Annexes - European Commission

Appendix A
Figure A.1 Water and pollutant sources and pathways in urban catchments
[after Ellis, 1986, note that this figure could be extended to include sludge output from the WWTS and
also other potential inputs such as from urban use of pesticides
* a gully pot (also known as catchbasin) is a chamber or well, usually built at the kerb side, for the
admission of surface water to a sewer or sub-drain. It has a sediment sump at its base to trap grit and
detritus below the point of overflow.]
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Appendix A
Urban wastewater and sewage treatment is comprised of unit operations to separate,
modify, remove and destroy objectionable, hazardous and pathogenic substances carried by
wastewater in solution or suspension in order to render water fit and safe for discharge and
intended uses. Stringent water quality and effluent standards have been developed that
require reduction in suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, related to
biodegradable organic compounds), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and to some extent
coliform organisms (indicators of faecal pollution), control of pH as well as the
concentrations of certain organic compounds, together with some potentially toxic elements
and non-metals.
Sewage sludge consists of residues originating from mechanical, biological, chemical and
physical treatment of wastewater in sewage plants. The quantity and nature of the arising
sewage sludge are subjected to strong fluctuations depending on the wastewater
composition, the kind of wastewater purification process and the purification degree. Two
different sewage sludge types can mainly be distinguished:
Primary sludge: becomes physically or chemically separated from wastewater in
primary treatment
Secondary sludge: arises from the biological step (surplus activated sludge, sewage
sludge from trickling filters) and tertiary treatment (often nutrient removal).
Primary and secondary sludges are usually combined to create a composite sludge, which
often goes for further treatment in sludge digestion and dewatering. Residues resulting from
screening in preliminary treatment are not considered as sludge, consisting mainly of coarse
solid particles, grits, sands and grease [Magoarou, 1998].
Although the ‘nitrate’ and ‘phosphate’ ions in sewage are beyond the realm of this project, it
has to be noted that pollutants such as potentially toxic elements, organics, sulphides and
residuals, can form insoluble phosphates in the course of treatment processes. These have
great propensity for sedimentation in all stages of the sewage treatment process, thus
becoming part of the sewage sludge that has to be managed.
Figure A.2 shows the schematics of urban wastewater and sewage sludge treatment.
r Remo
nt Remo
Dewatering Land Application
ced ponds
philic ents
e tioning
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
d t
ted Sludge
Secondary Treatment
t Separ
e Trap
ary t
Figure A.2 Schematic Urban Wastewater and Sewage Sludge Treatment
Appendix A
Protection of the receiving waters from pollution by harmful effluent is the primary goal for
the treatment of urban wastewaters at WWTS. Urban wastewater is defined by the Council
Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban wastewater treatment (and as
amended by Commission Directive 98/15/EC of 27 February 1998) as, domestic wastewater
or the mixture of domestic wastewater with industrial wastewater and/or run-off rainwater.
The figures for water supply, consumption and treated wastewater are very variable across
the European Union. The water supply (litres/inhabitant/day) fluctuates greatly accross the
European urban areas (EUROSTAT data,1998-2000, Ginés, 1997). Not all collected
wastewater is treated; the percentage of urban wastewater not receiving treatment ranges
from 3% in Germany, up to 77% in Greece. This may include unplanned wastewater
collection, such as septic systems or leakage of UWW collection systems. Cities such as
Milan and Brussels do not yet have a centralised WWTS.
Table A.1 Population and household access to sewerage and wastewater treatment
- England &
-N. Ireland
Percentage of population with access to sewerage and public WWT
Access to
No treatment
[after OECD Report, 1999, EUROSTAT, 1998-2000] P=primary, S= secondary, T=tertiary
Table A.1 shows the data in EU15 for the total population, population access to UWW
collecting systems and to urban wastewater treatment facilities. The EU15 average shows
that 84 % of the households have access to UWW collecting systems, whereas only 48 % of
the urban wastewater is treated in primary + secondary + tertiary treatment facilities.
According to the European Waste Water Group (1997) report on urban wastewater
treatment in the EU and accession countries, there are marked differences between various
European regions in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary treatment as shown in Figure
A.3. The four represented groups of countries are: EU10 (all EU countries minus Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, Ireland and Sweden), EU south (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain),
EU north (Germany, Finland, Netherlands, Luxembourg and United Kingdom) and AC10
(accession countries, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland,
Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia).
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Appendix A
The percentage of population not connected to the UWW collecting systems (considered
"rural") increases in the order:
EU north (4%) < EU south (18%) < AC10 (40%)
The percentage of untreated urban wastewater increases in the order:
EU north (7%) < AC10 (18%) <EU south (18%)
In terms of primary, secondary and nutrient removal treatment the order is:
EU north (57%) > EU south (3%) > AC10 (2%)
These differences show a north-south and an west-east divide and point towards the need
for greater investment in the urban wastewater treatment in the southern region and the
accession countries.
Figure A.3 Urban wastewater treatment in EU and accession countries (minus Cyprus)
[after EEA, 1999, chapter 3.5 Water Stress]
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Appendix A
Northern region (Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway):
Environmental awareness in this region is high compared to many other countries in Europe
(Germany and the Netherlands being the major exceptions to this). This is in part due to the
environmental damage experienced in the past decades in this region from trans-boundary
acid deposition due to the burning of high sulphur fossil fuels. A number of national pollution
events, such as mercury poisoning of fish due to discharges from chloralkali plants also
increased awareness of the damage emissions can cause.
This led to increased recognition of the need for national and international agreements to
limit local and global environmental perturbations and has led Sweden and Norway in
particular to be among the most pro-active nations in terms of setting environmental
standards and education amongst the general population.
Finland, Norway and Sweden have low population densities and there are similarities in the
commercial activities in these regions, for example the oil production, metals and
engineering and paper manufacturing industries. Denmark has a higher population density
than other countries in the Northern region and therefore more of an urban environment but
also has a high level of environmental concern about water pollution, although all the
drinking water in this region is from groundwater sources. This compares with the UK, for
example, where approximately one third of potable drinking water is abstracted from surface
water sources that receive effluent from wastewater treatment.
The Central Region (Germany, Austria and CEE countries):
In addition to Germany and Austria, data are gathered where available for Switzerland and
for Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia), all associated EU countries. Environmental
awareness in the Central Region is high in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereas the
CEE countries experience a high level of environmental damage due to the long years of
neglect while part of the Soviet bloc. Transboundary pollution issues are very important in
the accession CEE countries and their neighbours. Very little data is available for the CEE
countries regarding the pollutants in UWW and SS. An inventory of organic pollutants in the
environment in the CEE countries was done by a team at Brno University, the Czech
Republic. (Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals in Central and Eastern
European Countries - State-of-the-art Report-TOCOEN REPORT No. 150, 1999). The main
organic pollutants investigated are the PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/PCDFs and their ocurrence in
the urban environments in the CEE countries. Most data available is from the Czech
Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary.
The Southern Region (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain):
The environmental awareness in the region is on the increase in the recent years. Water
resources are limited in the Southern Region and therefore recycling of treated waste water
and pollution reduction at source are important issues. Data regarding sources of pollutants
is less abundant in the 'Southern Region' especially regarding specific organic pollutants.
The region has among the lowest percentage of population access to UWW collecting
systems in the EU (70% for Greece, 84% for Italy, 55% for Portugal and 62% for Spain). The
percentage of non-treated wastewater is among the highest in the EU (16% for Greece and
Italy, 34% for Portugal and 13% for Spain) [after OECD Report, 1999, EUROSTAT, 19982000].
Typically, the metal content of sewage sludge in Italy is low, according to the literature
[Garcia-Delgado et al., 1994; Lang et al., 1988] suggesting that the sludge is mainly of
domestic origin, with negligible contribution from urban and industrial wastewater. Data for
Southern Italy were gathered in a two years pilot campaign [Braguglia et al., 2000; Marani et
al., 1998; Mininni et al., 1999].
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Appendix A
Concentration range
Southern Italy
Table A.2. Metal concentrations in sewage sludge (mg/kg of DS)
Wastewater treatment systems in Italy may treat 'non domestic' wastewater if the following
requirements are fulfilled:
- the plant has a residual capacity of treatment;
- wastewater meets the limits for discharge in UWW collecting systems;
- wastewater derives from the same territorial area;
- the same treatment tariff valid for the UWW discharge is applied.
In Spain, which is organised in 17 comunidades autonomas (autonomous communities)
there are more than 300,000 point sources of water discharges (both to superficial and to
groundwater) out of which 240,000 are to UWW collecting systems [Ministerio de Medio
Ambiente, 1997]. However, the quantification of the pollutants discharged is very limited.
Routine controls are generally limited to those established in Royal Decree 509/1996 and
which must be published every two years: BOD5, COD, suspended solids, total phosphorus
and total nitrogen in the case of treatment plants located in sensitive areas. However, these
controls are usually employed only for the discharges (not for the wastewater coming into
the treatment plant). As the discharges into the UWW collecting systems are under the
control of the local governments (municipalities), the limited information on levels of
pollutants in wastewater that exists comes from the enforcement inspection controls and is
not publicly available nor published in any form [Palerm and Singer, 2000].
There is almost no information on sources of pollutants and levels of pollutants in urban
wastewater and sewage sludge in Iberia [Palerm and Singer, 2000]. Water management in
Spain is completely de-centralised and the discharges into the UWW collecting system are
under the competence of the municipal authorities, which must meet the established
parameters for discharge into the public waterways.
There is very little information sources of pollutants and levels of pollutants in urban
wastewater and sewage sludge in Portugal [Palerm and Singer, 2000]. Most of the
information that exists was obtained prior to designing the wastewater treatment plants, but
this information was gathered at a local level and is not publicly available.
Data are available in Greece for sewage sludge content of potentially toxic elements, and
more limited for pollutants in urban wastewater. The Hellenic Ministry for Environment,
Physical Planning and Public works co-ordinates the data management in terms of
pollutants load in urban areas. The research studies tend to centre on the cities of
Thessaloniki or Athens.
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Appendix A
The Western Region (UK, Ireland, France and the Benelux countries, Belgium Netherlands
and Luxembourg):
In this region, wastewater treatment is among the most advanced in the EU. France has
over 160,000 km of sewers and 11,300 treatment plants. The WWTS are operated by public
or private bodies. The ownership of WWTS and sewers are always public, owned by
municipalities or associations of municipalities. France is divided into six Water Agencies,
mainly around hydrographic areas, Adour-Garonne, Artois-Picardie, Loire-Bretagne, RhinMeuse, Rhone-Méditéranée-Corse and Seine-Normandie. The municipalities operate the
sewer systems and often, private companies run the plants [EWWG, 1997].
In the Netherlands, the municipalities are responsible for collection of sewage and disposal
of sludge from sewers. The treatment of wastewater and disposal of effluent and sludge is
the responsibility of 27 waterboards. Sludge disposal is partially privatised. In Belgium, the
municipalities are responsible for the sewerage systems in both Vlanderen and Wallonie.
Similarly, in Luxembourg, the 118 municipalities are responsible for the collection and
treatment of urban wastewater and sludge. The management of sludge is partially shared
with operators of solid waste [EWWG, 1997].
In UK there are over 300,000 km sewers and 7,600 WWTS. The collection of sewage, its
treatment and disposal of effluent and sludge are the responsibility of privately-financed
water service companies in England and Wales (10), public water and sewerage authorities
in Scotland (3), and the Water Service of the Department of Environment in Northern Ireland
[EWWG, 1997]. In the Republic of Ireland, the urban wastewater collection and treatment is
the responsibility of local councils. Private-Public Partnerships (PPP) schemes are in place
for modernising and upgrading the WWTS [Dept. of Environment and Local Govt, Ireland,
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Appendix B
Physical and chemical properties of selected pollutants
In order to understand the behaviour of organic pollutants in the urban environment the
knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is very important. Vapour pressure,
boiling-point, water solubility and distribution coefficients describe the distribution between
solid, liquid and gaseous phase. The adsorption coefficient KOC is important for transitions
between soil or sewage sludge particles and water. The transition water/air is governed by
the Henry coefficient KAW. The distribution coefficient octane/water KOW is a measure for the
lipophilic or lipophobic qualities of a chemical compound. For substances with similar
physical properties, their water solubility is a crucial factor for the liquid phase transport.
Anionic and Non-ionic Surfactants
A1. Linear Alkylbenzenesulphonate
Linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) is a synthetic compound utilized as surfactant in
detergents, washing-up liquids and cleaning agents. The most important LAS qualities are
represented in Table II.22 Figure B.1 shows the LAS structure formula.
Table B.1 LAS properties [Bürgermann 1988].
Abbreviation Molecular
Molar mass Colour
ca. 326
colourles 1.1
at 20°C
extremely low 1
Figure B.1: LAS structure formula.
A2. NPEs or nonylphenol polyethoxylates and APEs alkylphenol ethoxylates
Polyethoxylated nonylphenols are important surfactants used comercially and in some
household products for many years, also as emulsifiers and solubilisers in industrial
processing, as well as household cleaning products. They have the general formula:
R-C6H4-(OCH2-CH2)nOH, where R=C9H19 and n=6-18.
B. Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF)
PCCDs and PCDFs are tricyclic, aromatic, almost planar built ethers with comparable
physical, chemical and biological qualities. They differ from each other in the position and
number of chlorine atoms and the symmetry of the basic structure. Figure B.2 shows the
structure formulas of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo
furans (PCDD/F).
Appendix B
Figure B.2 PCDD/F structure formulas.
PCDD/F are extremely heavy-volatile components (high melting and boiling-points). The
vapour pressure drops with chlorine substitution, so that low-chlorinated dioxins and furans
are quite volatile. Highly-chlorinated compounds are found in solid state adsorbed on
particles. The greatest mobility is in the air. In water, PCDD/F are almost completely bound
to particles (high octane/water distribution coefficient). The affinity to organic carbon
compounds is strongly pronounced (high adsorption coefficients). Due to their physicochemical qualities PCDD/F are very firmly bound to soil and sediments.
PCDD/F do not react with acids and bases and are quite chemically inert. They are thermally
stable at temperatures up to 600-800 °C. The extraordinary stability and the low photolytic
reduction render them to be very persistent in the environment. Because of the long life time
and the lipophilic qualities PCDD/F can accumulate in organisms: they accumulate
predominantly in animal fatty substances [Mahnke, 1997].
C. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of over 209 chlorinated, aromatic
compounds with the same structural features. They differ with the degree of chlorine
substitution and with their structure. PCBs are substances with low electrical conductibility,
high thermal and chemical stability and low water solubility. They are characterised by a high
lipophilic character, so they accumulate in the food-chain. Their biological degradability in
the environment depends on the complexity and chlorination of each particular compound.
Figure B.3 shows the PCBs structure formula. The physical-chemical qualities of selected
PCBs compounds are specified in Table B.2.
5' Cly
Figure B.3 PCBs structure formula.
Clx 5
Appendix B
Table B.2 Physical-chemical data of selected PCBs.
(Kow distribution coefficient octane-water) [Bürgermann 1988].
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of major public concern because of their
ubiquitous occurrence and high carcinogenic potential. PAHs are multi-core aromatic ring
systems with 5 and 6 rings. They represent benzene condensation products. PAHs are solid,
mostly colourless compounds. They have a strong lipophilic character and their water
solubility decreases with the increase of ring numbers. Low-molecular PAHs are relatively
volatile. PAHs with a boiling-point below 400°C exist in the air in gaseous state. The higher
boiling compounds are adsorbed to particles. The physico-chemical features of some PAHs
are indicated in Table B.3 and Figure B.4 shows the structural formula of selected PAHs.
The list of 16 USEPA PAHs is shown in Table B.5.
Table B.3 Physico-chemical data of selected PAHs [Bürgermann 1988].
Henry constant
(Kow distribution coefficient octane-water, Koc adsorption coefficient)
Appendix B
Figure B.4: Structure formula of selected PAHs. [Bürgermann 1988]
Table B.4 List of 16 PAH group [USEPA, IARC]
(Torr at 20°C)
Acenaphthene, Ace
Acenaphthylene, Acy
Fluorene, Flu
Naphtalene, Np
Anthracene, An
Fluoranthene, Fl
10-6 to 10-4
Benzo[α] anthracene, B[α]An
Benzo[ß]fluoranthene, B[ß]Fl
Benzo[k]fluoranthene, B[k]Fl
Chrysene, Chry
Benzo[ghi]perylene, B[ghi]Pe
10 to 10-6
10-11 to 10-6
Solubility in
water (mg.l-1)
c potency
3.4 at 25°C
0.05 – 0.07 at
0.26 at 25°C
1.0 to 1.3 at
0.01 at 25°C
0.002 at 25°C
0.14 at 25°C
0.00026 at
0.0038 at 25°C
0.0005 at 25°C
Benzo[α]pyrene, B[α]Py
Dibenzo[α,h]anthracene, dB[α,h]An
2A/B2:Probably carcinogenic to humans/Probable human carcinogen; 2B:Possibly carcinogenic to
humans; 3: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity; Blank:Not tested for human carcinogenicity.
*IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer; USEPA: US Environmental Protection Agency.
Appendix B
Di-(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
Di-(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) appears at 25°C as a colourless, almost odourless, oily
liquid and is fat-soluble (lipophilic). It is transported almost exclusively with fatty substances
and accumulates in sediments. DEHP forms water-soluble complexes with humic and fulvic
acids. Figure II.10 shows the DEHP structure formula. The more important physico-chemical
qualities of DEHP are represented in Table II.30.
Figure B.5 DEHP structure formula.
Table B.5 Physical-chemical data of DEHP [Bürgermann 1988].
Solubility KOW
(Kow distribution coefficient octane-water, Koc adsorption coefficient)
Polycyclic musk compounds
Three representatives of the polycyclic musk compounds with abbreviation name, trade
name, chemical formula and molecular weight are shown in Table B.6.
Table B.6 Polyclyclic musk compounds.
Trade name
Appendix B
Nitro-musk Compounds
Properties. Nitro-musk compounds are nitro aromatic bonds with a high stability to chemical
and biochemical reduction, high persistancy and lipophillic behaviour.
Musk ambrette, musk xylene, musk ketone, musk tibetene and musk moskene belong to the
nitro-musk compounds. Trade names and formulas of the nitro-musk compounds are listed
in Table B7.
Table B7 Trade name and formula of the nitro-musk compounds.
Trade name
Musk ambrette 1-tert.-butyl-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,5dinitrobenzene
Musk xylene
Musk ketone
Musk tibetene 1-tert.-butyl-3,4,5-trimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene
Musk moskene 1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinitroindan
Musk Xylene and Musk Ketone
Properties. Musk xylene and musk ketone are nitrobenzene compounds. They are
persistent, lipophile and accumulate in the food chain. Musk xylene has a biological
accumulation factor (concentration in fatty tissues / concentration in the environment) of 4.1,
Musk ketone of 1.1.
Section Eight - References
8.1 Electronic databases searched (www and academically-networked)
American Chemical Society Pubs
ANTEnet Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering
ASFA-Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
CELEX (EU Legal database)
Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Abstracts
CORDIS (EU database)
Current Contents
Ecology Abstracts
EIS-Environmental Impacts Statements
EMBASE (Medicine and Pharmacology)
Environment Abstracts
Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Environmental Fate Database
ESPM-Environmental Sciences and Pollution Mgmt.
Health and Safety Science Abstracts
International Civil Engineering Abstracts
Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings
Ingenta Journals (bids)
Medical Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Abstracts
Ovid Biomedical Service
Pollution Abstracts
Risk Abstracts
Science Citation Index
Science Direct (integral articles database)
Toxicology Abstracts
Water Resources Abstracts
academically-networked (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA)
academically-networked (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA) (CSA)
academically-networked (CSA)
Section Eight - References
Abendt, R.W. (1992) Use of coagulants at the Nurnberg sewage works. Abwassertechnik 43, 35-36.
Adams N.W.H.; Kramer J.R. (1999), Silver speciation in wastewater effluent, surface waters, and
pore waters , Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , Volume 18, Issue 12 , Pages 2667-2673
Adamsson M, Dave G, Forsberg L, Geterstamm B (1998), Toxicology identification evaluation of
ammonia, nitrate and heavy metals at the Stensund wastewater•aquaculture plant, Sweden,
Water.Sci.Tech, 38 (1998) 3 151-157
Ahel, M; Giger, W; Koch, M (1994a) Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the
aquatic environment. 1. Occurrence and transformation in sewage treatment, Water Res., vol. 28,
no. 5, pp. 1131-1142
Ahel, M; Giger, W; Schaffner, C (1994b) Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in
the aquatic environment. 2. Occurrence and transformation in rivers, Water Research, vol. 28, no.
5, pp. 1143-1152
Aichberger, K., Reifenauer, D. (1984), Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in
Sewage Sludge, EC Report Eur 9129.
Alberti, J. et al. (1987),Organische Schadstoffe in Klärschlämmen“, Wasser und Boden 8.
Alcock RE, Sweetman A, Jones KK (1998), Assessment of organic contaminant fate in waste
water treatment plants 1, Selected compounds and physiochemical properties, Chemosphere 39,
10 2247-2262
Alcock, R.E. and Jones, K.C. (1993) Polychlorinated biphenyls in digested UK sewage sludges.
Chemosphere 26, 2199-2207.
Almeid MC, Butler D, Friedler E (1999)At source domestic water quality, Urban Water, 1, 49-55
and Behavior in a Treatment Plant, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 3, p
Angelakis A. N., Marecos Do Monte M. H. F., Bontoux L., and Asano T (1999) The status of
wastewater reuse practice in the Mediterranean basin: need for guidelines, Water Research,
Volume 33, Issue 10, Pages 2201-2217.
Angle, J.S., McGrath, S.P., Chaudri, A.M., Chaney, R.L. and Giller, K.E. (1993) Inoculation
effects on legumes grown in soil previously treated with sewage sludge. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry 25, 575-580.
Anna, J. et al. (1984): Identifizierung und Bestimmung von organischen Schadstoffen in
Klärschlämmen verschiedener Herkunft“, GWA 65, B. Böhnke (ed).
Araneo A., Giusto D. (1992) “Trattamento e recupero degli scarichi di laboratori didattici”,
Inquinamento, 2, 40-43
Arendt, G. et al. (1983), Ermittlung der Quellen ausgewählter Schadstoffe und des Verbleibs im
Klärschlamm, Forschg.ber. T 83des Battelle Ins.
Arpaci, E, (1995), Kupfer in Klärschlämmen und ihre landwirtschaftliche Verwertung, WAP, no. 6,
Arpino A., Ruffo C., Stagni S. (1990) “Indagine sugli orientamenti produttivi dei detresivi ad uso
domestico nel quadriennio 1986-1989”, Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse, LXVII, 577-589
Arsaln I, Balcioglu IA, Bahnemann DW (2000), Heterogenous photocatalytic treatment of
simulated dyehouse effluents using novel TiO2-photocatalysts, Applied Catalysts
B:Environmental, 26, 193-206
Ascherl, R. (1997): Risikobetrachtungen zur Planung von Maßnahmen zum Grundwasserschutz
im Einflussbereich von Straßen, Dissertation, Technische Universität München.
Autugelle, Rosin, Morlot, Hartemann (1996), Etude des metaux lourds dans les eaux de
ruissellement en milieu urbain, AGHTM, Issue 11, Pages 41-50, November 1996.
Auvray, Urvoy, Mirandola, Morin, Renaud, and Bousquet (1999) Une experience de diagnostique
permanent sur le réseau d'assainissement de Virty-Le-Francois, AGHTM, Issue 12, Pages 70-77,
December 1999.
Azzam, R., El-Hady, O.A., Lofty, A.A. and Hegela, M. (1983) Sand RAPG combination simulating
fertile clayey soil. Parts 1 to 4. In Isotope and Radiation Techniques in Soil Physics and Irrigation
Studies 1983. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 321-349.
Baldini I., Gaiter S., Lo Giudice M., Spanò S. (1992) “Valutazione di un tipico impatto ambientale
da scarico civile in corso d’acqua montano”, Inquinamento, 12, 66-71
Ball, JE, Jenks, R and D. Aubourg (1998). An assessment of the availability of pollutant
constituents on road surfaces, The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 209, pp.243-254.
Ball, JE, Wojcik, A, and J. Tilley (2000). Stormwater Quality from Road Surfaces - Monitoring of
the Hume Highway at South Strathfield, Research Report 204, Water Research Laboratory,
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales.
Section Eight - References
Ballarin B., Stelluto S., Marcomini A. (1989) “Alchilbenzensolfonati lineari e alchilfenoli
polietossilati in prodotti italiani di piluzia ad uso domestico”, Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse, LXVI,
Balzer et al. (1991) PCB-Eintrag durch Öl aus Abwasserbehandlungsanlagen ins Nürnberger
Abwasser, Jahrstagung Fachgruppe Wasserchemie, Bad Kissingen, Kurzfassung.
Barbante C., Cozzi G., Capodaglio G., Van de Velde K., Ferrari C., Veysseyre A., Boutron C. F.,
Scarponi G., Cescon P. (1999) “Determination of Rh, Pd and Pt in polar and alpine snow and ice
by double-focusing ICPMS with microconcentric nebulization”, Anal. Chem., 71, 4125-4133
Barbante C., Cozzi G., Capodaglio G., Van de Velde K., Ferrari C., Boutron C., Cescon P. (1999)
“Trace element determination in alpine snow and ice by double focusing inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometry with microconcentric nebulization”, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 14, 14331438
Barbante C., Turetta C., Capodaglio G., Scarponi G. (1997) “Recent decrease in the lead
concentration of antarctic snow” , Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 68,(4),457-477
Barnes D., Forster C.F., and Hrudey S.E.(1987), Surveys in industrial wastewater treatment:
manufacturing and chemical industries, Volume 3, Pages 1-214, 1987.
Battersby, N.G. and Wilson, V. (1989) Survey of the anaerobic biodegradation potential of
organic chemical in digesting sludge. Applied Environmental Microbiology 55, 433-439.
Baumgarth S.(2000): Horizon 2006: 11 milliards pour l'assainissement de l'agglomération
parisienne, Agence de l'Eau Seine-Normandie website, Pages 1-18, March 2000.
Bebin J.(1997) The sludge problem in France: technical advances, changes in regulations, and
French involvement in CEN/TC308, European Water Pollution Control, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages
18-28, March 1997.
Beck, G., Beyer, H-H, Gerhartz, W., Hausselt, J., Zweiner, U. (1995). In: Degussa A. G. (ed).
Edelmatalltaschenbuch. Heidelberg: Hüthig.
Bedsworth WW, Sedlak DL (1999) Sources and environmental fate of strongly complexed nickel
in estuarine waters: the role of ethylenediaminetetraacetate Environ.Sci.Technol. 33, 926-931
Behechti A, Schramm K-W, Attar A, Niederfellner J, Kettrup A. Acute aquatic toxicities of four
musk xylene derivatives on Daphnia magna. Water Res 32(5):1704-1707 (1998).
Belfroid AC, Horst VanderA, Vethaak AD, Schäfer, Rijs GBJ, Wegener J, Cofino WP (1999)
Analysis and occurrence of estrogenic hormones and their glucouronides in surface water and
waste water in the Netherlands, The Science of the Total Environment , 225, 101-108
Bell, J.P., Thompson, D., Kemp, J., Melcer, H. and Monteith, H. (1989) Models for predicting the
fate of hazardous contaminants in wastewater treatment plants. In Proceedings of the Seminar
on Fate of Chemicals in Sewage Treatment Facilities. Pollution Control Association of Ontari and
Ministry of Environment, Toronto.
Bellandi S., Udisti R., Barbolani E., Pantani F. (1990) ”Composizione chimica delle acque
meteoriche a Firenze durante la siccità degli anni 1988-89”, Inquinamento, 7/8, 42-48
Bellin, C.A., O’Connor, G.A. and Jin, Y. (1990) Sorption and degradation of pentachlorophenol in
sludge-amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 19, 603-608.
Bergs, C. (2000): "Landwirtschaftliche Klärschlammverwertung im Lichte nationaler und
internationaler rechtlicher Regelungen“, Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft.
Bernard S, Gray NF (2000), Aerobic digestion of pharmaceutical and domestic wastewater
sludges at ambient temperature, Water Resources Vol. 34, 3, 725-734
Bertanza G., Collivignarelli C., Cantoni M., Paradiso E. (1997) “Gestione di stazioni di pretrattamento di reflui speciali: criteri di ottimizzazione”, Ingegneria Ambientale, XXVI (5), 265-272
Berth, P. and Jeschke, P.(1987), “LAS-Verbrauch und Anwendungsbereiche”, Referat anlässlich
des Internationalen Statusseminars Alkylbenzolsulfonat (LAS) in der Umwelt.
Birr, R. et al. (1983), Untersuchungen zur Elimination von Pflanzenschutzmitteln zur Steuerung
biologischre Prozesse in biologischen Abwasserbehandlungsanlagen Wasserwirtschaft,
Wassertechnik WWT 33.
Bischofsberger, W., von Hinrichs, E. (1982) Herkunft der Schwermetalle in Kommunalen
Klärschlemmen am Beispiel der Stadt München, in Schlammbehandlung unter besonderer.
Bishop, M. Kay, J. and Mayer C. (1995) The Regulatory Challenge, Oxford University Press,
Blackburn MA, Kirby SJ, Waldock MJ (1999) Concentrations of alklyphenol polyethyloxylates
entering UK estuaries, Marine Pollution Bulletin 38, 2, 109-118
Blake, W. (1979) Determination of acceptable levels of heavy metals in effluents discharged to a
foul water sewer. In Heavy Metals in the Environment. CEP Consultants, Edinburgh.
Bodrow B. D., Dryzek J.S. (1989) Policy Analysis by Design, University of Pittsburgh Press, USA.
Boening DW-(2000) Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: a general review,
Chemosphere 40, 1335-1351.
Section Eight - References
Bonardelli P. G., Mazzola P., Filini L., Vergine U. (1990) “Indagine su alcuni inquinanti atmosferici
a Brescia”, Inquinamento, 11, 72-77
Bonomo L., Nurizzo C. and Rolle E. (1999) “Advanced wastewater treatment and reuse: related
problems and perspectives in Italy”, Wat. Sci. Tech., 40 (4-5), 21-28
Booker, N.A., Ocal, G. and Preistley, A.J. (1996) “Novel high rate processes for sewer overflow
treatment” Water Science and Technology, 34, 103-109.
Borman S. (1998). ‘End run around FDA? Chem Eng News 1:45-47
Borneff, J., Kunte, H. (1964): "Kanzerogene Substanzen in Wasser und Boden. XVI: Nachweis
von polyzyklischen Aromaten in Wasserproben durch direkte Extraktion“, Archiv. Hygenie.
Borwitzky, H. (1975): 'Zur Kenntnis von polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen im
Faulschlamm einer Großkläranlage“, Dipl. Arbeit FB Chemie, Universität Hamburg.
Bouchard, C., Serodes, J.B. and Gelinas, P. (1996) The recycling of acid mine drainag waters for
dephosphatization of municipal wastewater. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 31, 225240.
Boyle, M. (1989) The environmental microbiology of chlorinated aromatic decomposition. Journal
of Environmental Quality 18, 395-402.
Bradford, C. W. (1988). Platinum. In: Handbook on Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds. (eds) H.
G. Seiler, H. Sigel and A. Sigel. Marcel Dekker, New York 533-539.
Braguglia C.M., Marani D., Mininni G. (2000) “Fate of heavy metals in sludge incineration with
fluidised bed and rotary kiln furnaces”,Combustion Meeting, Lacco Ameno (Naples), Italy
Brambilla G., Cacciari E. (1990) “Rimozione dei tensioattivi anionici e non ionici con ozono.
risultati ottenuti nel trattamento dell’effluente dell’impianto di depurazione dei reflui misti, civili, ed
industriali di Prato-Baciacavallo”, Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse, LXVII, 591-598
Brandt, J. H. (1958) 'Phenolabwasser und Abwasserphenole, ihre Entstehung, Schadwirkung und
abwassertechnische Bedeutung', Akad. Verlag Berlin.
Braun, F. (1987): 'Kreisläufe, Bilanzen und Bewertungen von Polychlorbiphenylen (PCB) und
einigen Pestiziden', Mü Beitr. Abwasser Fischerei- und Flussbiologie. Dr..
Bridle, T. R., Webber, M. D. (1983) A Canadian Perspective on Toxic Organics in Sewage
Sludge“, Environmental Effects of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants in Sewage Sludge. Davis
R.D. et al. (eds), Reidel R. D. Publ. Co, Dordrecht.
Bridle, T.R. and Webber, M.D. (1982) A Canadian perspective on toxic organics in sewage
sludge. In Environmental Effets of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge. R.D.
Davis, G. Hucker and P. L’Hermite, eds. 27 – 37. D. Reidel, Dordrecht.
Bronaugh RL, Yourick JJ, Havery DC. Dermal exposure assessment for the fragrance musk xylol.
Abstract No 274. In: Proceedings of the Society of Toxicology 1998 Annual Meeting.
Brookes, P.C. and McGrath, S.P. (1984) Effects of metal toxicity on the size of the soil microbial
biomass. Journal of Soil Science 35, 341-346.
Brunner, PH; Capri, S; Marcomini, A; Giger, W (1988) Occurrence and Behaviour of Linear
Alkylbenzenesulphonates, Nonylphenol, Nonylphenol Mono- and Nonylphenol Diethoxylates in
Sewage And Sewage Sludge Treatment, Water Research, Vol. 22, No. 12, p 1465-1472
Bumpus, J.A. and Aust, S.D. (1987) Biodegradation of environmental pollutants by the white rot
fungus. Bioassays 6, 166-170.
