Annexes - European Commission

Appendix A
APPENDIX A
URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS (WWTS) AND SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT (SST)REGIONAL ASPECTS
Figure A.1 Water and pollutant sources and pathways in urban catchments
[after Ellis, 1986, note that this figure could be extended to include sludge output from the WWTS and
also other potential inputs such as from urban use of pesticides
* a gully pot (also known as catchbasin) is a chamber or well, usually built at the kerb side, for the
admission of surface water to a sewer or sub-drain. It has a sediment sump at its base to trap grit and
detritus below the point of overflow.]
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
232
Appendix A
TREATMENT PROCESS OUTLINE:
Urban wastewater and sewage treatment is comprised of unit operations to separate,
modify, remove and destroy objectionable, hazardous and pathogenic substances carried by
wastewater in solution or suspension in order to render water fit and safe for discharge and
intended uses. Stringent water quality and effluent standards have been developed that
require reduction in suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, related to
biodegradable organic compounds), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and to some extent
coliform organisms (indicators of faecal pollution), control of pH as well as the
concentrations of certain organic compounds, together with some potentially toxic elements
and non-metals.
Sewage sludge consists of residues originating from mechanical, biological, chemical and
physical treatment of wastewater in sewage plants. The quantity and nature of the arising
sewage sludge are subjected to strong fluctuations depending on the wastewater
composition, the kind of wastewater purification process and the purification degree. Two
different sewage sludge types can mainly be distinguished:
•
Primary sludge: becomes physically or chemically separated from wastewater in
primary treatment
Secondary sludge: arises from the biological step (surplus activated sludge, sewage
sludge from trickling filters) and tertiary treatment (often nutrient removal).
•
Primary and secondary sludges are usually combined to create a composite sludge, which
often goes for further treatment in sludge digestion and dewatering. Residues resulting from
screening in preliminary treatment are not considered as sludge, consisting mainly of coarse
solid particles, grits, sands and grease [Magoarou, 1998].
Although the ‘nitrate’ and ‘phosphate’ ions in sewage are beyond the realm of this project, it
has to be noted that pollutants such as potentially toxic elements, organics, sulphides and
residuals, can form insoluble phosphates in the course of treatment processes. These have
great propensity for sedimentation in all stages of the sewage treatment process, thus
becoming part of the sewage sludge that has to be managed.
Figure A.2 shows the schematics of urban wastewater and sewage sludge treatment.
Nutrie
Colou
r Remo
nt Remo
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val,
TERT
SLUD
IARY
GE
SECO
SLUD
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GE Y
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SLUD
ARY
GE
RESIDUES
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Comp
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Advan
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isation
obic/A
osting
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hilic/T
geMesop
Treatm
erobic
hermo
Dige
philic ents
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e tioning
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
Adv
Trea
ance
men
d t
Secon
Settle
ment
dary
Activa
Basin
ted Sludge
Secondary Treatment
Physic
Liquid
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Trea
ation
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and
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Figure A.2 Schematic Urban Wastewater and Sewage Sludge Treatment
233
Appendix A
REGIONAL ASPECTS:
Protection of the receiving waters from pollution by harmful effluent is the primary goal for
the treatment of urban wastewaters at WWTS. Urban wastewater is defined by the Council
Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban wastewater treatment (and as
amended by Commission Directive 98/15/EC of 27 February 1998) as, domestic wastewater
or the mixture of domestic wastewater with industrial wastewater and/or run-off rainwater.
The figures for water supply, consumption and treated wastewater are very variable across
the European Union. The water supply (litres/inhabitant/day) fluctuates greatly accross the
European urban areas (EUROSTAT data,1998-2000, Ginés, 1997). Not all collected
wastewater is treated; the percentage of urban wastewater not receiving treatment ranges
from 3% in Germany, up to 77% in Greece. This may include unplanned wastewater
collection, such as septic systems or leakage of UWW collection systems. Cities such as
Milan and Brussels do not yet have a centralised WWTS.
