D-Link DIR-451 - 3G Mobile Router User manual

Preface
D-Link reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes in the content hereof without obligation to
notify any person or organization of such revisions or changes.
Trademarks
D-Link and the D-Link logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of D-Link Corporation or its subsidiaries in the
United States or other countries. All other company or product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies.
Copyright © 2007 by D-Link Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without prior expressed written permission
from D-Link Systems, Inc.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Preface............................................................................ i
Trademarks................................................................ i
Product Overview......................................................... 1
Package Contents.................................................... 1
System Requirements.............................................. 1
Introduction............................................................... 2
Features.................................................................... 3
Hardware Overview.................................................. 5
Connections........................................................ 5
LEDs................................................................... 6
Installation..................................................................... 7
Connect to your Network.......................................... 7
Wireless Installation Considerations......................... 9
Configuration.............................................................. 10
Web-based Configuration Utility............................. 10
Setup Wizard.................................................... 11
UMTS/HSDPA Setup........................................ 14
Wireless Settings.............................................. 15
Network Settings............................................... 17
DHCP Server Settings...................................... 18
Virtual Server.................................................... 19
Port Forwarding................................................ 20
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Application Rules.............................................. 21
Network Filter.................................................... 22
Website Filter.................................................... 23
Firewall Settings................................................ 24
Advanced Wireless Settings............................. 25
Advanced Network Settings.............................. 26
Administrator Login Name:............................ 27
Administrator Password:................................ 27
Remote Management:................................... 27
Administrator Settings....................................... 27
Time Settings.................................................... 28
System Settings................................................ 29
Firmware Upgrade............................................ 30
DDNS................................................................ 31
System Check................................................... 32
Schedules......................................................... 33
Log Settings...................................................... 34
Syslog............................................................... 35
Email Settings................................................... 36
Device Information............................................ 37
Log.................................................................... 38
Stats.................................................................. 39
Wireless Stats................................................... 39
Support............................................................. 40
ii
Table of Contents
Wireless Security........................................................ 41
What is WEP?......................................................... 41
Configure WEP....................................................... 42
What is WPA?......................................................... 43
Configure WPA-PSK............................................... 44
Configure WPA (RADIUS)...................................... 45
Warranty...................................................................... 66
GNU/Linux GPL........................................................... 72
GNU General Public License.................................. 73
Registration................................................................. 79
Connect to a Wireless Network................................. 46
Using Windows Vista™............................................ 46
Configure Wireless Security.............................. 47
Using Windows® XP................................................ 49
Configure WEP................................................. 50
Configure WPA-PSK......................................... 52
Troubleshooting.......................................................... 54
Wireless Basics.......................................................... 56
What is Wireless?................................................... 57
Tips......................................................................... 59
Wireless Modes...................................................... 60
Networking Basics..................................................... 61
Check your IP address........................................... 61
Statically Assign an IP address.............................. 62
Technical Specifications............................................ 63
Contacting Technical Support................................... 65
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
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Section 1 - Product Overview
Product
PackageOverview
Contents
• D-Link DIR-451 Mobile Router
• Power Adapter
• Ethernet Cable
• Manual and Warranty on CD
Note: Using a power supply with a different voltage rating than the one included
with the DIR-451 will cause damage and void the warranty for this product.
System Requirements
• A compatible 32-bit PCMCIA (UMTS or HSDPA) card with service*.
•Computers with Windows®, Macintosh®, or Linux-based operating systems with an installed Ethernet
adapter
•Internet Explorer Version 6.0 or Netscape Navigator™ Version 6.0 and above (for configuration)
* Subject to services and service terms available from your carrier.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 1 - Product Overview
Introduction
D-Link announces a fast, mobile network router which allows you to share a high speed Internet connection virtually
anywhere by connecting an UMTS or HSDPA notebook adapter or USB-enable phone. You can get a high speed Internet
connection just about anywhere within your wireless broadband network. This router is extremely useful in situations
where a wired broadband connection is not available. Quickly set up a Wi-Fi hotspot and provide your workgroup with
an Internet connection to check email and browse the web or share file. Maximize your investment in your mobile
Internet access subscription by using this router as a fixed broadband Internet solution for the home instead of paying
additional fees for cable or DSL.
ADVANCED NETWORK SECURITY
The 3G Mobile Router creates a secure Wi-Fi® network by supporting the latest wireless security features to prevent
unauthorized access. Support for WEP, WPA, and WPA2 ensure that you will be able to secure your Wi-Fi network,
regardless of your client devices. In addition, the 3G Mobile Router utilizes dual active firewalls (SPI and NAT) to prevent
potential attacks from across the Internet.
EASY TO INSTALL AND USE
The D-Link 3G Mobile Router sets up in minutes, making it easy to use while on–the-go. Remaining backward compatible
with 802.11b devices, this router ensures that it will work with legacy wireless equipment you already own. This eliminates
the necessity of incurring additional expenses with upgrading your current wireless equipment. You can also directly
connect Ethernet-based devices to its built-in 4-port full-duplex 10/100 switch.
Set up a wireless network with the D-Link 3G Mobile Router DIR-451 and provide your users with a secure, high-speed
connection to the Internet anytime, anywhere*.
* Requires third party mobile Internet access subscription. Check with your service provider for service coverage and applicable
fees. D-Link does not guarantee compatibility with all UMTS or HSDPA wireless networks or third party Internet PC cards.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 1 - Product Overview
Features
Device Interfaces
• LAN Ethernet Support
• 4 Port 10/100 Mbps switch
• Complies with IEEE 802.3u specification
• Supports Auto-Negotiation
• Supports Auto-MDI/MDIX
• Supports IEEE 802.3x Flow Control in Full Duplex mode
• 3G Module Slot
• Connecting an UMTS or HSDPA Notebook Adapter
Function support
• Network Address Translation
• Stateful Packet Inspection
• TCP Connection state & sequence number validation
• Virtual Server
• Virtual Server is used to allow Internet users access to LAN services.
• Port Triggering / Special Applications support
• Special Application is used to run applications that require multiple connections.
• MAC Address Filtering
• Apply to WLAN and/or LAN. Select type of filter - Allow list or Deny list 20 Entries.
• DHCP Server
• Set up as a DHCP Server to distribute IP addresses to the LAN.
• DNS Relay
• WAN DNS Servers if available OR DNS requests directed to the Gateway IP address.
• Access Control
• Allow Policy Based on Schedule & IP Address
• Allow all WEB access OR Allow access to a specified list of domain names (40 Domains)
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 1 - Product Overview
• Web base setup wizard
• Step by step setting procedure
• L2TP Pass Through
• PPTP Pass Through
• IPsec Pass Through
CONFIGURATION & ADMINISTRATION
• Web based interface
• Web Based Configuration Wizard
• Dynamic DNS
• E-mail Reporting
• Statistics
• Firmware upgrade
• Current Time & Daylight savings adjustment
• Configuration Save & Restore
• Remote management
• Device Manager
WIRELESS FEATURES
• SuperG & Turbo (108 Mbps) modes
• Wireless Security:
• WEP 64/128 bit
• WPA
• WPA-PSK
• Channel Select
• SSID Broadcast
• Tx Power Adjust
• WMM
• WCN 1.0
* Maximum wireless signal rate derived from IEEE Standard 802.11g specifications. Actual data throughput will vary. Network conditions and
environmental factors, including volume of network traffic, building materials and construction, and network overhead, lower actual data throughput
rate. Environmental conditions will adversely affect wireless signal range.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 1 - Product Overview
Hardware Overview
Connections
Power Receptor
Receptor for the
Power Adapter.
USB
Connect a USB 1.1 or 2.0 flash
drive to configure the wireless
settings using WCN.
Reset Button
Pressing the Reset Button restores
the router to its original factory default
settings.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Internet Slot
Use this slot if a 32-bit PCMCIA
card is used for your connection.
LAN Ports
These ports automatically sense
the cable type when connecting to
Ethernet-enabled computers. These
are Auto MDI/MDIX ports.
Section 1 - Product Overview
Hardware Overview
LEDs
WAN LED
A solid light indicates connection
on the WAN port. This LED blinks
during data transmission.
