Art,” HJAS 7(April 1942)
52-88, 18 pl., discusses his tomb and remarkable funerary shrine.
430. Hsin-shih 新市or Nan-Hsin-shih 南新市 {32-33:4/7} was a prefecture in the Chiang-hsia
Commandery in Later Han times. In Former Han times it is not mentioned. There were other
prefectures called Hsin-shih, in the state of Chung-shan and in Chü-lu Commandery; hence the
name of this Hsin-shih. Chu Wei 朱鮪, rebel against Wang Mang, led a force of bandits and
rebels who called themselves by the name of this place. According to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung
Chih, it was located northeast of the present Ching-shan, in central Hupeh. Cf. HHs Tr. 22.25b;
An. 1 A.3a.
430. Ch’en Mu 陳牧 was a leader of the P’ing-lin Troops who joined the successful rebellion of
the Han rebels, became a follower of the Keng-shih Emperor, and was executed by him.
He came from P’ing-lin and, in 22 A.D., with Liao Shen, led a group of more than a
thousand men who called themselves the P’ing-lin Troops. They joined Liu Sheng-kung (i.e.,
Liu Hsüan). In Mar. 23, Keng-shih made Ch’en his Grand Minister of Works. In Mar. 24, Kengshih enfeoffed him as King of Yin-p’ing. In July/Aug. 25, Keng-shih sent him with others to
garrison Hsin-feng. When Keng-shih’s general, Chang Ang, rebelled and drove Keng-shih out of
Ch’ang-an to Hsin-feng, Keng-shih suspected Ch’en Mu of having been in league with Chang
Ang, sent for him and executed him Cf. Hs 99C.18a; HHs An. 1A.3a, Mem. 1.2a,b, 4a, 6a,b sub
Liu Hsüan, Mem. 4 sub Liu Yin.
430. P’ing-lin 平林 was a city in the Chiang-Hsia Commandery. The Shui-ching-chu 31.24a
says, “The Fu River also flows southeastwards to the borders of An-li, and on the left joins with
the T’u-shan River, which this age calls the Chang River. The River comes out of the T’u
Mountains, and flows southwards, past West of the ancient city of P’ing-lin Hsien in the Sui
Commandery,” and glosses, “The borders [of the hsien] adjoin those of Hsin-shih [q.v.], hence at
the beginning of the Revival of the Han dynasty, among the rebel troops there were the names of
[troops from] Hsin-shih and P’ing-lin [a reference to HHs An. 1A.3a].” P’ing-lin is not
mentioned in the Hs or HHs “Treatise on Geography”; it was located near the present Chingshan, in central Hupeh.
430. Hua-yin 華陰 {15-16:4/6} was a city and prefecture of the imperial capital commandery, the
Ching-chao-yin, located southeast of the present Hua-yin in eastern Shensi, according to the Tach’ing Yi-t’ung-chih 244.4a. Anciently its name was Yin-chin. In 333 B.C. its name was
changed to Ning-chin; in 199 B.C. Kao-tsu changed it to Hua-yin. The T’ai-hua Mountain was
south of it, which mountain had a temple established by Emperor Hsüan. In the prefecture there
was a Chi-ling Palace built [by Emperor Wu]. This place was the headquarters of the Chief
Commandant to the governor of the capital (San-fu huang-t’u 1:2a). In Later Han times this
prefecture was included in the Hung-nung Commandery. Hua-yin was the place where travelers
from Ch’ang-an eastwards left their boats and began their land journey. Cf. Hs 28 Ai.21b,
431. The Great Granary 大倉 “was built by Hsiao Ho [in 200 B.C.] and was outside the city of
Ch’ang-an, to the southeast. It had twenty columns. Emperors Wen and Ching economized [by
doing away with its use]. The grain in the Great Granary was red and spoiled, and could not be
eaten.” From the San-fu huang-t’u 6:2b. Cf. Hs 1B.12b, 99C.18b, 19A.14b.
431. Supporters of the Smaller Gates to the Beginning of Public Authority 政始掖門 was the
name given by Wang Mang in 22 A.D. to some guards bearing lances whom he stationed at the
Great Granary in Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99C.18a.
431. Wang Yeh 王業 was in 22 A.D. a eunuch Palace Attendant Within the Yellow Gate whose
duty it was to purchase provisions; by taking things at a low price from the people he secured a
reputation for economy and was enfeoffed as a Vassal. He deceived Wang Mang regarding the
extent of the famine in Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99C.18a,b. This man had the same given name as a
slave-woman of the Brilliant Companion née Chao; cf. 97B.13b. There was thus no sharp
distinction between male and female given names.
432. Wu-yen 無鹽 {36-37:3/5} was a city and prefecture, the headquarters of the kingdom of
Tung-p’ing in Former and Later Han times. It was located 20 li east of the present Tung-p’ing in
eastern Shantung. Cf. Hs 28 Bii.31b.
432. Tung Hsien4a 董憲 was a detached Colonel of the Red Eyebrows who defeated Wang
K’uangla and Lien Tan in the Winter of 22 A.D., killing the latter. He may have been the same
person as the Tung Hsien4b who became a follower of Liu Yung, and is given a biography in the
HHs, but this Tung Hsien is said not to have arisen until 23 A.D., and seems not to have had any
connection with the Red Eyebrows. Cf. Hs 99C.18b.
432. The Liang Commandery 梁郡 in the time of Wang Mang, was probably another name for
the previous kingdom of Liang (q.v.) used by Pan Ku because it was a more familiar name to the
readers than the correct name. Wang Mang renamed the kingdom of Liang, Ch’en-ting. Cf. Hs
99C.18b; 28Bii.31b, 32a.
432. Ju Yün 汝雲 was a Colonel under Lien Tan who sacrificed himself in battle in 22 A.D. when
Lien Tan died. Cf. 99C.18b. Ju was an ancient surname; the Tso-chuan, Duke Hsiang, XXVI
(Legge, p. 520) mentions a Grandee of Chin by the name of 女齊 and Lu Te-ming (560-627)
says this surname is pronounced Ju.
433. Wang Lung 王隆 was in 22 A.D. a Colonel under Lien Tan. In the battle with the Red
Eyebrows at Ch’eng-ch’ang, when Wang Lung heard that Lien Tan had been killed, he and others
galloped into the Red Eyebrows and died fighting. He came from Ju-yün. Cf. Hs 99C.18b.
There was a scholar by the same name living at the same time who also became distinguished
under Emperor Kuang-wu.
432. So-lu Hui 索盧恢 was a man of Wu-yen who raised troops in the Winter of 22 A.D. and
took Wu-yen. Wang Mang immediately sent Lien Tan and Wang K’uang1, who retook the city,
taking more than ten thousand heads. Cf. Hs 99C.18b. Yen Shih-ku points out this double
432. Ch’eng-ch’ang 成昌 was the place where Lien Tan fought the Red Eyebrows in 23 A.D. and
was killed according to Hs 99C.18b. It could not have been far from Wu-yen, for HHs Mem.
1.9b says that the Red Eyebrows pursued Lien Tan’s troops to Wu-yen. Hu San-Hsing thinks
that it was in the Wu-yen prefecture. For the location of the latter place, cf. sub Wu-yen.
433. Chung-huang Chih 中黃直 was, according to ancient legend, the general of the Yellow
Emperor in his war on Ch’ih-yu. The T’ai-p’ing yü-lan 328:8a, quotes the Hsüan-nu ping-fa
(unknown) as saying, “When the Yellow Emperor had attacked Ch’ih-yu to the third year, and
the city did not surrender, he solicited and sought magicians, and so secured Wu-ku. [The
Yellow Emperor] spoke to him, saying, ‘Today I have been attacking Ch’ih-yu to the third year,
and his city has not surrendered. Where is the blame?’ Wu-ku replied, ‘The general in this city,
in his person, must be white in color and have the note shang [the second note]. When you,
Emperor, first attacked him, did you not march eastwards in the Autumn? Now you, the Yellow
Emperor, in your person, are blue in color, with the note chio [the third note]. This is a valorous
army to fight for it.’ The Yellow Emperor said, ‘Good. How would you do it?’ Wu-ku replied,
‘Your servant begs that on the third day the city of Ch’ih-yu will certainly surrender.’ The
Yellow Emperor was greatly pleased, [but] his [minister], Chung-huang Chih said, ‘The Emperor
has attacked Ch’ih-yu continuously to the third on year, yet his city did not surrender. Now you,
sir, wish to make it surrender on the third day. How do you explain this?’ Wu-ku replied, ‘If it
were not as your servant has said, I would beg to be sentenced according to the military law.’”
Etc. Cf. Hs 99C.19a. This person is also called the Elder Chung-huang and Mr. Chung-huang
(RMD, 5c {sic!}). He is mentioned in the ??? 7.9a.
433. The Northern Encampment of the Capital Army 北壘 was possibly Wang Mang’s name for
the Northern Army (q.v.). Cf. HFHD III.433 n 13.8.
434. Fang Yang 房揚 was in 23 A.D. a Higher Subordinate Official of the Minister Over the
Masses, Wang Hsün, when the latter started out with an army against the Red Eyebrows. At the
Pa-ch’ang Stables, he lost his axe. Fang Yang remembered a saying in the Book of Changes
which interpreted such an event as portentious, and left the army, whereupon Wang Mang had
him killed. Cf. Hs 99C:19a.
434. The Pa-ch’ang Stables 霸昌廄 were the stables in the Pa-ch’ang Lodge. The San-fu huangt’u 6:2b merely says that this Lodge was outside the city of Ch’ang-an; the Kua-ti chih 2:2b says,
“The Han [dynasty’s] Pa-ch’ang Lodge was 38 li northeast of the prefecture of Wan-nien in the
Yung Province.” For the location of Wan-nien, cf. sub voce. Cf. Hs 99C.19a.
434. Grandee in Charge of Customs and Morals 風俗大夫 was a title held in 23 A.D. by Szukuo Hsien. Cf. Hs 99C.19b. He was to be sent about the empire to observe and report on its
customs and practises, hence this title.
434. Szu-kuo Hsien 司國憲 was in 23 A.D. a Grandee of Customs and Morals to Wang Mang,
and the latter planned to send him and others about the empire to repeal all the laws that were
obnoxious to the people. Rebellion prevented him from being actually sent. This peculiar
double surname came from the title of the ancient office denoted by this name. Cf. Hs 99C.19b.
435. Chi-yang 棘陽 {32-33:3/6} was a city and prefecture of the Nan-yang Commandery, located
northeast of the present Hsin-yeh in southwestern Honan. In the time of the Contending States, it
was called Hwang-chi. King Huai of Ch’u and King Chao of Chin met there. Emperor Kao-tsu
enfeoffed Tu Te-ch’en as Marquis of this place; he was succeeded by his son and grandson, Tan
and Wu. Cf. Hs 28Aii.1b, 16:37a, 99C.19b.
435. Kuang-wu, Emperor 光武帝. The Emperor whose posthumous name was Kuang-wu,
temple name the Epochal Founder 世祖 was named Liu Hsiu4 劉秀, style Wen-shu. He came
from Ts’ai-yang in the Nan-yang commandery, southwest of the present Tsao-yang in northern
Hupeh. He was the third and youngest son of Liu Ch’in by his wife, Hsien-tu, a daughter of Fan
Liu Ch’in had three sons and three daughters. The oldest son was Liu Po-sheng (q.v.), the
next was Liu Chung, and the youngest was Emperor Kuang-wu. The oldest daughter was named
Huang, the next Yüan, and the youngest Po-chi. Liu Ch’in was descended from Liu Fa, King
Ting of Chang-sha, a son of Emperor Ching. Liu Fa was a descendant of Emperor Kao-tsu in the
ninth generation. Liu Fa begat the Marquis Chieh of Chung-ling, Liu Mai; he begat the Grand
Administrator of the Yü-lin Commandery, Liu Wai; he begat the Chief Commandant of the Chülu Commandery, Liu Hui; and he begat Liu Ch’in, who became the Prefect of Nan-tun. Thus Liu
Hsiu was a descendant of the imperial line by its younger sons. He was born in the night of Jan.
18, 5 B.C. When he was in his ninth year, he was orphaned and was cared for by his paternal
uncle, Liu Liang. Liu Hsiu was 7 feet 3 inches (6 ft., 5 in. Eng. meas.) tall, with a fine beard and
eyebrows, a large mouth, a high nose, and a broad forehead. Liu Hsiu’s older brother, Liu Posheng, loved brave deeds and cared for brave gentlemen. He always criticized and laughed at
Liu Hsiu, because the latter worked in the fields. He compared Liu Hsiu to Emperor Kao-tsu’s
older brother, Liu Chung.
Sometime in 14-19 A.D. Liu Hsiu went to Ch’ang-an, where he studied the Book of
History, and somewhat understood its general principles. In 22 A.D., after there had been
famines, pestilences of locusts, and bandits, there was a famine in the Nan-yang Commandery
(2b) and many of the guests of the various great families became small robbers. Liu Hsiu went
to Hsin-yen to escape the officials. When he went to Yüan to sell grain, Li T’ung (q.v.) and others
showed him a prophecy which said that the Liu dynasty must revive and a Mr. Li would be its
coadjutor. At first Liu Hsiu would not presume to accept it, but then he thought that his older
brother, Liu Po-sheng, had associated with reckless guests and would inevitably achieve some
great matter, and that Wang Mang’s defeat and death had been foretold, so that the empire was
then in turmoil. So he plotted with them and bought arms and crossbows. In Oct./Nov. 22 A.D.,
Liu Hsiu, with Li T’ung and his cousin, Li Yi arose at Yüan, at which time Liu Hsiu was in his
28th year. When Liu Hsiu led his guests back to Ch’ung-ling, near Ts’ai-yang, Liu Po-sheng had
already raised a troop of soldiers. Previously the young people of the various families had been
fearful and had fled, saying that Liu Po-sheng would kill them, for they knew that he was
reckless. But when they saw Liu Hsiu (3a) with a deep red robe and the large hat of a general,
they were surprised and said that he was honest and careful, yet had rebelled, so they became
calm. Liu Po-sheng summoned the troops of Hsin-shih and P’ing-lin, with their leaders, Wang
Feng and Chen Mu went west, and attacked Chang-chu.
Liu Hsiu at first rode an ox. When he killed the Chief Commandant of Hsin-yeh, he only
then secured a horse. He advanced and massacred the inhabitants of T’ang-tzu Hsiang and also
killed the Commandant of Hu-yang. When the division of valuables in the army was not
equitable, the soldiers became angry, wanting to attack the members of the Liu clan, so Liu Hsiu
collected what things the members of the imperial clan had received and gave them all to the
men, with the result that they were all pleased. They then advanced and took Chi-yang by storm
and fought a (3b) battle with Wang Mang’s Southern Commandery Grandee, Chen Fou and his
Director of an Association, Liang-ch’iu Tz’u, at Hsiao-ch’ang-an. The army of the Han faction
was severely defeated, so they returned and took refuge at Chi-yang.
On Jan. 22, 23 A.D., the Han army again fought a battle with Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu
Tz’u and routed it severely, beheading Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u. Liu Po-sheng also
routed Wang Mang’s Communicator and General, Chuang Yu, and his Arranger of the Ancestral
Temple,General Ch’en Mou, at Yü-yang. (4a) Then they advanced and besieged Yüan.
On Feb. 2, 23 A.D. Liu Sheng-kung, known as Emperor Keng-shih from his year period,
was set up as Son of Heaven. Liu Po-sheng was made Grand Minister Over the Masses; Liu
Hsiu was made Grand Master of Ceremonies and Secondary General. In Apr./May, Liu Hsiu
separated from the other generals and overran K’un-yang, Ting-ling, and Yen, making them all
surrender. He took many cattle, horses, valuables, and several hundred thousand hu of grain,
which latter he transported to feed the host besieging Yüan.
When Wang Mang heard that Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u were dead and an Emperor
of the Han line had been established, he feared greatly, and sent his Grand Minister Over the
Masses, Wang Hsün (4b) and his Grand Minister of Works, Wang Yi, with a million soldiers, of
whom 420,000 were armed men. In June/July, they reached the Ying-ch’uan Commandery and
again joined with Chuang Yu and Ch’en Mou.
Previously, when Liu Hsiu had appeared before Chuang Yu on behalf of the household of
his uncle, Liu Chang, the Marquis of Chung-ling, in a lawsuit for not having paid the land tax,
Chuang Yu had seen and marvelled at Liu Hsiu. Now at this time those who came from the city
to surrender to Chuang Yu said that Liu Hsiu had not taken any of their valuables, but had had a
meeting for military stratagems. Chuang Yu asked if this man had a beautiful beard and
eyebrows, and wondered that he had become thus neglectful of wealth.
Previously Wang Mang had summoned all those who were skilled at military arts in the
empire, who belonged to sixty-three schools, several hundred persons in all, (5a) and had made
them all army officers. At this time there was a giant, Chü-wu Pa, who had been made a Colonel
of an Encampment. Some fierce beasts were also urged on, like tigers, leopards, rhinoceroses,
and elephants, in order to increase the power of the army. Since the time that the Former Han
dynasty and the state of Ch’in had sent out armies, none had been sent out as majestic as this
Liu Hsiu led several thousand troops, and marched about at the Yang Pass; when the
other generals saw the size of Wang Hsün’s and Wang Yi’s army, they turned and fled rapidly
into K’un-yang. All were afraid and worried about their wives and children, and wanted to
scatter and return to their cities. Liu Hsiu however said at a meeting that altho at present their
troops and grain were few, and the enemy was strong, yet if the troops cooperated and strove
hard, glory could be achieved; but if they scattered, who would be able to preserve themselves?
Moreover the city of Yüan had not yet been taken by storm, so that Liu Po-sheng, who was
besieging it, could not come to assist them, and if the defenders of K’ung-yang were routed, in
one day all the regiments would be destroyed. If now they could not unite and achieve glory,
they could not later save their wives, children, and wealth.
The generals were wroth, and asked how General Liu could presume to speak thus, so
(5b) Liu Hsiu smiled and rose. At that time an outpost galloped up and said that the great army
would soon arrive and had formed its line north of the city, and that for several hundred li its rear
could not be seen. The generals quickly asked General Liu for his plan. Then Liu Hsiu made a
plan giving the reasons for success and defeat, and the generals, who were worried and pressed,
At that time there were only 8 or 9 thousand men in the city. Liu Hsiu consequently had
the Minister Above the Highest Ministers, Perfecting the State, Wang Feng, and the
Commandant of Justice Generalissimo, Wang Ch’ang, stay and defend the city. Liu Hsiu, with
the Generalissimo of Agile Cavalry, Tsung Tiao, the General of the Five Majestic Principles, Li
Yi, and others, thirteen riders in all, went out of the South Gate to collect troops. At this time a
hundred thousand of Wang Mang’s army had already reached the city walls, and Liu Hsiu barely
succeeded in getting out. When he reached Yen and Ting-ling, he wanted to send all the
divisions of troops there to K’un-yang. But their generals were covetous of their wealth, and
wanted to stay and guard the city. Liu Hsiu told them that if they would rout the enemy, they
would have ten thousand times the treasures and great glory, whereas if they were defeated, their
valuables would be of no use.
Chuang Yi told Wang Yi that K’un-yang was only a small but strong city, whereas the
important rebels were at Yüan; if the army at Yüan were defeated, K’un-yang would submit of
itself. But Wang Yi recalled that he had been reproved because he had not taken (6a) Chai Yi
alive, and now, if he came to a city and did not capture it, he could not answer criticism. So he
besieged K’un-yang. His siege train was impressive.
Wang Feng and others wanted to surrender, but were not permitted to do so. In the night
a meteor fell into the camp. It went a foot into the ground and scattered.
On July 7, Liu Hsiu advanced with his divisions and regiments. He himself led more
than a thousand foot soldiers and horses. He went four or five li ahead of the great army and
drew up his line. Wang Hsün and Wang Yi also sent several thousand troops to fight with them.
Liu Hsiu ran at them and cut off several tens of heads. His regiments were delighted. (6b)
When Liu Hsiu again advanced, the troops of Wang Hsün and Wang Yi withdrew, and the
various regiments took advantage of then, cutting off several hundred or a thousand heads. With
such successive victories, they advanced.
