Danfoss VLT 6000 Instruction manual

Instruction Manual
Cascade Controller Option
VLT® 6000 HVAC
VLT® 8000 AQUA
Cascade Controller Option
■
Contents
Safety and precautions
3
4
4
Operation modes
6
6
7
7
8
................................................................................
Safety regulations ...................................................................................................
Warning against unintended start ...........................................................................
............................................................................................
Cascade Control Operation ....................................................................................
Standard Cascade Control Mode ...........................................................................
Lead Pump Alternation ...........................................................................................
Master/Slave Cascade Control Mode .....................................................................
Installation and Wiring Instructions
9
9
17
18
19
20
21
Changed Drive functions
22
22
23
23
User Interface
24
24
24
24
24
25
27
27
28
28
AFD and Cascade Controller Setup
29
29
30
31
31
33
37
.....................................................
Installing the Cascade Controller Option Card ........................................................
Standard cascade control wiring diagram ...............................................................
Optional Hand/Off/Auto Switch ..............................................................................
Lead Pump Alternation Wiring Diagram ..................................................................
Master drive in master/slave control wiring diagram ................................................
Slave drive in master/slave control wiring diagram ..................................................
............................................................................
Introduction ............................................................................................................
Changed systemstop functions ..............................................................................
Serial communications (parameter 500) ..................................................................
...................................................................................................
How to use the LCP for programming ....................................................................
Control keys for parameter setup ...........................................................................
Indicator lamps .......................................................................................................
Drive Control ..........................................................................................................
Display modes .......................................................................................................
Changing data ........................................................................................................
Parameter setting procedure ..................................................................................
Example of how to change parameter data ............................................................
Manual initialization .................................................................................................
......................................................
Introduction ............................................................................................................
Quick Menu Summary ............................................................................................
Language ...............................................................................................................
Motor nameplate data ............................................................................................
Relay outputs .........................................................................................................
Alternate programming ...........................................................................................
Standard Cascade Controller Setup
..................................................... 39
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 39
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
1
Cascade Controller Option
Initial Setup ............................................................................................................ 40
Alternate programming ........................................................................................... 49
Master/Slave Cascade Control Setup
50
50
50
51
55
55
System Optimization
57
57
57
58
Feedback Transmitter Wiring
59
59
59
59
60
60
61
...................................................
Introduction ............................................................................................................
Initial Setup ............................................................................................................
Step 1: Master drive programming .........................................................................
Step 2: Slave Drive Programming ...........................................................................
Alternate programming: ..........................................................................................
.....................................................................................
System start up and final adjustments ....................................................................
Best efficiency frequency ........................................................................................
Optimization of the process regulator .....................................................................
...................................................................
Connecting feedback transmitters ..........................................................................
Single 0 - 10 V feedback transmitter connection: ...................................................
Two 0 - 10 V feedback transmitter connections: .....................................................
Two 4 - 20 mA feedback transmitters connection: ..................................................
Two feedback signals and two setpoints: ...............................................................
Programming example ...........................................................................................
Parameter group 700, all parameters
................................................... 62
Parameter group 700 definitions ............................................................................. 62
Service parameters
........................................................................................ 64
Display information ................................................................................................. 64
Relay status ........................................................................................................... 65
Index
2
...................................................................................................................... 66
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
and precautions
Cascade Controller Option
for
175ZA677.12
■ Safety
Safety and
precautions
VLT 6000 HVAC
and
VLT 8000 AQUA
Operating Instructions
Software version: 2.x
These Operating Instructions can be used with all
cascade controller options with software version 2.x.
The software version can be seen from parameter 624.
When reading through this Operating Instructions,
you will come across various symbols that
require special attention.
The symbols used are the following:
Indicates a general warning.
NOTE
Indicates something to be noted by the reader.
Indicates a high-voltage warning.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
3
Cascade Controller Option
The voltage of the AFD is dangerous
whenever the equipment is connected
to mains. Incorrect installation of the
motor or the frequency converter may cause
damage to the equipment, serious personal injury
or death. Consequently, the instructions in this
manual, as well as national and local rules and safety
regulations, must be complied with.
NOTE
Using the MCT 10 Set-up Software or the
FC protocol for serial communication can
cause unintended behaviour of motors
and plant and must be avoided.
6. Do not remove the plugs for the motor and mains
supply while the AFD is connected to mains. Check
that the mains supply has been disconnected
and that the necessary time has passed before
removing motor and mains plugs.
7. Reliable galvanic isolation (PELV) is not complied
with if the RFI switch is placed in OFF position.
This means that all control in- and outputs
can only be considered low-voltage terminals
with basic galvanic isolation.
8. Please note that the AFD has more voltage inputs
than L1, L2, L3 when the DC-bus terminals are
used. Check that all voltage inputs have been
disconnected and that the necessary time has
passed before repair work is commenced.
■ Safety regulations
■ Warning against unintended start
1. The AFD must be disconnected from mains
1. The motor can be brought to a stop by
if repair work is to be carried out.Check that
means of digital commands, bus commands,
the mains supply has been disconnected and
references or a local stop, while the frequency
that the necessary time has passed before
converter is connected to mains.
removing motor and mains plugs.
If personal safety considerations make it necessary
2. The [OFF/STOP] key on the control panel of the AFD
to ensure that no unintended start occurs, these
does not disconnect the equipment from mains
stop functions are not sufficient.
and is thus not to be used as a safety switch.
2. While parameters are being changed, the
motor may start. Consequently, the stop key
NOTE
[OFF/ STOP] must always be activated, after
The IMMEDIATE STOP function will release all
which data can be modified.
slave relays and can not be used as a safety
switch. The SEQUENCED STOP will stage off
the slave relays and can not be used as a safety switch
3. Correct protective earthing of the equipment
must be established, the user must be protected
against supply voltage, and the motor must be
protected against overload in accordance with
applicable national and local regulations.
4. The earth leakage currents are higher than 3.5 mA.
5. Protection against motor overload is included
in the factory setting. Parameter 117, Motor
thermal protection, default value is ETR trip
1. For the North American market: The ETR
functions ensure overload protection of the motor,
Class 20, in accordance with NEC.
NOTE
Motor Thermal Protection is initialised at 1.0 x
rated motor current and rated motor frequency
(see parameter 117, Motor thermal protection).
4
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
5
Safety and
precautions
Touching the electrical parts may be fatal - even after the equipment has
been disconnected from mains.
6002 - 6005, 200-240:
wait at least 4 minutes
6006/8006 - 6062 - 6082, 200-240:
wait at least 15 minutes
6002 - 6005, 380-460 V:
wait at least 4 minutes
6006/8006 - 6072/8072, 380-460/480 V:
wait at least 15 minutes
6102/8102 - 6352/8352, 380-460/480 V:
wait at least 20 minutes
6402/8452 - 6602/8652, 380-460/480 V:
wait at least 40 minutes
6002/8002 - 6006/8006, 525-600 V:
wait at least 4 minutes
6008/8008 - 6027/8027, 525-600 V:
wait at least 15 minutes
6032/8032 - 6072/8072, 525-600 V:
wait at least 30 minutes
6102/8052 - 6402/8402, 525-600/690 V:
wait at least 20 minutes
6502-8502 - 6652/8652, 525-600/690 V:
wait at least 40 minutes
175ZA678.13
Warning:
Cascade Controller Option
■ Operation
modes
■ Cascade Control Operation
With the cascade controller option card, the AFD
(Adjustable Frequency Drive) can automatically control
up to five motors. Staging motors on or off is done
cyclically, in accordance with operating hours. This
function assures equal use over time and eliminates
concern about starting a seldom used motor. The
cascade controller includes four Form C relays having
contacts rated 250 V, 2 A (non-inductive) that are
used to control the motor contactors. The controller
option card installs in the AFD control card cassette
and can be ordered factory installed. The cascade
controller is effective in applications where multiple
motors are used to control a common flow, level or
pressure involving pumps, fans, and blowers.
Feedback Signals
An important advantage to the cascade controller
option is that it is based upon the AFDs advanced
PID controller. This means that programming is
done in selected units of measurement appropriate
to the application and that the feedback and
setpoints can be displayed. Unlike drives that base
staging upon frequency, feedback allows precise
control in response to actual system demand. The
AFDs PID controller accommodates two feedback
signals and two setpoints which allows regulating
a system with different setpoint zones.
In pumping applications, when a pressure feedback
signal is not practical, the feedback signal may be
taken near the pump by measuring flow. When the
flow rate is low, the pressure needed is low. At
increased flow, the pumps need to provide greater
pressure to compensate for the increased pressure
drop in the piping. The setpoint should be adjusted
to match the flow in these cases. While difficult to
accomplish with standard PID controllers, the cascade
controller provides an easy solution. By programming
one setpoint for minimum flow and the other for
maximum flow, the AFD calculates intermediate
setpoints based on the flow required.
Cascade control operation depends on the general
system design. Two operational modes are available:
1. Standard Cascade Control, with one speed
controlled pump/fan and up to four fixed speed
pumps/fans. Lead pump alternation makes it
possible to average out the use of the pumps. This
is done by cycling the leadpump in the system.
Up to four pumps can be controlled this way.
Programming for this mode is described in Chapter
6, Standard Cascade Control Mode Setup.
2. Master / Slave Cascade Control has all pumps/fans
speed controlled through the Master drive.
Programming is described in Chapter 7,
Master/Slave Cascade Control Mode Setup.
Standard Cascade Control Mode
6
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
The motors can be of equal or differing sizes. The
controller offers a selection of eight pre-defined pump
combinations. Selections allow mixing pumps of
100%, 200% and 300% capacity. This provides a
dynamic capacity range of 9 to 1. The AFDs internal
PID controller directs the cascade option card based
upon the feedback signal. The cascade controller
will continue operation of the constant speed motors
to meet demand should the drive trip.
De-stage Timer
A de-stage timer takes effect in standard control when
the drive runs continuously at minimum speed with
one or more constant speed motors running. Since a
variable speed pump at minimum speed adds no or
very limited flow to the system, it is advisable to stop
a constant speed motor and allow the drive to provide
the required flow. The de-stage timer is programmable
to avoid frequent staging of the constant speed motors.
When the master drive is the only one running, the
drive’s sleep mode can discontinue system operation
when not needed while staying ready to start on
demand. Variable speed control with fixed speed
motors optimizes energy consumption and avoids
damaging a pump running at near no flow condition
Level Control
With level control, multiple pumps can be used
to keep a constant level in applications such as a
buffer tank. Typically, a water level sensor provides a
feedback signal for the AFDs built-in PID controller.
Precise level control is maintained in response to
the system setpoint. With a cascade controller,
additional fixed speed pumps will be staged on or
off, as required, to maintain level control.
Operation
modes
■ Standard Cascade Control Mode
In standard cascade control, the AFD with the Cascade
Controller option card installed controls a variable
speed motor and is used to stage additional constant
speed motors on and off. By varying the speed of
the initial motor, variable speed control is provided
for the system. This maintains constant pressure
while eliminating pressure surges, resulting in reduced
system stress and quieter operation.
Level Control in Standard Cascade Control Mode
■ Lead Pump Alternation
The function makes it possible to cycle the AFD
between the pumps in the system (max. 4 pumps).
In this way the use of all the pumps can be averaged
out and there is no risk that a pump gets stuck due
to corrosion and lack of operation. This reduces
maintenance, increased reliability and increases lifetime
of the system. The changeover of the AFD from one
pump to the other is controlled by means of a timer, so
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
that it is possible to set the desired time interval between
a change. Only 100% capacity pumps can be used.
7
Cascade Controller Option
■ Master/Slave Cascade Control Mode
Master/slave systems control multiple pumps in
parallel at the same output frequency. Pumps are
staged on and off as required to meet the system’s
demand. The master/slave control mode of operation
provides maximum system efficiency.
In master/slave control, each motor has its own
adjustable frequency drive which responds to control
from a master drive which contains the cascade
option card. The master drive sends a pulse speed
reference signal to the drives under control to ensure
that all operate at the same speed. The motors
must be of equal size. In some applications, it may
be advisable for a second drive with a cascade
card to act as an auxiliary controller.
Sequential staging of drives on or off is provided by
the master drive in response to system feedback,
maintaining precise setpoint control. Pressure surge
and water hammer are eliminated. Because all
of the operating pumps run at the same speed,
the possibility of running a pump continuously into
a closed check valve is all but eliminated. This
reduces pump maintenance by minimizing the
wear on pump seals and bearings.
Danfoss has available the Multiple Unit Staging
Efficiency Calculator (MUSEC), a free software program
available on the Danfoss website. By entering pump
and system data, MUSEC provides the programmer
with master drive on and off staging frequencies at
optimal efficiency for each pump: for example, three
motors providing flow at reduced speed rather than
two at full speed. This often results in 10% to 15%
additional savings over similar control systems. For
a free download, go to www.danfoss.com/drives
and go to software download.
Best efficiency is attained when a pressure transmitter
is placed at the farthest significant load in the system.
If this is not practical and the pressure transmitter
is placed close to the discharge of the pumps, or
when pump data and system characteristics are
not accessible, alternative ways of programming
the cascade controller are provided.
Master/Slave Cascade Control Mode
8
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Installation
and Wiring Instructions
■ Installing the Cascade Controller Option Card
This chapter provides instructions for installing
the cascade controller option card into an AFD.
In Standard cascade control mode, the option
card installs into the AFD controlling up to four
additional motors. In Master/Slave mode, the
option card installs in the Master drive controlling
up to four additional slave drives.
Relay output connections vary according to the mode
of operation and configuration of the system. Typical
wiring diagrams are also provided in this chapter.
Adhere to all safety guidelines provided in the VLT
6000 Operating Instructions MG.60.AX.YY and the VLT
8000 Operating Instructions MG.80.AX.YY respectively.
For instructions on drive operation, see the Operating
Instructions manual for your AFD series.
Torque tightening requirements
Tighten all fittings described in this chapter to 7.1
in-lbs (0.8 Nm), unless specified otherwise.
Optional transmitter connections
Terminals 12 and 13 provide a 24 VDC, 200 mA
power supply. This supply can be used to power
remote transmitters without need for an external
power supply. See wiring instructions in Chapter
10, Feedback Transmitter Wiring.
DANGER
AFD contains dangerous voltages when
connected to line voltage. Touching the
electrical parts may be fatal - even after
the equipment has been disconnected from mains.
WARNING
Only a competent electrician should
carry out electrical installation.