WLAN LED
A solid light indicates that the wireless
segment is ready. This LED blinks during
wireless data transmission.
LAN LEDs
A solid light indicates a connection to an
Ethernet-enabled computer on ports 1-4.
The LED blinks during data transmission.
Power LED
A solid light indicates a proper
connection to the power supply.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Status LED
A blinking blue light indicates
that the DIR-451 is functioning
properly.
USB LED
Insert a USB flash drive with WCN information.
The LED will blink 3 times if it successfully
transfers the wireless settings.
Section 2 - Installation
Installation
This section will walk you through the installation process. Placement of the router is very important. Do not place the
router in an enclosed area such as a closet, cabinet, or in the attic or garage.
Connect to your Network
Note: Ensure that the power to your DIR-451 Mobile Router is not connected before performing the installation
steps below.
32-bit PCMCIA (UMTS or HSDPA) Card Connection
Note: To preserve the life of your phone’s battery, it is recommended that you use your phone’s charging cradle when
connected to the DIR-451 Mobile Router.
1. Attach the antenna.
a. Remove the antenna from its plastic wrapper.
b. Screw the antenna in a clockwise direction to the back panel of the unit.
c. Once secured, position the antenna upward at its connecting joint. This will ensure optimal reception.
2. Insert your wireless 32-bit PCMCIA (UMTS or HSDPA) card into the internet 32-bit PCMCIA Card Slot.
3. Insert the Ethernet cable into LAN Port 1 on the back panel of the DIR-451 Mobile Router, and an available Ethernet
port on the network adapter in the computer you will use to configure the unit.
Note: The DIR-451 Mobile Router LAN Ports are “Auto-MDI/MDIX.” This provides either patch or crossover
Ethernet cable LAN Port access.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 2 - Installation
4. Connect the power adapter to the receptor on the back panel of your DIR-451 Mobile Router. Then plug the other end of the power adapter into the wall outlet or power strip.
a. The Power LED will turn ON to indicate power has been applied.
b. Other LEDs will flash ON and OFF as the DIR-451 Mobile Router performs initialization and Internet connection
processes. This will take a few minutes.
c. When complete, the following LEDs will illuminate blue: Power, Status, WAN, WLAN, and LAN Port 1 (or your specific LAN Port connection).
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 2 - Installation
Wireless Installation Considerations
The D-Link mobile router lets you access your network using a wireless connection from virtually anywhere within the
operating range of your wireless network. Keep in mind, however, that the number, thickness and location of walls,
ceilings, or other objects that the wireless signals must pass through, may limit the range. Typical ranges vary depending
on the types of materials and background RF (radio frequency) noise in your home or business. The key to maximizing
wireless range is to follow these basic guidelines:
1.Keep the number of walls and ceilings between the D-Link router and other network devices to a minimum
- each wall or ceiling can reduce your adapter’s range from 3-90 feet (1-30 meters.) Position your devices
so that the number of walls or ceilings is minimized.
2.Be aware of the direct line between network devices. A wall that is 1.5 feet thick (.5 meters), at a
45-degree angle appears to be almost 3 feet (1 meter) thick. At a 2-degree angle it looks over 42 feet
(14 meters) thick! Position devices so that the signal will travel straight through a wall or ceiling (instead
of at an angle) for better reception.
3.Building Materials make a difference. A solid metal door or aluminum studs may have a negative effect on
range. Try to position access points, wireless routers, and computers so that the signal passes through
drywall or open doorways. Materials and objects such as glass, steel, metal, walls with insulation, water
(fish tanks), mirrors, file cabinets, brick, and concrete will degrade your wireless signal.
4.Keep your product away (at least 3-6 feet or 1-2 meters) from electrical devices or appliances that
generate RF noise.
5.If you are using 2.4GHz cordless phones or X-10 (wireless products such as ceiling fans, lights, and
home security systems), your wireless connection may degrade dramatically or drop completely. Make
sure your 2.4GHz phone base is as far away from your wireless devices as possible. The base transmits
a signal even if the phone in not in use.
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Section 3 - Configuration
Configuration
This section will show you how to configure your new D-Link mobile router using the web-based configuration utility.
Web-based Configuration Utility
To access the configuration utility, open a web-browser
such as Internet Explorer and enter the IP address of
the router (192.168.0.1).
Type admin for the username and leave the password
blank.
If you get a Page Cannot be Displayed error, please
refer to the Troubleshooting section for assistance.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Setup Wizard
You may run the setup wizard to quickly setup your router.
Click Setup Wizard to launch the wizard.
Click Setup Wizard
Click Launch Internet Connection Setup Wizard to begin.
Click Launch Internet Connection
Setup Wizard to begin.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Click Next to continue.
Click Next
Create a new password and then click Next to continue.
Click Next
Select your time zone from the drop-down menu and then click Next
to continue.
Click Next
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Section 3 - Configuration
Select the Country, ISP and Card from the drop-down list and then click
Username / Password Connection (WWAN). Click Next to continue.
Click Next
Enter your WWAN user name, password, and server information. If you do
not have this information, please contact your ISP. For other information,
you can look at the UMTS/HSDPA Setup section on the next page.
Click Next
Click Connect to save your settings. Once the router is finished rebooting,
click Continue. Please allow 1-2 minutes to connect.
Click Continue
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Section 3 - Configuration
UMTS/HSDPA Setup
Country-ISP-Card: This will divide connection into following three types.
Country: Select the card issue country from the first
drop-down menu.
ISP: Select the card issue provider from the second
drop-down menu.
Card: Select the card name from the third drop-down
menu.
User Name: Enter your username for your UMTS/HSDPA connection.
Password: Enter your Password for your UMTS/HSDPA connection.
Retype Password: Enter your Password again for confirmation.
Server Name: Enter the name of your network server (optional).
Dial Number: The default is *99***1#. This field should not be altered
except when required by your service provider.
APN: Enter the access point name (APN).
Auto-Reconnect: Select Enable to have the router automatically reconnect to the Internet if the connection is dropped.
Keep Alive Interval: Enter the time to send keep alive package. If user does not input any keep alive sever at below, it will keep
send keep alive package to the default server. (www.dlinkddns.com, ntp1.dlink.com, www.dlink.com, www.
dlink.com, www.d-link.com.tw). If all servers fail to response, the 3G router will hang up 3G connection and
re-dial to carrier/operation.
Keep Alive Servers: Enter the IP address(es) of keep alive server(s). If user inputs keep alive servers, this router will send keep
alive package to those servers. If those servers fail to response, the 3G router will hang up 3G connection
and re-dial to carrier/operation.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Wireless Settings
Enable Wireless: Check the box to enable the wireless function. If
you do not want to use wireless, uncheck the box
to disable all the wireless functions.
Wireless Network Service Set Identifier (SSID) is the name of your
Name: wireless network. Create a name using up to 32
characters. The SSID is case-sensitive.
Wireless Channel: Indicates the channel setting for the DIR-451. By
default the channel is set to 6. The Channel can be
changed to fit the channel setting for an existing
wireless network or to customize the wireless
network. The Auto Channel Scan setting can
be selected to allow the DIR-451 to choose the
channel with the least amount of interference.
Super G Mode: Super G is a group of performance enhancement
features that increase end user application
throughput in an 802.11g network. Super G is backwards compatible to standard 802.11g devices. For top performance, all
wireless devices on the network should be Super G capable. Select either Disabled, Super G without Turbo, or Super G
with Dynamic Turbo.
• Disabled - Standard 802.11g support, no enhanced capabilities.
• Super G without turbo - Capable of Packet Bursting, FastFrames, Compression, but no Turbo mode.
• Super G with Dynamic Turbo - Capable of Packet Bursting, FastFrames, Compression, and Dynamic Turbo. This setting is backwards compatible with non-Turbo (legacy) devices. Dynamic Turbo mode is only enabled when all devices on the wireless network are Super G with Dynamic Turbo enabled.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Extended Range Extended Range Mode helps reduce dead spots by improving the reception algorithm, which allows your wireless clients to
Mode: associate with the DIR-451 at farther distances. Select either Enabled or Disabled.