Table A.1 Population and household access to sewerage and wastewater treatment
facilities
Country
Population
(1998)
thousands
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
UK
- England &
Wales
-N. Ireland
-Scotland
TOTAL EU
8,075
10,192
5,295
5,147
58,727
82,057
10,511
3,694
57,563
424
15,654
9,957
39,348
8,848
59,090
374,582
Percentage of population with access to sewerage and public WWT
facilities
Access to
No treatment
P
P+S
P+S+
Year
sewerage
T
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
76
1
1
39
35
1995
78
37
1997
87
18
1996
78
0
7
71
1997
81
4
0
0
77
1994
92
>31
>47
1995
70
16
0
0
54
1996
68
32
23
12
1
1995
84
16
3
38
26
1996
88
0
19
57
11
1995
98
2
0
68
28
1994
55
34
9
11
0
1990
62
13
11
34
3
1995
86
0
0
5
81
1995
96
9
9
64
14
1996
96
10
0
0
86
1995
83
94
84
-
-
-
48
1996
1996
-
[after OECD Report, 1999, EUROSTAT, 1998-2000] P=primary, S= secondary, T=tertiary
treatment
Table A.1 shows the data in EU15 for the total population, population access to UWW
collecting systems and to urban wastewater treatment facilities. The EU15 average shows
that 84 % of the households have access to UWW collecting systems, whereas only 48 % of
the urban wastewater is treated in primary + secondary + tertiary treatment facilities.
According to the European Waste Water Group (1997) report on urban wastewater
treatment in the EU and accession countries, there are marked differences between various
European regions in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary treatment as shown in Figure
A.3. The four represented groups of countries are: EU10 (all EU countries minus Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, Ireland and Sweden), EU south (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain),
EU north (Germany, Finland, Netherlands, Luxembourg and United Kingdom) and AC10
(accession countries, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland,
Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia).
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
234
Appendix A
The percentage of population not connected to the UWW collecting systems (considered
"rural") increases in the order:
EU north (4%) < EU south (18%) < AC10 (40%)
The percentage of untreated urban wastewater increases in the order:
EU north (7%) < AC10 (18%) <EU south (18%)
In terms of primary, secondary and nutrient removal treatment the order is:
EU north (57%) > EU south (3%) > AC10 (2%)
These differences show a north-south and an west-east divide and point towards the need
for greater investment in the urban wastewater treatment in the southern region and the
accession countries.
Figure A.3 Urban wastewater treatment in EU and accession countries (minus Cyprus)
[after EEA, 1999, chapter 3.5 Water Stress]
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
235
Appendix A
Northern region (Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway):
Environmental awareness in this region is high compared to many other countries in Europe
(Germany and the Netherlands being the major exceptions to this). This is in part due to the
environmental damage experienced in the past decades in this region from trans-boundary
acid deposition due to the burning of high sulphur fossil fuels. A number of national pollution
events, such as mercury poisoning of fish due to discharges from chloralkali plants also
increased awareness of the damage emissions can cause.
This led to increased recognition of the need for national and international agreements to
limit local and global environmental perturbations and has led Sweden and Norway in
particular to be among the most pro-active nations in terms of setting environmental
standards and education amongst the general population.
Finland, Norway and Sweden have low population densities and there are similarities in the
commercial activities in these regions, for example the oil production, metals and
engineering and paper manufacturing industries. Denmark has a higher population density
than other countries in the Northern region and therefore more of an urban environment but
also has a high level of environmental concern about water pollution, although all the
drinking water in this region is from groundwater sources. This compares with the UK, for
example, where approximately one third of potable drinking water is abstracted from surface
water sources that receive effluent from wastewater treatment.
The Central Region (Germany, Austria and CEE countries):
In addition to Germany and Austria, data are gathered where available for Switzerland and
for Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia), all associated EU countries. Environmental
awareness in the Central Region is high in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereas the
CEE countries experience a high level of environmental damage due to the long years of
neglect while part of the Soviet bloc. Transboundary pollution issues are very important in
the accession CEE countries and their neighbours. Very little data is available for the CEE
countries regarding the pollutants in UWW and SS. An inventory of organic pollutants in the
environment in the CEE countries was done by a team at Brno University, the Czech
Republic. (Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Chemicals in Central and Eastern
European Countries - State-of-the-art Report-TOCOEN REPORT No. 150, 1999). The main
organic pollutants investigated are the PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/PCDFs and their ocurrence in
the urban environments in the CEE countries. Most data available is from the Czech
Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary.