Bürgermann, R. (1988): “E4CHEM-Datenklärschlammrelevanter Stoffe. Pers. Mitt.”
Burgess JE, Quarmby J, Stephenson T (1999)- Role of micronutrients in activated sludge-based
biotreatment of industrial effluents, Biotechnology Advances 17 49-70
Butler D, Friedler E, Gatt K (1995) Characterising the quantity and quality of domestic wastewater
inflows, Wat. Sci. Tech, 31, 7 13-24
Butler, D. & Davies, J.W. (2000) Urban Drainage. E. & F.N. Spon, London.
Cabrera, C; Lopez, MC; Gallego, C; Lorenzo, ML; Lillo, E, (1995), Lead contamination levels in
potable, irrigation and waste waters from an industrial area in southern Spain, Science of the
Total Environment , vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 17-21
Camusso M, Balestrini R, Martinotti W , Arpini M-(1999) Spatial variations in trace metal and
stable isotope content of autochthonous organisms and sediments in the river Po system (Italy),
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 2 39–53.
Carbonell-Barrachina, AA; Jugsujinda, A; Burlo, F; Delaune, RD; Patrick, WH Jr (2000), Arsenic
chemistry in municipal sewage sludge as affected by redox potential and pH, Water Res., vol. 34,
no. 1, pp. 216-224.
Carlson Annika (1992), Metal speciation and toxicity in sewage sludge, Göteborg : Chalmers
tekniska högskola, Publication / Chalmers tekniska högskola. Instititutionen för vattenförsörjningsoch avloppsteknik ; 1992, 2.
Carlton-Smith, C.H. (1987) Effects of Metals in Sludge-treated Soils on Crops. Technical report
TR 251. WRc Medmenham, Marlow.
Section Eight - References
Carrington, E.G., Davis, R.D., Hall, J.E., Pike, E.B., Smith, S.R. and Unwin, R.J. (1998) Review of
the Scientific Evidence Relating to the Controls on the Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge: Part 2
- Evidence Since 1989 Relevant to Controls on the Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge. Final
Report to the DETR, DoH, MAFF and UKWIRL. WRc Report No. DETR 4454. WRc Medmenham,
Carrol JWF, Berger TC, Borrelli FE, Garrity PJ, Jacobs RA, Lewis JW, McCreedy RL, Tuhovak
DR, Weston AF (1998)- Characterization of emissions of dioxins and furans from ethylene
dichloride (EDC), vinyl chloride (VCM) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) manufacturing facilities in the
United States. I. Resin, treated wastewater and ethylene dichloride, Chemosphere 37 9 19571972
Carry C.W., Miele R.P., Horwarth R.W., and M.H., Nellor (1989). An update on wastewater
reclamation research and development in Los Angeles County. Wat. Sci. Tech., vol. 21, pp. 409419.
Cartmell, E., Davis, R.D., Riddell-Black, D. and Smith, S.R. (1998) The effects of polyelectrolytes
on soil nitrification processes. 3rd European Biosolids and Organic Residuals Conf., Aqua Enviro,
Wakefield, Nov 1998.
Castro, H; Aguilera, PA; Martinez Vidal, JL; Carrique, EL; Cervants Ocana, D, (1996),
Biomonitoring of heavy metal distribution from Almeria coastal waters (Alboran Sea, Spain),
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 5-6, pp. 308-313.
Cattell, FCR and White, MJ, (1989). Air quality and its possible influence on urban runoff.
Proceedings of Seminar on Urban Stormwater Pollution Processes, Modeling and Control, The
Institution of Engineers, Australia, Sydney, Australia (Unpublished, reported in Ball et al., 2000)
CEC; Commission of the European Communities (1997) Draft Commission Regulation setting
maximum limits for certain contaminants in foodstuffs amending Commission Regulation (EC)
194/97 of 31 January 1997 setting maximum limits for certain contaminants in food. III/5125/95
Rev 3. CEC, Brussels.
CEC; Commission of the European Communities (2000a) Report from the Commission to the
Council and the European Parliament on the Implementation of Community Waste Legislation:
CEC; Commission of the European Communities (2000b) Working document on sludge: 3rd draft.
ENV.E.3/LM. CEC, Brussels.
CEC; Council of the European Communities (1986) Council Directive of 12 June 1986 on the
protection of the environment, and in particular the soil, when sewage sludge is used in
agriculture (86/278/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities No. L181/6-12.
CEC; Council of the European Communities (1991) Coincil Directive of 21 May 1991 concerning
urban waste water treatment (91/271/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities No. L
Cela, R; Lorenzo, RA; Rubi, E; Botana, A; Valino, M, (1992), Mercury Speciation in Raw
Sediments of the Pontevedra Estuary (Galicia-Spain), Environmental Technology (Letters), Vol.
13, No. 1, p 11-22.
Chang, A.C., Granato, T.C. and Page, A.L. (1992) A methodology for establishing phytotoxicity
criteria for chromium, copper, nickel and zinc in agricultural application of municipal sewage
sludges. Journal of Environmental Quality 21, 521-536.
Chang, A.C., Page, A.L. and Asano, T. (1995) Developing Human Health-Related Chemical
Guidelines for Reclaimed Wastewater and Sewage Sludge Applications in Agriculture.WHO,
Chaudri, A.M., McGrath, S.P., Giller, K.E., Rietz, M. and Sauerbeck, D.R. (1993) Enumeration of
indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii in soils previously treated with metalcontaminated sewage sludge. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25, 301-309.
CIWEM; Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (1995) Sewage Sludge:
Introducing Treatment and Management. CIWEM, London.
Collandini, V., and M. Legret (1996). Impacts of porous pavements with reservoir structure on
runoff waters, Proc. 7 ICUSD, pp.491-496.
Collier, U. (1997) Deregulation in the European Union: Environmental Perspectives, Routledge,
Collins P.G. and J. Ridgeway (1980). Urban storm runoff quality in southeast Michigan. Jour. of
the Envir. Eng. Div., ASCE, vol. 106, no. EE1, pp. 153-162.
Colwill D.M., et al. (1984). Water quality of motorway runoff. Transport and road research
laboratory, supplementary report 823 TRRL, Crowthorne, Berks.
Comber SDW and Gunn AM (1996) - Heavy metals entering sewage treatment works from
domestic sources J.CIWEM 10 137-142
Section Eight - References
Conio O., Lasagna C., Ranieri M., Riganti V. (1994a) “Prodotti chimici utilizzati nei processi di
potabilizzazione-nota II: ruolo, problematiche correlate e prima valutazione del loro impiego in
Italia”, Ingegneria Ambientale, XXIII(11-12), 637-644
Conio O., Lasagna C., Riganti V. (1994b) “Prodotti chimici utilizzati nei processi di
potabilizzazione-nota I: considerazioni generali”, Ingegneria Ambientale, XXIII(10), 575-579
CTIDA Srl, Monza-Milano (1992) “Depurazione chimico-biologica di reflui dell’industria alimentare
con tecnologie non convenzionali”, Inquinamento, 6, 113-114
Cui Yan(1993): Détermination de valeurs limites pour des micropolluants organiques dans les
boues de stations d'épuration, Agence de l'eau Rhin-Meuse, MSc. Thesis, Pages 1-66, October.
Cullen, P, (1995). The Cinderella Resource - Urban Stormwater in a dry country. Proceedings
Second International Conference on Urban Stormwater Management, Melbourne, Australia, pp
11 - 16.
Cusidó, J.A.; Devant, M.; Celebrovsky, J.; Riba, F. and Arteaga, F. (1996) Revalorització de Llots
d’E.D.A.R. Urbana: Projecte Ecobrick (Reuse of Sewerage Sludge: the Ecobrick Project), in Junta
de Sanejament Jornades sobre la Reutilització de Fangs de Depuració d’Aigües Residuals
Urbanes, Departament de Medi Ambient, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona.
D’Elia M., Marras E., Mazzoni B. (1997) “Il trattamento degli effluenti conciari con carbone attivo
in polvere”, Inquinamento, 5, 70-72
D'Arcy BJ, Usman, F, Griffiths, D, Chatfield, P (1998), Initiatives to tackle diffuse pollution in the
UK, Wat.Sci.Tech, no 38(10), 131-138.
Daughton, C.G, Ternes, T.A, (1999), Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the
Environment ? Agents of Subtle Change ?, Env.Health.Perspectives, vol.107, Suppl.6..
Davies, A., Joice, R., Banks, J., A. and R. Jones (1995). A stewardship programme on diuron
aimed at protecting UK water quality. BCPC Monograph no 62: Pesticide movement to water,
British Crop Protection Council, pp311-316, Bracknell.
Davis A. and Burns M. (1998). Evaluation of lead concentration in runoff from painted structures.
Wat. Res. Vol. 33, No. 13, pp. 2949-2958.
Davis and Hall J.E (1997) Production, treatment, and disposal of wastewater sludge in Europe
from a UK perspective, European Water Pollution Control, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 9-17, March
Davis, R.D. and Carlton-Smith (1984) An investigation into the phytotoxicity of zinc, copper and
nickel using sewage sludge of controlled metal content. Environmental Pollution (Series B) 8,
De Paoli I., Feruglio C., Moro P. (1998) “Trattamento di reflui industriali in impianti di depurazione
consortili, un caso di studio”, Inquinamento, 3, 76-79
Defilippi A., Piancone G., Tarullo F., Pesando M.C., Tibaldi G.P. (1995) “Chimismo di un evento
metereologico eccezionale sulla città di Ivrea”, Inquinamento, 4, 50-53
Dentel, S.K, Jamrah, A.T. and Sparks D.L. (1998) “Sorption and co-sorption of 1,2,4
trichlorobenzene and tannic acid by organo-clays” Water Research, 32(12), 3689-3716.
Di Corcia A., Samperi R. and Marcomini A. (1994) “Monitoring aromatic surfactants and their
biodegradation intermediates in raw and treated sewages by solid phase extraction and liquid
chromatography”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 850-858.
Di Pietro A., Grillo O. A., Musumeci C., Cappello C. (1997) “Particolato e metalli pesanti nell’area
di Milazzo”, Inquinamento, 3, 72-75
Diaz, JP; Navarro, M*; Lopez, H; Lopez, MC (1996), Selenium (IV) and (VI) levels in potable,
irrigation and waste waters from an industrial zone in southeastern Spain, Science of the Total
Environment,, vol. 186, no. 3, pp. 231-236.
Dissanayake et al (1984).
Dorussen H. L., and Wassenberg W. B. A. (1997): Feasibility of treatment of low polluted
wastewater in municipal wastewater treatment plants, Water Science Technology, Volume 35,
Issue 10, Pages 73-78,.
Draisci R, Marchiafava C, Ferretti E, Palleschi L, Catellani G, Anastasio A. Evaluation of musk
contamination of freshwater fish in Italy by accelerated solvent extraction and gas
chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 814:187-197 (1998).
Drapper, D., Tomlinson, R. and P. Williams (2000). Pollutant Concentrations in Road Runoff:
Southeast Queensland Case Study. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol.126, Issue
4, pp. 313-320
Drescher-Kaden, U. et al. (1990): 'Organische Schadstoffe im Klärschlamm', Handbuch
Umweltchemikalien, Stoffdaten, Prüfverfahren, Vorschriften, Rippen Ecomed, Band 2.
Drescher-Kaden, U. et al., (1990): Organische Schadstoffe im Klärschlamm', Handbuch
Umweltchemikalien, Stoffdaten, Prüfverfahren, Vorschriften, Rippen Ecomed, Band 2.
Drescher-Kaden, U., Brüggeman, R., Matthes, B. and Matthies, M. (1992); Contents of organic
pollutants in German sewage sludges. In Hall, J.E., Sauerbeck, D.R. and L'Hermite, P., editors,
Section Eight - References
Effects of Organic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge on Soil Fertility, Plants and Animals.
Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 14-34.
Druges M (1999): L'eau utilisée dans l'industrie électronique, AGHTM, Issue 4, Pages 91-95,
Dryzek. J. (1995) Democracy and environmental policy instruments, in Eckersely, R. (1995)
Markets, the State and the Environment Macmillian, London.
DSHEA-Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (1994). Pub L no 103-417, 108
Stat. 4325 Available:
EA; Environment Agency (1999) UK Sewage Sludge Survey: National Presentation. Technical
Report P165.Environment Agency, Bristol.
Eckersely, R. (1995) Markets, the State and the Environment: an overview, Macmillian, London.
Eduljee G (1999)- Secondary exposure to dioxins through exposure to PCP and its derivatives,
The Science of the Total Environment, 232 193-214
Ejlertsson E, Alnervik M, Jonsson S, Svenson BH ( 1997)- Influence of water solubility , side chain
degradability, and side-chain degradability, and side chain structure on the degradation of
phthalate esters under methanogenic conditions, Environment Science and Technology , 31, 10
Ekvall Annika (1995), Metal Speciation and Toxicity in Sewage Sludge, Göteborg : Chalmers
University of Technology.
El-Aziz, R., Angle, J.S. and Chaney, R.L. (1991) Metal tolerance of Rhizobium meliloti isolated
from heavy-metal contaminated soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 23, 795-798.
Eljarrat, E; Caixach, J; Rivera, J (1999), Decline in PCDD and PCDF levels in sewage sludges
from Catalonia (Spain), Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 2493-2498.
Ellis (1991). The design and operation of vegetation systems for urban runoff quality control.,
Proceed. of 3rd standing Conference on storm water science control. Coventry Polytechnic.
Ellis J.B. (1989) Urban discharges and receiving water quality impacts, International Association
on Water Pollution Research and Control, Pergamon Press, Pages 1-120.
Ellis JB (2000)- Risk assessment approaches for ecosystem responses to transient events in
urban receiving waters, Chemosphere, 41 85-91
Ellis, JB. (1986). Pollution aspects of urban runoff. NATO ASI Series in Urban Runoff Pollution,
Torno, H.C., Marsalek, J., and M. Desbordes (eds.), vol. G10, Springer-Verlag (publ.),
Englmann, E. (1982): "Kennzeichen und Beschaffenheit kommunaler Schlämme“, in
Schlammbehandlung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Schadstoffen im Klärschlamm,
Berichte aus Wassergüte und Gesundheitsingenieurwesen, Technische Universität München,
Heft. 38, Eigenverlag München.
Escritt L.B. Public Health Engineering Practice (4th ed.) Vol. II : ‘Sewerage and Sewage Disposal’.
EU (1996), Note for Guidance: Environmental risk assessment for veterinary medical products
other than GMO-containing and immunological products. EMEA/CVMP/055/96. EMEA.
EU Ad hoc working party on environmental risk assessment for non-GMO containing medical
products for human use. EU draft guideline III/5504/94.
EU Directive 75/318/EEC. (1993) Technical directive concerning human medicinal products,
amended 1993.
EU Directive 81/852/EEC (1993). Technical directive concerning veterinary medicinal products,
amended 1993.
Faby J.A., Brissaud F., and Bontoux J.: Wastewater reuse in France: Water quality standards and
wastewater treatment technologies, Water Science Technology, Volume 40, Issue 4-5, Pages 3742, (1999).
Fairbanks, B.C., O’Connor, G.A. and Smith, S.E. (1987) Mineralization and volatilization of
polychorinated biphenyls in sludge-amended soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 16, 18-25.
Faltin, M. et al. (1985): 'Abwasserüberwachung von Indirekteinleitern und Schadstoffermittlung
bei diffusen Quellen zur Verbesserung der Gewässergüte und Klärschlammverwertung“, UBABericht 10206403 4/85.
Farago M.E., Kavanagh, P., Blanks, Simpson, R., J., Kazantis, G., and I. Thorton (1995).
Platinum Group Metals in the Environment: their uses in vehicle exhaust Catalysts and
Implications for human health in the UK. A Report prepared for the DoE.
Farago, M. E., Kavanagh, P., Blanks, R., Kelly, J., Kazantzis, G., Thornton, I., Simpson, P. R.,
Cook, J. M., Parry, S., and Hall, G. M. (1996). Platinum metal concentrations in urban road dust
and soil in the United Kingdom. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 354, 660-663.
Farago, M. E., Kavanagh, P., Blanks, R., Kelly, J., Kazantzis, G., Thornton, I., Simpson, P. R.,
Cook, J. M., Delves, H. T. and Hall, G. E. M. (1998). Platinum concentrations in urban road dust
and soil, and in blood and urine in the United Kingdom. The Analyst, 123, 451-454.
Farruato, (1992)
Section Eight - References
Farrugia, F., Guivarc’h, H., and J. M., Mouchel (1999). Pesticide uses and transfers in urbanised
catchements. 8th ICUSD, pp 121-128, Sydney, Australia
Favretto L., Baldovin A., Ceccon L., Turello A. (1997) “Indagine multivariata esplorativa
preliminare su fanghi da reflui civili e processi industriali”, Inquinamento, 11, 3440
Feijtel T, Vits H, Murrey-Smith R, Wijk R van, Koch V, Schröder R, Birch R, Ten Berge W (1996)
Fate of LAS in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants: a model verification study,
Chemosphere, 32 7 1413-1426.