At that time Liu Po-sheng had already taken Yüan by storm on the third day previous, but
Liu Hsiu did not know it. He falsely sent a messenger with a writing to inform the people in the
city of the supposed fact, saying that the troops from Yüan were coming. Wang Hsün and Wang
Yi secured the writing and were not glad. Then the Han generals had some victories, their
courage increased, until none of them but was worth a hundred. {sic!} Liu Hsiu with three
thousand dare-to-dies went up the stream west of the city and rushed into the entrenchments of
the detached force led by Wang Yi and Wang Hsün. The ranks of Wang Hsün’s and Wang Yi’s
armies were confused and, taking advantage of the situation, the Han troops killed Wang Hsün.
The Han troops inside the city also beat their drums, cried out, and came out, so that the noise
shook heaven and earth. Wang Mang’s troops were severely overthrown, and those who fled
trampled upon each other for more than a hundred li.
It happened that there was a great windstorm and thunder, so that tiles from the buildings
flew off, and the rain came down. The tigers and leopards were frightened and the soldiers
fought to cross the river, so that (7a) the dead were counted by the ten-thousands and stopped up
the river. Wang Yi, Chuang Yu, Ch’en Mou, and the light cavalry rode over the dead and crossed
the river, thus escaping. Their stores and baggage train were all captured and their armor and
valuables, so many that they could not be counted. For several months they were picked up
without being exhausted, and someone burnt the rest. Thereupon Liu Hsiu again overrun
territory and received the surrender of Ying-yang.
When he heard that his brother, Liu Po-sheng, had been killed by Keng shih, he galloped
from Fu-ch’eng to Yüan to ask for pardon. The office of the Minister Over the Masses, which
position had been occupied by Liu Po-sheng, received and consoled Liu Hsiu. It was difficult for
Liu Hsiu to speak privately with anyone, so he merely talked about his brother’s faults, and did
not speak of his own glory at K’un-yang. He also did not dare to wear mourning for his brother,
and ate and drank, spoke and smiled as usual. Hence Keng-shih was ashamed, made Liu Hsiu
the Generalissimo Routing the Hu, and enfeoffed him as Marquis of Military Faith.
On Oct. 6, 23 A.D., the bravos executed Wang Mang and sent his head to Yüan. Kengshih wanted to go north to make his capital at Lo-yang, so he had Liu Hsiu perform the duties of
the Colonel in Charge of the Retainers, and sent him ahead to prepare the palaces and yamens.
At this time the officers and soldiers of the capital districts at Ch’ang-an came east to
invite Keng-shih. When they saw that Liu Hsiu alone among the officials of Keng-shih had
established his entourage after the old Han model, they were delighted, and one old official wept
with joy.
When Keng-shih reached Lo-yang, he sent Liu Hsiu with the title of General Routing the
Hu to perform the duties of the Commander-in-chief. In Nov./Dec. Liu Hsiu took credentials and
crossed the Yellow River, going north, and traveled about the provinces and commanderies,
investigating the officials, from those ranking at 2000 piculs, the Chief Officials, San-lao, on
down to the Accessory Officials, just like a Provincial Governor making his rounds. He judged
law cases, did away with Wang Mang’s tyrannic laws, and reestablished the Han titles, so that the
officials and men were delighted, and they competed in bringing him cattle and wine. At Hantan, Liu Lin, the son of the former King Miu of Chao, Liu Yüan, advised Liu Hsiu to break the
dikes and drown the Red Eyebrows, but Liu Hsiu refused. Liu Lin falsely took a soothsayer,
Wang Lang,called him Liu Tzu-yü, the son of Emperor Ch’eng and in Dec./Jan. 24 A.D., made
Liu Tzu-yü the Emperor, with his capital at Han-tan. Then he sent commissioners to receive the
surrender of the commanderies and kingdoms. In Feb., because Wang Lang was newly
successful, Liu Hsiu went north to overrun the region about Chin, and Wang Lang sent out an
urgent message, putting as a price upon the head of Liu Hsiu, the income of a hundred thousand
households. Liu Chieh, the descendant of the former King of Kuang-yang, Liu Chia, moreover
raised troops in Chi4 in response to Wang Lang. The city was in turmoil and people were afraid,
saying that the commissioner from Han-tan was about to arrive. The officials and their
subordinates all went out to welcome him. Hence Liu Hsiu quickly galloped south by day and
night, without daring to enter any city or town. He stopped and ate at the side of the road.
When he reached Jao-yang, his retinue was all lacking food, so Liu Hsiu called himself a
Commissioner from Han-tan and entered a post station, and so the officer in charge of the post
station provided food. His followers were starving and strove with each other to get the food.
The officer in charge of the post station suspected that Liu Hsiu was misrepresenting himself, so
he beat the drum several dozens of times, and said falsely that a General from Han-tan was
coming. Liu Hsiu’s attendants’ faces all lost color, and Liu Hsiu mounted his chariot, intending
to gallop away. But when he had done so, he feared he would not be able to escape, so he slowly
returned, sat down, and said, “Beg the General from Han-tan to enter,” and after a long time he
drove off. Some people at the station motioned to the gate keeper to shut the gates, but the Chief
stopped them because he was not sure who Liu Hsiu was. So Liu Hsiu succeeded in getting out
and going south. Day and night he traveled, meeting frost and snow. The weather was cold, and
their faces were all cracked open. (9b)
When they reached the Hu-t’o River, there was no boat, so they crossed on the ice, but
not all; several chariots drowned. When they reached a place west of Hsia-po-ch’eng, they were
in doubt, because they did not know where to go. A plainly dressed old man at the side of the
road pointed and said that they should strive on, because the Hsin-tu Commandery was being
held for the Keng-shih Emperor at Ch’ang-an and was only 80 li distant. Liu Hsiu accordingly
galloped there. The Grand Administrator of Hsin-tu Commandery, Jen Kuang, opened the gates
and went out to meet Liu Hsiu. Liu Hsiu then mobilized the neighboring prefectures, and
secured 4000 men. First he attacked T’ang-yang and Shih, making both surrender. P’ei Yung,
Wang Mang’s Director of a Confederation at the Ho-jung Commandery, also raised troops in his
commandery and surrendered. (l0a) Liu Chih from Ch’ang-ch’eng and Keng Shun from Sungtzu also led the young people of their clans, and took their prefectural towns, holding them for
Liu Hsiu. Then he went north, and took Ch’ü-yang. His followers now numbered several tenthousands, so he again went north and attacked the state of Chung-shan. Wherever he passed, he
sent out emergency troops and sent calls-to-arms to the border commanderies to attack Han-tan.
The commanderies and prefectures in turn responded to him. Then he went south and attacked
Hsin-shih, Chen-ting, Yüan-shih, and Fang-tzu, and made them all surrender. Next he went into
the territory of Chao.
At that time Li Yü, the Generalissimo of Wang Lang, was encamped at P’o-jen. The Han
troops did not know it, so they advanced. The Secondary Generals of the Van, Chu Fou and
Teng Yü, were routed by Li Yü, and fled, losing their baggage train. Liu Hsiu was in the rear;
when he heard of it, he collected the scattered soldiers of Chu Fou and Teng Yü, and fought a
battle with Li Yü at Kuo-men, routing him severely, and retaking all he had captured. Li Yü
retreated and took refuge in a city. Liu Hsiu attacked it, but it did not surrender, so he led his
troops away and took Kuang-o by storm.
It happened that Keng K’uang, the Grand Administrator of the Shang-ku Commandery,
and P’eng Ch’ung, the Grand Administrator of the Yü-yang Commandery, had each sent a
General, Wu Han and K’ou Hsün, with intrepid cavalry to assist in attacking Wang Lang. Kengshih also sent his Supervisor Master of Writing, Hsieh Kung to pursue Wang Lang. Liu Hsiu
made a great feast for the troops and went east, where he besieged Chü-lu. Wang Lang’s Acting
General, Wang Jao, held it firmly for more than a month without surrendering. Wang Lang sent
his generals Yi Hung and Liu Feng with several ten-thousands of men to relieve Chü-lu. Liu
Hsiu went back and fought a battle (11a) at Nan-luan, taking several thousand heads.
In Apr./May he advanced and besieged Han-tan, defeating its forces in successive battles.
On July 6, he took the city by storm, and executed Wang Lang. He collected the documents and
secured several thousand documents showing that some of his officials who had secret relations
with Wang Lang and had slandered Liu Hsiu. Liu Hsiu did not pay attention to them, but
assembled his generals and burnt the documents before them. Keng-shih then sent an Attendant
Secretary with credentials to set up Liu Hsiu as King of Hsiao and ordered him to dismiss all his
troops and come to the place where the emperor was. But Liu Hsiu refused to come, alleging
that the region north of the Yellow River had not yet been pacified. At this time there occurred
the first disagreement between him and Keng-shih.
At this time the government at Ch’ang-an was in confusion and the four quarters were
rebelling. The King of Liang, Liu Yung was arbitrarily giving commands at Sui-yang, Kung-sun
Shu called himself King in Pa and Shu, Liu Hsien set himself up as King of Huai-nan (11b),
Ch’in Feng called himself King Li of Ch’u, Chang Pu arose in the Lang-ya Commandery, Tung
Hsien arose in the Tung-hai Commandery, Yen Chen arose in the Han-chung Commandery, and
T’ien Jung arose in Yi-ling. All established generals and lieutenants and invaded and overran
commanderies and prefectures. Various bandit bands by other names, the Bronze Horses, the Tayung, the Kao-hu, the Chung-ling, the T’ien-ching, the Ta-ch’iang, the Yu-lai, the Chang-chiang,
the Green Calves, the Wu-Hsiao, the T’an-Hsiang, the Wu-fan, the Wu-lou. the Fu-ping, and the
Huo-so (l2a) each had their regiments and companies. Their mobs together numbered several
million men. Wherever they were, they robbed and plundered. When Liu Hsiu was about to
attack them, he first sent Wu Han north to mobilize the troops of the ten commanderies. The
Shepherd of the Yu Province, Miao Ts’eng, would not obey, so Wu Han beheaded Miao Ts’eng,
and mobilized his troops. In the Autumn Liu Hsiu attacked the Bronze Horses at Ch’iao. Wu
Han led the intrepid cavalry and came, meeting them at Ch’ing-yang. The robbers sent several
men out to fight duels, but Liu Hsiu kept his men in the camp, and when the caitiffs came out to
rob, Liu Hsiu would immediately attack and take them. So he cut off their supplies. After doing
this for more than a month, the food of the bandits was exhausted. In the night they came out; he
pursued them to Kuan-t’ao, where he routed them severely and received their surrender. But not
all of them surrendered.
The Kao-hu and the Chung-lien came from the southeast and joined with the remaining
Bronze Horses, so Liu Hsiu again fought a great battle (12b) with them at P’u-yang, where he
routed them all and all surrendered. Their leaders were enfeoffed as marquises. But even tho
they had surrendered, they were not calm in their minds. Liu Hsiu knew what was in their
minds, so ordered each to return to his camp and control his troops. Then he himself rode a light
chariot along their lines. The surrendered men said to each other that he had been so sincere that
they should be willing to die for him. Thus they all submitted. They were divided among the
generals, so that Liu Hsiu’s army reached several hundred thousand, and people west of the Hanku Pass called him the Emperor of the Bronze Horses.
The Red Eyebrows, with the Ta-yung, and the Green Calves, a mob of more than a
hundred thousand men, were at She-ch’üan, and Liu Hsiu advanced, attacked, and routed them
severely, so that their mobs all scattered and fled. He had Wu Han and Chen P’eng surprise and
kill Hsieh Kung at Yeh.
The Green Calves and the Red Eyebrows entered the Han-ku Pass (13a) and attacked
Keng-shih, so Liu Hsiu sent Teng Yü leading six Major Generals, to lead troops west and resist
Keng-shih. At the time of the turmoil caused by the Red Eyebrows, Keng-shih sent his
Commander-in-chief, Chu Wei, the King of Wu-yin, Li Yi, and others to encamp at Lo-yang, so
Liu Hsiu also ordered Feng Yi to hold the Meng Ford in order to resist Keng-shih’s men.
In Feb./Mar. 25 A.D., a man of P’ing-ling, Fang Wang, set up the previous Young Prince,
Liu Ying, as the Son of Heaven and Keng-shih sent his Lieutenant Chancellor Li Sung, who
attacked and beheaded the pretender and Fang Wang.
Liu Hsiu went North and attacked the Yu-lai, the Ta-ts’ang and the Wu-fan at Yüan-shih,
pursuing them to the Yu-pei-p’ing Commandery, and routing them in successive battles. He also
fought North of Shun-shui. When he was taking advantage of his victories and advancing
carelessly, his men were defeated, and when the robbers pursued them, his followers fought with
their swords. Liu Hsiu himself fled to a high cliff. He happened upon an intrepid cavalryman,
Wang Feng, who got off his horse and gave it to Liu Hsiu. Liu Hsiu leaned upon his shoulder,
looked up, laughed, and said to Keng Yen, “I almost became the laughing-stock of the caitiffs.”
Keng Yen shot and checked the bandits and they succeeded in escaping. Several thousand
soldiers were killed, and the scattered troops took refuge in Fan-yang. When those in the army
did not see Liu Hsiu, someone said that he was dead. When the generals did not know what to
do, Wu Han said that they should strive on, for the King’s nephew was at Nan-yang, so they
should not worry because they had no lord. (14a) His bands were however fearful, and it was
several days before their minds were settled. Even tho the bandits had been victorious, they
feared Liu Hsiu, and went away by night. The great army again advanced to An-tz’u and fought
with the bandits, routing them, and taking more than 3000 heads. The bandits entered the Yü-
yang Commandery, so Liu Hsiu sent Wu Han, leading Keng Yen, Ch’en Chün, Ma Wu and
others, twelve generals in all, who pursued them and fought a battle east of Lu. They routed
them severely, destroying them at P’ing-ku. Chu Wei sent General Su Mou to attack Wen, and
Feng Yi and K’ou Hsün fought a battle with him and routed his forces severely, taking the head
of his General, Chia Ch’iang. Thereupon the various generals discussed presenting Liu Hsiu
with the high title of Emperor. Ma Wu proposed it (14b), but Liu Hsiu was startled and had the
matter dropped. He led his troops back to Chi4.
In May/June, Kung-sun Shu declared himself the Son of Heaven.
When Liu Hsiu came back from Chi4 and passed Fan-yang, he ordered that the corpses of
officers and soldiers should be collected and buried. When he reached the Chung-shan
Commandery, his generals again memorialized him, saying that he and his brother Liu Po-sheng
had first raised rebellion; that Keng-shih was unable to uphold the imperial succession, and
stating that the post of Emperor should not be vacant for long. Liu Hsiu would however not
listen. (15a) When he marched to Nan-p’ing-chi, his generals again begged him resolutely, but
Liu Hsiu replied that the bandits had not yet been tranquillized. After they had left, Keng Shun
pointed out that if Liu Hsiu did not take the title of emperor, his followers would want to return
home, and once they did so, they could not be gathered again. The time was crucial and the call
could not be neglected. Liu Hsiu replied that he would think it over.
When he reached Hao, a certain Ch’iang Hua brought a portent that the red principle had
been hiding itself with a message urging him to become emperor. (15b) Liu Hsiu’s courtiers
again memorialized, urging him to take the throne, and Liu Hsiu ordered the high officials to set
up an altar for doing so south of Hao at the Wu-ch’eng Po, in the Ch’ien-ch’iu T’ing. On Aug. 5,
he ascended the throne. In a burnt offering, Heaven was informed, and sacrifice was made to his
six generations of ancestors. Thereupon he established the year-period as Chien-wu 建武,
granted a general amnesty to the empire, and changed the name of Hao to be Kao-yi. In this
month the Red Eyebrows set up Liu P’eng-tzu as the Son of Heaven.
On Aug. 10, Emperor Kuang-wu’s General of the Van, Teng Yü, attacked Keng-shih’s
Duke Tranquillizing the State, Wang K’uang, at An-yi, and routed his troops severely, taking the
head of his general, Liu Chün. On Aug. 17, Teng Yü was made Grand Minister over the Masses,
and on Aug. 23, the Prefect of Yeh-wang, Wang Liang, was made the Grand Minister (16a) of
Works. On Aug. 28, the Generalissimo Wu Han was made Commander-in-chief, the Secondary
General Ching Tan was made the Generalissimo of Agile Cavalry, Generalissimo Keng Yen was
made the Generalissimo Establishing Majesty, the Secondary General Kao Yen was made the
Tiger’s Teeth Generalissimo, the Secondary General Chu Yu was made the Generalissimo
EstablishingMoral Principles, and Tu Mou was made Generalissimo.
At this time, Liu Mou, from the imperial clan, who had called himself the General
Repressing the Hsin Dynasty, led his troop and surrendered. He was enfeoffed as the King of
Chung-shan. On Sept. 14, the Emperor went to Huai and sent the General of Strong
Crossbowmen, Chien Chün, to encamp at the Wu-she Ford, to guard east of Jung-yang. He sent
Wu Han, leading Chu Yu and the Commandant of Justice, Ch’en P’eng, the Chief of Palace
Police in the Capital, Chia Fu, General Chien T’an, and others, eleven generals in all, to besiege
Chu Wei at Lo-yang.
On Sept. 27, the Emperor sacrificed at the altars to the gods of the soils and grains, and
on Sept. 28 he sacrificed to Emperors Kao-tsu, Wen and Wu at the Huai Palace.
When he advanced to Lo-yang, (17a) Keng-shih’s King of P’ien-ch’iu, T’ien Li,
surrendered. In Oct./Nov., the Red Eyebrows entered Ch’ang-an,and Keng-shih fled to Kao-ling.
On Oct. 16, an imperial edict said that Keng-shih had been defeated and had fled, and the
Emperor pitied him, so he enfeoffed him as King of Huai-yang, ordering that who dared to injure
him would be guilty of high treason. On Oct. 29, the Prefect of Kao-mi, Cho Mou the Stud, and
on Nov. 5, Chu Wei surrendered with the city. On Nov. 17, Emperor Kuang-wu entered Lo-yang,
and went to the Chio-fei Hall of the Southern Palace (17b) and thereupon fixed upon Lo-yang as
his capital. He sent Ch’en P’eng to attack the bandits in the Ching Province. On Jan. 7, 26 A.D.,
he went to Huai.
Liu Yung declared himself the Son of Heaven.
In Jan./Feb. the Emperor left Huai.
The Red Eyebrows killed Keng-shih. Wei Hsiao seized the region west of the Lung
Mountain, and Lu Fang rose in the An-ting Comnandery. General Shu Shou attacked the WuHsiao bandits at Ch’u-liang and died in battle.
On Feb. 6, 26 A.D., which was the first day of the second year in Emperor Kuang-wu’s
reign, there was an eclipse of the sun. The Commander-in-chief, Wu Han, leading nine generals,
attacked the T’an-hsiang bandits east of Yeh, routing them severely and making them surrender.
On Feb. 22, the Emperor enfeoffed his meritorious subjects as marquises, with their
largest estates the size of four prefectures and the others proportionate in size. (18a) An Erudit,
Ting Kung objected that anciently the estates of nobles were only a hundred li in size, but
Emperor Kuang-wu replied that there were no cases in history in which vassals came to
destruction because they had too much territory. (18b)
On Feb. 24, Teng Yeh and Yü K’uang, two of Keng-shih’s generals, surrendered.
A Temple to Emperor Kao-tsu and altars to the gods of the soils and grains were
established in Lo-yang, and a place for the sacrifice to Heaven was prepared south of the city.
The virtue of fire was taken as that of the dynasty, and red was taken as the honored color. In
this month, the Red Eyebrows burnt palaces and buildings in Ch’ang-an and dug up the imperial
graves in that region. The Grand Minister Over the Masses, Teng Yü, entered Ch’ang-an and
took the tablets of the eleven emperors to the Temple of Kao-tsu (19b).
The King of Chen-ting, Liu Yang, and the Marquis of Lin-yi, Liu Jang, plotted to rebel,
and the Emperor sent his General of the Van, Keng Shun, to execute them.
On Mar. 23, the Emperor went to Hsiu-wu. The Grand Minister of Works, Wang Liang,
was dismissed, and on Mar. 26, the Grand Palace Grandee, Sung Hung, was made the Grand
Minister of Works. The Emperor sent the Generalissimo of Agile Cavalry, Ching Tan, leading
General Chi Tsun and another general, to attack the bandits in the Hung-nung Commandery. The
bandits were routed. Then the Emperor sent Chi Tsun to besiege a bandit from Man-chung,
Chang Man.