Improper installation of motor or AFD
can cause equipment failure, serious injury
or death. Follow this manual and National
Electrical Code and local safety codes.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
wait
at least 4 minutes
at least 15 minutes
at least 4 minutes
at least 15 minutes
at least 20 minutes
at least 40 minutes
at least 4 minutes
at least 15 minutes
at least 30 minutes
at least 20 minutes
at least 40 minutes
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
6002 - 6005, 200-240 V:
6006/8006 - 6062/8062, 200-240 V:
6002 - 6005, 380-460 V:
6006/8006 - 6072/8072, 380-460/480 V:
6102/8102 - 6352/8352, 380-460/480 V:
6402/8402 - 6602/8652, 380-460/480 V:
6002/8002 - 6006/8006, 525-600 V:
6008/8008 - 6027/8027, 525-600 V:
6032/8032 - 6072/8072, 525-600 V:
6102/8052 - 6402/8402, 525-600/690 V:
6502/8502 - 6652/8652, 525-600/690 V::
CAUTION
Electronic components of AFD are
sensitive to electrostatic discharge
(ESD). ESD can reduce performance
or destroy sensitive electronic components.
Follow proper ESD procedures during installation
or servicing to prevent damage.
9
Cascade Controller Option
■ 1. Access to Control Card Cassette
• Remove Local Control Panel (LCP) keypad by
pulling out from top by hand. LCP connector
on panel back will disconnect.
•
•
Remove terminal protective cover by gently
prying with screw driver at top notch and lift
cover out of guide pin fittings.
Open access cover to internal AFD components.
(Drive configurations vary.)
■ 2. Disconnect AFD Drive Control Wiring
• Remove control wiring by unplugging
connector terminals.
• Remove wiring clamp by removing two
screws. Save for reassembly.
• Loosen two captive screws securing control
board cassette to AFD chassis.
10
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ 3. Remove AFD Cassette and Ribbon Cables
• Lift control board cassette from bottom.
•
•
Disconnect two ribbon cables from AFD
control board.
Unhinge cassette at top to remove.
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
■ 4. Remove LCP Keypad Cradle
• Push tabs at side of LCP cradle to release clips.
• Pull out to disengage and lift cradle free.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
11
Cascade Controller Option
■ 5. Cascade Option Card Ribbon Cable Routing
• Route ribbon cables from cascade controller
option card through slot at side of AFD control
board cassette. Option card mounts with
component side down.
• Feed plastic option card insulation pad through
terminal opening in control board cassette.
• Insert edge of option card into slot (A)
in side of cassette.
• Align opposite side of card with mounting
holes (B) provided.
■ 6. Secure Option Card
• Secure option card to control board cassette with
3 self-tapping screws and washers provided.
Use a Torx T-10 screw driver.
12
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ 7. Connect Option Card Ribbon Cable to
VLT Control Board
• Pull up collar (A) of control board ribbon cable socket.
• DO NOT remove blue insulation on end of
option card ribbon cable. Insert ribbon cable
into corresponding socket (B) on AFD control
board and push collar closed. Be sure not
to crimp ribbon cables.
• Repeat procedure for all ribbon cables.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
■ 8. Chassis Ground Connection
• Location of holes to mount grounding strips in AFD
chassis can vary with drive configuration.
• When applicable, remove mounting screws
located in chassis using Torx T-20 screw driver
and save for reassembly. Otherwise, grounding
strips attach with screws provided.
13
Cascade Controller Option
■ 9. Install Chassis Ground Connections
• Align ground strips over corresponding screw
holes. (Strip with fewest contact points mounts
on right side of chassis.)
• Replace screws removed and add additional
screws provided, as necessary. Use a
Torx T-20 screw driver.
■ 10. Replace AFD Control Board Cassette
• Attach LCP keypad craddle to AFD control
board cassette removed in step 4. Ensure not
to crimp option card ribbon cables.
• Connect two ribbon cables to control board in
corresonding connectors as removed in step 3.
• Hinge AFD cassette at top of AFD chassis and
reposition into place. Use Torx T-20 screwdriver
to fasten two captive screws. Ensure not to
crimp control board ribbon cables.
■ 11. Relay Output Connection
• Connect relay output cables to terminal blocks
provided as required by application. (See
wiring diagrams in this chapter.)
• Insert relay terminal blocks firmly into corresponding
terminal sockets on control board.
• Secure relay wiring with bottom right wiring
clamp and fasten.
Relay 6-9: A-B make, A-C break
Max. 240 VAC, 2 A
Max. cross-section: 1.5 mm2 (28-16 AWG)
Torque: 0.22 - 0.25 Nm
14
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ 12. Remove Wiring Clamp Mounting Fixture
• Option card insulation pad is designed to use top
most cable wiring clamp screw hole for attaching.
• Use screw driver to remove top most wiring clamp.
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
■ 13. Reconnect AFD Control Terminals and
Secure Option Card InsulationPad
• Reconnect AFD control terminals removed in
step 2 by pressing firmly into corresponding
terminal socket.
• Crease option card insulation pad flap and insert
into slot in side of control card cassette.
• Attach insulation pad to top most clamp position
with one screw from removed wiring clamp.
• Route AFD control terminal wiring through bottom
left wiring clamp and fasten.
■ 14. Final Reassembly
• Secure access cover to internal AFD components.
• Replace LCP keypad by positioning guide slots at
bottom of cradle and snaping into place.
• Attach terminal protective cover by positioning
guide pins at bottom of cover into control card
cassette and snaping into place.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
15
Cascade Controller Option
■ Transmitter wiring
Please refer to chapter 10, Feedback Transmitter Wiring.
16
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Standard cascade control wiring diagram
The wiring diagram shows an example for a
standard cascade control system with 4 fixed
speed motors, a 4-20 mA pressure transmitter,
and external safety interlock.
Control board terminal connections
Option card terminal connections
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
Power terminal connections
NOTE
Terminal 16 or 17 must be connected to
terminal 12 or 13 and must be programmed
to "System start".
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
17
Cascade Controller Option
■ Optional Hand/Off/Auto Switch
Optional Hand/Off/Auto Switch
In standard cascade control mode, an optional
Hand/Off/Auto switch on the constant speed motor
starter is common. During normal operation, the switch
is set to AUTO and the drive will signal automatic
start and stop commands to the motor. The HAND
position allows manual operation of the motor. The
motor can be disabled by setting the switch to OFF.
For a motor in the OFF position, the
18
cascade controller will try to start it by triggering
its relay. Since no contribution will occur, the next
pump will be switched on. The relay timer will,
however, assume operation for a disabled motor.
See Chapter 12, Service Parameters.
The diagram below provides wiring instructions
for an optional Hand/Off/Auto switch.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
■ Lead Pump Alternation Wiring Diagram
Every pump must be fitted with a double power
contactor with a safety mechanical interlock. The wiring
of the system is shown in the diagrams below.
Relays R6, R7, R8, and R9 are the Cascade
Controller card relays
When all relays are idle (OFF) the first relay ON
sets the power switch corresponding to the pump
controlled by the frequency converter. For example
R6 set V1, i.e. P1 becomes the lead pump.
V1 block F1 in off position though the
mechanical interlock
Auxiliaries NC contacts of V1 prevent V2,
V3 and V4 activation
The first fixed speed pump is P2 (through F2) by
relay R7, then P3 (F3) by R8 and so on.
When the timer reaches its preset value all pumps
are switched off in the same order as switched
on i.e. P4, P3, P2 and then P1
The system restarts with R7 relay on which set pump
P2 as the lead pump controlled by the VLT, then R8,
R9, R6 (P3, P4, P1 running fixed speed on mains)
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
19
Cascade Controller Option
■ Master drive in master/slave control wiring diagram
The wiring diagram below shows an example of a
Master drive in Master/Slave cascade control. The
system demonstrates a 4-20 mA pressure transmitter,
Power terminal connections
an external safety interlock and four slave drives. The
slave drive speed reference is provided from terminal
17 as a pulse signal. The relays on the option card are
used for the Start/Stop command to the slave drives.
Control board terminal connections
Option card terminal connections
Master Drive
NOTE
Terminal 16 or 17 must be connected to
terminal 12 or 13 and must be programmed
to "System start".
20
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Slave drive in master/slave control wiring diagram
Each slave drive is wired in the same way, receiving
the Start/Stop command and a pulse speed reference
from the master drive. The speed reference and its
common are typically looped from Slave-to-Slave.
Control board terminal connections
Installation and
Wiring Instructions
Power terminal connections
Slave Drive
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
21
Cascade Controller Option
■ Changed
Drive functions
■ Introduction
Installation of the Cascade Controller Option card
into the AFD overrides some existing drive functions.
Changes to the default parameter setting are shown
in the tables below. Data entered into the drive
parameters are used to program the drive and cascade
controller for system operation. The modified parameter
default settings make programming the cascade
controller easier. See Chapter 5, User Interface, for
instructions on programming drive parameters.
In addition, parameters that need to be programmed
for cascade control operation are assembled
sequentially in a new and expanded 44 item Quick
Menu. Programming is simplified by following the
Quick Menu items in sequence for either Standard
cascade control or Master/Slave cascade control.
The new Quick Menu is described in Chapter 6,
AFD and Cascade Controller Card Setup.
New options are also available to stop pumps or fans
controlled in cascade operation. A summary of AFD
changed functionality is presented in this chapter.
Changed Default Settings with the Cascade Controller Option Card
Parameter
100
201
205
206
207
304
Description
Configuration
Minimum output freq.
Maximum reference
Ramp-up time
Ramp-down time
Terminal 27 (digital input)
308
314
318
417
427
Terminal 53 (analog in V)
Terminal 60 (analog in A)
Function after time out
Feedback Function
PID lowpass filter time
8005/6002
8016/6016
8072/6072
8352/6352
1
AFD Type
8011/6011
8062/6062
8302/6272
8600/6550
Previous default
Open loop
0.0 Hz
50/60 Hz
Varies with unit
Varies with unit
Safety interlock1/Coasting
stop inverse
Reference
Reference
No function
Maximum
0.01 sec.
Ramp Up (parameter 206)
1 sec.
3 sec.
5 sec.
8 sec.
New default
Closed loop
40% of nominal frequency
100%
See table below
See table below
Coasting stop, inverse
No operation
Feedback (4-20 mA)
Stop (sequence stop)
Virtual Control Curve
0.20 sec.
Ramp Down(parameter 207)
1 sec.
2 sec.
3 sec.
5 sec.
VLT 8000: Factory setting for US
22
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
Do not use these functions as emergency
stops. Some functions do not turn
off all pumps.
Standard cascade control mode
Stop functions in Standard cascade control are
described in the table below. In a sequenced stop,
there is a one ramp-down time delay between
each staging off of motors.
Standard Cascade Control
Function
Description
OFF/STOP key
Controller decelerates its
motor to a stop. Provides
a sequenced stop for all
constant speed motors in
opposite order as staged on.
STOP via
Provides a sequenced stop
Terminals 16 and for all constant speed motors
17 (System Start
in opposite order as staged
parameters 300
on. Controller decelerates its
or 301)
motor to a stop.
STOP via
Constant speed motors
Terminal 18 (Start continue to operate normally
parameter 302)
with feedback signal from
drive. Controller decelerates
its motor to a stop.
STOP via Terminal Constant speed motors stop
27 (Coast Inverse immediately. Controller coasts
parameter 304)
its motor to a stop.
STOP via
Constant speed motors stop
immediately. Controller coasts
Terminal 27
its motor to a stop.
(Safety Interlock
parameter 304)
Master/Slave cascade control mode
Stop functions in Master/Slave cascade control
are described in the table below.
Master/Slave Cascade Control
Function
Description
OFF/STOP key
Master decelerates
its motor to a stop.
Provides a sequenced
stop for all slave motors
in opposite order as
staged on.
STOP via Terminal 16
Provides a sequenced
and 17 (System Start
stop for all slave motors
parameters 300 or 301) in opposite order as
staged on.
Master decelerates its
motor to a stop.
STOP via Terminal 18
Slave motors all stop
(Start parameter 302)
together. Master
decelerates its motor
to a stop.
STOP via Terminal
Slave motors all stop
27 (Coast Inverse
together. Master coasts
parameter 304)
its motor to a stop.
STOP via Terminal
Slave motors all stop
27 (Safety Interlock
together. Master coasts
parameter 304)
its motor to a stop.
NOTE
Should the frequency converter trip for
any reason, the cascade controller will
cause the system to stop.
■ Serial communications (parameter 500)
The Danfoss FC protocol may be used only with
MCT 10 software for programming and setting up
drive and cascade controller parameters.
Changed Drive
functions
■ Changed systemstop functions
Two stop functions are provided by the cascade
controller option. One function quickly stops a
system. The other stages off pumps in a sequence,
allowing for a controlled pressure stop.
NOTE
Should the frequency converter trip for any
reason, the cascade controller can continue
operation with the remaining pumps. Only
at live zero where par. 315 Live zero functionality is
set to [STOP] or [STOP AND TRIP] or at warning 8
[DC UNDERVOLTAGE] all pumps will stop.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
23
Cascade Controller Option
■ User
Interface
■ How to use the LCP for programming
The combined display and keypad on the front of the
AFD is called the Local Control Panel (LCP).
The LCP is the user interface to the AFD.
The LCP has several user functions: programming the
AFD; displaying operational data, along with warnings
and cautions; to reset the drive after a fault; and, in local
control, to start/stop and control the speed of the drive.
[+/-] are used to scroll through parameters and for
changing a selected parameter. These keys can also
be used to change the drive speed as a function of
the local reference. In addition, the keys are used in
Display mode to switch between readouts.
[<>] are used when selecting a parameter group
and for moving the cursor to the desired digit
when changing numerical values.
■ Control keys for parameter setup
■ Indicator lamps
Each parameter determines an operational function
At the bottom of the control panel are three indicator
the drive. Many parameters are used in combinations
lamps: a red alarm lamp, a yellow warning lamp,
with others. The keys shown below are used for
and a green voltage (power on) lamp.
programming the drive by selecting from parameter
options or entering data in the parameter, as applicable.
The LCP keys are also used for selecting the data
displayed during normal operation of the drive.
If pre-determined threshold values are exceeded,
the alarm and/or warning lamp is activated, and a
status or alarm text is displayed. The power-on light
is activated when the AFD receives voltage.
■ Drive Control
Keys for control of the drive are described below.3
[DISPLAY/MODE] is used to change display modes
or to return to the Display mode from either the
Quick Menu or the Extend Menu mode.
[QUICK MENU] gives access to the programming
parameters in the Quick Menu. These are the
most commonly used parameters in setting
up the drive functions.
[EXTEND MENU] gives access to all drive parameters,
including Quick Menu items.