Fendinger, N.J. (1997) Environmental occurrence of polydimethylsiloxane. Environmental
Science and Technology. 31, 1555-1563.
Fent, K (1996), Organotin compounds in municipal wastewater and sewage sludge:
Contamination, fate in treatment process and ecotoxicological consequences, Science of the
Total Environment , vol.185, no. 1-3, pp. 151-159
Fent, K; Muller, MD (1991) Occurrence of Organotins in Municipal Wastewater and Sewage
Sludge, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 3, p 489-493
Fernandez, P; Valls, M; Bayona, JM; Albaiges, J, (1991), Occurrence of Cationic Surfactants and
Related Products in Urban Coastal Environments, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.
25, No. 3, p 547-550.
Fiedler, H. et al.: 'Dioxin-Bilanz für Hamburg“, Handbuch Umweltchemikalien, Stoffdaten,
Prüfverfahren, Vorschriften, Rippen Ecomed, Band 2.
Field, JA; Field, TM; Poiger, T; Siegrist, H; Giger, W, (1995) Fate of secondary alkane sulfonate
surfactants during municipal wastewater treatment, Water Res.,vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1301-1307
Figueras i Mestres, O. (1995) Subvencions de la Junta de Sanejament (Subsidies of the
Sewerage Authority), in Institut Químic de Sarrià, II Jornada de Tecnologies de Tractament
d’Aigües Residuals, IQS, Barcelona.
Fish H (1992) In ‘Understanding Our Environment’ (ed. R.E. Hester), Royal Society of Chemistry,
Fleckseder, HSO, (1991), Water adminstration in Austria, European Water Pollution Control, 1(6),
33-45, 1991.
Fordham, R. and Biggs, A.G. (1985) Principles of Vegetable Crop Production. Collins, London.
Forshaw, M, (2000), Constructed wetlands for the treatment of urban runoff, Environment Agency
UK, P2E(95)S1, February 2000.
Förster, J. (1993). The influence of atmospheric conditions and storm characteristics on roof
runoff pollution. Proc. 6th ICUSD, pp. 411- 416, Niagara Falls
Förster, J. (1996).Heavy metal and ion pollution patterns in roof runoff. Proc. 7th ICUSD, pp. 241246, Hanover
Förster, J. (1999). Variability of roof runoff quality. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 137-144.
Fowlie, P.J.A. and Shannon, E.E. (1973) Utilization of industrial wastes and byproducts for
phosphorus removal: An inventory and assessment. Research Report No. 6. Ontario Ministry for
the Environment, Canada.
Francis, J. (1993) The Politics of Regulation. A comparative Perspective, Blackwell, Oxford.
Franzolin G., Cordellina A. (1991) “Detersivi in polvere, concentrati, per macchina lavatrice”, Riv.
Ital. Sostanze Grasse, LXVIII, 439-441
Freitag, G. et al. (1987): “Beschaffenheit und Abfluss von Sickerwässern aus einem städtischen
Siedlungsgebiet, Schlussbericht über das Teilprojekt A6 des SFB 81, Technische Universität
Fricke, C. et al. (1985): 'Comparing Priority Pollutants in Municipal Sludges“, Biocycle 26.
Frimmel, F.H., Assenmacher, M., Sorensen M, Abbt-Braun G., Grabe, G. (1999) “Removal of
hydrophilic pollutants from water with organic adsorption polymers” Chemical Engineering and
Processing, 38, 601-610.
Fronteau, C., Bauwens, W., Vanrolleghem, P.A. (1997) “Integrated modelling: Comparison of
state variable, processes and parameters in sewer and wastewater treatment plant models”
Water Science and Te4chnology, 36(5) 373-380.
Fytianos K, Pegiadou S, Raikos N, Eleftheriadis I, Tsoukali H, (1997), Determination of non-ionic
surfactants (polyethoxylated nonyl phenols) by HPLC in waste waters, Chemosphere, 35(7),
Fytianos, K; Charantoni, E; Voudrias, E , (1998), Leaching of heavy metals from municipal
sewage sludge, Environment International, vol. 24, no. 4, pp.467-475.
Gabaldón, C., Ferrer, J., Seco, A., Marzal, P. (1998) “A software for the integrated design of
wastewater treatment plants” Environmental Modelling and Software 13, 31-44.
Gans, O., Scharf, S. (1999): “PAH in der Umwelt”, Wien, 1999 (UBA-A, Reports; R-153).
Garcia-Delgado R.A., Garcia-Herruzo F., Gomez-Lahoz C. and Rodriguez-Maroto J.M. (1994)
“Heavy metals and disposal alternatives for an anaerobic sewage sludge”, J. Environ. Sci. Health,
A29(7), 1335-1347
Section Eight - References
Garnaud S, Mouchel, J.M, Chebbo G, and Thevenot D.R(1999a). Heavy metal concentrations in
dry and wet atmospheric deposits in Paris district: comparison with urban runoff. Sci Total
Environ vol.235, 235-245
Garnaud S., Mouchel, J.M., and D. Thevenot (1999b). Mobility evolution of particulate trace
metals in urban runoff: from street deposits and road runoff to combined sewer deposits and
catchment outlet. 8th ICUSD, pp. 1511-1519.
Gatermann R, Hauss H, Rimkus G, Attar A, Kettrup A. (1998), Occurrence of musk xylene and
musk ketone metabolites in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere 36(11):2535-2547.
Geiger, W. F. (1984): “Mischwasserabfluss und dessen Beschaffenheit. Ein Beitrag zur
Kanalnetzplanung, in Berichte aus Wassergütewirtschaft und Gesundheitsingenieurwesen der
Technischen Universität München, Heft 50, Eigenverlag München..
Gestri L. (1991) “Problematiche negli scarichi delle industrie tessili”, Inquinamento, 6, 130-132
Geyer HJ, Rimkus G, Wolf M, Attar A, Steinberg C, Kettrup A. Synthetische NitromoschusDuftstoffe and Bromocyclen - neue Umweltchemikalien in Fischen und Muscheln bzw.
Muttermilch und Humanfett. [Synthetic nitro musk fragrances and bromocyclen--new
environmental chemicals in fish and mussels as well as in breast milk and human lipids.] Z
Umweltchem ?otox 6(1):9-17 (1994).
Ginés, FR; (1997), Barcelona’s Water Flow : a tool for environmental analysis, Paper presented
at the Nagoya Conference, November1997.
Golup J. (1998) New Instruments for Environmental Policy in the EU, Routledge, London and
New York.
Good, J.C. (1993). Roof runoff as a diffuse source of metals and aquatic toxicity in storm water.
Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 28, no. 3-5, pp. 317-321.
Göttle, A. (1978): "Ursachen und Mechanismen der Regenwasserverschmutzung. Ein Beitrag zur
Modellierung der Abflussbeschaffenheit“, in: Berichte aus Wassergütewirtschaft und
Gesundheitsingenieurwesen, Institut für Bauingenieurwesen V, Technische Universität München,
Heft 23, Eigenverlag München.
Gousailles M. (1994) Devenir des produits extraits des réseaux d'assainissement et des
ouvrages de prétraitment, AGHTM, Issue 12, Pages 704-709, December.
Granier L. (1991). Apports atmospheriques en organochlores a l’hydrosphere: comparaison avec
les metaux lourds. PhD thesis, University Paris 6
Granier, L., Chenreuil, A, Carru, A. and R. Letolle (1990). Urban runoff pollution by
organochlorines and heavy metals. Chemosphere, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1101-1107.
Gray NF (1998)- Acid mine drainage composition and the implications for its impact on lotic
systems, Water resources Vol. 32 7 2122-2134
Greenwood, N. N. and Earnshaw, A. (1984). Chemistry of the Elements, Pergamon Press,
Greiner, P (1996), Initiatives and voluntary agreements concerning detergents and cleansing
agents in Germany, Federal Environmnetal Agency Geramny, OECD Workshop on nonregulatory initiatives for chemical risk management, pp. 61-65.
Gromaire – Mertz M., Garnaud, S., Gonzales A. and G. Chebbo (1999). Characterisation of urban
runoff pollution in Paris. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 39, no 2, 1-8.
Gromaire-Mertz MC., Chebbo G., and Saad M. (1998) Origins and characteristics of urban wet
weather pollution in combined sewer systems: the experimental urban catchment "Le Marais" in
Paris, Water Science Technology, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 35-43,.
Gustavsen, E. (1998) Biodegradation of Acrylamide in Environmental Media. MSc Thesis,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London.
Hagenmaier, H. et al. (1988): "Untersuchungen über den Gehalt an Dioxinen und ausgewählten
Chlorkohlenstoffen (CKWs) im Klärschlamm“, UBA-Forschungsbericht.
Hagenmeier, H. et al. (1986): 'Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments,
Sewage Sludges and Composts from Municipal Refuse by HPLC“, Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem.
Hahn, H. H. (1995): "Integrale Ansätze zu einer effizienten Gestaltung der Stoffkreisläufe in
Stadtgebieten“, in Schadstoffe im Regenabfluss III, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft der
Universität Karlsruhe, Kommissionsverlag R. Oldenburg, München.
Hahn, H., Hoffmann, E., Schäfer, M. (1999) “Managing residuals from wastewater treatment for
priority pollutants” European Water Management, 2(1), 49-56.
Halling-Sorenson B, Nielsen SN, Lanzky PF, Lützhoft HCH, Jorgenson SE (1997) - Occurrence
and fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment - A review, Chemosphere
36 2 357-393
Hanberg, A. (1990) Swedish dioxin survey – Determination of 2,3,7,8-TCDD-equivalent factors for
some PCB and PCNs using biological tests. Chemosphere 20, 1161-1164.
Handler, T. (1994) Regulating the European Environment Wiley & Sons, UK.
Section Eight - References
Hany J, Nagel R. Nachweis von UV-Filtersubstanzen in Muttermilch. [Detection of UV-sunscreen
agents in breast milk.] Deutsche Lebensmittel 91:341-245 (1995).
Harrad, S.J. and Jones, K.C. (1992) A source inventory and budget for chlorinated dioxins and
furans in the United Kingdom environment. The Science of the Total Environment 126, 89-107.
Harrad, S.J., Sewart, A.P., Alcock, R., Boumphrey, R., Burnett, V., Duarte-Davidson, R., Halsall,
C., Sanders, G., Waterhouse, K., Wild, S.R. and Jones, K.C. (1994) Polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) in the British Environment: Sinks, sources and temporal trends. Environmental Pollution
85, 131-146.
Harrop, O., (1983). Strormwater pollution from highway surfaces: a review. Research Report 6,
Middlesex Polytechnic, Research Report Series.
Haward K. Sharp JA (1983) The Management of a Student Research Project, Gower Pub. Hants,
Heather A. I. J., and A.D. Carter (1996). Herbicide losses from herd surfaces and the effect on
ground water and surface water quality. Aspect of Applied Biology, 44, 157-164.
Heberer Th, Gramer S, Stan H-J. Occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants in the
aquatic system in Berlin. Part iii: Determination of synthetic musks in Berlin surface water
applying solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
(GC/MS). Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 27:150-156 (1999).
Hedley G. and Lockley, J. (1975). Quality of water discharged from an urban motorway. J. of Wat.
Pollution Control, no. 74, 659-674
Heinrich, E., Schmidt, G., Kratz K-L. (1996). Determination of platinum-group elements (PGE)
from catalytic convertors in soil by means of docimasy and INAA. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 354,
Helmers, E. (1997). Pt emission rate of automobiles with catalytic converters. ESPR – Environ.
Sci. Poll. Res. 4 (2) 100-103.
Helmers, E. and Kümmerer, K. (1997). Platinum group elements in the environment –
anthropogenic impact. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 4: 99.
Helmers, E. and Kümmerer, K. (1999). Anthropogenic platinum fluxes: quantification of sources
and sinks, and outlook. Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 6 (1) 29-36.
Helmers, E., Scwarzer, M. and M. Schuster (1998). Comparison of Palladium and Plutonium in
Environmental Matrices: Palladium pollution by automobile emissions?, Environmental Science
and Pollution Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 44-50.
Herbert, M. T., Acres, G. J. K. and Hughes, J. E. (1980). Platinum, gold, silver and mercury. In
Future Metal Strategy. The Metals Society, London.
Hewitt LN, Rashed MB (1990). An integrated budget for selected pollutants for a major rural
highway. Sci Total Environ, vol.93, pp 375-384.
Hillary R. (1995) Small Firms and the environment, A groundwork status report, 1995.
Hillier SR, Sangha CM, Plunkett BA, Walden PJ (1999) - Long term leaching of toxic trace metals
from Portland cement concrete, Cement and Concrete Research 29 515-521
Hirsch R, Ternes T, Haberer K, Kratz KL (1999)- Occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic
environment, The Science of the Total Environment, 225, 109-118.
Hoffman, J. (1989). Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from Automotive Catalysts, In:
Thermae, A. E. and Gondolier, I. H. eds. Precious and Rare Metal Technologies, Process
Metallurgy 5.
Holt MS (2000) Sources of chemical contaminants and routes into the freshwater environment,
Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38, S21-S27
Holt MS, Fox KK, Burford M, Daniel M, Buckland H, (1998) UK monitoring study on the removal
of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in trickling filter type sewage plants. Contribution to GREAT-ER
project No 2, The Science of the Total Environment, 210/211, 255-269.
Holt, M.S., Matthijs, E. and Waters, J. (1989) The concentrations and fate of linear alkylbenzene
sulphonate in sludge amended soils. Water Research 23, 749-759.
Horstmann, M; McLachlan, MS, (1995), Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
(PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in urban runoff and household wastewaters, Chemosphere,
vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 2887-2896, 1995
Horstmann, M; McLachlan, MS; Reissinger, M (1993), Investigations of the origin of PCDD/F in
municipal sewage sludge, Chemosphere,vol. 27, no. 1-3
Hotar, Z. et al. (1979): 'Carcinigenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Digested Sludge“, Cas.
Lek. Csk. 118.
Huber L., J., (1988). Wastewater treatment at the Wacker Chemie chemical – petrochemical
plant, Burghausen, Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 20, no. 10, pp.13-19.
Huber, L. (1982): "Einfluss von Schwermetallen aus Klärschlamm auf die Umwelt“, in
Schlammbehandlung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Schadstoffen im Klärschlamm,
Section Eight - References
Berichte aus Wassergütewirtschaft und Gesundheitsingenieurwesen, Technische Universität
München, Heft 38, Eigenverlag München.
Hukka J.J. (1994) -Sustainable peri-urban water and waste management infrastructure. A model
for the future (Finnish), Tampere : Tampere University of Technology 203 s. kuv., taul. ,
Tampereen teknillinen korkeakoulu. Vesi- ja ympäristötekniikan laitos. A ; 49 , ISBN 951-722-155X
Hutchinson, E. J. (2000). An Evaluation of the Environmental, Economic and Social Benefits
Arising from the Use of Vehicle Exhaust Catalysts.
IARC; International Agency for Research on Cancer (1994) Monographs on the evaluation of
carcinogenic risk to humans. Monograph No. 60, 389-435.
International Programme on Chemical Safety, (1998) “Environmental health criteria nonylphenol
and nonylphenolethoxylates”, IPCS, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
IPCS, EHC 125 (1991). (International Programme of Chemical Safety) Environmental Health
Criteria 125, Platinum, 14, World Health Organisation, Geneva.
Isaac, RA, Gil, L, Cooperman AN, Hulme, K, Eddy, B, Ruiz, M, Jacobson, K, Larson, C,
Pancorbo, OC (1997), Corrosion in drinking water distribution systems: A major contributor of
copper and lead to wastewaters and effluents, Environ.Sci.Technol., 31, 3198-3203.
Jacobs, L. W., Zabik, M. J. (1983): 'Importance of Sludgeborne Organic Chemicals for Land
Application Programs“, Proc. 6th Ann. Madison Conf. of Applied Research and Practise on
Municipal and Industrial Waste.
Jasse M. (1990) Erfolglekontrole des Abwasserabgabengesetzes, Campus, Franfurt-NewYork
Jiang J.O., Graham N. (1998) ‘Clearly cleaner-use of coagulants to purify water’, Education in
Chemistry, March: 38 – 40.
Jøergensen, SS; Willems, M (1987), The fate of lead in soils: Lead originating from roofs of
ancient churches, Ambio. Stockholm, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 16-19.
Johnson Matthey, (2000). Platinum 2000: Interim Review. Johnson Matthey Public Limited
Company, Hatton Garden, London, U.K.
Jones KC, Voogt P (1999)- Persistant organic pollutants (POPs); state of the science,
Environmental pollution 100 209-221
Kabbe, G., Buer, T.: (1999): "Entwicklung einer Hochlast-Anaerob-Stufe zur Behandlung von
stark nickelhaltigem Deponiesickerwasser“, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Aachen.
