Apple M9745LL - Xserve Specifications

Practical Spectral Imaging
Using a Color-Filter Array
Digital Camera
Roy S. Berns and Lawrence A. Taplin
July 2006
Executive Summary
Imaging is an important technique in the scientific examination of art. Its main use has been for
visual documentation. Photographs have long been used to document condition before and after
transit, microscopic examinations, conservation treatments, and so on. They are used to enable
color reproductions in books and from the Internet. Images using materials with spectral
sensitivities in such non-visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as infrared and X ray are
equally important to the visible spectrum. Although images are used to record scientific
examinations, they are used infrequently as an analytical tool, that is, the amount of colorant in a
photographic material would be used to relate to physical properties of the art. In contrast,
astronomy, remote sensing, and medicine have exploited this capability for many years. The
advent of digital imaging offers increased opportunities to exploit images for the scientific
examination of art. A research program is underway at Rochester Institute of Technology to
develop an image-acquisition system that records reflection information as a function of
wavelength. The system initially is limited to the visible region. The program is known as the Art
Spectral Imaging Project and the program is documented at http://art-si.org/.
The most important research goal has been to develop a practical imaging system that
provides high colorimetric accuracy with reasonable spectral accuracy. In order to be practical,
the system should use commercial products to the greatest extent possible. Any hardware
modifications should be straightforward. Software should be generalized and based on sound
mathematical principles such that it can be written for commercial applications.
This has been accomplished by performing hardware modifications to an area-colorfilter-array digital camera, writing extensive software to perform the necessary calibration, image
registration, spectral and colorimetric processing, and output to conventional file formats. This
technical report describes the imaging system, the color and imaging science (in the form of a
submitted manuscript to Studies in Conservation), and a listing of required hardware and software
to build an identical system to the Art Spectral Imaging Project camera.
2
Spectral Imaging System Specification
The system uses commercial software and hardware to the greatest extent possible. The camera
system revolves around Sinar AG equipment. The computer is an Apple platform. The printer is
an Epson medium or large-format inkjet printer. The camera system is shown in Figure 1. A cost
summary is given in Table I. The specific components are listed in Tables II –XI. These were the
current costs during April 2005.
Figure 1. Modified Sinar camera system.
Table I. Spectral imaging system costs.
Component
Camera / Shutter / Lens
Digital Back
Camera Support
Lighting
Computer
File Server
Software
Color Calibration
Filter Slider
Printer
Cost
$28,313
$31,406
$8,662
$13,319
$17,122
$17,247
$8,894
$1,198
$19,500
$3,660
Grand Total
$149,320
3
Table II. Camera, shutter, and lens costs.
Camera / Shutter / Lens
Sinar P3
100mm HR
Sinar m
Quick Clamping Adapter
LC 100 - Liquid Crystal Shutter
Sinar m Power Supply
Geared Rail Clamp
6" Extenstion Rails, Black
Adapter Ring 100/M58
Manufacturer
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Sinar
Part
Number
21-2202
25-3186
96-0009
96-7030
97-7010
96-7070
23-1020
23-1207
23-2304
Price
$8,212
$6,925
$8,315
$417
$2,400
$287
$1,177
$238
$105
Qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
Total
Ext Price
$8,212
$6,925
$8,315
$417
$2,400
$287
$1,177
$475
$105
$28,313
Price
$30,225
$1,181
Qty
1
1
Total
Ext Price
$30,225
$1,181
$31,406
Table III. Digital back costs.
Digital Back
Sinarback 54H
Sinar 100 Adapter Kit 2
Part
Number
97-6750
96-7305
Manufacturer
Sinar
Sinar
Table IV. Camera support costs.
Camera Support
DSS-ALHPA Stand
ALPHA Gear w/Angle Bracket
ALPHA Accessory Tray
Manufacturer
Foba
Foba
Foba
Part
Number
31-0200
31-0176
31-0172
Price
$6,820
$1,613
$229
Qty
1
1
1
Total
Ext Price
$6,820
$1,613
$229
$8,662
Table V. Lighting costs.
Lighting
Pulso G2 - 1600Ws
Grafit A4
P70 Reflector
Senior Light Stand
Manufacturer
Broncolor
Broncolor
Broncolor
Broncolor
Part
Number
12-6000
10-3025
12-0070
13-1003
4
Price
$1,899
$8,476
$248
$275
Qty
2
1
2
2
Total
Ext Price
$3,797
$8,476
$497
$550
$13,319
Table VI. Computer costs.
Computer
Apple Dual 2.5 Ghz G5
8GB/500GB/23" LCD
IBM T221-DG5 22.2 inch
QUXGA-W
Manufacturer
Part
Number
Apple
9503DG5
IBM
Price
Qty
Ext Price
$8,723
1
$8,723
$8,399
1
Total
$8,399
$17,122
Price
Qty
Ext Price
$13,848
$3,399
1
1
Total
$13,848
$3,399
$17,247
Price
$1,900
$900
$900
$800
$800
$599
$0
Qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Ext Price
$1,900
$900
$900
$800
$800
$599
$0
$2,995
1
Total
$2,995
$8,894
Table VII. File server costs.
File Server
Apple XRaid 5.6TB RAID (14
x 400GB)
Apple 2Ghz Xserve G5 / 2GB
Manufacturer
Part
Number
Apple
Apple
Table VIII. Software costs.
Software
Matlab 7
Optimization Toolbox 3
Image Processing Toolbox 5
Signal Processing Toolbox 6
Statistics Toolbox 5
Photoshop CS2
CaptureShop 5 - RIT Edition
ProfileMaker5 Photostudio EyeOne Bundle
Manufacturer
Mathworks
Mathworks
Mathworks
Mathworks
Mathworks
Adobe
Sinar
GretagMacbeth
5
Part
Number
35.50.07
Table IX. Color calibration costs.
Color Calibration
ColorChecker
ColorCheckerDC
Digital ColorChecker SG
ColorChecker White Balance
Esser TE-221 (IEC 61966-9)
Manufacturer
GretagMacbeth
GretagMacbeth
GretagMacbeth
GretagMacbeth
Esser
Part
Number
50105
GMB107
50106
50101
Price
$74
$280
$295
$49
$500
Qty
1
1
1
1
1
Total
Ext Price
$74
$280
$295
$49
$500
$1,198
Price
$250
Qty
2
Ext Price
$500
Schott
$500
1
$500
Schott
$500
1
$500
JML Optical
$500
2
$1,000
Sinar
$15,000
1
$15,000
Sinar
$2,000
1
Total
$2,000
$19,500
Table X. Filter slider costs.
Filter Slider
NIR Blocker
Schott BG39 Filter
(Milled,Cut & Coated)
Schott BG475 Filter
(Milled,Cut & Coated)
Additional
Cutting/Coating/Glueing
Custom Two Position
Slider
BK-7 Sinarback CCD
Glass Replacement
Manufacturer
Unaxis
Part
Number
Glass
Glass
Filter
Cover
Table XI. Printer costs.
Printer
Manufacturer
Part Number
Price
Qty
Ext Price
Epson 7600 - Ultrachrome
Epson
C472001UCM
$2,995
1
$2,995
UltraChrome Inkset
Ultrasmooth Fine Art Paper
24" x 50'
Epson
T543(1-7)00
$70
7
$490
Epson
S041782
$175
1
Total
$175
$3,660
6
Practical Spectral Imaging Using a Color-Filter Array Digital
Camera
Roy S. Berns
Lawrence A. Taplin
Mahdi Nezamabadi
Yonghui Zhao
Mahnaz Mohammadi
Munsell Color Science Laboratory
Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science
Rochester Institute of Technology
54 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, NY 14623-5604, USA
Summary
Spectral-based imaging facilitates image archives with high colorimetric accuracy and the
opportunity for quantitative analysis, in similar fashion to spectral-based analytical techniques
common to conversation science. Most commonly, such systems are imaging spectrometers,
sampling the visible spectrum at between 10 and 50 nm bandwidth and interval. They are
complex, expensive, and require considerable imaging science expertise. This publication
describes an alternate approach that results in a practical system, appropriate for museum,
libraries, and archives. A professional-grade, color-filter-array digital camera was modified by
removing its infrared cover glass and replacing it with clear glass. Two filters, blue-green and
yellow, were designed for placement in the optical path sequentially. Design criteria included
spectral and colorimetric accuracy, image noise, capture time, ultraviolet and infrared radiation
rejection, and fabrication simplicity and cost. The pair of images were registered and corrected
for dark noise and spatial inhomogeneities. Using a calibration target of colored samples with
known optical properties as a function of wavelength, a transformation was derived that
converted camera signals to spectral reflectance factor. Deriving the transformation matrix was
based on the Wyszecki hypothesis in which a spectrum can be decomposed into a fundamental
stimulus (defining its color) and a metameric black (defining its colorants). The system was
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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tested using colored targets and an oil painting, Pot of Geraniums by Henri Matisse.
Comparisons were made with an imaging spectrometer consisting of a monochrome sensor and a
liquid-crystal tunable filter and a commercial RGB digital camera. The new, practical system had
the highest colorimetric accuracy of the three systems and equivalent spectral accuracy to the 31band imaging spectrometer.
Introduction
Since 2001, the Munsell Color Science Laboratory has had a research program with the aim of
developing spectral-based imaging, archiving, and reproduction of cultural heritage. The
program is called Art-SI, standing for Art Spectral Imaging, and can be accessed online at
http://www.art-si.org/. Three imaging approaches have been studied: spectral measurement using
a monochrome sensor and a liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF), spectral estimation using a
monochrome sensor and six optimized absorption filters, and spectral estimation using a colorfilter array (CFA) sensor and two optimized absorption filters. Berns has summarized each
approach and provided an extensive listing of publications [1]. This last approach has the
greatest potential for day-to-day usage in a cultural-heritage-institution imaging department such
as a museum, archive, or library, principally because it is based on a simple modification of
commercially available professional-grade digital cameras and the department’s workflow can be
streamlined. (We will use the term “museum” for the remainder of this publication.) The purpose
of this publication is to describe the approach and present a comparison with both the LCTF
system [2] and a color-managed RGB system. Greater details about the comparison can be found
in reference 3.
Technical Approach – General Overview
For those active in spectral-based imaging research, it is well understood that a camera should
have more than three channels (e.g., RGB) when used to estimate the spectral properties of
reflecting objects as a general solution. We have determined that six channels are sufficient for
our application [4]. One way to achieve six channels is to use a digital color camera with a color
filter array (CFA) sensor and sequentially place two absorption (colored) filters in the optical
path. This results in a pair of RGB color images, equivalent to six channels. (Of course, one
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could also use an RGB camera with and without a single colored filter [4].) By imaging a
calibration target with a number of colored patches (e.g., GretagMacbeth ColorChecker DC or
SG), a transformation is derived that converts the six signals to spectral reflectance factor. In our
research, spectral reflectance factor ranges between 380 and 730 nm in 10 nm increments with a
constant 10 nm bandwidth. When referring to this technique, the term “spectral estimation”
rather than “spectral measurement” is used because the system is mathematically
underdetermined: six input channels predict 36 output channels.
The general workflow is shown in Figure 1. We have used a Sinarback 54H digital back
with Sinar P3 body, Sinaron Digital HR 100mm lens, and Sinar m shutter in our research [5].
The camera was modified by replacing the sensor’s blue-green cover glass with a clear cover
glass. This extended the spectral sensitivity of the camera into the near infrared. A Sinar liquid
crystal shutter was modified to hold the two filters. A pair of Broncolor Pulso G2 Xenon strobes
were used to illuminate the object plane.
The camera back had micro-positioning capabilities; the sensor was moved four times to
position each color of the Bayer patterned CFA over every pixel’s spatial location. This is known
as the “four shot” or “four pop” mode and results in full color images without spatial
interpolation, but can only be used for static scenes. The four shots were repeated with each filter
in front of the lens, resulting in an “eight shot” or “eight pop” mode. Capture was controlled by a
modified version of Sinar’s CaptureShop software. For each exposure time, the software
captured an image with the shutter closed and subtracted this “dark-image” from subsequent
exposures. The software also applied a multiplicative spatial correction called the sensor shading
reference that compensated for pixel-wise differences in the camera’s gain. Both operations
were transparent from the user’s perspective. The resulting eight-plane image was stored in
Sinar’s, TIFF based, STI file format.
The remaining image processing steps were implemented using the programming
language, Matlab [6]. The next step was to re-assemble each pair of four-planes into a pair of
three-plane images. The spectral sensitivity of the Bayer-patterned CCD varied slightly for green
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pixels that were adjacent to either red or to blue pixels. For the three-plane image, only the red,
blue, and red-adjacent green pixels were used.
The physical movement of the two filters resulted in a registration difference between the
pair of three-plane images, typically on the order of ten pixels (about 0.25%). Using the public
domain software library, ITK [7], and assuming that the images varied only in translation, the
images were registered by applying a transformation calculated from a small user-defined region
of the image. (A more robust approach is a future activity.)
A multiplicative spatial correction was applied to compensate for spatially non-uniform
lighting, commonly used to accentuate surface topography such as impasto. The correction was
based on an image of a neutral background, shot under the same conditions as the object.
A transformation matrix was derived from a calibration target of known spectral
reflectance factors. The transformation matrix was used to convert the six-channel image to a 36channel image, resulting in an estimate of the object’s spectral reflectance factor as a function of
position. The calibration procedure is described in the next section.
For most applications, the spectral image was rendered for a specific CIE illuminant and
observer using conventional colorimetric calculations. For the case of an ICC color-managed
workflow, this was CIE Illuminant D50 and the 1931 standard observer. The rendering produced
a digital master saved as a 16-bit CIELAB TIFF file with linear encoding with respect to
CIELAB (similar to reciprocal gamma encoding of 1/2.4).
For archiving purposes, we anticipate storing the registered spatially-corrected sixchannel images along with corresponding calibration meta-data using the DNG file format.
Technical Approach – Details
The multi-filter approach [8] was first demonstrated using an IBM Pro/3000 digital camera based
on a monochrome linear CCD with colorimetric filters. For the current Kodak KAF 22000CE
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CCD sensor, filters had to be defined and fabricated. An optimization was performed to select
filters from among the Schott filter glass catalog. The optimization considered spectral and
colorimetric accuracy, image noise, capture time, and fabrication simplicity and cost [9 – 11].
There were a number of different filter pairs with similar performance. We selected a pair in
which one of the filters resulted in spectral sensitivities similar to the sensor with its original
blue-green cover glass. Thus, the camera could also be used in the usual fashion as a colormanaged RGB digital camera. The final filters are listed in Table 1 and plotted in Figure 2. Each
was a “sandwich” of an absorption filter and a visible bandpass filter (i.e., a UV and NIR
blocking filter). The bandpass filter transmitted radiation between 380 and 750 nm. The surface
of each filter facing the sensor was anti-reflection coated to minimize inter-reflections between
the lens filter and CCD cover glass. The spectral sensitivities of the CFA sensor are plotted in
Figure 3. In the visible region, there are the expected three peaks at red, green, and blue
wavelengths. The red channel has sensitivity in the red and near infrared regions while the blue
and green channels have sensitivity in the near infrared. The effect of placing each optimized
filter in the optical path is plotted in Figure 4. The blue-green filter predominantly affects the red
channel sensitivity by defining the wavelength of peak sensitivity and bandwidth. The yellow
filter predominantly affects the blue channel sensitivity by narrowing bandwidth. The visible
bandpass filter, common to both filter sandwiches, limits spectral sensitivity to the visible region,
critical when correlating with the human visual system. Based on Figure 4, it appears that the
two filters have a minimal affect on increasing spectral information beyond that normally
captured with a CFA sensor. As described above, spectral reflectance factor is estimated by a
linear calibration transformation. This is equivalent to creating new spectral sensitivities by
weighted addition or subtraction of the spectral sensitivities plotted in Figure 4. As an example,
in Figure 5, the yellow-filtered blue channel was subtracted from the blue-green-filtered blue
channel and blue-green filtered red channel was subtracted from the yellow-filtered red channel,
plotted as dashed lines, along with the blue-green filtered spectral sensitivities, plotted as solid
lines. It is observed that the visible spectrum is sampled in five discrete locations. The two-filter
approach along with the calibration transformation has enabled the increase in sampling number.
Typically, the matrix coefficients are optimized to minimize either spectral or
colorimetric error. We have developed a technique where both errors were minimized [12],
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based on the Wyszecki hypothesis that a stimulus can be decomposed into a fundamental
stimulus and a metameric black [13]. Our approach was similar to the Fairman technique of
transforming a parameric pair into a metameric pair [14]. Conceptually, the fundamental
stimulus corresponds to the spectral information that our visual system processes. The metameric
black corresponds to the spectral information that is not processed; hence it has no color and it is
black. The metameric black defines the spectral characteristics that depend on the specific
colorants used to provide selective absorption. Accurate estimation of a fundamental stimulus
results in high colorimetric accuracy. Accurate estimation of a metameric black results in high
spectral accuracy.
Previously [12], the colorimetric transformation consisted of a nonlinear stage that
accounted for stray light, differences in geometry between the reference spectrophotometer and
camera system, and any non-linearities in the camera signal processing. Experimentally, the
transfer functions were nearly linear with a small offset. This allowed the transformation to be
simplified as shown in Eqs. (1) – (5):
M pinv = R Reference pinv ( D Reference )
A=
(1)
100
diag ( S ) xyz
S! y
(2)
T!E00 = fNonLinOpt (R Reference , A, D Reference ), where T!E00 minimizes #$ !E 00 (T!E00 D, A"R Reference ) %&
(
)
(3)
M !E00 = A ( A"A ) T!E00 + I # A ( A"A ) A" M pinv
(4)
ˆ
R
!E00 = M !E00 D
(5)
#1
#1
where n is the number of wavelengths, i is the number of camera channels, and j is the number of
reference color patches. Matrix Mpinv is a [n × (i+1)] transformation matrix from digital counts to
spectral reflectance factor computed from RReference, a [n × j] matrix containing the calibration
target reference spectrophotometric measurements ranging from zero to unity and DReference is an
[(i+1) × j] camera digital count matrix with the last row set to unity (homogenous coordinates).
The operation pinv represents the Moore-Penrose singular-value decomposition-based
pseudoinverse function in Matlab [6]. Matrix A is a [n × 3] matrix of tristimulus weights
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computed from S, a [n × 1] vector of the spectral power distribution of the reference light source,
y , a [n × 1] vector of the reference luminance color matching function, and xyz , a [n × 3] matrix
of the reference color matching functions. Matrix T!E is a [3 × (i+1)] transformation matrix
00
from digital counts to tristimulus values fit using nonlinear optimization described below. Matrix
M !E00 [n × (i+1)] is a transformation matrix from digital counts to spectral reflectance factor
computed from A, T!E , I, an [n × n] identity matrix, and M !E . Vector Rˆ !E [n × 1] is the
00
00
00
imaging-based estimated spectral reflectance factors; it is the product of M !E and D, a
00
[(i+1) × 1] vector of camera digital counts with the last element set to unity. In Eq. (3), T!E was
00
optimized using a two stage process. First, nonlinear constrained optimization was used to
minimize the average ∆E00 compared with the reference tristimulus values using a starting value
for T!E of A!R Reference pinv(D Reference ) . These optimized matrix coefficients were used as starting
00
values for a second nonlinear constrained optimization that minimized
(Mean(ΔE00)/Mean(ΔE00)Optimization 1+ max(ΔE00)/max(ΔE00) Optimization 1). Both optimizations were
subject to the constraint that the coefficients not change more than ±50% from their starting
values. In Eq. (4), the left-most term of the right-hand side of the equation, A ( A!A ) T#E00 ,
"1
(
)
estimated the fundamental stimulus and the right-most term, I ! A ( A"A ) A" M pinv , estimated
!1
the metameric black. The final linear calibration transformation is shown in Eq. (5). As a linear
operation, it was implemented very efficiently.
Experimental Verification – Targets
The MCSL-Sinar system was tested in the Imaging Department of the National Gallery of Art,
Washington DC (NGA). It was compared with two other systems. The first was our spectral
measurement system consisting of a Quantix monochrome sensor coupled with a Cambridge
Research Institute liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), evaluated at NGA previously [2, 15]. The
system used diffuse tungsten illumination. The calibration transformation was based on a
GretagMacbeth ColorChecker DC and a custom target of blue acrylic artist paints, described
below. The second system was a stock Sinarback 54M with a P3 body and a 100mm lens with
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integral shutter. This system was used routinely at NGA. The calibration target was a
GretagMacbeth ColorChecker SG. Commercial software was used to create an ICC camera
profile for the NGA system. The MCSL-Sinar and NGA-Sinar systems used the identical
lighting set-up, a pair of Broncolor Xenon strobes, positioned at approximately a 70° angle from
the surface normal on either side of the artwork. One side had about twice the irradiance. This
resulted in a quite collimated, raking illumination.
For this experiment, four targets were evaluated, described in Table 2. The
GretagMacbeth targets were available commercially. The Gamblin target was produced by
mixing each of the 31 conservation colors with titanium white at two different concentrations
and applying them to canvas board using a brush. The Blues target was made by mixing Liquitex
Artist Acrylic ultramarine, cobalt, Prussian, and phthalocyanine blue paints and titanium white in
various proportions in order to create a target with a large range of spectral characteristics. These
paints were also applied to a canvas board using a brush. The experiment consisted of imaging
the four targets followed by processing as described in Figure 1 and Eqs. (1) – (5). The targets
were used as either calibration or verification targets.
The colorimetric performance of the three systems is shown in Table 3. Both ∆E00 and
∆E*ab are shown, the former metric having better correlation with subjective evaluations of
adjacent uniform color fields [16] and the latter having better correlation with images [17].
Experientially, the 90th percentile results are a better indicator of performance than the maximum
error, particularly for actual experiments (rather than computational analyses).
The Best Case corresponds to the MCSL-Sinar system where the same target was used
for calibration and verification. This provides a sense of the best mean performance that can be
achieved using the MCSL-Sinar system and the linear signal processing workflow as described.
These results are excellent indicating that the multi-filter system is capable of high color
accuracy. The small differences in performance between matched calibration and verification
targets (Best Case) and independent calibration and verification targets (MCSL-Sinar) indicate
that the choice of calibration target is important. Although progress has been made [18, 19],
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research is still required to develop an improved calibration target for imaging paintings. Guiding
principles should include those defined for exemplifying color-order systems [20].
The color management at NGA was very good. The listed results are typical of a well
color-managed area-array color sensor camera system [21, 22]. The modifications to the Sinar
camera resulted in marked improvement, particularly for the Gamblin target that consisted of
typical artist pigments used in paintings. There was nearly a threefold improvement, though
some of this improvement may be attributed to the Blues calibration target, which better
represents blue artist materials than the ColorChecker SG. An analysis of variance followed by a
multiple comparison test based on Turkey simultaneous confidence intervals using the
studentized range distribution was performed [6] on the CIEDE2000 values to assess statistical
significance. For all the targets, the MCSL-Sinar system was superior to the NGA system at an α
of 0.01.
On average, the MCSL-Sinar system had slightly superior colorimetric performance to
the Quantix-LCTF system. For the ColorChecker DC and Gamblin targets, the MCSL-Sinar
system was superior at an α of 0.01. For the ColorChecker and Blues targets, the two systems
were not significantly different. This is an important result: A six-channel camera had the
average colorimetric accuracy of a 31-channel camera. The maximum and 90th percentile errors
for the Quantix-LCTF system were smaller for the Blue Pigments and Gamblin Conservation
Colors targets. The improved average colorimetric performance was a result of the more
complex signal processing combining colorimetric and spectral optimization. The colorimetric
optimization used nonlinear optimization since color differences are nonlinearly related to
incident radiation. This nonlinear optimization was impractical for the Quantix-LCTF since
250,000 independent data points were used to estimate 1,116 coefficients (31 x 36 matrix).
Nonlinear optimization would have been extremely time consuming and convergence to a global
minimum highly problematic. Therefore, the Quantix-LCTF calibration only optimized spectralestimation accuracy using linear optimization.
The spectral performance of the Quantix-LCTF and MCSL-Sinar systems are listed in
Table 4. A metameric index was calculated to provide a performance metric in color-difference
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units. This index is a ∆E00 value for CIE Illuminant A following a slight spectral adjustment [14]
such that for CIE Illuminant D65, the colorimetric data are identical, that is, a ∆E00 of zero. [The
spectral adjustment is the Fairman parameric correction, shown in Eq. (4).] The spectral rootmean-square (RMS) error over the wavelength range of 380-730 nm was also calculated. The
Quantix-LCTF system had higher spectral accuracy than the MCSL-Sinar system. For the
ColorChecker DC, the ColorChecker, and the Blues targets, the Quantix-LCTF system was
superior at an α of 0.01 (based on evaluating RMS error); for the Gamblin target, there was not a
statistically significant difference. The superior performance was the expected result since the
Quantix-LCTF system was a true spectral device whereas the MCSL-Sinar was an abridged
device. What was unexpected was that the performance of the MCSL-Sinar system was so close
to the Quantix-LCTF system and for the Gamblin target, the two systems were equivalent
statistically. Furthermore, the Best Case results and the Quantix-LCTF system were not
significantly different except for the Blues target. To be fair, it needs to be pointed out that much
more effort had been put into development of the MCSL-Sinar system. Once we achieved an
acceptable result for the spectral camera, we began looking at more practical approaches. It is
likely that if we had selected the Quantix-LCTF system as the recommended system, better
performance would be reported herein.