[CHANGE DATA] is used for changing a parameter
setting selected in either the Extend Menu or
the Quick Menu mode.
[CANCEL] is used if a change to a selected
parameter is not to be carried out.
[OK] is used for confirming a change to a
selected parameter.
24
[HAND START] is used if the AFD is to be started
and controlled from the LCP. The AFD will start the
motor when [HAND START] is pressed.
NOTE
The motor will start when [HAND START]
is activated if parameter 201, Output
frequency low limit, is set to an output
frequency greater than 0 Hz.
On the control terminals, the following control signals
will still be active when [HAND START] is activated:
•
•
•
Hand Start - Off Stop - Auto Start - Reset
Safety interlock
Coasting stop inverse
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reversing
Setup select lsb - Setup select msb
Jog
Run permissive
Lock for data change
Stop command from serial communication
[OFF/STOP] is used for stopping the connected
motor in Hand or Auto mode. This key can be
diabled in parameter 013. If the stop function is
activated, the main display will flash.
[AUTO START] is used if the AFD is to be controlled
through the control terminals. When a start
signal is active on the control terminals and/or
serial bus, the AFD will start.
[RESET] is used for manually resetting the drive after
a fault trip (alarm). In this case, the top line of the
display will show TRIP (RESET). If the top line of the
display shows TRIP (AUTO START), the drive will
automatically restart. If the top line of the display shows
TRIPLOCK (DISC. MAINS), input power to the drive
must be removed before the trip can be reset.
The active setup number and an arrow indicating
the direction of motor rotation is shown on the right
side of the large display. Clockwise indicates forward
and counterclockwise indicates reverse. The arrow
body is removed if a stop command is given or if
the output frequency falls below 0.01 Hz.
Warnings and alarms (fault trips) will also be displayed.
During an alarm, ALARM and the alarm number
is shown on the large display. An explanation is
given in line 3 or in lines 3 and 4. For a warning,
WARN. and the warning number is shown with an
explanation in line 3 and/or 4. Both alarms and
warnings cause the display to flash.
VAR 1.1 VAR 1.2 VAR 1.3
VAR 2
SETUP
1
195NA113.10
NOTE
Drive can start at anytime with a start signal
through digital inputs. Digital inputs have
higher priority than control keys [HAND
START] and [AUTO START].
Line 4 (bottom line) automatically displays the
operating status of the drive.
STATUS
The list below gives the operating data options for
the first and second line of the LCP display.
■ Display modes
In Auto operational mode, information is displayed
in any of three programmable displays. Pressing the
[DISPLAY MODE] key enters display mode and toggle
between modes I and II. In Display mode, the [+] and
[-] keys scroll through all data display options. When
in Mode II, holding down the [DISPLAY MODE] key
identifies the units the display is showing on the top
line. Mode IV is available only in local Hand operation.
User
Interface
In normal operation, three data readouts can be shown
on the first (top) line of the display. One readout is
available for line 2 (the large display). Parameters
008, 009 and 010 select the data displayed on the
top line. Parameter 007, Large Display Readout,
selects the data displayed on line 2.
The list on the next page defines the operating
data that can be selected for the display readouts.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
25
Cascade Controller Option
[A]
[kW]
Power [HP]
[kWh]
[hours]
[unit]
[unit]
[unit]
[unit]
[unit]
[unit]
[V]
[V]
[%]
[%]
[binary code]
[V]
FREQUENCY
40.0Hz
[mA]
[binary code]
[Hz]
[%]
[°C]
[HEX]
[HEX]
[HEX]
[HEX]
[Hz]
[%]
Display mode I
´
In Display mode I, the drive is in Auto mode with
reference and control determined via the control
terminals. Below is an example in which the drive
is running in setup 1, in Auto mode, with a remote
reference, and at an output frequency of 40 Hz.
SETUP
1
AUTO REMOTE RUNNING
Status line (Line 4): Additional automatic displays
for the drive status line are shown below.
80.0% 5.08A 2.15kW
40.0Hz
[V]
Three operating data values can be shown in the
first display line and one in the large display line,
programmed via parameters 007, 008, 009, and 010.
26
The text in line 1, FREQUENCY, describes the
meter shown in the large display. Line 2 (large
display) shows the current output frequency (40.0
Hz), direction of rotation (reverse arrow), and active
setup (1). Line 3 is blank. Line 4 is the status line
and the information is automatically generated for
display by the drive in response to its operation. It
shows that the drive is in auto mode, with a remote
reference, and that the motor is running.
175ZA683.10
Unit:
[%]
[unit]
[Hz]
[%]
SETUP
1
175ZA684.10
Data Item:
Resulting reference, %
Resulting reference, unit
Frequency
% of maximum output
frequency
Motor current
Power
Power
Output energy
Hours run
User-defined readout
Setpoint 1
Setpoint 2
Feedback 1
Feedback 2
Feedback
Motor voltage
DC-link voltage
Thermal load on motor
Thermal load on VLT
Input status, digital input
Input status, analog
terminal 53
Input status, analog
terminal 54
Input status, analog
terminal 60
Output status, relay status
Pulse reference
External reference
Heat sink temperature
comm. option card
warning
LCP display text
Status word
Control word
Alarm word
PID Output
PID Output
AUTO REMOTE RUNNING
HAND LOCAL STOP
OFF
RAMPING
JOGGING
.
.
.
.
STAND BY
The left indicator on the status line displays the
active control mode of the VLT drive. AUTO is
displayed when control is via the control terminals.
HAND indicates that control is local via the keys
on the LCP. OFF indicates that the drive ignores
all control commands and will not run.
The center part of the status line indicates the reference
element that is active. REMOTE means that reference
from the control terminals is active, while LOCAL
indicates that the reference is determined via the
[+] and [-] keys on the control panel.
The last part of line 4 indicates the drive’s operational
status, for example: RUNNING, STOP, or ALARM.
Display mode II
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
1
AUTO REMOTE RUNNING
REF% CURR.A.POW.,KW
60.0Hz
SETUP
1
175ZA686.10
Display mode III
Press and hold the [DISPLAY MODE] key while in Mode
II. Mode III is visible as long as the key is depressed.
The top line changes to identify the data names and
units displayed. Lines 2 and 4 are unchanged. When
the key is released, the display returns to Mode II.
AUTO REMOTE RUNNING
USE +/-
40Hz
40.0Hz
175ZA688.10
Display mode IV
This display mode is used for local operation, where
the local speed reference is given from the keypad.
In this display mode, the reference is determined via
the [+] and [-] keys. Control is carried out through the
bottom keys on the keypad. The first line indicates
the required reference. The third line gives the relative
value of the output frequency in the form of a bar
graph in relation to the maximum frequency.
HAND LOCAL RUNNING
■ Changing data
Regardless of whether a parameter has been selected
under the Quick Menu or the Extend Menu, the
procedure for changing data is the same. Pressing
the [CHANGE DATA] key gives access to changing
the selected parameter. Line 3 displays the parameter
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Changing numeric values
If the chosen parameter represents a number value, the
flashing digit can be changed by means of the [+] and [-]
keys. Position the cursor by using the [<] and [>] keys,
then change the data value using the [+] and [-] keys.
The selected digit is indicated by a flashing cursor.
The bottom display line gives the data value that
will be entered (saved) by pressing the [OK] button.
Use [CANCEL] to ignore the change.
FREQUENCY
24.2 Hz
205 MAX. REFERENCE
SETUP
1
000060.000
Hz
6
Changing functional values
If the selected parameter is a functional value,
the selected text value can be changed by
means of the [+] and [-] keys.
MOTOR CURRENT
3.90 A
SETUP
1
210 REFERENCE TYPE
SUM
The functional value flashes until signing off by pressing
the [OK] button. The functional value has then been
selected. Use [CANCEL] to ignore the change.
Changing listed numeric values
A few parameters offer numeric lists of values that can
be selected from or changed. This means that if the
numeric value is not listed, a value may be entered
using the procedure for changing numeric values. This
applies to parameter 102, Motor power, parameter 103,
Motor voltage, and parameter 104, Motor frequency.
User
Interface
SETUP
The procedure for changing data depends on
whether the selected parameter represents a
numerical data value or a function.
175ZA687.10
50.0Hz
number and title. The underlined function or number
flashing in line 4 on the display is subject to change.
175ZA689.10
100% 7.8A 5.9kW
175ZA685.10
This display mode shows three operating data values
in the top line programmed via parameters 007,
008, and 009. Pressing the [DISPLAY MODE] key
toggles between Display modes I and II.
27
Cascade Controller Option
■ Parameter setting procedure
Enter or change parameter data or settings as follows:
1. Press [Quick Menu] or [Extended Menu] key.
2. Use [+] and [-] keys to find parameter
you choose to edit.
3. Press [Change Data] key.
4. Use [+] and [-] keys to select correct parameter
setting. To move to a different digit within a numeric
parameter, use < and > arrows. Flashing cursor
indicates digit selected to change.
5. Press [Cancel] key to disregard change, or press
[OK] key to accept change and enter new setting.
■ Example of how to change parameter data
Assume Quick Menu item 9 (parameter 206, Ramp
Up Time) is set at 60 seconds. Change the ramp
up time to 100 seconds as follows:
1. Press [Quick Menu] key.
2. Press [+] key until you reach Quick Menu item 9
of 35 (parameter 206), Ramp Up Time.
3. Press < key twice – hundreds digit will flash.
4. Press [+] key once to change hundreds digit to ‘1.’
5. Press > key once to move to tens digit.
6. Press [-] key until ‘6’ counts down to ‘0’ and
setting for Ramp Up Time reads ‘100 s.’
7. Press [OK] key to enter new value.
■ Manual initialization
The drive can be initialized to return to factory
default settings.
NOTE
Initializing the drive will remove all values and
settings entered into drive. Some factory default
settings may be for European applications.
The following parameters are not reset when
using manual initialization:
500, Protocol
600, Operating hours
601, Hours run
602, kWh counter
603, Number of power-ups
604, Number of overtemperatures
605, Number of overvoltages
724 - 737, Operating hours/counters
1. Remove AC power to drive.
2. Press and hold [DISPLAY MODE] + [CHANGE
DATA] + [OK] keys down while at same time
applying AC power to drive.
3. Release keys. AFD reverts to factory setting.
It is also possible to carry out initialization via parameter
620, Operating mode, by selecting Initialize.
28
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
and Cascade Controller Setup
■ Introduction
A new quick menu list is activated when a cascade
controller option card is installed in the AFD. The
original 12 items are expanded to 44 quick menu
items that allow programming additional drive
and cascade controller functions. See Chapter
4, Changed Drive Functions.
The first 20 items on the new quick menu must be
programmed in sequence for initial drive and cascade
controller setup. (See block diagram.) These 20 items
are common to both Standard cascade control mode
and Master/Slave control mode. After initial setup
is complete, additional quick menu items program
the drive for the selected mode of operation. Those
instructions are available in Chapter 7, Standard
Cascade Control Mode Setup and Chapter 8,
Master/ Slave Control Mode Setup.
selects the mode of operation for further setup.
The Quick Menu Summary table on the next
page describes the menu items.
The AFD has four independent setups that can be
programmed. The initial programming in this chapter
is stored as Setup 1. See Alternative Programming
at the end of this chapter for instructions on using
the drive’s multi-setup capability.
AFDs delivered with the cascade controller option
card already installed, or prepared for field installation,
have been programmed with factory settings typical
for operation. These settings may be satisfactory
for initial start up of the system.
See Chapter 5, Use Interface, for instructions
on programming the AFD.
Chapter 9, System Optimization, provides instructions
for final adjustments to reach maximum drive and
controller efficiency after system start up.
Items 2-6 are motor characteristics. In Standard
cascade control mode, only the motor data from the
variable speed motor run by the cascade controller
are entered. In Master/Slave control, only data from
the motor controlled by the Master drive are entered
at this time. Items 7-19 are basic cascade controller
settings used in either mode of operation. Item 20
AFD and Cascade Controller Card Setup Block Diagram
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
29
AFD and Cascade
Controller Setup
■ AFD
Cascade Controller Option
■ Quick Menu Summary
Quick Menu
Parame-
number
ter num-
Name
Units
ber
Basic Drive Set Up parameters
001
001
Language
Range
Factory setting
10 languages
See Instruction Manual for your
AFD model.
002
102
003
103
004
104
005
105
006
106
007
201
008
202
009
206
010
207
011
323
012
326
Basic Set Up for Standard
013
415
014
413
015
414
016
227
017
228
018
204
019
205
020
723
021
712
022
713
023
714
024
715
025
716
026
717
027
718
028
741
029
418
030
419
031
721
032
722
033
319
034
739
035
740
036
750
037
751
038
752
039
753
PID Controller tuning
040
420
041
422
042
427
043
423
044
424
30
Motor Power
Motor Voltage
Motor Frequency
Motor Current
Rated Motor Speed
Min. Frequency
Max. Frequency
Ramp up time
Ramp down time
Relay 1 Output
Relay 2 Output
Cascade and Master/Slave.
Closed loop units
Minimum Feedback
Maximum Feedback
Warning low Feedback
Warning high Feedback
Ref.min.
Ref.max.
Operational Mode select
Pump combination
Staging BandW.
Destaging Delay
Staging Delay
Override BW
Override Timer
Staging frequency
Destaging frequency
Setpoint 1 (H0)
Setpoint 2 (H1)
Destage Timer
Pump cycling
Analog/digital outputs
M/S Stage on frequencies
M/S stage off frequencies
Alternation time
Elapsed alternation time
Alternation register
Alternation restart delay
Normal/Inverse control
PID Start up frequency
PID Lowpass filter time
PID Proportional Gain
PID Integrator time
kW/HP
Volts
Hz
Amps
RPM
Hz
Hz
Seconds
Seconds
Depending on choice
1.1-450/1.5-600
200 - 480
50 / 60
0- AFD max
0- fm,n x 60
0.0 - fmax
Fmin-120/1000
1-3600
1-3600
2/5 of fnom (NEW)
Fnom x 1.1 (NEW)
See table above in 2.4.8
See AFD Instruction Manual.
Selected according to your process.
Units
Units
Units
Units
-
Sec.
-999,999.999- FB High
FB low- 999,999.999
Min. feedback - Ref.max
Ref.min - Max. feedback
Standard / M/S
1-8
1.0 - 100.0
0.0 - 3000
0.0 - 3000
2.0 - 100.0
0.0 - 300
0-100
0-100
Refmin - Refmax
Refmin - Refmax
0.0 - 300 (301 = OFF)
Enabled/Disabled
[1] - [43]
F min - F max
F min - F max
0-999
0 - par. 750
1-4
0-60
-999,999.999
999,999.999
0
0
Standard Cascade
1
10.0
15
15
20.0
5
90
10
0.000
0.000
15
Enabled
F out 0…20mA
F min
F max
0
0
1
5
Hz
Sec.