The Southern Region (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain):
The environmental awareness in the region is on the increase in the recent years. Water
resources are limited in the Southern Region and therefore recycling of treated waste water
and pollution reduction at source are important issues. Data regarding sources of pollutants
is less abundant in the 'Southern Region' especially regarding specific organic pollutants.
The region has among the lowest percentage of population access to UWW collecting
systems in the EU (70% for Greece, 84% for Italy, 55% for Portugal and 62% for Spain). The
percentage of non-treated wastewater is among the highest in the EU (16% for Greece and
Italy, 34% for Portugal and 13% for Spain) [after OECD Report, 1999, EUROSTAT, 19982000].
Typically, the metal content of sewage sludge in Italy is low, according to the literature
[Garcia-Delgado et al., 1994; Lang et al., 1988] suggesting that the sludge is mainly of
domestic origin, with negligible contribution from urban and industrial wastewater. Data for
Southern Italy were gathered in a two years pilot campaign [Braguglia et al., 2000; Marani et
al., 1998; Mininni et al., 1999].
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
236
Appendix A
Metal
Concentration range
Southern Italy
Literature
As
1.1-1.8
0.3-20
Cd
3-23
1-50
Co
1-4
5-30
Cr
227-535
40-1500
Cu
258-373
160-1600
Hg
1.1-3.1
1-12
Mn
80-109
240-600
Ni
34-57
20-240
Pb
95-137
80-850
Zn
1650-4213
900-4200
Table A.2. Metal concentrations in sewage sludge (mg/kg of DS)
Wastewater treatment systems in Italy may treat 'non domestic' wastewater if the following
requirements are fulfilled:
- the plant has a residual capacity of treatment;
- wastewater meets the limits for discharge in UWW collecting systems;
- wastewater derives from the same territorial area;
- the same treatment tariff valid for the UWW discharge is applied.
In Spain, which is organised in 17 comunidades autonomas (autonomous communities)
there are more than 300,000 point sources of water discharges (both to superficial and to
groundwater) out of which 240,000 are to UWW collecting systems [Ministerio de Medio
Ambiente, 1997]. However, the quantification of the pollutants discharged is very limited.
Routine controls are generally limited to those established in Royal Decree 509/1996 and
which must be published every two years: BOD5, COD, suspended solids, total phosphorus
and total nitrogen in the case of treatment plants located in sensitive areas. However, these
controls are usually employed only for the discharges (not for the wastewater coming into
the treatment plant). As the discharges into the UWW collecting systems are under the
control of the local governments (municipalities), the limited information on levels of
pollutants in wastewater that exists comes from the enforcement inspection controls and is
not publicly available nor published in any form [Palerm and Singer, 2000].
There is almost no information on sources of pollutants and levels of pollutants in urban
wastewater and sewage sludge in Iberia [Palerm and Singer, 2000]. Water management in
Spain is completely de-centralised and the discharges into the UWW collecting system are
under the competence of the municipal authorities, which must meet the established
parameters for discharge into the public waterways.
There is very little information sources of pollutants and levels of pollutants in urban
wastewater and sewage sludge in Portugal [Palerm and Singer, 2000]. Most of the
information that exists was obtained prior to designing the wastewater treatment plants, but
this information was gathered at a local level and is not publicly available.
Data are available in Greece for sewage sludge content of potentially toxic elements, and
more limited for pollutants in urban wastewater. The Hellenic Ministry for Environment,
Physical Planning and Public works co-ordinates the data management in terms of
pollutants load in urban areas. The research studies tend to centre on the cities of
Thessaloniki or Athens.
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
237
Appendix A
The Western Region (UK, Ireland, France and the Benelux countries, Belgium Netherlands
and Luxembourg):
In this region, wastewater treatment is among the most advanced in the EU. France has
over 160,000 km of sewers and 11,300 treatment plants. The WWTS are operated by public
or private bodies. The ownership of WWTS and sewers are always public, owned by
municipalities or associations of municipalities. France is divided into six Water Agencies,
mainly around hydrographic areas, Adour-Garonne, Artois-Picardie, Loire-Bretagne, RhinMeuse, Rhone-Méditéranée-Corse and Seine-Normandie. The municipalities operate the
sewer systems and often, private companies run the plants [EWWG, 1997].