The GretagMacbeth ColorChecker Color Rendition Chart has become a de facto imaging
standard. The spectral estimation accuracy of this target for the MCSL-Sinar and Quantix-LCTF
systems are shown in Figure 6. The average spectral difference as a function of wavelength is
plotted as the blue solid line. The Quantix-LCTF system had a nearly flat curve quite close to
zero, the desired result whereas the MCSL-Sinar system had a strong undulation. Plots of the
neutral colors would show excessive undulation. This is a common result for such an abridged
spectrometer. We have performed some preliminary research to address this problem including
pigment mapping [23] and treating the camera system as a conventional spectrophotometer [24].
At every wavelength, a scatter plot could be made comparing the spectrophotometer and
camera system and a line fit to these data. A correlation coefficient of the line fit would indicate
the amount of scatter. In order to have a number with similar magnitude to the spectral
differences, the correlation coefficient, ranging between zero and unity, was subtracted from
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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unity. Perfect correlation would yield zero. These values as a function of wavelength are plotted
in Figure 6 as the dashed red line. For both systems, large scatter occurred for short wavelengths.
This was caused largely by the calibration targets containing titanium dioxide white. It has very
low reflectance in this wavelength range and the spectral variation of the target patches was very
small. This resulted in large uncertainty when estimating these wavelengths using each camera
system. A second reason concerned the low quantum efficiency of CCD sensors in this
wavelength range, also increasing uncertainty.
Experimental Verification – Henri Matisse, Pot of Geraniums
When the Quantix-LCTF system was tested at NGA, three paintings were imaged: Alvise
Vivarini, Saint Jerome Reading; Alexej von Jawlensky, Murnau; and Henri Matisse, Pot of
Geraniums; all among the permanent collection of NGA. The Matisse proved to be the most
challenging [2, 15], having the widest range of pigments and spectral properties. This painting
was again imaged using the MCSL-Sinar and NGA-Sinar systems. A GretagMacbeth EyeOne
had been used to measure 43 positions on the painting. The painting and the measurement
positions are shown in reference 2.
Preliminary evaluations were performed where each test target was used to derive the
calibration transformation converting camera signals to spectral reflectance factor and CIELAB
for the MCSL-Sinar system. As described above, the results were affected by the choice of
calibration target. Not surprising, the Gamblin target was the most successful. There were two
reasons. First, the spectral properties of this target span the spectral properties of the painting.
Second, this target was painted on canvas board, resulting in similar surface characteristics to the
painting. Because the NGA lighting was so directional, having similar surface properties
between the calibration target and the painting helped improve spectral and colorimetric
accuracy. This second reason was more important than the first, as evinced by the Gamblin target
having superior performance to the combination of the ColorChecker DC and Blues targets.
The National Gallery of Art’s imaging workflow included visual editing where local and
global color corrections were made using Adobe Photoshop to improve the color-matching
accuracy between a work of art illuminated with high color rendering daylight-fluorescent
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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sources (nominal CCT of 5000 K) and the image rendered on a color-managed CRT display [3].
Their digital master image files included these visual adjustments.
The colorimetric accuracy of Pot of Geraniums is summarized in Table 5. The QuantixLCTF system had the best colorimetric performance on average, likely a result of using diffuse
rather than directional illumination. This underscores how lighting for aesthetic purposes may
not result in optimal images for scientific purposes. The MCSL-Sinar system had slightly lower
average accuracy than the Quantix-LCTF system. Given the aesthetic-oriented lighting, this was
an excellent result. The color-managed NGA-Sinar system image before visual editing also had
good performance given its intrinsic limitations as a three-channel RGB device. Statistically,
these three systems were not significantly different from one another. The uncertainty in
comparing in-situ measurements with spectral imaging increased variability [2] compared with
color targets; consequently, the performance differences were not statistically significant.
A disappointing, although common [21, 22], result was that the visual editing decreased
accuracy dramatically. Average ∆E00 increased by over 50%. This digital master was statistically
significantly worse than the other three images at an α of 0.01. Some of the possible reasons for
the increased error might have been a poorly color-managed display, unmatched white points in
terms of chromaticity and luminance resulting in light and chromatic adaptation differences
between the viewing illuminant and display, differences in lighting geometry between the
imaging system (directional Xenon strobe) and the viewing environment (overhead fluorescent
daylight), differences in image size, and observer metamerism. The color changes were
reductions in chroma and lightness.
The spectral performance is shown in Table 6 and Figures 7 and 8. The MCSL-Sinar
system had reasonable performance, well capturing the spectral characteristics of the painting
throughout the majority of the sampled spectrum. Similar to the ColorChecker results, both
systems had poor performance at short wavelengths, as seen in Figure 8. The average RMS
difference as a function of wavelength was centered about zero for the MCSL-Sinar systen
whereas for the Quantix-LCTF system, there was a systematic under-prediction in spectral
reflectance factor. This was a result of geometric differences between the camera taking
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
12
illumination geometry, the calibration target spectrophotometric measurement geometry, and
differences in gloss between the calibration targets and the painting. An interesting result was
that the correlation spectra were similar in shape for both systems. The spectral performances
were not statistically significantly different.
Conclusions
A practical spectral-based imaging system has been developed in which a color filter array
(CFA) digital camera was combined with two absorption filters. By taking two sequential
images, one with each filter, and deriving a linear transformation matrix using a target of colored
patches with reference spectral reflectance factor values, spectral images were estimated. The
performance was evaluated for test targets and an oil painting, Henri Matisse’s Pot of
Geraniums. This system had spectral and colorimetric performance that was equivalent to a true
spectral imaging system consisting of a monochrome camera and liquid-crystal tunable filter.
The main advantage of this new system is that any CFA professional-grade camera
system can be used, following a simple modification of replacing the detector cover glass and the
addition of a filter slider, or wheel, or holder (i.e., changing filters manually). This means that
scientific imaging of the visible spectrum can be the responsibility of an imaging department
rather than a highly specialized instrument requiring a conservation scientist well versed in color
and imaging science.
Because the system does not have a permanent infrared cut-off filter, it can also be used
for infrared reflectometry; the CFA has spectral sensitivity over a wavelength range similar to IR
film. Using an appropriate visible-spectrum cut-off or bandpass filter, the camera can be used as
a conventional RGB camera, a spectral camera, or an NIR camera.
Future research will focus on imaging and spectrophotometric geometry considerations,
improving the spectral accuracy for neutral samples, an improved calibration target, and an
Adobe Photoshop implementation of the Matlab software.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
13
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., the Museum of
Modern Art, New York, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Institute of Museum and
Library Services for their financial support of the Art Spectral Imaging (Art-SI) Project. We also
acknowledge the assistance of the Division of Imaging and Photographic Services and the
Division of Conservation at the National Gallery of Art.
References
1 Berns, R.S., ‘Color accurate image archives using spectral imaging’, in Scientific Examination
of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis, National Academy Press, Washington,
(2005) 105- 119.
2 Berns, R.S., Taplin, L.A., Imai, F.H., Day, E.A., Day, D.C., ‘A Comparison of Small-Aperture
and Image-Based Spectrophotometry of Paintings’, Studies in Conservation 50 (2005) 1- 14.
3 Berns, R.S. and Taplin, L.A., ‘Evaluation of a Modified Sinar 54M Digital Camera at the
National Gallery of Art’, MCSL Technical Report, http://art-si.org/ (2005).
4 Imai, F.H., Berns, R. S., and Tzeng, D., ‘A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance
estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system’, Journal of Imaging Science
and Technology 44 (2000) 280- 287.
5 Taplin, L.A. and Berns, R.S., ‘Practical spectral capture systems for museum imaging’, in 10th
Congress of the International Colour Association, 8- 13, May 2005, Granada (2005) 1287- 1290.
6 Mathworks, MATLAB [CD-ROM], Ver 7.1, [Computer Program], The Mathworks Inc., Natick,
MA (2005).
7 Ibáñez, L., The ITK Software Guide, 2nd edn, Kitware, Clifton Park (2003) 539.
8 Imai, F.H., ‘Multi-spectral image acquisition and spectral reconstruction using a trichromatic
digital camera system associated with absorption filters’, MCSL Technical Report,
http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/research/CameraReports.shtml (1998).
9 Berns, R.S., Taplin, L.A., Nezamabadi, M., and Zhao, Y., ‘Modifications of a Sinarback 54
Digital Camera for Spectral and High-Accuracy Colorimetric Imaging: Simulations and
Experiments’, MCSL Technical Report, http://art-si.org/ (2004).
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
14
10 Zhao, Y., Taplin, L.A., Nezamabadi, M., and Berns, R.S., ‘Methods of Spectral Reflectance
Reconstruction for A Sinarback 54 Digital Camera’, MCSL Technical Report,
http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/research (2004).
11 Berns, R.S., Taplin, L.A., Nezamabadi, M., Mohammadi, M., ‘Spectral imaging using a
commercial color-filter array digital camera’, in ICOM Committee for Conservation 14th
Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12- 16 September 2005, Netherlands (2005) 743- 750.
12 Zhao, Y., Taplin, L.A., Nezamabadi, M., and Berns, R.S., ‘Using matrix R method for
spectral image archives’, in 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, 8- 13, May
2005, Granada (2005) 469- 472.
13 Wyszecki, G., ‘Valenzmedtrische Untersuchung des Zusammenhanges zwischen normaler
und anomaler Trichromasie’. (Psycholophysical investingation of the relationship between
normal and abnormal trichromatic vision), Die Farbe 2 (1953) 39- 52 [in German].
14 Fairman, H.S., ‘Metameric correction using parametric decomposition’, Color Research and
Application 12 (1997) 261- 265.
15 Imai, F.H., Taplin, L.A., Day, D.C., Day, E.A., and Berns, R.S., ‘Imaging at the National
Gallery of Art’, MCSL Technical Report, http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/research (2002).
16 Melgosa, M., Huertas, R., Berns, R.S., ‘Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000
and CIE94 color-difference formulas’, Journal of the Optical Society of America 21, (A) (2004)
2269- 2275.
17 Stokes, M., Fairchild, M.D., and Berns, R.S., ‘Colorimetrically quantified tolerances for
pictorial images’, in Technical Association of the Graphic Arts 2, (1992) 757- 778.
18 Mohammadi, M., Nezamabadi, M., Berns, R.S., Taplin, L.A., ‘A prototype calibration target
for spectral imaging’, in 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, 8- 13, May 2005,
Granada (2005) 387- 390.
19 Mohammadi, M., Nezamabadi, M., Berns, R.S., Taplin, L.A., ‘Spectral imaging target
development based on hierarchical cluster analysis’, in IS&T/SID Twelfth Color Imaging
Conference, 9- 12 November 2004, Scottsdale (2004) 59- 64.
20 McCamy, C.S., ‘Physical exemplifiction of color order systems’, Color Research and
Application 10 (1985) 20- 25.
21 Murphy, E.P., A testing procedure to characterize color and spatial quality of digital cameras
used to image cultural heritage, Master’s thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology (2005).
22 Smoyer, E.P., Taplin, L.A., Berns, R.S., ‘Experimental evaluation of museum case study
digital camera systems’, in IS&T Second Image Archiving Conference, 26- 29 April 2005,
Washington, D.C. (2005) 85- 90.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
15
23 Zhao, Y., Berns, R.S., Okumura, Y., and Taplin, L.A., ‘Improvement of spectral imaging by
pigment mapping’, in IS&T/SID Thirteenth Color Imaging Conference, 7- 11 November 2005,
Scottsdale (2005) 40- 45.
24 Mohammadi, M. and Berns, R.S., ‘Diagnosing and correcting systematic errors in spectralbased digital imaging’, in IS&T/SID Thirteenth Color Imaging Conference, 7- 11 November
2005, Scottsdale (2005) 25- 30.
Tables
Table 1. Filter specifications for the optimized filters.
Description
Layer 1
(1.1 mm Thickness)
Layer 2
(0.75mm Thickness)
Filter 1
Filter 2
(Blue-Green)
(Yellow)
UnAxis Calflex X
UnAxis Calflex X
Optical Cement
Optical Cement
Schott BG39
Schott GG475
Anti-Reflection Coating
Anti-Reflection Coating
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Table 2. Test targets used for calibration and verification.
Target
Abbreviation
GretagMacbeth
ColorChecker
ColorChecker
or
Color Rendition Chart
CC
GretagMacbeth
ColorChecker DC
ColorChecker DC
or
(Digital Camera)
CCDC
Number of Samples
24
240*
*The central white square was
treated as four samples.
Gamblin Conservation
Colors mixed with
Gamblin
63
titanium white
Blue acrylic Liquitex
Blue Pigments
paints mixed with
or
titanium white
Blues
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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56
Table 3. Colorimetric performance summary for the three camera systems and a best-case computation where the
same target was used for both calibration and verification.
Matched
ColorChecker DC
ColorChecker DC
Calibration and
and Blues
and Blues
ColorChecker
Verification
Calibration
Calibration
SG Calibration
Quantix-LCTF
MCSL-Sinar
NGA-Sinar
Best Case
MCSL-Sinar
∆E00
∆E*ab
∆E00
∆E*ab
∆E00
∆E*ab
∆E00
∆E*ab
ColorChecker DC
Average
0.7
1.2
1.0
1.5
0.8
1.2
2.7
4.2
Maximum
5.3
15.2
5.4
6.7
4.1
13.8
10.1
33.1
Std. Dev.
0.6
1.4
0.8
1.3
0.5
1.3
1.3
3.1
90Prctile
1.3
2.3
2.2
3.1
1.3
2.3
4.2
7.4
ColorChecker
Average
0.8
1.3
1.4
2.1
1.1
1.8
2.0
3.3
Maximum
2.2
4.9
4.8
7.8
2.4
5.5
5.0
8.1
Std. Dev.
0.6
1.2
0.9
1.4
0.6
1.3
1.2
2.2
90Prctile
1.5
3.0
2.6
3.1
1.9
3.6
3.6
7.3
Blue Pigments
Average
0.6
1.1
1.4
2.1
1.3
2.6
4.0
6.8
Maximum
1.7
4.3
4.4
6.1
4.3
7.5
7.0
14.0
Std. Dev.
0.4
0.9
1.0
1.5
1.1
1.8
1.5
2.5
90Prctile
1.3
2.2
2.9
4.8
3.1
5.4
6.0
9.8
Gamblin Pigments
Average
0.8
1.4
1.7
2.9
1.1
1.9
2.9
5.1
Maximum
2.6
4.6
6.9
11.9
2.3
4.9
6.4
14.1
Std. Dev.
0.4
0.9
1.2
2.3
0.4
1.1
1.4
3.0
90Prctile
1.3
2.8
2.9
5.7
1.6
3.5
4.9
8.5
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Table 4. Spectral performance for the two RIT systems and a best-case computation where the same target was used
for both calibration and verification.
Matched Calibration
ColorChecker DC and
ColorChecker DC and
and Verification
Blues Calibration
Blues Calibration
Quantix-LCTF
MCSL-Sinar
Best Case
MCSL-Sinar
Metameric
Metameric
Metameric
Index
Spectral
Index
Spectral
Index
Spectral
(D65A)
RMS
(D65A)
RMS
(D65A)
RMS
(∆E00)
(%)
(∆E00)
(%)
(∆E00)
(%)
ColorChecker DC
Average
0.4
1.3
0.3
1.2
0.4
1.4
Maximum
3.8
3.9
3.0
9.4
3.1
3.8
Std. Dev.
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.8
0.5
0.7
90Prctile
0.9
2.2
0.9
1.9
0.8
2.2
ColorChecker
Average
0.4
1.3
0.2
1.5
0.6
2.2
Maximum
1.6
2.9
0.7
3.6
1.6
4.1
Std. Dev.
0.4
0.6
0.2
0.7
0.5
0.9
90Prctile
0.8
2.1
0.5
2.6
1.4
3.4
Blue Pigments
Average
0.2
1.0
0.3
1.4
0.3
1.8
Maximum
0.7
2.2
1.2
3.1
1.0
3.4
Std. Dev.
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.7
90Prctile
0.5
1.7
0.8
2.2
0.8
2.8
Gamblin Pigments
Average
0.3
1.7
0.3
2.0
0.3
2.4
Maximum
1.4
3.5
1.1
5.3
1.4
5.5
Std. Dev.
0.3
0.8
0.3
1.0
0.3
1.3
90Prctile
0.5
2.8
0.8
3.3
0.6
4.2
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Table 5. Colorimetric performance summary for the three camera systems for Pot of Geraniums.
ColorChecker DC
Gamblin
and Blues
Conservation
Calibration
Colors Calibration
Quantix-LCTF
MCSL-Sinar
NGA-Sinar ICC
NGA-Sinar Digital
Digital Master
Digital Master
Color Managed
Master
∆E00
∆E*ab
∆E00
∆E*ab
∆E00
∆E*ab
∆E00
∆E*ab
Average
2.3
3.3
2.7
3.7
3.5
4.8
5.8
7.4
Maximum
9.6
12.4
11.7
14.3
12.2
14.2
13.0
16.1
Std. Dev.
1.9
2.4
2.2
2.8
2.2
2.9
2.1
3.0
90Prctile
4.3
6.0
4.6
7.5
6.4
9.3
8.6
10.9
ColorChecker SG
Calibration
ColorChecker SG
Calibration and
Visual Editing
Table 6. Spectral performance summary for the two RIT camera systems for Pot of Geraniums.
ColorChecker DC and Blues
Gamblin Conservation Colors
Calibration
Calibration
Quantix-LCTF Digital Master
MCSL-Sinar Digital Master
MI (D65A)
sRMS
MI (D65A)
sRMS
Average
0.3
0.0
0.6
0.0
Maximum
2.2
0.1
1.7
0.1
Std. Dev.
0.4
0.0
0.4
0.0
90Prctile
0.6
0.0
1.2
0.0
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
20
Figures
Figure 1. RIT’s digital workflow. Areas in green are camera software processing. Areas in pink are RIT software
processing.
Figure 2. Spectral transmittance of optimized filters described in Table 1.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
21
Figure 3. Absolute quantum efficiency (spectral sensitivity) of the Kodak KAF 22000CE color filter array (data
provided by the Eastman Kodak Company).
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
22
Figure 4. Normalized (to peak height) spectral sensitivities of the Kodak KAF 22000CE color filter array with each
optimized filter in the optical path. Solid lines represent the blue-green filter sandwich and the dashed lines
represent the yellow filter sandwich. (The detector cover glass and lens spectral transmittances are not included.)
Figure 5. Normalized (to peak height) spectral sensitivities of the Kodak KAF 22000CE color filter array filtered
with the blue-green filter sandwich (solid lines), the yellow-filtered blue channel subtracted from the blue-greenfiltered blue channel (dashed blue line), and the blue-green filtered red channel subtracted from the yellow-filtered
red channel (dashed red line).
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
23
Figure 6. GretagMacbeth ColorChecker average spectral difference (solid line), Rimage,λ – Rsmall_aperture,λ, and one
minus the correlation coefficient (dashed line) for the Quantix-LCTF (top) and MCSL-Sinar (bottom) systems. .
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Figure 7. Spectral comparison between reference spectrophotometer (red) and imaging system (blue). Top:
Quantix-LCTF; bottom: MCSL-Sinar.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Figure 8. Pot of Geranium’s average spectral difference (solid line), Rimage,λ – Rsmall_aperture,λ, and one minus the
correlation coefficient (dashed line) for the Quantix-LCTF (top) and MCSL-Sinar (bottom) systems.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
26
Other Figure, may or may not be used
Figure 27. Average ∆E00 colorimetric error for each listed imaging system. Blue: the MCSL-Sinar system; red: the
Quantix-LCTF system; yellow: the color-managed NGA-Sinar system; green: the digital master (following visual
editing) NGA-Sinar system.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Figure 7. The average spectral root-mean-square performance of each imaging system for each listed target.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Figure 10. Spectral comparison between reference spectrophotometer (red) and imaging system (blue). Top:
MCSL-Sinar; Bottom: Quantix-LCTF.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
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Figure 5. The average colorimetric performance of each imaging system for each listed target.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
30
Figure 1. NGA’s digital workflow. Areas in green are camera software processing. Areas in red are Adobe
Photoshop software processing.
Submitted to Studies in Conservation, March 2006
31
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• Enter precise numeric values in inches, pixels, and other measurement systems. Even
enter different measurements on-the-fly without changing global settings.
Automated image processing
➤
Enhanced automation
Use the new Image Processor command to process camera raw images, and use new
built-in Actions to prepare images for film and video.
➤
Event-based scripts
Accomplish more in fewer steps with event-based scripts that automatically activate at
specified points in your workflow.
➤
Variables
Instantly produce repetitive graphics with Variables, which automatically populate your
design with data from spreadsheets or databases.
Actions and Droplets
• Automate common production tasks by recording editing steps in the Actions palette,
and then processing batches of files with Droplets.
Film and video design
Non-square pixel support
• Create and work with different aspect ratios to accommodate non-square pixels without
distortion.
➤
Convenient video preview
Design for broadcast more easily by previewing your Photoshop CS2 images on an
NTSC or PAL monitor connected to your computer by IEEE 1394/FireWire/i.LINK.
➤
32-bit HDR
Create and edit 32-bit, High Dynamic Range (HDR) images for the widest range and
richest detail.
Guide presets
• Easily design using video-specific presets that show action-safe and title-safe areas of
the screen.
16-bit compositing
• Perform precise matte painting, 3D rendering, and other advanced film compositing
with support for 16-bit images in core features.
Layers-to-files export
• Quickly integrate layered Photoshop artwork with a variety of video editing and
compositing systems using the built-in Export Layers To Files command.
Work with unparalleled efficiency
Smooth workflow
➤
➤
➤
➤
➤
Smart Objects
Perform nondestructive scaling, rotating, and warping of raster and vector graphics
with Smart Objects. Even preserve the editability of high-resolution vector data from
Adobe Illustrator® software.
Multiple layer control
Select and move, group, transform, and warp objects more intuitively by clicking and
dragging directly on the canvas. Easily align objects with Smart Guides.
Smart Guides
Design faster by automatically aligning objects to each other using Smart Guides.
WYSIWYG font menu
Quickly select typefaces from the font menu, which now displays a sample of each font.
Adobe Creative Suite integration
Work more smoothly across Adobe Creative Suite components with color-setting
synchronization in Adobe Bridge, consistent viewing of onscreen color, and unified
Adobe PDF file creation settings.
Multilingual spelling checker
• Avoid typos with the built-in spelling checker, which supports multiple languages and
includes convenient search-and-replace functionality.
➤
Instant video preview
See your broadcast graphics as they’ll appear to the audience, while you’re still building
them. With one click, you can preview your Photoshop CS2 images on a television
monitor connected to your computer by IEEE 1394/FireWire/i.LINK.
Multi-image digital camera raw file processing
➤
Simultaneous multiple-image editing
Save time by processing batches of raw images at once with nondestructive editing,
including color settings, cropping, straightening, adjusting curves, and more. Even
process images while continuing to edit or retouch them.
➤
➤
Digital camera and Digital Negative (DNG) support
Take advantage of support for a comprehensive range of digital cameras, and help
ensure a lifetime of access to your digital camera raw files by converting them to the
DNG format.
Automatic adjustments
Instantly improve the appearance of images by automatically adjusting the exposure,
contrast, and color of raw files.
Professional presentation
➤
Enhanced Web photo galleries
Quickly display your photos online and gather feedback from viewers using Web photo
galleries that can now also include animations and sound.
Customizable Picture Packages
• Easily showcase your images by choosing from more than a dozen customizable Picture
Package templates.
➤
➤
➤
Adobe Systems Incorporated
345 Park Avenue, San Jose, CA 95110-2704 USA
www.adobe.com
Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, GoLive, Illustrator, InDesign, Photoshop,
Reader, and Version Cue are either registered trademarks or trademarks of
Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries.
© 2005 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Adobe Photoshop Services
Upload photos directly to Adobe Photoshop Services to share and order prints—even in
large formats. Adobe Photoshop Services are provided in conjunction with Kodak
EasyShare Gallery, the leader in online photo services and a Kodak company. (Note:
Adobe Photoshop Services are not available in all countries.)
Adobe PDF Presentation
Present your images in universally accessible Adobe PDF files, which include support
for transitions and security options.
Improved printing workflow
Easily configure your desktop inkjet printer for accurate color output.