802.11g Only Enable this mode if your network is made up of purely 802.11g devices. If you have both 802.11b and 802.11g wireless
Mode: clients, uncheck the box.
Visibility status: Select Invisible if you do not want the SSID of your wireless network to be broadcasted by the DIR-451. If Invisible is selected,
the SSID of the DIR-451 will not be seen by Site Survey utilities so your wireless clients will have to know the SSID of your
DIR-451 in order to connect to it.
Please refer to Section 4 - Wireless Security for information on setting up security and encryption.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Network Settings
This section will allow you to change the local network settings of the router and to configure the DHCP settings.
IP Address: Enter the IP address of the router. The default
IP address is 192.168.0.1.
If you change the IP address, once you click
Apply, you will need to enter the new IP address
in your browser to get back into the configuration
utility.
Subnet Mask: Enter the Subnet Mask. The default subnet mask
is 255.255.255.0.
Local Domain: Enter the Domain name (Optional).
Enable DNS Relay: Check the box to transfer the DNS server
information from your ISP to your computers. If
unchecked, your computers will use the router
for a DNS server.
Refer to the next page for DHCP information.
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Section 3 - Configuration
DHCP Server Settings
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Control Protocol. The DIR-451 has a built-in DHCP server. The DHCP Server will
automatically assign an IP address to the computers on the LAN/private network. Be sure to set your computers to be
DHCP clients by setting their TCP/IP settings to “Obtain an IP Address Automatically.” When you turn your computers
on, they will automatically load the proper TCP/IP settings provided by the DIR-451. The DHCP Server will automatically
allocate an unused IP address from the IP address pool to the requesting computer. You must specify the starting and
ending address of the IP address pool.
Enable DHCP Check the box to enable the DHCP server on
Server: your router. Uncheck to disable this function.
DHCP IP Address Enter the starting and ending IP addresses for
Range: the DHCP server’s IP assignment.
Lease Time: The length of time for the IP address lease.
Enter the Lease time in minutes.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Virtual Server
This will allow you to open and redirect a single port.
Rule: Check the box to enabled the rule.
Name: Enter a name for the rule. You may select an
application from the drop-down menu and click
<< to fill in the fields automatically.
IP Address: Enter the IP address of the computer on your
local network that you want to allow the incoming
service to. You may select a computer from the
drop-down menu and click <<.
Public Port/ Enter the port that you want to open. In most
Private Port: cases, the public and private will be the same
port.
Traffic Type: Select TCP, UDP, or ANY.
Schedule: Select Always or a created schedule from the
drop-down menu.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Port Forwarding
This will allow you to open a single port or a range of ports.
Rule: Check the box to enabled the rule.
Name: Enter a name for the rule. You may select an
application from the drop-down menu and click
<< to fill in the fields automatically.
IP Address: Enter the IP address of the computer on your
local network that you want to allow the incoming
service to. You may select a computer from the
drop-down menu and click <<.
Start Port/ Enter the range of ports that you want to open.
End Port: If you want to open 1 port, enter the same port
in both boxes.
Traffic Type: Select TCP, UDP, or ANY.
Schedule: Select Always or a created schedule from the
drop-down menu.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Application Rules
Some applications require multiple connections, such as Internet gaming, video conferencing, Internet telephony and
others. These applications have difficulties working through NAT (Network Address Translation). Special Applications
makes some of these applications work with the DIR-451.
Rule: Check the box to enabled the rule.
Name: Enter a name for the rule.
Trigger Port: This is the port used to trigger the application. It
can be either a single port or a range of ports.
Firewall Port: This is the port number on the WAN side that
will be used to access the application. You may
define a single port or a range of ports. You
can use a comma to add multiple ports or port
ranges.
Traffic Type: Select TCP, UDP, or ANY.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Network Filter
Use MAC (Media Access Control) Filters to allow or deny LAN (Local Area Network) computers by their MAC addresses
from accessing the Network. You can either manually add a MAC address or select the MAC address from the list of
clients that are currently connected to the Broadband Router.
Configure MAC Select Turn MAC Filtering OFF, Turn MAC
Filter: Filtering ON and ALLOW computers listed to
access the network, or Turn MAC Filtering ON
and DENY computers listed on the network.
MAC Address: Enter the MAC address you would like to filter.
To find the MAC address on a computer, please
refer to the Networking Basics section in this
manual.
DHCP Client: Select a DHCP client from the drop-down menu
and click << to copy that MAC Address.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Website Filter
URL and domain blocking are used to deny LAN computers from accessing specific web sites by the URL or domain.
A URL is a specially formatted text string that defines a location on the Internet. If any part of the URL contains the
blocked word, the site will not be accessible and the web page will not display. To use this feature, enter the text string
to be blocked and click Apply. The text to be blocked will appear in the list. To delete the text, just highlight it and click
Delete.
Configure Website Select Turn Website Filtering OFF, Turn
Filter: Website Filtering ON and ALLOW computers
access to ONLY these sites, or Turn Website
Filtering ON and DENY computers access
to ONLY these sites.
Website URL/ Enter the keywords or URLs that you want to
Domain: block (or allow). Any URL with the keyword in
it will be blocked.
Clear the List Click to remove all the entries.
Below:
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Section 3 - Configuration
Firewall Settings
This section will allow you to setup a DMZ host and to enable VPN passthrough.
If you have a client PC that cannot run Internet applications properly from behind the DIR-451, then you can set the
client up for unrestricted Internet access. It allows a computer to be exposed to the Internet. This feature is useful for
gaming purposes. Enter the IP address of the internal computer that will be the DMZ host. Adding a client to the DMZ
(Demilitarized Zone) may expose your local network to a variety of security risks, so only use this option as a last
resort.
Enable DMZ Host: Check this box to enable DMZ.
DMZ IP Address: Enter the IP address of the computer you would
like to open all ports to.
Enable PPTP Check this box to allow PPTP VPN traffic to pass
Passthrough: through the router.
Enable L2TP Check this box to allow L2TP VPN traffic to pass
Passthrough: through the router.
Enable IPSec Check this box to allow IPSec VPN traffic to
Passthrough: pass through the router.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Advanced Wireless Settings
TX Rate: Select the basic transfer rates based on the speed
of wireless adapters on your wireless network. It
is strongly recommended to keep this setting to
Auto.
Transmit Power: Set the transmit power of the antennas.
Beacon Interval: Beacons are packets sent by an Access Point to
synchronize a wireless network. Specify a value.
100 is the default setting and is recommended.
RTS Threshold: This value should remain at its default setting of
2346. If inconsistent data flow is a problem, only a
minor modification should be made.
Fragmentation: The fragmentation threshold, which is specified
in bytes, determines whether packets will be
fragmented. Packets exceeding the 2346 byte setting will be fragmented before transmission. 2346 is the default setting.
DTIM Interval: (Delivery Traffic Indication Message) 3 is the default setting. A DTIM is a countdown informing clients of the next window for
listening to broadcast and multicast messages.
Preamble Type: Select Short or Long Preamble. The Preamble defines the length of the CRC block (Cyclic Redundancy Check is a common
technique for detecting data transmission errors) for communication between the wireless router and the roaming wireless
network adapters. Auto is the default setting. Note: High network traffic areas should use the shorter preamble type.
WMM Function: WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) is QoS (Quality of Service) for your wireless network. Enable this option to improve the quality of
video and voice applications for your wireless clients.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Advanced Network Settings
UPnP Settings: To use the Universal Plug and Play (UPnP™)
feature click on Enabled UPNP. UPNP
provides compatibility with networking
equipment, software and peripherals.
WAN Ping: Unchecking the box will not allow the DIR-451
to respond to pings. Blocking the Ping may
provide some extra security from hackers.
Check the box to allow the WAN port to be
“pinged”.
Multicast Check the box to allow multicast traffic to
streams: pass through the router from the Internet.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Administrator Settings
This page will allow you to change the Administrator and User passwords. You can also enable Remote Management.