Factor
Sec.
Normal/Inverse
Fmin-fmax
0.01 - 10.00
0.00 - 10.0
0.01 - 9999.0
Normal mode
0 Hz
1.00
0.01
OFF
%
Sec.
Sec.
% of set point
Sec.
% of fmax
% of fmax
Bar (or equiv.)
Bar (or equiv.)
Timer Sec.
Hz
Hz
Hrs
Hrs
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
■ Language
Quick Menu 001 Par. 001 Language
75 HP (55.00 KW)
100 HP (75.00 KW)
125 HP (90.00 KW)
150 HP (110.00 KW)
200 HP (132.00 KW)
250 HP (160.00 KW)
300 HP (200.00 KW)
350 HP (250.00 KW)
400 HP (300.00 KW)
450 HP (315.00 KW)
500 HP (355.00 KW)
600 HP (400.00 KW)
✭Depends on the unit
(LANGUAGE)
Value:
✭English (ENGLISH)
German (DEUTSCH)
French (FRANCAIS)
Danish (DANSK)
Spanish (ESPAÑOL)
Italian (ITALIANO)
Swedish (SVENSKA)
Dutch (NEDERLANDS)
Portuguese (PORTUGUESA)
Finnish (SUOMI)
[055.00]
[075.00]
[090.00]
[110.00]
[132.00]
[160.00]
[200.00]
[250.00]
[300.00]
[315.00]
[355.00]
[400.00]
Function:
This sets the power value that corresponds to the
nameplate power of the motor. The default setting
is the full rating of the drive. The drive can operate
motors undersized by up to four ratings below the full
rating of the drive or oversized by one rating.
Function:
This choice defines the language to be used
on the display.
Description of choice:
Select the display language.
Description of choice:
NOTE
It is important that the values set in parameters
102-106, Motor nameplate data, correspond
to the nameplate data of the motor.
Select a value that equals the nameplate data
on the motor. tage
Quick Menu 003 Par. 103 Motor voltage
■ Motor nameplate data
Quick Menu 002 Par. 102 Motor power
(MOTOR VOLTAGE)
(MOTOR POWER)
Value:
0.1/3 HP (0.25 KW)
0.5 HP (0.37 KW)
0.75 HP (0.55 KW)
1.0 HP (0.75 KW)
1.5 HP (1.10 KW)
2 HP (1.50 KW)
3 HP (2.20 KW)
4 HP (3.00 KW)
5 HP (4.00 KW)
7.5 HP (5.50 KW)
10 HP (7.50 KW)
15 HP (11.00 KW)
20 HP (15.00 KW)
25 HP (18.50 KW)
30 HP (22.00 KW)
40 HP (30.00 KW)
50 HP (37.00 KW)
60 HP (45.00 KW)
[000.25]
[000.37]
[000.55]
[000.75]
[001.10]
[001.50]
[002.20]
[003.00]
[004.00]
[005.50]
[007.50]
[011.00]
[015.00]
[018.50]
[022.00]
[030.00]
[037.00]
[045.00]
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Value:
200 V
208 V
220 V
230 V
240 V
380 V
400 V
415 V
440 V
460 V
480 V
500 V
✭Depends on motor
[200]
[208]
[220]
[230]
[240]
[380]
[400]
[400]
[440]
[460]
[480]
[500]
Function:
This is where the rated motor voltage is selected.
31
AFD and Cascade
Controller Setup
Cascade Controller Option
Cascade Controller Option
Description of choice:
Select a value that equals the nameplate data on the
motor, regardless of the AC input voltage of the AFD.
NOTE
It is important to set the correct value, since
this forms part of the VVC+ control feature.
The maximum value equals frequency x 60. Frequency
is set in parameter 104, Motor frequency.
Quick Menu 004 Par. 104 Motor frequency
(MOTOR FREQUENCY)
Value:
50 Hz
60 Hz
✭ 60
Function:
This is where the rated motor frequency is selected.
Description of choice:
Select a value that equals the nameplate
data on the motor.
Quick Menu 005 Par. 105 Motor current
(MOTOR CURRENT)
Value:
0.01 - Drive rating
Value:
0.0 - Parameter 202 setting
✭ 0.0 HZ
Function:
This is where to select the minimum output frequency.
The drive will be unable to run continuously
below this value in any mode.
Description of choice:
Set a value from 0.0 Hz to the Output frequency high
limit set in Quick Menu item 008 (parameter 202).
✭ Depends on motor
Function:
The rated motor current in amps forms part of the AFD
calculations for torque and motor thermal protection.
Description of choice:
Set a value that equals the nameplate data on the motor.
NOTE
It is important to enter the correct value, since
this forms part of the VVC+ control feature.
Quick Menu 006 Par. 106 Rated motor speed
(MOTOR NOM. SPEED)
Value:
100 - 60000 rpm
✭ Depends on parameter 102, Motor power
Function:
This is where the value is set that corresponds to the
rated motor speed found on the nameplate data.
Description of choice:
Set a value that corresponds to the motor
nameplate data.
32
Quick Menu 007 Par. 201 Output frequency
low limit
(MIN. FREQUENCY)
Quick Menu 008 Par. 202 Output frequency
high limit
(MAX. FREQUENCY)
Value:
Para 201 setting - Para 200 limit
✭ 60 Hz
Function:
In this parameter, a maximum output frequency can be
selected that corresponds with the maximum motor
speed. The drive will not be able to run continuously at
an output frequency above this value in any mode.
NOTE
Set the output frequency high limit to
60 Hz for US applications. The output
frequency of the AFD can never assume a
value higher than 1/10 of the switching frequency
(parameter 407, Switching frequency).
Description of choice:
Enter a value between the low frequency limit, set
in Quick Menu item 07 (parameter 201), and the
frequency range limit, set in parameter 200.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
Quick Menu 009 Par. 206 Ramp-up time
(RAMP UP TIME)
✭ Depends on unit
Function:
The ramp-up time is the acceleration time from 0 Hz
to the rated motor frequency (parameter 104, Motor
frequency). It is assumed that the output current
does not reach the current limit (set in parameter
215, Current limit). This determines the maximum
acceleration rate for all modes of operation.
■ Relay outputs
Relay outputs 1 and 2 can be used to give the
present drive status or a warning.
AFD and Cascade
Controller Setup
Value:
1 - 3600 sec.
short of a ramp down can cause the drive to trip off
due to high DC bus voltage or cause unacceptable
torque pulses in the controlled system.
If the output is used as a voltage output (0-10 V),
a pull-down resistor of 500 should be fitted to
terminal 39 (common for analogue/digital outputs.
See chapter 10 for additional detail).
If the output is used as a current output, the
resulting impedence of the connected equipment
should not exceed 500 W.
Relay 1
1 - 3 break, 1 - 2 make Max. 240 VAC, 2 Amp. The
relay is with the main and motor terminals.
Description of choice:
Set the desired ramp-up time. Too long of a ramp up
time can cause sluggish drive operation. Too short
of a ramp up time can cause the drive to go into
current limit during acceleration or cause unacceptable
torque pulses in the controlled system.
Quick Menu 010 Par. 207 Ramp-down time
(RAMP DOWN TIME)
Value:
1 - 3600 sec..
Relay 2
4 - 5 make Max. 50 VAC, 1 A, 60 VA. Max. 75 VDC,
1 A, 30 W. The relay is on the control card.
Quick Menu 011 Par. 323 Output relay 1
✭ Depends on unit
Function:
The ramp-down time is the deceleration time from
the rated motor frequency (parameter 104, Motor
frequency) to 0 Hz. This ramp-down time may be
automatically extended to prevent an overvoltage trip if
the load regenerates to the drive. This determines the
maximum deceleration rate for all modes of operation.
Description of choice:
Set the desired ramp-down time. Too long of a
ramp down can cause sluggish operation. Too
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
(RELAY 1 FUNCTION)
Value:
29 optional settings
✭ NO ALARM
Function:
This output activates relay switch 01. This 240 volt,
Form C relay can be used for status and warnings.
There are 29 optional settings. It is generally
programmed to provide a remote alarm indication.
No Alarm is the default setting. This indicates the
drive is operating properly and the contact is closed.
The contact opens to indicate an alarm when there
33
Cascade Controller Option
is a fault condition or when the drive looses power.
Terminal wires 1 and 3 are wired together.
Alarm is selected when a loss of power should not cause
an alarm indication. Wire terminals 1 and 2 together.
See the AFD Operating Instructions for a
detailed list of relay options.
Description of choice:
Select relay 1 function.
Quick Menu 012 Par. 326 Output relay 2
(RELAY 2 FUNCTION)
Value:
29 optional settings
✭ RUNNING
Function:
This output activates relay switch 02. This low voltage
relay is generally programmed to provide a remote
run indication. There are 29 optional settings.
Running makes this relay close when the drive is
running. This is the default setting.
Description of choice:
Quick Menu 013 Par. 415 Units relating
to closed loop
(REF. / FDBK. UNIT)
34
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]
[39]
Function:
This unit will be used for the reading in the Display
mode and as a unit for Minimum / Maximum Feedback,
Minimum / Maximum Reference, Warning Feedback
High/Low and for the H1, H0 and the calculated
Hmx parameter settings/readings.
Select relay 2 function.
Value:
No unit
✭%
rpm
ppm
pulse/s
l/s
l/min
l/h
kg/s
kg/min
kg/h
m3 /s
m3/min
m3/h
m/s
mbar
bar
Pa
kPa
mVS
kW
°C
GPM
gal/s
gal/min
gal/h
lb/s
lb/min
lb/h
CFM
ft3/s
ft3/min
ft3/h
ft/s
in wg
ft wg
PSI
lb/in2
HP
°F
Description of choice:
Select the unit for the reference/feedback signal.
[0]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
Quick Menu 014 Par. 413 Minimum feedback
(MIN. FEEDBACK)
Value:
-999,999.999 - FBMAX
✭ 0.000
Function:
Parameters 413, Minimum feedback and 414,
Maximum feedback are used to scale the feedback
signal ensuring that it shows the feedback signal
proportionally to the signal at the input.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
Quick Menu 017 Par. 228 Warning High feedback
Set the value to be shown on the display when the
feedback signal is at its minimum value.
Quick Menu 015 Par. 414 Maximum feedback
(MAX. FEEDBACK)
Value:
FBMIN - 999,999.999
✭ 100.000
Function:
Parameters 413, Minimum feedback and 414,
Maximum feedback are used to scale the feedback
signal ensuring that it shows the feedback signal
proportionally to the signal at the input.
Description of choice:
Set the value to be shown on the display when the
feedback signal is at its maximum value.
(WARN. HIGH FDBK)
Value:
FBLOW (parameter 227) - 999,999.999
✭ -999.999,999
Function:
If the feedback signal is above the limit programmed
in this parameter, the display will show a
flashing FEEDBACK HIGH.
The warning functions in parameters 221-228 are
not active during ramp-up after a start command,
ramp-down after a stop command or while
stop-ped. The warning functions are activated when
the output frequency has reached the resulting
reference. The signal outputs can be programmed
to generate a warning signal via terminal 42 or
45 and via the relay outputs.
In Closed loop, the unit for the feedback is programmed
in parameter 415 Units related to closed loop.
Quick Menu 016 Par. 227 Warning:
Low feedback
(WARN LOW FDBK)
Value:
-999,999.999 - FBHIGH (parameter 228)
✭ -999.999,999
Function:
If the feedback signal is below the limit programmed
in this parameter, the display will show a
flashing FEEDBACK LOW.
The warning functions in parameters 221-228 are
not active during ramp up after a start command,
ramp down after a stop command or while stopped.
The warning functions are activated when the output
frequency has reached the resulting reference. The
signal output can be programmed to generate a warning
signal via terminal 42 or 45 or via the relay output.
In Closed loop, the unit for the feedback is programmed
in parameter 415, Units related to closed loop.
Description of choice:
Set the desired value within the feedback range
between parameter 413, Minimum Feedback and
parameter 414, Maximum Feedback.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Description of choice:
Set the desired value within the feedback range
between parameter 413, Minimum Feedback, and
parameter 414, Maximum Feedback.
Quick Menu 018 Par. 204 Minimum reference
(MIN. REFERENCE)
Value:
Parameter 100 Configuration = Closed loop [1].
-Par.413 Minimum feedback
- par.205 RefMAX
✭ -999.999,999
Function:
The Minimum Reference sets the minimum value of
the sum of all references. If Closed loop has been
selected in parameter 100, Configuration, the minimum
reference is limited by parameter 413, Minimum
Feedback. Minimum reference is ignored when the local
reference is active. In this case, minimum reference is
determined by parameter 201, Minimum Frequency.
Description of choice:
Set the Minimum Reference, which is the lowest
reference value that can be set for the drive. The unit
for this reference is set in parameter 415.
35
AFD and Cascade
Controller Setup
Description of choice:
Cascade Controller Option
Quick Menu 019 Par. 205 Maximum reference
(MAX. REFERENCE)
Value:
Par. 204 RefMIN
- par. 414 Maximum feedback
✭ 50.000 Hz
Function:
The Maximum reference gives the maximum value
that can be assumed by the sum of all references.
The Maximum Reference is limited to be with the
settings of Parameter 414 Maximum Feedback. The
Maximum reference is ignored when the local reference
is active (parameter 203 Reference site).
Description of choice:
Set the Maximum reference, which is the highest
reference value that can be set for the drive.
Quick Menu 020 Par. 723 Mode Select
(MODE SELECT)
Value:
Standard Control
Master/Slave Control
✭ Master/Slave
Function:
Standard cascade control mode operation is a system
consisting of one adjustable speed pump and up to
four constant speed pumps. Master/Slave cascade
control mode operation is for a system using variable
speed pumps controlled by a Master drive.
NOTE
Set the correct control option. Improper setting
may result in system damage, operational
errors, or wasted energy.
Description of choice:
Select Standard Control for operating the cascade
controller option card in Standard control mode.
Select Master/Slave Control for operating the cascade
controller option card in Master/Slave control mode.
36
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Cascade Controller Option
■ Alternate programming
Setup configuration and copying parameters
The AFD has four parameter setups that can be
programmed. Each setup acts independently
in controlling the drive. An example application
would be programming different setups for
day/night or summer/winter operation. Any of
the four setups can be used.
Description of choice:
The setup is selected in Extended Menu parameter
002, Active Setup, for programming and operation.
Setups are changed manually by switching between
active setups in parameter 002. It is also possible
to change setups through digital inputs or serial
communication by selecting Multi-Setup in parameter
002 and providing an external signal.
The number of the active setup selected is
shown on the keypad display under Setup in
the second line of the display.
Factory Setup contains the parameter values preset at
the factory. This setup can be used as a data source if
the other setups are to be returned to a known state.
Setups 1 through 4 are four individual setups that
can be programmed and selected as required.
Multi-Setup is used if remote switching between
different setups is required. Terminals 16, 17, 29,
32, 33 and the serial communication port can be
used for switching between setups.
Extended MenuExtended Par. 003 Setup Copy
The Extended Menu is accessed by pressing the
[EXTEND. MENU] key on the LCP keypad.
(SETUP COPY)
A short cut to programming more than one setup is
possible by using Extended Menu parameter 003,
Setup Copy. This enables copying one setup to
another. After an active setup has been programmed
and copied, just those parameters unique to the
other setups need be changed.
All setups can be transferred from one AFD to another
(in the same AFD series) by using the AFDs removeable
keypad. Extended Menu parameter 004, LCP Copy,
allows this function. First, upload all parameter values
to the keypad. The keypad can then be removed
and plugged into another AFD where all parameter
values can be downloaded. If motor or drive sizes
differ, Download Power-independent Parameters can
be selected in parameter 004 to omit downloading
motor and current dependent data.
Value:
✭No copying (NO COPY)
Copy active Setup to Setup
(COPY TO SETUP 1)
Copy active Setup to Setup
(COPY TO SETUP 2)
Copy active Setup to Setup
(COPY TO SETUP 3)
Copy active Setup to Setup
(COPY TO SETUP 4)
Copy active Setup to All
(COPY TO ALL)
[0]
1
[1]
2
[2]
3
[3]
4
[4]
[5]
Function:
A copy is made from the active setup selected
in parameter 002, Active Setup, to the setup
or setups selected here.
NOTE
Copying is only possible when drive is stopped.
Extended Menu Par. 002 Active Setup
(ACTIVE SETUP)
Value:
Factory Setup (FACTORY SETUP)
✭Setup 1 (SETUP 1)
Setup 2 (SETUP 2)
Setup 3 (SETUP 3)
Setup 4 (SETUP 4)
Multi-Setup (MULTI SETUP)
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
[0]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
Description of choice:
The copying starts when the required copying function
has been selected and the [OK] key pressed. The
display indicates when copying is in progress.
37
AFD and Cascade
Controller Setup
Function:
This parameter defines the setup number that controls
the drive. All parameters can be programmed in four
individual parameter setups: Setup 1, Setup 2, Setup
3 and Setup 4. There is also a pre-programmed
read-only setup, called the Factory Setup.
Cascade Controller Option
Extended Menu Par. 004 LCP Copy
(LCP COPY)
Value:
✭No copying (NO COPY)
Upload all parameters
(UPLOAD ALL PARAMET.)
Download all parameters
(DOWNLOAD ALL PARAM.)
Download power-independent parameters
(DOWNLOAD SIZE INDEP.)
[0]
[1]
[2]
[3]
Function:
This parameter is used to copy all parameter setups to
or from the Local Control Panel (LCP) keypad. It can
be used to store a backup copy of all parameters in the
LCP or to copy all setups from one drive to another.
Description of choice:
Select Upload all parameters to copy all parameter
values from the drive to the LCP.
Select Download all parameters to copy all
parameter values from the LCP to the drive on
which the keypad is mounted.
Select Download power-independent parameters if
only the power-independent parameters are to be
downloaded. This allows the parameters from one drive
to be easily copied to another drive of a different size.
Settings in parameters 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 215,
221, and 222 are not downloaded using this function.
NOTE
Copying is only possible when drive is stopped.
38
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Cascade Controller Option
Cascade Controller Setup
■ Introduction
In standard cascade control, an AFD with the
cascade option card controls a motor in response
to system feedback signals while staging additional
constant speed motors on and off. By varying
the speed of the initial motor, variable speed
control is provided for the system.
The motors can be of equal or differing sizes. The
controller offers a selection of eight pre-defined
pump combinations (see parameter 712).
A de-stage timer takes effect in standard control mode
when the drive runs continuously at minimum speed
with one or more constant speed motors running. The
de-stage timer is programmable to avoid frequent
staging on and off of the constant speed motors.
Although pump applications are highlighted in this
chapter, the procedures and settings are nearly
identical for other applications. The feedback process
setup described, assumes that a pressure feedback
signal is measured at the outlet of the pumps.
Programming instructions:
Instructions for programming Quick Menu items
1-20 are presented in Chapter 5, VLT Drive and
Cascade Controller Card Setup. Parameters
1-20 must be programmed before programming
Standard cascade control options.
Sensor placement:
Best efficiency is attained when the pressure
transmitter is placed at the farthest significant load
in the system. This setup allows measurement of
actual system peformance. If this is not practical,
the pressure transmitter is usually placed close
to the discharge of the pumps.
The cascade controller uses the feedback to estimate
the setpoint required at various rates of flow. Setpoint
1 is the minimum pressure required when the
system is running with only the AFD operating at full
speed. Setpoint 2 is the maximum pressure required
when the system is running with all pumps at full
capacity. A theoretical value calculates pressure
loss in the system under minimum and maximum
loads. The controller adjusts the loading based
upon the number of pumps in operation.
When the pressure transmitter is placed at the farthest
significant load in the system, common in HVAC
applications, see alternative ways of programming
the cascade controller described in Alternate
Programming at the end of this chapter.
General information on how to program the AFD
through the local control panel keypad are presented
in Chapter 4, User Interface.
The instructions in this chapter describe procedures for ■ Lead Pump Alternation
The programming of the lead pump alternation
programming the AFD for standard cascade control
function is basically done as for the standard cascade
mode operation. The Quick Menu simplifies setup
controller. A few parameters have been added
since the 44 parameters are programmed in sequence.
and a few parameters have been changed. For
Procedures for programming are in the following order:
further information please see section Programming
Initial Setup: Quick Menu items 1-20
of lead pump alternation function.
Step 1: Standard control mode programming
Step 2: Optimization of the process regulator
Alternate Programming
Optimizing the process regulator is performed after
system start up. The procedures are described
in Chapter 9, System Optimization.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
39
Standard Cascade
Controller Setup
■ Standard
Cascade Controller Option
■ Initial Setup
Instructions for programming Quick Menu items
1-20 are presented in Chapter 5, AFD and
Cascade Controller Card Setup . Parameters
1-20 must be programmed before programming
additional options described below.
Description of choice:
Select the pump combination and capacities
from the choices offered.
Quick Menu 021 Par. 712 Motor Pump
Combinations
(PUMP COMBINATION)
Value:
(See options in table below)
Function:
The combinations of pumps and their rated capacities
are selected in this parameter. The lead pump (or
fan) with the cascade contol option must have a
capacity of 100% and its speed is controlled by the
AFD. This enables the highest accuracy in regulation
of the system. In Standard cascade control mode,
additional pumps can be either 100%, 200% or
300% relative to the AFD driven pump.
Motor Pump Combinations
Value:
Additional Constant Speed Pumps Operated by Cascade Control
Display Option
100% Capacity
200% Capacity
300% Capacity
R6 @100%
1 pump controlled by
relay 6
R6, R7 @100%
2 pumps controlled by
relays 6, 7
R6-R8 @100%
3 pumps controlled by
relays 6, 7, 8
R6-R9 @100%
4 pumps controlled by
relays 6, 7, 8, 9
R6 @100%, R7 @200%
1 pump controlled by
1 pump controlled by
relay 6
relay 7
R6 @100%, R7, R8
1 pump controlled by
2 pumps controlled by
@200%
relay 6
relays 7, 8
R6, R7 @100%, R8
2 pumps controlled by
1 pump controlled by
@300%
relays 6, 7
relay 8
R6, R7 @100%, R8, R9
2 pumps controlled by
2 pumps controlled by
@300%
relays 6, 7
relays 8, 9
40
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Cascade Controller Option
Quick Menu 022 Par. 713 Staging Bandwidth %
(STAGING BANDW%)
Value:
1 - 100%
programmed. If the pressure decreases to within the
SBW before the timer has elapsed, the timer is reset.
✭ 10%
Function:
In cascade control systems, to avoid frequent switching
of fixed speed pumps, the desired system pressure
is typically kept within a bandwidth rather than at
a constant level. The staging bandwidth (SBW)
is programmed as a percentage of the setpoint
(desired pressure). For example, if the setpoint is 5
bar and the SBW set at 10%, a system pressure
between 4.5 and 5.5 bar is tolerated. No staging or
destaging will occur within this bandwidth.
Set the staging bandwidth percentage to accomodate
system pressure fluctuation.
Standard Cascade
Controller Setup
Description of choice:
Description of choice:
Set the staging bandwidth off time delay. A delay
time of 30 seconds (factory setting) is sufficient
in most systems. When encountering frequent
staging, add to the delay time.
Quick Menu 024 Par. 715 SBW staging on time
(STAGING DELAY)
Value:
0 - 3000 sec.
NOTE
Should the frequency converter trip for
any reason, the cascade controller can
continue operation with the remaining C/S
pumps or fans. It is recommended, however,
that the user considers a wider bandwitdth for
parameter 716, Override Bandwidth. Otherwise,
unnecessary staging could occure.
✭ 30 sec.
Function:
Immediate staging of a fixed speed pump is not
desirable when a momentary pressure drop in
the system that exceeds the staging bandwidth
(SBW). Staging on is delayed by the length of time
programmed. If the pressure increases to within the
SBW before the timer has elapsed, the timer is reset.
Quick Menu 023 Par. 714 SBW staging off time
(DESTAGING DELAY)
Value:
0 - 3000 sec.
✭ 30 sec.
Function:
Immediate destaging of a fixed speed pump is not
desirable when a momentary pressure increase in
the system that exceeds the staging bandwidth
(SBW). Destaging is delayed by the length of time
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41
Cascade Controller Option
Description of choice:
Set the staging on time delay. A delay time
of 30 seconds (factory setting) is sufficient in
most systems. When encountering frequent
staging, decease delay time.
with increased familiarity with the system. See
parameter 717, Override Bandwidth Timer.
Quick Menu 025 Par. 716 Override bandwidth
(OVERRIDE BANDW%)
Value:
2 - 100 % (100 = OFF)
✭ 100 = OFF
Function:
When a large and quick change in the system demand
(such as a sudden water demand), the system pressure
rapidly changes and an immediate staging or destaging
of a fixed speed pump becomes necessary to match
the requirement. The override bandwidth (OBW) is
programmed to override the staging/destaging timer
for immediate response. The override bandwidth is a
percentage of the setpoint and defines the feedback
(pressure) at which the timers (set in parameters 714,
715) are overridden. For example, if the setpoint
is 5 bar and the override is set to 20%, the low
limit is 4 bar and the high limit 6 bar.
Description of choice:
The OBW must always be programmed to a higher
value than the staging bandwidth (SBW) set in
parameter 713. Setting the OBW too close to
the SBW could defeat the purpose with frequent
staging at momentary pressure changes. Setting
the OBW too high might lead to unacceptably
high or low pressure in the system while the SBW
timers are running. The value can be optimized
42
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Cascade Controller Option
Quick Menu 027 Par. 718 Staging frequency
Quick Menu 026 Par. 717 Override Bandw. timer
(OVERRIDE TIMER)
Value:
0 - 300 sec.
✭ 10 sec.
Function:
Staging a fixed speed pump creates a momentary
pressure peak in the system, which might exceed the
override bandwidth (OBW). It is not desirable to destage
a pump in response to a staging pressure peak.
The override bandwidth timer can be programmed
to prevent staging until the system pressure has
stabilized and normal control established.
(STD STAGE FRQ %)
Value:
0 - 100 % of Fmax
✭ 90%
Function:
The adjustable speed pump typically runs at maximum
speed when staging on an additional fixed speed
pump to match the system demand.
The instant effect of the fixed speed pump creates
a momentary overpressurization until the adjustable
speed pump decelerates. This is undesirable in
most situations. To avoid this, this drive can be
programmed to decelerate to a staging frequency
before starting the fixed speed pump.
Standard Cascade
Controller Setup
Commissioning the Cascade Controller
To avoid unintended staging during the commissioning
phase and fine tuning of the controller, initially leave the
OBW at the factory setting of 100%. When the fine
tuning is completed, the OBW should be set to the
desired value. A good initial value may be 10%.
NOTE
Ensure that the staging frequency is set within
the minimum frequency and maximum set
in parameters 201 and 202.
Description of choice:
Set the timer to a value that allows the system to
stabilize after staging. The 10 second factory setting
is appropriate in most applications. In highly dynamic
systems, a shorter time might be desirable.
Description of choice:
Adjust the staging frequency to the best compromise
to prevent momentary pressure overshoot and a
pressure drop during transition. A very low value for
the staging frequency might cause the check valve
at the discharge of a variable speed pump to close
during the transition, which could add pressure in the
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
43
Cascade Controller Option
system. Ensure that the staging frequency setting
allows the check valve to remain open.
Quick Menu 028 Par. 741 Destaging frequency
(STD DESTAGE FRQ)
Value:
0 - 100 % Fmax
✭ 10%
Function:
The lead pump (pump 1 in the figure) typically
runs at minimum speed when destaging occurs.
Turning off a fixed speed pump (pump X in the
figure) creates a momentary pressure drop until the
lead pump decelerates. To avoid this, the drive
will accelerate to a Destaging frequency before
turning off the fixed speed pump.
Description of choice:
Adjust the Destaging frequency to the best
compromise to prevent momentary pressure drop
and over-pressurization during transition. A very low
value for the destaging frequency might cause the
check valve at the discharge of the lead pump to
close during the transition, which could add pressure
in the system. Ensure that the Destaging frequency
setting allows the check valve to remain open.
NOTE
Ensure that the Destaging frequency is
set within the Minimum and Maximum
frequency in par. 201 and 202.
44
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Cascade Controller Option
(SETPOINT 1)
Value:
Feedback Min. to Feedback Max
✭ 0.000
Function:
The default feedback process is used when a pressure
feedback signal is measured at the outlet of the
pumps. The cascade controller uses the feedback
to estimate the setpoint required at various rates of
flow. All other reference signals are ignored. Setpoint
1 is the minimum pressure required when the system
is running with only the AFD operating at full speed.