In the Netherlands, the municipalities are responsible for collection of sewage and disposal
of sludge from sewers. The treatment of wastewater and disposal of effluent and sludge is
the responsibility of 27 waterboards. Sludge disposal is partially privatised. In Belgium, the
municipalities are responsible for the sewerage systems in both Vlanderen and Wallonie.
Similarly, in Luxembourg, the 118 municipalities are responsible for the collection and
treatment of urban wastewater and sludge. The management of sludge is partially shared
with operators of solid waste [EWWG, 1997].
In UK there are over 300,000 km sewers and 7,600 WWTS. The collection of sewage, its
treatment and disposal of effluent and sludge are the responsibility of privately-financed
water service companies in England and Wales (10), public water and sewerage authorities
in Scotland (3), and the Water Service of the Department of Environment in Northern Ireland
[EWWG, 1997]. In the Republic of Ireland, the urban wastewater collection and treatment is
the responsibility of local councils. Private-Public Partnerships (PPP) schemes are in place
for modernising and upgrading the WWTS [Dept. of Environment and Local Govt, Ireland,
1999]
Pollutants in Urban Waste Water and Sewage Sludge
238
Appendix B
APPENDIX B
Physical and chemical properties of selected pollutants
In order to understand the behaviour of organic pollutants in the urban environment the
knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is very important. Vapour pressure,
boiling-point, water solubility and distribution coefficients describe the distribution between
solid, liquid and gaseous phase. The adsorption coefficient KOC is important for transitions
between soil or sewage sludge particles and water. The transition water/air is governed by
the Henry coefficient KAW. The distribution coefficient octane/water KOW is a measure for the
lipophilic or lipophobic qualities of a chemical compound. For substances with similar
physical properties, their water solubility is a crucial factor for the liquid phase transport.
Anionic and Non-ionic Surfactants
A1. Linear Alkylbenzenesulphonate
Linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) is a synthetic compound utilized as surfactant in
detergents, washing-up liquids and cleaning agents. The most important LAS qualities are
represented in Table II.22 Figure B.1 shows the LAS structure formula.
Table B.1 LAS properties [Bürgermann 1988].
Abbreviation Molecular
Molar mass Colour
Solubility
formula
[g/mol]
[g/l]
LAS
C18H30O3S
ca. 326
colourles 1.1
s
Vapor
pressure
Density
at 20°C
[g/cm3]
extremely low 1
CH3-CH2-CH-(CH2)8-CH3
SO3-Na+
Figure B.1: LAS structure formula.
A2. NPEs or nonylphenol polyethoxylates and APEs alkylphenol ethoxylates
Polyethoxylated nonylphenols are important surfactants used comercially and in some
household products for many years, also as emulsifiers and solubilisers in industrial
processing, as well as household cleaning products. They have the general formula:
R-C6H4-(OCH2-CH2)nOH, where R=C9H19 and n=6-18.
B. Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF)
PCCDs and PCDFs are tricyclic, aromatic, almost planar built ethers with comparable
physical, chemical and biological qualities. They differ from each other in the position and
number of chlorine atoms and the symmetry of the basic structure. Figure B.2 shows the
structure formulas of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo
furans (PCDD/F).
239
Appendix B
9
1
2
8
7
3
Clx
6
4
Cly
PCDD
9
1
8
2
7
3
Clx
6
4
Cly
PCDF
Figure B.2 PCDD/F structure formulas.
PCDD/F are extremely heavy-volatile components (high melting and boiling-points). The
vapour pressure drops with chlorine substitution, so that low-chlorinated dioxins and furans
are quite volatile. Highly-chlorinated compounds are found in solid state adsorbed on
particles. The greatest mobility is in the air. In water, PCDD/F are almost completely bound
to particles (high octane/water distribution coefficient). The affinity to organic carbon
compounds is strongly pronounced (high adsorption coefficients). Due to their physicochemical qualities PCDD/F are very firmly bound to soil and sediments.