There are two accounts that can access the management interface through the web browser. The accounts are admin
and user. Admin has read/write access while user has read-only access. User can only view the settings but cannot
make any changes. Only the admin account has the ability to change both admin and user account passwords.
Administrator Enter a new Login Name for the Administrator
Login Name: account.
Administrator Enter a new password for the Administrator Login
Password: Name. The administrator can make changes to the
settings.
Remote Remote management allows the DIR-451 to be
Management: configured from the Internet by a web browser. A
username and password is still required to access
the Web-Management interface. In general, only a
member of your network can browse the built-in web
pages to perform Administrator tasks. This feature
enables you to perform Administrator tasks from
the remote (Internet) host.
IP Address: The Internet IP address of the computer that has
access to the Broadband Router. If you input an asterisk (*) into this field, then any computer will be able to access the Router.
Putting an asterisk (*) into this field would present a security risk and is not recommended.
Port: The port number used to access the DIR-451.
Example: http://x.x.x.x:8080 whereas x.x.x.x is the WAN IP address of the DIR-451 and 8080 is the port used for the
Web-Management interface.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Time Settings
Time Zone: Select the Time Zone from the drop-down
menu.
Daylight Saving: To select Daylight Saving time manually, select
enabled or disabled, and enter a start date and
an end date for daylight saving time.
Automatic: NTP is short for Network Time Protocol. NTP
synchronizes computer clock times in a network
of computers. This field is optional.
Manual: To manually input the time, enter the values
in these fields for the Year, Month, Day, Hour,
Minute, and Second. Click Set Time. You
can also click Copy Your Computer’s Time
Settings.
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Section 3 - Configuration
System Settings
Save Settings to Use this option to save the current router
Local Hard Drive: configuration settings to a file on the hard disk
of the computer you are using. First, click the
Save button. You will then see a file dialog,
where you can select a location and file name
for the settings.
Load Settings Use this option to load previously saved
from Local Hard router configuration settings. First, use the
Drive: Browse control to find a previously save file
of configuration settings. Then, click the Load
button to transfer those settings to the router.
Restore to Factory This option will restore all configuration settings
Default Settings: back to the settings that were in effect at the
time the router was shipped from the factory.
Any settings that have not been saved will be
lost, including any rules that you have created. If
you want to save the current router configuration
settings, use the Save button above.
Reboot: Click to reboot the router.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Firmware Upgrade
You can upgrade the firmware of the Router here. Make sure the firmware you want to use is on the local hard drive of
the computer. Click on Browse to locate the firmware file to be used for the update. Please check the D-Link support
site for firmware updates at http://support.dlink.com. You can download firmware upgrades to your hard drive from the
D-Link support site.
Firmware Click on the link in this screen to find out if there
Upgrade: is an updated firmware; if so, download the new
firmware to your hard drive.
Browse: After you have downloaded the new firmware,
click Browse in this window to locate the
firmware update on your hard drive. Click Save
Settings to complete the firmware upgrade.
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Section 3 - Configuration
DDNS
DDNS: Dynamic Domain Name System is a method of
keeping a domain name linked to a changing IP
Address. Check the box to enable DDNS.
Server Address: Select your DDNS provider from the drop-down
menu.
Host Name: Enter the Host Name that you registered with
your DDNS service provider.
Username: Enter the Username for your DDNS account.
Password: Enter the Password for your DDNS account.
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Section 3 - Configuration
System Check
Virtual Cable VCT is an advanced feature that integrates a
Tester (VCT) Info: LAN cable tester on every Ethernet port on the
router. Through the graphical user interface
(GUI), VCT can be used to remotely diagnose
and report cable faults such as opens, shorts,
swaps, and impedance mismatch. This feature
significantly reduces service calls and returns
by allowing users to easily troubleshoot their
cable connections.
Ping Test: The Ping Test is used to send Ping packets to
test if a computer is on the Internet. Enter the
IP Address that you wish to Ping, and click
Ping.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Schedules
Name: Enter a name for your new schedule.
Day(s): Select a day, a range of days, or all week to include
every day.
Time: Check All Day - 24hrs or enter a start and end
time for your schedule.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Log Settings
Send Email This option will send a copy of the router log to
Now: the email address configured in the Tools > Email
Settings screen. Refer to page 39.
Save Log File Click to save the router logs to your hard drive.
to Local Hard
Drive:
Log Type: Check System Activity to enable logging.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Syslog
The DIR-451 router keeps a running log of events and activities occurring on the router. You may send these logs to a
SysLog server on your network.
Enable Logging Check this box to send the router logs to a SysLog
to Syslog Server.
Server:
Syslog Server The address of the SysLog server that will be
IP Address: used to send the logs. You may also select
your computer from the drop-down menu (only
if receiving an IP address from the router via
DHCP).
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Section 3 - Configuration
Email Settings
The Email feature can be used to send the system log files, router alert messages, and firmware update notification
to your email address.
Enable Email When this option is enabled, router activity logs are
Notification: e-mailed to a designated email address.
From Email This email address will appear as the sender
Address: when you receive a log file or firmware upgrade
notification via email.
To Email Enter the email address where you want the email
Address: sent.
SMTP Server Enter the SMTP server address for sending email.
Address/Name: If your SMTP server requires authentication, select
this option.
Enable Check this box if your SMTP server requires
Authentication: authentication.
Account Name: Enter your account for sending email.
Password: Enter the password associated with the account.
Confirm Re-type the password associated with the
Password: account.
On Schedule: Selecting this option will send the logs via email according to schedule.
Schedule: This option is enabled when On Schedule is selected. You can select a schedule from the list of defined schedules. To create
a schedule, go to Tools > Schedules.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Device Information
This page displays the current information for the DIR-451. It will display the LAN, WAN, and Wireless information.
LAN: Displays the MAC address and the private
(local) IP settings for the router.
WAN: Displays the MAC address and the public IP
settings for the router.
Wireless: Displays the wireless MAC address and your
wireless settings such as SSID, Channel, and
Encryption type.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Log
First Page: View the first page of the log.
Last Page: View the last page of the log.
Previous: View the previous page.
Next: View the next page.
Clear: Clear the log.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Stats
The screen below displays the Traffic Statistics. Here you can view the amount of packets that pass through the DIR-451 on
both the WAN and the LAN ports. The traffic counter will reset if the device is rebooted.
Wireless Stats
The wireless client table displays a list of current connected wireless clients. This table also displays the connection
time and MAC address of the connected wireless client.
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Section 3 - Configuration
Support
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Section 4 - Security
Wireless Security
This section will show you the different levels of security you can use to protect your data from intruders. The
DIR-451 offers the following types of security:
• WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
• WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
• WPA2-PSK (Pre-Shared Key)
• WPA-PSK (Pre-Shared Key)
What is WEP?
WEP stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy. It is based on the IEEE 802.11 standard and uses the RC4 encryption
algorithm. WEP provides security by encrypting data over your wireless network so that it is protected as it is transmitted
from one wireless device to another.
To gain access to a WEP network, you must know the key. The key is a string of characters that you create. When using
WEP, you must determine the level of encryption. The type of encryption determines the key length. 128-bit encryption
requires a longer key than 64-bit encryption. Keys are defined by entering in a string in HEX (hexadecimal - using
characters 0-9, A-F) or ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange – alphanumeric characters) format.
ASCII format is provided so you can enter a string that is easier to remember. The ASCII string is converted to HEX
for use over the network. Four keys can be defined so that you can change keys easily.
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Section 4 - Security
Configure WEP
It is recommended to enable encryption on your wireless router before your wireless network adapters. Please establish
wireless connectivity before enabling encryption. Your wireless signal may degrade when enabling encryption due to
the added overhead.
1.Log into the web-based configuration by opening a web browser and entering the IP address of the router (192.168.0.1).
Click on Wireless Settings on the left side.
2. Next to Security Mode, select Enable WEP Security.
3. Next to Authentication, select Open or Shared Key.
4. Select either 64-bit or 128-bit encryption from the drop-down
menu next to WEP Encryption.
5. Next to Key Type, select either Hex or ASCII.
Hex (recommended) - Letters A-F and numbers 0-9 are valid.
ASCII - All numbers and letters are valid.