Xserve G5
Designed from the ground up for high-density compute power,
exceptional flexibility, and industry-leading ease of use.
Key Features
64-bit processing power. Xserve comes
with single or dual PowerPC G5 processors,
each with a dedicated frontside bus running
at half the processor speed—maximizing
performance with data transfer rates of
up to 9.2GB/s.
Ultrafast ECC memory. A 128-bit memory
controller speeds data in and out of main
memory at up to 6.4GB/s. The Xserve G5
supports up to 8GB of DDR RAM with Error
Correction Code (ECC) protection.
Server-optimized I/O. Two open 64-bit
PCI-X slots provide throughput of up to
1GB/s for PCI devices. Dual Gigabit Ethernet
and FireWire 800 interfaces offer highperformance connectivity.
Scalable storage. Three drive bays hold up
to 1.2TB of internal storage1 on independent
Serial ATA channels for fast data access.2
Optional cards connect to external storage
and backup devices, including Apple’s
Xserve RAID.
UNIX-based operating system. An unlimitedclient license for Mac OS X Server is included
at no additional cost.2 Built on open standards, Mac OS X Server integrates seamlessly
into enterprise infrastructures.
Built-in management tools. Easy-to-use
software enables you to monitor multiple
Xserve systems and manage services over
a secure, remote connection.
Comprehensive service and support. To
ensure rapid issue resolution for your server
and storage deployments, choose from a full
range of AppleCare products designed to
provide integrated expert support.
Specification Sheet
Xserve G5
Apple’s Xserve G5 packs phenomenal power and industry-leading capabilities into
an ultradense 1U rackmount server that fits easily into any network environment.
It comes with Mac OS X Server, Apple’s UNIX-based server operating system, providing a complete suite of standards-based network services with no per-client fees.
Integrated remote management and monitoring tools make Xserve G5 a breeze
to set up and manage—reducing the complexity of system administration and
minimizing maintenance costs. Whether in small or large business, higher education
or K–12 schools, creative departments, or science and technology research centers, the
affordable Xserve G5 is the perfect server for today’s new breed of open standards–
based network solutions.
Xserve G5 Configurations
Order number
Server configurations
M9743LL/A
M9745LL/A
Cluster node
M9742LL/A
Processor
2GHz PowerPC G5
Dual 2.3GHz PowerPC G5
Dual 2.3GHz PowerPC G5
Frontside bus
1GHz
1.15GHz per processor
1.15GHz per processor
ECC memory
1GB PC3200 DDR
(400MHz)
1GB PC3200 DDR
(400MHz)
512MB PC3200 DDR
(400MHz)
Maximum memory
8GB
8GB
8GB
Hot-plug storage
(Serial ATA)
Three drive bays supporting up to 1.2TB using
80GB, 250GB, and/or 400GB Apple Drive Modules;
one 80GB drive preinstalled1
One drive bay with
80GB drive preinstalled1
Optical drive
Combo drive (DVD-ROM/CD-RW) or
optional SuperDrive (DVD-R/CD-RW)
—
Networking
Two onboard Gigabit Ethernet interfaces (10/100/1000BASE-T)
PCI expansion
Two open 64-bit PCI-X slots supporting one card at up to 133MHz or two cards
at up to 100MHz
Ports
Two FireWire 800, two USB 2.0, one DB-9 (back panel); one FireWire 400
(front panel)
Mac OS X Server software
Unlimited-client edition
Also included
Mounting screws with M5 and 1/32-inch threads; caged nuts; cable
management arm for four-post racks; agency-approved 12-foot power cable
Unlimited-client edition
10-client edition
Service and support
90 days of telephone support and one-year limited warranty; optional
extended service and support products
Specification Sheet
Xserve G5
Technical Specifications
Xserve G5 cluster node
With the compute performance of two superscalar
2.3GHz PowerPC G5 processors, the Xserve G5
cluster node configuration is ideal for High
Performance Computing (HPC) in scientific and
technical environments, as well as for workgroup
clusters and render farms.2 For more information
about Apple solutions for computational clusters,
see www.apple.com/xserve/cluster.
Xserve RAID
Connect Xserve to Apple’s affordable Xserve RAID
storage solution for enormous capacity—up to
5.6TB1—and advanced data protection in a highavailability 3U enclosure.
Processor
• Single 2GHz or dual 2.3GHz PowerPC G5 processors
– PowerPC processor architecture with 64-bit data
paths and registers
– Native support for 32-bit application code
– 512K on-chip L2 cache running at processor speed
– Dual-pipeline Velocity Engine for 128-bit singleinstruction, multiple-data (SIMD) processing
– Two independent double-precision floating-point
units and two integer units
– Advanced three-stage branch prediction logic
• 64-bit, 1GHz or 1.15GHz frontside bus per processor,
supporting up to 18.4GB/s data throughput
• Point-to-point system controller with support
for ECC memory
Memory
• 128-bit data paths for up to 6.4GB/s memory
throughput
• Data protection using Error Correction Code
(ECC) logic
• Eight slots supporting up to 8GB of DDR SDRAM
using the following DIMMs (in pairs):
– 256MB DIMMs (PC3200, 400MHz ECC)
– 512MB DIMMs (PC3200, 400MHz ECC)
– 1GB DIMMs (PC3200, 400MHz ECC)
I/O connections
• Two open 12-inch, 64-bit PCI-X slots, running at
up to 133MHz with one card installed or up to
100MHz with two cards installed; support for
32-bit or 64-bit 3.3V Universal PCI cards running
at 33MHz or 66MHz3
• PCI and PCI-X cards available as build-to-order
options for Xserve G5 include the following:
– Apple Fibre Channel PCI-X Card
– Hardware RAID PCI card
– Apple PCI-X Gigabit Ethernet Card
– Dual-channel Ultra320 SCSI PCI-X card
– PCI VGA video card
• Two independent 10/100/1000BASE-T (Gigabit)
RJ-45 Ethernet interfaces on main logic board
• Two FireWire 800 ports on back panel and one
FireWire 400 port on front panel; 15W total power
• Two USB 2.0 ports (480Mb/s each)
• One DB-9 serial port (RS-232)
For More Information
For more information about Xserve G5,
Xserve RAID, Xsan, and other Apple server
solutions, visit www.apple.com/server.
For more information on AppleCare
service and support products, visit
www.apple.com/support/products.
Storage
• Three internal drive bays on independent 150MB/s
Serial ATA channels (server configurations; empty
drive bays contain blank modules); or one internal
drive bay on 150MB/s Serial ATA channel (cluster
node configuration)
• Up to 1.2TB of internal storage1 using hot-plug
Apple Drive Modules (server configurations),
available in the following capacities:
– 80GB 7200-rpm SATA with 8MB disk cache
– 250GB 7200-rpm SATA with 8MB disk cache
– 400GB 7200-rpm SATA with 8MB disk cache
• Support for reading SMART data from Apple Drive
Modules for prefailure notification
• Slot-loading Combo drive (DVD-ROM/CD-RW) or
optional SuperDrive (DVD-R/CD-RW)2
Rack support
• Fits EIA-310-D–compliant, industry-standard
19-inch-wide racks, including:
– Four-post racks: 24 inches, 26 inches, and from
29 to 36 inches deep
– Two-post telco racks (center-mount brackets
included)
• Cable management arm for four-post rack
• Front-to-back cooling for rack enclosure
Electrical requirements
• Line voltage: universal input (90V to 264V AC),
power factor corrected
• Maximum input current: 4A (90V to 132V) or
2A (180V to 264V)
• Frequency: 47Hz to 63Hz, single phase
• Output power: 400W
•
•
•
•
•
Environmental requirements and approvals
Operating temperature: 50° to 95° F (10° to 35° C)
Storage temperature: –40° to 116° F (–40° to 47° C)
Relative humidity: 5% to 95% noncondensing
Maximum altitude: 10,000 feet
FCC Class A approved
Size and weight
• Height: 1.73 inches (4.4 cm)
• Width: 17.6 inches (44.7 cm) for mounting in
standard 19-inch rack
• Depth: 28 inches (71.1 cm)
• Weight: 33.3 pounds (15.11 kg); 36.6 pounds
(16.62 kg) with three Apple Drive Modules4
1For
hard drive capacity measurements, 1GB = 1 billion bytes and 1TB = 1 trillion bytes; actual formatted capacity less 2Server
configurations only; the cluster node configuration has one drive bay and no optical drive and includes a 10-client license for
Mac OS X Server. 3Check with manufacturer for compatibility. 4Weight varies by configuration and manufacturing process.
© 2005 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved. Apple, the Apple logo, FireWire, Mac, Mac OS, Velocity Engine, and Xserve are
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. SuperDrive and Xsan are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc. AppleCare is a service mark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. PowerPC is a
trademark of International Business Machines Corporation, used under license therefrom. Other product and company names
mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
January 2005 L307491A
2
Xserve RAID
This high-performance, high-availability storage system delivers
data protection and enormous capacity—up to 5.6 terabytes—
at a groundbreaking price.
Key Features
Massive storage capacity. Fourteen
drive bays hold up to 5.6TB of storage.1
Independent Ultra ATA drive channels
maximize bandwidth and availability.
High-speed throughput. The dual
independent 2Gb Fibre Channel host
interface transfers terabytes of data at
up to 400MB/s.2
Superior data protection. A high-availability
architecture and dual independent RAID controllers support RAID levels 0, 1, 3, 5, and 0+1.
Maximum uptime. Xserve RAID keeps running with redundant, hot-swappable power
supplies and cooling modules.
Remote management. The Java-based RAID
Admin application makes it easy to set up,
manage, and monitor Xserve RAID systems
from virtually anywhere on the Internet.
With massive capacity and high-availability features previously available only in much
more expensive storage systems, Xserve RAID offers unmatched capabilities for an
unprecedented price. Tiered storage environments can take advantage of its extreme
versatility. Redundant components provide the continuous availability required for
business-critical applications. The dual 2Gb Fibre Channel interface and 14 independent
drive channels deliver a sustained throughput of up to 380MB/s—fast enough for the
most demanding media production environments.4 And with pricing at just over $2
per gigabyte, Xserve RAID is affordable enough for near-line storage deployments.
A platform-independent design and Java-based administrative tools make it easy to fit
Xserve RAID into heterogeneous environments. Xserve RAID is qualified for use with
Linux, Windows, and NetWare systems, and Apple has worked with leading storage
infrastructure vendors to certify it for integration with existing Fibre Channel hardware
and data management solutions.3 Integrated remote monitoring and notification features and hot-swappable components ensure that your data is online and available, all
the time. And with intuitive tools for quick configuration of protected storage volumes,
this revolutionary RAID solution delivers ease of use that could come only from Apple.
Xserve RAID Configurations
Order number
M9721LL/A
M9722LL/A
M9723LL/A
Price (U.S. MSRP)
$5999
$8499
$12,999
Cross-platform compatibility. Xserve RAID
fits into Linux, Windows, NetWare, and mixedplatform environments and is certified for
compatibility with leading storage infrastructure solutions.3
Total available storage—
RAID 0
1TB1
2.8TB1
5.6TB1
Usable storage—RAID 1
500GB1
1.2TB1
2.4TB1
Usable storage—
RAID 3 and 5
750GB1
2.4TB1
4.8TB1
Comprehensive service and support. To
ensure rapid issue resolution for your server
and storage deployments, choose from a full
range of AppleCare products designed to
provide integrated expert support.
Apple Drive Modules
Four 250GB drives1
Seven 400GB drives1
Fourteen 400GB drives1
On-drive cache
8MB per drive
8MB per drive
8MB per drive
Controller cache
512MB per controller
512MB per controller
512MB per controller
Expansion
Fourteen drive bays with independent Ultra ATA channels for up to 5.6TB
of storage1
Also included
Mounting screws with M5, M6, and 10/32-inch threads; caged nuts; two agencyapproved 12-foot power cables
Software
RAID Admin Tools CD
Service and support
90 days of telephone support and one-year limited warranty; optional extended
service and support products
Note: 250GB drives are also available in 7- and 14-drive configurations.
Specification Sheet
Xserve RAID
Specification Sheet
Xserve RAID
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Third-party certifications
Leading storage infrastructure vendors have
certified Xserve RAID for integration with existing
Fibre Channel hardware and data management
solutions, including:
QLogic
Brocade
Emulex
LSI Logic
VERITAS
ATTO Technology
Candera
Cisco
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
In addition to Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server,
Xserve RAID has been qualified for use on these
operating systems:
Windows Server 2003
Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2000 Professional
Red Hat Enterprise Linux v2.1 and v3
Novell NetWare v5.x and v6.x
SUSE Enterprise Server 9
Yellow Dog Linux v3
Xserve G5. Xserve RAID works seamlessly with Xserve
G5, Apple’s high-density 1U rack-optimized server.
Equipped with single or dual PowerPC G5 processors,
Xserve packs phenomenal power and a rich feature
set into an affordable, easy-to-deploy system.
Technical Specifications
Storage
• Fourteen drive bays on independent 100MB/s
channels supporting up to 5.6TB of total storage1
using Apple Drive Modules, available in the
following capacities:
– 250GB 7200-rpm Ultra ATA with 8MB disk cache
– 400GB 7200-rpm Ultra ATA with 8MB disk cache
and rotational vibration safeguard
• Empty drive bays contain blank modules
• Support for reading SMART data from Apple Drive
Modules for prefailure notification
RAID controllers and cache memory
• Dual independent controllers, each with an
environment management coprocessor for out-ofband remote management and monitoring
• 512MB of cache memory per controller (1GB total)
• Cache Backup Battery Modules (sold separately)
for over 72 hours of memory protection
RAID operation
• Support for RAID levels 0, 1, 3, 5, 0+1,10, 30, and 50
(10, 30, and 50 using host-based software RAID)
• Support for multiple RAID sets, multiple hosts, and
LUN masking and mapping
• Background RAID set creation; automatic variable
background rebuilding5; online expansion; LUN
slicing; global drive hot sparing (per RAID controller)
Fibre Channel storage-to-host connection
• Dual 2Gb Fibre Channel ports (SFP); 200MB/s
throughput per channel with guaranteed
bandwidth (400MB/s full duplex)2
• Host connectivity using 2Gb Apple Fibre Channel
PCI-X Card (sold separately) or compatible thirdparty PCI and PCI-X cards
• Support for point-to-point, loop, and switched
fabric topologies
• Dual 10/100BASE-T Ethernet interfaces for remote
management
2
Apple Fibre Channel PCI-X Card (sold separately)
• 64-bit, 133MHz card with two SFP 2Gb Fibre
Channel ports; compatible with 32-bit, 66MHz PCI
slots and 64-bit, 100MHz or 133MHz PCI-X slots
• Two 2.9-meter Fibre Channel copper cables with
SFP transceivers; compatible with short- and longhaul SFP transceivers and fiber-optic cables
Cooling
• Redundant, hot-swappable cooling modules with
self-regulating speeds and front-to-back cooling
• Environmental monitoring system for automatically
maintaining optimal ambient temperature
Electrical
• Redundant, load-sharing hot-swappable power
supplies (450W); universal input (100V to 240V
AC), power factor corrected
• Maximum input current: 7.6A (100V to 127V) or
3.6A (200V to 240V)
• Power usage: 300W typical continuous power,
400W maximum continuous power
• Dual DB-9 serial ports for UPS systems
• Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz, single phase
•
•
•
•
•
•
Environmental requirements and approvals
Operating temperature: 50° to 95° F (10° to 35° C)
Storage temperature: –40° to 116° F (–40° to 47° C)
Relative humidity: 5% to 95% noncondensing
Maximum thermal output: 1365 BTUs per hour
Maximum altitude: 10,000 feet
FCC Class A approved
Size and weight
Height: 3U rack-optimized, 5.25 inches (13.3 cm)
Width: 17 inches (43.2 cm)
Depth: 18.4 inches (46.7 cm)
Fits EIA-310-D–compliant, industry-standard
19-inch-wide four-post racks from 24 to 36 inches
deep; deeper racks require third-party extender
• 60 to 110 pounds (27 to 45 kg), depending on
configuration
•
•
•
•
Xsan. Xserve RAID and Xsan create an enterpriseclass storage solution. Xsan, Apple’s 64-bit SAN
file system for Mac OS X, allows computers to
concurrently access shared storage over a highspeed Fibre Channel connection. Xsan streamlines
workgroup collaboration and bandwidth-intensive
workflows and increases the flexibility and
scalability of server deployments.
1For
For More Information
For more information about Xserve RAID,
Xserve G5, Xsan, and other Apple server
solutions, visit www.apple.com/server.
For information on AppleCare service and
support products, visit www.apple.com/
support/products.
hard drive capacity measurements, 1GB = 1 billion bytes and 1TB = 1 trillion bytes; actual formatted capacity less. Maximum
capacity of 5.6TB achieved through use of fourteen 400GB Apple Drive Modules. Usable capacity depends on drive configuration
and RAID level. 2Actual rates will vary depending on drive configuration and RAID level. 3See www.apple.com/xserve/raid for more
information on third-party certifications and qualifications. 4Testing conducted by Apple in October 2004 using preproduction
Xserve RAID systems. Iometer testing of raw disk throughput on Xserve RAID in both Mac OS X v10.3.6 “Panther” and Windows
XP environments has shown that Xserve RAID is capable of delivering up to 192MB/s on the standard shipping 4 x 250GB disk
configuration utilizing a single controller and an average of over 380MB/s on standard shipping 7 x 400GB and 14 x 400GB disk
configurations utilizing both RAID controllers. Mac OS X v10.3.6 “Panther” Xserve RAID testing conducted using directly attached
dual processor 2GHz Xserve G5 systems. Windows XP Xserve RAID testing conducted using directly attached dual processor
3.2GHz Xeon-based Dell Precision 650 systems. 5Host operating system limitations apply.
© 2004 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved. Apple, the Apple logo, Mac OS, and Xserve are trademarks of Apple Computer,
Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Xsan is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. AppleCare is a service mark of Apple
Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Java is a trademark or registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
in the U.S. and other countries. PowerPC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation, used under license
therefrom. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. Product
specifications are subject to change without notice. October 2004 L306430A
Data sheet
Product designation
Power pack Grafit A4
Article no. 31.176.XX
Product description
Microprocessor controlled power pack (3200 J) with 3 lamp base connections,
stabilized colour temperature on 2 main connections, variable output distribution
(asymmetrical/symmetrical), 6.7 f-stops for main connections, 4 f-stops for reserve
connection, in 1/10 or 1/3 f-stop intervals, display simultaneously in joules and fstops, joules switchable to percentage, fully illuminated control panel and LCDdisplay, flash duration selectable on main connections, short-time exposure
selectable, CTC (Colour Temperature Control) for uniform or deliberately variable
colour temperature with broncolor FCC (Flash Colour Chronoscope), proportional
modelling light over entire output range.
Additional functions: Flash sequences, triggering delay, selectable flash duration,
slow charging, ping-pong release, stroboscopic effects with one or more power
packs, choice of two infrared channels, etc., user-friendly menu functions, menu text
available in multiple languages (German, English, French, Spanish, Japanese,
Swedish, Indonesian).
Scope of delivery
Power pack with mains cable, operating instructions, dust cover.
Technical data
Flash energy
F-stop at 2 m (6 1/2 ft.), 100
ISO, reflector P70
Flash duration t 0.1 (t 0.5)
Charging time
(for 100% of selected energy)
Ready display
Lamp base connections
Power output distribution
Controls
Control range
3200 J
90 2/10
1/80 - 1/6000 s
(1/240 - 1/10000 s)
Flash duration and energy automatically regulated for optimum
colour temperature. Flash duration can be preselected.
Version 1 (230 V): 0.04 - 2.6s
Version 2 (120 V): 0.04 - 3.2s
Version 3 (100 V): 0.04 - 4.4s
Can be switched to slow charging mode for low-amperage
power outlets
Visual and audible (can be switched off); signals when 100 %
of selected energy is reached
2 main connections with flash cut-off and 1 reserve connection
Symmetrical and variable asymmetrical
Illuminated silicone keyboard, resistant to dust and scratches.
Wireless remote control with infrared Servor e.
6 7/10 f-stops for main connections, 4 f-stops for reserve
connection, in 1/10 or 1/3 f-stop intervals
1
11.03
Data sheet
Colour temperature
Modelling light
Additional functions
Flash release
No. of sync sockets
Stabilized flash voltage
Standards
Power requirements
Dimensions
Weight
Display simultaneously in joules and f-stops, joules switchable
to percentage
CTC (Colour Temperature Control) for uniform or deliberately
variable colour temperature with broncolor FCC (Flash Colour
Chronoscope)
Halogen, max. 3 x 650 W at 200-240 V
Halogen, max. 3 x 300 W at 100-120 V
Proportional to flash energy and «full» and «low» settings.
Proportionality adjustable to other broncolor power packs,
compact units and their various output ranges
Flash sequences, triggering delay, selectable flash duration,
slow charging, ping-pong release, stroboscopic effects with
one or more power packs, a choice of two infrared channels,
etc.
Easy to use menu operated functions, menu text available in
multiple languages (German, English, French, etc.)
Manual release button, sync cable, selectable photocell or
wireless via selectable IR-receiver
2
+/- 0.5%
EC standard 73/23, UL 122
Version 1: 220-240 V / 50 Hz, switchable to 120 V / 60 Hz,
current consumption 10 A, longer series with
shorter charging times 16 A.
Version 2: 110-120 V / 60 Hz, switchable to 230 V / 50 Hz,
current consumption 15 A.
Version 3: 100 V / 50 Hz, switchable to 230 V / 50 Hz, current
consumption 15 A.
288 x 180 x 407.5 mm
11 kg
Compatibility
Lamp bases
Pulso 2, F2, 4, F4, 8*, Pulso Twin, Pulso G, Primo,
Picolite, Mobilite
Ringflash, Pulso-Spot 4
Universal lamp base, with RT plug
*Pulso lamp base 8 may only be used on the
auxiliary outlet (lamp plug no. 3)
Remote control
Servor d, Servor e, Servor 3, Servor 2 (without
additional functions)
Remote release
IRX 2, IRX, IRS-E,
IRQ, FCM2, FCC, IRS
IRI, FM
2
11.03
Data sheet
Special features
Automatic colour temperature control, called CTC.
The auxiliary functions may be used for example for:
- alternating release to reduce flash sequence times using two power packs (pingpong mode)
- fast strobo sequences (can be used as quasi-continuous light to assess precisely
shadow edges, etc.)
Application
Grafit A power packs allow interesting shots which go beyond the characteristics and
options of conventional units by combining flash sequences, delays, etc.. This opens
a new range of creative activities which can be applied only with the Grafit A power
packs.
The very short flash duration and charging time with reduced flash energy plus the
extremely low heat build-up in spite of a very short flash duration make the Grafit A
suitable for fashion photography where long flash sequences are applied.
3
11.03
Pulso G lamp base
Data sheet C7
Product designation
Pulso G lamp base
Article no. 32.121.XX
Product description
Lamp base with sturdy Noryl housing and grip. Bayonet mount with automatic lock for
interchangeable reflectors and various area lamps. Plug-in flash tube with ceramic
socket and spring for secure hold. The lamp base can be fitted either with 1600 J or
3200 J flash tubes (details, see chapter “special features / restrictions”). Switch and fuse
for modelling light. The protecting glass is available in 5500 K or 5900 K as well as
“clear” or “mat”. Safer protecting glass holder thanks to mechanical lock. Integrated
tilting head with locking lever. Umbrella holder. Light angle may be adjusted by a rotary
knob fitted at side. Focusing possible within 26 mm range, resulting in illumination angle
adjustment from 60° - 90° (P70). Equipped with thermal protection. Cooling fan for long
flash sequences. Suitable for mains voltages from 100 to 240 V thanks to the stabilized
fan supply (Attention: The lamp base must be fitted with a corresponding modelling
lamp).
Also usable with battery-powered Mobil power pack (without modelling light when using
on battery).
Scope of delivery
Lamp head, protection cap, lamp base cable 5 m, bag with replacement fuse, safety bolt
for suspension mounting
Flash tube, modelling lamp and protecting glass to be ordered separately.