Kallenborn R, Gatermann R, Planting S, Rimkus GG, Lund M, Schlabach M, Burkow IC (1999).
Gas chromatographic determination of synthetic musk compounds in Norwegian air samples. J
Chromatogr A 846(1-2):295-306.
Kalliala E, Talvenmaa P (2000) - Environmental profile of textile wet processing in Finland,
Journal of Cleaner Production, 8 143-154
Kampe, W., Zürich, C. und Jobst, H. (1997): 'Schadstoffe im Boden, insbesondere Schwermetalle
und organische Schadstoffe aus langjähriger Anwendung von Siedlungsabfällen – Teilbericht
organische Schadstoffe“, Bericht zum UBA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. 107 01 003.
Karickhoff, S.W., (1981) “Semi-empirical estimation of sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on
natural sediments and soil.” Chemosphere, 10, 833-846.
Kaut, H. (1984): 'Polycyclische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe in Sedimenten des Neckar,
seiner Nebenflüsse, Rhein und Donau, sowie in Klärschlämmen und Zu- und Abläufen von
Kläranlagen“, Diss. rer. nat. Tübingen.
Kevekordes S, Mersch-Sundermann V, Diez M, Bolten C, Dunkelberg H. Genotoxicity of
polycyclic musk fragrances in the sister-chromatid exchange test. Anticancer Res 18:449-452
Kfferlein HU, Angerer J. Musk xylene: analysis, occurrence, kinetics, and toxicology. Crit Rev
Toxicol 28(5):431-476 (1998).
Kilduff, J.E., Karanfil, T. and Weber, W.J. (1998) “Competitive effects of non-displaceable organic
compounds on trichloroethylene uptake by activated carbon.” Journal of Colloid and Interface
Science, 205, 271-279.
Kimbrough DE, Cohen Y, Winer AM, Creelman L, Mabuni CA (1999)- Critical Assessment of
Chromium in the Environment, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 29(1),
, 1–46.
Kirschner EM. Boomers quest for agelessness. Chem Eng News 75(16):19-25 (1997).
Klärschlammverordnung vom 15. April (1992): Bundesrepublik Deutschland: 'Klärschlammverordnung“, AbfKlärV.
Koch, R., Wagner, B. O. (1989): 'Umweltchemikalien: Physikalisch-chemische Daten, Toxizitäten,
Grenz- und Richtwerte, Umweltverhalten“, VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin.
König, H. P., Hertel, R. F., Koch, W., Rosner, G. (1992). Determination of platinum emissions
from a three-way catalyst-equipped gasoline engine. Atmos. Environ. 26A, 741-745.
Section Eight - References
Koppe, P., Stozek, A. (1993): “Kommunales Abwasser. Seine Inhaltsstoffe nach Herkunft,
Zusammensetzung und Reaktionen im Reinigungsprozess einschließlich Klärschlämme”, 3.
Auflage, Vulkan Verlag, Essen.
Korner W, Bolz U,Sumuth W, Hiller G,Schuller G, Volker H, Hagenmaier H (2000)- Input/output
balance of estrogenic active compounds in a major municipal sewage plant in Germany,
Chemosphere, 40 1131-1142
Körner, A. (2000) “Determination of Adssorbable Organic Halogens (AOX)”
Kotas' J, Stasicka Z- (2000) Chromium occurrence in the environment and methods of its
speciation, Environmental Pollution, 107, 263-283.
Kratuh, K., Klein, H. (1982): "Untersuchungen über die Beschaffenheit des Oberflächenwassers
von Bundesautobahnen“, in Forschung Straßenbau und Straßenverkehrstechnik, Heft 363, BonnBad Godesberg.
Kreckel P , J. Mueller , Sumpter JP (1998)- Xenoendocrine disrupters - environmental impacts,
Toxicology Letters, 102 103 337-342
Kuhlendahl, R. (2000): "Klärschlammvererdung im Schilfbeet“, im Abfall-Brief, Magazin zur
Abfallpraxis, 7. Jahrgang, Nr.3, Mai 2000.
Kümmerer K ,Helmers E ,Hubner P , Mascart G , ¨Milandri M , Reinthaler F , Zwakenberg M ,
(1999), European hospitals as a source for platinum in the environment in comparison with other
sources, The Science of the Total Environment, 225 155]165
Kümmerer K, Erbe T, Gartiser S, Brinker L (1998), AOX- Emissions from hospitals into municipal
waste water, Chemosphere, 36(11), 2437-2445.
Kümmerer K, Helmers E- (1997) Hospital effluents as a source for platinum in the environment,
The Science of the Total Environment, 193, 179-184.
Kunkel, E. (1987): 'Umweltanalitik von Tensiden“, Tenside Detergents, 24.
Laffrechine, Breysse, Le Gat, and Bourgogne: (1998) Stratégie pour l'étude de vieillissement et
l'optimisation de la maintenance du réseau d'assainissement, AGHTM, Issue 6, Pages 61-64,
Lang A.H. and Obrist A.J. (1988) “Incineration of sewage sludge in cement kilns”, Thermal
treatment of sludges, edited by Colin F., Newman P.J. and Spinosa L.
Larsson DGJ, Adolfson-Erici M, Parkkonen J, Pettesson M, Berg AH, Olsson PE, Förlin L (1999)Ethinyloestradiol - an undesired fish contraceptive?, Aquatic toxicology, 45 91-97
Laschka D., Striebel, T., Daub, J. and Nachtwey, M. (1996). Platinum in rainwater discharges
from roads. UWSF-Z Umweltchem Ökotox 8: 124-129.
Laschka, D. and M. Nachwey (1997). Platinum in municipal sewage treatment plants.
Chemosphere, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1803-1812.
Lawrence, AI, and A. Goyen (1987). Improving urban stormwater quality - an Australian strategy,
Proceedings 4 th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Lausanne, Switzerland,
Vol. Topics in Urban Stormwater Quality, Planning and Management, pp 127 -134.
Laxen D. and Harrison R.M. (1977). The highway as a source of water pollution. Water Research,
no. 11, 1-11
Lee (1983).
Legret M., and Pagotto C (1999): Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a
major rural highway, The Science of the Total Environment, Volume 235, Pages 143-150.
Leo, A. and Hansch, C. (1971) “ Linear Free Energy Relationships between partitioning solvent
systems” Journal of Organic Chemistry, 36, 1539-1544.
Lerda D., Carasi S., Ceroni G., Lissoni G., Martines C., Rizzello F., Rocchi I., Cavallaro A. (1997)
“Inquinamento da policlorodibenzo-p-diossine e furani”, Inquinamento, 4, 44-50
Leschber, R. (1997) Organic pollutants in German sewage sludges and standardization of
respective parameters. Speciality Conference on Management and Fate of Toxic Organics in
Sludge Applied to Land, 30 April – 2 May, Copenhagen.
Lester J. (1987) Heavy metals in wastewater and sludge treatment processes: Sources, analysis
and legislation, Volume 1
Lester J. (1989) Heavy metals in wastewater and sludge treatment processes: sources, analysis
and legislation Vol.2
Lester, J. and Gale, J.C. (1979) Sewer cleansing techniques. The Public Health Engineer, 7 (3),
July, 121-127.
Lester, J.N. (1981) Removal of heavy metals in conventional waste water treatment. In Heavy
Metals in the Environment, 104 – 113. CEP Consultants Ltd, Edinburgh.
Letterman, R.D. and Pero, R.W. (1990) Contaminants in polyelectrolytes used in water treatment.
Journal AWWA 82, 87-97.
Lewis G.R. (1999) “1001 chemicals in everyday products”, J.Wiley & sons, eds.
Section Eight - References
Ligocki, M. P., Leuenberger, C., and J. Pankow (1985). Trace organic compounds in rain-II. Gas
scavenging of neutral organic compounds. Atmosphere and Environment, vol. 19, pp. 1619-1625.
Little P. and Wiffen R. (1977). Emission and deposition of petrol engine exhaust Pb. 1 –
Deposition of exhaust Pb to plant and soil surfaces. Atmosphere and Environment, No 11, 437447.
Little P. and Wiffen R. (1978). Emission and deposition of petrol engine exhaust Pb. 2 – Airborne
concentration, particle size and distribution of lead near motorways. Atmosphere and
Environment,. No 12, 1331-1341.
Litz, N, Boje-Haderer, R, Jung, S, Merkel, D, Offenbächer, G, Schnaak, W (1998), A concept for
determining and assessing the relevance of harmful organic constituents in sewage sludge (in
German), Korrespondenz Abwasser, 45, 3, 492-498.
Lloyd, S. and T.H.F. Wong (1999). Particulates, associated pollutants and urban stormwater
treatment. Proc. 8th ICUSD, pp. 1833-1840.
Losch S. (1997). Der grosse Hunger. Landschaftsverbrauch in Deutschland – anspruch and
wirklichkeit. In: Kümmerer, K., Held M., Schneider M, (eds). Bödenlos. Zum nachhaltigen
Umgang mit Böden. München: Politische Ökologie, 27-32.
Lottermoser, B. G. (1994). Gold and platinoids in sewage sludges. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 46:
Lucas, MF; Caldeira, MT; Hall, A; Duarte, AC; Lima, C , (1986), Distribution of Mercury in the
Sediments and Fishes of the Lagoons of Aveiro, Portugal, Water Science and Technology, Vol.
18, Nos. 4/5, p 141-148
Lustig, S., Zang, S., Michalke, B., Schramel, B., Beck, W. (1996). Transformation behaviour of
different platinum compounds in a clay-like humic soil: speciation investigations. Sci. Total
Environ. 188, 195-204.
Lyman, W.J., Reehl, W.F. and Rosenblatt, D.H., Ed. (1990) “ Handbook of Chemical Property
Estimation Methods, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.
Macchi G., Di Pinto A.C., Marani D., Pagano M., Bagnuolo G. (1996) “Rimozione del piombo
dalle acque di scarico dell’industria di batterie mediante precipitazione”, Ingegneria Ambientale,
XXV (9), 480-484.
Maderner, W and Hobiger, G- (1996), Material balance of PCBs in Austria, UBA, Wien,
Monographie, Band 79.
Madsen, T, Winther-Nielsen M, Samsøe-Petersen, L (1998) Effects of Organic Chemicals in
Sludge Applied to Soil- Degradation and Toxicity to Organisms Living in Soil, Report for Danish
Ministry of Environment and Energy and Danish Environmental Protection Agency.
MAFF/DoE; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1993a) Review of the Rules for Sewage
Sludge Application to Agricultural Land: Food Safety and Relevant Animal health Aspects of
Potentially Toxic Elements. Report of the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of Food
Surveillance. PB 1562. MAFF Publications, London.
MAFF/DoE; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1993b) Review of the Rules for Sewage
Sludge Application to Agricultural Land: Soil Fertility Aspects of Potentially Toxic Elements.
Report of the Independent Scientific Committee. PB 1561. MAFF Publications, London.
Mahnke, K. (1997): “Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Verbreitung organischer Schadstoffe
(PCDD/F, PCB und PAK) in den Tropen und Subtropen”, Dissertation der Fakultät für Chemie
und Pharmazie der Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen.
Mann, A.T. and Stephenson, T. (1997) “Modelling biological aerated filters for wastewater
treatment” Water Research, 31(10) 2443-2448.
Manoli, E and Samara, C , (1999), Occurrence and Mass Balance of Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons in the Thessaloniki Sewage Treatment Plant , Journal of Environmental Quality,
vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 176-186.
Marani D., (1997) ”Indagine a campione sulle caratteristiche e sui metodi di depurazione delle
acque di scarico delle piccole e medie aziende orafe del polo di Arezzo” Technical Report R/154,
Italian Water Research Institute, Rome, Italy
Marani D., Braguglia C.M., Bemporad E. and Mininni G. (1998) “Partitioning of heavy metals in
sewage sludge incineration”, Annali di Chimica, 88, 887-899
Marcomini et al. (1987): 'Auftreten und Verhalten ausgewählter Waschmittel-Inhaltsstoffe und
ihrer Abbauprodukte in der Abwassereinigung und im Klärschlamm“, Recycling von Klärschlamm,
EF. Verlag Berlin.
Marcomini A, Capel PD, Lichtensteiger T, Brunner PH and Giger W, Behaviour of Aromatic
Surfactants and PCBs in sludge-treated soil and landfills. Journal of Environmental Quality, 18:
(4) 523-528 Oct-Dec 1989
Martens, R. (1982) Concentrations and microbial mineralization of four to six ring polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons in composted municipal waste. Chemosphere 11, 761-770.
Section Eight - References
Matschullet J (2000) - Arsenic in the geosphere - a review, The Science of the Total Environment,
249 297-312
McCormick. (1991) British Politics and the Environment, Earthscan, London.
McEvoy, J., Geger, W. (1995): 'Accomulation of Linear Alkylbenzenesulphonate Surfactants in
Sewage Sludges“, Naturwiss., 72.
McEvoy, J., Geger, W. (1996): 'Determination of Linear Alkylbenzenesulphonates in Sewage
Sludge by High-Resolution Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometry“, Envir. Sci. Technol. 20.
McGrath, S.P. and Chaudri, A.M. (1999) Long-term effects of metal contamination on Rhizobium.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31, 1205-1207.
McGrath, S.P., Brookes, P.C. and Giller, K.E. (1988) Effects of potentially toxic metals in soil
derived from past applications of sewage sludge on nitrogen fixation by Trifolium repens L. Soil
Biology and Biochemistry 20, 415-424
McIntyre, A.E. and Lester, J.N. (1984) Occurrence and distribution of persistent organochlorine
compounds in UK sewage sludges. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 23, 397-415.
McMurry LM, Oethinger M, Levy SB. Triclosan targets lipid synthesis. Nature 394(6693):531-532
McNally DL, Mihelcic JR, Lueking DR (1998) Biodegradation of three and four ring polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, Envir. Sci. Technol. 32, 26332639
McVeety (1986). Atmospheric deposition of PAHs: a mass balance approach. PhD thesis, Indiana
Meeussen J., Keizer M. and F. de Haan (1992). Chemical stability and decomposition rate of iron
cyanide complexes in soil solution. Envir. Sci. Technol. Vol. 26, no 3, 511-516.
Melcer, H., Bell, J. and Thompson, D. (1992) Predicting the fate of volatile organnic compounds
in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Science and Technology 25, 383-389.
Melcer, H., Bell, J.P., Thompson, D.J., Yendt, C.M., Kemp, J. and Steel, P. (1999) “Modelling
volatile organic contaminants’ fate in wastewater treatment plants” Journal of Environmental
Engineering, 120(3), 588-609.
Mersch-Sundermanno V, Kevekordeso S, Jentero C. Lack of mutagenicity of polycyclic musk
fragrances in Salmonella typhimurium. Toxicol in Vitro 12(4):389-393 (1998).
Mininni G., Braguglia C.M., Marani D. (2000) “Partitioning of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in sewage sludge
incineration by rotary kiln and fluidized bed furnaces”, Special Edition of Water Sci. Technol., in
press (2000)
Mitchell, D.B. (1985) Chemical Quality and Physical Treatment of Road Runoff,. PhD Thesis.
Imperial College. London.
Montagnani B, Puddefoot J, Davie TJA, Vinson GP (1996)- Environmentally persistant oestrogenlike substances in UK river systems J.CIWEM 10 399-405
Montague K. and Luker M., (1994). Control of pollution from highway drainage discharges. CIRIA
Report no. 142. London
Monteith, H.D., Bell, J.P., Thompson, D.J., Kemp, J., Yendt, C.M. and Melcer, M. (1993)
Modeling the fate of metals in municipal water pollution control plants. Water Environment
Research 65, 129-137.
Montrejaud-Vignoles M, Roger S, Herremans L. (1996). Runoff water pollution of motorway
pavement in mediterranean area. Proc 7th Int Conf on Urban Storm Drainage, Hannover, 247252.
Moreda, JM; Arranz, A; De Betono, SF; Cid, A; Arranz, JF*, (1998a)Chromatographic
determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sewage
sludge (Pamplona-Spain), , Science of the Total Environment, vol. 220, no. 1, pp. 33-43, 4 Sep
Moreda, JM; Arranz, A; De Betono, SF; Cid, A; Arranz, JF1(1998b) Determination of PCBs and
LABs in sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant , Environmental Technology, vol. 19,
no. 9, pp. 913-921
Moreno, A; Ferrer, J; Bevia, FR; Prats, D; Vazquez, B; Zarzo, D , (1994), LAS monitoring in a
lagoon treatment plant, Water Research, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2183-2189.
Morris S, Lester J (1994)- Behaviour and fate of polychlorinated biphenols in a pilot wastewater
treatment plant, Water Research, 28 7 1553-1561
Morrison G.M.P., (1988). Transport mechanisms and processes for metal species in a gullypot
system. Water Research, vol. 22, no.11, pp. 1417-1427
Mudge, SM; Hooper, L; Icely, JD (1998), Biomarkers associated with sewage in the Arade
Estuary, Portugal, Environmental Technology, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1055-1060.