6. Next to Key 1, enter a WEP key that you create. Make sure
you enter this key exactly on all your wireless devices. You
may enter up to 4 different keys.
7. Click Save Settings to save your settings. If you are configuring the router with a wireless adapter, you will lose
connectivity until you enable WEP on your adapter and enter the same WEP key as you did on the router.
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Section 4 - Security
What is WPA?
WPA, or Wi-Fi Protected Access, is a Wi-Fi standard that was designed to improve the security features of WEP (Wired
Equivalent Privacy).
The 2 major improvements over WEP:
• Improved data encryption through the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP scrambles the keys
using a hashing algorithm and, by adding an integrity-checking feature, ensures that the keys haven’t
been tampered with. WPA2 is based on 802.11i and uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) instead
of TKIP.
• User authentication, which is generally missing in WEP, through the extensible authentication protocol
(EAP). WEP regulates access to a wireless network based on a computer’s hardware-specific MAC
address, which is relatively simple to be sniffed out and stolen. EAP is built on a more secure public-key
encryption system to ensure that only authorized network users can access the network.
WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK uses a passphrase or key to authenticate your wireless connection. The key is an alpha-numeric
password between 8 and 63 characters long. The password can include symbols (!?*&_) and spaces. This key must
be the exact same key entered on your wireless router or access point.
WPA/WPA2 incorporates user authentication through the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). EAP is built on a
more secure public key encryption system to ensure that only authorized network users can access the network.
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Section 4 - Security
Configure WPA-PSK
It is recommended to enable encryption on your wireless router before your wireless network adapters. Please establish
wireless connectivity before enabling encryption. Your wireless signal may degrade when enabling encryption due to
the added overhead.
1.Log into the web-based configuration by opening a web browser and entering the IP address of the router (192.168.0.1).
Click on Wireless Settings on the left side.
2. Next to Security Mode, select Enable WPA-Personal Security or Enable WPA2-Personal Security.
3. Next to Cipher Mode, select TKIP, AES, or Auto.
4. Next to PSK/EAP, select PSK.
5.Next to Passphrase, enter a key (passphrase). The key is an
alpha-numeric password between 8 and 63 characters
long. The password can include symbols (!?*&_) and
spaces. Make sure you enter this key exactly the same
on all other wireless clients.
6. Enter the passphrase again next to Confirmed Passphrase.
7.Click Save Settings to save your settings. If you are configuring the router with a wireless adapter, you will lose
connectivity until you enable WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) on your adapter and enter the same passphrase as you did
on the router.
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Section 4 - Security
Configure WPA (RADIUS)
It is recommended to enable encryption on your wireless router before your wireless network adapters. Please establish
wireless connectivity before enabling encryption. Your wireless signal may degrade when enabling encryption due to
the added overhead.
1.Log into the web-based configuration by opening a web browser and entering the IP address of the router (192.168.0.1).
Click on Wireless Settings on the left side.
2. Next to Security Mode, select Enable WPA-Personal Security
or Enable WPA2-Personal Security.
3. Next to Cipher Mode, select TKIP, AES, or Auto.
4. Next to PSK/EAP, select EAP.
5.Next to RADIUS Server 1 enter the IP Address of your RADIUS
server.
6.Next to Port, enter the port you are using with your RADIUS server. 1812 is the default port.
7.Next to Shared Secret, enter the security key.
8.If you have a secondary RADIUS server, enter its IP address, port, and secret key.
9.Click Apply Settings to save your settings.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
Connect to a Wireless Network
Using Windows Vista™
Windows® Vista™ users may use the built-in wireless utility. If you are using another company’s utility or Windows® 2000,
please refer to the user manual of your wireless adapter for help with connecting to a wireless network. Most utilities
will have a “site survey” option similar to the Windows® Vista™ utility as seen below.
If you receive the Wireless Networks Detected bubble, click on
the center of the bubble to access the utility.
or
Right-click on the wireless computer icon in your system tray
(lower-right corner next to the time). Select Connect to a
network.
The utility will display any available wireless networks in your
area. Click on a network (displayed using the SSID) and click
the Connect button.
If you get a good signal but cannot access the Internet, check you
TCP/IP settings for your wireless adapter. Refer to the Networking
Basics section in this manual for more information.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
Configure Wireless Security
It is recommended to enable wireless security (WEP/WPA/WPA2) on your wireless router or access point before
configuring your wireless adapter. If you are joining an existing network, you will need to know the security key or
passphrase being used.
1. Open the Windows® Vista™ Wireless Utility by right-clicking
on the wireless computer icon in your system tray (lower right
corner of screen). Select Connect to a network.
2. Highlight the wireless network (SSID) you would like to
connect to and click Connect.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
3. Enter the same security key or passphrase that is on your router
and click Connect.
It may take 20-30 seconds to connect to the wireless network. If the
connection fails, please verify that the security settings are correct.
The key or passphrase must be exactly the same as on the wireless
router.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
Connect to a Wireless Network
Using Windows® XP
Windows® XP users may use the built-in wireless utility (Zero Configuration Utility). The following instructions are for
Service Pack 2 users. If you are using another company’s utility or Windows® 2000, please refer to the user manual
of your wireless adapter for help with connecting to a wireless network. Most utilities will have a “site survey” option
similar to the Windows® XP utility as seen below.
If you receive the Wireless Networks Detected bubble, click on
the center of the bubble to access the utility.
or
Right-click on the wireless computer icon in your system tray
(lower-right corner next to the time). Select View Available
Wireless Networks.
The utility will display any available wireless networks in your
area. Click on a network (displayed using the SSID) and click the
Connect button.
If you get a good signal but cannot access the Internet, check you
TCP/IP settings for your wireless adapter. Refer to the Networking
Basics section in this manual for more information.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
Configure WEP
It is recommended to enable WEP on your wireless router or access point before configuring your wireless adapter. If
you are joining an existing network, you will need to know the WEP key being used.
1.Open the Windows® XP Wireless Utility by right-clicking
on the wireless computer icon in your system tray
(lower-right corner of screen). Select View Available
Wireless Networks.
2.Highlight the wireless network (SSID) you would like to
connect to and click Connect.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
3.The Wireless Network Connection box will appear. Enter the same
WEP key that is on your router and click Connect.
It may take 20-30 seconds to connect to the wireless network. If the
connection fails, please verify that the WEP settings are correct. The
WEP key must be exactly the same as on the wireless router.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
Configure WPA-PSK
It is recommended to enable WPA on your wireless router or access point before configuring your wireless adapter. If
you are joining an existing network, you will need to know the WPA key being used.
1. Open the Windows® XP Wireless Utility by right-clicking
on the wireless computer icon in your system tray
(lower-right corner of screen). Select View Available
Wireless Networks.
2. Highlight the wireless network (SSID) you would like to
connect to and click Connect.
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Section 5 - Connecting to a Wireless Network
3. The Wireless Network Connection box will appear. Enter the
WPA-PSK passphrase and click Connect.
It may take 20-30 seconds to connect to the wireless network. If the
connection fails, please verify that the WPA-PSK settings are correct.
The WPA-PSK passphrase must be exactly the same as on the
wireless router.
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Section 6 - Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides solutions to problems that can occur during the installation and operation of the DIR-451. Read
the following descriptions if you are having problems. (The examples below are illustrated in Windows® XP. If you have
a different operating system, the screenshots on your computer will look similar to the following examples.)
1. Why can’t I access the web-based configuration utility?
When entering the IP address of the D-Link router (192.168.0.1 for example), you are not connecting to a website on
the Internet or have to be connected to the Internet. The device has the utility built-in to a ROM chip in the device itself.
Your computer must be on the same IP subnet to connect to the web-based utility.
• Make sure you have an updated Java-enabled web browser. We recommend the following:
• Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher
• Netscape 8 or higher
• Mozilla 1.7.12 (5.0) or higher
• Opera 8.5 or higher
• Safari 1.2 or higher (with Java 1.3.1 or higher)
• Camino 0.8.4 or higher
• Firefox 1.5 or higher
• Verify physical connectivity by checking for solid link lights on the device. If you do not get a solid link light, try using
a different cable or connect to a different port on the device if possible. If the computer is turned off, the link light may
not be on.