Technical data
Flash energy
F-stop at 2 m distance 100 ISO,
reflector P70
Modelling light (fuse value)
Length of cable
Cooling
Dimensions
Weight incl. cable
Stand support
bc_do_ds_pulsog_en.doc
BR/cst 11.03
max. 3200 J
64 2/10 resp. 90 2/10 (with Grafit)
650 W halogen (3.15 AF) 230 - 240 V
300 W halogen (3.15 AF) 100 - 120 V
5m
stabilized fan
over all 310 x 130 x 200 mm
diameter 80 mm
3.145 kg
for broncolor bolt 12 mm, 3/8" thread
and Manfrotto bolt 16 mm
1
Pulso G lamp base
Data sheet C7
Compatibility
Power packs
Grafit 2, 4, A2, A4, A8, A2 RFS, A4 RFS, A8 RFS, A2 plus,
A4 plus
Topas A2, A4, A8
Nano 2, Nano A4
Mobil
Primo, Primo A, Primo A fashion, Primo 4
Pulso 2, 4, A2, A4
Opus 2, 4, A2, A4, A8
304, 404, 404 Servor
Accessories
Flash tube (5900 K)
3200 J
Flash tube UVE (5500 K) 1600 J
Flash tube (5900 K)
1600 J
Art. no. 34.324.00
Art. no. 34.322.55
Art. no. 34.322.59
Protecting glass (5500 K)
Protecting glass (5900 K)
Protecting glass (5500 K) mat
Protecting glass (5900 K) mat
Art. no. 34.336.55
Art. no. 34.336.59
Art. no. 34.337.55
Art. no. 34.337.59
Lamp extension cable 5 m
Lamp extension cable 10 m
Art. no. 34.151.00
Art. no. 34.152.00
Halogen modelling lamp 300 W
100-120 V with fuse
Halogen modelling lamp 650 W
220-240 V with fuse
Art. no. 34.225.XX
Pulso-Flooter S
Reflector Mini-Hazylight
Reflector Mini-Cumulite
Reflector P-Travel
Narrow angle reflector P45
Narrow angle reflector P50
Standard reflector P65
Standard reflector P70
Softlight reflector P
Wide angle reflector P120
Conical snoot
Reflector Satellite Evolution
Reflector Satellite Staro
Reflector Mini-Satellite
Sunlite-Set (5500 K)
Balloon
Art. no. 32.430.00
Art. no. 33.133.00
Art. no. 33.141.00
Art. no. 33.103.00
Art. no. 33.104.00
Art. no. 33.105.00
Art. no. 33.106.00
Art. no. 33.107.00
Art. no. 33.110.00
Art. no. 33.112.00
Art. no. 33.120.00
Art. no. 33.150.00
Art. no. 33.151.00
Art. no. 33.152.00
Art. no. 33.160.00
Art. no. 33.161.00
bc_do_ds_pulsog_en.doc
BR/cst 11.03
Art. no. 34.226.10
2
Pulso G lamp base
Data sheet C7
Accessories (continuation)
Umbrella ∅ 102cm
white/silver/transparent
Umbrella ∅ 82cm
white/silver/transparent
Umbrella reflector
Hazylight-Soft
Megaflex 2 x 1,2 m
Megaflex 3 x 1,2 m
Reflector Cumulite 2
Megalite system (different sizes)
Art. no. 33.452.00–33.454.00
Fresnel spot attachment
Projection attachment
Art. no. 33.630.00
Art. no. 33.640.00
Folding reflectors Pulsoflex EM
Folding reflectors Pulsoflex C
with adapter ring for Pulsoflex C/EM
with adapter ring fpr Pulsoflex C/EM
and HMI F575 lamp base
Para / Para FF
different sizes
different sizes
Art. no. 33.400.00
Art. no. 43.100.00
Art. no. 33.459.00–33.461.00
Art. no. 33.496.00
Art. no. 33.513.00
Art. no. 33.520.00
Art. no. 33.521.00
Art. no. 33.534.00
Art. no. 33.540.00–33.541.06
different sizes
Special features / restrictions
Flash tubes for the Pulso G lamp base are available with a maximum capacity of 1600 J
respectively 3200 J (see chapter “accessories”). With each flash tube, two stickers
labelled “max. 1600 J” respectively “max. 3200 J” are enclosed, which must be stuck
on the blue square onto the lamp plug as well as at the side of the tilting head of the
lamp base. The Pulso G lamp base must not be charged above the indicated value.
For thermal reasons the UV filter coating of the flash tube 3200 J has been applied
directly onto the protecting glass. The flash tube 1600 J however has the UV filter
coating directly on the flash tube, for price reasons. The clear protecting glass does not
have any optical effect. If a uniform fitting of all lamp base types is intended, the lamp
base Pulso G may also be fitted with a clear flash tube 1600 J and coated protecting
glass.
Due to the improved protecting glass holder, new protecting glasses are now also
available. These have a marking line and three grooves at the rim. When inserting the
protecting glass into the locking device of the Pulso G lamp base, the marking line must
be at the top. After engaging the protecting glass, it must be slightly turned, to prevent
accidental loosening. The previous protecting glasses are not compatible to the Pulso
G lamp.
Warning: For safety reasons the lamp must not be operated without protecting glass.
bc_do_ds_pulsog_en.doc
BR/cst 11.03
3
Pulso G lamp base
Data sheet C7
The Pulso G lamp base can be operated worldwide with all mains voltages on condition
that it is fitted with the corresponding halogen lamp for the local mains voltage.
Arguments
-
-
-
Lamp base is convenient to handle and operate (quick replacement of reflectors)
Resistance against breakage
Excellent quality of cable reduces loss of energy
Non-kinking cable in lamp base section and plug due to a special strain relief bush
Long service life of halogen lamp and flash tube as a result of cooling; even for long
flash sequences
Plug-in flash tube with mechanical safety device
Plug-in protection glass simplifies the adaptation of the colour temperature
Protection glass with mechanical safety device
Various flash tubes and protecting glasses available
Operation possible on every power supply system worldwide
Compatibe to the whole Pulso accessory assortment
Built-in tilting head with locking head (locking lever M8 with threaded steel socket;
optimal braking effect
Stand support for broncolor bolts 12 mm, 3/8” thread and Manfrotto bolts 16 mm
Umbrella holder
Bayonet mount with automatic lock for interchangeable reflectors and various area
lamps
bc_do_ds_pulsog_en.doc
BR/cst 11.03
4
EPSON Stylus Pro 7600 & 9600 Print Engine Specifications
Printing Method
7-color (CcMmYKk) EPSON UltraChrome Ink or
6-color (CcMmYKK) EPSON Photographic Dye Ink
Variable Droplet Micro Piezo DX3 drop-on-demand
ink jet technology
Nozzle Configuration
Color and Monochrome heads: 96 nozzles x 7
Black Ink Mode Configurations
UltraChrome Ink
Photo-K + Light-K (standard),
Matte-K + Light-K or
Dual Matte-K
Photographic Dye Ink
Dual Photo-K only
Droplet Technology
Smallest droplet size:
4 picoliter
Variable Droplet Technology can produce up to
3 different sizes per print line
Resolution
2880 x 1440 dpi; 1440 x 720 dpi; 720 x 720 dpi;
720 x 360 dpi; 360 x 360 dpi; 360 x 180 dpi
Print Engine Speed
Depending upon the print mode being used,
print engine speeds will vary from 8 ft2/hr to
a maximum of 192 ft2/hr
Produces everyday “production quality”
prints at ~87 ft2/hr
Produces better than photo lab quality
prints at ~16 ft2/hr
Printable Area
Maximum paper width
Left and right print margins
Maximum printable width
Maximum printable length
Media Handling
SP7600 Media input
Cut sheet size
SP9600
Media input
Cut sheet size
Media core compatibility
Max. roll media diameter
Weight
Built-in media cutter
Optional manual
media cutter
Printer Language
EPSON ESC/P Raster Photographic Drivers standard
EPSON
Photographic Dye Ink
Operating Systems Supported
Macintosh OS 8.5.1 through 9.x
(OS X supported via RIP)
Windows 95, 98, Me, NT 4.x, 2000, and XP
Printer Interfaces
Includes one USB (1.1 and 2.0 compatible), one ECP
Parallel and one Epson Expanson Slot for installing
the optional internal IEEE 1394 FireWire or 10/100
BaseT Ethernet cards
Dimensions
SP7600
43.3"(W) x 22"(H) x 22.5"(D)
49.2"(H) with optional printer stand
Printer weight: 96 lb
SP9600
63.9"(W) x 46.4"(H) x 28.2"(D)
Printer weight: 185 lb with stand
BorderFree Printing
Left and right borderless “bleed” printing for the
following media widths
SP7600
8", 10", 12", 14", 16", 20", 24"
SP9600
8", 10", 12", 14", 16", 20", 24", 36", 44"
Single roll up to 24" width
Up to 24" wide media
(auto-loading)
Single roll up to 44" width
Up to 44" wide media
(auto-loading)
Handles both 2" and 3” cored media
4" (2”core) or 6" (3" core)
12 lb bond up to 1.5 mm cardboard
Automatic or manual cutting
EFI Fiery Spark Professional
2.0 Software RIP
Additional One-year EPSON
Preferred Plus Service
Additional Two-year EPSON
Preferred Plus Service
Used for cutting very thick media
Color:
B&W:
Up to 100 years
Over 100 years
Color:
Up to 26 years
(EPSON ColorLife Media)
Not rated
B&W:
Automatic Take-up
Reel System
Replacement 44"
Take-up Reel Core
Engine Reliability
Total print volume
Print head life
Cutter life
Maintenance parts
Electrical Requirements
Voltage
Frequency
Current
Power consumption
Top and bottom edges can be automatically cut to any
length three different ways during printing on roll media
UL1950, CSA 22.2 950 FDA
FCC Part 15 subpart B class B,
CSA C108.8 class B
20,000 B0 pages at 360 x 360 dpi
28 billion shots per nozzle
~2,000 times (coated media)
Pump unit, flushing box,
head cleaner, cap assembly
120 V (100 to 240 V)
50 to 60 Hz
1.0A / 100-120V
Approx. 55W (operating)
<15W (standby)
< .7W (power off mode)
Energy Star compliant
C842832
C12C823912
C823722
EPP7696B1
EPP7696B1
EPP7696B2
EPP7696B2
Not Available
C12C815251
Not Available
C815121
Paper Roller Spindle
(Normal Tension) – 2"or 3" C12C811161
Paper Roller Spindle
(High Tension) – 2"or 3"
C12C811155
Environmental Characteristics
Temperature operating
50˚ to 95˚ F (10˚ to 35˚ C)
Storage
-4˚ to 104˚ F (-20˚ to 40˚ C)
Humidity operating
20 to 80% relative humidity
Storage
5 to 85% relative humidity
(no condensation)
Safety Approval
Safety standards
EMI
C842832
Internal 10/100
BaseT Ethernet Type-B Card C12C823912
Internal IEEE 1394
FireWire Type-B Card
C823722
On cartridge I.C. chip automatically tracks several ink
usage data points for use in very accurate production
cost estimations and reporting
Acoustic Noise Level
Approximately 50 dB(A) according to ISO 7779
Part Numbers
SP7600
SP9600
EPSON Stylus Pro Print Engine
w/ UltraChrome Ink
C472001UCM C473001UCM
EPSON Stylus Pro Print Engine
w/ Photographic Dye Ink
C472001DYE C473001DYE
EPSON Stylus Pro
Printer Stand
C12C844061 Included
EPSON Intelligent Ink Cartridge
Ink cartridge size
110ml or 220ml C
each color x 7 colors total
Ink cartridge shelf life
2 years from printed production
date or 6 months after open for
UltraChrome Ink and 2 years after
open for Photographic Dye
Lightfastness RatingsB
EPSON
UltraChrome Ink
External server based Adobe PostScript 3 with
optional software RIP. Also supported by most
leading third-party RIPs and workflows
Product/Accessories
SP7600 – 24" SP9600 – 44"
0 or 3mm each (0.24" total)
SP7600 –24.16" SP9600 – 44.16"
Up to 100' (limited by roll length)
(limited by software application)
C12C811151
C12C811152
Replacement Printer
Cutter Blade
C12C815241
Manual Media Cutting System C12C815231
Replacement Manual
Cutting Blade
C815192
C815192
Replacement
Ink Maintenance Tank
C12C890071
C12C890071
EPSON Ink Technology
SP7600 & SP9600 (110ml)
Photo Black ink cartridge
Cyan ink cartridge
Magenta ink cartridge
Yellow ink cartridge
Light Cyan ink cartridge
Light Magenta ink cartridge
Light Black ink cartridge
Matte Black ink cartridge
Photo Dye
Ink
T545100
T545200
T545300
T545400
T545500
T545600
Not Available
Not Available
UltraChrome
Ink
T543100
T543200
T543300
T543400
T543500
T543600
T543700
T543800
EPSON Ink Technology
SP9600 (220ml) C
Photo Black ink cartridge
Cyan ink cartridge
Magenta ink cartridge
Yellow ink cartridge
Light Cyan ink cartridge
Light Magenta ink cartridge
Light Black ink cartridge
Matte Black ink cartridge
Photo Dye
Ink
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
UltraChrome
Ink
T544100
T544200
T544300
T544400
T544500
T544600
T544700
T544800
C12C815241
C815182
A
The user selects the desired ink version at time of purchase.
B
Ink lightfastness rating based on accelerated testing of prints on specialty media, displayed indoors,
under glass. Actual print stability will vary according to media, printed image, display conditions,
light intensity, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Epson does not guarantee longevity of prints.
For maximum print life, display all prints under glass or lamination or properly store them. Visit
www.wilhelm-research.com for the latest information.
C
220ml ink cartridges available for the EPSON Stylus Pro 9600 only. 110ml ink cartridges come
standard on the EPSON Stylus Pro 7600 and 9600.
TM
Epson America, Inc.: 3840 Kilroy Airport Way, Long Beach, CA 90806
Epson Canada, Inc.: 3771 Victoria Park Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M1W 3Z5
Epson Latin America Inc.: 6303 Blue Lagoon Drive, Miami, FL 33126
Internet Website: www.prographics.epson.com
Specifications and terms are subject to change without notice. EPSON, EPSON Stylus and Micro Piezo are registered
trademarks of Seiko Epson Corporation. UltraChrome, EPSON Photographic Dye, ColorLife, BorderFree and DX3 are
trademarks of Epson America, Inc. All other product brand names are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of
their respective companies. Epson disclaims any and all rights in these marks.
© Epson America, Inc. 2002. CPD-13760 35K 4/02 RICE
Printed on Recycled Paper
EPSON Stylus Pro7600 & 9600
®
Grand visions printed on a grand scale.
True 2880 x 1440 dpi
Using 4 Picoliter Droplets
New 7-Color
EPSON UltraChrome™ Inks
Photograph © 2002 Alberto Tolot
Shot on Portra VC 400 120 film
Proofed on an EPSON Stylus Pro 9600
Professional
Media Flexibility
New Light Black Ink for Optimal
Black and White Photography
Photograph © 2002 Greg Gorman
Shot on Kodak PXP 120 film
Proofed on an EPSON Stylus Pro 9600
The most desirable photographic printers
ever produced by Epson.
Designed in collaboration with some of the world’s best-known
A brand new print engine design capable of handling virtually
photographers and printmakers, the EPSON Stylus Pro 7600 and
any media type either 24-inch or 44-inch wide also incorporates
EPSON Stylus Pro 9600 printers incorporate technologies that have
innovative ideas that include true BorderFree™ printing, intelligent
never before been available to large format printing professionals.
high-capacity ink systems, easy loading ink and media, and
Representing advancements in ink, print head and print engine
fast print speeds.
design, these next-generation, professional level 24-inch (SP7600)
Backed by one of the most comprehensive warranty programs in
and 44-inch (SP9600) printers will produce some of the world’s
the industry, the EPSON Stylus Pro 7600 and 9600 come with
most exciting photographic prints.
toll-free technical support Monday through Saturday, and usually
EPSON UltraChrome Ink – a true milestone in pigmented ink
technology – can produce color prints with a color gamut
next-business-day on-site service for a year. So should you need
us, we’ll be there.
approaching today’s standard dye ink technologies. And for the
Epson has once again set the standard for professional level
first time, produce professional level black and white prints capable
photographic printing. Never before have creative professionals
of pleasing the most demanding black and white photographers.
had such a powerful tool allowing them to produce their vision
To take full advantage of this remarkable ink technology, Epson
without compromise.
has developed a brand new Micro Piezo DX3™ print head that can
Whether for your own enjoyment or for resale, photographic
produce an astonishing resolution of 2880 x 1440 dpi.
prints produced by this breakthrough technology will forever
Designed specifically for 7-color printing, Epson’s most advanced
change your perception of digital printmaking.
print head delivers a level of photographic quality that must be
seen to be believed.
57”
24”
Built-i
with Bor
ton
acduff Ever
© 2002 M
Photograph NHGII 120 film
00
76
ji
o
Fu
Pr
s
on
ylu
St
Shot
an EPSON
Proofed on
Three User-Exchangeable Black Ink Modes
EPSON UltraChrome Ink Technology
All New 7-Color Pigmented Inking System
Extremely wide color gamut rivaling
EPSON Photographic Dye inks
Produces stable, long lasting photographic
prints that are of resale quality
By simply exchanging the black ink cartridge for another
type, EPSON UltraChrome Ink technology lets you optimize
your black ink density. Just choose between three different
black ink modes to optimize the density for various media
types and printing applications.
New Light Black Ink for Superior
Photographic Reproduction
Significantly improves the printer’s gray balance
while eliminating color casts
Dramatically improves the midtones and highlights
for smoother photographic transitions
Reduces the metamerism effect of pigmented
ink chemistry
Enhances the ICC profiling process for
ColorSync™ workflows
Photo Black Mode is optimized for traditional
photographic and ink jet coated media types, such as
EPSON Premium Luster Photo, Photo Semi Gloss, and
Premium Semimatte, to produce the highest level of
photographic image quality
Matte Black Mode is optimized for matte or plain
medias, such as Enhanced Matte, Smooth and
Textured Fine Art papers, as well as Somerset® Velvet
for Epson, where the highest level of photographic
image quality is desired
Dual Matte Black is optimized for matte or plain
media, like newsprint and plain bond paper, where
print speed is favored over image quality
Professional Level Black and White
Photographic Printing
Produces a truly consistent image with
no color crossover or color casts
Produces neutral or toned black and white prints
that satisfy a wide variety of photographers
Depending upon media, produces
a black D-max at up to 2.0
Auto Cutter
erFree Printing
7-Color UltraChrome Ink
with an exclusive Light Black
True 2880 x 1440 dpi Resolution
with variable droplets as small as 4 picoliter
Microscopic Enlargement Shown Above
Epson’s Most Advanced Print Head Ever
True 2880 x1440 dpi Resolution
All-new print head can produce a single droplet as small
as 4 picoliter
Incredibly sharp text and line art that rivals a final press sheet
Extremely fine blends and photographic transitions with no
visible sign of ink jet technology
Variable Droplet Micro Piezo DX3 Technology
Can produce up to three different dot sizes per print
line, greatly decreasing print times while optimizing
photographic quality
Proprietary DX3 ASIC technology controls the printing
process, resulting in consistent image quality and color
output from print to print
EPSON Stylus Pro 7600
24”– shown with optional stand
Easy-to-use Con
with backlight d
ink level indi
Photograph © 2002 Joe Carlson
Shot on VPL Type III (Process E-6) film
Proofed on an EPSON Stylus Pro 7600
EPSON Stylus Pro 9600
44”– stand included
Advanced Print Engine Technology
EPSON Intelligent High-Capacity Ink System
Seven 110ml or 220ml ink cartridges (CcMmYKk) with
automatic tracking of key data points such as ink levels,
ink type and usage rates, for the most accurate production
cost estimates
Greatly increases productivity by replacing ink cartridges
on the fly, even during the middle of a job, with no loss
in image quality or production time
EPSON Stylus Pro 9600 can use either 110ml or 220ml ink
cartridge sizes at the same time to further optimize ink usage
Superior Connectivity
Includes one USB (1.1 and 2.0 compatible), one ECP
Parallel and one Epson Expansion Slot for installing
the optional internal IEEE 1394 FireWire® or
10/100 BaseT Ethernet cards
Enhanced EPSON Photographic Drivers for Macintosh®
and Windows® allowing for complete ink density control
even when color management is turned off
Optional EFI Fiery Spark Professional 2.0 Adobe®
PostScript® 3 software RIP is available for professional
pre-press proofing and other graphic design workgroups
Fully supported by most leading third-party RIPs
and workflows
Unsurpassed Media Flexibility
Prints on virtually any media type, in roll or cut sheet,
up to 24-inch or 44-inch wide
Accurate automatic loading of cut sheet media up to
24-inch or 44-inch wide in a variety of weights up
to 1.5mm thick
User-adjustable Roll Media Spindle accepts either
2-inch or 3-inch media cores
Built-in Automatic Cutting System and an optional
Manual Media Cutter for cutting even the thickest
of media types
Optional Automatic Take-up Reel System for unattended
production of large print runs (available on the EPSON
Stylus Pro 9600 only)
True BorderFree Printing
First ever wide-format print engine capable of printing off
both left and right edges of the media, while automatically
cutting top and bottom edges to produce a full-bleed print
on all four sides depending on media type
Built-in cutter will automatically cut top and bottom edges
to either leave the page borders or bleed the image
Fully trims your finished prints more accurately and safely
than manual finishing techniques
High Performance Print Engine Speeds
Depending on the print mode being used, print speeds
will vary from 8 ft 2/hr to a maximum of 192 ft 2/hr
Produces photographic quality printing at
about 16 ft 2/hr
ol Panel
Produces everyday "production-quality"output at
about 87 ft 2/hr
ay and
ors
EPSON Professional Media
for Outstanding Image Quality
EPSON Professional Ink Technologies A
Although EPSON UltraChrome Ink technology will become a
new standard in professional ink systems, the EPSON Stylus Pro
7600 and 9600 are also available with EPSON Photographic Dye
inks for those who have already built printing workflows using
this award-winning ink technology.
Available as a 6-color inking model (CcMmYKK), EPSON
Photographic Dye Ink along with EPSON ColorLife™ Media
will produce the highest level of photographic quality along
with a lightfastness rating up to 26 years in color under glass B
Preliminary data from Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. indicate
the lightfastness of color UltraChrome prints made by the
EPSON Stylus Pro 7600 and 9600 printers will be rated up to
100 years under glass on specific Epson media. Data indicate
the lightfastness of black and white UltraChrome images
printed using the 7-color mode will be rated as greater than
100 years under glass on specific Epson media B
EPSON
®
Epson Professional Media
UltraSmooth Fine Art Paper
For use with
Epson Stylus® Photo 2200
Epson Stylus Pro 4000
Epson Stylus Pro 7500
Epson Stylus Pro 7600
36" x 44"
914mm x 1118mm
500 g/m2
29 mil
10
SHEETS
SP91212
UltraSmooth
Fine Art Paper
For digital fine art and photography
Epson Stylus Pro 9500
Epson Stylus Pro 9600
Epson Stylus Pro 10000
Epson Stylus Pro 10600
• 100% cotton, acid free, mould-made
• Natural white base
• Buffered
• Double sided
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
17" x 7'
610mm x 3m
250 g/m2
15 mil
1
ROLL
SP91206-S
UltraSmooth
Fine Art Paper
For digital fine art
and photography
Product Information
• 100% cotton, acid free,
mould-made
• Natural white base
• Buffered
PROFESSIONAL PAPER
Artists and professional photographers require true archival print media1
in a variety of weights and surface textures for their digital fine art and
photography. Now Epson brings you an acid free,100% cotton hot
press paper that is coated on both sides for extra versatility.2 This cylinder
mould-made product features an ultra smooth finish on two sides that
is optimized for Epson UltraChrome,™ and Epson Archival™ Ink.1 Offered
in a variety of sizes and formats, this fine art paper is not only acid,
lignin, and chlorine free, it is also pH buffered with calcium carbonate
for a true archival sheet.
Like all Epson’s innovative media, this paper is engineered to give you
the highest resolution and color saturation possible. As always, Epson
supplies guarantee Epson quality.
Features/Benefits
• 100% cotton hot press for long term durability
• Acid free and pH buffered to preserve fine art and photos
• Two sided coating on sheets for added versatility and value
• Natural white, ultra smooth surface for incredible detail and
accurate reproduction
• Outstanding D-Max for prints with exceptional contrast
• Multiple weights, sizes, and formats for any fine art application
• Dries instantly for easy handling with Epson inks
• Over 100 years lightfastness3 with Epson UltraChrome Ink
1 For long term display, Epson recommends its UltraChrome ink or Epson Archival ink.
2 Cut-sheet is coated on two sides; roll version is single-sided.
3 Ink lightfastness rating, based on accelerated testing of prints on specialty media,
displayed indoors, under glass. Actual print stability will vary according to media,
printed image, display conditions, light intensity, humidity, and atmospheric conditions.
Epson does not guarantee longevity of prints. For maximum print life, display all prints
under glass or lamination or properly store them. Visit www.wilhelm-research.com for
the latest information.