Mudge, SM; Joao Bebianno, M (1997), Sewage contamination following an accidental spillage in
the Ria Formosa, Portugal, Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 34, no. 3,pp. 163-170.
Mudge, SM; Joao, M; Bebianno, AF; East, JA; Barreira, LA (1999), Sterols in the Ria Formosa
Lagoon, Portugal, Water Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 1038-1048.
Section Eight - References
Mukherjee AB.- (1998)Chromium in the environment of Finland, The Science of the Total
Environment, 217, 9-19.
Muschack, W., (1990). Pollution of street runoff by traffic and local conditions. The Science of the
Total Environment, no.93, 419-431.
Nachtigall, D., Kock, H., Artelt, S., Levsen, K., Wünsch, G., Rühle, T., Schlögl, R. (1996).
Platinum solubility of a substance designed as a model for emissions of automobile catalytic
convertors. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 354, 742-746.
Nadim A. H. (1999) Waste Minimisation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, ICCET, Imperial
College of Science, Technology and Medicine,London.
Næs K, Oug E (1997)- Multivariate approach to distribution patterns and fate of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from smelter-affected Norwegian fjords and coastal waters,
Environmnetal Science and Technology 31, 5 1253-1258
Nagtegaal M, Ternes TA, Baumann W, Nagel R (1997). Nachweis von UV-Filtersubstanzen in
Wasser und Fischen aus dem Meerfelder Maar in der Eifel. Detection of UV-sunscreen agents in
water and fish of the Meerfelder Maar the Eifel Germany. UWSF-Z f?eltchem ?otox 9(2):79-86.
Najm, I.N., Smoyink, V.L., Suidan, M.T., Lee, C.H. and Richard, Y. (1990) “Effect of particle size
and background natural organics on the adsorption efficiency of PAC” Journal American Water
Works Association, 82(1), 65-72.
Navarro, M; Sanchez, M; Lopez, H; Lopez, MC, (1993), Arsenic Contamination Levels in Waters,
Soils, and Sludges in Southeast Spain, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology,
Vol. 50, No. 3, p 356-362
NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. –1999, The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary
Supplements (IBIDS) Database. Available:
Nilsson Charlotte (1996) Organic pollutants in sewage sludge : contribution to human exposure to
certain estrogen-perturbing compounds, Stockholm : Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Rapport / Statens naturvårdsverk ; 4674 , ISBN 91-620-4674-8
Novotny, V., Muehring, D., Zitomer, D., Smith, D. and R. Facey (1998). Cyanide and metal
pollution by urban snowmelt: impact of deicing compounds. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 39, no 10, 223230.
NPE/DEHP in sewage sludge in Denmark, (2000),,
Nyland, K. (1992) Analysis of polyhalogenated organic pollutants in sediment and sewage
sludge. Chemosphere 24, 1721-1730.
O’Brien, G.J. and Teather, E.W. (1995) “A dynamic model for predicting effluent concentrations of
organic priority pollutants from an industrial wastewater treatment plant” Water Environmental
Research, 67(6)
O’Grady, D.P., Howard, P.H., Werner, A.F. (1985) Activated sludge biodegradation of 12
commercial phthalate esters. Applied Environmental Microbiology 49, 443-445.
Okumura T, Nishikawa Y(1996). Gas chromatography--mass spectrometry determination of
triclosans in water sediment and fish samples via methylation with diazomethane. Analytica
Chimica Acta 325(3):175-184.
Olson, D.A., Varma S., Corsi R.L. (1998) “A new approach for estimating volatile organic
compound emissions from sewers: methodology and associated errors” Water Environment
Research, 70(3).
Ono, Y., Somiya, I., Kawaguchi, T., Mohri, S. (1996) “Evaluation of toxic substances in effluents
from a wastewater treatment plant” Desalination, 106(1-3), 255-261.
Oostelbos, P.G.J.M, Bouma, S., Dijk, H. and Heijman, S.G.J. (1993) Using iron-containing water
treatment sludge to condition sewage sludge is attractive. H2O 26, 265-269.
Pala M., Lazzarotto A., Balducci D., Piccardo M. T., Brescianini C., Valerio F. (1996) “Idrocarburi
policiclici aromatici e metalli pesanti nel particolato atmosferico di La Spezia e Genova”,
Inquinamento, 6, 64-67
Pala M., Lazzarotto A., Balducci D., Piccardo M.T., Brescianini C., Valerio F. (1997) “Idrocarburi
policiclici aromatici e metalli pesanti nel particolato atmosferico di La Spezia e Genova”,
Inquinamento, 10, 50-54
Palacious, M. A., Gómez, M. M., Moldovan, M., Morrison, G., Rauch, S. McLeod, C., Ma, R.,
Laserna, J., Lucena, P. (2000). Platinum-group elements: quantification in collected exhaust
fumes and studies of catalyst surfaces. Science of the Total Environment, 257, 1-15.
Palerm, JR and Singer, JP (2000), Spain and Portugal Reports - Pollutants in Urban Wastewater
and Sewage Sludge Study, ECA Barcelona, (Personal communication).
Palm V, Östlund C (1996) Lead and zinc flows from technosphere to biosphere in a city region,
The Science of the Total Environment, 192, 95-109.
Section Eight - References
Pathirana, S., Connell, Des W. and P. Vowles (1994). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons in an urban roadway system. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 28, pp.
Paxéus N (1996a) Organic pollutants in the effluents of large waste water treatment plants in
Sweden, Water resources 30 (1996) 5 1115-1122
Paxéus N (1996b) Vehicle washing as a source of organic pollutants in municipal wastewater,
Wat. Sci. Tech 33 (1996) 6 1-8
Paxéus N, Schröder HF (1996) Screening for non-regulated organic compunds in municipal
wastewater in Göteborg, Sweden, Wat.Sci.Tech 33, 6, 9-15
Pelzman, S. (1976) Towards a more general theory of regulation, Journal of Law and Economics
19: 211-40.
Pereira, ME; Duarte, AC; Millward, GE; Abreu, SN; Vale, C (1998), An estimation of industrial
mercury stored in sediments of a confined area of the lagoon of Aveiro (Portugal),
CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS, Water Science &Technology , vol. 37, no. 6-7, pp. 125-130
Petrasek, A. C. et al. (1983): 'Fate of Toxic Organic Compounds in Wastewater Treatment
Plants“, J. WPCF. 55.
Petrasek, A.C., Austern, B.M. and Neiheisel, T.W. (1983) Removal and partitioning of volatile
organic priority pollutants in wastewater treatment. 9th US-Japan Conference on Sewage
Treatment Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 13-29 Sept.
Pham TT, Proulx S (1997) - PCBs and PAHs in the Montreal urban community (Quebec, Canada)
wastewater treatment plant and in the effluent plume in the St Lawrence river, Wat.Res, Vol 31 8
Plomley JB, Crozier PW, Taguchi VY, (1999), Characterisation of nonyl phenol ethoxylates in
sewage treatment plants by combined precursor ion scanning and multiple reaction monitoring,
J.of Chromatography, A, 854, 245-257.
Poiger, T; Field, JA; Field, TM; Siegrist, H; Giger, W (1998), Behavior of fluorescent whitening
agents during sewage treatment, Water Res, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1939-1947
Power M, Attrill MJ, Thomas RM (1999)- Heavy metal concentration trends in the Thames
estuary, Wat. Res 33 7 1672-1680
Prats D, Ruiz F, Váquez B, Rodriguez-Pastor M (1997)- Removal of anionic and nonionic
surfactants in a wastewater treatment plant with anaerobic digestion. A comparative study
Wat.Res 31 8 1925-193
Prats, D; Ruiz, F; Vazquez, B; Zarzo, D; Berna, JL (1993), LAS Homolog Distribution Shift during
Wastewater Treatment and Composting: Ecological Implications, Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 9, p 1599-1608.
Quaghebeur D., Temmerman I., and Angeletti G. (1989): Organic contaminants in wastewater,
sludge, and sediment: occurrence, fate, and disposal, Commission of the European
Communities, Elsevier Applied Science London, Pages 1-34,.
Raach, C., Wiggering, H., Bringezu, S. (1999): "Stoffflussanalyse Abwasser – eine Abschätzung
der Substanzflüsse deutscher Kläranlagen“, in Vom Wasser, 92. Band, 1999.
Racke, K.D. and Frink, C.R. (1989) Fate of organic contaminants during sewage sludge
composting. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 42, 526-533.
Rauch, S., Morrison, G. M. Motelica-Heino, M., Donard, O. F. X., and Muris, M. (2000).
Elemental association and fingerprinting of traffic-related metals in road sediments. Environ. Sci.
Technol. 34, 3119-3123.
Raunkjær, K., Hvitved-Jacobsen, T., Nielsen, P.H. (1995) “Transformation of organic matter in a
gravity sewer” Water Environment Research, 67(2), 181-188.
Rebhun, M., Meir, S., and Laor, Y. (1998) “Using dissolved humic acid to remove hydrophobic
contaminants from water by complexation-flocculation process” Environmental Science and
Technology, 32(7), 981-986.
Reemtsma T, Putschew A, Jekel M (1999)- Industrial wastewater analysis: a toxicity - directed
approach, Waste management 19 181-188
Reeves SJ, Plimer IR, Foster D (1995) - Exploitation of gold in a historic sewage sludge pile,
Werribee, Australia: resource evaluation , chemical extraction and subsequent utilisation of
sludge, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 65 141-153
Reible D.R. (1999), Chapter 7 of ‘Fundamentals of Environmental Engineering’, CRC Press LLC
Renner C., Coppin Y., Marcel M.L., and Savart C. (1999): Garantir la qualité des boues pas la
maitrise globale du système d'assainissement, Programme Life 96/ENV/F/410, Final report,
Pages 1-64, June.
Renner, H. and Schmuckler, G. (1991). Platinum Group Metals, In: Merian, E. (ed) Metals and
their compounds in the environment, occurrence analysis and biological relevance, VCH,
Weinheim, New York. pp. 1136-1151.
Section Eight - References
Revitt, D., Ellis J.B. and N.R., Llewellyn (1999). Herbicide behaviour in the runoff from an urban
catchment. 8th ICUSD, pp 96-104, Sydney, Australia
Richardson, M.L. and Bowron, J.M. (1985) The fate of pharmaceutical chemicals in the aquatic
environment. Journal of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology 37, 1-12.
Riediker S, Suter MJF, Giger W-(2000) Benzene- and naphthalenesulfonates in leachates and
plumes of landfills, Wat. Res. 34(7) 2069-2079.
Rigoni Stern S., Szpyrkowicz L., Zilio-Grandi F. (1996) “Treatment of silk and Lycra printing
wastewaters with the objective of water reuse”, Water Sci. Technol., 33(8), 95-104
Rimkus GG, Butte W, Geyer HJ. (1997) Critical considerations on the analysis and
bioaccumulation of musk xylene and other synthetic nitro musks in fish. Chemosphere
Rippen, G (1997) "Handbuch Umweltchemikalien, Stoffdaten, Prüfverfahren, Vorschriften“,
Ecomed, Band 6, 7, 8.
Rogers, H.R. (1996) Sources, behaviour and fate of organic contaminants during sewage
treatment and in sewage sludges. The Science of the Total Environment 185, 3-26.
Rosén Welander T, Löfqvist A, Holmgren J (1998) - Development of a new process for treatment
of a pharmaceutical wastewater, Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 37 9 251-258
Rossi C., Poli P., Buschini A., Cassoni F., Cattani S., DeMunari E. (1995) “Qualità dell’aria:
valutazione degli inquinanti chimici e degli agenti mutageni nella città di Parma (1990-1994)”,
Inquinamento, 11, 48-52
Rossi L., Cinti G., Loi F., Tartaglia R., and Maci U. (1988) “Metalli preziosi. Materiali preparatori
per un profilo di rischio del comparto con alcuni esempi di bonifica-Anni 1985-88”, CEDOC,
Regione Toscana, Firenze
Rottiers A, Boeije G, Corstanje R, Decraene K, Feijtel TCJ, Matthijs E, Schowanek D (1999)Adaptation of the CAS test system and synthetic sewage for biological nutrient removal,
Chemosphere, 38 4 711-727
Rougemaille R ( 1994).: Origine et devenir du plonb dans les eaux résiduaires de l'agglomération
Parisienne, AGHTM, Issue 6, Pages 343-345, June.
Routledge EJ, Parker J, Odum J, Ashby J, Sumpter JP. Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate
preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 153:12-19 (1998).
Ruffo C., Arpino A. (1992) “Detersivi per lavabiancheria ad uso domestico negli anni 1990/1991” ,
Riv. Ital. Sostanze Grasse, LXIX, 129-140
Rump, H. H. (1981): Zum Verhalten von Schadstoffen in kommunalen Kläranlagen“, Forum
Ryan, J.A. and Chaney, R.L. (1994) Development of limits for land application of sewage sludge:
Risk assessment. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Soil Science, Acapulco,
Mexico, 534-553.
Safarzadeh-Amiri A, Bolton JR, Cater SR (1997) - Ferrioxilate-mediated photodegradation of
organic pollutants in contaminated water, Wat. Res. 31 4 787-798
Sakia S, Urano S, Tatatsuki H - Leaching behaviour of persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in
shredder residues, Chemosphere 37 (1998) No 9-12 pp2047-2054
Samara, C; Lintelmann, J; Kettrup, A (1995), Determination of selected polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons in waste water and sludge samples by HPLC with fluorescence detection,
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 1-2, pp. 89-102.
Sansalone J., and S. Buchberger (1997). Characterisation of solids and metal element
distributions in urban highway stormwater. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 36, no. 8-9, pp. 155-160
Santarsiero A, Veschetti E, Donati G, and Ottaviani M, (1998) - Heavy Metal Distribution in
Wastewater from a Treatment Plant, Microchemical Journal, 59, , 219–227.
Santarsiero A., Ottaviani M. (1990) “Reflui ospedalieri: aspetti normativi e tecnici”, Ingegneria
Ambientale, XIX (6), 408-411
Santilli, N, Braguglia, C, Marani, D (2000), Italy- Pollutants in Urban Wastewater and Sewage
Sludge Study, IRSA Rome, (Personal communication).
Satler, H.E., Boyle, L., Ouki, S.K., Quarmby. J., Williams, S.C. (1999) “The performance of
tertiary lagoons in the United Kingdom: I” Water Research, 33(18), 3775-3781.
Schäfer, J and Puchelt, H. (1998), Platiunm group metals (PGM) emitted from automobile
catalytic converters and their distribution in road soils, J. Geochem.Explor, 64, 307-314.
Schäfer, J, Eckhardt, JD, Berner, ZA, Stüben, D. (1999), Time-dependent increase of traffic
emitted platinum-group elements (PGE) in different environmental compartments,
Environ.Sci.Technol., 33, 3166-3170.
Schäfer, J., Eckhardt, J.-D., Puchelt, H. (1995). Einträge von Platingruppenelementen (PGE) us
Kfz-Abgaskatalysatoren in strassennahe Böden. Texte und Berichte zum Bodenschutz 2,
Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg, Karlsruhe, 14 pp.
Section Eight - References
Schäfer, J., Eckhardt, J.-D., Puchelt, H. (1996). Traffic-related noble metal emissions in SouthWest Germany. V. M. Goldschmidt Conf., J. Conf. Abstr. 1, (1), 536.
Scharf, S., Schneider, M., Zethner, G. (1998): ”Zur Situation der Verwertung und Entsorgung des
kommunalen Klärschlammes in Österreich”, (Recycling and Disposal of Municipal Sewage
Sludge in Austria), Wien, (UBA-A Monographien, Band 95).
Schlögl R., Indlekofer, G. and Olehafen, P. (1987). Microparticle emission from combustion
engines with exhaust gas purification – X ray photoelectron spectroscopy in environmental
analysis. Angew. Chem., 99, 312-322.
Schmid P, Schlatter C. Occurrence of nitro and non-nitro benzenoid musk compounds in human
adipose tissue. Chemosphere 33(1):17-28 (1996).
Schnaak, W, Küchler, T, Kujawa, M, Henschel, K.P, Süssenbach, D, Donau, R. (1997), Organic
contaminants in sewage sludge and their ecotoxicological significance in the agricultural utiisation
of sewage sludge, Chemosphere, 35, 1/2, 5-11.
Schowanek, D; Racioppi, F; Matthijs, E; Boyko, R; Gabba, M; Buschini, A; Piero Gardini, G,
(1996), Quantitative in situ monitoring of organohalogen compounds in domestic sewage
resulting from the use of hypochlorite bleach, Water Res., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2193-2205
Schumann, H. and Friedrich, C. (1997) Requirements for the application of organic and inorganic
additives to the treatment of sewage. Abwassertechnik 48, 52-56.
Sellstrom, U. (1996) Polybrominated dipheyl eters (PBDE) in biological samples from the
Swedish environment. Chemosphere 26, 1703-1718.