The Grand Administrator of the Yü-yang Commandery, P’eng Ch’ung called himself the
King of Wu-an in the Han-chung Commandery. The Emperor went to Hsiu-wu, and, on Apr. 18,
granted a general amnesty to the empire. The Emperor ordered a discussion concerning the
lightening of the penal laws.
The Chief of Palace Police in the Capital, Chia Fu, leading two generals, was sent to
attack Yin Tsun, Keng-shih’s King of Yen. Yin Tsun was routed and surrendered. Liu Chih the
General of Agile Cavalry, attacked the bandits at Mi, and died in battle. The Tigers’ Teeth
General, Kai Yen, leading four generals, was sent on an expedition against Liu Yung. In May/
June, he besieged Liu Yung at Sui-yang. Keng-shih’s General Su Mou killed Fan Ch’ien, the
Grand Administrator of the Huai-yang Commandery, and assisted Liu Yung.
On May 7, the Emperor enfeoffed his uncle, Liu Liang, as King of Kuang-yang; his
nephew, Liu Chang, as King of T’ai-yüan; Liu Chang’s younger brother, Liu Hsing as King of
Lu; and Liu Chih, the son of the Marquis of Ch’ung-yang by his principal wife, a relative of the
Emperor, as King of Ch’eng-yang. On July 24, he enfeoffed Liu Hsi, the Keng-shih Emperor’s
King of Yüan-shih, as the King of Szu-shui. Liu Te, the son of the former King of Chen-ting,
Liu Yang, became the King of Chen-ting. The descendant of the Chou dynasty, Chi Ch’ang,
became the Duke Who Succeeds to the Greatness of the Chou Dynasty.
On July 10, a lady née Kuo was made the Empress, and her son, Liu Chiang, became the
Imperial Heir-apparent. An amnesty was granted to the empire, and the rank of the Heirapparent’s Gentlemen, internuncios, and official attendants was increased one step. (20b)
On July 18, Liu Chung, a member of the imperial clan, was made the King of Tzuch’uan.
In September, the Emperor in person led an expedition against the Wu-hsiao bandits. On
Sept. 26 he reached Nei-huang and routed the Wu-hsiao severely at Hsi-yang, making them
surrender. He sent the Scouting and Attacking General, Teng Lung, to rescue Chu Fou. Teng
Lung fought a battle with P’eng Ch’ung at Lu, and Teng Lung’s army was defeated.
Kai Yen took Sui-yang by storm, and Liu Yung fled to Ch’iao. Teng Feng, the General
Who Routs the Caitiffs, seized Yü-yang and rebelled. On Oct. 2, the Emperor returned from
The Generalissimo of Agile Cavalry, Ching Tan, died. Yen Ch’en routed the Red
Eyebrows severely at Tu-ling. In Kuan-chung there was such a severe famine that people ate
each other.
In December, the Commandant of Justice, Ch’en P’eng, was made the Generalissimo
Making an Expedition Southwards. He led eight generals and put Teng Feng to death at Tuhsiang.
The Bronze Horses, the Green Calves, the Yu-lai and the remaining bandits in the Shang
Commandery together set up Sun Teng as the Son of Heaven. (21a) Sun Teng’s General, Yo
Hsüan killed Sun Teng, and surrendered with his band of more than 50,000 men.
Feng Yi, a Secondary General, was sent to take the place of Teng Yü in the expedition
against the Red Eyebrows, and the Grand Palace Grandee, Fu Lung, was sent with credentials to
pacify the Ch’ing and Hsü Commanderies. He summoned Chang Pu,who surrendered.
On Jan. 19, 27 A.D., an order was issued to restore the marquisates abolished by Wang
Mang. In the year ending Feb.l, 27, Kao Yen and others routed Liu Yung severely west of P’ei.
Previously, at the end of Wang Mang’s reign, there had been a great drought and a plague of
locusts, so that one catty of actual gold was exchanged for one hu of grain; but at this time grain
grew spontaneously in the wastes, hemp and beans were especially flourishing, and wild
silkworms spun cocoons.
On Feb. 1, 27 A.D., The Secondary General, Feng Yi, became the Generalissimo Making
an Expedition Against the West and Tu Mou became the Generalissimo of Agile Cavalry. The
Grand Minister Over the Masses, Teng Yü, together with Feng Yi, fought a battle with the Red
Eyebrows in the Hui Gulley, and Teng Yü and Feng Yi were defeated. General Chi Tsun routed
the enemy at Man-chung and took the head of Chang Man. The Grand Minister Over the
Masses, Teng Yü, was dismissed.
Feng Yi fought a battle with the Red Eyebrows at Hsiao-ti and routed them severely.
Their remaining bands went southwards towards Yi-yang, and the Emperor in person led an
expedition against them. On Feb. 8 he reached Yi-yang. On Feb. 13, in person he lined up his
host, with his horsemen, the Commander-in-chief Wu Han, and the picked soldiers in the van,
and the center next to it, with his cavalry on the left and right. When the Red Eyebrows saw the
host, they quaked with fear, and sent a messenger begging permission to surrender. On Feb. 15,
the Red Eyebrow leaders, with their hands tied behind them, presented to Emperor Kuang-wu the
imperial seals and cords of Emperor Kao (22a), and an imperial edict gave them into the charge
of the Colonel of the City Gates.
On Feb. 17, the Emperor returned to the capital from Yi-yang, and on Feb. 18 he issued
an imperial edict announcing that Liu P’eng-tzu had surrendered with more than a hundred
thousand men, and ordering an auspicious day be selected for a sacrifice in the Temple to
Emperor Kao-tsu. The sacrifice was held on Mar. 28, at which time Emperor Kuang-wu
received the imperial seal that transmits the state, i.e., the Great Seal. There were other
rebellions and vicissitudes before Kuang-wu was established firmly on the throne, but since we
are concerned with the Former Han period and that of Wang Mang, our account may well close
here. Emperor Kuang-wu died on Feb. 13, 57 A.D. in his 62nd year. Cf. HHs An. 1.1a-26b.
435. Liu Yin4 劉縯, style Po-sheng 伯升, title King Wu of Ch’i was the oldest brother of Emperor
Kuang-wu and the actual leader of the rebels who successfully overthrew Wang Mang. He was
murdered by Keng-shih.
For his ancestry, cf. sub Kuang-wu, whom he set up as Emperor. By nature he was hard
and firm, generous, with great determination. From the time that Wang Mang usurped the
throne, he was continually eager to reestablish the Han dynasty, so he did not follow any
productive occupation, but used up his patrimony to associate with bravos. When at the end of
Wang Mang’s reign, bandits arose, especially in the south (present Hupeh), Liu Yin summoned
various brave men and gathered his relatives. He had Teng Ch’en rise at Hsin-yeh, Liu Hsiu
(later Emperor Kuang-wu) and Li T’ung with Li Yi arise at Yüan. Liu Yin4 himself mobilized
seven or eight thousand young people from Ch’ung-ling, his ancestor’s marquisate. He called
himself the Heaven’s Pillar Lieutenant-general. (1b). He sent a member of the imperial clan,
Liu Chia, to induce the Hsin-shih and P’ing-lin Troops under Wang K’uang2 and Ch’en Mu to
join him. He massacred the people of Chang-chi and T’ang-tzu-Hsiang, killing the Chief of
Police at Hu-yang. Then he advanced and took Chi-yang by storm.
Next he wanted to attack Yüan, the headquarters of the commandery. At Hsiao-ch’ang-an
he fought a battle with Wang Mang’s Southern Neighboring Commandery Grandee, Chen Fu and
his Director of an Association Liang-ch’iu Tz’u. The day was foggy and the Han troops were
severely defeated. Liu Yin4’s sister, Yüan, and his brother Chung were both killed. Several
dozen members of the imperial clan were also killed. Liu Yin4 collected his troops, retreated, and
took refuge at Chi-yang.
Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u took advantage of their victory and left their baggage at
Lan-Hsiang. They led their troops, numbering a hundred thousand, to cross the Huang and Shun
River to the border of the Pi River (2a), making their camp between the two rivers and breaking
the bridge in their rear to show that they had no intentions of retreating.
When the Hsin-shih and P’ing-lin Troops saw that the Han troops had been defeated
several times, and that Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u had come in force, they wanted to
disband and leave. Liu Yin4 was very much worried about it. At this time the Troops from the
Yangtze Below, numbering more than 5000, reached Yi-ch’iu, so Liu Yin4 went to them and
persuaded them to follow him. Then Liu Yin4 held a great feast for his men, made an oath with
them, rested them for three days, and divided them into six regiments. He marched his army at
night and surprised and took Lan-Hsiang, capturing all the baggage train. The next morning the
Han troops from the Southwest attacked Chen Fou and the Troops from the Yangtze Below
attacked Liang-ch’iu Tz’u from the southeast. At meal time, Liang-ch’iu Tz’u’s battle line was
overthrown. When Chen Fou’s troops saw this, they scattered, and the Han troops hastened to
pursue them. They were pressed to the Huang and Shun Rivers. More than 20,000 men were
beheaded or drowned. Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u were beheaded.
When Wang Mang’s Communicator & General, Chuang Yu, and his Arranger of the
Ancestral Temple & General, Ch’en Mou, heard that Chen Fou’s and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u armies
had been defeated, they led their troops away, intending to sieze Yüan. But Liu Yin4 arranged his
men in battle array, burnt his stores, broke cooking vessels, beat the drums, and advanced. He
met Chuang Yu and Ch’en Mou at Yü-yang and fought a battle with them, routing them severely
(2b) and cutting off more than 3000 heads. Chuang Yu and Ch’en Mou deserted their army and
Liu Yin4 advanced and besieged Yüan. He called him-self the Heaven’s Pillar
Generalissimo. Wang Mang had frequently heard his name and quaked greatly, so he put a price
on the head of Liu Yin4 of the income of an estate of 50,000 households, a hundred thousand
catties of actual gold, and the rank of a minister above the highest ministers. In the offices at
Ch’ang-an and in the villages and t’ing of the empire, they all painted the picture of Liu Yin4 on
the walls and rose at dawn to shoot at it.
From the time that Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u had been killed, the people daily
surrendered to Liu Yin4, until he had more than a hundred thousand men. The generals discussed
setting up a member of the Liu clan in order to satisfy people’s hopes. The bravos all favored
Liu Yin4, but the generals of the Hsin-shih and Ping-lin Troops liked to give themselves license.
They feared Liu Yin4’s power, whereas they knew Liu Sheng-kung was weak, so they planned
together to set up Liu Sheng-kung. Later they sent a cavalryman to summon Liu Yin4, and told
him what they had decided (3a). He advised against setting up an Emperor at that time, pointing
out that the Red Eyebrows numbered several hundred thousand men, and might follow the
example of the Han troops and set up another Emperor, so that the rebels would be divided. But
Chang Ang pulled out his sword, stuck it in the ground, and said that there must be no other
decision. So Liu Sheng-kung was made Emperor, and he installed Liu Yin as his Grand Minister
Over the Masses, and enfeoffed him as the Marquis of the Han Clan’s Trustworthiness.
Because of this event, the bravos were disappointed, and many would not agree. When
the Red Regiment of the P’ing-lin Troops attacked Hsin-yeh, they were not able to take it, and
the Ruler of Hsin-yeh mounted the city walls (3b) and declared that he was willing to surrender
only to the Grand Minister Over the Masses, his excellency Liu Yin4.
In June/July, 23 A.D., Liu Yin4 took Yüan by storm, and in July/August, his brother, Liu
Hsiu, routed Wang Hsün and Wang Yi. From this time the power and reputation of the brothers
increased greatly. Emperor Keng-shih’s were disquieted, and they plotted together to execute
Liu Yin4. So, they held a great meeting and the generals put forth their plans. Keng-shih took
Liu Yin4’s precious sword, and a Secretary in Embroidered Robes, Shen-t’u Chien thereupon
presented Keng-shih with a jade semi-circle, a sign that he must decide rapidly. But Keng-shih
could not act, so he dismissed the meeting. Liu Yin4’s maternal uncle, Fan Hung, told Liu Yin4
that things looked dangerous, but Liu Yin4 smiled and did not reply.
Previously Li Yi had flattered Keng-shih’s most important general, Chu Wei, and Liu
Hsiu had warned Liu Yin4 that Li Yi was untrustworthy. At this time, Liu Chi, a member of the
imperial clan who had been in Liu Yin4’s regiment, was separately attacking Lu-yang (4a).
When he heard that Keng-shih had been set up, he became angry and said that Liu Yin4 and Liu
Hsiu had begun the rebellion and Keng-shih deserved nothing. Keng-shih and his followers
heard of it and offered Liu Chi the title of General Resisting Power, but Liu Chi would not accept
the title. So Keng-shih arranged several thousand troops, having first arrested Liu Chi, and was
about to execute Liu Chi. Liu Yin4 resisted them firmly. Then Li Yi and Chu Wei urged Kengshih to execute Liu Yin4 and at the same time they both seized Liu Yin4. On the same day they
killed him. This was some time between July and Oct., 23 A.D.
For Liu Hsiu’s courageous healing of the breach, cf. sub voce. In 26 A.D., Liu Hsiu, then
Emperor Kuang-wu, made Liu Yin4’s eldest son, Liu Chang, the King of T’ai-Yüan; in 35 A.D.
he was moved to be King of Ch’i, and in 39 A.D. Liu Yin4 was posthumously entitled King Wu
of Ch’i. Cf.HHs, Mem. 4.1a-4a.
Li Hsien says that 縯 is pronounced 引, altho he says it means “to attract,” with which
meaning it is now pronounced yin3 or yin4, but in T’ang times was pronounced yen or yan. In a
note to Hs 14.21b sub Liu Yen4b, King of Huai-yang, Yen Shih-ku says that this character is 縯
pronounced 羊善反. But in a note to Hs 80.5a, Meng K’ang says that this word is pronounced
引, Yen Shih-ku giving the pronunciation 弋善反. Hence evidently it had no abnormal
pronunciation, and the present pronunciation yin is equivalent to the ancient pronunciation.
435. Li T’ung 李通, style Tz’u-yüan, also style Wen-yüan and style Po-yu, title Marquis Kung of
Ku-shih, was the person who first induced Emperor Kuang-wu (Liu Hsiu) to revolt, married one
of the Emperor’s sisters, and rose to high position at the court.
He came from Yüan in the Nan-yang Commandery. For generations his family was
famous for its wealth. His father, Li Shou, was 9 feet tall (6 ft. 3 in. Eng. meas.). He was very
strange in his features and face, and was stern and firm. He lived in his house as if it were an
official’s court. At first he studied with Liu Hsin1. He loved the stars, the calendar, and
prophetic records. He became Wang Mang’s High Minister Master to the Imperial Clan.
Li T’ung also became an official of Wang Mang, an Attendant Official to a General of the
Five Majestic Principals. He was sent out of the court to be the Assistant Prefect at Wu and
secured a name for ability.
Towards the end of Wang Mang’s reign, the people hated Wang Mang. Li T’ung had
heard his father, Li Shou, speak of a prophecy that the Liu (lb) clan would revive and a Mr. Li
would be their supporter. Secretly he cherished this prophecy. Moreover his family was wealthy
and he could be free and be the richest person among the hamlets, so he found it no pleasure to
be an official; hence he resigned of his own accord and returned home.
When the Troops from the Yangtze Below and the Hsin-shih Troops arose, the Nan-yang
Commandery was in turmoil. Li T’ung’s cousin, Li Yi, also loved strange things, so he said to Li
T’ung that the House of Hsin was almost overthrown, and the Han dynasty would revive. In the
Nan-yang Commandery, Liu Po-sheng and Liu Hsiu were everywhere loved, so that Li T’ung
should plan things with them. Liu T’ung replied that that had been his opinion too and should
It happened that Liu Hsiu was hiding from the officials at Yüan. Li T’ung heard of it, and
sent Li Yi to get Liu Hsiu. Previously Liu Hsiu had considered Li T’ung a gentleman who
admired him, so he went to see him. Li T’ung was ill, so Liu Hsiu went to his room and talked
for a long time. Then Liu Hsiu grasped Li T’ung’s hand with great joy. Li T’ung told him about
the prophecy. Liu Hsiu at first did not agree, and did not dare to take up the matter of a rebellion.
At this time Li Shou was in Ch’ang-an, and Liu Hsiu warned (2a) that something might
happen to Liu Shou. Liu Hsiu and Li T’ung made a covenant together, and fixed as a date the
day when the skilled soldiers are reviewed as cavalrymen. Li T’ung planned to capture by force
the Southern Neighboring Commandery Grandee, Chen Fou, and his Director of an Association,
Liang-ch’iu Tz’u. He was going to capture these two officials and thereupon give orders to the
mass of people. Liu Hsiu and Li Yi returned to Ch’ung-ling and raised troops to respond to Li
T’ung. They sent a cousin of a lower generation, Li Chi, to Ch’ang-an to give the news to Li
Shou. But Li Chi became ill on the road and died. Li Shou secretly knew of Li Chi’s death, and
wanted to flee home. He was on good terms with a man of his own town, Huang Hsien. Huang
Hsien was a General of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace. He told Li Shou that the gates of the
passes were strictly supervised, and that it would be better for Li Shou to visit the palace portal
and ask for leave to return; since his son’s plot was not yet known, Li Shou might avoid calamity.
So Li Shou memorialized, asking to return home to end his days there.
Before his memorial had been presented, and when he was staying at the palace portal, it
happened that the plot became known. Li Tung succeeded in fleeing. Wang Mang had Li Shou
held in prison. Huang Hsien begged for him, saying that Li Shou had heard that his son was
rebelling and did not presume to flee, but had held to righteousness and remained at the palace
portal. Huang Hsien offered to be Li Shou’s surety, that Li Shou would go east and persuade his
son, and if he were unsuccessful would cut his own throat. Wang Mang agreed. But Chen Fou
reported that Li T’ung had raised troops, so Wang Mang wanted to kill Li Shou. Huang Hsien
argued with him, and so both were executed. All of Li Shou’s family at Ch’ang-an were killed.
In the Nan-yang Commandery some 64 of Li T’ung’s clan and adherents were burnt to death in
the market-place at Yüan.
At this time the Han troops joined together, and Li T’ung with Liu Hsiu2 and Li Yi met at
Chi-yang. Then they defeated and killed Chen Fou and Liang-ch’u Tz’u. When Keng-shih was
made Emperor, Li T’ung became the Pillar of State Generalissimo, and the Marquis Coadjutor to
the Han Dynasty. He followed Keng-shih to Ch’ang-an, and was changed and installed as
Generalissimo and enfeoffed as King of Hsi-p’ing. Li Yi became King of Wu-yin, and Li
T’ung’s cousin, Li Sung, became Lieutenant Chancellor. Keng-shih sent Li T’ung with
credentials to return and pacify the Ching Province.
Hence Li T’ung married Liu Hsiu’s younger sister, Po-chi, who became the Ning-p’ing
When, in 25 A.D., Emperor Kuang-wu ascended the throne, Li T’ung became the
Commandant of the Palace Guard. In 26 A.D. he was enfeoffed as Marquis of Ku-shih (the Firm
Beginning), and was installed as Grand Minister of Agriculture. When the Emperor went out of
the capital on military expeditions, he regularly had Li T’ung stay in the capital, pacify the
people, build palaces and houses, and establish schools. In 29, he became General of the Van; in
30, he routed Wang Pa, and attacked the bandits in the Han-chung Commandery. (3a)
Then Li T’ung asked to resign on account of illness, but his request was refused. In the
Autumn he was made Grand Minister of Works. For successive years he asked to resign, and
each time the Emperor favored him, ordering him to keep his office in spite of illness. In the
second successive year he was permitted to resign his position as Grand Minister of Works, and
attend court with the rank of Specially Advanced. When the imperial sons were enfeoffed, Li
T’ung’s younger son Hsiung became the Marquis of Chao-ling. Everytime Emperor Kuang-wu
went to the Nan-yang Commandery, he had a commissioner sacrifice a suevotaurilia at the tomb
of Li Shou. Li T’ung died in 42 A.D. He was given the posthumous name Kung (Respectful).
The Empress in person attended his funeral. His son Yin succeeded him as Marquis. Cf. HHs
Mem. 5.1a-3b.