• Disable any internet security software running on the computer. Software firewalls such as Zone Alarm, Black Ice,
Sygate, Norton Personal Firewall, and Windows® XP firewall may block access to the configuration pages. Check the
help files included with your firewall software for more information on disabling or configuring it.
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Section 6 - Troubleshooting
• Configure your Internet settings:
• Go to Start > Settings > Control Panel. Double-click the Internet Options Icon. From the Security tab,
click the button to restore the settings to their defaults.
• Click the Connection tab and set the dial-up option to Never Dial a Connection. Click the LAN Settings
button. Make sure nothing is checked. Click OK.
• Go to the Advanced tab and click the button to restore these settings to their defaults. Click OK three
times.
• Close your web browser (if open) and open it.
• Access the web management. Open your web browser and enter the IP address of your D-Link router in the address
bar. This should open the login page for your the web management.
• If you still cannot access the configuration, unplug the power to the router for 10 seconds and plug back in. Wait
about 30 seconds and try accessing the configuration. If you have multiple computers, try connecting using a different
computer.
2. What can I do if I forgot my password?
If you forgot your password, you must reset your router. Unfortunately this process will change all your settings back
to the factory defaults.
To reset the router, locate the reset button (hole) on the rear panel of the unit. With the router powered on, use a
paperclip to hold the button down for 10 seconds. Release the button and the router will go through its reboot process.
Wait about 30 seconds to access the router. The default IP address is 192.168.0.1. When logging in, the username is
admin and leave the password box empty.
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Appendix A - Wireless Basics
Wireless Basics
D-Link wireless products are based on industry standards to provide easy-to-use and compatible high-speed wireless
connectivity within your home, business or public access wireless networks. Strictly adhering to the IEEE standard,
the D-Link wireless family of products will allow you to securely access the data you want, when and where you want
it. You will be able to enjoy the freedom that wireless networking delivers.
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a cellular computer network that transmits and receives data with radio signals
instead of wires. Wireless LANs are used increasingly in both home and office environments, and public areas such
as airports, coffee shops and universities. Innovative ways to utilize WLAN technology are helping people to work and
communicate more efficiently. Increased mobility and the absence of cabling and other fixed infrastructure have proven
to be beneficial for many users.
Wireless users can use the same applications they use on a wired network. Wireless adapter cards used on laptop
and desktop systems support the same protocols as Ethernet adapter cards.
Under many circumstances, it may be desirable for mobile network devices to link to a conventional Ethernet LAN in
order to use servers, printers or an Internet connection supplied through the wired LAN. A Wireless Router is a device
used to provide this link.
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Appendix A - Wireless Basics
What is Wireless?
Wireless or Wi-Fi technology is another way of connecting your computer to the network without using wires. Wi-Fi
uses radio frequency to connect wirelessly, so you have the freedom to connect computers anywhere in your home or
office network.
Why D-Link Wireless?
D-Link is the worldwide leader and award winning designer, developer, and manufacturer of networking products.
D-Link delivers the performance you need at a price you can afford. D-Link has all the products you need to build your
network.
How does wireless work?
Wireless works similar to how cordless phone work, through radio signals to transmit data from one point A to point
B. But wireless technology has restrictions as to how you can access the network. You must be within the wireless
network range area to be able to connect your computer. There are two different types of wireless networks Wireless
Local Area Network (WLAN), and Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
In a wireless local area network, a device called an Access Point (AP) connects computers to the network. The access
point has a small antenna attached to it, which allows it to transmit data back and forth over radio signals. With an
indoor access point as seen in the picture, the signal can travel up to 300 feet. With an outdoor access point the signal
can reach out up to 30 miles to serve places like manufacturing plants, industrial locations, college and high school
campuses, airports, golf courses, and many other outdoor venues.
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Appendix A - Wireless Basics
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
Bluetooth is the industry standard wireless technology used for WPAN. Bluetooth devices in WPAN operate in a range
up to 30 feet away.
Compared to WLAN the speed and wireless operation range are both less than WLAN, but in return it doesn’t use
nearly as much power which makes it ideal for personal devices, such as mobile phones, PDAs, headphones, laptops,
speakers, and other devices that operate on batteries.
Who uses wireless?
Wireless technology as become so popular in recent years that almost everyone is using it, whether it’s for home, office,
business, D-Link has a wireless solution for it.
Home
• Gives everyone at home broadband access
• Surf the web, check email, instant message, and etc
• Gets rid of the cables around the house
• Simple and easy to use
Small Office and Home Office
• Stay on top of everything at home as you would at office
• Remotely access your office network from home
• Share Internet connection and printer with multiple computers
• No need to dedicate office space
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Appendix A - Wireless Basics
Where is wireless used?
Wireless technology is expanding everywhere not just at home or office. People like the freedom of mobility and it’s
becoming so popular that more and more public facilities now provide wireless access to attract people. The wireless
connection in public places is usually called “hotspots”.
Using a D-Link Cardbus Adapter with your laptop, you can access the hotspot to connect to Internet from remote
locations like Airports, Hotels, Coffee Shops, Libraries, Restaurants, and Convention Centers.
Wireless network is easy to setup, but if you’re installing it for the first time it could be quite a task not knowing where to
start. That’s why we’ve put together a few setup steps and tips to help you through the process of setting up a wireless
network.
Tips
Here are a few things to keep in mind, when you install a wireless network.
Centralize your router or Access Point
Make sure you place the router/access point in a centralized location within your network for the best performance. Try
to place the router/access point as high as possible in the room, so the signal gets dispersed throughout your home.
If you have a two-story home, you may need a repeater to boost the signal to extend the range.
Eliminate Interference
Place home appliances such as cordless telephones, microwaves, and televisions as far away as possible from the
router/access point. This would significantly reduce any interference that the appliances might cause since they operate
on same frequency.
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Appendix A - Wireless Basics
Security
Don’t let you next-door neighbors or intruders connect to your wireless network. Secure your wireless network by turning
on the WPA or WEP security feature on the router. Refer to product manual for detail information on how to set it up.
Wireless Modes
There are basically two modes of networking:
•Infrastructure – All wireless clients will connect to an access point or wireless router.
•Ad-Hoc – Directly connecting to another computer, for peer-to-peer communication, using wireless network
adapters on each computer, such as two or more WNA-2330 wireless network Cardbus adapters.
An Infrastructure network contains an Access Point or wireless router. All the wireless devices, or clients, will connect
to the wireless router or access point.
An Ad-Hoc network contains only clients, such as laptops with wireless cardbus adapters. All the adapters must be in
Ad-Hoc mode to communicate.
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Appendix B - Networking Basics
Networking Basics
Check your IP address
After you install your new D-Link adapter, by default, the TCP/IP settings should be set to obtain an IP address from a
DHCP server (i.e. wireless router) automatically. To verify your IP address, please follow the steps below.
Click on Start > Run. In the run box type cmd and click OK. (Windows® Vista™ users type cmd in the Start Search
box.)
At the prompt, type ipconfig and press Enter.
This will display the IP address, subnet mask, and
the default gateway of your adapter.
If the address is 0.0.0.0, check your adapter
installation, security settings, and the settings
on your router. Some firewall software programs
may block a DHCP request on newly installed
adapters.
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Appendix B - Networking Basics
Statically Assign an IP address
If you are not using a DHCP capable gateway/router, or you need to assign a static IP address, please follow the steps
below:
Step 1
Windows® Vista™ - Click on Start > Control Panel > Network and Internet > Network and Sharing Center > Manage
Network Connections.
®
Windows XP -
Click on Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.
Windows® 2000 - From the desktop, right-click My Network Places > Properties.
Step 2
Right-click on the Local Area Connection which represents your network adapter and select Properties.
Step 3
Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
Step 4
Click Use the following IP address and enter an IP address that is on the same
subnet as your network or the LAN IP address on your router.
Example: If the router´s LAN IP address is 192.168.0.1, make your IP address
192.168.0.X where X is a number between 2 and 99. Make sure that the number
you choose is not in use on the network. Set Default Gateway the same as the LAN
IP address of your router (192.168.0.1).