Semmens, M.J. and Ayers, K. (1985) “Removal by coagulation of trace organics from Mississippi
River water” Journal American Water Works Association, 77(5), 79-84.
Semmens, M.J. and Ocanas G. (1997) “Removal of specific trace organics from water during
chemical coagulation” AIChE Symposium Series 1677, 73, 42.
Serra i Rodríguez, E. (1996) La Protecció Ambiental en la Mineria a Cel Obert a Catalunya. El
Programa de Restauració com a Eina de Bona Gestió de Fangs de Depuradora (The
environmental protection in open-air mining in Catalonia. The restoration programme as a goodpractice tool in the management of sewerage sludge) in Junta de Sanejament Jornades sobre la
Reutilització de Fangs de Depuració d’Aigües Residuals Urbanes, Departament de Medi
Ambient, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona.
WATRAG Sewage And Sewage Sludge Treatment, Water Research Vol. 22, No. 12, p 14651472
Shafer M.M.; Overdier J.T.; Armstong D.E (1998), Removal, partitioning, and fate of silver and
other metals in wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving streams , Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry , Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 630-641
Shandalov, S., Yakirevich, A., Brenner, A., Oron, G. and Rebhun, M. (1997) “Model calibration of
deep-bed filtration based on pilot-scale treatment of secondary effluent” Water Science and
Technology, 36(4), 231-237.
Shandran T. N., (1999). Platinum Group metals from vehicle exhaust catalysts: is there a cause
for concern? MSc Thesis, Imperial College, London.
Shao Y, He K, Zheng B, Zheng Q. (1998). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid
chromatographic method for quantitative analysis of the six major kavalactones in Piper
methysticum. J Chromatogr A 825:1-8
Sharma, M., Marsalek, J. and E. McBean (1994). Migration pathways and remediation of urban
runoff for PAH control, Jour. Env. Management, vol. 41, pp. 325-336.
Shelton, D.R., Boyd, S.A. and Tiedje, J.M. (1984) Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic esters in
sludge. Environmental Science and Technology 18, 93-97.
Sinkkonen, S., Paasivirta, J. (2000) “Degradation half-life times of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs for
environmental fate modelling” Chemosphere, 40, 943-949.
Smith, S.R. (1996) Agricultural Recycling of Sewage Sludge. CAB INTERNATIONAL,
Smith, S.R. (1997) Long-term effects of zinc, copper and nickel in sewage sludge-treated
agricultural soil. Fourth International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, 2326 June, University of California, Berkeley.
Smith, S.R. (1998) Soil microbial biomass content of sewage sludge-treated agricultural land. In
Third International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (ed R. Prost). INRA
Editions, Versailles.
Smith, S.R. (2000) Rhizobium in long-term metal contaminated soil. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry 32, 729-731.
Smith, S.R. and Giller, K.E. (1992) Effective Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii present in
five soils contaminated with heavy metals from long-term applications of sewage sludge or metal
mine spoil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24, 781-788.
Section Eight - References
Smith, S.R. and Hall, J.E. (1991) Some economic and quality aspects of composting sewage
sludge. In Recent Development in Sewage Sludge Processing. Edited by F. Colin, P.J. Newman
and Y.J. Poulane, 46-62. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, Barking.
Smith, S.R., Alloway, B.J., and Nicholson, F.A. (1999) Effect of Zn on the microbial biomass
content of sewage sludge-treated soil. Fifth Internationational Conference on the
Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, 11-15 July, Vienna.
Sridharan, N. and Lee, G.F. (1972) “Coprecipitation of organic compounds from lake water by
iron salts” Environmental Science and Technology, 6(12), 1031.
Staffa M., Biliotti A., Frenquellucci F. (1998) “Il recupero e il riciclo nei processi industriali”,
Inquinamento, 9, 66-70
Stark, B.A., Livesey, C.T., Smith, S.R., Suttle, N.F., Wilkinson, J.M. and Cripps, P.J. (1998)
Implications of Research on the Uptake of PTEs from Sewage Sludge by Grazing Animals.
Integration and review of the MAFF- and DETR-funded research programmes on the effects of
sheep ingesting sewage sludge-amended soils. Report presented to the DETR and MAFF,
Contract No. CWO 650.
Statistisches Bundesamt (1993). Monthly Production Report - Production of Selected Personal
Care Products in Germany, Wiesbaden, Germany.
Steger, J. J. (1994). Personal communication, Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, New Jersey, USA.
Stern, A.H. (1993) Monte Carlo analysis of the U.S EPA model of human exposure to cadmium in
sewage sludge through consumption of garden crops. Journal of Exposure Analysis and
Environmental Epidemiology 3, 449-469.
Stevenson C, Davies RJH. (1999), Photosensitization of guanine-specific DNA damage by 2phenylbenzimidazole and the sunscreen agent 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid. Chem Res
Toxicol 12(1), 38.
Stones, T. (1977) Fate of meats during sewage treatment. Effluent and Water Treatment Journal
17, 653-655.
Stotz G. (1987). Investigations of the properties of the surface water run-off from Federal
Highways in the FRG. Sci Total Environ, no.59, 329-337.
Strecker EW, Driscoll ED, Shelley PE, Gaboury DR, Sartor JD (1990). The US Federal Highway
Administration receiving water impact methodology. Sci Total Environ, no. 93: 489-498.
Stuer-Lauridsen F, Birkved M, Hansen LP, Holten LützhØft HC Halling-Sørensen (2000) B
Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in Denmark after normal therapeutic
use - Chemosphere 40 783-793
Stumpf M, Ternes AT, Wilken RD, Rodigues SV, Baumann W (1999)- Polar drug residues in
sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de janeiro, Brazil, The Science of the Total
Environment 225 135-141
Summers, R.S., Haist, B., Koehler, J., Ritz, J., Zimmer, G. and Sontheimer, H. (1989) “The
influence of background organic matter on GAC adsorption” Journal American Water Works
Association, 81(5), 66-74.
Sweetman AJ (1994) Development and application of a multiresidue analytical method for the
determination of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, PAHs and p-Nonylphenol in digested sewage
sludges Wat. Res 28 343-353
Tabor, C.F. and Barber, L.B. (1996) “Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in the Mississippi
River” Environmental Science and Technology, 30(1), 161-171.
Tchobanoglous G., Burton F.L. (1991). (of Metcalf and Eddy, Inc.) , ‘Wastewater Engineering :
Treatment Disposal and Reuse’, 3 ed.
Tebbutt T.H.Y (1998): Principles of water quality control, 5 Edition, Pages 1-120,.
Ternes T. (1998): Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers, Water
Research, Volume 32, Issue 11, Pages 3245-3260, February.
Ternes TA (1999)- Behaviour and occurrence of estrogens in municipal sewage treatment plants :
Aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge,The Science of the Total Environment, 225 9199
Ternes TA, Stumpf M, Schuppert B, Haberer K. Simultaneous Determination of antiseptics and
acidic drugs in sewage and river. Vom Wasser 90:295-309 (1998).
Ternes, TA, Hirsch, R (2000), Occurrence and behaviour of X-ray contrast media in sewage
facilkities and the aquatic environment, Environ.Sci.Technol, 34, 2741-2748.
Thayer A.M. (1990) ‘Water treatment chemicals : tighter rules drive demand’, Chem. Eng. News,
68(13): 17 – 34.
Thiel, W. (1992) Quality assurance and application of iron and aluminium salts in sewage
technology. Abwassertechnik 43, 28-32.
Thomas O, El-Khorassani H, Touraud A, Bitar EH (1999)- TOC versus UV spectrophotometry for
wastewater quality monitoring, Talanta 50 743–749.
Section Eight - References
Thompson, K.C. and Prior, B.F. (1984) Some problems for a water authority caused by toxic
metals in trade effluents. Effluent and Water Treatment Journal 24, 196-200.
Thorolfsson ST (1998)- A new direction in the urban runoff and pollution management in the city
of Bergen, Norway, Wat.Sci.Tech. 38 10 123-130
Thouvenin B, Gonzalez JL, Boutier B (1997)-Modeling of pollutant behaviour in estuaries:
Application to cadmium in the Loire estuary, Marine Chemistry, 58 , 147-161.
Tisserand, Toupart, Munch, Cecile, and Constant (1999): Acteurs, responsabilités, et procédures
d'élaboration des conventions speciales de dévèrsement, AGHTM, Issue 5, Pages 28-36, May.
Tolosa I, Readman JW, Fowler SW, Villenueuve JP, Dachs J, Bayona JM, Albajes J (1997) PCBs in the Western Mediterranean. Temporal trends and mass balace assessment Deep-sea
Research 44 No 3-4 907-928
Torma and Gundiler, (1989)
Trenkle, A. (1984): 'Chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe in Futtermitteln, Böden und Klärschlämmen“,
Festschrift LUFA Augustenberg.
Tuit, C. B., Ravizza, G. E., and Bothner, M. H. (2000). Anthropogenic platinum and palladium in
the sediments of Boston Harbor. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, No. 6, 927-932.
Turner A, Rawling MC (2000) - The behaviour of di-(2-ethyhexl) phthalate in estuaries, Marine
Chemistry, 68 203-217
UKWIR; UK Water Industry Research (1997) Oestrogenic Chemicals and Their Behaviour During
Sewage Treatment. Report Ref No. 98/TX/01/4. UKWIR, London.
UKWIR; UK Water Industry Research Limited (1997) WW-10: The Environmental Impact of Using
Iron Salts in Sewage Treatment. UKWIR, London.
Ullman’s Encyclopaedia of Industrial Chemistry, vol A25, pp. John Wiley & Sons, 2000, pp.251817
Ulmgren L (2000a), Stockholm Water Company, Wastewater treatment and steps taken in
practice for reducing sludge contamination in Stockholm, Sweden, Presented March 27-28 2000,
at the conference '"Traitamiento de lodos de depuradora:su minimización, valorización y destino
Ulmgren L (2000b), Stockholm Water Company, Measures taken in smaller industries to avoid
hazardous substances enetering domestic wastewater systems, Presented May 25, 2000 del
Instituto de Ingenierá, UNAM, Mexico
Ulmgren, L (1999), Examples of good practices for reducing waste water and sludge
contamination- the case of Sweden, Int'l Workshop 'Problems around sludge', November 1999,
US EPA; US Environmental Protection Agency (1992) Technical Support Document for Land
Application of Sewage Sludge, Volume I. Eastern Research Group, Lexington.
US EPA; US Environmental Protection Agency (1993) Part 503-Standards for Use or Disposal of
Sewage Sludge. Federal Register 58, 9387-9404.
Vallak HW, Bakker DJ, Brandt I, Brostrom-Lundén, Brouwer A, Bull KR. Gough C, Guardans,
Houlbek I, Jansson B, Koch R, Kuylenstierna J, Lecloux A, Mackay D, McCutcheon P, Mocarelli
P. Taalman RDF (1998)- Controlling persistant organic pollutants - what next?, Environmental
Toxicology and Pharmacology , 6 143-175
Van Daalen J (1991). Air quality and deposition of trace elements in the province of SouthHolland. Atmos Environ, 25A (3/4), 691-698.
Van de Velde K., Ferrari C., Barbante C., Moret I., Bellomi T., Hong S., Boutron C. (1999) “A 200
Year record of atmospheric cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, and antimony in high altitude alpine
firn and ice”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33 (20), 3495-3501
Van der Wijst M. A. E., and Groot-Marcus J. P. (1999): Consumption and domestic wastewater
demographic factors and developments in society, Water Science Technology, Volume 39, Issue
5, Pages 41-47,.
Verberne, A.J.P. (1992) Is the re-use of water treatment sludge for the removal of phosphate from
wastewater practicable. H2O 25, 478-485.
Viessman W., Hammer M.J, (1985), ‘Water Supply and Pollution Control’, 4th ed.
Vik, E.A. and Eikebrokk, B. (1989) “Coagulation process for the removal of humic substances
from water” Aquatic humic substances: Influence on fate and transport of pollutants. Advances in
Chemistry Series 219 (eds: Suffet, I.H and MacCarthy, P.), Washington D.C., American Chemical
Vink R., Behrendt H., and Salomons W. (1999): Development of the heavy metal pollution trends
in several European rivers: an analysis of point and diffuse sources, Water Science Technology,
Volume 39, Number, 12, Pages 215-223.
Vitali M., Guidotti M., Macilenti G., Cremisini C. (1997) “Phtalate Esters in freshwaters as markers
of contamination sources- a site study in Italy”, Env. Int., 23(3), 337-347
Section Eight - References
Vitali P., Biglia P.L., Silvatici C. (1991) “Depurazione biologica delle acque reflue nel settore
tessile”, Inquinamento, 12, 82-84
Voogt P de, Beer K de, Weilen F van der (1997)- Determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in
industrial and environmental samples, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 16 10 584-595
Voutsa, D; Zachariadis, G; Samara, C; Kouimtzis, T, (1996), Evaluation of the toxic content of
sludges produced during the biological treatment of municipal and industrial waste waters, J.
vol. A31, no. 3, pp. 657-671
Wade-Miller G (1978), An assessment of ozone and chlorine dioxide technologies for
treatment of municipal water supplies : executive summary , Cincinnati : U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Wallinder O., Verbiest, P., He, W. and Leygraf, C. (2000). Effects of exposure direction and
inclination on the runoff rates of zinc and copper roofs. Corrosion Science, vol. 42, pp 1471-1487.
Wania F, Mackay D (1999)- The evolution of mass balance models of persistent organic pollutant
fate in the environment, Environmental pollution, 100 223-240
Ward, N., (1995). Drainage and discharge of highway pollutants (cadmium and copper) from the
London orbital (M25) Motorway. Int. Conf. of Heavy Metals in the Environment vol. 2, pp. 431435.
Warhurst A.M. (1995) “An environmental assessment of alkylphenol ethoxylates and
alkylphenols”, 1994 A. Michael Warhurst
Waters J, Feijtel TCJ (1995)- AIS/CESIO environmental surfactant monitoring programme:
outcome of five national pilot studies on linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) Chemosphere, 30
10 1939-1995
Wei, C. and G.M. Morrison (1992). Platinum in road dusts and urban river sediments. The
Science of the Tot. Environment, vol. 147, pp. 169-174.
White P, Rasmussen JB (1998)- The genotoxic hazards of domestic waste in surface waters,
Mutation research 410 223-236
White S. and D. Pinkstone (1995). The occurrence of pesticides in drinking water. BCPC
Monograph no 62: Pesticide movement to water, British Crop Protection Council, pp 263-268,
WHO/FAO; World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization (1972) Evaluation of
Certain Food Additives and the Contaminants Mercury, Lead and Cadmium. WHO Technical
Report Series No. 505. WHO, Geneva.
Wiemer, K. (1987): 'Grenzwerte für organische Substanzen fehlen“, Umwelt 5.
Wijst-MAJE van de, Groot-Marcus JP (1999)- Consumption and domestic waste water
demographic factors and developments in society, Wat. Sci. Tech 39 5 41-47
Wild, S.R. and Jones, K.C. (1989) The effect of sludge treatment on the organic contaminant
content of sewage sludges. Chemosphere 19, 1765-1777.
Wild, S.R. and Jones, K.C. (1995) Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom
environment: A preliminary source inventory and budget. Environmental Pollution 88, 91-108.
Wild, S.R., Waterhouse, K.S. and McGrath, S.P. and Jones, K.C. (1990) Organic contaminants in
an agricultural soil with a known history of sewage sludge amendments: Polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons. Environmental Science and Technology 24, 1706-1711.
Niederschlagswasserversickerung“, Studie im Auftrag der Landeshauptstadt München, Juli 1997.
Wilmanski, K. and van Breeman, A.N. (1990) “ Competitive adsorption of trichloroethylene and
humic substances from groundwater on activated carbon” Water Research, 24(6), 773-779.
Wilson Ivana (1976), Steroids as water pollutants : a literature survey of synthetic and natural
hormonal steroids and the analytical methods for their determination , Technical memorandum /
Water Research Centre UK
Wilson S.C., Burnett, V., Waterhouse, K.S. and Jones, K.C. (1994) Volatile organic compounds in
digested United Kingdom sewage sludges. Environmental Science and Technology 28, 259-266.
Winkler M, Kopf G, Hauptvogel C, Neu T (1998). Fate of artificial musk fragrances associated
with suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the River Elbe (Germany) in comparison to other
organic contaminants. Chemosphere 37(6):1139-1156.
Witte, H. (1988): 'Belastung des Klärschlamms durch organische Umweltkemikalien“,
Umweltkemikalien, Korr. Abwasser
WMS (1994). World Mineral Statistics, 1988-92. British Geological Survey.
Xanthopoulos, C., Hahn, H. H., (1993): “Anthropogene Schadstoffe auf Straßenoberflächen und
ihr Transport mit dem Niederschlagsabfluss, Schlussbericht des BMFT-Verbundprojekts
“Niederschlagsbedingte Schmutzbelastung der Gewässer aus städtischen befestigten Flächen”,
Teilprojekt 2, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft der Technischen Universität Karlsruhe.