PCDD/F do not react with acids and bases and are quite chemically inert. They are thermally
stable at temperatures up to 600-800 °C. The extraordinary stability and the low photolytic
reduction render them to be very persistent in the environment. Because of the long life time
and the lipophilic qualities PCDD/F can accumulate in organisms: they accumulate
predominantly in animal fatty substances [Mahnke, 1997].
C. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of over 209 chlorinated, aromatic
compounds with the same structural features. They differ with the degree of chlorine
substitution and with their structure. PCBs are substances with low electrical conductibility,
high thermal and chemical stability and low water solubility. They are characterised by a high
lipophilic character, so they accumulate in the food-chain. Their biological degradability in
the environment depends on the complexity and chlorination of each particular compound.
Figure B.3 shows the PCBs structure formula. The physical-chemical qualities of selected
PCBs compounds are specified in Table B.2.
3
4
2
2'
3'
4'
6'
5' Cly
6
Figure B.3 PCBs structure formula.
Clx 5
240
Appendix B
Table B.2 Physical-chemical data of selected PCBs.
Substance
Henry
constant
2,4,4´-Trichlorbiphenyl
n.a.
2,5,2´,5´-Tetrachlorbiphenyl
4.9E-03
3,4,3´,4´-Tetrachlorbiphenyl
3.1E-04
2,4,5,2´,5´-Pentachlorbiphenyl
1.2E-0.3
2,3,4,2´,4´,5´-Hexachlorbiphenyl
5.3E-04
2,4,5,2´,4´,5´-Hexachlorbiphenyl
6.9E-04
2,3,4,5,2´,4´,5´-Heptachlorbiphenyl
1.3E-04
Solubility
[g/m3]
8.5E-02
4.6E-02
1.8E-01
3.1E-0.2
n.a.
8.8E-03
n.a.
Log KOW
5.74/5.69
6.26/6.09
6.52/5.62
6.85/7.07
n.a./7.44
7.44/7.75
n.a./n.a.
(Kow distribution coefficient octane-water) [Bürgermann 1988].
D.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of major public concern because of their
ubiquitous occurrence and high carcinogenic potential. PAHs are multi-core aromatic ring
systems with 5 and 6 rings. They represent benzene condensation products. PAHs are solid,
mostly colourless compounds. They have a strong lipophilic character and their water
solubility decreases with the increase of ring numbers. Low-molecular PAHs are relatively
volatile. PAHs with a boiling-point below 400°C exist in the air in gaseous state. The higher
boiling compounds are adsorbed to particles. The physico-chemical features of some PAHs
are indicated in Table B.3 and Figure B.4 shows the structural formula of selected PAHs.
The list of 16 USEPA PAHs is shown in Table B.5.
Table B.3 Physico-chemical data of selected PAHs [Bürgermann 1988].
Name
Chemical
Vapour
Solubility
KOW
KOC
Henry constant
formula
pressure
[Pa]
[mg/l]
[cm3/g]
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
C10H12
C18H12
C20H12
0.1E-07
0.67E-06
0.0
0.68E-06
0.12E-04
0.38E-05
6.84
5.61
6.04
2843420
167433
450651
0.2E-05
0.54E-05
0.18E-07
(Kow distribution coefficient octane-water, Koc adsorption coefficient)
241
Appendix B
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyren
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracen
Benzo(b)fluoranthen
Benzo(g,h,i)perylen
Figure B.4: Structure formula of selected PAHs. [Bürgermann 1988]
Table B.4 List of 16 PAH group [USEPA, IARC]
Vapour
PAHs
pressure
(Torr at 20°C)
Acenaphthene, Ace
Acenaphthylene, Acy
Fluorene, Flu
Naphtalene, Np
Anthracene, An
10-3-10-2
10-3-10-2
10-3-10-2
0.0492
2.10-4
Fluoranthene, Fl
Phenanthrene
10-6 to 10-4
6.8.10-4
Benzo[α] anthracene, B[α]An
Benzo[ß]fluoranthene, B[ß]Fl
Benzo[k]fluoranthene, B[k]Fl
Chrysene, Chry
Pyrene
Benzo[ghi]perylene, B[ghi]Pe
5.10-9
10 to 10-6
9.6.10-7
10-11 to 10-6
-9
6.9.10
-10
~10
-11
Solubility in
water (mg.l-1)
Kow
Carcinogeni
c potency
IARC/USEP
A*
classification
3.4 at 25°C
3.93
1.9
32
0.05 – 0.07 at
25°C
0.26 at 25°C
1.0 to 1.3 at
25°C
0.01 at 25°C