435. Ch’ung-ling 舂陵{32-33:3:6} was a city and prefecture of the Nan-yang Commandery,
located at the present Tao-yang, in northern Hupeh. It was the ancient Ts’ai-yang, and had two
important districts, Po-shui Hsiang 白水鄉 and Shang-t’ang Hsiang, the latter of which was the
ancient state of T’ang. Emperor Wu enfeoffed Liu Mai, the son of King Ting of Chang-sha, as
Marquis of Ch‘ung-ling, but his marquisate was located in the Ling-ling Commandery. He was
succeeded by his son Hsiung-ch’ü, and his grandson Liu Jen, the latter of whom asked that the
location of his marquisate be changed to the Po-shui Hsiang in the Nan-yang Commandery, so
that place was given him as his marquisate, and his marquisate was still called Ch’ung-ling. He
was succeeded by his son Ch’ang. From this line were descended Liu Hsüan (Keng Shih) and
Liu Hsiu (Emperor Kuang-wu q.v.), who finally raised a successful rebellion against Wang
Mang. Cf. Hs 28Aii.16a, 15A 46a; HHs Mem. 4.9a,b.
435. Ch’eng Tan 成丹 was a bandit leader of the Troops from the Lower Yangtze, who joined
with the Keng-shih Emperor, and was finally executed by him. He seems to have come from the
Ying-ch’uan Commandery. He was a fugitive and joined Wang K’uang1 (q.v.) before 22 A.D.
He went with Wang Ch’ang to the Nan-yang Commandery, leading bandits who called
themselves the Troops from the Yangtze Below 下江兵. In Mar. 23, Keng-shih made him
Generalissimo of Waters and Parks, and in Mar. 24, made him King of Hsiang-yi. When Chang
Ang rebelled against Keng-shih in 25 A.D., Keng-shih had sent Ch’eng Tan with other generals
to Hsin-feng. Keng-shih fled to Hsin-feng; because he suspected Ch’eng Tan had been in league
with Chang Ang, Keng-shih had Ch’eng Tan summoned, and executed him. HHs Mem. 6.5a
however says that he surrendered to Kuang-wu’s Master of Writing, Tsung Kuan, and the latter
executed him on the road on the grounds that he tried to escape. Cf. Hs 99C.18a; HHs Mem.
1.1b, 2a, 4a, 6a,b, sub Liu Hsüan; Mem. 5, sub Wang Chang; Mem. 6.2b, 5a, sub Teng Yü.
435. Wang Ch’ang2 王常 style Yen-ch’ing 顏卿, title Marquis Chieh of Shan-sang, was a bandit
leader of the Troops from the Lower Yangtze who joined the rebellion against Wang Mang and
rose to be an official and marquis under Emperor Kuang-su. He came from Wu-yin in the Yingch’uan Commandery. Towards the end of Wang Mang’s reign, because of his brother, he killed a
man in revenge and fled to the Chiang-Hsia Commandery. After a long time, he raised troops
with Wang Feng and Wang K’uang2 at Yün-tu in the Lu-lin Mountains, and gathered a troop of
several ten-thousands of men. Wang Ch’ang was their Lieutenant and attacked neighboring
prefectures. Later with Ch’eng Tan and Chang Ang they separately entered Lan-k’ou of the Nan
Commandery and called themselves the Troops from the Yangtze Below, because they had gone
up the river. Wang Mang sent Chuang Yu and Ch‘en Mou, who attacked and routed them.
Wang Ch’ang with Ch’eng Tan and Chang Ang collected their scattered troops and
entered the Lu Valley, robbing around Chung-lung. When their bands revived, they led their
troops to fight a battle with the Shepherd of the Ching Province at Shang-t’ang and routed him
severely. Then they went north to Yi-ch’iu.
At this time the Han troops and the Hsin-shih and P’ing-lin Troops were routed at Hsiaoch’ang-an, and all wanted to disband and scatter. Liu Po-sheng heard that the Troops from the
Yangtze Below were at Yi-ch’iu (5a) and so came with Liu Hsiu and Li T’ung to visit the troops
and asked to talk with a capable general. Ch’eng Tan and Chang An put Wang Ch’ang forward,
and Liu Po-sheng told him of the advantages of joining the Han troops. Ch’eng Tan and Chang
Ang did not want to join, but Wang Ch’ang spoke in favor of joining (5b); altho the Troops from
The Yangtze Below had not much education, yet they respected Wang Ch’ang, and so they
consented. Then they joined with the Han troops and the Hsin-shih and Ping-lin Troops, and
routed and killed Chen Fou and Liang-ch’iu Tz’u.
When they came to set up a scion of the Han clan as Emperor, only Wang Ch’ang and
officials from the Han-yang Commandery wanted to make Liu Po-sheng Emperor; Chu Wei,
Chang Ang and others instead set up Keng-shih.
Wang Ch’ang was made Commandant of Justice and Generalissimo, and enfeoffed as the
Marquis Knowing the Mandate. He separately patrolled the Ju-nan and P’ei Commanderies,
returned, entered K’un-yang, and with Liu Hsiu attacked and routed Wang Hsün and Wang Yi.
When Keng-shih went to Ch’ang-an, he made Wang Ch’ang the temporary Grand Administrator
of the Nan-yang Commandery, and authorized him on his own authority to execute and reward
people. Keng-sheng enfeoffed Wang Ch’ang as King of Teng, giving him the income of eight
prefectures, and granting him the surname Liu.
Wang Ch’ang was by nature respectful and careful, obedient to the laws, and the south
praised him.
After Keng-shih had been defeated, in the Summer of 26 A.D., Wang Ch’ang led his wife
and children to Lo-yang, which was Emperor Kuang-wu’s capital. When the Emperor saw Wang
Ch’ang, he was very glad, named him Commandant of Justice (6a) and called a great meeting of
his ministers and generals, at which he installed Wang Ch’ang as a Junior Department Head and
enfeoffed him as Marquis of Shan-sang. (6b) Later he was promoted to be the Loyal General of
the Han Troops and sent to attack Teng Feng and Tung Hsin. Afterwards he was sent north to
attack the Ho-chien and Yü-yang Commanderies, and tranquillize them. Later he attacked and
routed two of Wei Hsiao’s Generals. He died in 36 A.D. Cf. HHs Mem. 5:4a-7a.
436. Director of an Association 屬正 was a title established by Wang Mang in 14 A.D. instead of
the former title Chief Commandant (q.v.) for the capital commanderies. Cf. Hs 99B.24b.
437. Liu Hsüan 劉玄, style, Sheng-kung, titles, General of a New Beginning, who took the title
of Emperor, took Keng-shih as the name of his year-period, was consequently known as the
Keng-shih Emperor (phrase in Nan-chi 30.18b), and finally was enfeoffed by Emperor Kuangwu as King of Huai-yang and by the Red Eyebrows as King of Chang-sha; was a distant cousin
of Liu Hsiu the later Emperor Kuang-wu. Emperor Kuang-wu’s grandfather, Marquis Chieh of
Ch’ung-ling, Liu Mai, begat Marquis Tai of Ch’ung-ling, Liu Hsiung-ch’i; he begat the Grand
Administrator of the Ts’ang-wu Commandery, Liu Li; he begat Liu Tzu-chang, who married a
Miss Ho of P’ing-ling, the mother of Liu Hsüan. In the HHs Liu Hsüan is usually called by his
style, Liu Sheng-kung out of respect for him.
Liu Sheng-kung’s younger brother was murdered by a man, and so Liu Sheng-kung
gathered guests in order to revenge his brother. A guest violated the law, and so Liu Sheng-kung
fled from the officials to P’ing-lin. The officials arrested Liu Sheng-kung’s father, Liu Tzuchang, so Liu Sheng-kung feigned death and had a man carry him out and bury him at Ch’ungling. Then the officials set Liu Tzu-chang free. In this way Liu Sheng-kung escaped. (2a)
After Wang K’uang2 had raised the Hsin-shih Troops and Ch’en Mu had raised the P’inglin Troops in response, Liu Sheng-kung followed Ch’en Mu and the others, and became the
Tranquillizing and Uniting Division Head in Ch’en Mu’s army. At this time Liu Hsiu and his
older brother Liu Po-sheng had raised rebellion in Ch’ung-ling, and joined forced with these two
bands of Troops. In Feb./Mar., 23 A.D. they routed Wang Mang’s Southern Neighboring
Commandery Grandee, Chen Fou and his Director of an Association, Liang-ch’iu Tz’u and took
their heads.
Liu Shen-kung was entitled the General of a New Beginning (Keng-shih chiang-chün).
The bands were large and had no rallying point, so the various generals discussed together and
set up Liu Sheng-kung as the Son of Heaven because he was weak and would be complaisant.
He took Keng-shih for his year-period, which words were the first two words of his former title,
and so became known as the Keng-shih Emperor.
On Mar. 11, 23, an arena and altar were established at Shan-chung on the Yü River. The
troops were drawn up and a great meeting was held at which Keng-shih took the imperial throne,
stood facing south, and held court. He was always weak, shy and ashamed, so he perspired and
raised his hands, but could not speak. (Perhaps this incident is inserted to glorify Emperor
Kuang-wu at Keng-shih’s expense). Thereupon a general amnesty was granted to the empire
and a new year-period begun, which was called Keng-shih. (2b)
The various generals were given titles. Keng-sheng’s uncle, Liu Liang, was made State
San-lao; Wang K’uang was made Minister Tranquillizing the State, Above the Highest
Ministers, etc.; Wang Feng, Chu Wei, Liu Po-sheng, Ch’en Mu were also given titles.... In June/
July Liu Po-sheng took Yüan by storm, and in July/Aug., Keng-shih entered Yüan and made it
his capital. He enfeoffed all the members of the imperial clan and the generals as marquises,
more than a hundred in all.
Keng-shih was jealous that Liu Po-sheng had a reputation for power, so he executed him
and gave his position of Grand Minister Over the Masses to Liu Tz’u, who had been
Superintendant of the Imperial Household. The Marquis of Chung-wu under the Han dynasty,
Liu Wang, had raised troops and had overrun territory in the Ju-nan Commandery, and at this
time Wang Mang’s Communicator, Chuang Wu, and his Arranger of the Ancestral House, Ch’en
Mou, were defeated at K’un-yang, so they fled and followed Liu Wang.
In Sept./Oct., Liu Wang set himself up as the Son of Heaven, with Chuang Yu as his
Commander-in-chief and Ch’en Mou as his Lieutenant Chancellor. Wang Mang sent his Grand
Master, Wang, K’uang1, and his State General, Ai Chang, to hold Lo-yang. (3a) Keng Shih sent
Wang K’uang2 to attack west of Lo-yang, and his Generalissimo Shen-t’u Chien and his Director
of Service to the Lieutenant Chancellor, Li Sung, to attack the Wu Pass, so that the capital
commanderies quaked with fear.
At this time bravos arose all over the empire, killing their Shepherds and Administrators,
calling themselves generals, and using Han dynasty titles in response to the imperial mandates.
In the course of ten months, the movement spread all over the empire, and the troops in Ch’angan attacked the Wei-yang Palace. In Oct./Nov. a man from the Tung-hai Commandery, Kungpin Chiu 公賓就, beheaded Wang Mang, collected the imperial seals and cords, and brought
them to Yüan. At this time Keng-shih was sitting at ease in the Yellow Hall. He took them and
was delighted. Wang Mang’s head was hung up on the market-place at Yüan.
In this month Keng-shih’s army took Lo-yang by storm and took Wang K’uang1 and Ai
Chang alive. They were both beheaded. In Nov./Dec. the Generalissimo Liu Hsin attacked and
killed Liu Wang in the Ju-yang Commandery, and also executed Chuang Yu and Ch‘en Mou.
Thereupon Keng-shih (3b) went north and made his capital at Lo-yang. He made Liu Tz’u his
Lieutenant Chancellor. Shen-t’u Chien and Li Sun brought the imperial equipage and robes from
Ch’ang-an, and also sent Palace Attendants Within the Yellow Gate and Official Attendants to
bring Keng-shih to the capital.
In March, 24 A.D., Keng-shih left Lo-yang and went west and arrived in Ch’ang-an.
When he had just started, and Li Sung was leading the carriages, the horses became frightened
and crashed against the Iron Pillar Gate of the Northern Palace so that three horses died.
Previously, when Wang Mang had been defeated, only the Wei-yang Palace had been burnt. Not
one of the other palaces and lodges had been damaged, and the palace women, to the number of
several thousand, were all in the harem. The musical tubes, drums, curtains, chariots, articles,
and clothes, the Great Granary, the Arsenal, the yamens, and the market-places had not been
When Keng-shih reached and lived in the Ch’ang-lo Palace, he ascended the Front Hall,
and the Gentlemen and officials arranged themselves in their order in the court. But Keng-shih
was ashamed, changed color, bent his head, squirmed on the throne seat, and did not dare to look
around. When later the generals arrived, and Keng-shih asked them what captives they had taken
and what they had robbed, the attndants, who were all old officials in the palace, were startled
and looked at each other meaningfully.
Li Sung and a man from Chi-yang, Chao Mang advised Keng-shih to make kings of all
his meritorious subjects. Chu Wei opposed it, (4a) but Keng-shih first enfeoffed the members of
the imperial clan: the Grand Master of Ceremonies and General Liu Chih became the King of
Ting-t’ao, Liu Tz’u became King of Yüan, Liu Ch’ing became King of Yen, Liu Hsi became
King of Yüan-shih, the Generalissimo Liu Chia became King of Han-chung, and Liu Hsin
became King of Ju-yin. Later Wang K’uang2 became King of Pi-yang; Wang Feng became King
of Yi-ch’eng, Chu Wei became King of Chiao-tung, the Commandant of the Palace Guard and
Generalissimo Chang Ang became the King of Huai-yang, the Commandant of Justice and
Generalissimo Wang Chang became the King of Teng, the Chief of Palace Police in the Capital
and Generalissimo Liao Chan became the King of Jang, Shen-t’u Chien became the King of
P’ing-shih, the Master of Writing Ho Yin became the King of Sui, the Pillar of Heaven
Generalissimo Li T’ung became the King of Hsi-p’ing, the General of Gentlemen-at-the-Palace
for the Five Majestic Principles Li Yi became the King of Wu-yang, the Generalissimo of Waters
& Parks Ch’en Tang became the King of Hsiang-yi, the Generalissimo of Agile Cavalry Sung
T’iao became King of Ying-yin, and Yin Tsun became the King of Yen.
Only Chu Wei refused, saying that he was not of the Li clan. So he was shifted to be
Commander-in-chief at the Left. Liu Tz’u became Commander-in-chief of the Van; he with Li
Yi, Li Tung and Wang Chang were sent to pacify the region east of the Kan-ku Pass. Li Sung
was made Lieutenant Chancellor; Chao Meng became Commander-in-chief at the Right. (4b)
Keng-shih married the daughter of Chao Meng as his Lady, and favored her, so he
entrusted the government to Chao Meng, and drank and feasted day and night with his women in
the harem. Each time that his ministers wanted to talk with him, he was always drunk and could
not be seen. When he had no other recourse, he ordered a Palace Attendant to sit inside the
curtains of his bed and talk with the visitors. But the generals knew it was not the voice of
Keng-shih, so they left and all became angry. Chao Meng usurped the imperial authority and
power, and favor came from him. When a Gentleman spoke to Keng-shih about Chao Meng,
Keng-shih drew his sword and attacked the Gentleman, after which no one dared speak to him
about the matter. When Chao Meng had a private hatred against a Palace Attendant and had him
led away to be beheaded, Keng-shih wanted to rescue the man, but Chao Meng would not yield.
At this time Li Yi and Chu Wei assumed authority east of the Kuan-chung mountains,
Wang K’uang2 and Chang An tyrannized over the three capital commanderies. (5a) Li Shu
protested in a memorial that those who received noble titles were all unworthy persons and that
merchants and even cooks received official positions, wore embroidered garments, and went
along the streets cursing and swearing, but Keng-shih became engraged, had Li Shu arrested and
sent to prison. From that time the people of Kuan-chung disliked Keng-shih, and rebellions
arose in the four quarters of the empire. Whenever generals were sent out on expeditions, on his
own authority the general appointed Shepherds and Administrators, so that the provinces and
commanderies did not know whom to obey.
In Jan./Feb. 25, the Red Eyebrows entered the passes into Kuan-chung and in Feb./Mar.,
Fang Wang set up the Young Prince, Liu Ying as the Son of Heaven. Fang Wang had previously
said to Kung Lin that the Young Prince was the legitimate Emperor. He was enthroned at Linching, and they collected a crowd of several thousand men. Fang Wang became the Lieutenant
Chancellor (6a) and Kung Lin became the Commander-in-chief, Keng-shih sent Li Sung and Su
Mou to attack them, and they were all beheaded.
Keng-shih also sent Su Mou to resist the Red Eyebrows in the Hung-nung Commandery.
But Su Mou’s army was defeated, and more than a thousand men were killed. In Apr./May, Li
Sung joined with Chu Wei and fought a battle with the Red Eyebrows at Mao-Hsiang, but Li
Sung and the others were severely defeated, lost their armies, and fled. More than 30,000 men
were killed. At that time Wang K’uang2 and Chang Ang were controlling the Ho-tung
Commandery, and were routed by Teng Yü, so they fled back to Ch’ang-an. Chang Ang said that
the Red Eyebrows would soon be in Ch’ang-an, and so it would be best to pillage Ch’ang-an and
flee to the Nan-yang Commandery with their treasure, or even to retreat to the mountains and
lakes and become robbers. Shen-t’u Chien and Liao Chan and the others agreed, and entered to
persuade Keng-shih. But Keng-shih became angry and would not answer.
When the Red Eyebrows set up Liu P’eng-tzu as Emperor in July/ Aug., 25 A.D., the
Keng-shih Emperor sent Wang K’uang2, Chen Mu, Ch’eng Tan, and Chao Meng to encamp at
Hsin-feng, and sent Li Sung with an army to resist the bandits. Chang Ang, Liao Chan, Hu Yin,
Shen-t’u Chieh, and others plotted with the Grandee Secretary Wei Hsiao intending to compel
Keng-shih (6b) to carry out their former plan, but the Palace Attendant Liu Neng-ch’ing knew of
their plan, and told about it, so Keng-shih would not go out of the palace, pretending he was ill.
He summoned Chang Ang and the others to enter, intending to kill them all. Only Wei Hsiao did
not come.
While the Keng-shih Emperor was hesitating, he had Chang Ang and the other three wait
in a place outside, and Chang Ang, with Liao Chan and Hu Yin became suspicious, so they
rushed out. Only Shen-t’u Chien remained, and Keng-shih beheaded him. Chang Ang, with
Liao Chan and Hu Yin thereupon had their troops plunder the Eastern and Western Markets. At
dusk they burnt the palace gates and entered it. The Keng-shih Emperor’s men were severely
defeated, and at dawn he put his wife and children in a chariot and galloped more than a hundred
li eastwards to Chao Mang at Hsin-feng. The Keng-shih Emperor also suspected that Wang
K’uang2, Ch’en Mu, and Ch’eng Tan had plotted with Chang Ang, and summoned them. Ch’en
Mu and Ch’eng Tan entered first and were beheaded; Wang K’uang2 was afraid, and led his
troops into Ch’ang-an where he joined together with Chang Ang and the others. Li Sung
returned and came to the Keng-shih Emperor; with Chao Meng they together fought Wang
K’uang2 and Chang Ang in the city for more than a month, and finally Wang K’uang2 and Chang
Ang were defeated and fled. Then the Keng-shih Emperor removed and lived in the Ch’angHsin Palace.
When the Red Eyebrows reached Kao-ling, Wang K’uang2 met them and surrendered to
them. Then they advanced against Ch’ang-an. The Keng-shih Emperor kept the city while he
sent Li Sung out to fight; the latter was defeated, more than 2000 men being killed, and the Red
Eyebrows secured Li Sung alive. (7a) At that time Li Sung’s younger brother, Li Hsün, was
Colonel of the City Gates; the Red Eyebrows sent a messenger telling Li Hsün that he must open
the city gates to save his brother’s life, so in Oct./Nov. the Red Eyebrows entered the city. Kengshih fled on a single horse, going out of the central gate on the north side of the city. The women
who were following him called after him, “Your Majesty must get down and beg the city walls’
pardon!” He did so, and again mounted and left.
Previously Liu Kung, the older brother of Liu P’eng-tzu, whom the Red Eyebrows had
set up as Emperor, had himself imprisoned in the imperial prison at Ch’ang-an because his
brother had been made Emperor. When he heard that Keng-shih had been defeated, he went out
of the city and to Kao-ling, where they stopped at a post station. The Chief Commandant to the
Western Sustainer, Chuang Pen, was afraid that if Keng-shih escaped, the Red Eyebrows would
execute him, so he sent a guard out of the city, which in reality imprisoned Keng-shih.