Set Primary DNS the same as the LAN IP address of your router (192.168.0.1). The
Secondary DNS is not needed or you may enter a DNS server from your ISP.
Step 5
Click OK twice to save your settings.
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Appendix C - Technical Specifications
Technical Specifications
Standards
• IEEE 802.11g
• IEEE 802.11b
• IEEE 802.3
• IEEE 802.3u
Wireless Signal Rates*
• 54Mbps • 48Mbps
• 36Mbps
• 24Mbps
• 18Mbps • 12Mbps
• 11Mbps • 9Mbps
• 6Mbps • 5.5Mbps
• 2Mbps • 1Mbps
Security
• WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access (TKIP, MIC,
IV Expansion, Shared Key Authentication)
• 802.1x
• 64/128-bit WEP
• WPA/WPA2
• WPA/PSK
• WPA2/PSK
Modulation Technology
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Receiver Sensitivity
• 54Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-68dBm)
• 48Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-68dBm)
• 36Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-75dBm)
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
• 24Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-79dBm)
• 18Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-82dBm)
• 12Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-84dBm)
• 11Mbps CCK,
8% PER,-82dBm)
• 9Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-87dBm)
• 6Mbps OFDM, 10% PER,-88dBm)
• 5.5Mbps CCK, 8% PER,-85dBm)
• 2Mbps QPSK, 8% PER,-86dBm)
• 1Mbps BPSK, 8% PER,-89dBm)
VPN Pass Through/ Multi-Sessions
• PPTP
• L2TP
• IPSec
Device Management
• Web-based Internet Explorer v6 or later; Netscape
Navigator v6 or later; or other Java-enabled browsers
• DHCP Server and Client
Wireless Frequency Range
2.4GHz to 2.462GHz
Wireless Operating Range
• Indoors - up to 328 ft. (100 meters)
• Outdoors- up to 1312 ft. (400 meters)
Wireless Transmit Power
15dBm ± 2dBm
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Appendix C - Technical Specifications
External Antenna Type
Single detachable reverse SMA
Dimensions
• L = 5.6 (142mm)
• W = 4.3 (109mm)
• H = 1.2 inches (31mm)
Advanced Firewall Features
• NAT with VPN Pass-through (Network Address Translation)
Weight
• MAC Filtering
7.8 oz (0.22kg)
• URL Filtering
• Domain Blocking
Warranty
• Scheduling
1 Year
Operating Temperature
32°F to 131°F ( 0°C to 55°C)
Humidity
95% maximum (non-condensing)
Safety and Emissions
FCC
LEDs
• Power
• Status
• WAN
• WLAN (Wireless Connection)
• LAN (10/100)
• USB
* Maximum wireless signal rate derived from IEEE Standard 802.11g specifications. Actual data throughput will vary. Network conditions and
environmental factors, including volume of network traffic, building materials and construction, and network overhead, lower actual data throughput
rate. Environmental factors will adversely affect wireless signal range.
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64
Appendix D - Contacting Technical Support
Contacting Technical Support
U.S. and Canadian customers can contact D-Link technical support through our web site or by phone.
Before you contact technical support, please have the following ready:
• Model number of the product (e.g. DIR-451)
• Hardware Revision (located on the label on the bottom of the router (e.g. rev A1))
• Serial Number (s/n number located on the label on the bottom of the router).
You can find software updates and user documentation on the D-Link website as well as frequently asked questions
and answers to technical issues.
For customers within the United States:
For customers within Canada:
Phone Support:
(877) 45-DLink
(877) 453-5465
Internet Support:
http://support.dlink.com
D-Link DIR-451 User Manual
Phone Support:
(800) 361-5265
Internet Support:
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65
Appendix E - Warranty
Warranty
Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, D-Link Systems, Inc. (“D-Link”) provides this Limited Warranty:
• Only to the person or entity that originally purchased the product from D-Link or its authorized reseller or distributor, and
• Only for products purchased and delivered within the fifty states of the United States, the District of Columbia, U.S. Possessions or Protectorates, U.S. Military Installations, or addresses with an APO or FPO.
Limited Warranty:
D-Link warrants that the hardware portion of the D-Link product described below (“Hardware”) will be free from material defects in
workmanship and materials under normal use from the date of original retail purchase of the product, for the period set forth below
(“Warranty Period”), except as otherwise stated herein.
• Hardware (excluding power supplies and fans): One (1) year
• Power supplies and fans: One (1) year
• Spare parts and spare kits: Ninety (90) days
The customer’s sole and exclusive remedy and the entire liability of D-Link and its suppliers under this Limited Warranty will be, at
D-Link’s option, to repair or replace the defective Hardware during the Warranty Period at no charge to the original owner or to refund the
actual purchase price paid. Any repair or replacement will be rendered by D-Link at an Authorized D-Link Service Office. The replacement
hardware need not be new or have an identical make, model or part. D-Link may, at its option, replace the defective Hardware or any part
thereof with any reconditioned product that D-Link reasonably determines is substantially equivalent (or superior) in all material respects
to the defective Hardware. Repaired or replacement hardware will be warranted for the remainder of the original Warranty Period or ninety
(90) days, whichever is longer, and is subject to the same limitations and exclusions. If a material defect is incapable of correction, or if
D-Link determines that it is not practical to repair or replace the defective Hardware, the actual price paid by the original purchaser for the
defective Hardware will be refunded by D-Link upon return to D-Link of the defective Hardware. All Hardware or part thereof that is replaced
by D-Link, or for which the purchase price is refunded, shall become the property of D-Link upon replacement or refund.
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Appendix E - Warranty
Limited Software Warranty:
D-Link warrants that the software portion of the product (“Software”) will substantially conform to D-Link’s then current functional specifications
for the Software, as set forth in the applicable documentation, from the date of original retail purchase of the Software for a period of ninety
(90) days (“Software Warranty Period”), provided that the Software is properly installed on approved hardware and operated as contemplated
in its documentation. D-Link further warrants that, during the Software Warranty Period, the magnetic media on which D-Link delivers the
Software will be free of physical defects. The customer’s sole and exclusive remedy and the entire liability of D-Link and its suppliers under
this Limited Warranty will be, at D-Link’s option, to replace the non-conforming Software (or defective media) with software that substantially
conforms to D-Link’s functional specifications for the Software or to refund the portion of the actual purchase price paid that is attributable
to the Software. Except as otherwise agreed by DLink in writing, the replacement Software is provided only to the original licensee, and
is subject to the terms and conditions of the license granted by D-Link for the Software. Replacement Software will be warranted for the
remainder of the original Warranty Period and is subject to the same limitations and exclusions. If a material non-conformance is incapable
of correction, or if D-Link determines in its sole discretion that it is not practical to replace the non-conforming Software, the price paid by
the original licensee for the non-conforming Software will be refunded by D-Link; provided that the non-conforming Software (and all copies
thereof) is first returned to D-Link. The license granted respecting any Software for which a refund is given automatically terminates.
Non-Applicability of Warranty:
The Limited Warranty provided hereunder for Hardware and Software portions of D-Link’s products will not be applied to and does not cover
any refurbished product and any product purchased through the inventory clearance or liquidation sale or other sales in which D-Link, the
sellers, or the liquidators expressly disclaim their warranty obligation pertaining to the product and in that case, the product is being sold
“As-Is” without any warranty whatsoever including, without limitation, the Limited Warranty as described herein, notwithstanding anything
stated herein to the contrary.
Submitting A Claim:
The customer shall return the product to the original purchase point based on its return policy. In case the return policy period has expired
and the product is within warranty, the customer shall submit a claim to D-Link as outlined below:
• The customer must submit with the product as part of the claim a written description of the Hardware defect or Software
nonconformance in sufficient detail to allow D-Link to confirm the same, along with proof of purchase of the product (such
as a copy of the dated purchase invoice for the product) if the product is not registered.
• The customer must obtain a Case ID Number from D-Link Technical Support at 1-877-453-5465, who will attempt to assist
the customer in resolving any suspected defects with the product. If the product is considered defective, the customer must
obtain a Return Material Authorization (“RMA”) number by completing the RMA form and entering the assigned Case ID
Number at https://rma.dlink.com/.