Feature Checklist
Feature
Performance
Additional Comments
Acid, lignin, and chlorine free, buffered
Preservation of fine art and photos
True archival quality
100% cotton rag
Long term durability
Fine art look and feel
Two sided coating (sheets)
Added versatility for presentation or portfolio
Perfect for portfolio work
Hot press, ultra smooth finish
Flat matte for sharp details and accurate reproduction
Mould–made
Natural white surface
High contrast
No optical brightening agents (OBA)
Dries instantly
Easy handling with Epson Inks
Less susceptible to scuffing
Professional Media Fact Sheet
Epson Professional Media
UltraSmooth Fine Art Paper
Technical Specifications
Ordering Specifications
Roll
Sheets
Sheets
Product Code
Basis Weights
250g/m2
325g/m2
500 g/m2
250g/m2 (Single Sided)
Thickness
15 mil
21 mil
30 mil
S041782-S
17" x 7' roll
0-10343-84933-4
ISO Brightness
90%
90%
90%
S041782
24" x 50' roll
0-10343-84932-7
Opacity
98%
98%
98%
S041783
44" x 50' roll
0-10343-84934-1
For us
Base Material
100%
cotton rag
100%
cotton rag
100%
cotton rag
325g/m2 (Two Sided)
ultra smooth
hot press
ultra smooth
hot press
ultra smooth
hot press
Epson St
Epson St
Epson St
Epson St
Core size (rolls)
3"
N/A
N/A
Spindle (rolls)
3" high tension
N/A
N/A
Surface finish
Product
UPC Code
SP91209
13" x 19" (25 sheets)
0-10343-84937-2*
SP91210
17" x 22" (25 sheets)
0-10343-84933-4*
SP91211-S
24" x 30" (3 sheets)
0-10343-84939-6
Driver Settings
SP91211
24" x 30" (20 sheets)
0-10343-84938-9
For the following printers, ICC Profiles are posted at the Drivers and
Downloads page at: www.prographics.epson.com
- Epson Stylus Pro 7500/9500/10000ARC/10600ARC
- Epson Stylus Pro 4000/7600/9600/10600 UltraChrome Ink (Matte Black)
- Epson Stylus Photo 2200 (Matte Black)
SP91212
36" x 44" (10 sheets)
0-10343-84940-2*
SP91213
44" x 60" (10 sheets)
0-10343-84941-9*
Produ
500g/m2 (Two Sided)
* Expected to be available Spring 2004
For the following printers select Watercolor Paper-Radiant White
- Epson Stylus Pro 4000/7600/9600/10600 UltraChrome Ink (Photo Black)
Operating Specifications
Required temperature for optimum performance
59º - 77º F
15º - 25º C
Required humidity for optimum performance
40% - 60% RH
Artists an
in a varie
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Epson America, Inc.
3840 Kilroy Airport Way, Long Beach, CA 90806
Epson Canada, Ltd.
3771 Victoria Park Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M1W 3Z5
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Epson and Epson Stylus are registered trademarks of Seiko Epson Corporation. UltraChrome and
Epson Archival are trademarks of Epson America, Inc. All other products and brand names are registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Epson disclaims any and all rights in these marks. Copyright 2003 Epson America, Inc. CPD-15998 5K 11/03 WP
Printed on Recycled Paper
Professional Media Fact Sheet
ColorChecker DC
®
Color Reference Chart
...the first
color reference chart
for digital photography
ColorChecker DC
®
Choice of visual or measurement
DIGITAL CAMERA COLOR REFERENCE CHART.
FROM GRETAGMACBETH.
comparisons
Check and correct by the numbers or by
visual comparison in various image processing programs. Colorimetric reference
Now for the first time, there’s a
values on CD are in CIELAB and XYZ based
color reference chart to match the
on 2˚ observer and D50 illumination.
sophistication of today’s digital cameras.
ColorChecker® DC Digital Camera Color
Reference Chart — inspired by the success
of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker —
Integration with ProfileMaker™ Color
features a broader color gamut with more
Management Software
color fields to help you get the best
Ensures accurate and precise ICC
results from your digital camera.
profiles with any digital camera. The
result: increased picture quality and
more efficient workflow.
White Balance with a digital camera
Large white patch (2.8 cm x 2.8 cm) in
the center of the reference chart offers
the ability to create an individual white
balance.
ColorChecker DC Highlights:
■
American legal format (21.59 cm x 35.56 cm)
■
Contains 237 patches in a 12 cm x 20 cm grid
■
177 colors, including grayscale, grouped
■
ing and further processing the image
■
Can be measured with any manual
spectrophotometer (ie.Spectrolino) to
around white center point
■
Each color patch measures 1.3 cm x 1.3 cm
■
A series of black, gray, and white control
redefine reference values
■
Can be used with all types of photographic
and lighting conditions
patches around outer perimeter
■
Scale of 5 cm or 2.5 inches aids in captur-
Registration marks support fast and precise
cropping within ProfileMaker™ software
CCS Color Control Systems, Inc.
Solutions for all your Color Control needs.
Color Control Systems, Inc.
1-800-793-8965
3537 Library Road
1-412-886-9208
Pittsburgh, PA 15234
FAX 1-412-886-9640
ColorChecker
Image Reproduction Targets
YOUR COLOR. PRECISELY.
®
If your first shot isn’t a ColorChecker, then you’re not optimizing the
power of your camera.
Professional photographers rely on GretagMacbeth ColorChecker® brand test targets to ensure accurate
color reproduction – digital or film.
Why?
It’s the fastest, easiest way to optimize even the most sophisticated film or digital camera.
Here’s what ColorChecker can do for you:
•
•
•
•
Achieve true-to-life color reproduction under any illumination
Minimize tedious trial and error color adjustments
Enable camera and studio lighting balance quickly and easily
Allow instant gray balance
The fastest way to balance color and optimize lighting
The Original ColorChecker Standard
The 24-color array guarantees the most true-to-life image reproduction in any medium.
How?
Each of the 24 colors represents the actual color of natural objects such as blue sky, human skin, and foliage. And each
color reflects light just like its real-world counterpart. But here’s the amazing part... you can predict how the
colors will reproduce under any illumination with any reproduction process!
The go-anywhere target!
Get ColorChecker precision in a handy pocket size. The Mini-ColorChecker... great for location shots!
The easiest way to deliver true-to-life color reproduction
ColorChecker Custom White Balance Chart
The ColorChecker Custom White Balance Chart delivers absolutely accurate white reproduction under any lighting
condition. How? Most white balance targets aren’t neutral. That means your camera shifts the way it reproduces white
depending on the lighting conditions – warmer under indoor lighting, cooler under outdoor lighting and greener
under fluorescent lighting. The ColorChecker Custom White Balance Chart is an absolute neutral white reference, so it
prevents these shifts. The result... more true-to-life image reproduction.
3-Step Gray Scale
The ColorChecker 3-Step Gray Scale lets you instantly balance your images. A white, 18% gray and black target all
on a single card make color adjustments faster and easier with your favorite photo processing software. Plus, the
ColorChecker 3-Step Gray Scale makes studio lighting setup faster.
Scientifically developed to maximize the power of digital cameras
Digital ColorChecker SG
Nothing transforms the power of your digital camera like the Digital ColorChecker SG. It’s the original ColorChecker
and more - all in a single chart!
Here’s what it can do for you:
• Compare your digital reproduction to a real-life scene or test target
• Create a white balance
• Profile your camera or input device
With 140 highly saturated, semi-gloss colors, you gain the widest color gamut for the most accurate ICC profiles.
Plus, the chart works with our popular ProfileMaker 5 Photostudio and other camera profiling software.
ColorChecker Charts
Description
Custom White Balance Chart
Achieve accurate white reproduction in ambient light
Size: 8.5 x 11 in. (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
3-Step Gray Scale Chart
Achieve realistic color with accurate white balance. Includes white, 18% gray and black targets.
Enable quick color adjustments and faster studio lighting setup.
Size: 8.5 x 11 in. (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
Original ColorChecker –
24-Patch Standard Chart
Reproduce true-to-life colors under any illumination with any medium.
Includes 24 natural object colors
Size: 8.5 x 11 in. (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
Digital ColorChecker -SG
Obtain the most accurate digital camera profiles
140 colors including:
17-step gray scale
24-patch original ColorChecker
14 unique skin tone colors
Spectacular Color Made Easy!
ColorChecker products are the first
step in consistent color reproduction.
GretagMacbeth provides a complete
range of color management solutions
for the digital workflow. Call today for
Works with Profilemaker 5 Photostudio
Size: 8.5 x 11 in. (21.59 x 27.94 cm)
Mini Versions– Standard 24- Patch,
3-Step Gray Scale, and White Balance
All of the above in a convenient pocket size:
3.25 x 2.25 in. (8.25 x 5.7 cm - 24-Patch)
4 x 6 in. (10.16 x 15.24 cm) - 3-Step Gray Scale and White Balance
Gretag�
holding accreditations from NAPL, I�
accreditations and their associated practices and procedures.
United States:
Switzerland:
United Kingdom:
Germany:
China, Hong Kong:
China, Shanghai:
Italy:
France:
Russia:
t: +1 800 622 2384, 845 565 7660, f: +1 845 561 0267
t: +41 1 842 24 00, f: +41 1 842 22 22
t: +44 1928 280050, f: +44 1928 280080
t: +49 61 0279 570, f: +49 61 0279 5757
t: +852 2368 7738, f: +852 2368 6717
t: +86 21 58684348, f: +86 21 58684358
t: +39 0574 527755, f: +39 0574 527671
t: +33 161 062 180, f: +33 134 620 947
t: +7 095 502 92 65, f: +7 095 502 92 67
Visit our World Wide Web Site at www.gretagmacbeth.com
© 2005, GretagMacbeth. All rights reserved. Part. Nr. 420031 en (01/05).
the solution that’s right for you.
Visit www.gretagmacbeth.com
echnology (NIST) as well as
The evolution of professional
color management
PM5 Photostudio
PM5 Publish
PM5 Publish Plus NEW
Modular color management meets your specific needs
ProfileMaker 5 features individual modules that handle the various
color imaging devices and processes in your workflow. Start small,
choosing only the modules you need, with the freedom to add additional modules as your requirements change and grow.
The Choice of Color Professionals
Monitor – calibrate and create ICC profiles for CRT, LCD and laptop displays, match multiple monitors to a reference monitor.
Scanner – create ICC profiles for flatbed or drum scanners. Includes IT 8
target.
Digital Camera – create ICC profiles for digital cameras. (Digital ColorChecker SG sold separately.)
Printer – create ICC profiles for RGB, CMYK and Hexachrome® output
devices.
MultiColor Output – create profiles for Multicolor devices featuring CMYK
plus up to 6 additional channels. Includes ability to set ink priorities,
minimize ink consumption and minimize metamerism for two different
illuminants. Includes Photoshop® Plug-Ins for soft/hard proofing and
multicolor separations.
Editor – edit profiles or fine tune the ones you’ve created working with
lightness, contrast, saturation, white point or gradation curves. Check spot
color reproducibility and view gamuts in 2D or 3D.
Professionals in color-critical environments worldwide have come to rely on ProfileMaker software to help
them build high quality, reliable and customizable ICC profiles. These profiles connect the various steps in
ColorPicker – convert spot colors (CxF or Pantone) to process color
individually or as a complete library. Limit the maximum number of device
channels and define the minimum ink coverage for higher process stability.
your color imaging workflow and put you on a direct route to accuracy and predictability.
MeasureTool – collect, analyze and average data from color measurement
devices for accurate profile computation. Create your own custom test
charts to achieve the most accurate output profiles. Evaluate density, dot
gain, gradation curves and color for complete process control.
even more expert level controls. Now it’s even more intuitive and more efficient to build, edit and fine tune
DeviceLink – create fully ICC compatible device linking workflows for RGB
and CMYK color spaces and build direct connections between source and
destination imaging devices to handle special applications like output to
output transformations. Includes a new preserve black function plus clean
black and clean primary options.
Eye-One Process Control Bundle – includes Eye-One Pro measurement
device and MeasureTool for measuring control strips like the Fogra Media
step wedge in a convenient scan mode to determine values and tolerances.
Measures proofs and prints against the reference step wedge and generates a detailed PDF report.
ProfileMaker 5 expands upon this tradition of excellence with new features and enhancements that deliver
color profiles for all the devices – monitors, scanners, digital cameras, and all types of output devices – in
your color imaging and reproduction workflow. New MultiColor solutions now extend far beyond RGB,
CMYK and Hexachrome®!
Packaged solutions that match your workflow:
Professional
Color Management Solutions for
Digital Studio Photography
PM5 Photostudio creates high quality ICC profiles for all the devices used in a
typical studio photography workflow including monitors, digital studio cameras,
and RGB, CMYK and Hexachrome® output devices. Using these profiles, you’ll
be able to capture a broad gamut of colors, while minimizing retouching. Saves
time and money, enhances output quality.
PM5 Photostudio
Professional
Color Management Solutions for
PM5 Publish is designed specifically for prepress and publishing professionals
that need optimal results from digital (laser, inkjet) and traditional (offset, flexo,
gravure, etc.) printing systems. PM5 Publish provides the ability to profile moni-
Publishing
tors and scanners, as well as RGB, CMYK and Hexachrome® output devices. You
can edit and customize profiles, while ensuring color quality for proofing and
final print production.
PM5 Publish
NEW!
Professional
Color Management Solutions for
MultiColor Publishing
PM5 Publish Plus expands the gamut of digital printers, analog presses and
LFP devices through the use of multicolor technology featuring CMYK plus up
to six additional colors. It includes all the functionality of PM5 Publish, plus provides accurate, predictable color from concept to final production for CMYK+N
based multicolor workflows. The six additional colors used in the separations
can be selected without any restriction – defined based on spot measurements,
manual Lab entries or from any of the PANTONE® libraries. PM5 MultiColor plug-
PM5 Publish Plus
in for Adobe® Photoshop® completes the solution by allowing 1-click separations
plus the ability to softproof and hardproof your Lab, RGB and CMYK images.
For detailed information visit www.gretagmacbeth.com
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ProfileMaker Photostudio
ProfileMakerPublish
ACCURATE
FUNCTIONAL
FOCUSED
EXPANDABLE
ProfileMakerPublish Plus
Eye-One Bundle
Includes Eye-One Pro spectrophotometer with its
semi-automated strip reading capabilities for high
precision, low volume measuring and profile building. Eye-One Pro also measures emissive light for
profiling CRT, LCD and laptop displays. In addition,
Eye-One Pro can measure ambient light – letting
you account for both flash and continuous light
when building custom device profiles.
United States:
Switzerland:
United Kingdom:
Germany:
China, Hong Kong:
China, Shanghai:
Italy:
France:
Russia:
iCColor Bundle
Includes iCColor 210 automated spectral chart reader
for higher volume measuring of test charts and for
building accurate profiles for output devices. Also
includes Eye-One Display 2 for profiling CRT, LCD and
laptop displays.
t: +1 800 622 2384, 845 565 7660 f: +1 845 561 0267
t: +41 1 842 24 00
f: +41 1 842 22 22
t: +44 1928 28005
f: +44 1928 280080
t: +49 61 0279 570
f: +49 61 0279 5757
t: +852 2368 7738
f: +852 2368 6717
t: +86 21 58684348
f: +86 21 58684358
t: +39 0574 527755
f: +39 0574 527671
t: +33 161 062 180
f: +33 134 620 947
t: +7 095 502 92 65
f: +7 095 502 92 67
Visit our World Wide Web Site at www.gretagmacbeth.com
™ Trademark of GretagMacbeth. GretagMacbeth is an ISO 9001 certified company. Part No. 98.53.74 (04/05).
©2005, Amazys Holding AG. All rights reserved.
GretagMacbeth is a registered trademark and Eye-One and the Eye-One logo are trademarks of Amazys Holding AG.
Apple, Mac, the Mac logo, Macintosh and ColorSync are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
Pentium is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
PANTONE® and other Pantone Incorporated trademarks are the property of Pantone Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Spectrolino/SpectroScan Bundle
Provides the highest level of automation and flexibility. Includes GretagMacbeth Spectrolino spectrophotometer for measuring spot color and profiling all
types of monitors, as well as SpectroScan automatic
x/y table for measuring test charts for profiling scanners and output devices.
Standard
Optional
Basic
*Provides ability to measure and save standard test chart
data from any supported measurement device. Provides
ability to compare measurement data and generate FOGRA
media wedge reports when connected to a GretagMacbeth
measurement device.
ProfileMaker Photostudio, Publish,
or Publish Plus make it more convenient and
cost-effective than ever before to tailor a color
management system to meet your needs. Each
solution is designed to provide the most common functionality needed for your workflow.
Additional modules can easily be added, giving
you the flexibility to expand your package as
your needs grow.
Options & modules available separately:
Monitor
Scanner
Digital Camera
Printer
Multicolor Output
Editor
ColorPicker
MeasureTool
DeviceLink
Eye-One Process Control bundle
Optional accessories:
Digital ColorChecker SG
IT8 Targets
Seeing is believing
IntelliStation T221
Flat Panel Monitor
Application-focused
Packing over 9.2 million pixels into
its 22.2"/564mm viewing area, the
T221 earns its place in a wide range
of demanding settings including
medical, scientific, digital content
®
IntelliStation Z Pro and SpaceBall available separately
3D creativity by NVIDIA
creation, engineering, oil exploration
and other technical fields—anywhere
Highlights • Models 9503-DG3/DG5
Critical visualization
image definition is decisive.
Sharpen your view with the new IBM
„ Displays graphics-intensive
IntelliStation T221 Flat Panel Monitor.
OpenGL spoken here
applications with amazing
With a cinematic 16:10 aspect ratio
The visual fidelity of the T221—in
clarity and realism approaching
and 204 pixels/inch, T221 images
clarity, detail, and breadth of infor-
photographic quality
invite close scrutiny with fine-line
mation—qualifies it for the most
accuracy, crisp contrast and subtle
demanding OpenGL 3D applications.
detail. Combining versatility with
Select the NVIDIA Quadro4 980 XGL
brilliant visual performance, the T221
or the new Quadro FX accelerators,
offers an advanced digital interface
featuring vertex and pixel program-
that supports a wide range of recom-
mability, full-scene antialiasing, and a
real-time video frame rates
mended graphics adapters and
128-bit precision graphics pipeline.
(Model 9503-DG5)
IntelliStation Pro workstations. Choose
„ Wide 22.2"/564mm viewing area;
3840 x 2400 maximum addressability (9.2 million pixels)
„ 48Hz refresh rate supports
your solution: order the T221 high-
Easy on the eyes
„ TFT LCD technology for wide-
resolution monitor complete with a
IBM TFT technology meets TCO95
angle, flicker-free viewing
standard IntelliStation workstation
standards with low electromagnetic
configured with a certified NVIDIA
®
emissions; a polarizing anti-glare
„ Firmware programmable for
graphics adapter; or IBM will build a
coating; a wide viewing angle; low
supported color matching
custom IntelliStation solution to your
power consumption and ambient heat,
systems
particular requirements. Either way,
all in a space-saving design. Set your
the T221 monitor will open your eyes
sights on the IntelliStation T221 Flat
to new possibilities.
Panel Monitor. Seeing is believing.
„ Backed by IBM service and
support, as well as three-year
limited warranty*
1
*See reverse for additional warranty information .
Choose IBM Go to ibm.com or call 1 888 SHOP IBM
today to buy direct, locate an IBM reseller or for more information.
August 2003
IntelliStation T221 Flat Panel Monitor • Technical specifications • Models 9503-DG3/DG5
Need more information?
Part number
Certified graphics adapters
Screen
Technology
9503-DG3, 9503-DG 5 (both stealth black)
NVIDIA Quadro FX 3000/2000/1000, Quadro4 980 XGL (all 8X AGP)
World Wide Web
Active Matrix Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Dual Domain In-Plane Switching (IPS)
22.2"/22.2" [564mm]
0.1245mm
Up to 16.7 million colors
235 (cd/m²)
400:1
Buy Direct
Size/viewable image size
Pixel pitch
Display colors (maximum)
Brightness
Contrast ratio
Functional features 2
Display modes
Maximum addressability
Active display area
(Horizontal x Vertical)
Viewing angle
Power management
User controls
On-screen display (OSD)
Plug & Play
Compatibility
Physical features
Power supply
Signal cable (provided)
Dimensions (HxWxD)
Weight
Tilt
Portrait/Landscape
Operating environment
Storage environment
Power consumption
Regulatory approvals
Limited warranty 1
(parts/labor/backlight)
+/-85° up, down; +/-85° left, right
ENERGY STAR3
Power, brightness, video configuration, information
Yes
VESA DDC 2B
For the most up-to-date compatibility information, visit ibm.com/support
90-137V AC, 180-265V AC
2-1.8m; each cable configured with 2 DVI-D connectors (4 DVI total);
9503-DG5 includes separate dual-link DVI converter plus cables
17.2"x21.5"x7.7" [437x547x196mm]
26.4 lb [12 kg]
5° forward, 30° backward
Landscape only (VESA mounting also provided)
0-35°C, 8-80% Humidity
-20-60°C, 5-95% Humidity
<150W (typical)
UL, CSA, IEC/EN60950, CE, FCC Class A, VCCI Class A, MPR 2,
MPR 3 (Category A), TCO95
3 years
Application
Audience
Engineering
Use high-resolution 3D CAD digital images
instead of hand-built prototypes to shorten
development cycles
Automotive, aerospace,
and industrial design
CAD/CAM
Finance
Replace multiple monitors with a single sleek
T221 on the trading desk or in the back office
Display two full-size, side-by-side A4 and/or letter-size
pages without loss of content; enhances productivity
by reducing the need to pan, scroll and zoom
Banks, trading floors
Digital museums,
pre-press, maintenance
and service providers
Create and analyze complex visualizations
of geophysical surface and subsurface data;
supplements HIVEs with collaboration on your desktop
Petroleum industry,
government agencies,
GIS (mapping, visualization)
Digital content
creation
Display and work with digital images that approach
film-quality realism at up to full widescreen; 48Hz refresh
rate supports real-time video frame rate. Firmware
programmable for supported color matching systems
Image compositing, HD
video editing, digital effects,
collaborative viewing
Medicine
View digitally captured x-rays; collaborate electronically
with experts around the world
Hospitals, doctors’ offices,
insurance companies
Earth resource
management
U.S.
ibm.com/options
ibm.com/pc/ca/accessories
1 888 SHOP IBM
Product and dealer location information
U.S.
1 800 IBM-7255 ext.4753
Canada
1 800 IBM-2255
QUXGA-W (quad stripe/tile and dual stripe modes)
VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA & UXGA
3840x2400
18.8"x11.8" [478x299mm]
Environment
Publishing
U.S.
Canada
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2003
Produced in the USA
8-03
All Rights Reserved
1
2
3
For information regarding IBM’s Statement of
Limited Warranty, call 1 800 772-2227 or contact
your reseller. Copies available upon request. With
respect to on-site service, a technician is sent after
IBM attempts to resolve the problem remotely.
Requires attachment to a suitably configured
system with similarly enabled operating
system software.
As an ENERGY STAR partner, IBM has determined
that this product meets the ENERGY STAR
guidelines for energy efficiency.
IBM reserves the right to alter specifications or
other product information without prior notice.
This publication could include technical
inaccuracies or typographical errors. References
herein to IBM products and services do not imply
that IBM intends to make them available in all
countries in which IBM operates.
IBM PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION “AS IS”
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Some jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of
express or implied warranties in certain
transactions; therefore this statement may not
apply to you.
IBM and IntelliStation are trademarks of IBM
Corporation in the United States and/or other
countries. Other company, product and service
names may be trademarks or service marks of
others.
Not all Options by IBM products are made in the
United States. Country of origin data is available
from your IBM marketing representative or reseller.
G221-6585-02
Image Processing Toolbox 5
Perform image processing, analysis, visualization, and algorithm development
The Image Processing Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of reference-standard algorithms
and graphical tools for image processing, analysis, visualization, and algorithm development.
You can restore noisy or degraded images,
enhance images for improved intelligibility,
extract features, analyze shapes and textures, and
register two images. Most toolbox functions
are written in the open MATLAB® language.
This means that you can inspect the algorithms,
modify the source code, and create your own
custom functions.
The Image Processing Toolbox supports
engineers and scientists in areas such as
biometrics, remote sensing, surveillance,
gene expression, microscopy, semiconductor testing, image sensor design, color
science, and materials science. It also facilitates the learning and teaching of image
processing techniques.
Working with the Image
Processing Toolbox
KEY FEATURES
■ Image enhancement, including linear and nonlinear filtering,
filter design, deblurring, and automatic contrast enhancement
■ Image analysis, including texture analysis, line detection, morphology, edge detection, segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI)
processing, and feature measurement
■ Color image processing, including color space conversions and
device-independent ICC profile import and export
■ Spatial transformations and image registration, including a
graphical tool for control-point selection
■ Image transforms, including FFT, DCT, Radon, and fan-beam
projection
■ DICOM import and export
■ Interactive image display and modular tools for building image GUIs
■ Support for multidimensional image processing
The Image Processing Toolbox supports
images generated by a wide range of devices,
including digital cameras, frame grabbers, satellite and airborne sensors, medical
imaging devices, microscopes, telescopes,
and other scientific instruments. You can
visualize, analyze, and process these images
in many data types, including single- and
double-precision floating-point and signed
or unsigned 8-, 16-, and 32-bit integers.
Importing and Exporting Images
There are several ways to import or export
images into and out of the MATLAB environment for processing. You can use the Image
Acquisition Toolbox (available separately) to
acquire live images from Web cameras, frame
grabbers, DCAM-compatible cameras, and
other devices. Using the Database Toolbox (also
available separately), you can access images
stored in ODBC/JDBC-compliant databases.
The Image Processing Toolbox includes
algorithms for decorrelation stretching
(top), color image processing (center),
and watershed-based segmentation
(bottom). Pears image courtesy of Corel.
LANDSAT image of Montana courtesy of Space
Imaging, LLC.
MATLAB supports standard data and image
formats, including JPEG, TIFF, PNG, HDF,
HDF-EOS, FITS, Microsoft Excel, ASCII, and
binary files. It also supports multiband image
formats, such as LANDSAT. Low-level I/O
functions enable you to develop custom routines for working with any data format.
For medical imaging, the Image Processing
Toolbox supports the DICOM file format.
You can read and write DICOM images and
associated metadata and create custom data
dictionaries in MATLAB.
Pre- and Post-Processing Images
The Image Processing Toolbox provides
reference-standard algorithms for pre- and
post-processing tasks that solve frequent
system problems, such as interfering noise,
low dynamic range, out-of-focus optics,
and the difference in color representation
between input and output devices.
Enhancing Images
Image enhancement techniques in the Image
Processing Toolbox enable you to increase the
signal-to-noise ratio and accentuate image
features by modifying the colors or intensities
of an image. You can:
SURFACE IMAGE
• Perform histogram equalization
• Perform decorrelation stretching
• Remap the dynamic range
• Adjust the gamma value
• Perform linear, median, or adaptive filtering
The toolbox includes specialized filtering
routines and a generalized multidimensional
filtering function that handles integer image
types, multiple boundary padding options, and
convolution and correlation. Predefined filters
and functions for designing and implementing
your own linear filters are also provided.
WATERSHED SEGMENTED IMAGE
Image courtesy of Ian Farrer, University of Cambridge.
Atomic force microscope image of quantum semiconductor dots formed during the deposition of
indium arsenide onto gallium arsenide (left) and
the image segmented using the watershed transform in the Image Processing Toolbox (right).
A typical interactive
session using MATLAB
and the Image
Processing Toolbox to
perform connected comOriginal image of rice grains with
nonuniform background intensity.
Extraction of nonuniform background
intensity using morphological opening.
Binary thresholded image.
Measuring region properties, such as
the eccentricity of the rice grains.
Result of subtraction of
nonuniformity from original.
Histogram plot of resultant image
with automatic thresholding.
ponents analysis on an
image with nonuniform
background intensity.
The Overview window (top left) is used
Deblurring Images
to navigate when looking at magnified
The Image Processing Toolbox supports
several fundamental deblurring algorithms,
including blind, Lucy-Richardson, Wiener,
and regularized filter deconvolution, as well
as conversions between point spread and
optical transfer functions. These functions
help correct blurring caused by out-of-focus
optics, movement by the camera or the
subject during image capture, atmospheric
conditions, short exposure time, and other
factors. All deblurring functions work with
multidimensional images.
views in the Image Tool (center). The Pixel
Region window (bottom) superimposes
pixel values on a highly magnified view
of the image. LANDSAT image of Paris courtesy of
Space Imaging, LLC.
Managing Device-Independent Color
The Image Processing Toolbox enables you
to accurately represent color independently
from input and output devices. This is useful
when developing algorithms for several
different devices or when analyzing the characteristics of a particular device. Specialized
functions in the toolbox let you:
• Convert images between color spaces, such
as RGB, sRGB, YCrCb, XYZ, Lab, and HSV
• Import n-dimensional ICC color profiles
to convert images to a device-independent
color space
• Create new ICC color profiles for specific
input and output devices
• Apply user-defined colormaps to RGB
images to reduce the number of colors
Image Transforms
Transforms such as the FFT and the DCT
play a critical role in many image processing
tasks, including image enhancement, analysis,
restoration, and compression. The Image
Processing Toolbox provides several image
transforms, including the DCT, Radon, and
fan-beam projection. You can use the inverse
Radon transform to reconstruct images from
parallel-beam and fan-beam projection data
(common in tomography applications). Image
transforms are also available in MATLAB and
in the Wavelet Toolbox (available separately).
Analyzing Images
The Image Processing Toolbox provides a
comprehensive suite of reference-standard
algorithms and graphical tools for image
analysis tasks such as statistical analysis, feature
extraction, and property measurement.
Morphological operators enable you to
detect edges, enhance contrast, remove noise,
segment an image into regions, thin regions,
or perform skeletonization on regions.
Statistical functions let you analyze the
general characteristics of an image by:
Morphological functions in the Image
Processing Toolbox include:
• Computing the mean or standard deviation
• Hole filling
• Determining the intensity values along a
• Peak and valley detection
line segment
• Displaying an image histogram or plotting a
profile of intensity values
Edge-detection algorithms let you identify
object boundaries in an image. These algorithms include the Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts,
Canny, and Laplacian of Gaussian methods.
The powerful Canny method can detect true
weak edges without being “fooled” by noise.
Image segmentation algorithms determine
region boundaries in an image. You can
explore many different approaches to image
segmentation, including automatic thresholding,
edge-based methods, and morphology-based
methods such as the watershed transform, often
used to segment touching objects.
• Watershed segmentation
• Reconstruction
• Distance transform
The Image Processing Toolbox also contains
advanced image analysis functions that let you:
• Measure the properties of a specified image
region, such as the area, center of mass, and
bounding box
• Detect lines and extract lines segments from
an image using the Hough transform
• Measure properties, such as surface roughness or color variation, using texture
analysis functions
Required Products
Choosing control points to register
an aerial photo to an orthophoto.
MATLAB
The control point selection tool
Related Products
helps you select landmark points
Image Acquisition Toolbox. Acquire images
and video from industry-standard hardware
and align images. Visible color
aerial photographs courtesy of mPower3/
Emerge. Orthoregistered photographs
courtesy of MassGIS.
Mapping Toolbox. Analyze and visualize
geographic information
Signal Processing Toolbox. Perform signal processing, analysis, and algorithm development
Spatial Transformations and Image
Registration
Visualizing Images
The Image Processing Toolbox provides an
integrated environment for interactive image
display and exploration. You can load an
image from a file or from the MATLAB workspace, adjust the contrast, examine a region
of pixels, view image information, zoom
and pan around the image, and track your
location in a large image using an overview
window. The image display environment is
modular and open, enabling you to customize
the tools provided and add your own.
MATLAB visualization tools let you represent the information in your image data as
histograms, contour plots, montages, pixel
profiles, transparent overlays, and images that
are texture-mapped onto surfaces. You can
view and measure image attributes, such as
the location and value of pixels in an image,
or display color bars to view the mapping of
colors to values. Volume visualization tools in
MATLAB let you create isosurface displays of
multidimensional image data sets.
Spatial transformations alter the spatial
relationships between pixels in an image
by mapping locations in an input image
to new locations in an output image. The
Image Processing Toolbox supports common
transformational operations, such as resizing,
rotating, and interactive cropping of images,
as well as geometric transformations with
arbitrary-dimensional arrays.
Video and Image Processing Blockset.
Design and simulate video and image
processing systems and components
Platform and System Requirements
For platform and system requirements, visit
www.mathworks.com/products/image/ ■
Image registration is important in remote
sensing, medical imaging, and other applications where images must be aligned to
enable quantitative analysis. Using the Image
Processing Toolbox, you can interactively
select points in a pair of images and align the
two images by performing a spatial transformation, such as linear conformal, affine,
projective, polynomial, piecewise linear, or
local weighted mean.
Developing Algorithms
MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox
provide a comprehensive platform for interacting with image data and developing image
processing algorithms. The toolbox adds
reference-standard image processing and
analysis algorithms and image-specific graphical tools to the high-level language, basic
mathematical functions, development tools,
and visualization capabilities of MATLAB.
Tel: 508.647.7000 info@mathworks.com www.mathworks.com
For demos, application examples,
tutorials, user stories, and pricing:
• Visit www.mathworks.com
• Contact The MathWorks directly
US & Canada 508-647-7000
Benelux
France
Germany
Italy
Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
UK
+31 (0)182 53 76 44
+33 (0)1 41 14 67 14
+49 (0)241 470 750
+39 (011) 2274 700
+82 (0)2 6006 5114
+34 93 362 13 00
+46 (8)505 317 00
+41 (0)31 950 60 20
+44 (0)1223 423 200
Visit www.mathworks.com to obtain
contact information for authorized
MathWorks representatives in countries
throughout Asia Pacific, Latin America,
the Middle East, Africa, and the rest
of Europe.
9414v05 08/04
© 2004 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
MATLAB® 7
The Language of Technical Computing
MATLAB® is a high-level technical computing language and interactive environment
for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis, and numerical
computation. Using MATLAB, you can
solve technical computing problems faster
than with traditional programming languages, such as C, C++, and Fortran.
You can use MATLAB in a wide range of
applications, including signal and image
processing, communications, control
design, test and measurement, financial
modeling and analysis, and computational
biology. Add-on toolboxes (collections
of special-purpose MATLAB functions,
available separately) extend the MATLAB
environment to solve particular classes of
problems in these application areas.
MATLAB provides a number of features
for documenting and sharing your work.
You can integrate your MATLAB code
with other languages and applications, and
distribute your MATLAB algorithms and
applications.
The MATLAB environment lets you
develop algorithms, interactively
analyze data, view data files, and
manage projects.
KEY FEATURES
■ High-level language for technical computing
■ Development environment for managing code, files, and data
■ Interactive tools for iterative exploration, design, and problem
solving
■ Mathematical functions for linear algebra, statistics, Fourier
analysis, filtering, optimization, and numerical integration
■ 2-D and 3-D graphics functions for visualizing data
■ Tools for building custom graphical user interfaces
■ Functions for integrating MATLAB based algorithms with
external applications and languages, such as C, C++, Fortran,
Java, COM, and Microsoft Excel
% Generate a
vector of N bits
N = 1024;
2
Bits = rand(N,1)>0.5;
1.5
% Convert to symbols
1
0.5
0
-0.5
A communications modulation algorithm
% Add white Gaussian noise
P = 0.4;
Nz = P*(randn(N,1)+i*randn(N,1));
that generates 1,024 random bits, performs
Rx = Tx + Nz;
-1
-1.5
-2
Tx = 1-2*Bits;
-2
-1
0
1
2
Developing Algorithms and Applications
MATLAB provides a high-level language
and development tools that let you quickly
develop and analyze your algorithms and
applications.
The MATLAB Language
The MATLAB language supports the vector
and matrix operations that are fundamental
to engineering and scientific problems. It
enables fast development and execution.
With the MATLAB language, you can program
and develop algorithms faster than with traditional languages because you do not need to
perform low-level administrative tasks, such as
declaring variables, specifying data types, and
allocating memory. In many cases, MATLAB
eliminates the need for ‘for’ loops. As a result,
one line of MATLAB code can often replace
several lines of C or C++ code.
At the same time, MATLAB provides all
the features of a traditional programming
language, including arithmetic operators,
flow control, data structures, data types,
object-oriented programming (OOP), and
debugging features.
% Display constellation
plot(Rx,’.’);
axis([-2 2 -2 2]);
modulation, adds complex Gaussian noise,
and plots the result—all in just 9 lines of
MATLAB code.
axis square, grid;
MATLAB lets you execute commands or
groups of commands one at a time, without
compiling and linking, enabling you to
quickly iterate to the optimal solution.
Development Tools
For fast execution of heavy matrix and vector
computations, MATLAB uses processoroptimized libraries. For general-purpose
scalar computations, MATLAB generates
machine-code instructions using its JIT
(Just-In-Time) compilation technology.
MATLAB Editor—Provides standard editing
and debugging features, such as setting
breakpoints and single stepping
This technology, which is available on most
platforms, provides execution speeds that
rival those of traditional programming
languages.
MATLAB includes development tools that
help you implement your algorithm efficiently.
These include the following:
M-Lint Code Checker—Analyzes your code
and recommends changes to improve its
performance and maintainability
MATLAB Profiler—Records the time spent
executing each line of code
Directory Reports—Scan all the files in a
directory and report on code efficiency, file differences, file dependencies, and code coverage
An M-Lint Code Checker
report that includes recommendations for making the
code faster and easier to
maintain.
GUIDE layout of a wavelet analysis GUI (top) together
HDF data from a satellite, selected and imported into MATLAB using the
with the completed interface (bottom).
MATLAB HDF Import Tool.
Designing Graphical User Interfaces
Data Access
You can use the interactive tool GUIDE
(Graphical User Interface Development
Environment) to lay out, design, and edit
user interfaces. GUIDE lets you include list
boxes, pull-down menus, push buttons, radio
buttons, and sliders, as well as MATLAB
plots and ActiveX controls. Alternatively,
you can create GUIs programmatically using
MATLAB functions.
MATLAB is an efficient platform for accessing
data from files, other applications, databases,
and external devices. You can read data from
popular file formats, such as Microsoft Excel;
ASCII text or binary files; image, sound, and
video files; and scientific files, such as HDF
and HDF5. Low-level binary file I/O functions
let you work with data files in any format.
Additional functions let you read data from Web
pages and XML.
Analyzing and Accessing Data
You can call other applications and languages, such as C, C++, COM objects, DLLs,
Java, Fortran, and Microsoft Excel, and
access FTP sites and Web services. Using the
Database Toolbox, you can also access data
from ODBC/JDBC-compliant databases.
You can acquire data from hardware
devices, such as your computer’s serial port
or sound card. Using the Data Acquisition
Toolbox, you can stream live, measured data
directly into MATLAB for analysis and visualization. The Instrument Control Toolbox
enables communication with GPIB and VXI
hardware.
MATLAB supports the entire data analysis
process, from acquiring data from external
devices and databases, through preprocessing,
visualization, and numerical analysis, to producing presentation-quality output.
Data Analysis
Plot showing curve fitted to the
MATLAB provides interactive tools and
command-line functions for data analysis
operations, including:
18
monthly averaged atmospheric
Pressure
shape-preserving
7th degree
16
pressure differences between Easter
Island and Darwin, Australia.
14
12
Pressure
• Interpolating and decimating
• Extracting sections of data, scaling, and
averaging
• Thresholding and smoothing
• Correlation, Fourier analysis, and filtering
• 1-D peak, valley, and zero finding
• Basic statistics and curve fitting
• Matrix analysis
Pressure differences between Easter Island and Darwin, Australia
10
8
6
4
2
0
5
10
15
Month
20
25
30
Visualizing Data
All the graphics features that are required to
visualize engineering and scientific data are
available in MATLAB. These include 2-D and
3-D plotting functions, 3-D volume visualization functions, tools for interactively creating
plots, and the ability to export results to all
popular graphics formats. You can customize
your plots by adding multiple axes; changing
line colors and markers; adding annotation,
LaTEX equations, and legends; and drawing
shapes.
2-D Plotting
creating new subplots, changing properties such as colors and fonts, and adding annotation.
You can visualize vectors of data with 2-D
plotting functions that create:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Line, area, bar, and pie charts
Direction and velocity plots
Histograms
Polygons and surfaces
Scatter/bubble plots
Animations
16
3-D Plotting and Volume Visualization
Creating and Editing Plots Interactively
MATLAB provides functions for visualizing
2-D matrices, 3-D scalar, and 3-D vector
data. You can use these functions to visualize and understand large, often complex,
multidimensional data. You can specify
plot characteristics, such as camera viewing
angle, perspective, lighting effect, light source
locations, and transparency. 3-D plotting
functions include:
MATLAB provides interactive tools for
designing and modifying graphics. From a
MATLAB figure window, you can perform the
following tasks:
• Surface, contour, and mesh
• Image plots
• Cone, slice, stream, and isosurface
Emission Tests
18
A collection of graphs, constructed interactively by dragging data sets onto the plot window,
Test 1
Quadratic Fit
Test 2
CO2
14
Importing and Exporting Graphic Files
12
10
y=
0.29*x2 + 9*x
MATLAB lets you read and write common
graphical and data file formats, such as GIF,
JPEG, BMP, EPS, TIFF, PNG, HDF, AVI, and
PCX. As a result, you can export MATLAB
plots to other applications, such as Microsoft
Word and Microsoft PowerPoint, or to desktop
publishing software. Before exporting, you
can create and apply style templates, covering
characteristics such as layout, font, and line
thickness, to meet publication
specifications.
55
8
6
4
10
• Drag and drop new data sets onto the figure
• Change the properties of any object on the
figure
• Zoom, rotate, pan, and change camera angle
and lighting
• Add annotations and data tips
• Draw shapes
• Generate an M-code function that can be
reused with different data
12
14
16
Airfuel Ratio
18
20
Line plots of multiple engine emission test results,
with a curve fitted to the raw data.
A 3-D isosurface plot revealing the geodesic dome
structure of a carbon-60 fullerene molecule.
Performing Numeric Computation
MATLAB contains mathematical, statistical, and engineering functions to support
all common engineering and science operations. These functions, developed by experts
in mathematics, are the foundation of the
MATLAB language. The core math functions
use the LAPACK and BLAS linear algebra
subroutine libraries and the FFTW Discrete
Fourier Transform library. Because these
processor-dependent libraries are optimized
to the different platforms that MATLAB supports, they execute faster than the equivalent
C or C++ code.
Publishing Results and Deploying
Applications
MATLAB provides the following types of
functions for performing mathematical
operations and analyzing data:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MATLAB provides a number of features for
documenting and sharing your work. You
can integrate your MATLAB code with other
languages and applications and deploy your
MATLAB algorithms and applications as
stand-alone programs or software modules.
Matrix manipulation and linear algebra
Polynomials and interpolation
Fourier analysis and filtering
Data analysis and statistics
Optimization and numerical integration
Ordinary differential equations
Partial differential equations
Sparse matrix operations
Publishing Results
MATLAB can perform arithmetic on a
wide range of data types, including doubles,
singles, and integers.
Add-on toolboxes (available separately)
provide specialized mathematical computing
functions for areas including signal processing, optimization, statistics, symbolic math,
partial differential equation solving, and
curve fitting.
MATLAB lets you export your results as
plots or as complete reports. You can export
plots to all popular graphics file formats
and then import them into other packages, such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft
PowerPoint. Using the MATLAB Editor, you
can automatically publish your MATLAB
code in HTML, Word, LaTEX, and other
formats.
To create more complex reports, such as
simulation runs and multiple parameter
tests, you can use the MATLAB Report
Generator (available separately).
Plot showing the complex
valued gamma function on
Plot of complex function
the complex plane, where the
height of the surface is the
atan(z). Contour lines
Function atan(z) on complex plane
2
for the real and imaginary
modulus, or absolute value,
and the contour lines are
parts are superimposed
on a color image showing
1
modulus and phase.
magnitude and phase.
0
1
2
2
1
0
1
2
M-code program (left) published to HTML (right)
using the MATLAB Editor. Results output to the
command window or to plots are captured and
included, and the comments are turned into section
headings and body text in the HTML.
Integrating MATLAB Code with Other
Languages and Applications
Deploying Applications
MATLAB provides functions for
integrating C and C++ code, Fortran code,
COM objects, and Java code with your
applications. You can call DLLs, Java classes,
and ActiveX controls. Using the MATLAB
engine library, you can also call MATLAB
from C, C++, or Fortran code.
You can create your algorithm in MATLAB
and distribute it to other MATLAB users as
M-code.
Using the MATLAB Compiler (available
separately), you can deploy your algorithm,
as a stand-alone application or as a software
module that you include in your project, to
users who do not have MATLAB.
Additional products let you convert your
algorithm into a software module that is
callable from COM, or Microsoft Excel.
Platform and System Requirements
For platform and system requirements, visit
www.mathworks.com/products/matlab
Helicopter sound identification application,
For demos, application examples,
tutorials, user stories, and pricing:
deployed and running outside MATLAB. The
• Visit www.mathworks.com
application, developed in MATLAB, directly
• Contact The MathWorks directly
acquires signals from measurement hardware,
performs analysis and plotting, and includes
GUI controls.
US & Canada 508-647-7000
Benelux
France
Germany
Italy
Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
UK
+31 (0)182 53 76 44
+33 (0)1 41 14 67 14
+49 (0)241 470 750
+39 (011) 2274 700
+82 (0)2 6006 5114
+34 93 362 13 00
+46 (8)505 317 00
+41 (0)31 950 60 20
+44 (0)1223 423 200
Visit www.mathworks.com to obtain
contact information for authorized
MathWorks representatives in countries
throughout Asia Pacific, Latin America,
the Middle East, Africa, and the rest
of Europe.
Tel: 508.647.7000 info@mathworks.com www.mathworks.com
91199v00 05/04
© 2004 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
The MathWorks Products and Prices
$
North America Individual • April 2005
MATLAB® Product Family
page 1 of 4
Individual
MATLAB 1
Distributed Computing Toolbox 23, 24
EW
N
NEW MATLAB Distributed Computing Engine
1,900
1,000
25, 26
Math and Optimization
Optimization Toolbox
Symbolic Math Toolbox
Extended Symbolic Math Toolbox 8
Partial Differential Equation Toolbox
Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox
see MATLAB Distributed
Computing Engine price list
21
Statistics and Data Analysis
Statistics Toolbox
Neural Network Toolbox
Curve Fitting Toolbox
Spline Toolbox
Model-Based Calibration Toolbox 2, 9, 14, 16
Bioinformatics Toolbox 18
Control System Design and Analysis
Control System Toolbox
System Identification Toolbox 10
Fuzzy Logic Toolbox
Robust Control Toolbox 12
Model Predictive Control Toolbox 13
Signal Processing and Communications
Signal Processing Toolbox
Communications Toolbox 5
Filter Design Toolbox 5, 22
Filter Design HDL Coder 5, 6, 17
Wavelet Toolbox 10, 11
Fixed-Point Toolbox
RF Toolbox
Link for Code Composer Studio™ 2, 5
Link for ModelSim® 3, 19
900
600
900
900
700
800
900
500
400
7,000
1,000
1,000
900
900
1,800
900
800
1,000
1,000
2,000
900
1,000
1,000
1,000
2,000
Individual
Image Processing
Image Processing Toolbox 10
Image Acquisition Toolbox 2, 11
Mapping Toolbox
900
900
900
Test & Measurement
Data Acquisition Toolbox 2
Instrument Control Toolbox 3
Image Acquisition Toolbox 2, 11
OPC Toolbox 2
900
700
900
1,000
Financial Modeling and Analysis
Financial Toolbox 9
Financial Derivatives Toolbox 7
GARCH Toolbox 9
Financial Time Series Toolbox 7
Datafeed Toolbox 2
Fixed-Income Toolbox 7
900
1,000
1,000
600
1,000
1,000
Application Deployment
MATLAB Compiler 20
Excel Link 2
MATLAB Web Server 4
5,000
200
2,000
Notes
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
17:
18:
19:
20:
21:
22:
23:
24:
Application Deployment Targets
MATLAB Builder for COM 2, 15
MATLAB Builder for Excel 2, 15
3,000
4,000
Database Connectivity and Reporting
Database Toolbox
MATLAB Report Generator
1,000
500
© 2005 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. TI , Code Composer Studio, C2000, and C6000 are trademarks of Texas Instruments, Inc. Motorola is a
registered trademark of Motorola, Inc. Infineon and C166 are registered trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG. ModelSim is a registered trademark of Mentor Graphics Corporation. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
25 :
26.
Prerequisite for all other products
Available only for Windows®
Available only for Windows, Solaris®, or Linux
Available only for Windows NT, Solaris, or Linux
Requires Signal Processing Toolbox
Requires Filter Design Toolbox
Requires Financial Toolbox
Includes Symbolic Math Toolbox functionality
Requires Statistics and Optimization toolboxes
Signal Processing Toolbox recommended
Image Processing Toolbox recommended
Requires Control System Toolbox
Control System Toolbox recommended
Requires Simulink®
Requires MATLAB Compiler
Requires Extended Symbolic Math Toolbox
Requires Fixed-Point Toolbox
Requires Statistics Toolbox
Requires Simulink and Simulink Fixed Point for use
with Simulink features
Available only for Windows or Linux
Requires Optimization Toolbox
Requires Fixed-Point Toolbox to create fixed point
filters
Requires access to MATLAB Distributed Computing
Engine
Available only for Windows, Solaris, Linux (32 &
64 bit), and Mac
Requires access to Distributed Computing Toolbox
MATLAB not required to run
Prices are per unit, listed in U.S. dollars, valid for program
installation and use in the U.S. or Canada only, and are
subject to change without notice.
Products are available on Windows, UNIX®, Linux, and
Mac OS® X unless otherwise indicated. For information on
currently supported hardware and operating systems, visit
www.mathworks.com/support/sysreq/
Please contact your sales representative for pricing on
enterprise-based license options.
info@mathworks.com 508.647.7000
The MathWorks Products and Prices
North America Individual • April 2005
Simulink® Product Family
page 2 of 4
Individual
Simulink 1, 3, 26
Simulink Accelerator
Simulink Report Generator 7
2,800
300
500
Fixed Point Modeling
Simulink Fixed Point 8
1,000
Event-Based Modeling
Stateflow® 26
$
2,800
Physical Modeling
SimMechanics
SimDriveline
SimPowerSystems
4,000
3,000
3,000
Simulation Graphics
Virtual Reality Toolbox 16
Gauges Blockset 2
1,000
700
Control System Design and Analysis
Simulink Control Design 9, 23
Simulink Response Optimization 21,24
Simulink Parameter Estimation 21, 24
Aerospace Blockset 9
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
Signal Processing and Communications
Signal Processing Blockset 4, 26
Communications Blockset 4, 12, 13
CDMA Reference Blockset 4, 12, 13, 15
RF Blockset 4, 12, 17
Video and Image Processing Blockset 4, 12, 27
1,000
1,000
2,000
2,000
1,000
Code Generation
Real-Time Workshop® 25
Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder 5, 25
Stateflow® Coder 6, 25
7,500
5,000
2,800
Individual
PC-Based Rapid Control Prototyping and
HIL
xPC Target 2, 5
4,000
xPC Target Embedded Option 11
4,000
xPC TargetBox™11
see xPC TargetBox price list
Real-Time Windows Target 2, 5
2,000
Embedded Targets 2, 5
Embedded Target for Infineon C166® Microcontrollers 18
Embedded Target for Motorola® HC12 18
Embedded Target for Motorola® MPC555 18
Embedded Target for OSEK/VDX® 18
Embedded Target for TI C2000™ DSP 4, 19, 22
Embedded Target for TI C6000™ DSP 4, 12,
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
14
Verification, Validation, and Testing
Link for Code Composer Studio™ 2, 4
Link for ModelSim™ 10, 20
Simulink Verification and Validation
1,000
2,000
1,000
Notes
1: Requires MATLAB
2: Available only for Windows
3: Prerequisite for all products on this page
4: Requires Signal Processing Toolbox
5: Requires Real-Time Workshop
6: Requires Stateflow
7: Requires MATLAB Report Generator
8: Requires Fixed-Point Toolbox
9: Requires Control System Toolbox
10: Available only for Windows, Solaris, or Linux
11: Requires xPC Target
12: Requires Signal Processing Blockset
13: Requires Communications Toolbox
14: Requires Link for Code Composer Studio. Simulink
Fixed Point recommended
15: Requires Communications Blockset
16: Requires Simulink for blockset portion of product
17: Requires RF Toolbox
18: Requires Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder
19: Requires Link for Code Composer Studio and Simulink
Fixed Point
20: Requires Simulink and Simulink Fixed Point for use
with Simulink features
21: Requires Optimization Toolbox
22: Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder recommended
23: Optimization Toolbox recommended
24: Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox
recommended
25: Requires Simulink Fixed Point for generating fixed
point code
26: Requires Simulink Fixed Point for simulation of fixed
point data types
27: Requires Image Processing Toolbox
Prices are per unit, listed in U.S. dollars, valid for program
installation and use in the U.S. or Canada only, and are
subject to change without notice.
Products are available on Windows, UNIX, Linux, and
Mac OS X unless otherwise indicated. For information on
currently supported hardware and operating systems, visit
www.mathworks.com/support/sysreq/
Please contact your sales representative for pricing on
enterprise-based license options.
© 2005 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. TI , Code Composer Studio, C2000, and C6000 are trademarks of Texas Instruments, Inc. Motorola is a
registered trademark of Motorola, Inc. Infineon and C166 are registered trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG. ModelSim is a registered trademark of Mentor Graphics Corporation. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
info@mathworks.com 508.647.7000
Licensing and Ordering Information
$
North America Individual • April 2005
page 3 of 4
SOFTWARE PRODUCT LICENSING OPTIONS
The MathWorks standard licensing terms apply to the use of
all MathWorks products. Refer to the License Agreement at
www.mathworks.com/license for complete details and definitions
of terms.
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(for example, at work and at home), provided that the products
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Group License Group administered licenses are intended
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for Individual licenses. A Group license may also be installed to
operate for the set of designated Named Users over a network. It
is the responsibility of the Licensee to track and control the number
of users of each licensed product. The minimum number of Named
User licenses that must be enrolled in Software Maintenance
Service is 5.
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INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
Prices and terms are valid for product use and installation in the
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© 2005 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. TI , Code Composer Studio, C2000, and C6000 are trademarks of Texas Instruments, Inc. Motorola is a
registered trademark of Motorola, Inc. Infineon and C166 are registered trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG. ModelSim is a registered trademark of Mentor Graphics Corporation. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
info@mathworks.com 508.647.7000
Training Courses
$
North America Individual • April 2005
page 4 of 4
MATLAB Training
ML01 MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques
TRAINING AT YOUR SITE
2 days $1,100
ML02 MATLAB External Application Programming Interface
1 day
$550
ML03 MATLAB for Application Integration and Distribution
1 day
$550
ML04 Advanced MATLAB Programming Techniques
1 day
$600
ML05 MATLAB for Building Graphical User Interfaces
1 day
$600
MATLAB Application Training
AU01 MATLAB for Automotive Data Analysis
FI01
2 days $1,100
MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques for
Financial Applications
2 days $1,100
TM01 MATLAB for Data Acquisition and Instrument Control
1 day
SG01 MATLAB for Signal Processing
2 days $1,100
IP01
2 days $1,200
MATLAB for Image Processing
$600
OP01 MATLAB Based Optimization Techniques
1 day
$600
ST01 Statistical Methods in MATLAB
1 day
$600
SL01 Simulink for Dynamic System Modeling
2 days $1,100
SL02 Advanced Simulink Modeling Techniques
1 day
$600
SL03 Simulink S-Functions for System Algorithm Modeling
1 day
$600
SF01 Stateflow for Logic-Driven System Modeling
1 day
$550
SF02 Advanced Stateflow Modeling Techniques
1 day
$600
RT01 Real-Time Workshop Fundamentals
1 day
$550
1 day
$600
1 day
$600
RT02 Developing Real-Time Workshop Deployment Solutions to
RT03 xPC Target for Rapid Prototyping
RT04 Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder for Embedded
Software Development
SG02 Simulink for Signal Processing
Three-, four-, and five-day training sessions
are assembled from the list of individual
courses. Prices are based on the number of
consecutive days of training.
One Day of Training
$5,500 Up to 10 students
$200 Each additional student
Two Days of Training
$10,000 Up to 10 students
$400 Each additional student
Three Days of Training
Simulink Training
Target Embedded Microprocessors
The MathWorks provides qualified instructors and
materials for courses at your site. Class sizes range from
a minimum of ten students to a maximum of twenty students, unless other arrangements are made in advance.
2 days $1,200
1 day
$550
Simulink Application Training
AU02 Simulink for Automotive System Design
2 days $1,100
AU03 Stateflow for Automotive Logic Modeling
1 day
$550
AU04 Simulink S-Functions for Automotive Algorithm Modeling
1 day
$600
CT01 MATLAB and Simulink for Control Design Acceleration
2 days $1,200
CM01 Simulink for Communication Systems
1 day
$13,500 Up to 10 students
$600 Each additional student
Four Days of Training
$17,000 Up to 10 students
$800 Each additional student
Five Days of Training
$20,000 Up to 10 students
$1,000 Each additional student
The MathWorks may offer advanced or customized
courses at your location upon request.
For pricing and availability, please contact your sales
representative or send e-mail to info@mathworks.com
All courses and included materials will be in accordance with our Corporate Training Agreement.
Discounts do not apply.
PUBLIC TRAINING
Throughout the year, The MathWorks offers training
courses at our facility in Natick, MA, and at selected
locations throughout the U.S.and Canada. We offer
beginner, advanced, and application-specific courses.
Visit www.mathworks.com/training for course information.
TRAINING CREDITS
Training Credits can be purchased in advance in increments of $500 and can be applied to the cost of any
course, including on-site training. Credits are good for
one year from the date of purchase.
E-LEARNING
E-Learning expands the MathWorks curriculum to provide the flexibility of working in your own surroundings.
It allows you to take most of our courses interactively,
without leaving your office.
Contact your sales representative or send an e-mail to
info@mathworks.com for more details.
HOW TO ORDER
• Visit www.mathworks.com/store to purchase
public training courses online via credit card.
• Visit www.mathworks.com/training to get
more information and request training at your site.
• Call 508-647-7000 option 3.
• Send e-mail to info@mathworks.com.
Please check www.mathworks.com/training
for course dates and descriptions.
$600
91012v19
© 2005 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. TI , Code Composer Studio, C2000, and C6000 are trademarks of Texas Instruments, Inc. Motorola is a
registered trademark of Motorola, Inc. Infineon and C166 are registered trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG. ModelSim is a registered trademark of Mentor Graphics Corporation. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
info@mathworks.com 508.647.7000
Optimization Toolbox 3
Solve standard and large-scale optimization problems
The Optimization Toolbox extends the
MATLAB® technical computing environment
with tools and widely used algorithms for
standard and large-scale optimization. These
algorithms solve constrained and unconstrained continuous and discrete problems.
The toolbox includes functions for linear
programming, quadratic programming, nonlinear optimization, nonlinear least squares,
nonlinear equations, multi-objective optimization, and binary integer programming.
MATLAB and the Optimization Toolbox
let you easily define models, gather data,
manage model formulations, and analyze
results. They give engineers and scientists
the tools needed to find optimal solutions,
perform tradeoff analysis, balance multiple
design alternatives, and quickly incorporate
optimization methods in their algorithms
and models.
Toolbox functions, which can be accessed via
the MATLAB command line, are written in the
open MATLAB language. This means that you
can inspect the algorithms, modify the source
code, and create your own custom functions.
A blurred image is recovered using the
large-scale linear least squares algorithm
in the Optimization Toolbox.
KEY FEATURES
■ Tools for defining, solving, and assessing optimization
problems
■ Solvers for nonlinear optimization and multi-objective
optimization
■ Solvers for nonlinear least-squares, data fitting, and nonlinear
equations
■ Methods for solving quadratic and linear programming
problems
■ Methods for solving binary integer programming problems
An optimization routine is run at the command line (left), and calls M-files defining the
objective function (top right) and constraint equations (bottom right).
Defining, Solving, and Assessing
Optimization Problems
The Optimization Toolbox includes the
most widely used methods for performing
minimization and maximization. The toolbox
implements both standard and large-scale
algorithms, enabling you to solve problems
by exploiting their sparsity or structure. The
command-line interface gives you access to tools
to define, run, and assess your optimization.
You can further manipulate and diagnose
your optimization using the diagnostic
outputs from the optimization methods.
Using an output function, you can also write
results to files, create your own stopping
criteria, and write your own graphical user
interfaces to run the toolbox solvers.
Nonlinear Optimization and MultiObjective Optimization
Unconstrained Nonlinear Optimization
The Optimization Toolbox uses three
methods to solve unconstrained nonlinear
minimization problems: quasi-Newton,
Nelder-Mead, and trust-region.
The Quasi-Newton method uses a mixed
quadratic and cubic line search procedure
and the BFGS formula for updating the
approximation of the Hessian matrix.
Nelder-Mead is a direct-search method that
uses only function values (does not require
derivatives) and handles non-smooth objective functions.
Trust-region is used for large-scale problems
where sparsity or structure can be exploited.
The trust region method, which is based
on an interior-reflective Newton method,
enables you to calculate Hessian-times-vector
products in a function without having to
form the Hessian matrix explicitly. You can
also adjust the bandwidth of the preconditioner used in the Newton iteration.
Constrained Nonlinear Optimization
Constrained nonlinear optimization problems are composed of nonlinear objective
functions and may be subject to linear and
nonlinear constraints. The Optimization
Toolbox uses two methods to solve these
problems: trust-region and active set sequential quadratic programming.
Trust-region is used for bound constrained
problems or linear equalities only.
Active set sequential quadratic programming
is used for general nonlinear optimization.
A user-defined output function (top) plots the
current iterate at each algorithm iteration (left).
The Optimization Toolbox also provides details for
each iteration (bottom).
Multi-Objective Optimization
Multi-objective optimization is concerned
with the minimization of multiple objective
functions that are subject to a set of constraints. The Optimization Toolbox provides
functions for solving two formulations of
multi-objective optimization problems: goal
attainment and minimax.
The goal attainment problem involves reducing the value of a linear or nonlinear vector
function to attain the goal values given in a
goal vector. The relative importance of the
goals is indicated using a weight vector. The
goal attainment problem may also be subject
to linear and nonlinear constraints.
The minimax problem involves minimizing
the worst-case value of a set of multivariate
functions, possibly subject to linear and nonlinear constraints.
The Optimization Toolbox transforms both
types of multi-objective problems into standard constrained optimization problems and
then solves them using a sequential quadratic
programming approach.
Nonlinear Least Squares, Data Fitting, and
Nonlinear Equations
The Optimization Toolbox can solve
nonlinear least squares problems,
data fitting problems, and systems of
nonlinear equations.
The toolbox uses three methods for
solving nonlinear least squares problems:
trust-region, Levenberg-Marquardt, and
Gauss-Newton.
Trust-region is used for unconstrained and
bound constrained problems.
Levenberg-Marquardt is a line search
method whose search direction is a cross
between the Gauss-Newton and steepest
descent directions.
Gauss-Newton is a line search method that
chooses a search direction based on the
solution to a linear least squares problem.
The toolbox also includes a specialized interface for data-fitting problems to find the
member of a family of nonlinear functions that
best fits a set of data points. The toolbox uses
the same methods for data-fitting problems as
it uses for nonlinear least-squares problems.
The Optimization Toolbox implements a
dogleg trust region method for solving a
system of nonlinear equations where there are
as many equations as unknowns. The toolbox
can also solve this problem using either the
trust-region, the Levenberg-Marquandt, or
the Gauss-Newton method.
Quadratic and Linear Programming
Quadratic Programming
Quadratic programming problems involve
minimizing a multivariate quadratic function subject to linear equality and inequality
constraints. The toolbox implements three
methods for solving these problems: trustregion, preconditioned conjugate gradient,
and active set.
Trust-region is used for bound constrained
problems.
Preconditioned conjugate gradient is used
for problems subject to equality constraints.
Active set minimizes the objective at each
iteration over the active set (a subset of the
constraints that are locally active) until it
reaches a solution.
Linear Programming
Linear programming problems consist of a
linear expression for the objective function
and linear equality and inequality constraints.
Two methods are used to solve this type of
problem: simplex and interior point.
Binary Integer Programming
Required Products
Binary integer programming problems
involve minimizing a linear objective function subject to linear equality and inequality
constraints. Each variable in the optimal
solution must be either a 0 or a 1.
MATLAB
The Optimization Toolbox solves these problems using a branch-and-bound algorithm that:
Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search
Toolbox. Solve optimization problems using
genetic and direct search algorithms
• Searches for a feasible binary integer
solution
• Updates the best binary point found as the
search tree grows
• Verifies that no better solution is possible
by solving a series of linear programming
relaxation problems
Related Products
Curve Fitting Toolbox. Perform model
fitting and analysis
Neural Network Toolbox. Design and
simulate neural networks
Spline Toolbox. Create and manipulate
spline approximation models of data
Statistics Toolbox. Apply statistical
algorithms and probability models
For more information on related products, visit
www.mathworks.com/products/optimization
Platform and System Requirements
For information on platform and system
requirements, visit www.mathworks.com/
products/optimization ■
The interior point method is based on a
primal-dual predictor-corrector algorithm,
and is used for large-scale linear problems.
The simplex method is a systematic procedure for generating and testing candidate
vertex solutions to a linear program.
For demos, application examples,
tutorials, user stories, and pricing:
• Visit www.mathworks.com
• Contact The MathWorks directly
US & Canada 508-647-7000
Benelux
France
Germany
Italy
Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
UK
+31 (0)182 53 76 44
+33 (0)1 41 14 67 14
+49 (0)241 470 750
+39 (011) 2274 700
+82 (0)2 6006 5114
+34 93 362 13 00
+46 (8)505 317 00
+41 (0)31 950 60 20
+44 (0)1223 423 200
Visit www.mathworks.com to obtain
contact information for authorized
MathWorks representatives in countries
throughout Asia Pacific, Latin America,
the Middle East, Africa, and the rest
of Europe.
Tel: 508.647.7000 info@mathworks.com www.mathworks.com
8513v04 06/04
© 2004 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Signal Processing Toolbox 6
Perform signal processing, analysis, and algorithm development
The Signal Processing Toolbox is a collection of industry-standard algorithms
for analog and digital signal processing. It
provides graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
for interactive design and analysis and
command-line functions for advanced
algorithm development.
Most toolbox functions are implemented in
the open MATLAB® language. This means
that you can inspect the algorithms, modify
the source code, and create your own
custom functions. You can use the toolbox
for applications such as speech and audio
processing, wired and wireless communications, financial modeling and analysis, and
medical imaging and instrumentation.
KEY FEATURES
■ Comprehensive set of signal and linear system models
■ Tools for finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse
response (IIR) digital filter design, analysis, and implementation
■ Tools for analog filter design
■ Access to the most widely used transforms, such as fast Fourier
and discrete cosine
■ Tools for spectral analysis and statistical signal processing
■ Functions for parametric time-series modeling
■ Routines for waveform generation, including a Gaussian pulse
generator, a periodic sinc generator, and a pulse train generator
■ Extensive data windowing algorithms
■ Graphical user interfaces for designing, analyzing, and visualizing signals, filters, and windows
The magnitude response of a lowpass filter, designed in the Filter
Design and Analysis Tool (left), and a print preview of the filter’s
response (above), created in the Filter Visualization Tool.
A spectrogram of the input signal showing the
signal’s time-frequency distribution and power
spectral density, created using the Signal
Processing Toolbox spectrogram demo.
Signal and Linear System Models
Transforms
The Signal Processing Toolbox provides
a broad range of models for representing
signals and linear time-invariant systems,
including representations for transfer functions, state space, and zero-pole gain. The
toolbox also includes functions for transforming models from one representation to
another.
The Signal Processing toolbox provides tools
for computing the most widely used transforms. These include discrete Fourier, discrete
cosine, Hilbert, and Goertzel.
Digital Filter Design Methods
A full suite of design methods is available
for finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters.
These methods support the rapid design and
evaluation of lowpass, highpass, bandpass,
bandstop, and multiband filters, such as
Butterworth, Chebyshev, elliptic, Yule-Walker,
window-based, least squares, and ParksMcClellan (real and complex). Available filter
structures include the direct forms I and II,
lattice, lattice-ladder, and second-order sections.
Spectral Analysis Tools
The Signal Processing Toolbox provides capabilities for frequency-domain analysis and
spectral estimation, including tools for measuring power spectral density, mean-square
spectrum, and average power. Several of these
methods are based on a highly optimized
fast Fourier transform. The spectral analysis
methods include Welch, Burg, modified covariance, Yule-Walker, the multitaper method,
and the MUSIC method.
GUIs for Filter Design, Analysis, and
Visualization
The GUIs in the Signal Processing Toolbox let
you interactively view and measure signals,
design and apply filters, design and analyze
spectral windows, and perform spectral
analysis while exploring the effects of different
parameters and methods. The GUIs are particularly useful for visualizing time-frequency
information, spectra, and pole-zero locations.
For example, you can interactively design
a filter by graphically placing the poles and
zeros in the z-plane.
The Signal Processing Toolbox provides
four GUIs: FDATool, FVTool, SPTool, and
WINTool.
FDATool provides access to most FIR and
IIR filter design methods in the toolbox.
Additionally, you can:
• Design filters by graphically placing poles
and zeros in the z-plane
• Analyze filters by examining magnitude,
phase, impulse, and step responses, group
delay, and pole-zero plots
Magnitude response of the specified
digital filter, created using FVTool.
Data markers determine the frequency and magnitude values of
any chosen data point.
• Generate C header files
• Import designed filters and filter
coefficients stored in the MATLAB
workspace and export filter coefficients
• Access additional filter design methods and
quantization features in the Filter Design
Toolbox (available separately)
FVTool lets you view the characteristics of
a designed or imported filter, including its
magnitude response, phase response, group
delay, pole-zero plot, impulse response, and
step response.
SPTool provides access to signal, filter, and
spectral analysis functions. You can:
• Measure and analyze the time-domain
information of one or more signals and
send audio signal to the PC’s sound card
• Apply the filter to a selected signal
• Graphically analyze frequency-domain
data using a variety of spectral estimation
methods, including Burg, FFT, multitaper
(MTM), MUSIC, eigenvector, Welch, and
Yule-Walker AR
FDATool includes a Pole/Zero Editor that lets you design a filter
through the graphical placement of poles and zeros.
The Window Viewer in WINTool displays the time-domain and frequency-domain representations of multiple windows for easy comparison.
WINTool lets you design and analyze spectral windows. You can:
Required Products
Platform and System Requirements
MATLAB
• Display time-domain and frequencydomain representations of the selected
window(s)
Related Products
For platform and system requirements, visit
www.mathworks.com/products/signal ■
• Export window vectors or window objects
to the MATLAB workspace, a MAT-file, or a
text file
• View typical window measurements, such
as leakage factor, relative sidelobe attenuation, and mainlobe width
• Visualize, annotate, and print time-domain
and frequency-domain plots
Communications Toolbox. Design and
analyze algorithms for the physical layer of
communication systems
Filter Design Toolbox. Design and analyze
fixed-point, adaptive, and multirate filters
Image Processing Toolbox. Perform image
processing, analysis, and algorithm development
Signal Processing Blockset. Design and
simulate signal processing systems and
devices
Wavelet Toolbox. Analyze and synthesize
signals and images using wavelet techniques
For more information on related products,
visit www.mathworks.com/products/signal
Tel: 508.647.7000 info@mathworks.com www.mathworks.com
For demos, application examples,
tutorials, user stories, and pricing:
• Visit www.mathworks.com
• Contact The MathWorks directly
US & Canada 508-647-7000
Benelux
France
Germany
Italy
Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
UK
+31 (0)182 53 76 44
+33 (0)1 41 14 67 14
+49 (0)241 470 750
+39 (011) 2274 700
+82 (0)2 6006 5114
+34 93 362 13 00
+46 (8)505 317 00
+41 (0)31 950 60 20
+44 (0)1223 423 200
Visit www.mathworks.com to obtain
contact information for authorized
MathWorks representatives in countries
throughout Asia Pacific, Latin America,
the Middle East, Africa, and the rest
of Europe.
9317v05 05/04
© 2004 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Statistics Toolbox 5
Apply statistical algorithms and probability models
The Statistics Toolbox provides engineers,
scientists, researchers, financial analysts, and
statisticians with a comprehensive set of tools
to assess and understand their data. It includes
functions and interactive tools for analyzing
historical data, modeling data, simulating
systems, developing statistical algorithms, and
learning and teaching statistics.
The toolbox supports a wide range of tasks,
from basic descriptive statistics to developing
and visualizing multidimensional nonlinear
models. It offers a rich set of statistical plot
types and interactive graphics, such as polynomial fitting and response surface modeling.
All toolbox functions are written in the open
MATLAB® language. This means that you
can inspect the algorithms, modify the source
code, and create your own custom functions.
KEY FEATURES
■ Calculation and fitting of probability distributions
■ Linear and nonlinear modeling
■ Multivariate statistics
■ Descriptive statistics
■ Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
■ Hypothesis testing
■ Industrial statistics (Statistical Process Control, Design of
Experiments)
■ Statistical plotting and data visualization
Fitting univariate distributions to
data. The Distribution Fitting Tool
lets you easily import, analyze,
and plot your data.
7
6
Variable 3
5
4
3
2
1
8
7
6
5
4
4.5
Variable 1
Plots showing how data can be clustered
into groups with similar characteristics. The
Statistics Toolbox includes functions for multivariate analysis and clustering.
4
3.5
Variable 2
2.5
2
Probability Distributions
Linear and Nonlinear Modeling
The Statistics Toolbox includes interactive graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and
command-line tools that make it easy to look
at probability distributions, fit them to your
data, or generate random samples from them.
The linear and nonlinear models provided
in the Statistics Toolbox let you model a
response variable as a function of one or
more predictor variables. These models make
predictions, establish relationships between
variables, or simplify a problem. For example,
linear and nonlinear regression models help
establish which variables have the most
impact on a response. Robust regression
methods can help you find outliers and
reduce their effect on the fitted model.
Graphical User Interfaces
The Distribution Fitting Tool is a GUI that
enables you to learn about a variety of probability distributions—for example, you can
graph a probability density function or
cumulative distribution function and investigate how a distribution’s parameters affect its
position and shape.
The Distribution Fitting Tool lets you fit data
using 16 predefined probability distributions, a
nonparametric (kernel smoothing) estimator,
or a custom distribution that you define yourself. It supports both complete and censored
(reliability) data and lets you exclude data, save
and load sessions, and generate M-code.
The toolbox provides linear algorithms for:
• One-way, two-way, and multiway ANOVA
• Mixed random and fixed-effects ANOVA
• Polynomial, stepwise, ridge, robust, and
The toolbox provides nonlinear fitting functions for classification and regression trees
and for nonlinear least squares. Using nonlinear least square functions, you can:
• Estimate parameters
• Interactively visualize and predict
multidimensional nonlinear fitting
• Set confidence intervals for parameters and
predicted values
You can also use the toolbox to work with
Hidden Markov models. You can estimate
the parameters of a model using the BaumWelch algorithm, calculate the most likely
path through a model using the Viterbi algorithm, and generate random sequences from
a given model.
multiple linear regression
• Generalized linear models
• Response surface fitting
A second GUI provides a random number
generator to simulate behavior associated
with particular distributions. You can use this
random data to test hypotheses or models
under different conditions.
Left: A matrix of scatter plots and
Command-line Functions
it easy to plot multiple variables
histograms comparing automobile
performance over three model
years. The Statistics Toolbox makes
and compare data.
From the command line, you can perform
the following additional tasks:
• Calculate the probability density function (pdf)
• Calculate the cumulative distribution function (cdf) and its inverse
• Compute mean and variance
• Generate random numbers (such as noise
simulation)
• Estimate parameters
The Statistics Toolbox also includes functions
for generating random samples from multivariate distributions, such as t, normal, and
Wishart; sampling from finite populations;
and performing Latin hypercube sampling.
Right: A parallel coordinates plot of multivariate data describing throttle performance.
The Statistics Toolbox provides convenient
tools for visualizing high dimensional data.
Analysis of Variance
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) lets you determine
whether data sets from different groups have
different characteristics. You can classify groups
using discrete predictor variables. A follow-up
multiple comparisons analysis can pinpoint
which pairs of groups differ from each other.
The Statistics Toolbox includes algorithms for
ANOVA and related techniques, including:
• One-way ANOVA with graphics
• Two-way ANOVA for balanced data
The analysis of covariance
(ANACOVA) tool plots data to
assess group-to-group differences
Multivariate Statistics
Multivariate statistics methods let you
analyze your data by evaluating groups of
variables together. You can:
• Segment data in clusters for further analysis
• Visualize and assess the group-to-group
differences in a data set
• Reduce a large set of variables to a more
manageable but still representative set
Multivariate statistics tasks supported by the
Statistics Toolbox include:
• Factor analysis
• Principal components analysis (PCA)
• Factor rotation
• Cluster analysis (both hierarchical and
k-means)
• Discriminate analysis
• Multivariate ANOVA
• Multidimensional scaling (classical, metric,
and nonmetric)
• Multivariate plotting
• Multiway ANOVA for unbalanced data,
(both fixed and random effects)
• Analysis of covariance
and the impact of a predictor vari-
• One-way multivariate ANOVA
able on a response variable.
• Nonparametric one- and two-way ANOVA
(Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman)
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics methods enable you to
quickly understand and describe potentially
large sets of data. The Statistics Toolbox
includes functions for calculating:
• Measures of central tendency (measures of
location), including average, median, and
various means
• Measures of dispersion (measures of
spread), including range, variance, standard
deviation, and mean absolute deviation
• Linear and rank correlation
• Results based on data with missing values
• Percentile and quartile estimates
• Bootstrap statistics
• Density estimates (using a kernel smoothing function)
These functions help you summarize the
values in a data sample with a few highly relevant numbers.
• Multiple comparison of group means,
slopes, and intercepts
Hypothesis Testing
Random variation often makes it difficult to
determine whether samples taken under different conditions really are different. Hypothesis
testing is an effective tool for analyzing whether
sample-to-sample differences are significant
and require further evaluation or are consistent
with random and expected data variation.
The Statistics Toolbox supports the most
widely used parametric and nonparametric
hypothesis testing procedures, such as:
• One- and two-sample t tests
• One-sample z test
• Nonparametric tests for one sample
• Nonparametric tests for two independent
samples
• Distribution tests (Jarque-Bera, Lilliefors,
and Kolmogorov-Smirnov)
• Comparison of distributions (two-sample
Kolmogorov-Smirnov)
Left: A model of a chemical
reaction of an experiment using
the Design-of-Experiments and
Industrial Statistics
surface fitting capabilities of the
The Statistics Toolbox provides a set of
functions that support statistical process
control (SPC). These functions enable you to
monitor and improve products or processes
by evaluating process variability. Designof- Experiments (DOE) functions help you
create and test practical plans for gathering
data for statistical modeling. These plans
show you how to manipulate your data
inputs in tandem to generate information
about their effect on the outputs.
Statistics Toolbox.
The Statistics Toolbox supports two areas of
industrial statistics:
Right: Fitting a decision tree to data.
• Control charts and capabilities studies for SPC
Toolbox let you visualize a decision tree
• D-optimal, factorial, Hadamard (PlackettBurman), central composite, and
Box-Behnken designs used in conjunction
with DOE
Statistical Plotting and Interactive
Graphics
The Statistics Toolbox includes numerous
functions that help you represent your data
graphically. In addition to the standard
set of MATLAB plot types, the Statistics
Toolbox includes box plots, probability plots,
histograms and 3-D histograms, control
charts, quantile-quantile plots, and several
multivariate plots. It also provides interactive
graphics that enhance analysis in areas such as:
• Nonlinear and polynomial fitting and prediction
• Exploration of distribution functions and
distribution fitting and analysis
• Interactive random number generation
• Response surface modeling
• Interactive process experimentation and
The fitting capabilities in the Statistics
by drawing a diagram of the decision
rule and group assignments.
Required Products
Platform and System Requirements
MATLAB
For information on platform and
system requirements, visit
www.mathworks.com/products/statistics ■
Related Products
Bioinformatics Toolbox. Read, analyze, and
visualize genomic, proteomic, and microarray data
Curve Fitting Toolbox. Perform model
fitting and analysis
For demos, application examples,
tutorials, user stories, and pricing:
Financial Toolbox. Analyze financial data
and develop financial algorithms
• Contact The MathWorks directly
Optimization Toolbox. Solve standard and
large-scale optimization problems
Signal Processing Toolbox. Perform
signal processing, analysis, and algorithm
development
For information on related products, visit
www.mathworks.com/products/statistics
analysis
• Stepwise regression analysis
Tel: 508.647.7000 info@mathworks.com www.mathworks.com
• Visit www.mathworks.com
US & Canada 508-647-7000
Benelux
France
Germany
Italy
Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
UK
+31 (0)182 53 76 44
+33 (0)1 41 14 67 14
+49 (0)241 470 750
+39 (011) 2274 700
+82 (0)2 6006 5114
+34 93 362 13 00
+46 (8)505 317 00
+41 (0)31 950 60 20
+44 (0)1223 423 200
Visit www.mathworks.com to obtain
contact information for authorized
MathWorks representatives in countries
throughout Asia Pacific, Latin America,
the Middle East, Africa, and the rest
of Europe.
8079v06 05/04
© 2004 by The MathWorks, Inc. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and TargetBox is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Sinar p3 V iew Camera
In the system with the Sinar m
The Legendary Precision of Sinar View Cameras...
Mechanical
Precision
True to the tradition of the Sinar p line of
view cameras, the Sinar p3 too, is equipped
with highly precise mechanisms. In keeping
with the requirements of digital photography, the dimensions of the new camera
have been significantly reduced without
sacrificing any of this traditional precision.
The yaw-free camera with the proven segment swings and tilts and the asymmetrical
swing and tilt axes permit an easy and
exact positioning of the plane of sharpness.
This ease of working is especially significant in digital object photography with high
precision requirements. The self-locking
fine drives keep the camera’s standards
exactly in the chosen position. The generous adjustment ranges, independent of one
another, of the image standard and the lens
standard (vertical and horizontal shifts as
well as swings and tilts) provide the photographer with a maximum of creative freedom.
Self-locking, highly precise mechanisms for exact settings.
Ergonomic to the
Last Detail
All the operating elements of the Sinar p3
camera are tailored to the size and the
strength of the human hand. The ergonomic location of the operating elements
makes precise and efficient work possible
even in a darkened studio. In addition, snap
locks on the elegant carrier frames permit
quick and secure changes and adjustments
of lenses, bellows and digital backs, thus
enabling the photographer to concentrate
entirely on the photograph itself.
Ergonomic design for convenient operation.
The Modular Design
of the Sinar System
Of course the Sinar p3 camera too, is compatible with the Sinar System. Thanks to
the extensive line of accessories, the modularly designed Sinar p3 can be tailored optimally to photographic tasks and to the
needs of the photographer. An auxiliary
standard designed specifically for the Sinar
p3 serves for the use of long extensions.
The optional sliding adapter permits the
use of a focusing screen in addition to the
live image on the monitor screen. Roll- or
sheet films can also be exposed by means
of the 4x5” metering back.
The Sinar p3 camera is compatible with several Sinar accessories.
...Combined with a State-of-the-Art Shutter...
Sinar m for Modern
The Sinar m can be seen as a follow-up
model in the successful Sinarcam series. It
provides a modern behind-the-lens shutter
system for the use with the Sinar p3. The
camera functions can be controlled either
via the display on the Sinar m or using the
Sinar CaptureShop™ capturing software.
Sinaron Digital Lenses built into the new,
fully electronic Sinar auto aperture mounts
(CAB) can also be operated using either the
controls on the Sinar m or the capturing
software. This is a considerable advantage
for the user, particularly when the camera is
in a raised position.
Sinar m: Professional camera shutter controlled either by software
or by the integrated display.
Sinar m for Mobile
With shutter speeds of up to 1/2000th of a
second, the Sinar m is the fastest view
camera shutter system on the market. It is
ideal, among other applications, for outdoor
use in very bright light when fast shutter
speeds are needed.
The Sinar m can be powered using either
an external mains supply or by connecting
it to an optional battery pack. In combination with the Sinar p3 and these accessories, the Sinar m constitutes the perfect
system for even the most demanding jobs,
in the studio or on location.
Sinar m for Modular
The Sinar m is more than just a shutter system for the Sinar p3 view camera. It is also
exceptionally versatile, which will please
those who are looking for flexibility and profitability for their money:
The Sinar m can be extended piece by piece
to become a medium format or a 35 mm
camera. Together with the Sinarback digital
backs and a growing number of mirror
modules for different makes of lenses it can
be turned into either the perfect 35 mm
camera, capable of taking extreme wideangle shots; or, in combination with the
Sinarback 54, into a medium format camera
with the largest digital sensor on the market.
A selection of waist-level and prism viewfinders make the Sinar m the first camera for
universal usage.
Microprocessors in all modules ensure that
the components interact perfectly, guaranteeing the highest precision and reliability.
Sinar m: High-precision focal plain shutter with 1/2000 th of a second
shutter speed for the fastest professional view camera of all time –
ideal for outdoor photography.
Sinar m: Extendable to become a medium format or 35 mm camera.
With electronically controlled mirror modules – ideal for digital photography.
...Optimized for the Digital Era.
Intelligently Digital
The Sinar p3 has been tailored uncompromisingly to function with Sinarback high-end
digital backs. For this reason, electrical contacts have mostly been integrated into the
camera, and the number of cables required
reduced to a minimum. Depending on the
type of Sinarback used, data transfer is carried out either via a modern firewire connection, or via a well-proven fiberoptic connection. This way the Sinar p3 is well-equipped
for use both in the studio and also, in combination with a Notebook, on location.
Combined with the optional Liquid Crystal
Shutter, the live image allows perfect focusing with maximum ease.
Integrated cabling and gold-plated contacts for dependable,
computer-controlled operation.
Sinaron Digital Lenses
With the Sinaron Digital series, Sinar offers
a comprehensive range of lenses that are
optimally tailored to the resolution of the
high-end CCD sensors. These lenses provide the photographer maximum sharpness
of focus, high contrast, and outstanding
color fidelity.
There are two different lens mounts available. For use with the Sinar m, the lenses
can be built in the auto aperture mount
(CAB). This allows for comfortable operation either through the camera or the capturing software, and shutter speeds of up
to 1/2000th of a second can be achieved.
These lenses are available with focal
lengths between 28 and 210 mm.
Used in combination with the Sinar p3, with
or without the Sinar m, the lenses can be
built into compact, electronic between-thelens shutters with shutter speeds of up to
1/60th of a second and manual aperture
control (CMV). Lenses in this mount are
available from 28 to 150 mm.
High-resolution Sinaron Digital lenses perfectly matching the requirements
of digital photography in a compact design.
For Every
Photographic Task
With Sinar you have a system that guarantees you extendibility, investment security
and compatibility well into the future.
The centerpiece is the new Sinar m, which
can be used either as a shutter system for
the professional view camera, or as a medium format or 35 mm camera.
The Sinar system is completed by a vast
choice of components and accessories,
which ensure that, even in years to come,
your camera will still be the newest and
best available.
A tidy working area in the studio, optimized
for digital photography.
Thanks to its compatibility with Sinar
System components, the Sinar p3 can
also be used with conventional film.
...Integrated in a System Geared to the Future.
Flash
Prism Viewfinder
Waist-Level Viewfinder
Power Grip
(left)
Mirror Module,
medium format
Medium Format
Lenses
Sinar m
Lens Module
Prism Viewfinder
Sinarback
23, 43, 44, 54
Waist-Level Viewfinder
LC Shutter
35 mm Lenses
Non-Sinar
Digital Backs
Power Grip
(bottom)
CAB Lenses,
auto aperture
Mirror Module,
35 mm
Roll Film Holder
CMV Lenses,
manual aperture
Some modules are
still in concept stage
Sinar Macroscan/
Sliding Adapter
Sinar p3
Sinar – Better Images Thanks to Modularity and Innovation
Perspective Correction
and Sharpness Compensation
Make life easy for yourself – with the adjustment capabilities of the Sinar p3 view
camera. The generous adjustment range
permits precise focusing, even with difficult
subjects, thus preventing lengthy subsequent manipulation. Two-point focusing
and sharpness compensation, made particularly easy thanks to the asymmetrical
swing- and tilt axes, produces brilliant photographs – for digital applications as well as
on film.
Full Integration into the
Sinar CaptureShop™
The Sinar p3 camera is the ideal platform
for digital photography, because its technical capabilities are completely integrated
into the Sinar CaptureShop™ capturing
software. The swing- and tilt axes of the
Sinar p3 camera are displayed directly on
the live image on the computer screen. That
makes it possible to position the plane of
sharpness quickly and with pixel accuracy,
even with very complex subjects. An electronic grid overlay on the monitor screen
makes it easy to align the subject. In addition, layouts can be placed directly over the
live monitor image electronically, which further facilitates the composition of the photograph.
Difficult subjects, photographed in sharp focus and with perspective correction, prevent
complex and costly subsequent manipulation.
The Free Choice
of Resolution
The Sinar p3 camera is compatible with
current and future Sinarback digital backs.
In order to satisfy diverse requirements,
Sinarback models are available with different sensor sizes and resolutions. The addition of a Sinar Macroscan provides a major
increase in resolution and, thanks to the
greater imaging surface, an optimal benefit
from the adjustment capabilities of the
camera.
SINAR AG
CH-8245 Feuerthalen/Switzerland
Telephone +41/52 647 07 07
Fax
+41/52 647 06 06
E-mail
sinar@sinar.ch
Website
www.sinarcameras.com
Computer-aided operation for perfect multi-shot exposures with the greatest color fidelity
and resolution.
Photos: SINAR AG, Kurt Zuberbühler,
Thomas Zimmermann, H. G. Esch,
Denis Hayoun, Dennis Savini
Printed in Switzerland
Technical modifications reserved
907.03/07.88.007 e - 01.3402
© SINAR AG, Switzerland
w w w. s i n a r c a m e r a s . c o m
cord!
e
R
d
l
Wor
Pixels
0
0
2
5
9
22 1
Sinarback 54
High Resolution Digital Large Format
The most modern technology for better photographs
Sensor
Developed by Kodak in cooperation with Sinar, the KAF22000CE sensor features a new color pigmentation for the
best possible color stability and for a greater dynamic
range. The combination of the large 38.8 mm x 50.0 mm
optical format (a ratio of 4:3) of the sensor with 4080 x 5440
pixels with an edge length of 9/1000 mm leads to a truly
sensational image quality.
1-/4- and 16-Shot
For fashion, people, nature and architectural photography
and for all other moving subjects, the Sinarback 54 is the ultimate solution. For specialized photographers, Sinar offers
the Sinarback 54 S as purely 1-shot digital back. In addition,
for perfect still-life photographs there is also the Sinarback
54 H with 4-shot capability for perfect colors and also
16-shot capability for the finest detail rendition.
Active sensor cooling, anti-moiré and all the advantages of Sinar CaptureShop™ exposure software.
It is a matter of course that the
new Sinarback 54 incorporates all the advantages of the
Sinarback line, such as: active
direct thermoelectric cooling of
the sensor for the suppression
of noise, hardware anti-moiré
for the reduction of the moiré
effect, for instance in very delicate detail structures of textile
fabrics. And the comprehensive advantages of Sinar CaptureShop™ exposure software
with free-of-charge upgrades.
Nothing can replace resolution...
Difficult subjects in the
1-shot mode are captured with perfection
by the Sinarback 54,
thanks to its outstanding resolution, awardwinning color fidelity
and active cooling
of the sensor for the
highest possible dynamic range.
...except more resolution
Resolution with a sharp bite:
The new Sinarback 54 makes
photographs possible
with unique sharpness,
brilliance, in the rectangular
format and with the detail
fidelity of large format camera.
Technical Data
Sinarback 54
Camera Platforms
Sinarback Digital Backs
• Digital camera back for exposures
made with any kind of light:
Sinarback 54 H: 1-, 4- and 16-shot
Sinarback 54 S: 1-shot
• Sensor dimensions:
Sinarback 54: 49,0 mm x 36,7 mm
• Sensor resolution:
Sinarback 54: 5440 x 4080 pixels
• Data sizes (at 16 bit TIFF):
Sinarback 54:
1-shot 130 MB; 4-shot 130 MB;
16-shot 510 MB
• Full color information without color
interpolation in the 4- and 16-shot
modes
The new Sinarback 54 can be adapted to practically all medium format cameras. This eliminates the limitation to
a specific camera system. To change the camera, all the photographer needs to do is to change adapter boards.
That makes it possible to achieve the maximum resolution of more than 22 million pixels with most modern
medium format cameras practically without the need for increased focal lengths. The Sinarback 54 can be used
universally with most computers without modifications.
Sinar System for every application
Size counts!
For more than 50 years the name
With the new Sinar m camera, Sinar is the
very first manufacturer to offer a fully modular
high-end camera for use with 35 mm camera
lenses, medium format lenses and Sinaron
digital lenses.
Sinar has been standing for a comprehensive modular camera system in
the field of high-end studio photography – always based on the principle of
“better photographs”.
With the new Sinarback 54, digital
technology is also entering the realm
of 1-shot large format photography –
ideal for all applications in studios, for
architecture, landscapes, using the
very same digital back on almost
every medium format camera without
a significant need for an increased
focal lengths.
SINAR AG
CH-8245 Feuerthalen/Switzerland
Telephone +41/52 647 07 07
Fax
+41/52 647 06 06
E-mail
sinar@sinar.ch
Website
www.sinarcameras.com
The Sinar p3 is a view camera optimized for digital
photography - ideal for mobile applications and, of
course, for studio applications as well. With integrated cabling, a shutter with very low vibration and
asymmetrical swing- and tilt axes in a live image, it
represents the optimal digital studio solution.
Photos: SINAR AG, Franz Venzin, Claudia
Fagagnini, Thomas Entzeroth, Fotostudio Artisan
Printed in Switzerland
Technical modifications reserved
889.02/09.88.002 e – 01.3302
© SINAR AG, Switzerland
w w w. s i n a r c a m e r a s . c o m
ly
b
i
s
n
e
s
t
s
r
i
f
m
e
t
s
The
y
s
a
r
e
m
ca
r
a
l
u
!
d
l
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mod
o
w
in the
Sinar m
The digital camera for every professional application
A truly modular camera system
Fully automatic shutter
system for the
Sinar p3 view camera
Regardless of whether it is used with Sinaron
digital lenses, 35 mm camera lenses or
medium format camera lenses, the Sinar m
A digital camera for 35
mm, medium format, and
Sinaron digital lenses
fits perfectly in the hand – and with only a
twist of the wrist it also serves perfectly as a
shutter on the Sinar p3 view camera.
The Sinar m has been optimally tailored for use
with Sinarback digital backs. For example, it is
also ideally suited for mobile use on location, in
combination with the Sinar Cyber Kit or with a
notebook – and roll film capability is also
Mobile System
planned for the near future!
A choice of formats
and media
Powerteam: Sinarback and Sinar m
Sensible modularity ranging from a 35 mm
camera all the way to a view camera
A comprehensive, highly versatile system: The Sinar m offers
an enormous spectrum of application possibilities and it is
optimally integrated into the
Sinar system.
It is in combination with Sinarback digital backs that the new
Sinar m shows its true greatness. Digital Sinaron lenses render the very best image quality,
and the Sinarback 54 with its
more than 22 million pixels produces photographs with never
before seen brilliance, sharpness and color fidelity.
The technology of the Sinar m
Straight-, prism- as well as zoom sports viewfinders can
be used – exactly the right module for every task!
Sinar m: Shutter speeds from 32 sec. to 1/4000 sec. –
Size: 4.5 cm x 6.0 cm! Now there are no more limitations
to outdoor photography with the Sinar m camera.
A Sinar exclusive: Very low vibration, exchangeable mirror reflex modules with electronically controlled action –
optimized for digital photography!
The display conveniently shows the settings and most
important camera functions – so you can keep control.
A truly revolutionary system
For more than 50 years the name Sinar has been standing for a comprehensive modular system in the field of high-end studio photography
– always with the objective of “better photographs”.
Now, with the new Sinar m, Sinar opens a new chapter in the history of
the design of cameras. A system so versatile that it is a 35 mm camera, a medium format camera and a view camera – all at the same time
– for use with traditional film or for digital imaging.
It is modular, so that it can be tailored to be exactly the perfect professional system for every application.
Optimized for use in conjunction with Sinarback digital backs, the
Sinar m is the very first professional camera that was designed from
the ground up specifically for digital photography.
SINAR AG
CH-8245 Feuerthalen/Switzerland
Telephone +41/52 647 07 07
Fax
+41/52 647 06 06
E-mail
sinar@sinar.ch
Website
www.sinarcameras.com
Ergonomically positioned switches and innovative operating concepts – for professional use!
Photos: SINAR AG, Franz Venzin
Printed in Switzerland
Technical modifications reserved
892.02/09.88.002 e – 01.3102
© SINAR AG, Switzerland
Calflex X™
Broadband Near-Infrared (NIR) Blocking Filter
Unaxis Optics NIR-blocking filter Calflex X™ is commonly used to shield sensitive equipment such as silicon cells from harmful NIR-radiation. It combines extremely high NIRsuppression and sharp transition slope.
Dielectric oxide coating design provides excellent transmission over the entire visible
spectrum and sharp transition to reflection in the infrared.
Benefits
Technical Data
■
Extremely high NIR-reflection
High visible transmission
■ Sharp transition from transmission to reflection
■ No color degradation
■ May be used as heat protection filter
■ Heat rejection independent of glass thickness
■ Mechanically and chemically durable dielectric coating
Temperature resistance
up to 250 °C
Spectral characteristics, AOI = 0°
T abs. 1% for λ = 780–1100 nm
T=
50% for λ = 730± 20 nm
T abs. 80% for λ = 425– 680 nm
Standard size
160 x 110 x 1.1 mm
Applications
Schematic of filter integration to sensor package
■
➁
■
Improving signal to noise ratio of silicon detectors
Protection of silicon photodiodes
■ Improved sensitivity of light barriers
■ Trimming of photodiodes
■ Signal/noise ratio improvements for digital image
sensors
■ Heat/light separation
➂
■
➃
➀
Unaxis Optics
the future of
Balzers Thin Films
➀ Visible + IR-radiation
➁ Lens
➂ NIR-blocking filter
➃ Sensor
Transmittance [%]
NIR-blocking filter
and sensitivity of silicon cell
100
90
80
Headquarters
Unaxis Balzers Limited
Division Optics
9496 Balzers
Liechtenstein
Tel 423 388 44 44
Fax 423 388 54 05
sales.optics@unaxis.com
70
60
50
40
NIR-blocking filter
Silicon cell
30
20
www.optics.unaxis.com
10
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
Wavelength [nm]
UBO 110 RE (1204-1)
1/1
Subject to technical change without notice