The Red Eyebrows sent out a message saying that if the Keng-shih Emperor would
surrender, they would enfeoff him as King of Ch’ang-sha and if after 20 days he did not come,
they would not receive him. Keng-shih sent Liu Kung to the Red Eyebrows begging for
permission to surrender. The Red Eyebrows sent their General Hsieh Lu to go and get him. In
Nov./ Dec., Keng-shih followed Hsieh Lu, with his flesh bared, to the Chang-lo Palace, and
delivered up the imperial seals and cords to Liu P’eng-tzu. The Red Eyebrows thereupon
sentenced Keng-shih and held him in the court, (7b) intending to kill him. Hsieh Lu and Liu
Kung pled for him, but to no avail. When the Keng-shih Emperor was being led out, Liu Kung
went after him, saying that he wanted to die first. He drew his sword intending to cut his own
throat. Then the leader of the Red Eyebrows, Fan Ch’ung and others saved and stopped Kengshih. They then pardoned Keng-shih and entitled him the Marquis of Fearing their Majesty. Liu
Kung continued to plead, and finally they made the Keng-shih Emperor the King of Ch’ang-sha.
The Keng-shih Emperor regularly depended upon Hsieh Lu and lived with him, and Liu
Kung also kept close to him to protect him. The people of the capital commanderies had
suffered from the tyranny of the Red Eyebrows and all pitied Keng-shih. Chang Ang and others
of Keng-shih’s former generals worried for fear Keng-shih might bring harm upon them, so he
told Hsieh Lu that some chiefs in the military camps wanted to snatch Keng-shih away and some
morning would collect troops to attack Hsieh Lu. So Hsieh Lu sent some soldiers with Kengshih to pasture some horses in the suburbs, and ordered them to strangle and kill him. By night
Liu Kung went and collected and buried his corpse. When Emperor Kuang-wu heard of it, he
felt sad, and ordered his Grand Minister Over the Masses, Teng Yü, to bury the corpse at the Pa
Tomb. After the Red Eyebrows had surrendered to Emperor Kuang-wu, Liu Kung killed Hsieh
Lu in revenge for the death of Keng-shih and tied himself up in prison. Emperor Kuang-wu
however pardoned him and did not execute him. Cf. HHs Mem. 1.1a-7b, l4b.
437. Shih, Empress née 史后 was the daughter of Shih Shen, a man of Tu-ling. Wang Mang
married her on Mar. 30, 23 A.D., in order to act as if he were calm, altho his situation was
already uncertain. Cf. Hs 99C.20a.
438. The Western Hall 西堂 was an apartment in the Front Hall of the Wei-yang Palace. It was
the place where the ceremonies of Wang Mang’s second marriage were completed in March, 23
438. Harmonious Ladies 和嬪 was the title given by Wang Mang to his three concubines of the
first grade, at the time of his second marriage in 23 A.D. The corresponding term in the Book of
Rites XLI, ii (Couvreur, II, 648) is Ladies 嬪; Wang Mang seems to have altered the title to
indicate that everything was peaceful, when in reality the situation was quite uncertain. Cf.
99C.20a; HFHD III. n 8.8.
438. Spouse 嬪人was the title of the nine second class concubines married by Wang Mang in 23
A.D. The title is taken from the Book of Rites, XLI, ii (Couvreur, II, 638). Cf. 99C.20a; HFHD
III.155, n 8.9.
438. Attendant 御人 was the title of the 81 fourth class concubines married by Wang Mang in 23
A.D. The title is taken from the Book of Rites. Cf. III.155, n 8.9.; 99C.20 a,b.
438. Shih Shen 史諶 was a man of Tu-ling, near the capital, and the father of Wang Mang’s
second Empress. When Wang Mang married in 23 A.D., Shih Shen was made the Marquis of
Harmony and Peace and General of a Peaceful Beginning. After Wang Mang had been killed,
Shih Shen surrendered and was executed. Cf. Hs 99C.20b, 28b.
438. Harmony and Peace, Marquis of 和平侯 was the title given by Wang Mang in 23 A.D. to
Shih Shen, when the latter’s daughter became Wang Mang’s second Empress. By this title, Wang
Mang hoped to show his own calmness and pacify the rebels by magic. Cf. Hs 99C.20b.
439. Chao-chün 昭君 was the personal name of a magician, whose home was in the Cho
Commandery and who was employed by Wang Mang in 23 A.D. to aid him in free enjoyment of
his newly acquired harem. Cf. Hs 99C.20b.
440. Chen Fou 甄阜 was an Associate Colonel who was sent with Han Lung to the Huns about 1
B.C.; in 9 A.D. he was a Lieutenant to the Generals of the Five Majestic Principles and was again
sent to the Huns with a new seal for the Shan-yü. In Jan./Feb. 23 A.D. he was the Southern
Neighboring Commandery Grandee, and he was defeated by the Han troops and killed. Cf. Hs
94 B.15a, 16b, 99C.19b; HHs An. 1A; Mem. 1 sub Liu Hsüan, Mem. 4 sub Liu Yin and Liu
Chih, Mem. 5 sub Li T’ung and Wang Chang, Mem. 7 sub Ch’en P’eng, Tr. 10.
440. Meng Ch’ien 孟遷 was in 23 A.D. a rebel southwestern barbarian leader to whom Wang
Mang directed an amnesty should not apply. Cf. Hs 99C.21a.
440. Liang-ch’iu Tz’u 梁丘賜 was a Director of an Association who was defeated with Chen Fou
in Jan./Feb. 23 A.D. by the Han troops and killed. Cf. Hs 99C.19b; HHs An. 1A; Mem. 1.2a, sub
Liu Hsüan, Mem. 4 sub Liu Yin; Mem. 5 sub Li T’ung and Wang Chang; Tr. 10.
441. Wang Wu2 王吳 was in 23 A.D. the Eastern Neighboring Commandery Grandee, and was
sent against the Han rebels by Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.21b. After Wang Mang had been killed
in 23 A.D., Wang Wu surrendered and was executed.
442. Wei Ao 隈囂, style Chi-meng 季孟 was a scholar who deserted Wang Mang’s bureaucracy,
and established himself as the actual ruler of the present Kansuh. For a time he called himself a
subject of the Keng-shih Emperor, but finally left him and aided Kuang-wu, while maintaining
himself in Kansuh.
He did not wish the empire united under one government, for that would lessen his own
power, so he declined to attack Kung-sun Shu, who had set himself up in the present Szechuan as
Emperor. Emperor Kuang-wu then conducted a series of unsuccessful campaigns against Wei
Ao. Finally Wei Ao’s important generals were almost all induced to surrender to Kuang-wu.
The campaign dragged on, Wei Ao died, and his son was made to surrender to Emperor Kuangwu.
Wei Ao came from Ch’eng-chi 成紀 in T’ien-shui Commandery. In his youth, he had
taken office in the provincial and commandery government. Wang Mang’s State Master, Liu
Hsinla, was executed, and Wei Ao returned to his home (Hs 99C.21b dates it before that time).
His uncle, Wei Ts’ui rebelled in the Autumn of 23 A.D., over Wei Ao’s protest (1b) and
Wei Ao, because he had a reputation, was made the General-in-chief of the rebellion. Wei Ao
made Fang Wang, a man from P’ing-ling his Army Advisor. Fang Wang told Wei Ao that it was
necessary to establish a Temple to Emperor Kao-tsu and make sacrifices to the Han emperors.
(2a) This was done with elaborate ceremonies, and an oath was made between 31 generals from
16 clans to revive the Han dynasty. A letter was sent to Wang Mang’s officials, dated Aug. 26,
23 A.D., from General-in-chief Wei Ao, White Tiger General Wei Ts’ui, General of the Left Wei
Yi, General of the Right Yang Kuang, General of Brilliant Majesty Wang Tsun, the General of
the Cloud Banner Chou Tsung, and others, recounting (2b) Wang Mang’s crimes: he had
poisoned Emperor P’ing, had usurped the throne, had fraudulently made portents, and had caused
the Lords on High and the spirits to bring calamities upon men. (3a) The First Emperor of the
Ch’in dynasty had done away with the rules for posthumous names and substituted numbers for
the imperial title, intending that his descendants should succeed him for ten thousand
generations; Wang Mang had made a calendar for his dynasty embracing 36,000 years. He had
divided up the commanderies and kingdoms, had made cultivated fields into the King’s Fields 王
田, and had forbidden their sale or purchase, had taken from the people the free use of the
mountains and marshes, had built his Nine Ancestral Temples, (3b) had violated the imperial
tombs, had given office to wicked flatterers, and had executed his faithful officials. Officials’
chariots galloped everywhere, and innocent people were imprisoned because of grudges held
against them. His punishments were cruel, and he did away with the laws that accorded to the
time. He daily changed his ordinances, monthly changed his officials’ titles, and yearly changed
the coinage, so that the officials and people had been confused and did not know what to do. The
merchants were impoverished and wept in the market places when he established his nine
monopolies. He increased the taxes, dealing niggardly with the people and being liberal to
himself. Bribery had abounded and had been unchecked, and the common people were
sentenced for possessing copper (4a) or charcoal and their property and slaves were confiscated
by the government, so that his slaves had been collected to the number of several hundred
thousand men, while the artisans starved to death. His military expeditions in the four quarters
had caused the people outside the borders all to come and injure the Chinese with the result that
those who had died with defeated armies, from cruel punishments, and from epidemics were
numbered by the ten-million. Hence the Lords on High had punished him by having his wife and
sons die or be executed, even some of his highest ministers had plotted rebellion, and other
ministers had surrendered to rebels. (4b)
Wei Ao led a force of a hundred thousand troops to attack and kill Shepherd of the Yung
Province Chien Ch’ing,Grand Governor of the An-ting Commandery, Wang Hsiang. The Anting Commandery surrendered and troops arose at the imperial capital who killed Wang Mang
Thereupon Wei Ao, by means of his generals, overran the Lung-Hsi, Wu-tu, Chin-ch’eng,
Wu-wei, Chang-yi, Chiu-ch’üan, and Tun-huang Commanderies, and made them all surrender.
In 24 A.D., Keng-shih sent a messenger to summon Wei Ao his uncles, and company,
(5a,b), and they went to Ch’ang-an. The Keng-shih Emperor made him General of the Right.
That Winter, Wei Ao’s uncles, Wei Ts’ui and Wei Yi, plotted to rebel against the Keng-shih
Emperor and return home. Wei Ao feared lest he would also meet with calamity, and so
informed on them. They were executed, and Wei Ao was made Grandee Secretary.
In the Summer of 25, when the Red Eyebrows were invading Kuan-chung, Wei Ao
advised the Keng-shih Emperor to entrust the government to Emperor Kuang-wu’s uncle, Liu
Liang, but the Keng-shih Emperor would not listen. When the Keng-shih Emperor’s generals
wanted to kidnap him and surrender to Emperor Kuang-wu, Wei Ao was in the plot; but when it
became known and the Keng-shih Emperor summoned the generals, Wei Ao did not go and
pretended to be ill. Wei Ao joined with two guests, Wang Tsun and Chou Tsung, seized arms and
guarded himself, and (6a) finally succeeded in escaping and returning to the T’ien-shui
Commandery. There he again collected bands and held the country, calling himself the
Generalissimo of the Western Provinces.
When the Keng-shih Emperor was defeated, the elders and gentlemen of the imperial
capital commanderies all came to Wei Ao (Emperor Kuang-wu had made his capital at Lo-yang),
and he secured many of them as followers, such as Ku Kung, who came from Ch’ang-an and
who had been Wang Mang’s Grand Governor of the P’ing-ho Commandery and became the
Grandee in Charge of the Wastes; Fan Chün, from P’ing-lin who became a Master & Companion
to the Heir-apparent; Chao Ping, Su Heng, and Cheng Hsing, who became Libation Officers;
Shen-t’u Kang, and Tu Lin who became Librarians; Yang Kuang, Wang Tsun, Chou Tsung,
Hsing Hsün from P’ing-Hsiang; Wang Chieh from O-yang and Wang Yüan from Ch’ang-ling,
who became Generalissimos; Chin Tan from Tu-ling, and the like. They now became his guests.
Thus his fame made the western provinces quake, and was talked of east of Kuang-chung.
In 26 A.D., Kuang-wu’s Grand Minister Over the Masses, Teng Yü, went west to attack
the Red Eyebrows, and encamped at Yün-yang. When Teng Yü’s Lieutenant General, Feng Yin,
rebelled against Teng Yü, (6b) and went west towards the T’ien-shui Commandery, Wei Ao met,
attacked, and routed Feng Yin at Kao-p’ing, capturing all his baggage train. Thereupon Teng Yü
sent a messenger with credentials to Wei Ao, making him his Generalissimo of the Western
Provinces with the authority to govern his on own authority the Liang Province and the So-fang
Commandery. When the Red Eyebrows left Ch’ang-an and wanted to go west over Mt. Lung,
Wei Ao sent his general, Yang Kuang, who attacked and routed them, and also pursued and
defeated them between Wu-shih and Ching-yang. Thus Wei Ao distinguished himself in his
services to the Han dynasty and also received enfeoffment from Teng Yü. His advisors
frequently urged him to communicate with the capital, and in 27 A.D., he went to the capital,
where Emperor Kuang-wu received him with special rites, called him by his style, and used the
rites for an equal state for him.
At this time a man from Ch’en-ts’ang, Lü Wei collected a band of several tens of
thousands of men, communicated with Kung-sun Shu and pillaged the capital commanderies.
Wei Ao sent troops to assist Kuang-wu’s Generalissimo, Feng Yi, (7a) in attacking Lü Wei and
making him flee. Wei Ao reported the facts to Kuang-wu and the latter replied in a letter written
with his own hand. (7b) From this time, the rites used in dealing with Wei Ao were more
elaborate. When Kung-sun Shu sent Wei Ao the seal and cord of a high minister and king, Wei
Ao beheaded the messenger, sent out his troops, and successively routed Kung-sun Shu’s troops.
Emperor Kuang-wu now ordered Wei Ao to attack Shu, Kung-sun Shu’s, state, but Wei Ao
excused himself. Then Emperor Kuang-wu knew that Wei Ao was trying to “carry water on both
shoulders,” 持兩端 so he lessened the protocol used for him, treating him merely as a subject.
Previously, Wei Ao had been on good terms with Lai Hsi and Ma Yüan; hence Emperor
Kuang-wu several times sent Lai Hsi and Ma Yüan to Wei Ao, urging him to come to court,
promising him an enfeoffment. But Wei Ao would not come east, and several times sent
messengers humbly begging to be excused. In 29 A.D., Lai Hsi was again sent, and urged Wei
Ao to send his son to wait upon the Emperor. When Wei Ao heard that Liu Yung and P’eng
Chung had both been defeated and annihilated, he sent his oldest son Hsün with Lai Hsi to the
imperial court. But Wei Ao’s generals, Wang Yüan and Wang Chieh, constantly told him that the
final success of Kuang-wu was not certain, and so he should not unreservedly serve Kuang-wu,
and Wei Ao agreed. Altho he had sent his son to Kuang-wu as a hostage, yet he firmly guarded
the narrow passes into his territory.
By 30 A.D., the territory east of Kuan-chung had all been pacified, and Kuang-wu set
about conquering the west. (9a) In person he came to Ch’ang-an, and sent Keng Yen and six
other generals to attack Shu by way of the road across Mt. Lung. First, Kuang-wu sent Lai Hsi
with a sealed message informing Wei Ao of his intentions, but Wei Ao was suspicious, and
ordered Wang Yüan to hold the slopes of Mt. Lung and make a barricade. Wei Hsiao plotted to
kill Lai Hsi, but the latter escaped and returned. The generals were defeated by Wei Ao. Then
Wei Ao had Wang Yüan and Hsing Hsün invade the capital commanderies, but Feng Yi and Chi
Tsun attacked and routed them. Wei Ao then begged Emperor Kuang-wu’s pardon. (9b) Kuangwu again sent Lai Hsi to Wei Ao with a letter, endeavoring to persuade Wei Ao to yield. But
when Wei Ao saw that Kuang-wu saw thru his pretenses, Wei Ao sent a messenger to Kung-sun
Shu in Shu, calling himself his subject, and in 31 A.D. Kung-sun Shu made Wei Ao the King
Pacifying the North and sent troops to aid him. In the Autumn, Wei Ao with 30,000 foot soldiers
invaded the An-ting Commandery to Yin-p’an (10a) and Feng Yi led various generals to resist
him. Wei Ao also ordered a detached general to descend Mt. Lung and attack Chi Tsun at
Ch’ien. Both expeditions were unsuccessful, so they returned.
Emperor Kuang-wu now sent Lai Hsi with a message to summon Wang Tsun to his
court, and he came with his family and adherents to Lo-yang, where he was installed as a Grand
Palace Grandee and was enfeoffed as the Marquis Who Turns to Righteousness.
Wang Tsun had constantly had thoughts of returning to allegiance to the Han dynasty and
had exhorted Wei Ao several times even in drastic words to send his son to court and submit to
Kuang-wu. But Wei Ao would not listen to him, so he left.
In 32 A.D., Lai Hsi followed a road thru the mountains and surprised and captured the
city of Lio-yang. Wei Ao was surprised, and sent Wang Yüan to hold the slope of Mt. Lung,
Hsing Hsün to guard the Fan-Hsü Pass, Wang Meng to block the Chi-t’ou road, (10b) and Niu
Han to encamp at Wa-t’ing. Wei Ao himself, with his great army, besieged Lai Hsi.
Kung-sun Shu also sent his generals Li Yu and T’ien Yen to assist Wei Ao attack Lioyang. When it did not surrender for successive months, Kuang-wu led his generals by several
routes to climb up Mt. Lung, and sent Wang Tsun, with credentials, to supervise the Commanderin-chief, Wu Han, who stayed encamped at Ch’ang-an. Wang Tsun knew that Wei Ao would
inevitably be defeated and annihilated. He had been a good friend of Niu Han, and knew that
Niu had thoughts of turning to the Han dynasty, so he sent him a letter in which he pointed out
that with Wei Ao, he {i.e., Niu} had taken an oath of allegience to the Han dynasty, sealed by
blood, and he had risked his life more than ten times, (11a) that Kuang-wu would inevitably be
victorious, and he urged Niu Han to surrender. When Niu Han received the letter, he pondered
for more than ten days, and finally left and went to Lo-yang, where he was installed as a Grand
Palace Grandee. Thereupon thirteen of Wei Ao’s Generalissimos, with 16 prefectures, and bands
of more than a hundred thousand men, all surrendered. (11b) Wang Yüan went to Shu to seek
aid, and Wei Ao with his wife and children fled to Hsi-ch’eng along with Yang Kuang. T’ien Yü
and Li Yü took refuge in Shang-kuei.
Kuang-wu offered Wei Ao amnesty, but he would not surrender. So his son Wei Hsün
was executed, and Wu Han and Chien P’eng besieged Hsi-ch’eng, and Keng Yen and Kai Yen
besieged Shang-kuei, while Emperor Kuang-wu returned east. After some months, Yang Kuang
died, and Wei Ao was in dire straits. His Generalissimo Wang Chieh had a separate command at
Jung-ch’iu. He mounted the city walls and called to the Han troops that he was holding the city
for King Wei, and that all were united in their determination to die for him, and he cut his own
throat to prove his loyalty. After several months, Wang Yüan, Hsing Hsün, and Chou Tsung led
more than 5000 troops from Shu to the rescue. When the troops arrived, they made a great noise
and said that a band of a million men had arrived. The Han army was frightened, could not form
in battle line, and Wang Yüan and the others broke thru the besiegers by fighting valiantly and
succeeded in entering the city. They led Wei Ao back to Chi. (12a)
It happened that the provisions of Wu Han and the others were exhausted, so they
retreated. Thereupon the An-ting, Pei-ti, T’ien-shui, and Lung-Hsi Commanderies revolted and
went back to Wei Ao. In the Spring of 33 A.D., Wei Ao was ill and also starving. He went
outside the city, where he ate some large beans, became anxious and sad, and died. Wang Yüan
and Chou Tsung set up Wei Ao’s youngest son, Wei Shun as King. In 34, Lai Hsi, Keng Yen, Kai
Yen and others attacked and routed the defenders at Lo-men 落門, so Chou Tsung, Hsing Hsün,
Kou Yu, Chao K’uei and others led Wei Shun to surrender to Kuang-wu. The Wei clan was
divided and moved east of the capital. Cf. HHs, Mem. 3.1a-12a, An. 1A.26b, 1B.1b, 2b, 11a,b,
5a,b; Ch’i-chia Hou Han shu, Szu-ma Piao, ch. 2. Giles, Biographical Dictionary, 2275, writes
this man’s name as Wei Hsiao. But a note in the XII cent. Shao-Hsing ed. of HHs Tr. 8.1a
(reproduced in the Bo-na ed.) writes after his name i.e.,“pronounced Ao,” which note was incorporated in the annotation of the official ed. (1739). The K’ang-Hsi Dictionary, sub this
character, 23a points out that in the Classics and most ancient annotations, Lu Te-wen (ca.
560-627) almost always reads this word as ao; only twice is it read as both hsiao and ao.
Hence the XII century gloss is almost surely correct concerning the pronunciation of this given
442. Executive Officer 幹士 seems to have been the title of a subordinate of the seven highest
ministers under Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.21b.
442. K’un-yang 昆陽 {36-37:5/2} was a city and prefecture of the Ying-ch’uan Commandery,
located at the present Yeh, in south central Honan, according to the Tai-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih. Cf.
Hs 28 Ai.86b.
442. Yen3b 郾 {36-37:5/2} was a city and prefecture of the Ying-ch’uan Commandery, located,
according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih, at the present Tao-chou-ch’eng, 5 li southwest of the
present Yen-ch’eng in south central Honan. Cf. Hs 28 Ai.88a.
442. Tiger Teeth Troops 虎牙兵 was a name given by Wang Mang in 23 A.D. to an army he sent
against the Han troops. The name may be Tiger Teeth Troops of the Five Majestic Principles;
since, however, the army was under the charge of both Wang Yi and Wang Hsün, it is natural to
suppose that there were two names for the troops. Cf. Hs 99C.21b.
442. Troops of the Five Majestic Principles 五威兵 was the name given by Wang Mang to an
army he sent against the Han troops in 23 A.D. This title may however be Tiger Teeth Troops of
the Five Majestic Principles; cf. sub Tiger Tooth Troops. Cf. Hs 99C.21b.
446. Kao-ling 高陵 was a city, prefecture, and marquisate in the Lang-ya Commandery, located
somewhere in the present eastern Shantung. The Later Han dynasty did away with this
prefecture, and its location seems to have been lost. Emperor Kao-tsu established this
marquisate in 195 B.C. for Wang Yu-jen, and it was held by his descendants Lung-ch’iu and
Hsing, until 154 B.C. when it was ended because of rebellion. In 15 B.C. Chai Fang-chin was
given this marquisate, and was succeeded by his son Chai Hsüan. The marquisate was ended in
8 A.D. Cf. Hs 28 Aiii.9a; 16.56a; 18.22b.
446, n 22.11. Ying-shih 營室 or Shih 室 is a Chinese zodiacal constellation, composed of the two
stars, & Pegasi. It was the heavenly palace of the Son of Heaven. It was also the Ancestral
Temple of Purification and the Temple of the planet Jupiter. Or one star was the palace and the
other star the temple. Cf. Hs 26.17a; Chin-shu 11.16a; Mh III, 302, 355.
446. Hsi-men Chün-hui 西門君惠 was a magician who in 23 A.D. had for long been in the
family of Wang Ken and his son Wang She and had been kept by them. Hsi-men Chün-hui
divined by the appearance of a comet in the constellation Ying-shih that Wang Mang would be
overthrown and Liu Hsiu would come to the throne. Cf. Hs 99C.22b; HHs An. 1B.23b, Mem. 13
sub Tou Yung, T’ai-p’ing yü-lan 720.5b, quotation from Huan T’an’s Hsin-lun.
447. The Capital Army 中軍 was probably Wang Mang’s name for the Northern and Southern
Armies of the Han dynasty (q.v.). Cf. Hs 99C.23a; Glossary sub Northern Encampment of the
Capital Army. This phrase may however mean “The Capital Encampments.” {At HFHD III.447,
Dubs renders this term “Palace Encampments.”}
448. General of the Fifth Rank Gentlemen-at-the-Palace 五官中郎 was an official title in the
Former and Later Han court. It ranked at equivalent to 2000 piculs. There was only one such
official. The name is ancient; it is found in the Chan Kuo-ts’e 8:2a, sub the state of Ch’i. It was
used to denote “all the officials,” but that meaning is by no means certain here. Cf. Hs 19A.9b,
18.29b, 88.24b, 99C.23a; HHs Tr. 25:3b; Han-chiu-yi A:3b. For Wu-kuan, cf. Li-chi 5.1a
(Couvreur 1.89, Legge, I, 110). The exact meaning of 五官 is uncertain. It may denote the five
ministers and their ministries in the Chou Court (Li-chi 5:1a = Legge I, 110; Couvreur, 1.89), all
the offices, the five elements, the five great powers (Heaven, Earth, the gods, the people, and
living creatures) and the five senses. This title is nowhere explained.
Perhaps the safest explanation is that 五官 here has the same meaning as in other titles.
Hs 97A.3a lists among the rankings of imperial concubines, “The wu-kuan are parallel [to
officials ranking at] 300 piculs” and Yen Shih-ku glosses, “The authority of the wu-kuan [in the
harem] was moreover like that of the wu-kuan outside [the harem].” And ibid., “The wu-kuan
[concubines] and below are buried outside the Major’s Gates [of the Imperial tomb].” Tung
Chung-shu’s Ch’un ch’iu fan-lu, ch. 59, 13.7a says “The five powers are.” Ibid. ch. 28, 8:4a.
“The entourage of the Sons of Heaven is divided into five grades.” Here wu-kuan is the twelfth
rank of imperial concubines from the highest and is the fifth one from the bottom. Hence it is
almost surely to be translated Fifth Rank [Concubine].” Yen Shih-ku’s note authorizes us to
apply this meaning to other cases of its use and Tung Chung-shu’s statement implies that in Zhou
times wu-kuan was the highest rank among the imperial attendants. The wu-kuan gentleman was
senior to the other two groups of such gentlemen in the Han court, the Gentlemen on the Left and
the Gentlemen on the Right, so that this interpretation of wu-kuan to mean seniority of rank is
449. Wang Hsien2d 王咸 was in 23 A.D. the Commandant of the Protecting Army subordinate to
Wang Mang’s Commander-in-chief, Tung Chung. He shared in the plot to abduct Wang Mang
and probably was executed in that year when the plot was discovered. Cf. Hs 99C.23a.
449. Causing Military Power to Arise, Marquis 起武侯 was a title held in 23 A.D. by Sun Chi.
If he was enfeoffed in 8 A.D., the word wu in this title shows that he distinguished himself
against the rebels of Huai-li. Cf. 99A.23a.
449. Sun Chi 孫伋, title, Marquis Causing Military Power to Arise, was in 23 A.D. the Director
and the Palace and Grand Keeper of the Robes to Wang Mang. He and Ch’en Han revealed Tung
Chung’s plot to Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.23a.
449. Ch’en Han 陳邯 was a man from Yün-yang, a younger brother of Sun Chi’s wife, who with
Sun Chi revealed Tung Chung’s plot in 23 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.23a.
450. Wang Wang 王望 was in 23 A.D. a Palace Attendant at the court of Wang Mang. Sometime
between 12 and 8 B.C. he had been recommended by Li Hsin to Wang Ken as a Division Head
capable of planning flood prevention. Cf. Hs 99C.23b; 75.24b.
452. Wang Hsi3a王喜, title, Marquis of Vast Merit 衍功侯 was probably a son of Wang Chialb
(q.v.) who had previously had this title. In 23 A.D., Wang Mang asked Wang Hsi to interpret a
ghostly apparition. Cf. 99C.24a.
453. Wang Tzu-ch’iao 王子僑 was an immortal worshipped at Kou-shih and at Mt. Sung-kao.
Wang Mang mentions him; cf. Hs 99C.24a. Liu Hsiang (80-9 B.C.) in his Lieh-hsien chuan A:
8b, 9a, says, “Wang Tzu-ch’iao was Chin, the Heir-apparent of King Ling of the Chou dynasty
[reigned 571-545 B.C.]. He liked to blow a flute, and when he played, [it was like] the song of
male and female phoenixes. When he wandered between the Yi and Lo [Rivers], the Taoist, an
old man [surnamed] Fou-ch’iu, invited him to ascend Mount Sung-kao [where he lived] for more
than thirty years. Later when [someone] sought him, [he was found] on top of the mountain. He
had an interview with Huan Liang, and said to him, ‘Tell my family that on the seventh day of
the seventh month they should await me on the peak of Mt. Kou-shih.’ When the time arrived,
he really mounted upon a white crane and stopped on the tip of the mountain. People could look
at him, but could not reach him. He raised his hand and said adieu to the people of the time.
After several days, he left. There was also a Temple erected to him below Mt. Kou-shih and on
the head of [Mt.] Sung-kao.” Hs 28 Ai.71a says that at Kou-shih there was “a Temple to the
Immortal of Yen-shou ch’eng (the City of Prolongued Life),” which was very probably the
temple referred to. Giles, Biographical Dictionary, #2240 lists him. Certain Taoist gymnastic
exercises were later attributed to him; cf. Maspero, in Journal Asiatique 229.422. Mou-tzu
(trans. by Pelliot in T’oung Pao, 919:318; cf. also his n 364) mentions him as one of the Eight
Taoist Immortals. Cf. also Ying Shao’s note in Hs 25A:12a. For the Wang Ch’iao of Later Han
period, cf. HHs 72A:6a-b.
454. The Grand Prolonguer of Autumn 大長秋 was the official in charge of the Empress and her
concerns. His title in Ch’in times was the Director of [the Empress’] Progress; in 144 B.C.,
Emperor Ching changed it to the Grand Prolonguer of Autumn. Hiu Hsi (?Han period) explains,
“The [Grand] Prolonguer of Autumn was the Empress’ office, not a minister of the Son of
Heaven....The [Grand] Prolonguer of Autumn had charge of the interior of the palace. According
to the natural sequence of things in the Spring, give birth; in the Autumn, they become ripe.
[Emperor Ching] wanted to cause the blessings of the Empress to be like this, hence he made
this name.” Hs 19A.19b says that in Former Han times, sometimes virile men were given this
office, sometimes eunuchs. When in 18 B.C. Emperor Ch’eng did away with the office of the
Supervisor of the Household of the Empress and Heir-apparent (who had ranked above the
Grand Prolonguer of Autumn), his duties were given to the Grand Prolonguer of Autumn. HHs
Tr. 27.2a adds that there was one such official; he ranked at 2000 piculs; in Later Han times this
office was almost always given to a eunuch. “His duties were to have charge of upholding and
promulgating the commands of the Empress. Whenever gifts or grants were made to the
imperial clan or relatives, or when the imperial clan or relatives came to court for an audience,
[this official] communicated it. When the Empress went out, he accompanied her. He had one
Assistant, who ranked at 600 piculs.” Cf. also Han-kuan ta-wen 4.4b, 5a.
456. T’ai-wei 太微 34 is a constellation composed of the stars δ, θ, ι, σ Leonis; β, η, γ, δ, ε,
Virginis; and α Comae. Cf. J. Ueta, Shih Shen’s Catalogue, p. 29, #46; Schlegal, Uranographie,
456. Wei Ts’ui 隈崔 was a younger paternal uncle of Wei Ao (q.v.). He loved brave deeds and
men, and was about to gather a band of such men. When he heard that Keng-shih had been set
up as Emperor, and that Wang Mang’s troops had been successively defeated, Wei Ts’ui plotted
with his older brother, Wei Yi, and with Yang Kuang and Chou Tsung to raise troops and respond
to the Han emperor. Wei Ao tried to stop him, because war is an unlucky event, but Wei Ts’ui
would not listen. He gathered several thousand men, attacked P’ing-Hsiang and killed Wang
Mang’s Grand Governor of the Chen-jung Commandery. (Wang Mang’s name for the T’ien-shui
Commandery). (1b)
Wei Ts’ui and Yang Kuang decided that their project needed a leader. They inclined
toward Wei Ao, who had become well-known because of his love of the Classics, and so they
proposed him for their Generalissimo. Wei Ao refused, but finally accepted on condition that
they would obey him. Wei Ts’ui was made the White Tiger General. From that time, Wei Ts’ui
was with Wei Ao in his victories. In 24 A.D., Wei Ts’ui and Wei Yi accompanied Wei Ao to the
court of Keng-shih, who confirmed Wei Ts’ui in his former title. That Winter, Wei Tsui and Wei
Yi plotted to rebel against Keng-shih and returned home. Wei Ao feared that he would be
involved in calamity because of them, so he gave information about their plot and Wei Ts’ui and
Wei Yi were both executed and died. Cf. Hs 99C.24b; HHs Mem. 3.1a, 2a, 14.b, 5b, sub Wei Ao.
456. Li Yü5b 李育 was an eminent man in the region of Chao, who plotted with Liu Lin and
Chang Ts’an to pass off Wang Liang as a son of Emperor Ch’eng and in Dec. 23/Jan.2l-A.D. set
him up as Emperor. Li Yü then became his Commander-in-chief. In Feb. 24, Li Yü was
defeated by Emperor Kuang-wu at Kuo-men. After Wang Liang had been defeated and killed on
July 6, he seems to have disappeared. Cf. HHs An. 1A.10a,b; Mem. 2.1b sub Wang Liang. {This
Li Yü does not appear in HFHD; Dubs’ production of this entry seems to be simply because he
shared the name of the following. Cf. Rafe de Crespigny. A Biographical Dictionary of Later
Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220), 438.}
456. Li Yü5 李育 was in the Autumn of 23 A.D. the Grand Governor of the T’ien-shui
Commandery, and was kidnapped by Wei Ts’ui. He seems to have entered the service of Kungsun Shu who made him his General. In 26, he was sent with Ch’eng Wu 程武 out of Ch’ents’ang to overrun Kuan-chung. In 27, he was defeated severely by Feng Yi at Chen-ts’ang, and
fled to Han-chung. In 32, Kung-sun Shu sent Li Yü with ten thousand troops to rescue Wei Ao,
but when Wei Ao’s generals went over to Kuang-wu, Li Yü fled to Shang-kuei. He was besieged
there by Kuang-wu’s generals, but they finally left. After Kung-sun Shu was defeated and killed,
Li Yü surrendered to Emperor Kuang-wu, and the latter gave Li Yü a position because of his
ability. Cf. Hs 99C.24b. It is not certain that the Li Yü who was Wang Mang’s Grand Governor
was the same person as the general of Kung-sun Shu, but the identification seems very likely,
since the geographical areas and periods of their operation are closely contiguous.
456. Wang Hsün1 王旬 was an official of Wang Mang who was in the Autumn of 23 A.D.
attacked and killed by Wei Ao. He was a son of Wang T’an. Hs 99C.24b calls him the Director
of a Confederation at the An-ting Commandery, and HHs Mem. 3.4b calls him the Grand
Governor of the An-ting Commandery, naming him Wang Hsiang 王向; possibly he had both
names or one is an error for the other.
456. Ch’en Ch’ing 陳慶 was in the Autumn of 23 A.D. the Shepherd of the Yung Province, and
was attacked and killed by Wei Ao. Cf. Hs 99C.24b; HHs Mem. 3:4b.
456. Chieh 桀 was the personal name of Lord Kuei, the last of the sovereigns in the Hsia
dynasty. He is supposed to have been a monster of iniquity and his name is usually coupled with
that of Emperor Chou. But Szu-ma Ch’ien merely said that he did not pay attention to virtue and
only paid attention to injuring the common people. His nobles revolted to T’ang the Successful
and Chieh was exiled and died. He is supposed to have reigned 1818-1766 B.C. The present
text of Pan Ku’s “Table of Ancient and Present Persons” (Hs 20.23a) grades Chieh in the next to
the lowest grade, not in the lowest grade, in which are put Chou, Ta-chi and others. Wang Kuankuo (fl. dur. 1127-1280), in his Hsüeh-lin 3.6a, says that Chieh and Chou are in the lowest
group; but this statement may be merely the usual coupling of these names. Szu-ma Ch’ien says
that Emperor Chieh was a son of Lord Kao or of Lord Fa. Cf. Skk 2:48 f; Mh I, 169 & n.3; Book
of History, Pt. IV, Bk. I-IV (Legge, pp. 173-190). He also had the personal name 履癸. Cf. Mh
I, 169.
456. Chou 紂 personal name Lord Hsin, was the youngest son of Lord Yi, was the last ruler of
the Shang or Yin dynasty. His personal name is also given as 受辛 Shou-hsin. He is represented
as tyrannical and cruel and brought to his ruin by his favorite concubine, Ta-chi. Pan Ku ranks
both in the lowest group among the stupid people. He is supposed to have reigned 1154-1122
B.C. Cf. Sc 3.26 ff; Mh I, 199 ff; Hs 20.28b; Book of History, V, I, II (Legge, pp. 281-319).
456. Nan-hsiang 南鄉 was a place in the prefecture of Hsi5 (q.v.) in 23 A.D., where Teng Yeh and
Yu K’uang arose. Cf. Hs 99C.24b. It had been a marquisate in 5 A.D. with Ch’en Ch’ung as
marquis; cf. Hs 18:30b. The Later Han Dynasty, in the time of Emperor Kuang-wu, made NanHsiang a separate prefecture; cf. HHs Tr. 22:17a. The Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih locates it
southeast of the present Hsi-ch’uan, in western Honan.
456. Teng Yeh 鄧曄 was a man of Nan-hsiang in the prefecture of Hsi5 in the Nan-yang
Commandery, who was known for his strength, fierceness, incorruptibility, and uprightness. In
the Autumn of 23 A.D., he raised troops at Nan-Hsiang with Yü K’uang for the cause of the Han
dynasty, persuaded the Ruler of Hsi5 to surrender, compelled the Chief Commandant in charge of
the Wu Pass to surrender, attacked and killed the Grandee in charge of the Western Neighboring
Commandery, and took Hu2 by storm. He entitled himself the General of the Left Supporting the
Han Dynasty. He was the first of the Han rebels to enter Kuan-chung, which he did by taking the
path around Mt. Hua, diverting the attention of the guards at the Han-ku Pass. Having entered,
he took the guards in the rear and opened the Wu Pass to Li Sung. Keng-shih confirmed him in
his title. He surrendered to Emperor Kuang-wu on Feb. 24, 26 A.D. Cf. Hs 99C.24b, 25a,b;
Ch’i-chia Hou Han shu, Hsieh Ch’eng, 6:10a; HHs, An. 1A:l8b.
456. Yü K’uang 于匡 was a man of Hsi5 who rose with Teng Yeh (q.v.), in 23 A.D. took the title,
General of the Right Supporting the Han Dynasty and aided Teng Yeh (q.v.) to enter Kuan-chang,
and seemingly shared his fortunes, surrendering with him to Emperor Kuang-wu on Feb. 24, 26
A.D. Cf. Hs 99.24b, HHs An. 1A.18b, Mem. 6 sub Teng Yü, Mem. 7 sub Feng Yi
456. Ch’iao Commune 鄡亭 was a place in the prefecture of Hsi5 (q.v.) located near the Wu Pass.
The Ruler of Hsi5 encamped at Ch’iao-t’ing in the Autumn of 23 A.D. to guard the pass. Cf. Hs
457. General of the Left Supporting the Han Dynasty 輔漢左將軍 was a title taken by Teng Yeh
(q.v.) in 23 A.D. and confirmed by Emperor Keng-shih. Cf. Hs 99C.24b; HHs An. 1A.18b.
457. General of the Right Supporting the Han Dynasty 輔漢右將軍 was a title taken by Yü
K’uang in 23 A.D. and confirmed by Emperor Keng-shih. Cf. Hs 99C.24b; HHs An. 1A.18b.
457. Chu Meng 朱萌 was in the Autumn of 23 A.D. the Chief Commandant of Wu Pass. When
he was attacked by Teng Yeh and Yu K’uang he surrendered. Cf. Hs 99C.24b.
457. Sung Kang 宋綱 was in the Autumn of 23 A.D. the Western Neighboring Commandery
Grandee and was attacked by Teng Yeh and Yu K’uang and killed. Cf. Hs 99C.25a.
458. The Nine Tiger Generals 九虎將 were nine men appointed by Wang Mang in the Autumn of
23 A.D. to guard the passes into Kuan-chung. The names of five are recorded.Shih Hsiung,
Wang K’uang4, Kuo Ch’in, Chen Hui, and Ch’eng Chung. Cf. Hs 99C.25a,b.