0.002 at 25°C
0.14 at 25°C
0.00026 at
25°C
0.0038 at 25°C
0.0005 at 25°C
-
21000
12000
15000
2300
28000
3
340000
29000
3
3
4.105
4.106
7.106
4.105
5
2.10
7
10
2A/B2
2B/B2
2B
3/B2
3
3
Benzo[α]pyrene, B[α]Py
5.10-9
106
2A/B2
-10
6
Dibenzo[α,h]anthracene, dB[α,h]An
~10
10
2A/B2
-10
7
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene,
~10
5.10
2B/B2
I[1,2,3-cd]Py
2A/B2:Probably carcinogenic to humans/Probable human carcinogen; 2B:Possibly carcinogenic to
humans; 3: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity; Blank:Not tested for human carcinogenicity.
*IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer; USEPA: US Environmental Protection Agency.
242
Appendix B
Di-(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
Di-(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) appears at 25°C as a colourless, almost odourless, oily
liquid and is fat-soluble (lipophilic). It is transported almost exclusively with fatty substances
and accumulates in sediments. DEHP forms water-soluble complexes with humic and fulvic
acids. Figure II.10 shows the DEHP structure formula. The more important physico-chemical
qualities of DEHP are represented in Table II.30.
C4H9
HC-C2H5
CH2
O
C=O
C-O-CH2-CH-C4H9
O
C2H5
Figure B.5 DEHP structure formula.
Table B.5 Physical-chemical data of DEHP [Bürgermann 1988].
Abbreviation
Sum
Vapor
Solubility KOW
formula
pressure
[Pa]
[mg/l]
DEHP
C24H38O4
0.60E-05
0.23E-04
4.88
KOC
Henry
constant
[cm3/g]
35,567
0.53E-05
(Kow distribution coefficient octane-water, Koc adsorption coefficient)
Polycyclic musk compounds
Three representatives of the polycyclic musk compounds with abbreviation name, trade
name, chemical formula and molecular weight are shown in Table B.6.
Table B.6 Polyclyclic musk compounds.
Abbreviation
Trade name
HHCB
AHTN
ADBI
Galaxolide
Tonalide
Celestolide
Chemical
formula
C18H26O
C18H26O
C17H24O
Molecular
weight
258.40
258.40
244.38
243
Appendix B
Nitro-musk Compounds
Properties. Nitro-musk compounds are nitro aromatic bonds with a high stability to chemical
and biochemical reduction, high persistancy and lipophillic behaviour.
Musk ambrette, musk xylene, musk ketone, musk tibetene and musk moskene belong to the
nitro-musk compounds. Trade names and formulas of the nitro-musk compounds are listed
in Table B7.
Table B7 Trade name and formula of the nitro-musk compounds.
Trade name
Formula
Musk ambrette 1-tert.-butyl-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,5dinitrobenzene
Musk xylene
1-tert.-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene
Musk ketone
1-tert.-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-4acetylbenzene
Musk tibetene 1-tert.-butyl-3,4,5-trimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene
Musk moskene 1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinitroindan
Musk Xylene and Musk Ketone
Properties. Musk xylene and musk ketone are nitrobenzene compounds. They are
persistent, lipophile and accumulate in the food chain. Musk xylene has a biological
accumulation factor (concentration in fatty tissues / concentration in the environment) of 4.1,
Musk ketone of 1.1.
244
Section Eight - References
8
REFERENCES
8.1 Electronic databases searched (www and academically-networked)
American Chemical Society Pubs
ANTEnet Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering
Aqualine
ASFA-Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
Biotechnology and Bioengineering Abstracts
CELEX (EU Legal database)
Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Abstracts
CORDIS (EU database)
Current Contents
Ecology Abstracts
EIS-Environmental Impacts Statements
EMBASE (Medicine and Pharmacology)
Environment Abstracts
Environmental Engineering Abstracts
Environmental Fate Database
ESPM-Environmental Sciences and Pollution Mgmt.
Health and Safety Science Abstracts
International Civil Engineering Abstracts
Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings
Ingenta Journals (bids)
Medical Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Abstracts
MEDLINE
Ovid Biomedical Service
Pollution Abstracts
Risk Abstracts
Science Citation Index
Science Direct (integral articles database)
Toxicology Abstracts
Toxline
Wasteinfo
Water Resources Abstracts
i
http://pubs.acs.org/
http://www.antenet.co.uk
academically-networked
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://europa.eu.int/celex/
http://www.rsc.bids.ac.uk/
http://www.cordis.lu/
http://wos.mimas.ac.uk/ccclogin.html
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.bids.ac.uk/
academically-networked
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://esc.syrres.com/efdb.htm
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.anbar.com/cgi-bin/ce/CEdb
http://wos.mimas.ac.uk/istpcgi/login.cgi
http://www.ingentajournals.bids.ac.uk/
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://biomed.niss.ac.uk/ovidweb/ovidweb.cgi
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://wos.mimas.ac.uk/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
academically-networked
http://www.csa1.co.uk/ (CSA)
Section Eight - References
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xxii
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xxv
Section Eight - References
8.5
Abbreviations
ADBI
celestolide
ADP
Antecedent Dry Period (dry/wet deposition)
AHTN
tonalide
AOX
Adsorbable Organohalogen (Organochlorine) Compounds
APEO
Alkylphenolethoxylates
AT
Austria
BE
Belgium
BOD
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
CDO
Chemically Dissolved Oxygen
CEE
Central and Eastern European countries
CEP
2-Chloroethanol phosphate
CH
Switzerland
DBT
Dibutyltin
DE
Germany
DEHP
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
DEP
diethyl phthalate
DK
Denmark
DMDTAR
Dimethyl di-tallowammonium chloride
DO
Dissolved Oxygen
DSDMAC
Distearyl, dimethylammonium chloride
EI
Ireland
EPA
or USEPA, United States Environment Protection Agency
ES
Spain
EU
European Union
FI
Finland
FR
France
g/t
grams per tonne
GR
Greece
HGV
Heavy Goods Vehicle
HHCB
galaxolide
HM
Heavy Metals
IKW
Industry association personal hygiene and detergents (Frankfurt)
IT
Italy
kg/t
kilogram per ton
LAN
Long-chain alkylnitriles
LAS
Linear alkyl-(dodecyl-)benzenesulphonate
LU
Luxembourg
LV
Light Vehicle
MBAS
Methylene Blue Adsorbable Substances
MBT
Monobutyltin
xxvi
Section Eight - References
MCL
Maximum Contaminant (Contamination) Level
NL
Netherlands
NO
Norway
NP
Nonylphenol
NP1EO
Nonylphenol monodiethoxylate
NP2EO
Nonylphenol diethoxylate
NPE
Nonylphenol ethoxylates
NPEC
Nonylphenol carboxylic acids
OP
Organic Pollutants
p.e.
population equivalent
PAHs
Poly aromatic hydrocarbons
PCBs
Poly chlorinated biphenyls
PCDD
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxines
PCDF
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans
PEG
Polyethylene glycol
PGM
Platinum Group Metals
POPs
Persistent Organic Pollutants
PPG
Polypropylene glycol
PT
Portugal
SE
Sweden
SS
Sewage Sludge
SSM
Suspended Solid Matter
SST
Sewage Sludge Treatment
t/a
tonnes per year
TAMs
Trialkylamines
TBP
Tri-n-butyl phosphate
TBT
Tributyltin
TCDD
Tetrachlorine dibenzo-p-dioxin
TE
Toxicity equivalent
UWW
Urban Waste Water
WWTS
Urban Waste Water Treatment Systems
WWTP
Urban Waste Water Treatment Plant
VEC
Vehicle Exhaust Catalysts
WHO
World Health Organisation
xxvii
European Commission
14
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Pollutants in urban waste
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