Setpoint 1 is a theoretical value that the cascade
controller uses as an internal reference to calculate
pressure loss in the system under minimum load.
The controller adjusts the internal reference based
upon the number of pumps in operation.
The range is determined by Quick Menu item 14
(parameter 413, Minimum Feedback) and Quick Menu
item 015 (parameter 414, Maximum Feedback).
When the pressure feedback signal originates at
the far end of the system, the drive does not need
to compensate for system pressure changes due
to flow. For this system configuration, or for two
setpoint PID control, see Alternative Programming
at the end of this chapter.
Description of choice:
Set the desired feedback minimum within the
programmed minimum and maximum in Quick Menu
items 014 and 015. The process unit is selected
in Quick menu item 013, Process Units.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
NOTE
Factory setting is for a single 4 - 20 mA current
signal transmitter for process feedback. In
all other cases, see instructions in Chapter
10, Feedback Transmitter Wiring.
Quick Menu 030 Par. 419 Setpoint 2
(SETPOINT 2)
Value:
Feedback Min. to Feedback Max.
✭ 0.000
Function:
The default feedback process is used when a pressure
feedback signal is measured at the outlet of the pumps.
The cascade controller uses the feedback to estimate
the setpoint required at various rates of flow.
All other reference signals are ignored. Setpoint 2 is
the maximum pressure required when the system is
running with all pumps at full capacity. A theoretical
value calculates pressure loss in the system under
maximum load. The controller adjusts the loading
based upon the number of pumps in operation.
The range is determined by Quick Menu item 014
(parameter 413, Minimum Feedback) and Quick Menu
item 05 (parameter 414, Maximum Feedback).
When the pressure feedback signal originates
at the far end of the system, the drive does not
need to compensate for system pressure changes
due to flow. For this system configuration, or for
two setpoint PID control, or for water pumping
systems where the feedback signal is measured
across the outlet of the pumps, see Alternative
Programming at the end of this chapter.
45
Standard Cascade
Controller Setup
Quick Menu 029 Par. 418 Setpoint 1
Cascade Controller Option
Description of choice:
Set the desired feedback maximum within the
programmed minimum and maximum in Quick Menu
items 014 and 015. The process unit is selected
in Quick menu item 013, Process Units. In a water
supply system with little leakage, the difference
between Setpoint 1 (set in Quick Menu item 028) and
Setpoint 2 is typically around 10% to 15%.
NOTE
Sleep mode activates when the adjustable speed
pump is the only pump running. To turn off the
destage timer, turn off sleep mode first. Set
parameter 403, Sleep Mode to 301 seconds (off), then
parameter 721, De-stage Timer to 301 seconds (off).
Quick Menu 032 Par. 722 Pump cycling
(PUMPCYCLING)
Value:
Enabled - Disabled
Quick Menu 031 Par. 721 De-stage timer
(DESTAGE TIME)
Value:
0 - 300 sec. (301= OFF)
✭ OFF
Function:
The de-stage timer starts when the adjustable speed
pump is running a minimum speed with one or more
constant speed pumps in operation and system
requirements satisfied. In this situation, the adjustable
speed pump contributes little to the system. When
the programmed value of the timer expires, a fixed
speed pump is destaged and the adjustable speed
pump accelerated to maintain system requirement.
This saves energy and avoids dead head water
circulation within the adjustable speed pump.
Description of choice:
Set the de-stage timer interval. When sleep mode is
activated, ensure the interval is set lower or equal to
the value of the sleep mode timer (parameter 403).
✭ Enabled
Function:
To achieve equal hours of operation in the constant
speed pumps, pump use can be cycled. Timers
on the relay outputs (relays 6, 7, 8, and 9) monitor
the running hours of each pump. In staging on, the
relay (pump) with the least hours is switched on. In
destaging, the relay (pump) with the most hours is
switched off. Not operating a pump over long time
periods can create corrosion concerns.
If cycling is disabled, the controller follows the fixed
pattern of relay activation (6, 7, 8 and 9) regardless of the
running hour counters. Destaging is in the reverse order.
Description of choice:
Choose whether to disable or enable the function.
Quick Menu 040 Par. 420 PID normal/inverse
control
(PID NOR/INV. CTRL)
Value:
✭Normal (NORMAL)
Inverse (INVERSE)
[0]
[1]
Function:
This determines how the drive’s PID controller
responds to a difference between the setpoint and
feedback. Normal is when the drive is to reduce the
output frequency as the feedback signal increases.
Inverse is when the drive is to increase the output
frequency as the feedback signal increases.
Description of choice:
Select the PID controller response option.
46
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Programming of the Lead Pump Alternation Function
The standard cascade controller parameters and the
following parameters 750 - 753 are to be programmed.
Select "Standard" in quick menu 020, par. 723
Operational mode select.
•
•
•
[0] Disabled (DISABLE)
[1] Enabled - Standard mode (ENABLE)
[2] Enabled - Indexed alternation (ENABLE
INDEXED) where you choose [2].
Parameter 712 Motor pump combinations (quick
menu 021) are now limited to:
Parameter 722 Pump cycling (quick menu 032) now
includes Enabled - Indexed alternation, i.e.
Relays used
Relay 6, 7.
Relay 6, 7, 8.
4 pumps @ 100%
Relay 6, 7, 8, 9.
And the following parameters are to be set:
Quick Menu 036 Par. 750 Alternation Time
(ALTERNATION TIME)
Value:
0-999
✭ 0 Hours
(0 = Only manual)
pump alternation to take place at 23.00 (11 pm)
counting the hours back to 23.00 (11 pm) gives
you the elapsed hours, i.e. 10.5 hours
Lead pump alternation occurs when the "elapsed
alternation time" is equal to "alternation time".
Description of choice:
Set the desired time.
Function:
This is the time period between automatic alternation
of the lead pump, e.g. alternation every 48 hours.
When alternation occurs, all pumps shut down
and a new lead pump is connected.
Description of choice:
Set the desired value in hours. "0" corresponds
to manual operation.
Quick Menu 037 Par. 751 Elapsed
Alternation Time
(ELAPSED ALT TIME)
Value:
0-par. 750 Alternation time
Comment
PUMP#1 (at R6) and PUMP#2 (at R7).
PUMP#1 (at R6), PUMP#2 (at R7) and
PUMP#3 (at R8).
PUMP#1 (at R6), PUMP#2 (at R7),
PUMP#3 (at R8) and PUMP#4 (at R9).
Standard Cascade
Controller Setup
Pump combination
2 pumps @ 100%
3 pumps @ 100%
✭ 0 Hours
Function:
The timer counts the elapsed time since last
alternation, and can be used during commissioning.
E.g. if the time when programming the adjustable
frequency drive is 9:30 (am) and you want the lead
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Quick Menu 038 Par. 752 Alternation Register
(ALT. REGISTER)
Value:
1-4
✭ 1
Function:
It is possible to manually choose the desired lead pump
for the next "alternation time " period. When selecting
a number between 1 and 4 the elapsed alternation
timer will be reset. As soon as the chosen lead-pump
has been in operation for the alternation time set in
par. 750, automatic alternation will take over.
When manually changing lead pump, all pumps
will shut down like for automatic alternation before
a new lead pump is connected.
NOTE
Can only be changed when the system
is running.
47
Cascade Controller Option
Description of choice:
Select which pump you want to be the lead pump.
Quick Menu 039 Par. 753 Alternation
Restart Delay
(ALT. RESTART DEL)
Value:
0-60
✭ 5 sec.
Function:
The controller makes sure, that a "new" lead pump
is not started up before the "old" lead pump is
stopped. The time in this parameter sets the delay
from when the "old" lead pump is completely stopped
until the "new" one must be started up.
Description of choice:
Set the desired time.
Sleep mode:
The sleep mode function also works in the indexed
alternation mode. If the alternation occurs when
the adjustable frequency drive is in sleep mode, the
lead pump is changed according to the alternation
procedure. The adjustable frequency drive continues
with a new lead pump but stays in the sleep mode.
48
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
The most common setup for feedback response is with
a single transmitter located at the farthest significant
load in the system. Programming the cascade
controller option in this manner is described below. It
is also possible for the PID to accept two feedback
signals, making two-zone regulation available. For two
feedback control, and for additional setting options,
see the Operating Instructions for your AFD series.
Setup for feedback response is with a single transmitter
located at the farthest significant load in the system
requires programming parameter 417, Feedback
Function, and parameter 418, Setpoint 1. Parameter
417, Feedback Function, is only accessible through the
Extended Menu. The Extended Menu is accessed by
pressing the [EXTEND. MENU] key on the drive control
panel. Parameter 418 may be accessed through either
the Extended Menu or as item 29 in the Quick Menu.
Description of choice:
Set the feedback function to Maximum for
the drive to use Setpoint 1 as the maximum
reference signal for control.
Quick Menu 029 Par. 418 Setpoint 1
(SETPOINT 1)
Value:
Feedback Min. to Feedback Max.
✭ 0.000
Function:
Setpoint 1 is used to provide the setpoint reference
for one setpoint PID control or for the setpoint for
zone 1 in two setpoint PID control.
All other reference signals are ignored.
Description of choice:
Set the required value the system is to maintain
during normal operation. The value must be between
the minimum and maximum values set in Quick
Menu items 14 and 15 (parameter 413, Minimum
Feedback, and parameter 414, Maximum Feedback).
Setpoint 2, Quick Menu item 30, is not used in
one feedback signal applications.
EXTENDED MENU Par. 417 Feedback Function
(2 FEEDBACK, CALC.)
Value:
Minimum (MINIMUM)
Maximum (MAXIMUM)
Sum (SUM)
Difference (DIFFERENCE)
Average (AVERAGE)
Two-zone minimum (2 ZONE MIN)
Two-zone maximum (2 ZONE MAX)
✭Virtual Control Curve (VIRTUAL CTRL CURVE)
Feedback 1 Only (FEEDBACK 1 ONLY)
Feedback 2 Only (FEEDBACK 2 ONLY)
Function:
This parameter sets the calculation method whenever a
system feedback signal is used, or when two feedback
signals (Setpoint 1 and Setpoint 2) are used.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
49
Standard Cascade
Controller Setup
■ Alternate programming
In water supply systems, it is often impractical to
place a pressure sensor at the far end of the system.
In HVAC and other applications, however, it is often
possible to place the pressure sensor(s) at the farthest
significant load and measure actual pressure in the
system. In these cases, the cascade option can use
the drive’s PID controller to respond to system changes
as programmed. Pumps or fans are staged on and
off in response to the system feedback signal.
Cascade Controller Option
■ Master/Slave
Cascade Control Setup
■ Introduction
In Master/Slave cascade control operation, the AFD
with the cascade control option card is the Master. The
Master drive controls the speed and staging on or off
of up to four additional adjustable speed drives. The
Master drive exports a pulse signal or analog speed
signal through its output relays to the slave drives. It is
recommended that a pulse signal be used for minimum
electrical noise and for precise drive control.
The Master drive and the slave drives are programmed
for different operation, although many parameters
are set the same. The Master drive is programmed
for closed loop operation and responds to system
feedback signals to meet the needs of the system.
The slave drives are programmed for open loop
operation and receive a variable speed signal and
stop/start commands from the Master drive.
Although pump applications are highlighted in this
chapter, the procedures and settings are nearly
identical for other applications. The feedback process
setup described, assumes that a pressure feedback
signal is measured at the outlet of the pumps.
Programming instructions:
Instructions for programming Quick Menu items
1-20 are presented in Chapter 6, AFD and
Cascade Controller Card Setup. Parameters
1-20 must be programmed before programming
Master/Slave cascade control options.
The instructions in this chapter describe procedures
for programming both the Master and slave drives
for Master/Slave cascade control mode. Procedures
for programming are in the following order:
Best efficiency:
Danfoss has available the Multiple Unit Staging
Efficiency Calculator (MUSEC), a free software program
available on the Danfoss website. By entering pump
and system data, MUSEC provides the programmer
with Master drive on and off staging frequencies
for each pump at optimal efficiency. For a free
download, go to www.danfoss.com/drives.
Sensor placement:
Best efficiency is attained when the pressure
transmitter is placed at the farthest significant load
in the system. This setup allows measurement of
actual system peformance. If this is not practical,
the pressure transmitter is usually placed close
to the discharge of the pumps.
The default feedback process described for setup
in this chapter is used when a pressure feedback
signal is measured at the outlet of the pumps. The
cascade controller uses the feedback to estimate the
setpoint required at various rates of flow. Setpoint
1 is the minimum pressure required when the
system is running with only the AFD operating at full
speed. Setpoint 2 is the maximum pressure required
when the system is running with all pumps at full
capacity. A theoretical value calculates pressure
loss in the system under minimum and maximum
loads. The controller adjusts the loading based
upon the number of pumps in operation.
When the pressure transmitter is placed at the farthest
significant load in the system, common in HVAC
applications, see alternative ways of programming
the cascade controller described in Alternate
Programming at the end of this chapter.
Initial Setup: Quick Menu items 1-20
Step 1: Master drive programming
Step 2: Slave drive programming
Step 3: Optimization of the process regulator
Alternate Programming
Optimizing the process regulator is performed after
system start up. The procedures are described
in Chapter 9, System Optimization.
50
Although pump applications are highlighted in this
chapter, the procedures and setting are nearly identical
for fan applications, such as controlling multiple cooling
tower fans. Differences between fan and pump
settings are described in the procedures.
General information on how to program the AFD
through the local control panel keypad are presented
in Chapter 4, User Interface.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Initial Setup
Instructions for programming Quick Menu items
1-20 are presented in Chapter 5, AFD Drive and
Cascade Controller Card Setup. Parameters 1-20
must be programmed into the Master drive before
programming additional Master/Slave cascade
control options described below.
Description of choice:
Set staging off delay time. In Master/Slave operation,
3 seconds is a typical value.
Quick Menu 024 Par. 715 SBW staging on time
(STAGING DELAY)
■ Step 1: Master drive programming
The following drive parameters are used in
programming the Master drive. Note that while the
menu items are in sequence, not each menu item
in the Quick Menu is programmed.
Quick Menu 021 Par. 712 Motor Pump
Combinations
(PUMP COMBINATION)
✭ 30 sec.
Function:
Staging delay time is used to prevent the fast cycling
on of the slave pumps or fans. Increase the time
if frequent switching is encountered.
Description of choice:
Set staging on delay time. In Master/Slave operation,
3 seconds is a typical value.
✭ R6 @100%
Quick Menu 029 Par. 418 Setpoint 1
(SETPOINT 1)
Function:
The number of slave pumps or fans is selected
in this parameter. In Master/Slave operation,
all motors are the same size.
R6 @100% = one slave controlled by relay 6.
R6, R7 @100% = two slaves controlled by
relays 6 and 7.
R6-R8 @100% = three slaves controlled by
relays 6, 7, and 8.
R6-R9 @100% = four slaves controlled by
relays 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Description of choice:
Select the number of slave pumps or fans.
Value:
Feedback Min. to Feedback Max.
✭ 0.000
Function:
The default feedback process is used when a pressure
feedback signal is measured at the outlet of the pumps.
The cascade controller uses the feedback to estimate
the setpoint required at various rates of flow. Setpoint
1 is the minimum pressure required when the system
is running with only the AFD operating at full speed.
Setpoint 1 is a theoretical value that the cascade
controller uses as an internal reference to calculate
pressure loss in the system under minimum load.
The controller adjusts the internal reference based
upon the number of pumps in operation.
Quick Menu 023 Par. 714 SBW staging off time
(DESTAGING DELAY)
Value:
0 - 3000 sec.
✭ 30 sec.
Function:
Destaging delay time is used to prevent the fast
cycling off of the slave pumps or fans. Increase the
time if frequent switching is encountered.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
51
Master/Slave Cascade
Control Setup
Value:
R6 @100%
R6, R7 @100%
R6-R8 @100%
R6-R9 @100%
Value:
0 - 3000 sec.
Cascade Controller Option
The range is determined by Quick Menu item 14
(parameter 413, Minimum Feedback) and Quick Menu
item 15 (parameter 414, Maximum Feedback). When
the pressure feedback signal originates at the far end
of the system, the drive does not need to compensate
for system pressure changes due to flow. For this
system configuration, or for two setpoint PID control,
see Alternative Programming at the end of this chapter.
Description of choice:
Set the desired feedback minimum within the
programmed minimum and maximum in Quick Menu
items 14 and 15. The process unit is selected in
Quick menu item 13, Process Units.
NOTE
Factory setting is for a single 4 - 20 mA current
signal transmitter for process feedback. In
all other cases, see instructions in Chapter
10, Feedback Transmitter Wiring.
When the pressure feedback signal originates at
the far end of the system, the drive does not need
to compensate for system pressure changes due
to flow. For this system configuration, or for two
setpoint PID control, see Alternative Programming
at the end of this chapter.
Description of choice:
Set the desired feedback maximum within the
programmed minimum and maximum in Quick Menu
items 14 and 15. The process unit is selected in
Quick menu item 13, Process Units.
Quick Menu 032 Par. 722 Pump cycling
(PUMP CYCLING)
Value:
Enabled - Disabled
Quick Menu 030 Par. 419 Setpoint 2
(SETPOINT 2)
Value:
Feedback Min. to Feedback Max.
The range is determined by Quick Menu item 14
(parameter 413, Minimum Feedback) and Quick Menu
item 15 (parameter 414, Maximum Feedback).
✭ 0.000
Function:
The default feedback process is used when a pressure
feedback signal is measured at the outlet of the pumps.
The cascade controller uses the feedback to estimate
the setpoint required at various rates of flow. Setpoint
2 is the maximum pressure required when the system
is running with all pumps at full capacity. A theoretical
value calculates pressure loss in the system under
maximum load. The controller adjusts the loading
based upon the number of pumps in operation.
✭ Enabled
Function:
To achieve equal hours of operation, use of pumps
or fans can be cycled. Timers on the relay outputs
(relays 6, 7, 8, and 9) monitor the running hours of each
pump. In staging on, the relay with the least hours
is switched on. In destaging, the relay with the most
hours is switched off. Not operating a pump over long
time periods can create corrosion concerns.
If cycling is disabled, the controller follows the fixed
pattern of relay activation (6, 7, 8 and 9) regardless of
the running hours. Destaging is in the reverse order.
Description of choice:
Choose whether to enable or disable the function.
Quick Menu 033 Par. 319 Analog output,
terminal 42
(AO 42 FUNCTION)
Value:
Output, terminal 42
✭ Output current 4-20 mA
Function:
An analog/digital output is available through terminal
42 and can be programmed to show a status or an
analog value such as frequency. For the analog output,
52
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
Description of choice:
Set the output of terminal 42 to Output Frequency
(pulse sequence), (OUT.FREQ.PULSE) for Master/Slave
operation as shown in the wiring diagram in Chapter
4. Using frequency pulse is a reliable way of providing
the same speed reference to all slave drives. Current
output is limited to two slave drives.
System pressure and flow requirements can often be
generated using parallel pumps at different efficiencies.
The cascade controller can automatically configure
the number of pumps in operation to achieve the
highest system efficiency. Running three pumps at full
speed, for example, may satisfy system requirements,
while running four pumps at a lower speed meets
requirements and achieves higher efficiency.
Danfoss has available the Multiple Unit Staging
Efficiency Calculator (MUSEC), a free software
program available on the Danfoss website. By
entering pump and system data, MUSEC provides
the programmer with on and off staging frequencies
for each pump at optimal efficiency. Enter the data
for each pump in Extended Menu parameters 739
and 740. For a free download, go to www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/DriveSolutions/Software
download/PS software download.
Quick Menu 034 Par. 739 Master/Slave
staging on frequencies
(M/S STAGE FREQ)
Value:
Min. freq - Max. freq
(Par. 201 - 202)
✭ Min. freq.
Function:
Best efficiency staging on frequency can be calculated
for the cascade controller based on pump and system
curves to meet feedback requirements. Use the
MUSEC software program to determine the most
efficient staging on frequency for each pump.
Description of choice:
739, use the (+) and (-) keys to scroll through
all four slave settings.
If the pump or system data is unknown, refer
to the section Alternative Programming at
the end of this chapter.
Quick Menu 035 Par. 740 Master/Slave
staging off frequencies
(M/S DESTAGE FREQ)
Value:
Min. freq - Max. freq
(Par. 201 - 202)
✭ Min. freq.
Function:
Best efficiency staging off frequency can be calculated
for the cascade controller based on pump and system
curves to meet feedback requirements. Use the
MUSEC software program to determine the most
efficient staging off frequency for each pump.
Description of choice:
Enter the staging off frequency for each pump.
After pressing the CHANGE DATA key in parameter
740, use the (+) and (-) keys to scroll through
all four slave settings.
Master/Slave Cascade
Control Setup
there are three types of output signals: 0 to 20 mA, 4
to 20 mA, or 0 to 32000 pulses. The pulse rate is set
by parameter 320, Terminal 42, Output, Pulse Scaling.
If the pump or system data is unknown, refer
to the section Alternative Programming at
the end of this chapter.
Quick Menu 040 Par. 420 PID normal/inverse
control
(PID NOR/INV. CTRL)
Value:
✭Normal (NORMAL)
Inverse (INVERSE)
[0]
[1]
Function:
This determines how the drive’s PID controller
responds to a difference between the setpoint and
feedback. Normal is when the drive is to reduce the
output frequency as the feedback signal increases.
Inverse is when the drive is to increase the output
frequency as the feedback signal increases.
Enter the staging on frequency for each pump.
After pressing the CHANGE DATA key in parameter
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
53
Cascade Controller Option
Description of choice:
Select the PID controller response option.
54
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Step 2: Slave Drive Programming
The slave drives run in open loop mode and recieve
stop/start and speed reference commands from the
Master drive. Each slave drive must be programmed
with the nameplate data from the motor it controls.
All other applicable parameter settings must match
the settings in the Master drive.
All parameter settings can be transferred from one
AFD drive to another by using the removeable keypad.
Parameter 004, LCP Copy, allows this function. First,
upload all parameter values to the Local Control Panel
(LCP) keypad. The keypad can then be removed
and plugged into another AFD where all parameter
values can be downloaded. If motor or drive sizes
differ, Download Power-independent Parameters can
be selected in parameter 004 to omit downloading
motor and current dependent data.
Manual programming of slave drives is also possible
following the procedure described for Master drive
programming. To copy required Master drive
parameter settings manually into each slave drive,
enter Master drive settings for Quick Menu items
7-13 and 18-19 into each slave drive.
Function:
This parameter is used to copy all parameter setups to
or from the Local Control Panel (LCP) keypad. It can
be used to store a backup copy of all parameters in the
LCP or to copy all setups from one drive to another.
Description of choice:
Select Upload all parameters to copy all parameter
values from the drive to the LCP.
Select Download all parameters to copy all
parameter values from the LCP to the drive on
which the keypad is mounted.
Select Download power-independent parameters if
only the power-independent parameters are to be
downloaded. This allows the parameters from one drive
to be easily copied to another drive of a different size.
Settings in parameters 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 215,
221, and 222 are not downloaded using this function.
1. Set staging on frequency in Quick Menu item 34
(parameter 739, Master/Slave staging on frequency),
to the maximum frequency set in Quick Menu item
08 (parameter 202, Output frequency high limit).
2. For an approximation of best efficiency, set the
destaging frequences in Quick Menu item 35
(parameter 740, Master/Slave staging off frequency),
to half of the frequency set between Quick Menu
item 08 (parameter 202) and Quick Menu item 07
(parameter 201, Output frequency low limit).
Download master drive programming data
Use the Master LCP to download parameter setting
into the slave drives in accordance with procedures
in Extended Menu parameter 004, LCP Copy.
The Extended Menu is accessed by pressing the
[EXTEND. MENU] key on the LCP keypad.
Extended Menu Par. 004 LCP Copy
(LCP COPY)
[0]
[1]
[2]
Alternate Feedback Programming:
In water supply systems, it is often impractical to
place a pressure sensor at the far end of the system.
In HVAC and other applications, however, it is often
possible to place the pressure sensor(s) at the farthest
significant load and measure actual pressure in the
system. In these cases, the cascade option can use
55
Master/Slave Cascade
Control Setup
■ Alternate programming:
Pump/system data for MUSEC unavailable:
In cases where the pump or system data points are
not known, the best efficiency staging and destaging
frequencies are difficult to calculate. Operation
of the system is possible with an approximation
of the best efficiency function.
Enter Motor Nameplate Data
Enter the nameplate data from each motor into
its associated drive in accordance with Quick
Menu items 001 - 006 in Chapter 6, AFD and
Cascade Control Card Setup.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
[3]
NOTE
Copying is only possible when drive is stopped.
Commisioning slave drives is done in the
following sequence of events:
Value:
✭No copying (NO COPY)
Upload all parameters
(UPLOAD ALL PARAMET.)
Download all parameters
(DOWNLOAD ALL PARAM.)
Download power-independent parameters
(DOWNLOAD SIZE INDEP.)
Cascade Controller Option
the drive’s PID controller to respond to system changes
as programmed. Pumps or fans are staged on and
off in response to the system feedback signal.
The most common setup for feedback response is with
a single transmitter located at the farthest significant
load in the system. Programming the cascade
controller option in this manner is described below. It
is also possible for the PID to accept two feedback
signals, making two-zone regulation available. For two
feedback control, and for additional setting options,
see the Operating Instructions for your AFD series.
Setup for feedback response is with a single transmitter
located at the farthest significant load in the system
requires programming parameter 417, Feedback
Function, and parameter 418, Setpoint 1. Parameter
417, Feedback Function, is only accessible through the
Extended Menu. The Extended Menu is accessed by
pressing the [EXTEND. MENU] key on the drive control
panel. Parameter 418 may be accessed through either
the Extended Menu or as item 29 in the Quick Menu.
Quick Menu 029 Par. 418 Setpoint 1
(SETPOINT 1)
Value:
Feedback Min. to Feedback Max.
✭ 0.000
Function:
Setpoint 1 is used to provide the setpoint reference
for one setpoint PID control or for the setpoint for
zone 1 in two setpoint PID control.
Description of choice:
Set the required value the system is to maintain
during normal operation. The value must be between
the minimum and maximum values set in Quick
Menu items 14 and 15 (parameter 413, Minimum
Feedback, and parameter 414, Maximum Feedback).
Setpoint 2, Quick Menu item 30, is not used in
one feedback signal applications.
Extended Menu Par. 417 Feedback Function
(2 FEEDBACK, CALC.)
Value:
Minimum (MINIMUM)
Maximum (MAXIMUM)
Sum (SUM)
Difference (DIFFERENCE)
Average (AVERAGE)
Two-zone minimum (2 ZONE MIN)
Two-zone maximum (2 ZONE MAX)
✭Virtual Control Curve (VIRTUAL CTRL CURVE)
Feedback 1 Only (FEEDBACK 1 ONLY)
Feedback 2 Only (FEEDBACK 2 ONLY)
Function:
This parameter sets the calculation method whenever a
system feedback signal is used, or when two feedback
signals (Setpoint 1 and Setpoint 2) are used.
Description of choice:
Select the feedback calculation method required.
Maximum uses Setpoint 1 as the maximum reference
signal for control. See the Operating Manual for
your AFD series for additional information.
56
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ System
Optimization
■ System start up and final adjustments
After Master drive and slave programming is
complete, and after all system safety procedures have
been ensured and the system is operational, final
adjustments can be made to reach maximum efficiency
for drive and cascade controller operation.
Final adjustments involves the following:
a. Setting the best efficiency frequency in the cascade
controller for staging and destaging pumps and fans
b. Optimization of the process regulator
■ Best efficiency frequency
Quick Menu 041 Par. 422 PID start-up frequency
(PID START VALUE)
Value:
fMIN-fMAX (parameters 201 and 202)
✭ 0 Hz
Function:
Each time the drive is given a start command, the start
up frequency is the speed the drive accelerates to
before PID control is activated. The drive will follow the
acceleration ramp when a start signal is received as if
in open loop. When the programmed start frequency
is reached, it will change to closed loop operation.
The PID controller will then only respond to changes in
the feedback signal whose frequency is less than 1.6 Hz.
Description of choice:
Set the required start frequency. A setting near the
operating speed will enable the system to stabilize
more quickly. For pump applications, set this high
enough to ensure flow from the pump.
System
Optimization
Quick Menu 042 Par. 427 PID lowpass filter time
(PID FILTER TIME)
Value:
0.01 - 10.00
✭ 1.00
Function:
Noise on the feedback signal can be reduced
with the lowpass filter.
Description of choice:
Select the desired time constant (t). The cut off
frequency equals ½πt. For example, if a time constant
of 0.1 s is programmed, the cut off frequency for the
lowpass filter will be 1/[2π (.1)] = 1.6 Hz.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
57
Cascade Controller Option
■ Optimization of the process regulator
Quick Menu 043 Par. 423 PID proportional gain
(PID PROP. GAIN)
Value:
0.00 - 10.00
✭ 0.30
time until the feedback signal stabilizes. Now
increase the integration time from 15% to 50%.
Starting and stopping the drive will produce the
necessary error signal in the process to set the PID.
PID equation:
The AFD PID controller operates in accordance
to the following equation:
Function:
Determines how fast the system responds to
a change in feedback.
PID out = P[e(t) + 1/ l f e(t) dt] + D e(t)/dt
Description of choice:
Quick regulation is obtained by a high gain, but
if the gain is too high, the process may become
unstable. See Optimization of the Process Regulator
for information on proper adjustment.
Quick Menu 044 Par. 424 PID integration time
(PID INTEGR.TIME)
Value:
0.01 - 9999.00 sec. (OFF)
✭ OFF
Function:
The integrator adds the error signal over time and uses
this to correct the speed of the drive. The integration
time is the time needed by the integrator to have
the same effect as the proportional gain.
Description of choice:
Fast regulation is obtained by setting a short
integration time. However, if this time is too short,
the process will overcorrect and become unstable.
See Optimization of the Process Regulator for
information on proper adjustment.
Procedure for Optimization of the Process Regulator
The process regulator is set by Quick Menu items
43 and 44 (parameters 423 and 424). To optimize
the proportional gain and integration time, in most
processes, this can be done as follows:
1. Start the motor.
2. Set parameter 423, PID Proportional Gain, to 0.3
and increase it until the feedback signal becomes
unstable. Then reduce the value until the feedback
signal has stabilized. Now lower the proportional
gain by about half (40% to 60%).
3. Set parameter 424, PID Integration Time, to 20
seconds and reduce the value until the feedback
signal becomes unstable. Increase the integration
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MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Feedback
Transmitter Wiring
■ Connecting feedback transmitters
Terminal 12 and 13 of the AFD provide access to a
24 VDC, 200 mA power supply. This can be used
to power remote transmitters, so an external power
supply is generally not needed. The diagrams below
show how to wire two- and three-wire transmitters.
Single 0 - 10 V feedback transmitter connection:
Single 4 - 20 mA feedback transmitter connection:
Programming:
Programming:
Parameter
Parameter
Parameter
Number
Description
Value
415
REF./FDBK UNIT
Process unit
413
MIN. FEEDBACK
Transmitter low limit
414
MAX. FEEDBACK
Transmitter high limit
308
AI [V] 53 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
309
AI 53 SCALE LOW
0V
Parameter
Parameter
310
AI 53 SCALE HIGH
10 V
Number
Description
Value
314
AI [mA] 60 FUNCT
NO FUNCTION
415
REF./FDBK UNIT
Process unit
413
MIN. FEEDBACK
Transmitter low limit
414
MAX. FEEDBACK
Transmitter high limit
308
AI [V] 53 FUNCT.
NO OPERATION
311
AI [V] 54 FUNCT.
NO OPERATION
314
AI [mA] 60 FUNCT
FEEDBACK
315
AI 60 SCALE LOW
4 mA
316
AI 60 SCALE HIGH
20 mA
Two 0 - 10 V feedback transmitter connections:
When two feedback signals are used with the AFD,
both signals must be voltage signals. Both transmitters
must also have the same range.
Feedback Transmitter
Wiring
Parameter
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59
Cascade Controller Option
Programming:
Programming:
Parameter
Parameter
Parameter
Number
Description
Value
415
Ref./FDBK UNIT
Process unit
413
MIN. FEEDBACK
Transmitter low limit
414
MAX. FEEDBACK
Transmitter high limit
417
2 FEEDBACK CALC.
Desired operation
308
AI [V] 53 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
309
AI 53 SCALE LOW
0V
310
AI 53 SCALE HIGH
10V
311
AI [V] 54 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
312
AI 54 SCALE LOW
0V
313
AI 54 SCALE HIGH
10V
314
AI [mA] 60 FUNCT.
NO OPERATION
Two 4 - 20 mA feedback transmitters connection:
When two feedback signals are used, the AFD requires
that they both be connected to its analog voltage
inputs, terminals 53 and 54. Transmitters that produce
a current signal can be used by adding two resistors.
Parameter
Parameter
Parameter
Number
Description
Value
415
Ref./FDBK UNIT
Process unit
413
MIN. FEEDBACK
Transmitter low limit
414
MAX. FEEDBACK
Transmitter high limit
417
FEEDBACK CALC.
Desired operation
308
AI [V] 53 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
309
AI 53 SCALE LOW
2V
310
AI 53 SCALE HIGH
10V
311
AI [54] 54 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
312
AI 54 SCALE LOW
2V
313
AI 54 SCALE HIGH
10V
314
AI [mA] 60 FUNCT.
NO OPERATION
Two feedback signals and two setpoints:
Similar to two feedback signals and one setpoint, the
need for two feedback signals with two setpoints is
frequently encountered. Whenever two critical zones
do not have the same setpoint value, two feedback
with two setpoint control is required. Many pumping
systems require the monitoring and control of two
loads that differ in size and pressure drop. Or this can
be effective when controlling different temperature
zones in cooling or heating applications.
If the transmitter is capable of producing 10V at 20
mA, the value of the resistor to use is:
The input scaling of the AFD analog inputs in this
case would have to be 2 - 10 Volt.
To enable this setup, the feedback function in
parameter 417, Feedback Function, is selected. When
selecting 2-zone Minimum in parameter 417, the drive
will regulate the system so the feedbacks are equal to
or greater than their associated setpoints. If 2-zone
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MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
Maximum is selected, the feedbacks will be equal
to or less than their associated setpoints.
Feedback 1 is associated with Setpoint 1 and
Feedback 2 is associated with Setpoint 2. The two
independent groupings are continuously monitored
to satisfy both zones requirements.
Transmitter connection to the AFD:
The transmitters are connected to the AFD in the
same way as shown above with 1 setpoint and 2
feedbacks. The feedback connected to terminal 53
is assigned to setpoint 1 and the one connected to
terminal 54 to setpoint 2. Both transmitters must
have the same output signal and range.
Parameter
Parameter
Number
Description
Parameter
Value
204
MIN. REFERENCE
0
205
MAX. REFERENCE
100
In this example, load 1 requires a pressure of at
least 30 Pa and load 2 at least 60 Pa.
Parameter
Parameter
Parameter
Number
Description
Value
417
2 FEEDBACK CALC.
2 ZONE MIN
418
SETPOINT 1
30
419
SETPOINT 2
60
Programming example for 2 feedback and
2 setpoint controls:
Transmitter
Supply:
Output:
Range:
ratings:
15 - 30 VDC
0 - 10 V
0 - 100 Pa
The AFD is programmed to match its input to follow
the specification of the transmitter:
Programming:
Parameter
Parameter
Number
Description
Parameter
Value
100
CONFIG. MODE
CLOSED LOOP
415
Ref./FDBK UNIT
Pa
413
MIN. FEEDBACK
0
414
MAX. FEEDBACK
100
308
AI [V] 53 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
309
AI 53 SCALE LOW
0
310
AI 53 SCALE HIGH
100
311
AI [54] 54 FUNCT.
FEEDBACK
312
AI 54 SCALE LOW
0
313
AI 54 SCALE HIGH
100
314
AI [mA] 60 FUNCT.
NO OPERATION
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Feedback Transmitter
Wiring
The reference range is generally set to equal the
range of the transmitter. In this way, the setpoint
(reference) can be set to any value that the transmitter
can produce. If required, the reference range can be
set to a range that is narrower than the transmitter’s
range, but it cannot be set to a wider range.
61
Cascade Controller Option
■ Parameter group 700 definitions
Para
Name
Description
Unit
Range
Factory
Change
Setting
During
Data Type
Conversion
Index
Operation
712
713
PUMP COMBINA-
Selects number and size of
TION
slave pumps
STAGING BANDW. %
Pump Staging Bandwidth in
No.
1-8
R6@100
No
5
0
%
1.0 - 100.0
5.0%
Yes
6
-1
% of setpoint
714
DESTAGING DELAY
Pump Staging Bandwidth off
Sec.
0.0 - 3000.0
10 sec.
Yes
6
-1
715
STAGING DELAY
Pump Staging Bandwidth on
Sec.
0.0 - 3000.0
10 sec.
Yes
6
-1
716
OVERRIDE
Over-ride Bandwidth
%
2.0 - 100.0
100%
Yes
6
-1
Over-ride Bandwidth
Sec.
0.0 - 300
10 sec.
Yes
6
-1
%
0.0 - 100.0
90%
Yes
6
-1
Sec.
Par. 403 - 600
OFF
Yes
6
0
Enabled/Disabled
Enable
No
5
0
Standard/Master
Standard
No
5
0
BANDW.%
717
OVERRIDE TIMER
718
STAGING FREQ%
hysteresis time
AFD Frequency at staging
transition in % of max speed
721
DESTAGE TIME
Destage timer
722
PUMP CYCLING
Enable or disable pump
cycling
723
OPERATIONAL
Selects either Standard or
MODE SELECT
Master/Slave control
724
PUMP 2 ON TIME
Hour meter for pump 2
Hrs
Slave
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
-1
725
PUMP 3 ON TIME
Hour meter for pump 3
Hrs
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
-1
726
PUMP 4 ON TIME
Hour meter for pump 4
Hrs
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
-1
727
PUMP 5 ON TIME
Hour meter for pump 5
Hrs
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
-1
728
PUMP 2 CYCLES
Cycle counter for pump 2
No.
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
0
729
PUMP 3 CYCLES
Cycle counter for pump 3
No.
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
0
730
PUMP 4 CYCLES
Cycle counter for pump 4
No.
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
0
731
PUMP 5 CYCLES
Cycle counter for pump 5
No.
0 - 130000
0.0
Yes
7
0
736
RELAY ON TIME
Relay hour meter, relay R6 -
Hrs
0 - 130000
0.0
No
7
-1
737
RELAY CYCLES
Relay Cycle counter, rela
No.
0 - 130000
0.0
No
7
-1
738
SETPOINTS HM 1- 7
Calculated intermediate
Para
H0 - H1
0.000
No
4
-3
setpoint, relay (Hm1-Hm7)
415
M/S Stage on frequency, relay
Hz
Par. 201 - 202
Par. 202
Yes
6
-1
Hz
Par. 201 - 202
Par. 201
Yes
6
-1
%
0.0 - 100.0
10
Yes
6
-1
R9
739
M/S STAGE FREQ
(1-4)
740
M/S DESTAGE FREQ
741
DESTAGING FREQ %
M/S Stage off frequency, relay
(1-4)
Frequency at destaging in %
of max. speed
750
ALTERNATION TIME
Lead pump alternation
Hrs.
0 - 999.9
0
Yes
6
-1
751
ELAPSED ALT. TIME
Time to alternate
Hrs.
0 - par. 750
0
Yes
6
-1
752
ALTERNATION
Lead pump alternation
1-4
1
Yes
5
0
0 - 60
5
Yes
5
0
REGISTER
753
ALTERNATION
Lead pump alternation
sec.
RESTART DELAY
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Cascade Controller Option
Conversion Index Factors
Conversion Factor
3.6
100.0
10.0
1.0
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
Parameter group 700,
all parameters
Conversion Index
74
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
DataType Descriptions
Data type
3
4
5
6
7
9
Description
Integer 16
Integer 32
Unsigned 8
Unsigned 16
Unsigned 32
Text string
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
63
Cascade Controller Option
■ Service
parameters
■ Display information
Parameters 724 through 738 provide operational
information including the number of hours run, cycles,
and the state of the relay for each pump.
Par. 724 - 727 Pump-on time
(PUMP x ON TIME)
Parameter number
Pump number
724
Pump 2
725
Pump 3
726
Pump 4
727
Pump 5
Value:
h
0 - 130000
Function:
The relay timer accumulates the hours (h) the pump
has run (the relay switched on). The counter is
updated 10 times per hour which means that cycles
less than 6 minutes are not registered. The hours
can be reset to zero when a pump is replaced since
the cascade controller uses parameter 736, Relay
On Time, to determine cycling patterns.
Par. 728 - 731 Pump cycles
(PUMP x CYCLES)
Parameter number
Pump number
728
Pump 2
729
Pump 3
730
Pump 4
731
Pump 5
Value:
No.
0 - 130000
Function:
The cascade controller counts the number (No.)
of times each relay (pump) is switched on. The
cycle counter can be reset to zero when a pump
is replaced.
be reset. A new pump will not compensate for older
pumps. The new pump will cycle in regular rotation.
Par. 737 Relay cycles
(RELAY CYCLES)
Value:
No.
0 - 130000
Function:
The relay timer accumulates the number (No.) of
times each relay has been switched on and is used
by the cascade controller to determine the cycling
pattern. This counter cannot be reset.
Par. 738 Calculated intermediate setpoint
(SETPOINTS HM 1 - 7)
Value:
(set by Par. 415)
sp 1 - sp 2
Function:
The intermediate setpoint is used internally by
the cascade controller to calculate the system
setpoint. This parameter displays the setpoint for
information. Setpoint data is entered in parameters
418, Setpoint 1, and 419, Setpoint 2.
Par. 736 Relay-on time
(RELAY ON TIME)
Value:
h
0 - 130000
Function:
The relay timer accumulates the hours (h) each relay has
been switched on and is used by the cascade controller
to determine the cycling pattern. This counter cannot
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MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
Cascade Controller Option
■ Relay status
The display panel on the AFD allows reading
the status of the relays.
Press the [DISPLAY MODE] key. Use the [+] and [-] keys
to scroll through the list to RELAY STATUS. The relay
status readout consists of 8 binary digits. The first digit
(starting from left) indicates the status of Relay 01 which
is located in the power section of the AFD. The second
digit is Relay 02 which is located on the AFD control
card. Digits 3 - 6 indicate the four relays of the cascade
controller, relays 06, 07, 08 and 09 which are located on
the option board. Digits 7-8 are reserved for future use.
10010100 1
SETUP
Service
parameters
RELAY STATUS
175ZA690.10
The readout can be very useful during commissioning
to see how many fixed speed or slave pumps
are in operation.
AUTO REMOTE RUNNING
Value:
Relay open
Relay closed
[0]
[1]
NOTE
For readout via serial communication,
parameter 537 must be used.
Bit 7 = Relay 01,
Bit 6 = Relay 02,
Bits 5-2 = Relays 06 - 09.
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
65
Cascade Controller Option
■ Index
L
Lead Pump Alternation ................................................... 39
66
MG.60.I5.22 - VLT is a registered Danfoss trademark
www.danfoss.com/drives
175R0240
MG60I522
*MG60I522*
Rev. 2006-01-11