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Appendix E - Warranty
• After an RMA number is issued, the defective product must be packaged securely in the original or other suitable shipping
package to ensure that it will not be damaged in transit, and the RMA number must be prominently marked on the outside
of the package. Do not include any manuals or accessories in the shipping package. DLink will only replace the defective
portion of the product and will not ship back any accessories.
• The customer is responsible for all in-bound shipping charges to D-Link. No Cash on Delivery (“COD”) is allowed. Products
sent COD will either be rejected by D-Link or become the property of D-Link. Products shall be fully insured by the customer
and shipped to D-Link Systems, Inc., 17595 Mt. Herrmann, Fountain Valley, CA 92708. D-Link will not be held responsible
for any packages that are lost in transit to D-Link. The repaired or replaced packages will be shipped to the customer via
UPS Ground or any common carrier selected by D-Link. Return shipping charges shall be prepaid by D-Link if you use an
address in the United States, otherwise we will ship the product to you freight collect. Expedited shipping is available upon
request and provided shipping charges are prepaid by the customer. D-Link may reject or return any product that is not
packaged and shipped in strict compliance with the foregoing requirements, or for which an RMA number is not visible from
the outside of the package. The product owner agrees to pay D-Link’s reasonable handling and return shipping charges
for any product that is not packaged and shipped in accordance with the foregoing requirements, or that is determined by
D-Link not to be defective or non-conforming.
What Is Not Covered:
The Limited Warranty provided herein by D-Link does not cover:
Products that, in D-Link’s judgment, have been subjected to abuse, accident, alteration, modification, tampering, negligence, misuse, faulty
installation, lack of reasonable care, repair or service in any way that is not contemplated in the documentation for the product, or if the
model or serial number has been altered, tampered with, defaced or removed; Initial installation, installation and removal of the product for
repair, and shipping costs; Operational adjustments covered in the operating manual for the product, and normal maintenance; Damage
that occurs in shipment, due to act of God, failures due to power surge, and cosmetic damage; Any hardware, software, firmware or other
products or services provided by anyone other than D-Link; and Products that have been purchased from inventory clearance or liquidation
sales or other sales in which D-Link, the sellers, or the liquidators expressly disclaim their warranty obligation pertaining to the product.
While necessary maintenance or repairs on your Product can be performed by any company, we recommend that you use only an Authorized
D-Link Service Office. Improper or incorrectly performed maintenance or repair voids this Limited Warranty.
Disclaimer of Other Warranties:
EXCEPT FOR THE LIMITED WARRANTY SPECIFIED HEREIN, THE PRODUCT IS PROVIDED “AS-IS” WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
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Appendix E - Warranty
IF ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY CANNOT BE DISCLAIMED IN ANY TERRITORY WHERE A PRODUCT IS SOLD, THE DURATION OF
SUCH IMPLIED WARRANTY SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THE APPLICABLE WARRANTY PERIOD SET FORTH ABOVE.
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY COVERED UNDER THE LIMITED WARRANTY PROVIDED HEREIN, THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY,
SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT IS WITH THE PURCHASER OF THE PRODUCT.
Limitation of Liability:
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, D-LINK IS NOT LIABLE UNDER ANY CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY
OR OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE THEORY FOR ANY LOSS OF USE OF THE PRODUCT, INCONVENIENCE OR DAMAGES OF ANY
CHARACTER, WHETHER DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR
LOSS OF GOODWILL, LOSS OF REVENUE OR PROFIT, WORK STOPPAGE, COMPUTER FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION, FAILURE OF
OTHER EQUIPMENT OR COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO WHICH D-LINK’S PRODUCT IS CONNECTED WITH, LOSS OF INFORMATION
OR DATA CONTAINED IN, STORED ON, OR INTEGRATED WITH ANY PRODUCT RETURNED TO D-LINK FOR WARRANTY SERVICE)
RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THE PRODUCT, RELATING TO WARRANTY SERVICE, OR ARISING OUT OF ANY BREACH OF
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY, EVEN IF D-LINK HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE SOLE REMEDY
FOR A BREACH OF THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY IS REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OR REFUND OF THE DEFECTIVE OR
NONCONFORMING PRODUCT. THE MAXIMUM LIABILITY OF D-LINK UNDER THIS WARRANTY IS LIMITED TO THE PURCHASE
PRICE OF THE PRODUCT COVERED BY THE WARRANTY. THE FOREGOING EXPRESS WRITTEN WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES
ARE EXCLUSIVE AND ARE IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER WARRANTIES OR REMEDIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY.
Governing Law:
This Limited Warranty shall be governed by the laws of the State of California. Some states do not allow exclusion or limitation of incidental
or consequential damages, or limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the foregoing limitations and exclusions may not apply.
This Limited Warranty provides specific legal rights and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.
Trademarks:
D-Link is a registered trademark of D-Link Systems, Inc. Other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective
owners.
Copyright Statement:
No part of this publication or documentation accompanying this product may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make
any derivative such as translation, transformation, or adaptation without permission from D-Link Corporation/D-Link Systems, Inc., as
stipulated by the United States Copyright Act of 1976 and any amendments thereto. Contents are subject to change without prior notice.
Copyright ©2007 by D-Link Corporation/D-Link Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Appendix E - Warranty
CE Mark Warning:
This is a Class B product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user may be required
to take adequate measures.
Federal Communication Commission Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment
generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off
and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
FCC Caution:
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate
this equipment.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement:
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled environment. This equipment should be installed
and operated with minimum distance 20cm between the radiator & your body. This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in
conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
IEEE 802.11b or 802.11g operation of this product in the U.S.A. is firmware-limited to channels 1 through 11.
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Appendix E - Warranty
Industry Canada Statement
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1) this device may not cause interference and
2) this device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the device
This device has been designed to operate with an antenna having a maximum gain of 2dBi.
Antenna having a higher gain is strictly prohibited per regulations of Industry Canada. The required antenna impedance is 50 ohms.
To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so chosen that the EIRP is not more than
required for successful communication.
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Appendix E - Warranty
GNU/Linux GPL
• “GPL Software” means GPL software licensed to you under the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation (GPL). A copy of the GPL is included below.
• “Open Source Software” means various open source software components licensed under the terms of applicable open
source license agreements included in the materials relating to such software. Open Source Software is composed
of individual software components, each of which has its own copyright and its own applicable license conditions.
The Open Source Software licenses can be found in the gpl.pdf file, other materials accompanying the software
package, the documentation or corresponding source files available from http://support.dlink.com/GPL.asp.
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Appendix E - Warranty
GNU General Public License
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply
it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have.
You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps:
(1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author’s protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that hat they have is not the original,
so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors’ reputations.
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Appendix E - Warranty
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program
will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent
must be licensed for everyone’s free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be
distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The “Program”, below, refers to any such program or work, and a “work
based on the Program” means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation
is included without limitation in the term “modification”.) Each licensee is addressed as “you”.
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on
the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all
the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of
this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange
for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any
change.
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Appendix E - Warranty
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program
or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running
for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate
copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users
may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
(Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based
on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can
be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections
when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the
Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire
whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise
the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a
volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the
terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the
terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source
code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This
alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or
executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
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Appendix E - Warranty
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control
compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that
is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system
on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to
copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy
the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated
so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify
or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore,
by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do
so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from
the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any
further restrictions on the recipients’ exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by
third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent
issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this
License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your
obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program
at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies
directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from
distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
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Appendix E - Warranty
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such
claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by
public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in
reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through
any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation
excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this
License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such
new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies
to it and “any later version”, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10.If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the
author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software
Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status
of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE
EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY
SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
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Appendix E - Warranty
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER,
OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA
OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF
THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
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Appendix F - Registration
Registration
Product registration is entirely voluntary and failure to complete or return this form will not diminish your warranty
rights.
Version 1.3
December 7, 2007
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