459. The Bureau of Equalization and Standards 平準 was an organization in the capital,
subordinate to the Grand Minister of Agriculture, through which the government speculated in
goods, purchasing them when they were cheap and selling them when they were dear, thus
attempting to prevent merchants from making money and to secure for the government the
profits the merchants had previously obtained. This Bureau was organized by Sang Hung-yang
in 110 B.C. It continued to operate to the end of Former Han times, how successfully we are not
told. At the end of Wang Mang’s reign, the treasury of the Bureau contained much cash, silk, etc.
In Later Han times, this Bureau was continued in name, but seems to have been different in its
operation – it is said to “have charge of knowing the prices of things and to have charge of
cooking [silk] and dying it, and making variegated colors.” The Bureau had one Chief and one
Assistant. Cf. Mh III, 538, n 1; 598; Hs 19A.l4b; HHs Tr. 26.2a; Han-kuan ta-wen 3.3a.
459. The Hui Gorge 回谿 was located 60 li north of the present Lo-ning, Honan. Cf. Hs
99C.25b; Shina rekidai chimei yoran, p. 147.
459. The Feng-ling Mound 風陵堆 was located east of the present Hua-yin; cf. Shina rekidai
chimei yoran, p. 573. The Tu-shih fang-yü chi-yao (1659-1679), 54:2a, says, “It is 3 li east of the
fort guarding the T’ung Pass, to the north, on the shore of the Yellow River. [There it is] 60 li
north to the P’u Pass. The Ti-huang Shih-chi by Huang-fu Mi (215-282) considers that it was the
tomb of Nu-kua.” Cf. also Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih 134:22b sub Nü-kua Ling.
459. Wen Hsiang 閿鄉 or 閺鄉 {15-16:4/6} was a district of the prefecture of Hu2 in the Hungnung Commandery, located near the present Wen Hsiang. Emperor Wu’s Heir-apparent Li was
buried in a hamlet of this district; cf. Hs 63.6b. The name appears in HHs Tr. 19.20a. Yen Shihku says that in 196-220 the first word of this name was correctly written 聞. According to the Timing ta-tz’u tien, Wen Hsiang was 40 li west of the present city by that name, in Honan. Cf. TaCh’ing Yi-t’ing Chih, 134.15a,b.
459. The Tsao-hsiang Valley 棗鄉谷 is located 60 li southwest of the present Wen-Hsiang,
Honan, according to the Ta-ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih 134:8b. The Han shu calls it the Tsao Road 棗
街. Cf. Hs 99C.25b. The road passes over the Hua Mountains.
459. Tso-ku 作姑 seems to have been the same stream as Chi-ku. The Shan-hai ching, 5:8b,
says, “The River of Chi-ku comes out north of [the Yen-hua Mts.] and runs eastwards, flowing
into the [Yellow] River.” The Shui-ching chu, 4.20a says, “The Men River’s... left stream comes
out from the north of the Yang-hua Mts. and flows northeast, past the west of the Shen-ch’iang
T’ing, [then] flows east and joins the right stream.…. The right stream... is what the Shan-hai
ching calls the stream of Chi-ku.” The Ta-ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih 54.4b, says “The Yang-hua Mts.
are northeast of the [Lo-nan] prefecture.” (Cf. also Shina Rekidai chimei yoran, p. 626.) They
seem to have been the southern part of the present Hua Mts.... and the Chi-ku Stream seems to
have been the northern branch of the present Hung-nung River, in Honan, close to the Shensi
border. Hs 99C.25b says that Teng Yeh, in entering Kuan-chung, went south from Wen-Hsiang,
out of the Tsao Road to Tso-ku. The Tsao Road (cf. sub Tsao-Hsiang Valley) passed southwest of
Wen-Hsiang, over the Hua Mountains, so that this identification is confirmed. (Data from Shen
There was another place by almost the same name, Chi5-ku. The Kua-ti chih 2.l4a says,
“The ancient location of Chi5-ku was 35 li north of Han-ch’eng in T’ung-chou.” In 415 B.C.,
Duke Ling of Ch’in built the walls of Chi5-ku; cf. Mh II, 57. The Han-ch’eng of T’ang times was
located at the same place as the present Han-ch’eng in Shensi on the Yellow River about 50 miles
north of T’ung-kuan. See Shina rekidai chimei yoran, p. 93. Shen Ch’in-han also mistakenly
identifies this place with the other Chi-ku and with Tso-ku. Cf. Hs 99C.25b.
460. Ch’en Hui 陳翬 was one of Wang Mang’s Nine Tiger Generals who were sent in the
Autumn of 23 A.D. to resist Teng Yeh. He collected his scattered troops and took refuge in the
Capital Granary. Cf. Hs 99C.25b.
460. The Capital Granary 京師倉 was located north of the present Hua-yin, Shensi, at the mouth
of the Wei River. Yen Shih-ku, in a note to Hs 99C.25b, says, “The Capital Granary was north of
Kuan 灌 in the Hua-yin [Prefecture], at the mouth of the Wei [River].” The Tu-shih fang-yü chiyao 54.2b, says, “The Yung-feng Granary was north of the city [of Hua-yin]. Some say that it is
the same as the Wei [River] Mouth Granary. It was originally the locality where the Han
[dynasty] established a granary. Later [this granary] was discontinued.” It was probably the
place where grain from the provinces coming to the capital at Ch’ang-an was deposited for
convenience, hence the name of this granary.
Shen Ch’in-han understands Kuan as the name of a river. The Shui-ching chu 19.31b
says, “The Hsiao-ch’ih River is precisely the Kuan River of the Shan-hai ching.... Further it
goes north and flows into the Wei [River].” According to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih 150.11a,
the Hsiao-ch’ih River is west of the present Hua, Shensi. But that location is much too far west
for the Kuan mentioned by Yen Shih-ku; it is more than 20 miles from the mouth of the Wei
River. The Kuan mentioned by Yen Shih-ku must have either been a village in the Hua-yin
Prefecture or some stream other than the Kuan mentioned in the Shui-ching chu.
460. The General of the Po River 波水將軍 was a title bestowed in the Autumn of 23 A.D. upon
Tou Jung at the suggestion of Wang Yi5. Tou Jung had been with Wang Yi and when the Han
troops entered the passes, Tou Jung was given this title, with a thousand catties of actual gold,
and led his troops to Hsin-feng, where he was defeated and fled. Cf. Hs 99C.26a; HHs, Mem.
13.1b. For the location of the Po River, cf. sub voce.
460. P’in-yang 頻陽 {15-16:4/5} was a prefecture and city of the Tso-p’ing-yi Commandery,
located 50 li northeast of the present Fu-ping, according to the Ta-ch’ing Yi-t’ung-chih. It was to
the south of the P’in River, hence its name. It was first made a prefecture in 456 B.C. by Duke
Li of Ch’in; cf. Mh II,55; also Hs 28 Ai.26b; Shina rekidai chimei yoran, 556.
460. Ch’ang-men 長門 was a t’ing in the Pa-ling Prefecture, east of Ch’ang-an. In a note to Skk
28.43, Hsü Kuang says that Ch’ang-men was in the Pa-ling Prefecture, and Ju Shun says that it
was the name of a t’ing.
Chang Shou-chieh, however, quotes the Kua-ti-chih, saying, “The ancient t’ing of
Ch’ang-men was the park northeast of Wan-nien (in the Yung Province), which was later the
Ch’ang-men Funerary Park of the Princess of Kuan-t’ao. Emperor Wu used Ch’ang-men as the
name of a palace [in Ch’ang-an, which name was taken from] this [place].” But the Kua-tichih’s Ch’ang-men was north of the Wei River, whereas that mentioned by Hsü Kuang was south
of the Wei. In Han shu 99C.26a, Han Ch’en in going west from Hsin-feng, came to Ch’angmen. Hsin-feng was south of the Wei River, east of Pa-ling. Hence, the Han Ch’ang-men was
that mentioned by Hsü Kuang, not that mentioned in the Kua-ti-chih. Chavannes is then
mistaken in his location of this place in Mh III, 459, n 1. Cf. also Han shu 25A.20b.
Ch’ang-men was thus the name of a t’ing near Pa-ling; Yang Shou-ching (1839-1915), in
his Shui-ching t’u, locates it between Pa-ling and the present Ch’ang-an, on the Ching-ch’i River.
There may have been a palace or a temple there; the mention of a palace in Han shu 99C.26a
seems to be a textual error due to confusion with the palace in Ch’ang-an.
The Ch’ang-men Palace “was a separate palace, inside the the city of Ch’ang-an. After
the Empress [née] Ch’en of Emperor Hsiao-wu had been favored and was considered [injured
through] jealousy, she dwelt in the Chang-men
460. Han Ch’en 韓臣 was in the Autumn of 23 A.D. a Lieutenant General of Li Sung. He
defeated Tou Tung at Hsin-feng, and pursued him to Ch’ang-men. Cf. Hs 99C.26a; HHs Tr.
460. Li Sung 李松 was a cousin of Li T’ung, and one of the first rebels to enter Kuan-chung,
later becoming Emperor Keng-shih’s Lieutenant Chancellor. In the Autumn of 23 A.D., he had
been the Director of Service of Keng-shih’s Lieutenant Chancellor, and had been sent by Kengshih to attack the Wu Pass. Teng Yeh succeeded in entering Kuan-chung and opened the Wu
Pass for Li Sung, who entered with more than 2000 men. After Wang Mang had been killed, Li
Sung went to Lo-yang, got Keng-shih and brought him to Ch’ang-an. Li Sung was then made
Lieutenant Chancellor.
In Feb./Mar.,25, Liu Ying, the Young Prince, was set up as Son of Heaven, and Emperor
Keng-shih sent Li Sung against Liu Ying and his followers. Li Sung killed them all. In Apr./May
he was defeated by the Red Eyebrows at Mao-hsiang and fled. Later he helped Chao Meng to
drive Keng-shih’s rebel generals out of Ch’ang-an. He was then sent against the Red Eyebrows,
and was defeated and captured by them. His brother kept the city gates; when they arrived at the
city, they threatened to kill Li Sung unless the gates were opened, and thus they were admitted.
Cf. Hs 80.6a, 99.26a; HHs An. 1A.13b, Mem. 1.3a,b, 4a, 6a, 7b sub Liu Hsüan, Mem. 5.2b sub
Li T’ung, Mem. 26 sub Cheng Hsing, Tr. 10, Tr. 17..
461. Wang Hsien4 王憲 was a man who in the Autumn of 23 A.D. had been made a Division
Head of the Hung-nung Commandery, and was made a Colonel by Teng Yeh. Wang Hsien
thereupon led several hundred men north from Hu2, crossed the Wei River, and entered the Tsop’ing-yi Commandery and went north to P’ing-yang. Cities and towns on the way welcomed
him and surrendered, and he was followed by many people. When Wang Mang was killed, Wang
Hsien secured his head and seals, called himself the Han General-in-chief, and made merry in the
Eastern Palace until Oct. 9, when other generals arrived and beheaded him for his presumption in
acting like an emperor. Cf. Hs 99C.26a, 28a.
461. Shen Tang 申碭 was a member of one of the great clans in Yüeh-yang. He followed Wang
Hsien4 when he overran the Tso-p’ing-yi Commandery in the Autumn of 23 A.D. Cf. Hs
461. Wang Ta 王大 was a member of one of the great clans in Hsia-kuei. He followed Wang
Hsien when he overran the Tso-p’ing-yi Commandery in the Autumn of 23 A.D. Cf. Hs
461. Hsia-kuei 下邽 {15-16:4/5} was a city and prefecture of the Former Han Ching-chao-yin
Commandery, located 50 li north of the present Wei-nan, Shensi, according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yit’ung chih and the Shina rekidai chimei yoran, p. 49. When Duke Wu of Ch’in (697-678 B.C.)
conquered the Kuei-jung, he established this place; there had been a Shang-kuei, hence this place
was called Hsia-kuei. At this place there was a Temple to the Gods of Heaven; cf. Mh III, 45.
The Later Han dynasty disestablished this prefecture and joined it to Cheng. Cf. Hs 28 Ai.23a.
461. Chuang Ch’un 莊(嚴)春 was a man from T’ai, near Ch’ang-an, who led a band of several
thousand men in Sept./Oct. 23 A.D. to attack Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99C.26a; HHs Mem. 1, sub Liu
461. Tung Hsi 董喜 was a man from Mou-ling, near Ch’ang-an, who in Sept./Oct. 23 A.D. led a
band of several thousand men to attack Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99C.26a.
461. Wang Mengb 王孟 was a man from Lan-t’ien, near Ch’ang-an, who led a band of several
thousand men in Sept./Oct. 23 A.D. to attack Ch’ang-an. He later became a general under Wei
Ao. Cf. Hs 99C.26a; HHs Mem. 3.10a sub Wei Ao.
461. Ju Ch’en 汝臣 was a man from Huai-li, near Ch’ang-an, who in Sept./Oct., 23 A.D. led
several thousand men to attack Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99 C:26a.
461. Wang Fu2b 王扶 was a man from Chou-chih, near Ch’ang-an, who in Sept./Oct., 23 A.D. led
several thousand men to attack Ch’ang-an. Cf. Hs 99C.26a.
461. T’u-men Shao 屠門少 was a man from Tu-ling, near Ch’ang-an, who in Sept./Oct., 23 A.D.
led several thousand men to attack Ch’ang-an. Yen Shih-ku notes this double surname. Cf. Hs
462. The Hsüan-p’ing Gate 宣平城門 was the northernmost of the eastern gates to Ch’ang-an.
The San-fu huang-t’u 1.7a says, “On the eastern [side] of the city wall to Ch’ang-an, on the
northern end, the first gate was called the Hsüan-p’ing Gate. Among the common people it was
called the Tung-tu Gate 東都門 (the Gate Facing the Eastern Capital).” Cf. Hs 99C.26b.
462. Chu Ti 朱弟 was a man of Ch’ang-an, who on Oct. 5, 23 A.D., helped to break into the Weiyang Palace. Cf. Hs 99C.26b; HHs Tr. 10:5b.
462. Chang Yü2 張魚 was a young man from Ch’ang-an who on Oct. 5, 23 A.D. helped to break
into the Wei-yang Palace. Cf. Hs 99C.26b; HHs Tr. 10:5b.
463. The Hall of Reverence for the Law 敬法闥 was one of the main buildings in the Wei-yang
Palace at Ch’ang-an. The passage of the San-fu huang-t’u dealing with this Hall has been lost.
Cf. Hs 99C.26b; San-fu huang-t’u, Appendix 7b .
463. The Astrological Gentlemen 天文郎 were imperial attendants who assisted the Emperor in
divination; cf. Hs 99C.27a. Yen Shih-ku remarks of them, “The Astrological Gentlemen were
[the same as] those who at present use the diviner’s board.” These Gentlemen are not mentioned
in Hs, ch. 19, the “Treatise on the Many Offices”; they seem to have been established by Wang
Mang and employed in his time. Divination was regularly performed by the Grand Astrologer
464. The Zanthoxylum Stairs 椒除 was a staircase leading down from the Front Hall of the Weiyang Palace in Ch’ang-an. When Wang Mang fled from this Hall, he used these stairs. Fu
Ch’ien says, “It was an oblique way down traversing a small door.” Yen Shih-ku says, “The
stairs was a path from the steps [to the throne] in the Hall. Chiao gives it the name of a fragrant
[plant].” Cf. Hs 99C.27a.
464. The White Tiger Gate 白虎門 was in the southern gate to the Wei-yang Palace in the time of
Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.27a. The San-fu huang-t’u 6.1b says, “The Miao-chi [by Lu Teng,
425-494] says that in the Wei-yang Palace there was a White Tiger Pavillion which belonged to
the Pavillion for Chariots.
464. Wang Yi6 王揖, title, Duke of Peace to the House of Hsin, was an official of Wang Mang
who on Oct. 6, 23 A.D. had charge of Wang Mang’s chariot and died with him. Cf. Hs 99C.27
464. Peace to the House of Hsin, Duke of 和新公 was a noble title possessed in 23 A.D. by Wang
Yi6, q.v.
465. The Tower Bathed By Water 漸臺 was in a pond inside Ch’ang-an west of the Wei-yang
Palace, and also the name of similar towers elsewhere. The San-fu huang-t’u, 5.1b, 2a, says,
“The Tower Bathed By Water was in the T’ai-yi Pond of the Wei-yang Palace, and was a hundred
feet tall [the Yü-hai quotes this passage, but reads “more than two hundred feet”]. Chien [the
first word of this name] is to wet. It means that it is wetted by the water of the pond. Another
explanation is that Chien Tower is the name of a star. He imitated the star and used [its name]
for the name of a Tower. In the Wei-yang Palace there was the Vast Pond. In the Pond there was
a Tower Bathed by Water; Wang Mang died in this one.” But the location of the Tower Bathed
by Water in the T’ai-yi Pond in the Wei-yang Palace is mistaken, for that Pond was in the Chienchang Palace; cf. Glossary sub voce. The San-fu huang-t’u has confused two Towers with the
same name. The Shui-ching chu 19.14a says, “The canal, above [this place] receives the Hsüeh
River west of the Chang Gate. A flying canal leads the water into the city eastwards and makes
the Vast Pond.” Li Tao-yüan’s note adds, “The Pond is west of the Wei-yang Palace. Within the
Pond there is a Tower Bathed By Water. When the Han troops arose, Wang Mang died in this
Tower.” Hu San-Hsing, in a note to Tzu-chih t’ung-chien 39.12a quotes Ch’eng Ta-ch’ang
(1123-1195) as saying, “All towers surrounded and wetted by water may be called Towers
Bathed By Water.” Thus there were two such in the Vast Pond in Ch’ang-an, just
outside the Wei-yang Palace, and another in the T’ai-yi Pond in the Chien-chang Palace. Cf. Hs
99C.27a,b. The San-fu ku-shih, fragments p. 4b, is quoted in the Shui-ching and Yü-hai as
having said, “The Tower Bathed by Water was 300 feet high. It had a Gate with three stories and
was 300 odd feet high. etc.
465. Wang Mu 王睦 was the son of Wang Yi6. He was a Palace Attendant and died with his
father on Oct. 6, 23 A.D., defending Wang Mang. Cf. Hs 99C.27b.
465. Wang Ts’an 王參 was a Regular Palace Attendant who died with Wang Mang on Oct. 6, 23
A.D. Cf. Hs 99 C.27b.
465. Tu Wu 杜吳 was a butcher from Shang prefecture who killed Wang Mang on Oct. 6, 23
A.D., seemingly without knowing who he was. His given name is sometimes written 虞, but the
best authorities write Wu. The two words were anciently interchanged. Cf. Hs 99C.27b; HFHD,
III.465 n 27.7.
466. Kung-p’in Chiu 公賓就, title Marquis of Hua, was a man from the Tung-hai Commandery,
who on Oct. 6, 23 A.D. was a Colonel and had been a Gentleman Dealing With the Rites, a
subordinate of the Grand Messenger. He became an eminent person of the three capital
commanderies, and when Wang Mang was killed, he recognized the seal cords of Wang Mang in
the possession of his murderer, Tu Wu, asked where the owner of the cords was. He went and
beheaded the body, taking the head to Wang Hsien4 and later to the Keng-shih Emperor,
whereupon he was enfeoffed at Yüan. Cf. Hs 99C.27b, 28a; HHs Mem. 1.3a sub Liu Hsüan, Tr.
10.5b; Tung-kuan Han-chi 23.4a. Yen Shih-ku remarks this unusual double surname.
466. The Gentlemen Dealing with the Rites 治禮郎 were subordinates of the Grand Messenger.
HHs Tr. 25.11a says that subordinate to the Grand Messenger there were 47 of these Gentlemen.
While there is thus no proof that they existed in Former Han times, the Grand Messenger
undoubtedly had subordinates, and they could well have been called by this title. The Han-kuan
(by Wang Lung, fl. 25 A.D.) p. 4b adds, “Four of them were [in charge of] the four types [of
virtuous conduct]. Five men were [ranked at] 200 piculs. There were five Literary Scholars 文
學, nine men ranking at 100 piculs, six Officials Whose Salaries Are Measured By Tou, six
Accessory [Officials], and twelve Literary Matters 學事 who were in charge of matters
[concerning] studying.” The Tung-kuan Han-chih 4.1b says, “The Grand Messenger... had 47
persons Dealing with the Rites, who were in charge of the rites for fasting, sacrifices, conducting
and introducing the nine [classes of] guests. There also were Public Rooms [seemingly a title]
who were in charge of arranging the order of merit of the officials in the imperial capital [of the
rank of] Officials Whose Salaries Are Measured by Tou and lower and of filling vacancies [in
that order of merit].”
466. Chao Meng 趙萌, was a general of Emperor Keng-shih, who became the latter’s father-inlaw and dominated his government.
Chao Meng arrived in Ch’ang-an only 3 days after Wang Mang had been killed in 23
A.D. At that time he was one of Keng-shih’s generals. When Keng-shih arrived in Ch’ang-an
and enfeoffed his nobles, he made Chao Meng Commander in Chief at the Right and favored
Chao Meng’ daughter as his Lady, spending his time eating and drinking day and night with the
women in his harem. The government was entrusted to Chao Meng, and Chao even had his way
against Keng-shih’s wishes. When in July/Aug, 25. the Red Eyebrows set Liu P’eng-tzu up as
Emperor, Keng-shih sent Chao Meng to encamp at Hsin-feng, and later himself fled to Hsinfeng. Chao and Li Sung finally drove Keng-shih’s rebellious generals out of Ch’ang-an. There
seems to be no information about what happened to him when the Red Eyebrows captured
Ch’ang-an and Keng-shih. Possibly he absconded. Cf. Hs 99C.28a; HHs Mem. 1.4a,b, 6a,b sub
Liu Hsüan, Mem. 13.1b, 2a sub Tou Jung.
466. Shen-t’u Chien 申屠建 title, General of the Western Ramparts and King of P’ing-shih, was
a general of Emperor Keng-shih. He was sent in Sept./Oct. 23 A.D. with Liu Sung to attack the
Wu Pass. He arrived in Ch’ang-an three days after Wang Mang had been killed. With Li Sung
he brought the imperial equipage and robes from Ch’ang-an to Keng-shih at Lo-yang. When
Keng-shih arrived in Ch’ang-an, he made Shen-t’u Chien the King of P’ing-shih. When in July/
Aug., 25 A.D. the Red Eyebrows entered Kuan-chung and set up Liu P’eng-tzu as Emperor,
Shen-t’u Chien conspired with others of Keng-shih’s generals to kidnap Keng-shih and flee with
him. Keng-shih heard of the plan and summoned his generals. The others became suspicious,
but Shen-t’u Chien remained, and was beheaded. Cf. Hs 92.15a, 99C.28a; HHs Mem. 1.3a,b, 4a,
6a, sub Liu Hsüan.
467. Tu P’u 杜普 was Wang Mang’s Department Head and Superintendant of a Division, who
did not surrender after the death of Wang Mang in 23 A.D., and was executed by the Han troops.
Cf. Hs 99C.28a.
467. Shen Yi 沈意 was Wang Mang’s Grand Governor of the Ch’en-ting Commandery, who did
not surrender after the death of Wang Mang in 23 A.D. and was executed by the Han troops. Cf.
Hs 99C.28a.
467. Chia Meng 賈萌 was, in 23 A.D., the Leader of a Combination at the Chiu-chiang
Commandery who did not surrender after the death of Wang Mang, and was killed, according to
Hs 99C.28a. The T’ai-p’ing huan-yü chi (by Yo Shih, 930-1007), 109.23a, however quoted the
Yü-ti chih (by Ku Yeh-wang, 519-81; lost) as saying the Grand Administrator of the Yü-chang
[Commandery], Chia Meng, with the Marquis of An-ch’eng, Chang P’u, raised troops to execute
Wang Mang. [Chang] P’u, however, went back on his agreement and went to [Wang] Mang and
confessed. [Chia] Meng thereupon attacked [Chang] P’u at the waste of Hsin-tz’u.
The Shui-ching chu (by Li Tao-yüan,, d. 527) 39: 15b, says moreover, “The Kan River
also passes north of [the Yü-chang] Commandery where there are steps for a ford.” His note
adds, “At the ford there is a temple to the former Administrator Chia Meng. [Chia] Meng
contested territory with the Marquis of An-ch’eng, Chang P’u, and was killed by P’u. On the
same day his spirit appeared on an island in the ford, hence the common people set up a temple
for him.”
The T’ai-p’ing yü-lan quotes Hsieh Ch’eng’s (fl. 222) Hou Han shu as saying, “Chia
Meng was the Grand Administrator of the Yü-chang [Commandery]. After Wang Mang had
usurped the Han [throne, Chia Meng] raised troops to execute [Wang Mang, but] was not
victorious, and was killed.”
It seems thus that there were different traditions concerning the same Chia Meng.
467. Wang Ch’in 王欽 was Wang Mang’s Grand Governor of the Shang-tu Commandery, who
surrendered to Emperor Keng-shih after the death of Wang Mang in 23 A.D. and was made a
marquis. Cf. Hs 99C.28b.
467. Ch’iao 譙 was a city and prefecture of the P’ei Commandery, located, according to the Tach’ing Yi-t’ung-chih, at the present Po in northern Anhui. Cf. Hs 28 Aii.42b.
468. Chung-wua 鐘武 {32-33:3/8, 9/6} was the name of a marquisate and of two prefectures.
The marquisate was bestowed on Mar. 10, 65 B.C. upon Liu Tu, the son of King Ch’ing of
Ch’ang-sha. Hence it was probably located within the king’s territory. Liu Tu was succeeded by
his son, Hsüan, grandson, Pa, and a son, Tse. At the end of Wang Mang’s reign we hear of a Liu
Sheng, who had formerly been Marquis of Chung-wu, but who is not listed in the table, so that
we do not know what generation of descent he was. Cf. Hs 15B.12a. 28Aii.60b.
There was a Chung-wua in the Ling-ling Commandery, located southwest of the present
Heng-yang, Hunan, according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih. In 127 A.D. its name was changed
to Chung-an. Cf. Hs 28Aiii. This was the one where the marquisate was probably originally
The other Chung-wub in the Chiang-hsia Commandery, located southeast of the present
Hsin-yang, in southern Honan, according to the Ta-Ch’ing Yi-t’ung chih. Cf. Hs 28 Aii.26b.
This latter one in Honan is indicated as a marquisate, not the Hunan one.
Ch’ien Ta-hsin remarks that probably, just as the Ch’ung-ling marquisate was moved
northwards from the Ling-ling Commandery to the Nan-yang Commandery (in Honan), so the
Chung-wu marquisate was moved, for similar reasons, so that both places Chung-wu were
successively the seat of the marquisate. Cf. Glossary sub Ch’ung-ling.
468. Liu Sheng5e 劉聖 also given name Wang, title, Marquis of Chung-wu, and Son of Heaven,
was a descendant of Liu Tu, who was a son of King Ch’ing of Ch’ang-sha and a descendant of
Emperor Ching. About July/Aug. 23 A.D., Liu Sheng raised troops and overran territory in the
Ju-nan Commandery. Chuang Yu and Ch’en Mou, two of Wang Mang’s generals who had been
defeated at K’un-yang in the previous month, fled to the P’ei Commandery, heard about Liu
Sheng, and came to him. In Sept./Oct., 23, Liu Sheng set himself up as the Son of Heaven, with
Chuang Yu and Ch’en Mou as his Commander-in-chief and Lieutenant Chancellor, respectively.
They had not held office more than ten-odd days when Liu Hsin1b, a general of Emperor Kengshih, in Nov./Dec., 23 A.D., attacked and killed Liu Sheng in the Ju-yang Commandery, and
beheaded Chuang Yu and Chien Mou.
Han shu 99C.28b calls him Liu Sheng 劉聖; Hou Han shu Mem. 1.2b, 3a, names him Liu
Wang 劉望. Probably, he had both names. While there were four other members of the Liu clan
named Sheng before him, this given name is not recorded for any member of the Liu clan after
his time, all thru the Later Han Period; neither is the given name Wang so recorded. Hence, both
of these names were probably tabooed because of Liu Sheng5e.
468. Liu Tz’u4a 劉賜, style Tzu-ch’in 子琴, title, Marquis of An-ch’eng 安城侯, was a cousin of
Emperor Kuang-wu. Liu Tz’u’s grand father Liu Li 劉利 was Administrator of Ts’ang-wu
Commandery. Liu Tz’u was orphaned when he was young. His older brother, Liu Hsien 劉顯,
killed a man in revenge, was arrested by an official, and killed, so Liu Tz’u, with Liu Hsien’s
son, Liu Hsin 劉信, sold their fields and residences and together abandoned their property,
associated with guests, revenged themselves upon the official, and all fled and hid. When there
happened to be an amnesty, they returned.
When Liu Po-sheng raised troops, they followed him and attacked various prefectures.
When Keng-shih had been made Emperor, he made Liu Tz’u his Superintendant of the Imperial
Household, and enfeoffed him as the Marquis Enlarging the Han [Territory].
When Liu Po-sheng was killed, Liu Tz’u was given Liu Po-sheng’s position as Grand
Minister Over the Masses, and he led troops to attack the Ju-nan Commandery. Before he had
pacified it, Liu Hsin was sent as a general to take Liu Tz’u’s place. When Liu Tz’u had gone
with Keng-shih to Lo-yang and Keng-shih wanted to send a close relative as General-in-chief to
overrun the region north of the Yellow River, he did not know whom to send. Liu Tz’u said that
of all the sons of the various families, only Liu Hsiu (later Emperor Kuang-wu) could be sent,
The Commander-in-chief, Chu Wei, and others said Liu Hsiu should not be sent. While Kengshih was hesitating, Liu Tz’u urged him greatly, so he installed Liu Hsiu as Acting Commanderin-thief bearing credentials, and sent him across the Yellow River.
The same day (in Nov./Dec. 23 A.D.), Liu Tz’u was made Lieutenant Chancellor and
ordered first to go to Kuan-chung and prepare the ancestral temples, palaces, and house. He
returned and accompanied (12b) Keng-shih to the capital, whereupon Liu Tz’u was made King
of Yuan. He was installed as Commander-in-chief of the Van, and sent with credentials to pacify
the region east of Kuan-chung.
In the spring of 24 A.D., Liu Tz’u went to his state of Yüan, leading six divisions of
troops. Later, when the Red Eyebrows had routed Keng-shih, the six divisions that Liu Tz’u was
leading scattered and rebelled to a considerable extent. So he left Yüan and took refuge in Yüyang.
When he heard that Kuang-wu had ascended the throne (Aug. 5, 25), Liu Tz’u went west
to the Wu Pass, to invite Keng-shih’s wife and children to go to Lo-yang. Emperor Kuang-wu
praised Liu Tz’u for his loyalty, and in 26 A.D. enfeoffed him as Marquis of Shen, a city in the
Ju-nan Commandery. In 37 A.D., his estate was increased, and it was settled that he should be
the Marquis of An-ch’eng. When he went to court in the spring and autumn, because he showed
grace and trustworthiness, he was treated especially well, several times admitted to private feasts,
and at times the Emperor went to his residence; the favor and rewards given him were much
greater than to others. But each time Liu Tz’u would give what had been bestowed upon him to
his old friends, and not retain any. Emperor Kuang-wu established a grave-mound and a hall for
him, and built a funerary temple for his worship, establishing officials and servants in it as for
Marquis Hsiao of Chung-ling. Liu Tz’u died in 52 A.D., and his son Min succeeded to the
marquisate. Cf. HHs, Mem. 4.12a, b.
470. Liu P’en-tzu 劉盆子 was the second of the emperors to be seated on the throne at Ch’ang-an
after the death of Wang Mang. He was set up by the Red Eyebrows.
He was from Shih in the T’ai-shan Commandery, and was a descendant of King Ching of
Ch’eng-yang, Liu Chang. His grandfather, Liu Hsien, was enfeoffed as Marquis of Shih in the
time of Emperor Yüan, and his father, Liu Meng, succeeded to the marquisate. When Wang
Mang usurped the throne, the marquisate was done away with, and so Liu P’en-tzu became a
man from Shih. King Ching of Ch’eng-yang (cf. Glossary, sub Liu Chang), had become a
popular god who was invoked for blessing and aid in the present Shantung, from which the Red
Eyebrows came; when the Red Eyebrows were nearing Ch’ang-an in the spring of 25 A.D., a
shaman in the camp said that King Ching was greatly incensed and wanted his descendant on
the imperial throne. Since the Red Eyebrows were attacking the Keng-shih Emperor (cf. sub Fan
Ch’ung), they felt they should set up a rival emperor. So in July/Aug. 25 A.D., at Cheng, they
elevated Liu P’en-tzu to the imperial throne, and took for the year-period, Chien-shih.
Previously, when the Red Eyebrows had passed Shih, they had kidnapped Liu P’en-tzu
and his two older brothers, Liu Kung and Liu Mou and all three had been in their camp. When
Liu Kung had been young, he had learned the Book of History and had generally understood its
ideas. He had followed Fan Ch’ung when the latter had previously surrendered to Emperor
Keng-shih and had been enfeoffed as Marquis of Shih; because he understood the classics and
had several times given advice about matters, he had been installed as a Palace Attendant and
had followed Keng-shih to Ch’ang-an.
Liu P’en-tzu and Liu Mou had been left in the Red Eyebrow camp, and were
subordinates to Liu Hsia-ch’ing, an officer subordinate to the Colonel of the Right (11a), who
had charge of forage and of shepherding cattle and was entitled the Cattle Officer.
When Fan Ch’ung and the others had wanted to set up an emperor, they searched in the
camp for the descendants of King Ching, and secured more than 70 persons, but only Liu P’entzu, Liu Mou , and a former Marquis of Hsi-an, Liu Hsiao, were closely related to King Ching.
Because someone said that anciently the Son of Heaven’s leader of troops was called the First
[Ranking] General, Fan Ch’ung had First [Ranking] General written on a slip of wood and put in
a hamper with two blank slips, then erected an altar north of Cheng, where they sacrificed to
King Ching of Ch’eng-yang. The San-lao and Official Attendants had a great meeting, put Liu
P’en-tzu and the other two in their midst, and each drew out a slip in the order of their age. Liu
P’en-tzu was the youngest and drew last, but secured the marked slip, so they made him
At this time Liu P’en-tzu was in his fifteenth year of age, his hair was disordered, he
walked barefoot, had worn-out clothes. He blushed and sweated. When he had been installed,
he was fearful and wanted to weep. His brother, Liu Mou, told him to keep the tally which had
given him good luck, but Liu P’en-tzu bit and broke it, threw it away, and went back to Liu Hsiach’ing. The latter had clothes made for Liu P’en-tzu: a purple single garment, a red turban
covering half the head, etc. He rode in a carriage with a curved pole and side-racks, with a large
horse, and red side-curtains, and was followed by the cattle-tenders.
Altho Fan Ch’ung was honored by the Red Eyebrows, he was illiterate; hence Hsu
Hsüan, a former prefectural Jail Official, who knew the Book of Changes, was made Lieutenant
Chancellor. Fan Ch’ung became Grandee Secretary, etc.
When they had entered Ch’ang-an and Keng-shih came and surrendered, Liu P’en-tzu
lived in the Ch’ang-lo Palace, and the various generals gathered there daily, quarreling about
their respective merits, crying out, drawing their swords and hacking the pillars. When the
capital prefectures sent tribute to the Emperor, the troops robbed and took it, and frequently
robbed and tyrannized the people, so that the people took refuge in their walls.
On the la day (after the winter solstice), Fan Ch’ung had a feast and great meeting. Liu
P’en-tzu sat in the Main Hall, with Palace Attendants within the Yellow Gate bearing arms
behind him. The ministers all had their seats above in the Hall. Before the feast had begun, a
person took out a knife (for scraping the board) and a pen to write a congratulatory card. The
others could not read, so arose, went to him, and asked him to write their names on the card.
They all gathered around the writer, turning their backs to their emperor. The Grand Minister of
Agriculture, Yang Yin, drew his sword and scolded them, saying that they were all former
servants, and now, when they should be performing the protocol of lord and subject, they got
confused; a child’s game would not be as bad as these actions; they should be killed for
disrespect (12a). Then they argued and fought all the more. Bands of soldiers moreover went
into the palace, killed the doorkeepers, and took away wine and meat, and killing and wounding
each other. When the Commandant of the Guard, Chu-ko Chih, heard of it, he led troops who
entered and killed more than a hundred men and then the matter was settled.
Liu P’en-tzu became afraid, and wept day and night. He lived alone with only the eunuch
Palace Attendants within the Yellow Gate. He was merely allowed to go to the Lodges and the
pavillions, but matters from outside the palace were not reported to him.
At that time, there still were several hundred or a thousand palace women in the Lateral
Courts, who had been immured inside the gates of the Hall since Emperor Keng-shih had been
defeated, and who dug up roots in the court, and caught the fish in the ponds for food. Those
who died were buried by the remaining women in the palace.
The musicians who had previously performed in the sacrifices at the Kan-ch’üan Palace,
and who still beat drums, sang and danced, and whose robes were fresh and bright, interviewed
Liu P’en-tzu, knocked their heads to the ground, and said that they were starving. Liu P’en-tzu
had the Palace Attendants within the Yellow Gate distribute several tou of grain to them. But
later, after Liu P’en-tzu had left, they all starved to death, rather than not leave the Palace.
When Liu Kung saw that the Red Eyebrows were so disorderly, he knew that they would
inevitably be defeated, and feared that he and his younger brother, the Emperor, would suffer
calamity. So, he secretly told Liu P’en-tzu to return the imperial seals and cords, and rehearsed
him in his resignation speech.
On the first day of the year, Feb. 6, 26 A.D., when Fan Chung and the others were
holding a great meeting, Liu Kung first spoke, saying that disorder had increased during the year
that his brother had been on the throne, and his brother could do nothing. Even if they died, it
would be of no use, so they preferred to retire and become ordinary people, and the Red
Eyebrows should seek for a more worthy person. Fan Ch’ung and the others refused his plea,
saying that it had been their fault. When Liu Kung insisted, someone suggested that it was not
his business, whereupon he became afraid, rose, and left.
Then Liu P’en-tzu came down from his throne-chair, took off his imperial seals and
cords, knocked his head to the ground, and said that altho he had been made Emperor, the thieves
were as numerous as previously, and whenever officials came to bring tribute, they were robbed.
The four quarters all cherish hatred for the government and have no respect for it. This has
happened because the wrong person has been enthroned. He begged to retire and make way for a
capable sage. “If you want to kill me, Liu P’en-tzu,” he said, “in order to silence complaint, I
will not avoid death. I hope you will have pity on me.” When he wept and cried, Fan Chung and
all the others in the company of several hundred persons pitied him, and all bowed their heads
and said it was their fault, and that they would not offend this way again. Then they all
supported Liu P’en-tzu and girded him with the imperial seals and cords. Liu P’en-tzu cried that
he had no alternative. When the meeting had ended and they had gone, each one closed his
doors of his camp, and guarded themselves, instead of going out and robbing, so that the people
in the capital commanderies became peaceful.
They praised the Son of Heaven as wise and intelligent, and the people rivaled each other
in returning, so that the markets and wards of Ch’ang-an became full of people again. But in
twenty-odd days, the Red Eyebrows became covetous of wealth, and again went out and
committed great robberies.
When the grain and food in the city was exhausted, they collected and bore away jewels
and valuables, set many first {sic!} in the palaces and houses, and led their men away west, past
the Southern Place for sacrifice to Heaven. Their chariots, armed troops, and horses were very
imposing. They called themselves a million men. Liu P’en-tzu rode in the kingly chariot with
three horses and was followed by several hundred cavalry. (13a,b, l4a).
When in Jan./Feb., 27, the Red Eyebrows at last found themselves confronted by
Emperor Kuang-wu’s great army, they sent Liu Kung to beg for permission to surrender. When
permission had been given, Fan Ch’ung sent Liu P’en-tzu with the Lieutenant Chancellor, Hsü
Hsüan, and thirty-odd persons, with their flesh bared. They offered to Emperor Kuang-wu the
imperial seal that transmits the state, Emperor Keng-shih’s seven-foot sword, and his jade circlet.
The next day Kuang-wu pardoned them all. (14b) He gave Liu P’en-tzu great presents and
made him a Gentlemen-of-the-Palace to the King of Chao. Later he became ill and lost his
eyesight, and Kuang-wu gave him the office of the Bureau of Equalization and Transportation at
Jung-yang and he enjoyed the taxes taken in by this office until he died of old age. Cf. HHs,
Mem. l.8a-l5a.