Section Eight - References
Yamada, M., Dazai, M., and Tonomura, K. (1959) Change of mercurial compounds in activated
sludge. Journal of Fermentation Technology 47, 155.
Yamagishi T, Miyazaki T, Horii S, Akiyama K (1983). Synthetic musk residues in biota and water
from Tama River and Tokyo Bay (Japan). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12:83-89.
Yamagishi T, Miyazaki T, Horii S, Kaneko S (1981). Identification of musk xylene and musk
ketone in freshwater fish collected from the Tama River, Tokyo. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
Yeoman, S., Lester, J.N. and Perry, R. (1993) Phosphorus removal and its influence on metal
speciation during wastewater treatment. Water Research 27, 389-395.
Yeoman, S., Stephenson, T., Lester, J.N. and Perry, R. (1988) The removal of phosphorus during
wastewater treatment. A review. Environmental Pollution 49, 183-233.
Ying, W., Duffy, J.J, Tucker, M.E., (1988) “Removal of humic acid and toxic organic compounds
by iron precipitation” Environmental Progress, 7(4), 262-269.
Zeisel SH. (1999). Regulation of "nutraceuticals." Science 285: 1853-1855
Zereini, F., Dirksen, F., Skerstupp, B., Urban, H. (1998). Sources of anthropogenic PGE:
automotive catalysts versus PGE-processing industries. ESPR – Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 5 (4)
Zereini, F., Skerstupp, B., Alt, F., Helmers, E. and Urban, H. (1997). Geochemical behaviour of
platinum-group elements (PGE) in particulate emissions by automobile exhaust catalysts:
experimental results and environmental investigations. Science of the Total Environment, 206,
Zereini, F., Zientek, C., Urban, H. (1993). Concentration and distribution of platinum group
elements (PGE) in soil – platinum emission by abrasion of catalytic converter material. UWSF-Z
Umweltchem. Ökotox. 5 (3) 130-134.
Zhao, H. and Vance,G.F. (1998) “Sorption of trichloroethylene by organoclays in the presence of
humic substances” Water Research 32(12), 3710-3716.
Section Eight - References
Abwasserverordnung vom 9. Februar (1999), Bundesrepublik Deutschland: 'Verordnung über
Anforderungen an das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gewässer“, (AbwV).
Abwasserverordnung vom Februar (1999): "Verordnung über Anforderungen an das Einleiten von
Abwasser in Gewässer“ (Abwasserverordnung - AbwV).
Académie de l'Eau: (2000) Paris, la situation actuelle et l'avenir, Website, Pages 1-15, May.
ADEME (1995a) Les micropolluants métalliques dans les boues résiduaires des stations
d'épuration urbaines, Pages 17-79,. (2)
ADEME: (1995b) Les micropolluants organiques dans les boues résiduaires des stations
d'épuration urbaines, Pages 26-32. (3)
ADEME (1997a) Actes des journées techniques des 5 et 6 Juin 1997: aspects sanitaires et
environnementaux de l'épandage des boues résiduaires, Pages 1-319, June. (1)
ADEME (1997b)Convention de recherche: Cartographie de la pollution de l'air par certains
métaux lourds sur le littoral Calais-Dunkerque au travers de l'analyse des lichens et des boues de
toiture, Numéro 9693028,. (4)
Agence de l'eau Rhin-Meuse (1985) Essai d'évaluation de l'apport global de métaux lourds par
les eaux usées domestiques, Pages 1-10, April 1985.
Agences de l'Eau (1997a) La mesure des micropolluants dans le cadre du réseau national de
bassins, Issue 54, 1997
Agences de l'Eau (1997b) Seuils de qualité pour les micropolluants organiques et minéraux dans
les eaux superficielles, Synthese 53, 1997
Agences de l'Eau, (1992) Etude qualitative et quantitative des sources diffuse de mercure, Pages
1-47, November 1992
Agences de l'Eau: (1993) Etude qualitative et quantitative des sources diffuses de solvants
chlorés, Pages 1-59, April 1993
AGHTM, Groupe de travail (2000): TSM dossier: Les déchets mercuriels en France, Volume 7-8,
Pages 24-48, July-August 1999, and Volume 3, Pages 17-53.
ATV (1986): "Lehr- und Handbuch der Abwassertechnik. Band VI: Organisch verschmutzte
Abwässer sonstiger Industriegruppen“, Dritte, überarbeitete Auflage.
ATV (1999): "ATV-Handbuch. Industrieabwasser. Grundlagen“, 4. Auflage.
ATV-A 115 (1994): 'Einleiten von nicht häuslichem Abwasser in eine öffentliche
Abwasseranlage“, ATV-Regelwerk Abwasser/Abfall.
Berücksichtigung von Schadstoffen im Klärschlamm, Berichte aus Wassergütewirtschaft und
Gesundheitsingenieurwesen, Technische Universität München, Heft 38, Eigenverlag München
Centre d'Information sur l'Eau (1998) Le bon usage de l'eau à la maison, Leaflet,.
Chalmers tekniska högskola. Institutionen för vattenförsörjnings- och avloppsteknik. B ; (1974)
Report- Effect on municipal treatment plants of heavy metals : some aspects,
Chemikalien Verbotsverordnung vom 19. Juli (1996) : "Verordnung über Verbote und
Beschränkungen des Inverkehrbringens gefährlicher Stoffe, Zubereitung und Erzeugnisse nach
dem Chemikaliengesetz“, (ChemVerbotsV).
Chemikalien Verbotsverordnung vom 19. Juli (1996): 'Verordnung über Verbote und
Beschränkungen des Inverkehrbringens gefährlicher Stoffe, Zubereitung und Erzeugnisse nach
dem Chemikaliengesetz“, (ChemVerbotsV).
Chemikaliengesetzt vom 25. Juni (1994), Bundesrepublik Deutschland: “Gesetz zum Schutz vor
gefährlichen Stoffen”, (ChemG).
Chemikaliengesetzt vom 25. Juni (1994), Bundesrepublik Deutschland: “Gesetz zum Schutz vor
gefährlichen Stoffen”, (ChemG).
Commission Internationale pour la Protection du Rhin (1999): Inventaire des apports de
substances prioritaires dans le Rhin 1996, Pages 1-87, December 1999. (10)
Commission Internationale pour la Protection du Rhin contre la Pollution: (1987). Programme
d'action du Rhin, Pages 1-26, September (9)
Conseil de l'Union Européenne: (1999) Dossier interinstitutionnel 97/0067 (COD), 22 October.
Conseil supérieur d'hygiène publique de France, section des eaux: (1998) Risques sanitaires liés
aux boues d'éuration des eaux usées urbaines, Pages 21-107,.
Consejería de Medio Ambiente (1998) Informe 1998 Medio Ambiente en Andalucía (State of the
Environment in Andalucia .
Dachverband Agrarforschung (DAF) (1995): "Stichstoff und Phosphateintrag in Fließgewässer
Lockergesteinsbereich der ehemaligen DDR“, Band 22, Verlagsunion Agrar Frankfurt.
Department of the Environment, UK. (1991) The use of herbicides in non-agricultural situations in
England and Wales, HMSO, London.
Section Eight - References
Department of Environment and Local Government, Ireland (1999), water and Sewerage
Systems Annual Report.
EBAV (1996) “Scarichi da attività artigianali-impatto sugli impianti municipali di trattamento dei
EEA (1999), State of the Environment, chapter 3.5 Water Stress.
EHPA (1992). An environmental standard for car washing detergents. Environmental and Health
Protection Agency, City of Göteborg, Report 1992:15
ENDS report 256 - Feburary (1997), ENDS environment daily [accessed 25/05/00] - Permanent EU Phthalates ban moves closer and Danish clash
over ecolabelled washing powders,
Environment Agency (1999). Tyres in the environment. Report, [8th June, 2000]
Environment Agency-UK (1999)- Endocrine - disrupting substances in the environment: the
environment agency's strategy
Environment Agency-UK, (1998), Environmental Issues Series, Endocrine-disrupting substances
in the environment: what should be done/ Consultative report 1998
ETC/IW (1998), Technical Report in the EEA from the European Topic Centre on Inland Waters,
December 1998.
EWWG-European Waste Water Group (1997), European waste water catalogue.
German Federal Statistical Agency
Öffentliche Wasserversorgung und
Abwasserbeseitigung 1991, Metzler-Poeschel, Weisbaden.
Hessische Landesanstalt für Umwelt, (1997), Heft 233, Landesweuite untersuchungen auf
organische Spurenverunreiningungen in hessischen Fliessgewässern, Abwässern und
Klärschlämmen, 1991-1996.
Indirekteinleiterverordnung vom April (1999), Baden-Wüttemberg: " Verordnung des Ministeriums
für Umwelt und Verkehr über das Einleiten von Abwasser in öffentliche Abwasseranlagen“,
Junta de Sanejament (1996) Plan de Saneamiento de Cataluña (Sewerage Plan of Catalonia).
Junta de Sanejament (1996) Programa de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales Urbanas (Urban
Wastewater Treatment Programme).
Junta de Sanejament (1996) Programa de Tratamiento de los Fangos de las Depuradoras de
Aguas Residuales Urbanas (Sewerage Sludge Treatment Programme).
Junta de Sanejament (1997) Informe de la Gestió dels Biosòlids de Depuració – Any 1997
(Sewerage Sludge Management Report – 1997).
Junta de Sanejament (1998) Memòria d’Activitats – 1998, Departament de Medi Ambient,
Generalitat de Catalunya.
Junta de Sanejamente (1997) Memòria d’Activitats – 1997, Departament de Medi Ambient,
Generalitat de Catalunya.
Klärschlammverordnung vom 15. April (1992): Bundesrepublik Deutschland: "Klärschlammverordnung“, (AbfKlärV).
Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz vom 27. September (1994), Bundesrepublik Deutschland:
"Gesetz zur Förderung der Kreislaufwirtschaft und Sicherung der umweltverträglichen
Beseitigung von Abfällen“, (Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz-KrW-/AbfG).
Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz vom 27. September (1994), Bundesrepublik Deutschland:
'Gesetz zur Förderung der Kreislaufwirtschaft und Sicherung der umweltverträglichen Beseitigung
von Abfällen“, (Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz-KrW-/AbfG).
Law Lecture Notes (1999) Waste Management Law and Policy: Key Regulation Issues, Imperial
College, UK.
LIFE Report 96ENV/F/410, (1999), Garantir la qualite des boues par la maitrise globale du
systeme d'assainissement, Anjou Recherche, Rapport Final, Juin 1999.
LUFA Hameln - Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt, (1996),
Klärschlammstatistik 1991-1995.
Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (1997) Estado del Medio Ambiente en España 1997 (State of the
Environment in Spain 1997), Madrid.
Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (1998) Libro Blanco del Agua en España (White Paper for Water in
Spain), Madrid.
Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (2000) Actuaciones Públicas en Materia de Medio Ambiente (21 de
Febrero de 2000) (Public Activities regarding the Environment).
Ministry of the Environment and Energy (1999)- Denmark, Action Plan for reducing and phasing
out phthalates in soft plastics June 1999
Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Ökologie, (2000), Landwirtschaftliche Klärschlammverwertung
in Niedersachsen
Section Eight - References
OECD (1994) Applying Economic Instruments to Environmental Policy in OECD and Dynamic
Non-member Economies, OECD, Paris.
OECD (1999a) Economic Instruments for Pollution Control and Natural Resource Management in
OECD Countries: a survey, Working Party on Economic and environmental Policy Integration.
Office fédéral de l'environnement des forêts et du paysage: Informations concernant la protection
des eaux: les prescriptions de la Confédération en matière de boues d'épuration, Issue 14, Pages
47, 1994.
Öko-Institute. V, (1999) Waste Prevention and Minimisation – Final Report, Institute for Applied
Ecology, Berlin, Germany
Rapport / Naturvårdsverket (1999), Lead party report on combined municipal and industrial
discharges (Swedish), Baltic Sea Joint Comprehensive Environmental Action Programme ,
Stockholm : Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
RNDE (1999): Les micropolluants dans les cours d'eau: 3 années d'observations 1995-97,.
RNDE (1999): Les principaux rejets d'eaux résiduaires industrielles: données 1997, Pages 1-36,
SFT-Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (1997a), 97:27, Sources of heavy metals in municipal
wastewater-smaller industry.
SFT-Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (1997b), 97:28, Sources of heavy metals in municipal
SFT-Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (1998a), 98:22, Sources of organic environmentally
hazardous substances in municipal wastewater- smaller industry.
SFT-Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (1998b), 98:23, Sources of organic environmentally
hazardous substances in municipal wastewater- households.
SFT-Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (1999), 99:11, Sources of heavy metals in municipal
wastewater- intensive survey of chosen smaller industry.
SPEED (1993) (superadministerial project effective emissions reduction diffuse sources)
Document - Heavy metals in surface waters and abatement, RIZA report no 93012, RVIM report
number 773003001
Statistika centralbyrån Sweden (1998), Discharges to water and sludge production in 1998. Mun
icipal waste water treatment plants and some coastal industry.
Umweltbundesamt, Band Nr. 39/97.
UAB (1998): "Effects of Endocrine Disruptors in the Environment on Neuronal Development and
Behavior“, UAB-TEXTE-Band 50/98.
UBA (2000) Umweltbundesamt;
UBA TEXTE (1995), 3/96, ISSN 0722-186X, Umweltbundesamt, Expert Round - Endocrinically
Active Chemicals in the Environment, Berlin, 9. and 10. March 1995
UBA, (1998), Texte 35/98, Technische, analytische, organisatorische und rechtliche Massnamen
zur Verminderung der Klärschlammbelastung mit relevanten organischen Schadstoffen, Band 1
und 2.
SOURCES OF DIOXIN IN THE UNITED STATES”—Final Report—Prepared for the National
Center for Environmental Assessment Office of Research and Development
USEPA-R2-72-081(1972). Sartor J.D., and G.B. Boyd Water pollution aspects of street surface
USEPA-Report 440/1 (1982): Burns & Roe Industrial Services Corp., Paramus New Jersey USA
'Fate of Priority Toxic Pollutants in Publicly Owned Treatment Works“,-82-303-Vol-1 and Vol-2
(Final report, PB 83-122788/PB 83-1222796).
Wasserhausgesetzt vom 18. November (1996), Bundesrepublik Deutschland: 'Gesetz zur
Ordnung des Wasserhaushalts“, (Wasserhaushaltsgesetz-WHG).
Wasserhausgesetzt vom 18. November (1996), Bundesrepublik Deutschland: "Gesetz zur
Ordnung des Wasserhaushalts“, (Wasserhaushaltsgesetz-WHG).
World Wildlife Federation (WWF) Canada Report (1997), Nonylphenol Ethoxylates-Reduction and
Phase-Out Initiatives, Ottawa 1997.
WRc (1993). Surface water outfalls, quality and environmental impact management. Report no.
VM 1400. Swindon
WRc (1994), Diffuse sources of heavy metals to sewers, final report to the Department of the
Environment DoE 3624, June 1994
WRc; Water Research Centre (1994) The Destruction of Organic Micropollutants in Sludge
Digestion Processes. WRc Report No. UM 1441. WRc, Swindon.
Section Eight - References
Antecedent Dry Period (dry/wet deposition)
Adsorbable Organohalogen (Organochlorine) Compounds
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Chemically Dissolved Oxygen
Central and Eastern European countries
2-Chloroethanol phosphate
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
diethyl phthalate
Dimethyl di-tallowammonium chloride
Dissolved Oxygen
Distearyl, dimethylammonium chloride
or USEPA, United States Environment Protection Agency
European Union
grams per tonne
Heavy Goods Vehicle
Heavy Metals
Industry association personal hygiene and detergents (Frankfurt)
kilogram per ton
Long-chain alkylnitriles
Linear alkyl-(dodecyl-)benzenesulphonate
Light Vehicle
Methylene Blue Adsorbable Substances
Section Eight - References
Maximum Contaminant (Contamination) Level
Nonylphenol monodiethoxylate
Nonylphenol diethoxylate
Nonylphenol ethoxylates
Nonylphenol carboxylic acids
Organic Pollutants
population equivalent
Poly aromatic hydrocarbons
Poly chlorinated biphenyls
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxines
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans
Polyethylene glycol
Platinum Group Metals
Persistent Organic Pollutants
Polypropylene glycol
Sewage Sludge
Suspended Solid Matter
Sewage Sludge Treatment
tonnes per year
Tri-n-butyl phosphate
Tetrachlorine dibenzo-p-dioxin
Toxicity equivalent
Urban Waste Water
Urban Waste Water Treatment Systems
Urban Waste Water Treatment Plant
Vehicle Exhaust Catalysts
World Health Organisation
European Commission
Pollutants in urban waste
water and sewage sludge
ISBN 92-894-1735-8
L-2985 Luxembourg
9 789289 41 735 8
See our publications catalogue at: